Science.gov

Sample records for functional genomics proteomics

  1. Genomes to Proteomes

    SciTech Connect

    Panisko, Ellen A.; Grigoriev, Igor; Daly, Don S.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo; Baker, Scott E.

    2009-03-01

    Biologists are awash with genomic sequence data. In large part, this is due to the rapid acceleration in the generation of DNA sequence that occurred as public and private research institutes raced to sequence the human genome. In parallel with the large human genome effort, mostly smaller genomes of other important model organisms were sequenced. Projects following on these initial efforts have made use of technological advances and the DNA sequencing infrastructure that was built for the human and other organism genome projects. As a result, the genome sequences of many organisms are available in high quality draft form. While in many ways this is good news, there are limitations to the biological insights that can be gleaned from DNA sequences alone; genome sequences offer only a bird's eye view of the biological processes endemic to an organism or community. Fortunately, the genome sequences now being produced at such a high rate can serve as the foundation for other global experimental platforms such as proteomics. Proteomic methods offer a snapshot of the proteins present at a point in time for a given biological sample. Current global proteomics methods combine enzymatic digestion, separations, mass spectrometry and database searching for peptide identification. One key aspect of proteomics is the prediction of peptide sequences from mass spectrometry data. Global proteomic analysis uses computational matching of experimental mass spectra with predicted spectra based on databases of gene models that are often generated computationally. Thus, the quality of gene models predicted from a genome sequence is crucial in the generation of high quality peptide identifications. Once peptides are identified they can be assigned to their parent protein. Proteins identified as expressed in a given experiment are most useful when compared to other expressed proteins in a larger biological context or biochemical pathway. In this chapter we will discuss the automatic

  2. Functional genomics and proteomics of the cellular osmotic stress response in 'non-model' organisms.

    PubMed

    Kültz, Dietmar; Fiol, Diego; Valkova, Nelly; Gomez-Jimenez, Silvia; Chan, Stephanie Y; Lee, Jinoo

    2007-05-01

    All organisms are adapted to well-defined extracellular salinity ranges. Osmoregulatory mechanisms spanning all levels of biological organization, from molecules to behavior, are central to salinity adaptation. Functional genomics and proteomics approaches represent powerful tools for gaining insight into the molecular basis of salinity adaptation and euryhalinity in animals. In this review, we discuss our experience in applying such tools to so-called 'non-model' species, including euryhaline animals that are well-suited for studies of salinity adaptation. Suppression subtractive hybridization, RACE-PCR and mass spectrometry-driven proteomics can be used to identify genes and proteins involved in salinity adaptation or other environmental stress responses in tilapia, sharks and sponges. For protein identification in non-model species, algorithms based on sequence homology searches such as MSBLASTP2 are most powerful. Subsequent gene ontology and pathway analysis can then utilize sets of identified genes and proteins for modeling molecular mechanisms of environmental adaptation. Current limitations for proteomics in non-model species can be overcome by improving sequence coverage, N- and C-terminal sequencing and analysis of intact proteins. Dependence on information about biochemical pathways and gene ontology databases for model species represents a more severe barrier for work with non-model species. To minimize such dependence, focusing on a single biological process (rather than attempting to describe the system as a whole) is key when applying 'omics' approaches to non-model organisms. PMID:17449824

  3. Revisiting the Identification of Canonical Splice Isoforms through Integration of Functional Genomics and Proteomics Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong-Dong; Menon, Rajasree; Omenn, Gilbert S.; Guan, Yuanfang

    2014-01-01

    Canonical isoforms in different databases have been defined as the most prevalent, most conserved, most expressed, longest, or the one with the clearest description of domains or post-translational modifications. In this article, we revisit these definitions of canonical isoforms based on functional genomics and proteomics evidence, focusing on mouse data. We report a novel functional relationship network-based approach for identifying the Highest Connected Isoforms (HCIs). We show that 46% of these HCIs are not the longest transcripts. In addition, this approach revealed many genes that have more than one highly connected isoforms. Averaged across 175 RNA-seq datasets covering diverse tissues and conditions, 65% of the HCIs show higher expression levels than non-highest connected isoforms (NCIs) at the transcript level. At the protein level, these HCIs highly overlap with the expressed splice variants, based on proteomic data from eight different normal tissues. These results suggest that a more confident definition of canonical isoforms can be made through integration of multiple lines of evidence, including highest connected isoforms defined by biological processes and pathways, expression prevalence at the transcript level, and relative or absolute abundance at the protein level. This integrative proteogenomics approach can successfully identify principal isoforms that are responsible for the canonical functions of genes. PMID:25265570

  4. ProGeRF: Proteome and Genome Repeat Finder Utilizing a Fast Parallel Hash Function

    PubMed Central

    Moraes, Walas Jhony Lopes; Rodrigues, Thiago de Souza; Bartholomeu, Daniella Castanheira

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive element sequences are adjacent, repeating patterns, also called motifs, and can be of different lengths; repetitions can involve their exact or approximate copies. They have been widely used as molecular markers in population biology. Given the sizes of sequenced genomes, various bioinformatics tools have been developed for the extraction of repetitive elements from DNA sequences. However, currently available tools do not provide options for identifying repetitive elements in the genome or proteome, displaying a user-friendly web interface, and performing-exhaustive searches. ProGeRF is a web site for extracting repetitive regions from genome and proteome sequences. It was designed to be efficient, fast, and accurate and primarily user-friendly web tool allowing many ways to view and analyse the results. ProGeRF (Proteome and Genome Repeat Finder) is freely available as a stand-alone program, from which the users can download the source code, and as a web tool. It was developed using the hash table approach to extract perfect and imperfect repetitive regions in a (multi)FASTA file, while allowing a linear time complexity. PMID:25811026

  5. Bacillus subtilis functional genomics: global characterization of the stringent response by proteome and transcriptome analysis†

    PubMed Central

    Eymann, Christine; Homuth, Georg; Scharf, Christian; Hecker, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The stringent response in Bacillus subtilis was characterized by using proteome and transcriptome approaches. Comparison of protein synthesis patterns of wild-type and relA mutant cells cultivated under conditions which provoke the stringent response revealed significant differences. According to their altered synthesis patterns in response to dl-norvaline, proteins were assigned to four distinct classes: (i) negative stringent control, i.e., strongly decreased protein synthesis in the wild type but not in the relA mutant (e.g., r-proteins); (ii) positive stringent control, i.e., induction of protein synthesis in the wild type only (e.g., YvyD and LeuD); (iii) proteins that were induced independently of RelA (e.g., YjcI); and (iv) proteins downregulated independently of RelA (e.g., glycolytic enzymes). Transcriptome studies based on DNA macroarray techniques were used to complement the proteome data, resulting in comparable induction and repression patterns of almost all corresponding genes. However, a comparison of both approaches revealed that only a subset of RelA-dependent genes or proteins was detectable by proteomics, demonstrating that the transcriptome approach allows a more comprehensive global gene expression profile analysis. The present study presents the first comprehensive description of the stringent response of a bacterial species and an almost complete map of protein-encoding genes affected by (p)ppGpp. The negative stringent control concerns reactions typical of growth and reproduction (ribosome synthesis, DNA synthesis, cell wall synthesis, etc.). Negatively controlled unknown y-genes may also code for proteins with a specific function during growth and reproduction (e.g., YlaG). On the other hand, many genes are induced in a RelA-dependent manner, including genes coding for already-known and as-yet-unknown proteins. A passive model is preferred to explain this positive control relying on the redistribution of the RNA polymerase under the

  6. Integrated Molecular Signature of Disease: Analysis of Influenza Virus-Infected Macaques through Functional Genomics and Proteomics

    SciTech Connect

    Baas, T.; Baskin, C. R.; Diamond, Deborah L.; Garcia-Sastre, A.; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, H.; Tumpey, T. M.; Thomas, M. J.; Carter, V. S.; Teal, T. H.; Van Hoven, N.; Proll, Sean; Jacobs, Jon M.; Caldwell, Z.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Hukkanen, R.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Katze, Michael G.

    2006-11-01

    Recent outbreaks of avian influenza in humans have stressed the need for an improved non-human primate model of influenza pathogenesis. In order to develop our macaque model, we expanded our in vivo and functional genomics experiments: We focused on the innate immune response at day 2 post-inoculation and on gene expression in affected lung tissue with viral genetic material present; finally, we sought to identify signature genes for early infection in whole blood. For these purposes, we infected six pigtailed macaques with 107 TCID50 of influenza A/Texas/36/91 virus and three control animals with a sham inoculate. We sacrificed one control and two experimental animals at day 2, 4, and 7 and lung tissue was harvested for pathology, gene expression profiling, and proteomics. Additionally, blood was collected for genomics every other day from each animal until its endpoint. Gross and microscopic pathology, immunohistochemistry, viral gene expression by arrays and/or quantitative real-time RT-PCR confirmed successful yet mild infection in all experimental animals. Genomic experiments were performed using second generation macaque-specific oligonucleotide arrays and high-throughput proteomics revealed host response to infection at the protein level. Our data showed dramatic differences in gene expression within the same influenza-induced lesion based on the presence or absence of viral mRNA. We also identified genes tightly co-regulated in peripheral white blood cells and in lung tissue at day 2 post-inoculation. This latter finding opens the possibility of using gene expression arrays on whole blood to detect infection after exposure but prior to onset of symptoms or shedding.

  7. IL-15Rα deficiency in skeletal muscle alters respiratory function and the proteome of mitochondrial subpopulations independent of changes to the mitochondrial genome.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Grant C; Nichols, Cody; Guo, Ge; Croston, Tara L; Thapa, Dharendra; Hollander, John M; Pistilli, Emidio E

    2015-11-01

    Interleukin-15 receptor alpha knockout (IL15RαKO) mice exhibit a greater skeletal muscle mitochondrial density with an altered mitochondrial morphology. However, the mechanism and functional impact of these changes have not been determined. In this study, we characterized the functional, proteomic, and genomic alterations in mitochondrial subpopulations isolated from the skeletal muscles of IL15RαKO mice and B6129 background control mice. State 3 respiration was greater in interfibrillar mitochondria and whole muscle ATP levels were greater in IL15RαKO mice supporting the increases in respiration rate. However, the state 3/state 4 ratio was lower, suggesting some degree of respiratory uncoupling. Proteomic analyses identified several markers independently in mitochondrial subpopulations that are associated with these functional alterations. Next Generation Sequencing of mtDNA revealed a high degree of similarity between the mitochondrial genomes of IL15RαKO mice and controls in terms of copy number, consensus coding and the presence of minor alleles, suggesting that the functional and proteomic alterations we observed occurred independent of alterations to the mitochondrial genome. These data provide additional evidence to implicate IL-15Rα as a regulator of skeletal muscle phenotypes through effects on the mitochondrion, and suggest these effects are driven by alterations to the mitochondrial proteome. PMID:26458787

  8. Algal Functional Annotation Tool from the DOE-UCLA Institute for Genomics and Proteomics

    DOE Data Explorer

    Lopez, David

    The Algal Functional Annotation Tool is a bioinformatics resource to visualize pathway maps, identify enriched biological terms, or convert gene identifiers to elucidate biological function in silico. These types of analysis have been catered to support lists of gene identifiers, such as those coming from transcriptome gene expression analysis. By analyzing the functional annotation of an interesting set of genes, common biological motifs may be elucidated and a first-pass analysis can point further research in the right direction. Currently, the following databases have been parsed, processed, and added to the tool: 1( Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) Pathways Database, 2) MetaCyc Encyclopedia of Metabolic Pathways, 3) Panther Pathways Database, 4) Reactome Pathways Database, 5) Gene Ontology, 6) MapMan Ontology, 7) KOG (Eukaryotic Clusters of Orthologous Groups), 5)Pfam, 6) InterPro.

  9. Functional genomics, proteomics, and regulatory DNA analysis in isogenic settings using zinc finger nuclease-driven transgenesis into a safe harbor locus in the human genome

    PubMed Central

    DeKelver, Russell C.; Choi, Vivian M.; Moehle, Erica A.; Paschon, David E.; Hockemeyer, Dirk; Meijsing, Sebastiaan H.; Sancak, Yasemin; Cui, Xiaoxia; Steine, Eveline J.; Miller, Jeffrey C.; Tam, Phillip; Bartsevich, Victor V.; Meng, Xiangdong; Rupniewski, Igor; Gopalan, Sunita M.; Sun, Helena C.; Pitz, Kathleen J.; Rock, Jeremy M.; Zhang, Lei; Davis, Gregory D.; Rebar, Edward J.; Cheeseman, Iain M.; Yamamoto, Keith R.; Sabatini, David M.; Jaenisch, Rudolf; Gregory, Philip D.; Urnov, Fyodor D.

    2010-01-01

    Isogenic settings are routine in model organisms, yet remain elusive for genetic experiments on human cells. We describe the use of designed zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) for efficient transgenesis without drug selection into the PPP1R12C gene, a “safe harbor” locus known as AAVS1. ZFNs enable targeted transgenesis at a frequency of up to 15% following transient transfection of both transformed and primary human cells, including fibroblasts and hES cells. When added to this locus, transgenes such as expression cassettes for shRNAs, small-molecule-responsive cDNA expression cassettes, and reporter constructs, exhibit consistent expression and sustained function over 50 cell generations. By avoiding random integration and drug selection, this method allows bona fide isogenic settings for high-throughput functional genomics, proteomics, and regulatory DNA analysis in essentially any transformed human cell type and in primary cells. PMID:20508142

  10. Complete genome and proteome of Acholeplasma laidlawii.

    PubMed

    Lazarev, V N; Levitskii, S A; Basovskii, Y I; Chukin, M M; Akopian, T A; Vereshchagin, V V; Kostrjukova, E S; Kovaleva, G Y; Kazanov, M D; Malko, D B; Vitreschak, A G; Sernova, N V; Gelfand, M S; Demina, I A; Serebryakova, M V; Galyamina, M A; Vtyurin, N N; Rogov, S I; Alexeev, D G; Ladygina, V G; Govorun, V M

    2011-09-01

    We present the complete genome sequence and proteogenomic map for Acholeplasma laidlawii PG-8A (class Mollicutes, order Acholeplasmatales, family Acholeplasmataceae). The genome of A. laidlawii is represented by a single 1,496,992-bp circular chromosome with an average G+C content of 31 mol%. This is the longest genome among the Mollicutes with a known nucleotide sequence. It contains genes of polymerase type I, SOS response, and signal transduction systems, as well as RNA regulatory elements, riboswitches, and T boxes. This demonstrates a significant capability for the regulation of gene expression and mutagenic response to stress. Acholeplasma laidlawii and phytoplasmas are the only Mollicutes known to use the universal genetic code, in which UGA is a stop codon. Within the Mollicutes group, only the sterol-nonrequiring Acholeplasma has the capacity to synthesize saturated fatty acids de novo. Proteomic data were used in the primary annotation of the genome, validating expression of many predicted proteins. We also detected posttranslational modifications of A. laidlawii proteins: phosphorylation and acylation. Seventy-four candidate phosphorylated proteins were found: 16 candidates are proteins unique to A. laidlawii, and 11 of them are surface-anchored or integral membrane proteins, which implies the presence of active signaling pathways. Among 20 acylated proteins, 14 contained palmitic chains, and six contained stearic chains. No residue of linoleic or oleic acid was observed. Acylated proteins were components of mainly sugar and inorganic ion transport systems and were surface-anchored proteins with unknown functions. PMID:21784942

  11. Onco-proteogenomics: cancer proteomics joins forces with genomics.

    PubMed

    Alfaro, Javier A; Sinha, Ankit; Kislinger, Thomas; Boutros, Paul C

    2014-11-01

    The complexities of tumor genomes are rapidly being uncovered, but how they are regulated into functional proteomes remains poorly understood. Standard proteomics workflows use databases of known proteins, but these databases do not capture the uniqueness of the cancer transcriptome, with its point mutations, unusual splice variants and gene fusions. Onco-proteogenomics integrates mass spectrometry-generated data with genomic information to identify tumor-specific peptides. Linking tumor-derived DNA, RNA and protein measurements into a central-dogma perspective has the potential to improve our understanding of cancer biology. PMID:25357240

  12. 2004 Structural, Function and Evolutionary Genomics

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas L. Brutlag Nancy Ryan Gray

    2005-03-23

    This Gordon conference will cover the areas of structural, functional and evolutionary genomics. It will take a systematic approach to genomics, examining the evolution of proteins, protein functional sites, protein-protein interactions, regulatory networks, and metabolic networks. Emphasis will be placed on what we can learn from comparative genomics and entire genomes and proteomes.

  13. JDIP Genomics, Antibodies, and Proteomics Core Update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The JDIP Genomics, Proteomics, and Antibodies Core has developed several resources that are available for use by JDIP researchers. Five tasks have been completed or are in progress: Task 1 – Transposon mutants: Nearly 24,000 gene disruption M. paratuberculosis mutants are now available for JDIP re...

  14. HepatoProteomics: Applying Proteomic Technologies to the Study of Liver Function and Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, Deborah L.; Proll, Sean; Jacobs, Jon M.; Chan, Eric Y.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Katze, Michael G.

    2006-08-01

    The wealth of human genome sequence information now available, coupled with technological advances in robotics, nanotechnology, mass spectrometry, and information systems, has given rise to a method of scientific inquiry known as functional genomics. By using these technologies to survey gene expression and protein production on a near global scale, the goal of functional genomics is to assign biological function to genes with currently unknown roles in physiology. This approach carries particular appeal in disease research, where it can uncover the function of previously unknown genes and molecular pathways that are directly involved in disease progression. With this knowledge may come improved diagnostic techniques, prognostic capabilities, and novel therapeutic approaches. In this regard, the continuing evolution of proteomic technologies has resulted in an increasingly greater impact of proteome studies in many areas of research and hepatology is no exception. Our laboratory has been extremely active in this area, applying both genomic and proteomic technologies to the analysis of virus-host interactions in several systems, including the study of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and HCV-associated liver disease. Since proteomic technologies are foreign to many hepatologists (and to almost everyone else), this article will provide an overview of proteomic methods and technologies and describe how they're being used to study liver function and disease. We use our studies of HCV infection and HCV-associated liver disease to present an operational framework for performing high throughput proteome analysis and extracting biologically meaningful information.

  15. Proteomics Data on UCSC Genome Browser - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute's Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium scientists are working together with the University of California, Santa Cruz (UCSC) Genomics Institute to provide public access to cancer proteomics data.

  16. Babelomics: an integrative platform for the analysis of transcriptomics, proteomics and genomic data with advanced functional profiling

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Ignacio; Carbonell, José; Pulido, Luis; Madeira, Sara C.; Goetz, Stefan; Conesa, Ana; Tárraga, Joaquín; Pascual-Montano, Alberto; Nogales-Cadenas, Ruben; Santoyo, Javier; García, Francisco; Marbà, Martina; Montaner, David; Dopazo, Joaquín

    2010-01-01

    Babelomics is a response to the growing necessity of integrating and analyzing different types of genomic data in an environment that allows an easy functional interpretation of the results. Babelomics includes a complete suite of methods for the analysis of gene expression data that include normalization (covering most commercial platforms), pre-processing, differential gene expression (case-controls, multiclass, survival or continuous values), predictors, clustering; large-scale genotyping assays (case controls and TDTs, and allows population stratification analysis and correction). All these genomic data analysis facilities are integrated and connected to multiple options for the functional interpretation of the experiments. Different methods of functional enrichment or gene set enrichment can be used to understand the functional basis of the experiment analyzed. Many sources of biological information, which include functional (GO, KEGG, Biocarta, Reactome, etc.), regulatory (Transfac, Jaspar, ORegAnno, miRNAs, etc.), text-mining or protein–protein interaction modules can be used for this purpose. Finally a tool for the de novo functional annotation of sequences has been included in the system. This provides support for the functional analysis of non-model species. Mirrors of Babelomics or command line execution of their individual components are now possible. Babelomics is available at http://www.babelomics.org. PMID:20478823

  17. Functional proteomics within the genus Lactobacillus.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Maria; Calasso, Maria; Cavallo, Noemi; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-03-01

    Lactobacillus are mainly used for the manufacture of fermented dairy, sourdough, meat, and vegetable foods or used as probiotics. Under optimal processing conditions, Lactobacillus strains contribute to food functionality through their enzyme portfolio and the release of metabolites. An extensive genomic diversity analysis was conducted to elucidate the core features of the genus Lactobacillus, and to provide a better comprehension of niche adaptation of the strains. However, proteomics is an indispensable "omics" science to elucidate the proteome diversity, and the mechanisms of regulation and adaptation of Lactobacillus strains. This review focuses on the novel and comprehensive knowledge of functional proteomics and metaproteomics of Lactobacillus species. A large list of proteomic case studies of different Lactobacillus species is provided to illustrate the adaptability of the main metabolic pathways (e.g., carbohydrate transport and metabolism, pyruvate metabolism, proteolytic system, amino acid metabolism, and protein synthesis) to various life conditions. These investigations have highlighted that lactobacilli modulate the level of a complex panel of proteins to growth/survive in different ecological niches. In addition to the general regulation and stress response, specific metabolic pathways can be switched on and off, modifying the behavior of the strains. PMID:27001126

  18. Plant functional genomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holtorf, Hauke; Guitton, Marie-Christine; Reski, Ralf

    2002-04-01

    Functional genome analysis of plants has entered the high-throughput stage. The complete genome information from key species such as Arabidopsis thaliana and rice is now available and will further boost the application of a range of new technologies to functional plant gene analysis. To broadly assign functions to unknown genes, different fast and multiparallel approaches are currently used and developed. These new technologies are based on known methods but are adapted and improved to accommodate for comprehensive, large-scale gene analysis, i.e. such techniques are novel in the sense that their design allows researchers to analyse many genes at the same time and at an unprecedented pace. Such methods allow analysis of the different constituents of the cell that help to deduce gene function, namely the transcripts, proteins and metabolites. Similarly the phenotypic variations of entire mutant collections can now be analysed in a much faster and more efficient way than before. The different methodologies have developed to form their own fields within the functional genomics technological platform and are termed transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and phenomics. Gene function, however, cannot solely be inferred by using only one such approach. Rather, it is only by bringing together all the information collected by different functional genomic tools that one will be able to unequivocally assign functions to unknown plant genes. This review focuses on current technical developments and their impact on the field of plant functional genomics. The lower plant Physcomitrella is introduced as a new model system for gene function analysis, owing to its high rate of homologous recombination.

  19. DEFINING THE MANDATE OF PROTEOMICS IN THE POST-GENOMIC ERA: WORKSHOP REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research in proteomics is the next step after genomics in understanding life processes at the molecular level. In the largest sense proteomics encompasses knowledge of the structure, function and expression of all proteins in the biochemical or biological contexts of all organism...

  20. Genomic, Proteomic, and Metabolomic Data Integration Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Wanichthanarak, Kwanjeera; Fahrmann, Johannes F; Grapov, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    Robust interpretation of experimental results measuring discreet biological domains remains a significant challenge in the face of complex biochemical regulation processes such as organismal versus tissue versus cellular metabolism, epigenetics, and protein post-translational modification. Integration of analyses carried out across multiple measurement or omic platforms is an emerging approach to help address these challenges. This review focuses on select methods and tools for the integration of metabolomic with genomic and proteomic data using a variety of approaches including biochemical pathway-, ontology-, network-, and empirical-correlation-based methods. PMID:26396492

  1. Genomics and functional genomics with haloarchaea.

    PubMed

    Soppa, J; Baumann, A; Brenneis, M; Dambeck, M; Hering, O; Lange, C

    2008-09-01

    The first haloarchaeal genome was published in 2000 and today five genome sequences are available. Transcriptome and proteome analyses have been established for two and three haloarchaeal species, respectively, and more than 20 studies using these functional genomic approaches have been published in the last two years. These studies gave global overviews of metabolic regulation (aerobic and anaerobic respiration, phototrophy, carbon source usage), stress response (UV, X-rays, transition metals, osmotic and temperature stress), cell cycle-dependent transcript level regulation, and transcript half-lives. The only translatome analysis available for any prokaryotic species revealed that 10 and 20% of all transcripts are translationally regulated in Haloferax volcanii and Halobacterium salinarum, respectively. Very effective methods for the construction of in frame deletion mutants have been established recently for haloarchaea and are intensively used to unravel the biological roles of genes in this group. Bioinformatic analyses include both cross-genome comparisons as well as integration of genomic data with experimental results. The first systems biology approaches have been performed that used experimental data to construct predictive models of gene expression and metabolism, respectively. In this contribution the current status of genomics, functional genomics, and molecular genetics of haloarchaea is summarized and selected examples are discussed. PMID:18493745

  2. Integrative Analysis of Metabolomic, Proteomic and Genomic Data to Reveal Functional Pathways and Candidate Genes for Drip Loss in Pigs.

    PubMed

    Welzenbach, Julia; Neuhoff, Christiane; Heidt, Hanna; Cinar, Mehmet Ulas; Looft, Christian; Schellander, Karl; Tholen, Ernst; Große-Brinkhaus, Christine

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to integrate multi omics data to characterize underlying functional pathways and candidate genes for drip loss in pigs. The consideration of different omics levels allows elucidating the black box of phenotype expression. Metabolite and protein profiling was applied in Musculus longissimus dorsi samples of 97 Duroc × Pietrain pigs. In total, 126 and 35 annotated metabolites and proteins were quantified, respectively. In addition, all animals were genotyped with the porcine 60 k Illumina beadchip. An enrichment analysis resulted in 10 pathways, amongst others, sphingolipid metabolism and glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, with significant influence on drip loss. Drip loss and 22 metabolic components were analyzed as intermediate phenotypes within a genome-wide association study (GWAS). We detected significantly associated genetic markers and candidate genes for drip loss and for most of the metabolic components. On chromosome 18, a region with promising candidate genes was identified based on SNPs associated with drip loss, the protein "phosphoglycerate mutase 2" and the metabolite glycine. We hypothesize that association studies based on intermediate phenotypes are able to provide comprehensive insights in the genetic variation of genes directly involved in the metabolism of performance traits. In this way, the analyses contribute to identify reliable candidate genes. PMID:27589727

  3. Clinical Microfluidics for Neutrophil Genomics and Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Kotz, Kenneth T.; Xiao, Wenzong; Miller-Graziano, Carol; Qian, Wei-Jun; Russom, Aman; Warner, Elizabeth A.; Moldawer, Lyle L.; De, Asit; Bankey, Paul E.; Petritis, Brianne O.; Camp, David G.; Rosenbach, Alan E.; Goverman, Jeremy; Fagan, Shawn P.; Brownstein, Bernard H.; Irimia, Daniel; Xu, Weihong; Wilhelmy, Julie; Mindrinos, Michael N.; Smith, Richard D.; Davis, Ronald W.; Tompkins, Ronald G.; Toner, Mehmet

    2010-01-01

    Neutrophils play critical roles in modulating the immune response. We present a robust methodology for rapidly isolating neutrophils directly from whole blood and develop ‘on-chip’ processing for mRNA and protein isolation for genomics and proteomics. We validate this device with an ex vivo stimulation experiment and by comparison with standard bulk isolation methodologies. Lastly, we implement this tool as part of a near patient blood processing system within a multi-center clinical study of the immune response to severe trauma and burn injury. The preliminary results from a small cohort of patients in our study and healthy controls show a unique time-dependent gene expression pattern clearly demonstrating the ability of this tool to discriminate temporal transcriptional events of neutrophils within a clinical setting. PMID:20802500

  4. Human sperm chromatin epigenetic potential: genomics, proteomics, and male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Judit; Estanyol, Josep Maria; Ballescà, Josep Lluis; Oliva, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    The classical idea about the function of the mammalian sperm chromatin is that it serves to transmit a highly protected and transcriptionally inactive paternal genome, largely condensed by protamines, to the next generation. In addition, recent sperm chromatin genome-wide dissection studies indicate the presence of a differential distribution of the genes and repetitive sequences in the protamine-condensed and histone-condensed sperm chromatin domains, which could be potentially involved in regulatory roles after fertilization. Interestingly, recent proteomic studies have shown that sperm chromatin contains many additional proteins, in addition to the abundant histones and protamines, with specific modifications and chromatin affinity features which are also delivered to the oocyte. Both gene and protein signatures seem to be altered in infertile patients and, as such, are consistent with the potential involvement of the sperm chromatin landscape in early embryo development. This present work reviews the available information on the composition of the human sperm chromatin and its epigenetic potential, with a particular focus on recent results derived from high-throughput genomic and proteomic studies. As a complement, we provide experimental evidence for the detection of phosphorylations and acetylations in human protamine 1 using a mass spectrometry approach. The available data indicate that the sperm chromatin is much more complex than what it was previously thought, raising the possibility that it could also serve to transmit crucial paternal epigenetic information to the embryo. PMID:25926607

  5. Integrated proteomic and genomic analysis of colorectal cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Investigators who analyzed 95 human colorectal tumor samples have determined how gene alterations identified in previous analyses of the same samples are expressed at the protein level. The integration of proteomic and genomic data, or proteogenomics, pro

  6. GENOMIC AND PROTEOMIC TECHNIQUES APPLIED TO REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genomic and proteomic techniques applied to reproductive biology
    John C. Rockett
    Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Research Tria...

  7. Systems proteomics of liver mitochondria function.

    PubMed

    Williams, Evan G; Wu, Yibo; Jha, Pooja; Dubuis, Sébastien; Blattmann, Peter; Argmann, Carmen A; Houten, Sander M; Amariuta, Tiffany; Wolski, Witold; Zamboni, Nicola; Aebersold, Ruedi; Auwerx, Johan

    2016-06-10

    Recent improvements in quantitative proteomics approaches, including Sequential Window Acquisition of all Theoretical Mass Spectra (SWATH-MS), permit reproducible large-scale protein measurements across diverse cohorts. Together with genomics, transcriptomics, and other technologies, transomic data sets can be generated that permit detailed analyses across broad molecular interaction networks. Here, we examine mitochondrial links to liver metabolism through the genome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome of 386 individuals in the BXD mouse reference population. Several links were validated between genetic variants toward transcripts, proteins, metabolites, and phenotypes. Among these, sequence variants in Cox7a2l alter its protein's activity, which in turn leads to downstream differences in mitochondrial supercomplex formation. This data set demonstrates that the proteome can now be quantified comprehensively, serving as a key complement to transcriptomics, genomics, and metabolomics--a combination moving us forward in complex trait analysis. PMID:27284200

  8. Connecting Genomic Alterations to Cancer Biology with Proteomics: The NCI Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, Matthew; Gillette, Michael; Carr, Steven A.; Paulovich, Amanda G.; Smith, Richard D.; Rodland, Karin D.; Townsend, Reid; Kinsinger, Christopher; Mesri, Mehdi; Rodriguez, Henry; Liebler, Daniel

    2013-10-03

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium is applying the latest generation of proteomic technologies to genomically annotated tumors from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) program, a joint initiative of the NCI and the National Human Genome Research Institute. By providing a fully integrated accounting of DNA, RNA, and protein abnormalities in individual tumors, these datasets will illuminate the complex relationship between genomic abnormalities and cancer phenotypes, thus producing biologic insights as well as a wave of novel candidate biomarkers and therapeutic targets amenable to verifi cation using targeted mass spectrometry methods.

  9. Proteomics. Making sense of genomic information for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Whitelegge, J P; le Coutre, J

    2001-01-01

    As an increasing number of available genomes triggers a gold rush in modern biology, the scientific challenge shifts towards understanding the total of the encoded information, most notably the proteins, their structures, functions and interactions. Currently this work is in its early stages but the near future will bring a merger of biology, engineering and informatics with a far broader impact on society than pure genomics has had so far. The challenge of characterizing the structures and functions of all proteins in a given cell demands technological advances beyond the classical methodologies of protein biochemistry. Mass spectrometry techniques for high-throughput protein identification, including peptide mass fingerprinting, sequence tagging and mass spectrometry on full-length proteins are providing the driving force behind proteomics endeavors. New technologies are needed to move high-resolution protein structure determination to an industrial scale. Nonetheless, improvements in techniques for the separation of intrinsic membrane proteins are enabling proteomics efforts towards identifying drug targets within this important class of biomolecules. Beyond the acquisition of data on sequences, structures and interactions, however, the major work in drug discovery remains: the screening of large candidate compound libraries combined with clever medicinal chemistry that guarantees selective action and defined delivery of the drug. PMID:12173311

  10. The Proteome Folding Project: Proteome-scale prediction of structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Drew, Kevin; Winters, Patrick; Butterfoss, Glenn L.; Berstis, Viktors; Uplinger, Keith; Armstrong, Jonathan; Riffle, Michael; Schweighofer, Erik; Bovermann, Bill; Goodlett, David R.; Davis, Trisha N.; Shasha, Dennis; Malmström, Lars; Bonneau, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The incompleteness of proteome structure and function annotation is a critical problem for biologists and, in particular, severely limits interpretation of high-throughput and next-generation experiments. We have developed a proteome annotation pipeline based on structure prediction, where function and structure annotations are generated using an integration of sequence comparison, fold recognition, and grid-computing-enabled de novo structure prediction. We predict protein domain boundaries and three-dimensional (3D) structures for protein domains from 94 genomes (including human, Arabidopsis, rice, mouse, fly, yeast, Escherichia coli, and worm). De novo structure predictions were distributed on a grid of more than 1.5 million CPUs worldwide (World Community Grid). We generated significant numbers of new confident fold annotations (9% of domains that are otherwise unannotated in these genomes). We demonstrate that predicted structures can be combined with annotations from the Gene Ontology database to predict new and more specific molecular functions. PMID:21824995

  11. Bacillus thuringiensis: a genomics and proteomics perspective.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohamed A; Griko, Natalya; Junker, Matthew; Bulla, Lee A

    2010-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a unique bacterium in that it shares a common place with a number of chemical compounds which are used commercially to control insects important to agriculture and public health. Although other bacteria, including B. popilliae and B. sphaericus, are used as microbial insecticides, their spectrum of insecticidal activity is quite limited compared to Bt. Importantly, Bt is safe for humans and is the most widely used environmentally compatible biopesticide worldwide. Furthermore, insecticidal Bt genes have been incorporated into several major crops, rendering them insect resistant, and thus providing a model for genetic engineering in agriculture.This review highlights what the authors consider the most relevant issues and topics pertaining to the genomics and proteomics of Bt. At least one of the authors (L.A.B.) has spent most of his professional life studying different aspects of this bacterium with the goal in mind of determining the mechanism(s) by which it kills insects. The other authors have a much shorter experience with Bt but their intellect and personal insight have greatly enriched our understanding of what makes Bt distinctive in the microbial world. Obviously, there is personal interest and bias reflected in this article notwithstanding oversight of a number of published studies. This review contains some material not published elsewhere although several ideas and concepts were developed from a broad base of scientific literature up to 2010. PMID:21327125

  12. Genomics, metagenomics and proteomics in biomining microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, Lissette; Chi, An; Beard, Simon; Orell, Alvaro; Guiliani, Nicolas; Shabanowitz, Jeff; Hunt, Donald F; Jerez, Carlos A

    2006-01-01

    The use of acidophilic, chemolithotrophic microorganisms capable of oxidizing iron and sulfur in industrial processes to recover metals from minerals containing copper, gold and uranium is a well established biotechnology with distinctive advantages over traditional mining. A consortium of different microorganisms participates in the oxidative reactions resulting in the extraction of dissolved metal values from ores. Considerable effort has been spent in the last years to understand the biochemistry of iron and sulfur compounds oxidation, bacteria-mineral interactions (chemotaxis, quorum sensing, adhesion, biofilm formation) and several adaptive responses allowing the microorganisms to survive in a bioleaching environment. All of these are considered key phenomena for understanding the process of biomining. The use of genomics, metagenomics and high throughput proteomics to study the global regulatory responses that the biomining community uses to adapt to their changing environment is just beginning to emerge in the last years. These powerful approaches are reviewed here since they offer the possibility of exciting new findings that will allow analyzing the community as a microbial system, determining the extent to which each of the individual participants contributes to the process, how they evolve in time to keep the conglomerate healthy and therefore efficient during the entire process of bioleaching. PMID:16288845

  13. Defining Genome Maintenance Pathways using Functional Genomic Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Bansbach, Carol E.; Cortez, David

    2011-01-01

    Genome maintenance activities including DNA repair, cell division cycle control, and checkpoint signaling pathways preserve genome integrity and prevent disease. Defects in these pathways cause birth defects, neurodegeneration, premature aging, and cancer. Recent technical advances in functional genomic approaches such as expression profiling, proteomics, and RNA interference (RNAi) technologies have rapidly expanded our knowledge of the proteins that work in these pathways. In this review, we examine the use of these high-throughput methodologies in higher eukaryotic organisms for the interrogation of genome maintenance activities. PMID:21787120

  14. Complete Genome and Proteome of Acholeplasma laidlawii▿†

    PubMed Central

    Lazarev, V. N.; Levitskii, S. A.; Basovskii, Y. I.; Chukin, M. M.; Akopian, T. A.; Vereshchagin, V. V.; Kostrjukova, E. S.; Kovaleva, G. Y.; Kazanov, M. D.; Malko, D. B.; Vitreschak, A. G.; Sernova, N. V.; Gelfand, M. S.; Demina, I. A.; Serebryakova, M. V.; Galyamina, M. A.; Vtyurin, N. N.; Rogov, S. I.; Alexeev, D. G.; Ladygina, V. G.; Govorun, V. M.

    2011-01-01

    We present the complete genome sequence and proteogenomic map for Acholeplasma laidlawii PG-8A (class Mollicutes, order Acholeplasmatales, family Acholeplasmataceae). The genome of A. laidlawii is represented by a single 1,496,992-bp circular chromosome with an average G+C content of 31 mol%. This is the longest genome among the Mollicutes with a known nucleotide sequence. It contains genes of polymerase type I, SOS response, and signal transduction systems, as well as RNA regulatory elements, riboswitches, and T boxes. This demonstrates a significant capability for the regulation of gene expression and mutagenic response to stress. Acholeplasma laidlawii and phytoplasmas are the only Mollicutes known to use the universal genetic code, in which UGA is a stop codon. Within the Mollicutes group, only the sterol-nonrequiring Acholeplasma has the capacity to synthesize saturated fatty acids de novo. Proteomic data were used in the primary annotation of the genome, validating expression of many predicted proteins. We also detected posttranslational modifications of A. laidlawii proteins: phosphorylation and acylation. Seventy-four candidate phosphorylated proteins were found: 16 candidates are proteins unique to A. laidlawii, and 11 of them are surface-anchored or integral membrane proteins, which implies the presence of active signaling pathways. Among 20 acylated proteins, 14 contained palmitic chains, and six contained stearic chains. No residue of linoleic or oleic acid was observed. Acylated proteins were components of mainly sugar and inorganic ion transport systems and were surface-anchored proteins with unknown functions. PMID:21784942

  15. Exploring the post-genomic world: differing explanatory and manipulatory functions of post-genomic sciences

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Christina; Carlson, Siobhan M.; McDonald, Fiona; Jones, Mavis; Graham, Janice

    2016-01-01

    Richard Lewontin proposed that the ability of a scientific field to create a narrative for public understanding garners it social relevance. This article applies Lewontin's conceptual framework of the functions of science (manipulatory and explanatory) to compare and explain the current differences in perceived societal relevance of genetics/genomics and proteomics. We provide three examples to illustrate the social relevance and strong cultural narrative of genetics/genomics for which no counterpart exists for proteomics. We argue that the major difference between genetics/genomics and proteomics is that genomics has a strong explanatory function, due to the strong cultural narrative of heredity. Based on qualitative interviews and observations of proteomics conferences, we suggest that the nature of proteins, lack of public understanding, and theoretical complexity exacerbates this difference for proteomics. Lewontin's framework suggests that social scientists may find that omics sciences affect social relations in different ways than past analyses of genetics. PMID:27134568

  16. University of Victoria Genome British Columbia Proteomics Centre Partners with CPTAC - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    University of Victoria Genome British Columbia Proteomics Centre, a leader in proteomic technology development, has partnered with the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI) to make targeted proteomic assays accessible to the community through NCI’s CPTAC Assay Portal.

  17. Proteogenomics: the needs and roles to be filled by proteomics in genome annotation

    SciTech Connect

    Ansong, Charles; Purvine, Samuel O.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Lipton, Mary S.; Smith, Richard D.

    2008-01-01

    While genome sequencing efforts reveal the basic building blocks of life, a genome sequence alone is insufficient for elucidating biological function. Genome annotation – the process of identifying genes and assigning function to each gene in a genome sequence – provides the means to elucidate biological function from sequence. Current state-of-the-art high throughput genome annotation uses a combination of comparative (sequence similarity data) and non-comparative (ab initio gene prediction algorithms) methods to identify open reading frames in genome sequences. Because approaches used to validate the presence of these open reading frames are typically based on the information derived from the annotated genomes, they cannot independently and unequivocally determine whether a predicted open reading frame is translated into a protein. With the ability to directly measure peptides arising from expressed proteins, high throughput liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based proteomics, approaches can be used to verify coding regions of a genomic sequence. Here, we highlight several ways in which high throughput tandem mass spectrometry-based proteomics can improve the quality of genome annotations and suggest that it could be efficiently applied during the initial gene calling process so that the improvements are propagated through the subsequent functional annotation process.

  18. The 9th Siena meeting: from genome to proteome: open innovations.

    PubMed

    Godovac-Zimmermann, Jasminka

    2012-12-01

    The Siena Meeting has been held biannually since 1994, when for the first time the concept of the proteome was introduced to a large scientific audience. Over the years, the meeting has grown to be a major international conference in the field of proteomics and has attracted excellent scientists from all corners of the world. The 9th Siena Meeting: 'from Genome to Proteome: Open Innovations' was attended by 300 scientists. There were four plenary and eight parallel sessions with 50 invited talks and three poster sessions with 94 posters covering wide range of functional proteomics, signaling, biomarkers, cancer, neuroscience, glycoproteomics, mass spectrometry and bioinformatics. As in the past, this year's Siena Meeting maintained its tradition of placing science at centre stage, which generated a wide range of discussions of major importance for the future. PMID:23256669

  19. Comparative Bacterial Proteomics: Analysis of the Core Genome Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Callister, Stephen J.; McCue, Lee Ann; Turse, Josh E.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Auberry, Kenneth J.; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Lipton, Mary S.

    2008-02-06

    Comparative bacterial genomic studies commonly predict a set of genes indicative of common ancestry. Experimental validation of the existence of this core genome requires extensive measurement and is not typically undertaken. Enabled by an extensive proteome database development over a six year period, we experimentally verified the expression of proteins predicted from genomic ortholog comparisons among 17 environmental and pathogenic bacteria. More exclusive relationships were observed among the expressed protein content of phenotypically related bacteria, which is indicative of the specific lifestyles associated with these organisms. While genomic studies establish relative orthologous relationships among a set of bacteria and propose a set of ancestral genes, our proteomics study establishes expressed lifestyle differences among conserved genes and proposes a set of expressed ancestral traits.

  20. Highlights of recent articles on data mining in genomics & proteomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This editorial elaborates on investigations consisting of different “OMICS” technologies and their application to biological sciences. In addition, advantages and recent development of the proteomic, genomic and data mining technologies are discussed. This information will be useful to scientists ...

  1. MAPU 2.0: high-accuracy proteomes mapped to genomes

    PubMed Central

    Gnad, Florian; Oroshi, Mario; Birney, Ewan; Mann, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    The MAPU 2.0 database contains proteomes of organelles, tissues and cell types measured by mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics. In contrast to other databases it is meant to contain a limited number of experiments and only those with very high-resolution and -accuracy data. MAPU 2.0 displays the proteomes of organelles, tissues and body fluids or conversely displays the occurrence of proteins of interest in all these proteomes. The new release addresses MS-specific problems including ambiguous peptide-to-protein assignments and it provides insight into general functional features on the protein level ranging from gene ontology classification to comprehensive SwissProt annotation. Moreover, the derived proteomic data are used to annotate the genomes using Distributed Annotation Service (DAS) via EnsEMBL services. MAPU 2.0 is a model for a database specifically designed for high-accuracy proteomics and a member of the ProteomExchange Consortium. It is available on line at http://www.mapuproteome.com. PMID:18948283

  2. Comparative Analysis of Genomics and Proteomics in Bacillus thuringiensis 4.0718

    PubMed Central

    Rang, Jie; He, Hao; Wang, Ting; Ding, Xuezhi; Zuo, Mingxing; Quan, Meifang; Sun, Yunjun; Yu, Ziquan; Hu, Shengbiao; Xia, Liqiu

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is a widely used biopesticide that produced various insecticidal active substances during its life cycle. Separation and purification of numerous insecticide active substances have been difficult because of the relatively short half-life of such substances. On the other hand, substances can be synthetized at different times during development, so samples at different stages have to be studied, further complicating the analysis. A dual genomic and proteomic approach would enhance our ability to identify such substances, and particularily using mass spectrometry-based proteomic methods. The comparative analysis for genomic and proteomic data have showed that not all of the products deduced from the annotated genome could be identified among the proteomic data. For instance, genome annotation results showed that 39 coding sequences in the whole genome were related to insect pathogenicity, including five cry genes. However, Cry2Ab, Cry1Ia, Cytotoxin K, Bacteriocin, Exoenzyme C3 and Alveolysin could not be detected in the proteomic data obtained. The sporulation-related proteins were also compared analysis, results showed that the great majority sporulation-related proteins can be detected by mass spectrometry. This analysis revealed Spo0A~P, SigF, SigE(+), SigK(+) and SigG(+), all known to play an important role in the process of spore formation regulatory network, also were displayed in the proteomic data. Through the comparison of the two data sets, it was possible to infer that some genes were silenced or were expressed at very low levels. For instance, found that cry2Ab seems to lack a functional promoter while cry1Ia may not be expressed due to the presence of transposons. With this comparative study a relatively complete database can be constructed and used to transform hereditary material, thereby prompting the high expression of toxic proteins. A theoretical basis is provided for constructing highly virulent engineered bacteria and for

  3. Annotation of loci from genome-wide association studies using tissue-specific quantitative interaction proteomics.

    PubMed

    Lundby, Alicia; Rossin, Elizabeth J; Steffensen, Annette B; Acha, Moshe Rav; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Pfeufer, Arne; Lynch, Stacey N; Olesen, Søren-Peter; Brunak, Søren; Ellinor, Patrick T; Jukema, J Wouter; Trompet, Stella; Ford, Ian; Macfarlane, Peter W; Krijthe, Bouwe P; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G; Stricker, Bruno H; Nathoe, Hendrik M; Spiering, Wilko; Daly, Mark J; Asselbergs, Folkert W; van der Harst, Pim; Milan, David J; de Bakker, Paul I W; Lage, Kasper; Olsen, Jesper V

    2014-08-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified thousands of loci associated with complex traits, but it is challenging to pinpoint causal genes in these loci and to exploit subtle association signals. We used tissue-specific quantitative interaction proteomics to map a network of five genes involved in the Mendelian disorder long QT syndrome (LQTS). We integrated the LQTS network with GWAS loci from the corresponding common complex trait, QT-interval variation, to identify candidate genes that were subsequently confirmed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and zebrafish. We used the LQTS protein network to filter weak GWAS signals by identifying single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in proximity to genes in the network supported by strong proteomic evidence. Three SNPs passing this filter reached genome-wide significance after replication genotyping. Overall, we present a general strategy to propose candidates in GWAS loci for functional studies and to systematically filter subtle association signals using tissue-specific quantitative interaction proteomics. PMID:24952909

  4. Annotation of loci from genome-wide association studies using tissue-specific quantitative interaction proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Lundby, Alicia; Rossin, Elizabeth J.; Steffensen, Annette B.; Rav Acha, Moshe; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Pfeufer, Arne; Lynch, Stacey N.; Olesen, Søren-Peter; Brunak, Søren; Ellinor, Patrick T.; Jukema, J.Wouter; Trompet, Stella; Ford, Ian; Macfarlane, Peter W.; Krijthe, Bouwe P.; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Stricker, Bruno H.; Nathoe, Hendrik M.; Spiering, Wilko; Daly, Mark J.; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; van der Harst, Pim; Milan, David J.; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Lage, Kasper; Olsen, Jesper V.

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified thousands of loci associated wtih complex traits, but it is challenging to pinpoint causal genes in these loci and to exploit subtle association signals. We used tissue-specific quantitative interaction proteomics to map a network of five genes involved in the Mendelian disorder long QT syndrome (LQTS). We integrated the LQTS network with GWAS loci from the corresponding common complex trait, QT interval variation, to identify candidate genes that were subsequently confirmed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and zebrafish. We used the LQTS protein network to filter weak GWAS signals by identifying single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in proximity to genes in the network supported by strong proteomic evidence. Three SNPs passing this filter reached genome-wide significance after replication genotyping. Overall, we present a general strategy to propose candidates in GWAS loci for functional studies and to systematically filter subtle association signals using tissue-specific quantitative interaction proteomics. PMID:24952909

  5. Plant nuclear proteomics for unraveling physiological function.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiaojian; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2016-09-25

    The nucleus is the subcellular organelle that functions as the regulatory hub of the cell and is responsible for regulating several critical cellular functions, including cell proliferation, gene expression, and cell survival. Nuclear proteomics is a useful approach for investigating the mechanisms underlying plant responses to abiotic stresses, including protein-protein interactions, enzyme activities, and post-translational modifications. Among abiotic stresses, flooding is a major limiting factor for plant growth and yields, particularly for soybean. In this review, plant nuclei purification methods, modifications of plant nuclear proteins, and recent contributions to the field of plant nuclear proteomics are summarized. In addition, to reveal the upstream regulating mechanisms controlling soybean responses to flooding stress, the functions of flooding-responsive nuclear proteins are reviewed based on the results of nuclear proteomic analysis of soybean in the early stages of flooding stress. PMID:27004615

  6. How the proteome packages the genome for cardiovascular development

    PubMed Central

    Karbassi, Elaheh; Vondriska, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    The devastating impact of congenital heart defects has made mechanisms of vertebrate heart and vascular development an active area of study. Because myocyte death is a common feature of acquired cardiovascular diseases and the adult heart does not regenerate, the need exists to understand whether features of the developing heart and vasculature—which are more plastic—can be exploited therapeutically in the disease setting. We know that a core network of transcription factors governs commitment to the cardiovascular lineage, and recent studies using genetic loss-of-function approaches and unbiased genomic studies have revealed the role for various chromatin modulatory events. We reason that chromatin structure itself is a causal feature that influences transcriptome complexity along a developmental continuum, and the purpose of this article is to highlight the areas in which ‘omics technologies have the potential to reveal new principles of phenotypic plasticity in development. We review the major mechanisms of chromatin structural regulation, highlighting what is known about their actions to control cardiovascular differentiation. We discuss emergent mechanisms of regulation that have been identified on the basis of genomic and proteomic studies of cardiac nuclei and identify current challenges to an integrated understanding of chromatin structure and cardiovascular phenotype. PMID:25074278

  7. Dicarbonyl proteome and genome damage in metabolic and vascular disease.

    PubMed

    Rabbani, Naila; Thornalley, Paul J

    2014-04-01

    Methylglyoxal is a potent protein-glycating agent. It is an arginine-directed glycating agent and often modifies functionally important sites in proteins. Glycation forms mainly MG-H1 [Nδ-(5-hydro-5-methyl-4-imidazolon-2-yl)ornithine] residues. MG-H1 content of proteins is quantified by stable isotopic dilution analysis-MS/MS and also by immunoblotting with specific monoclonal antibodies. Methylglyoxal-modified proteins undergo cellular proteolysis and release MG-H1 free adduct for excretion. MG-H1 residues have been found in proteins of animals, plants, bacteria, fungi and protoctista. MG-H1 is often the major advanced glycation end-product in proteins of tissues and body fluids, increasing in diabetes and associated vascular complications, renal failure, cirrhosis, Alzheimer's disease, arthritis, Parkinson's disease and aging. Proteins susceptible to methylglyoxal modification with related functional impairment are called the DCP (dicarbonyl proteome). The DCP includes albumin, haemoglobin, transcription factors, mitochondrial proteins, extracellular matrix proteins, lens crystallins and others. DCP component proteins are linked to mitochondrial dysfunction in diabetes and aging, oxidative stress, dyslipidaemia, cell detachment and anoikis and apoptosis. Methylglyoxal also modifies DNA where deoxyguanosine residues are modified to imidazopurinone MGdG {3-(2'-deoxyribosyl)-6,7-dihydro-6,7-dihydroxy-6/7-methylimidazo-[2,3-b]purine-9(8)one} isomers. MGdG was the major quantitative adduct detected in vivo. It was linked to frequency of DNA strand breaks and increased markedly during apoptosis induced by a cell-permeant glyoxalase I inhibitor. Glyoxalase I metabolizes >99% methylglyoxal and thereby protects the proteome and genome. Gene deletion of GLO1 is embryonically lethal and GLO1 silencing increases methylglyoxal concentration, MG-H1 and MGdG, premature aging and disease. Studies of methylglyoxal glycation have importance for human health, longevity and

  8. Leveraging Genomics Software to Improve Proteomics Results

    SciTech Connect

    Fodor, I K; Nelson, D O

    2005-09-06

    Rigorous data analysis techniques are essential in quantifying the differential expression of proteins in biological samples of interest. Statistical methods from the microarray literature were applied to the analysis of two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) proteomics experiments, in the context of technical variability studies involving human plasma. Protein expression measurements were corrected to account for observed intensity-dependent biases within gels, and normalized to mitigate observed gel to gel variations. The methods improved upon the results achieved using the best currently available 2-D DIGE proteomics software. The spot-wise protein variance was reduced by 10% and the number of apparently differentially expressed proteins was reduced by over 50%.

  9. An empirical strategy for characterizing bacterial proteomes across species in the absence of genomic sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Turse, Joshua E.; Marshall, Matthew J.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Lipton, Mary S.; Callister, Stephen J.

    2010-11-12

    Current methods in proteomics are dependent on the availability of sequenced genomes to identify proteins. However, genomic sequences are not always available for bacteria or microbial communities, even with high throughput sequencing technology becoming more readily available. Nevertheless, the homology that exists between related bacteria makes possible the extraction of meaningful biological information from an organism’s, or community’s proteome using the genomic sequence of a near neighbor. Here, a cross-organism search strategy was used to look at the amount of proteomics information obtainable with relative genetic distance from a near neighbor organism and to identify proteins in the proteome of minimally characterized environmental isolates. We conclude that closely related organisms with sequenced genomes, can be used to characterize proteomes of organisms with unsequenced genomes. In general, a cross-organism search strategy demonstrates the first step to use of sequences genomes to evaluate the proteomes of environmental bacteria and microbial communities that have no sequenced genome

  10. A pan-cancer proteomic perspective on The Cancer Genome Atlas.

    PubMed

    Akbani, Rehan; Ng, Patrick Kwok Shing; Werner, Henrica M J; Shahmoradgoli, Maria; Zhang, Fan; Ju, Zhenlin; Liu, Wenbin; Yang, Ji-Yeon; Yoshihara, Kosuke; Li, Jun; Ling, Shiyun; Seviour, Elena G; Ram, Prahlad T; Minna, John D; Diao, Lixia; Tong, Pan; Heymach, John V; Hill, Steven M; Dondelinger, Frank; Städler, Nicolas; Byers, Lauren A; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Weinstein, John N; Broom, Bradley M; Verhaak, Roeland G W; Liang, Han; Mukherjee, Sach; Lu, Yiling; Mills, Gordon B

    2014-01-01

    Protein levels and function are poorly predicted by genomic and transcriptomic analysis of patient tumours. Therefore, direct study of the functional proteome has the potential to provide a wealth of information that complements and extends genomic, epigenomic and transcriptomic analysis in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) projects. Here we use reverse-phase protein arrays to analyse 3,467 patient samples from 11 TCGA 'Pan-Cancer' diseases, using 181 high-quality antibodies that target 128 total proteins and 53 post-translationally modified proteins. The resultant proteomic data are integrated with genomic and transcriptomic analyses of the same samples to identify commonalities, differences, emergent pathways and network biology within and across tumour lineages. In addition, tissue-specific signals are reduced computationally to enhance biomarker and target discovery spanning multiple tumour lineages. This integrative analysis, with an emphasis on pathways and potentially actionable proteins, provides a framework for determining the prognostic, predictive and therapeutic relevance of the functional proteome. PMID:24871328

  11. Nanopatterned structures for biomolecular analysis toward genomic and proteomic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Chia-Fu; Gu, Jian; Wei, Qihuo; Liu, Yingjie; Gupta, Ravi; Nishio, Takeyoshi; Zenhausern, Frederic

    2005-01-01

    We report our fabrication of nanoscale devices using electron beam and nanoimprint lithography (NIL). We focus our study in the emerging fields of NIL, nanophotonics and nanobiotechnology and give a few examples as to how these nanodevices may be applied toward genomic and proteomic applications for molecular analysis. The examples include reverse NIL-fabricated nanofluidic channels for DNA stretching, nanoscale molecular traps constructed from dielectric constrictions for DNA or protein focusing by dielectrophoresis, multi-layer nanoburger and nanoburger multiplets for optimized surface-plasma enhanced Raman scattering for protein detection, and biomolecular motor-based nanosystems. The development of advanced nanopatterning techniques promises reliable and high-throughput manufacturing of nanodevices which could impact significantly on the areas of genomics, proteomics, drug discovery and molecular clinical diagnostics.

  12. Differential Proteomics Analysis of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Its Genome-Shuffled Mutant for Improving Surfactin Production

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Junfeng; Cao, Lin; Zhang, Chong; Zhong, Lei; Lu, Jing; Lu, Zhaoxin

    2014-01-01

    Genome shuffling technology was used as a novel whole-genome engineering approach to rapidly improve the antimicrobial lipopeptide yield of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Comparative proteomic analysis of the parental ES-2-4 and genome-shuffled FMB38 strains was conducted to examine the differentially expressed proteins. The proteome was separated by 2-DE (two dimensional electrophoresis) and analyzed by MS (mass spectrum). In the shuffled strain FMB38, 51 differentially expressed protein spots with higher than two-fold spot density were detected by gel image comparison. Forty-six protein spots were detectable by silver staining and further MS analysis. The results demonstrated that among the 46 protein spots expressed particularly induced in the genome-shuffled mutant, 15 were related to metabolism, five to DNA replication, recombination and repair, six to translation and post-translational modifications, one to cell secretion and signal transduction mechanisms, three to surfactin synthesis, two to energy production and conversion, and 14 to others. All these indicated that the metabolic capability of the mutant was improved by the genome shuffling. The study will enable future detailed investigation of gene expression and function linked with surfactin synthesis. The results of proteome analysis may provide information for metabolic engineering of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens for overproduction of surfactin. PMID:25365175

  13. Functional proteomics of barley and barley chloroplasts – strategies, methods and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Jørgen; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Jensen, Ole N.

    2013-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an important cereal grain that is used in a range of products for animal and human consumption. Crop yield and seed quality has been optimized during decades by plant breeding programs supported by biotechnology and molecular biology techniques. The recently completed whole-genome sequencing of barley revealed approximately 26,100 open reading frames, which provides a foundation for detailed molecular studies of barley by functional genomics and proteomics approaches. Such studies will provide further insights into the mechanisms of, for example, drought and stress tolerance, micronutrient utilization, and photosynthesis in barley. In the present review we present the current state of proteomics research for investigations of barley chloroplasts, i.e., the organelle that contain the photosynthetic apparatus in the plant. We describe several different proteomics strategies and discuss their applications in characterization of the barley chloroplast as well as future perspectives for functional proteomics in barley research. PMID:23515231

  14. Public Access for Teaching Genomics, Proteomics, and Bioinformatics

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    2003-01-01

    When the human genome project was conceived, its leaders wanted all researchers to have equal access to the data and associated research tools. Their vision of equal access provides an unprecedented teaching opportunity. Teachers and students have free access to the same databases that researchers are using. Furthermore, the recent movement to deliver scientific publications freely has presented a second source of current information for teaching. I have developed a genomics course that incorporates many of the public-domain databases, research tools, and peer-reviewed journals. These online resources provide students with exciting entree into the new fields of genomics, proteomics, and bioinformatics. In this essay, I outline how these fields are especially well suited for inclusion in the undergraduate curriculum. Assessment data indicate that my students were able to utilize online information to achieve the educational goals of the course and that the experience positively influenced their perceptions of how they might contribute to biology. PMID:12888845

  15. An integrative genomic and proteomic approach to chemosensitivity prediction

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yan; Ding, Zhenyu; Qian, Yong; Wan, Ying-Wooi; Tosun, Kursad; Shi, Xianglin; Castranova, Vincent; Harner, E. James; Guo, Nancy I.

    2009-01-01

    New computational approaches are needed to integrate both protein expression and gene expression profiles, extending beyond the correlation analyses of gene and protein expression profiles in the current practices. Here, we developed an algorithm to classify cell line chemosensitivity based on integrated transcriptional and proteomic profiles. We sought to determine whether a combination of gene and protein expression profiles of untreated cells was able to enhance the performance of chemosensitivity prediction. An integrative feature selection scheme was employed to identify chemosensitivity determinants from genome-wide transcriptional profiles and 52 protein expression levels in 60 human cancer cell lines (the NCI-60). A set of 118 anti-cancer drugs whose mechanisms of action were putatively understood was evaluated. Classifiers of the complete range of drug response (sensitive, intermediate, or resistant) were generated for the evaluated anti-cancer drugs, one for each agent. The classifiers were designed to be independent of the cells' tissue origins. The classification accuracy of all the evaluated 118 agents was remarkably better (P<0.001) than that would be achieved by chance. Furthermore, 76 out of the 118 classifiers identified from integrated genomic and protein profiles significantly (P<0.05) improved the accuracy of protein expression-based classifiers identified previously. These results demonstrate that our integrated genomic and proteomic approach enhances the performance of chemosensitivity prediction. This study presents a new analytical framework to identify integrated gene and protein expression signatures for predicting cellular behavior and clinical outcome in general. PMID:19082483

  16. Protein microarrays as tools for functional proteomics.

    PubMed

    LaBaer, Joshua; Ramachandran, Niroshan

    2005-02-01

    Protein microarrays present an innovative and versatile approach to study protein abundance and function at an unprecedented scale. Given the chemical and structural complexity of the proteome, the development of protein microarrays has been challenging. Despite these challenges there has been a marked increase in the use of protein microarrays to map interactions of proteins with various other molecules, and to identify potential disease biomarkers, especially in the area of cancer biology. In this review, we discuss some of the promising advances made in the development and use of protein microarrays. PMID:15701447

  17. The complete genome and proteome of Mycoplasma mobile.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, Jacob D; Stange-Thomann, Nicole; Smith, Cherylyn; DeCaprio, David; Fisher, Sheila; Butler, Jonathan; Calvo, Sarah; Elkins, Tim; FitzGerald, Michael G; Hafez, Nabil; Kodira, Chinnappa D; Major, John; Wang, Shunguang; Wilkinson, Jane; Nicol, Robert; Nusbaum, Chad; Birren, Bruce; Berg, Howard C; Church, George M

    2004-08-01

    Although often considered "minimal" organisms, mycoplasmas show a wide range of diversity with respect to host environment, phenotypic traits, and pathogenicity. Here we report the complete genomic sequence and proteogenomic map for the piscine mycoplasma Mycoplasma mobile, noted for its robust gliding motility. For the first time, proteomic data are used in the primary annotation of a new genome, providing validation of expression for many of the predicted proteins. Several novel features were discovered including a long repeating unit of DNA of approximately 2435 bp present in five complete copies that are shown to code for nearly identical yet uniquely expressed proteins. M. mobile has among the lowest DNA GC contents (24.9%) and most reduced set of tRNAs of any organism yet reported (28). Numerous instances of tandem duplication as well as lateral gene transfer are evident in the genome. The multiple available complete genome sequences for other motile and immotile mycoplasmas enabled us to use comparative genomic and phylogenetic methods to suggest several candidate genes that might be involved in motility. The results of these analyses leave open the possibility that gliding motility might have arisen independently more than once in the mycoplasma lineage. PMID:15289470

  18. Enabling functional genomics with genome engineering

    PubMed Central

    Hilton, Isaac B.; Gersbach, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in genome engineering technologies have made the precise control over genome sequence and regulation possible across a variety of disciplines. These tools can expand our understanding of fundamental biological processes and create new opportunities for therapeutic designs. The rapid evolution of these methods has also catalyzed a new era of genomics that includes multiple approaches to functionally characterize and manipulate the regulation of genomic information. Here, we review the recent advances of the most widely adopted genome engineering platforms and their application to functional genomics. This includes engineered zinc finger proteins, TALEs/TALENs, and the CRISPR/Cas9 system as nucleases for genome editing, transcription factors for epigenome editing, and other emerging applications. We also present current and potential future applications of these tools, as well as their current limitations and areas for future advances. PMID:26430154

  19. Functional Genomic and Proteomic Analysis Reveals Disruption of Myelin-Related Genes and Translation in a Mouse Model of Early Life Neglect

    PubMed Central

    Bordner, Kelly A.; George, Elizabeth D.; Carlyle, Becky C.; Duque, Alvaro; Kitchen, Robert R.; Lam, TuKiet T.; Colangelo, Christopher M.; Stone, Kathryn L.; Abbott, Thomas B.; Mane, Shrikant M.; Nairn, Angus C.; Simen, Arthur A.

    2011-01-01

    Early life neglect is an important public health problem which can lead to lasting psychological dysfunction. Good animal models are necessary to understand the mechanisms responsible for the behavioral and anatomical pathology that results. We recently described a novel model of early life neglect, maternal separation with early weaning (MSEW), that produces behavioral changes in the mouse that persist into adulthood. To begin to understand the mechanism by which MSEW leads to these changes we applied cDNA microarray, next-generation RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq), label-free proteomics, multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) proteomics, and methylation analysis to tissue samples obtained from medial prefrontal cortex to determine the molecular changes induced by MSEW that persist into adulthood. The results show that MSEW leads to dysregulation of markers of mature oligodendrocytes and genes involved in protein translation and other categories, an apparent downward biasing of translation, and methylation changes in the promoter regions of selected dysregulated genes. These findings are likely to prove useful in understanding the mechanism by which early life neglect affects brain structure, cognition, and behavior. PMID:21629843

  20. proBAMsuite, a Bioinformatics Framework for Genome-Based Representation and Analysis of Proteomics Data*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaojing; Slebos, Robbert J. C.; Chambers, Matthew C.; Tabb, David L.; Liebler, Daniel C.; Zhang, Bing

    2016-01-01

    To facilitate genome-based representation and analysis of proteomics data, we developed a new bioinformatics framework, proBAMsuite, in which a central component is the protein BAM (proBAM) file format for organizing peptide spectrum matches (PSMs)1 within the context of the genome. proBAMsuite also includes two R packages, proBAMr and proBAMtools, for generating and analyzing proBAM files, respectively. Applying proBAMsuite to three recently published proteomics datasets, we demonstrated its utility in facilitating efficient genome-based sharing, interpretation, and integration of proteomics data. First, the interpretation of proteomics data is significantly enhanced with the rich genomic annotation information. Second, PSMs can be easily reannotated using user-specified gene annotation schemes and assembled into both protein and gene identifications. Third, using the genome as a common reference, proBAMsuite facilitates seamless proteomics and proteogenomics data integration. Finally, proBAM files can be readily visualized in genome browsers and thus bring proteomics data analysis to a general audience beyond the proteomics community. Results from this study establish proBAMsuite as a useful bioinformatics framework for proteomics and proteogenomics research. PMID:26657539

  1. Encapsulated in silica: genome, proteome and physiology of the thermophilic bacterium Anoxybacillus flavithermus

    SciTech Connect

    Saw, Jimmy H; Mountain, Bruce W; Feng, Lu; Omelchenko, Marina V; Saito, Jennifer A; Stott, Matthew B; Li, Dan; Zhao, Guang; Wu, Junli; Galperin, Michael Y; Dunfield, Peter F; Wang, Lei; Alam, Maqsudul

    2008-01-01

    Gram-positive bacteria of the genus Anoxybacillus have been found in diverse thermophilic habitats, such as geothermal hot springs and manure, and in processed foods such as gelatin and milk powder. Anoxybacillus flavithermus is a facultatively anaerobic bacterium found in super-saturated silica solutions and in opaline silica sinter. The ability of A. flavithermus to grow in super-saturated silica solutions makes it an ideal subject to study the processes of sinter formation, which might be similar to the biomineralization processes that occurred at the dawn of life. We report here the complete genome sequence of A. flavithermus strain WK1, isolated from the waste water drain at the Wairakei geothermal power station in New Zealand. It consists of a single chromosome of 2,846,746 base pairs and is predicted to encode 2,863 proteins. In silico genome analysis identified several enzymes that could be involved in silica adaptation and biofilm formation, and their predicted functions were experimentally validated in vitro. Proteomic analysis confirmed the regulation of biofilm-related proteins and crucial enzymes for the synthesis of long-chain polyamines as constituents of silica nanospheres. Microbial fossils preserved in silica and silica sinters are excellent objects for studying ancient life, a new paleobiological frontier. An integrated analysis of the A. flavithermus genome and proteome provides the first glimpse of metabolic adaptation during silicification and sinter formation. Comparative genome analysis suggests an extensive gene loss in the Anoxybacillus/Geobacillus branch after its divergence from other bacilli.

  2. Proteomics-based confirmation of protein expression and correction of annotation errors in the Brucella abortus genome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Brucellosis is a major bacterial zoonosis affecting domestic livestock and wild mammals, as well as humans around the globe. While conducting proteomics studies to better understand Brucella abortus virulence, we consolidated the proteomic data collected and compared it to publically available genomic data. Results The proteomic data was compiled from several independent comparative studies of Brucella abortus that used either outer membrane blebs, cytosols, or whole bacteria grown in media, as well as intracellular bacteria recovered at different times following macrophage infection. We identified a total of 621 bacterial proteins that were differentially expressed in a condition-specific manner. For 305 of these proteins we provide the first experimental evidence of their expression. Using a custom-built protein sequence database, we uncovered 7 annotation errors. We provide experimental evidence of expression of 5 genes that were originally annotated as non-expressed pseudogenes, as well as start site annotation errors for 2 other genes. Conclusions An essential element for ensuring correct functional studies is the correspondence between reported genome sequences and subsequent proteomics studies. In this study, we have used proteomics evidence to confirm expression of multiple proteins previously considered to be putative, as well as correct annotation errors in the genome of Brucella abortus strain 2308. PMID:20462421

  3. Phenotypic, genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic changes in Bacillus cereus after a short-term space flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Longxiang; Zhou, Lisha; Liu, Jinwen; Cen, Zhong; Wu, Chunyan; Wang, Tong; Zhou, Tao; Chang, De; Guo, Yinghua; Fang, Xiangqun; Wang, Junfeng; Li, Tianzhi; Yin, Sanjun; Dai, Wenkui; Zhou, Yuping; Zhao, Jiao; Fang, Chengxiang; Yang, Ruifu; Liu, Changting

    2014-01-01

    The environment in space could affect microorganisms by changing a variety of features, including proliferation rate, cell physiology, cell metabolism, biofilm production, virulence, and drug resistance. However, the relevant mechanisms remain unclear. To explore the effect of a space environment on Bacillus cereus, a strain of B. cereus was sent to space for 398 h by ShenZhou VIII from November 1, 2011 to November 17, 2011. A ground simulation with similar temperature conditions was simultaneously performed as a control. After the flight, the flight and control strains were further analyzed using phenotypic, genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic techniques to explore the divergence of B. cereus in a space environment. The flight strains exhibited a significantly slower growth rate, a significantly higher amikacin resistance level, and changes in metabolism relative to the ground control strain. After the space flight, three polymorphic loci were found in the flight strains LCT-BC25 and LCT-BC235. A combined transcriptome and proteome analysis was performed, and this analysis revealed that the flight strains had changes in genes/proteins relevant to metabolism. In addition, certain genes/proteins that are relevant to structural function, gene expression modification and translation, and virulence were also altered. Our study represents the first documented analysis of the phenotypic, genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic changes that occur in B. cereus during space flight, and our results could be beneficial to the field of space microbiology.

  4. Integrating genomics, proteomics and bioinformatics in translational studies of molecular medicine.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, Jerzy; Wyrwicz, Lucjan S

    2009-09-01

    Understanding the molecular mechanisms of disease requires the introduction of molecular diagnostics into medical practice. Current medicine employs only elements of molecular diagnostics, which are usually applied on the scale of single genes. Medicine in the postgenomic era will utilize thousands of disease-associated molecular markers provided by high-throughput sequencing and functional genomic, proteomic and metabolomic studies. Such a spectrum of techniques will link clinical medicine based on molecularly oriented diagnostics with the prediction and prevention of disease. To achieve this task, large-scale and genome-wide biological and medical data must be combined with biostatistical and bioinformatic analyses to model biological systems. Collecting, cataloging and comparing data from molecular studies, and the subsequent development of conclusions, creates the fundamentals of systems biology. This highly complex analytical process reflects a new scientific paradigm known as integrative genomics. PMID:19732006

  5. Advances in genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics of toxin-producing cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    D'Agostino, Paul M; Woodhouse, Jason N; Makower, A Katharina; Yeung, Anna C Y; Ongley, Sarah E; Micallef, Melinda L; Moffitt, Michelle C; Neilan, Brett A

    2016-02-01

    A common misconception persists that the genomes of toxic and non-toxic cyanobacterial strains are largely conserved with the exception of the presence or absence of the genes responsible for toxin production. Implementation of -omics era technologies has challenged this paradigm, with comparative analyses providing increased insight into the differences between strains of the same species. The implementation of genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic approaches has revealed distinct profiles between toxin-producing and non-toxic strains. Further, metagenomics and metaproteomics highlight the genomic potential and functional state of toxic bloom events over time. In this review, we highlight how these technologies have shaped our understanding of the complex relationship between these molecules, their producers and the environment at large within which they persist. PMID:26663762

  6. Extracting meaning from functional genomics experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Quackenbush, John . E-mail: johnq@jimmy.harvard.edu

    2005-09-01

    The completion of draft genome sequences for human, mouse, rat, and an increasing number of other species, has provided us with preliminary gene catalogues for many organisms of medical and scientific interests. Interpreting these gene lists in the context of the organism's underlying biology, however, remains difficult. The development of DNA microarrays provided one potential source of data to help interpret gene function; by profiling global patterns of gene expression across diverse conditions, it was hoped that we might be able to develop insight into biological function. But the power of these functional genomics assays, as well as assays in proteomics and metabolomics, is that they primarily give us lists of differentially expressed genes that can be correlated with particular phenotypic states, but which remain difficult to link mechanistically to the biology driving the phenotype.

  7. Navigating yeast genome maintenance with functional genomics.

    PubMed

    Measday, Vivien; Stirling, Peter C

    2016-03-01

    Maintenance of genome integrity is a fundamental requirement of all organisms. To address this, organisms have evolved extremely faithful modes of replication, DNA repair and chromosome segregation to combat the deleterious effects of an unstable genome. Nonetheless, a small amount of genome instability is the driver of evolutionary change and adaptation, and thus a low level of instability is permitted in populations. While defects in genome maintenance almost invariably reduce fitness in the short term, they can create an environment where beneficial mutations are more likely to occur. The importance of this fact is clearest in the development of human cancer, where genome instability is a well-established enabling characteristic of carcinogenesis. This raises the crucial question: what are the cellular pathways that promote genome maintenance and what are their mechanisms? Work in model organisms, in particular the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has provided the global foundations of genome maintenance mechanisms in eukaryotes. The development of pioneering genomic tools inS. cerevisiae, such as the systematic creation of mutants in all nonessential and essential genes, has enabled whole-genome approaches to identifying genes with roles in genome maintenance. Here, we review the extensive whole-genome approaches taken in yeast, with an emphasis on functional genomic screens, to understand the genetic basis of genome instability, highlighting a range of genetic and cytological screening modalities. By revealing the biological pathways and processes regulating genome integrity, these analyses contribute to the systems-level map of the yeast cell and inform studies of human disease, especially cancer. PMID:26323482

  8. Genome and proteome annotation: organization, interpretation and integration

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, Gabrielle A.; Talavera, David; Thornton, Janet M.

    2008-01-01

    Recent years have seen a huge increase in the generation of genomic and proteomic data. This has been due to improvements in current biological methodologies, the development of new experimental techniques and the use of computers as support tools. All these raw data are useless if they cannot be properly analysed, annotated, stored and displayed. Consequently, a vast number of resources have been created to present the data to the wider community. Annotation tools and databases provide the means to disseminate these data and to comprehend their biological importance. This review examines the various aspects of annotation: type, methodology and availability. Moreover, it puts a special interest on novel annotation fields, such as that of phenotypes, and highlights the recent efforts focused on the integrating annotations. PMID:19019817

  9. Genomics, proteomics and metabonomics in toxicology: hopefully not 'fashionomics'.

    PubMed

    Pognan, Francois

    2004-10-01

    Genomics, proteomics and metabonomics are applied to toxicology either as stand-alone technologies or in combination, with the intention of providing a more efficient assessment of the potential side effects of new chemical entities. Two different approaches are taken: a predictive/proactive strategy based on a statistical analogy of 'signatures' of drugs to many known toxicant gene or metabolite fingerprints; and a mechanistic/reactive strategy based on the in-depth biological analysis of the gene, protein or metabolite profiles induced by one or a few compounds of interest. This article focuses on the advantages and disadvantages of these technologies, as well as the many hurdles associated with both these approaches in toxicology that have to be considered before applying them to the assessment of future drugs. PMID:15469409

  10. Nongenetic functions of the genome.

    PubMed

    Bustin, Michael; Misteli, Tom

    2016-05-01

    The primary function of the genome is to store, propagate, and express the genetic information that gives rise to a cell's architectural and functional machinery. However, the genome is also a major structural component of the cell. Besides its genetic roles, the genome affects cellular functions by nongenetic means through its physical and structural properties, particularly by exerting mechanical forces and by serving as a scaffold for binding of cellular components. Major cellular processes affected by nongenetic functions of the genome include establishment of nuclear structure, signal transduction, mechanoresponses, cell migration, and vision in nocturnal animals. We discuss the concept, mechanisms, and implications of nongenetic functions of the genome. PMID:27151873

  11. Proteomics in Aquaculture Research: Are We There Yet?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteomics can be defined as the study of the entire proteome, the proteome being the expressed compliment of the genome. Proteomics aims to understand gene function and molecular processes of the living cell through the study of expressed proteins. A review of the literature suggests proteomics i...

  12. Linkage of exposure and effects using genomics, proteomics and metabolomics in small fish models (presentation)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research project combines the use of whole organism endpoints, genomic, proteomic and metabolomic approaches, and computational modeling in a systems biology approach to 1) identify molecular indicators of exposure and biomarkers of effect to EDCs representing several modes/...

  13. Web-Based Arabidopsis Functional and Structural Genomics Resources

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yan; Last, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    As plant research moves to a “post-genomic” era, many diverse internet resources become available to the international research community. Arabidopsis thaliana, because of its small size, rapid life cycle and simple genome, has been a model system for decades, with much research funding and many projects devoted to creation of functional and structural genomics resources. Different types of data, including genome, transcriptome, proteome, phenome, metabolome and ionome are stored in these resources. In this chapter, a variety of genomics resources are introduced, with simple descriptions of how some can be accessed by laboratory researchers via the internet. PMID:22303243

  14. The Genomic and Proteomic Content of Cancer Cell-Derived Exosomes

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Meredith C.; Azorsa, David O.

    2011-01-01

    Exosomes are secreted membrane vesicles that have been proposed as an effective means to detect a variety of disease states, including cancer. The properties of exosomes, including stability in biological fluids, allow for their efficient isolation and make them an ideal vehicle for studies on early disease detection and evaluation. Much data has been collected over recent years regarding the messenger RNA, microRNA, and protein contents of exosomes. In addition, many studies have described the functional role that exosomes play in disease initiation and progression. Tumor cells have been shown to secrete exosomes, often in increased amounts compared to normal cells, and these exosomes can carry the genomic and proteomic signatures characteristic of the tumor cells from which they were derived. While these unique signatures make exosomes ideal for cancer detection, exosomes derived from cancer cells have also been shown to play a functional role in cancer progression. Here, we review the unique genomic and proteomic contents of exosomes originating from cancer cells as well as their functional effects to promote tumor progression. PMID:22649786

  15. Genomic and Proteomic Determinants of Lower Extremity Revascularization Failure: Rationale and Study Design

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Peter R.; O'Malley, Kerri A.; Feezor, Robert J.; Moldawer, Lyle L.; Seeger, James M.

    2007-01-01

    This translational research program applies a working model of advanced functional genomics/proteomics and bioinformatics to human peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). It is a multidisciplinary collaborative effort of clinicians, scientists, and statisticians with an advisory panel comprised of experts in inflammation biology, vascular biology, molecular genetics, bioinformatics, clinical trial design, and epidemiology. The proposed human initiative is designed to study 300 symptomatic patients with PAOD undergoing medical management with or without vascular intervention by either lower extremity angioplasty/stenting or vein graft bypass. The study aims to test the hypothesis that the systemic inflammatory response following vascular intervention influences the local milieu responsible for vascular repair and adaptation. The expectation is that this response is not uniform in all patients, but rather, is modulated by either preoperative genetic predisposition or post-procedure differential regulation of the innate immune response to injury that promotes a maladaptive phenotype leading to intervention failure. Therefore, some of these differences may be present and detectable pre-intervention amenable to class prediction and prospective treatment strategies, while others may be detectable in the early post-procedure period, prior to the onset of clinical failure, permitting interventions to prevent an adverse outcome. The combination of genomic/proteomic data together with functional and quality of life outcome measures to define a critical model for class prediction and analysis should lead to new knowledge about failure mechanisms of vascular intervention and new strategies to improve existing approaches to lower extremity revascularization. PMID:17544028

  16. Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) from genome to protein function, and vice versa.

    PubMed

    Karlsen, Odd A; Berven, Frode S; Bagstevold, June I; Larsen, Oivind; Jensen, Harald B

    2011-01-01

    The genome sequence of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), considered a model methylotroph, was published in 2004 [Ward, N., et al. (2004). Genomic insights into methanotrophy: the complete genome sequence of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath). PLoS Biol.2, e303]. In the postgenomic era, the challenge is to determine the gene function, and to this end, genomics must be complemented with proteomic approaches. This chapter describes some experimental and computational approaches we have used and developed for the exploration of the genome and proteome of M. capsulatus (Bath). PMID:21419915

  17. Annotation of the zebrafish genome through an integrated transcriptomic and proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Kelkar, Dhanashree S; Provost, Elayne; Chaerkady, Raghothama; Muthusamy, Babylakshmi; Manda, Srikanth S; Subbannayya, Tejaswini; Selvan, Lakshmi Dhevi N; Wang, Chieh-Huei; Datta, Keshava K; Woo, Sunghee; Dwivedi, Sutopa B; Renuse, Santosh; Getnet, Derese; Huang, Tai-Chung; Kim, Min-Sik; Pinto, Sneha M; Mitchell, Christopher J; Madugundu, Anil K; Kumar, Praveen; Sharma, Jyoti; Advani, Jayshree; Dey, Gourav; Balakrishnan, Lavanya; Syed, Nazia; Nanjappa, Vishalakshi; Subbannayya, Yashwanth; Goel, Renu; Prasad, T S Keshava; Bafna, Vineet; Sirdeshmukh, Ravi; Gowda, Harsha; Wang, Charles; Leach, Steven D; Pandey, Akhilesh

    2014-11-01

    Accurate annotation of protein-coding genes is one of the primary tasks upon the completion of whole genome sequencing of any organism. In this study, we used an integrated transcriptomic and proteomic strategy to validate and improve the existing zebrafish genome annotation. We undertook high-resolution mass-spectrometry-based proteomic profiling of 10 adult organs, whole adult fish body, and two developmental stages of zebrafish (SAT line), in addition to transcriptomic profiling of six organs. More than 7,000 proteins were identified from proteomic analyses, and ∼ 69,000 high-confidence transcripts were assembled from the RNA sequencing data. Approximately 15% of the transcripts mapped to intergenic regions, the majority of which are likely long non-coding RNAs. These high-quality transcriptomic and proteomic data were used to manually reannotate the zebrafish genome. We report the identification of 157 novel protein-coding genes. In addition, our data led to modification of existing gene structures including novel exons, changes in exon coordinates, changes in frame of translation, translation in annotated UTRs, and joining of genes. Finally, we discovered four instances of genome assembly errors that were supported by both proteomic and transcriptomic data. Our study shows how an integrative analysis of the transcriptome and the proteome can extend our understanding of even well-annotated genomes. PMID:25060758

  18. CGUG: in silico proteome and genome parsing tool for the determination of "core" and unique genes in the analysis of genomes up to ca. 1.9 Mb

    PubMed Central

    Mahadevan, Padmanabhan; King, John F; Seto, Donald

    2009-01-01

    Background Viruses and small-genome bacteria (~2 megabases and smaller) comprise a considerable population in the biosphere and are of interest to many researchers. These genomes are now sequenced at an unprecedented rate and require complementary computational tools to analyze. "CoreGenesUniqueGenes" (CGUG) is an in silico genome data mining tool that determines a "core" set of genes from two to five organisms with genomes in this size range. Core and unique genes may reflect similar niches and needs, and may be used in classifying organisms. Findings CGUG is available at as a web-based on-the-fly tool that performs iterative BLASTP analyses using a reference genome and up to four query genomes to provide a table of genes common to these genomes. The result is an in silico display of genomes and their proteomes, allowing for further analysis. CGUG can be used for "genome annotation by homology", as demonstrated with Chlamydophila and Francisella genomes. Conclusion CGUG is used to reanalyze the ICTV-based classifications of bacteriophages, to reconfirm long-standing relationships and to explore new classifications. These genomes have been problematic in the past, due largely to horizontal gene transfers. CGUG is validated as a tool for reannotating small genome bacteria using more up-to-date annotations by similarity or homology. These serve as an entry point for wet-bench experiments to confirm the functions of these "hypothetical" and "unknown" proteins. PMID:19706165

  19. Annotation of Protein Domains Reveals Remarkable Conservation in the Functional Make up of Proteomes Across Superkingdoms

    PubMed Central

    Nasir, Arshan; Naeem, Aisha; Khan, Muhammad Jawad; Lopez-Nicora, Horacio D.; Caetano-Anollés, Gustavo

    2011-01-01

    The functional repertoire of a cell is largely embodied in its proteome, the collection of proteins encoded in the genome of an organism. The molecular functions of proteins are the direct consequence of their structure and structure can be inferred from sequence using hidden Markov models of structural recognition. Here we analyze the functional annotation of protein domain structures in almost a thousand sequenced genomes, exploring the functional and structural diversity of proteomes. We find there is a remarkable conservation in the distribution of domains with respect to the molecular functions they perform in the three superkingdoms of life. In general, most of the protein repertoire is spent in functions related to metabolic processes but there are significant differences in the usage of domains for regulatory and extra-cellular processes both within and between superkingdoms. Our results support the hypotheses that the proteomes of superkingdom Eukarya evolved via genome expansion mechanisms that were directed towards innovating new domain architectures for regulatory and extra/intracellular process functions needed for example to maintain the integrity of multicellular structure or to interact with environmental biotic and abiotic factors (e.g., cell signaling and adhesion, immune responses, and toxin production). Proteomes of microbial superkingdoms Archaea and Bacteria retained fewer numbers of domains and maintained simple and smaller protein repertoires. Viruses appear to play an important role in the evolution of superkingdoms. We finally identify few genomic outliers that deviate significantly from the conserved functional design. These include Nanoarchaeum equitans, proteobacterial symbionts of insects with extremely reduced genomes, Tenericutes and Guillardia theta. These organisms spend most of their domains on information functions, including translation and transcription, rather than on metabolism and harbor a domain repertoire characteristic of

  20. Integrating sequence, evolution and functional genomics in regulatory genomics

    PubMed Central

    Vingron, Martin; Brazma, Alvis; Coulson, Richard; van Helden, Jacques; Manke, Thomas; Palin, Kimmo; Sand, Olivier; Ukkonen, Esko

    2009-01-01

    With genome analysis expanding from the study of genes to the study of gene regulation, 'regulatory genomics' utilizes sequence information, evolution and functional genomics measurements to unravel how regulatory information is encoded in the genome. PMID:19226437

  1. Screening and Functional Analyses of Nilaparvata lugens Salivary Proteome.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hai-Jian; Liu, Cheng-Wen; Huang, Xiao-Hui; Zhou, Xiang; Zhuo, Ji-Chong; Zhang, Chuan-Xi; Bao, Yan-Yuan

    2016-06-01

    Most phloem-feeding insects secrete gelling and watery saliva during the feeding process. However, the functions of salivary proteins are poorly understood. In this study, our purpose was to reveal the components and functions of saliva in a rice sap-sucking insect pest, Nilaparvata lugens. The accomplishment of the whole genome and transcriptome sequencing in N. lugens would be helpful for elucidating the gene information and expression specificity of the salivary proteins. In this study, we have, for the first time, identified the abundant protein components from gelling and watery saliva in a monophagous sap-sucking insect species through shotgun proteomic detection combined with the genomic and transcriptomic analysis. Eight unknown secreted proteins were limited to N. lugens, indicating species-specific saliva components. A group of annexin-like proteins first identified in the secreted saliva displayed different domain structure and expression specificity with typical insect annexins. Nineteen genes encoding five annexin-like proteins, six salivaps (salivary glands-specific proteins with unknown function), seven putative enzymes, and a mucin-like protein showed salivary gland-specific expression pattern, suggesting their importance in the physiological mechanisms of salivary gland and saliva in this insect species. RNA interference revealed that salivap-3 is a key protein factor in forming the salivary sheath, while annexin-like5 and carbonic anhydrase are indispensable for N. lugens survival. These novel findings will greatly help to clarify the detailed functions of salivary proteins in the physiological process of N. lugens and elucidate the interaction mechanisms between N. lugens and the rice plant, which could provide important targets for the future management of rice pests. PMID:27142481

  2. Genomic and Proteomic Biomarkers for Cancer: A Multitude of Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Tainsky, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Biomarkers are molecular indicators of a biological status, and as biochemical species can be assayed to evaluate the presence of cancer and therapeutic interventions. Through a variety of mechanisms cancer cells provide the biomarker material for their own detection. Biomarkers may be detectable in the blood, other body fluids, or tissues. The expectation is that the level of an informative biomarker is related to the specific type of disease present in the body. Biomarkers have potential both as diagnostic indicators and monitors of the effectiveness of clinical interventions. Biomarkers are also able to stratify cancer patients to the most appropriate treatment. Effective biomarkers for the early detection of cancer should provide a patient with a better outcome which in turn will translate into more efficient delivery of healthcare. Technologies for the early detection of cancer have resulted in reductions in disease-associated mortalities from cancers that are otherwise deadly if allowed to progress. Such screening technologies have proven that early detection will decrease the morbidity and mortality from cancer. An emerging theme in biomarker research is the expectation that panels of biomarker analytes rather than single markers will be needed to have sufficient sensitivity and specificity for the presymptomatic detection of cancer. Biomarkers may provide prognostic information of disease enabling interventions using targeted therapeutic agents as well as course-corrections in cancer treatment. Novel genomic, proteomic and metabolomic technologies are being used to discover and validate tumor biomarkers individually and in panels. PMID:19406210

  3. Encapsulated in silica: genome, proteome and physiology of the thermophilic bacterium Anoxybacillus flavithermus WK1

    PubMed Central

    Saw, Jimmy H; Mountain, Bruce W; Feng, Lu; Omelchenko, Marina V; Hou, Shaobin; Saito, Jennifer A; Stott, Matthew B; Li, Dan; Zhao, Guang; Wu, Junli; Galperin, Michael Y; Koonin, Eugene V; Makarova, Kira S; Wolf, Yuri I; Rigden, Daniel J; Dunfield, Peter F; Wang, Lei; Alam, Maqsudul

    2008-01-01

    Background Gram-positive bacteria of the genus Anoxybacillus have been found in diverse thermophilic habitats, such as geothermal hot springs and manure, and in processed foods such as gelatin and milk powder. Anoxybacillus flavithermus is a facultatively anaerobic bacterium found in super-saturated silica solutions and in opaline silica sinter. The ability of A. flavithermus to grow in super-saturated silica solutions makes it an ideal subject to study the processes of sinter formation, which might be similar to the biomineralization processes that occurred at the dawn of life. Results We report here the complete genome sequence of A. flavithermus strain WK1, isolated from the waste water drain at the Wairakei geothermal power station in New Zealand. It consists of a single chromosome of 2,846,746 base pairs and is predicted to encode 2,863 proteins. In silico genome analysis identified several enzymes that could be involved in silica adaptation and biofilm formation, and their predicted functions were experimentally validated in vitro. Proteomic analysis confirmed the regulation of biofilm-related proteins and crucial enzymes for the synthesis of long-chain polyamines as constituents of silica nanospheres. Conclusions Microbial fossils preserved in silica and silica sinters are excellent objects for studying ancient life, a new paleobiological frontier. An integrated analysis of the A. flavithermus genome and proteome provides the first glimpse of metabolic adaptation during silicification and sinter formation. Comparative genome analysis suggests an extensive gene loss in the Anoxybacillus/Geobacillus branch after its divergence from other bacilli. PMID:19014707

  4. Functional Genomics Tools for Papaya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the genome of papaya (Carica papaya L.) sequenced, the study of gene function is becoming an increasing priority. Our research is to develop an RNA-induced gene silencing tool for the study of functional genomics in papaya. We employed agrobacterium leaf infiltration to induce PTGS in '-glucuro...

  5. Proteomics-inferred genome typing (PIGT) demonstrates inter-populationrecombination as a strategy for environmental adaptation

    SciTech Connect

    Denef, Vincent; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Shah, Manesh B; Abraham, Paul E; Lefsrud, Mark G; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2009-01-01

    Analyses of ecological and evolutionary processes that shape microbial consortia are facilitated by comprehensive studies of ecosystems with low species richness. In the current study we evaluated the role of recombination in altering the fitness of chemoautotrophic bacteria in their natural environment. Proteomics-inferred genome typing (PIGT) was used to determine the genomic make-up of Leptospirillum group II populations in 27 biofilms sampled from six locations in the Richmond Mine acid mine drainage system (Iron Mountain, CA) over a four-year period. We observed six distinct genotypes that are recombinants comprised of segments from two parental genotypes. Community genomic analyses revealed additional low abundance recombinant variants. The dominance of some genotypes despite a larger available genome pool, and patterns of spatiotemporal distribution within the ecosystem, indicate selection for distinct recombinants. Genes involved in motility, signal transduction and transport were overrepresented in the tens to hundreds of kilobase recombinant blocks, whereas core metabolic functions were significantly underrepresented. Our findings demonstrate the power of PIGT and reveal that recombination is a mechanism for fine-scale adaptation in this system.

  6. Protein intrinsic disorder within the Potyvirus genus: from proteome-wide analysis to functional annotation.

    PubMed

    Charon, Justine; Theil, Sébastien; Nicaise, Valérie; Michon, Thierry

    2016-02-01

    Within proteins, intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs) are devoid of stable secondary and tertiary structures under physiological conditions and rather exist as dynamic ensembles of inter-converting conformers. Although ubiquitous in all domains of life, the intrinsic disorder content is highly variable in viral genomes. Over the years, functional annotations of disordered regions at the scale of the whole proteome have been conducted for several animal viruses. But to date, similar studies applied to plant viruses are still missing. Based on disorder prediction tools combined with annotation programs and evolutionary studies, we analyzed the intrinsic disorder content in Potyvirus, using a 10-species dataset representative of this genus diversity. In this paper, we revealed that: (i) the Potyvirus proteome displays high disorder content, (ii) disorder is conserved during Potyvirus evolution, suggesting a functional advantage of IDRs, (iii) IDRs evolve faster than ordered regions, and (iv) IDRs may be associated with major biological functions required for the Potyvirus cycle. Notably, the proteins P1, Coat protein (CP) and Viral genome-linked protein (VPg) display a high content of conserved disorder, enriched in specific motifs mimicking eukaryotic functional modules and suggesting strategies of host machinery hijacking. In these three proteins, IDRs are particularly conserved despite their high amino acid polymorphism, indicating a link to adaptive processes. Through this comprehensive study, we further investigate the biological relevance of intrinsic disorder in Potyvirus biology and we propose a functional annotation of potyviral proteome IDRs. PMID:26699268

  7. Genomic and Proteomic Studies on Plesiomonas shigelloides Lipopolysaccharide Core Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Aquilini, Eleonora; Merino, Susana; Regué, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    We report here the identification of waa clusters with the genes required for the biosynthesis of the core lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of two Plesiomonas shigelloides strains. Both P. shigelloides waa clusters shared all of the genes besides the ones flanking waaL. In both strains, all of the genes were found in the waa gene cluster, although one common core biosynthetic gene (wapG) was found in a different chromosome location outside the cluster. Since P. shigelloides and Klebsiella pneumoniae share a core LPS carbohydrate backbone extending up at least to the second outer-core residue, the functions of the common P. shigelloides genes were elucidated by genetic complementation studies using well-defined K. pneumoniae mutants. The function of strain-specific inner- or outer-core genes was identified by using as a surrogate acceptor LPS from three well-defined K. pneumoniae core LPS mutants. Using this strategy, we were able to assign a proteomic function to all of the P. shigelloides waa genes identified in the two strains encoding six new glycosyltransferases (WapA, -B, -C, -D, -F, and -G). P. shigelloides demonstrated an important variety of core LPS structures, despite being a single species of the genus, as well as high homologous recombination in housekeeping genes. PMID:24244003

  8. Stepwise Evolution of Coral Biomineralization Revealed with Genome-Wide Proteomics and Transcriptomics.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Takeshi; Yamada, Lixy; Shinzato, Chuya; Sawada, Hitoshi; Satoh, Noriyuki

    2016-01-01

    Despite the importance of stony corals in many research fields related to global issues, such as marine ecology, climate change, paleoclimatogy, and metazoan evolution, very little is known about the evolutionary origin of coral skeleton formation. In order to investigate the evolution of coral biomineralization, we have identified skeletal organic matrix proteins (SOMPs) in the skeletal proteome of the scleractinian coral, Acropora digitifera, for which large genomic and transcriptomic datasets are available. Scrupulous gene annotation was conducted based on comparisons of functional domain structures among metazoans. We found that SOMPs include not only coral-specific proteins, but also protein families that are widely conserved among cnidarians and other metazoans. We also identified several conserved transmembrane proteins in the skeletal proteome. Gene expression analysis revealed that expression of these conserved genes continues throughout development. Therefore, these genes are involved not only skeleton formation, but also in basic cellular functions, such as cell-cell interaction and signaling. On the other hand, genes encoding coral-specific proteins, including extracellular matrix domain-containing proteins, galaxins, and acidic proteins, were prominently expressed in post-settlement stages, indicating their role in skeleton formation. Taken together, the process of coral skeleton formation is hypothesized as: 1) formation of initial extracellular matrix between epithelial cells and substrate, employing pre-existing transmembrane proteins; 2) additional extracellular matrix formation using novel proteins that have emerged by domain shuffling and rapid molecular evolution and; 3) calcification controlled by coral-specific SOMPs. PMID:27253604

  9. Stepwise Evolution of Coral Biomineralization Revealed with Genome-Wide Proteomics and Transcriptomics

    PubMed Central

    Sawada, Hitoshi; Satoh, Noriyuki

    2016-01-01

    Despite the importance of stony corals in many research fields related to global issues, such as marine ecology, climate change, paleoclimatogy, and metazoan evolution, very little is known about the evolutionary origin of coral skeleton formation. In order to investigate the evolution of coral biomineralization, we have identified skeletal organic matrix proteins (SOMPs) in the skeletal proteome of the scleractinian coral, Acropora digitifera, for which large genomic and transcriptomic datasets are available. Scrupulous gene annotation was conducted based on comparisons of functional domain structures among metazoans. We found that SOMPs include not only coral-specific proteins, but also protein families that are widely conserved among cnidarians and other metazoans. We also identified several conserved transmembrane proteins in the skeletal proteome. Gene expression analysis revealed that expression of these conserved genes continues throughout development. Therefore, these genes are involved not only skeleton formation, but also in basic cellular functions, such as cell-cell interaction and signaling. On the other hand, genes encoding coral-specific proteins, including extracellular matrix domain-containing proteins, galaxins, and acidic proteins, were prominently expressed in post-settlement stages, indicating their role in skeleton formation. Taken together, the process of coral skeleton formation is hypothesized as: 1) formation of initial extracellular matrix between epithelial cells and substrate, employing pre-existing transmembrane proteins; 2) additional extracellular matrix formation using novel proteins that have emerged by domain shuffling and rapid molecular evolution and; 3) calcification controlled by coral-specific SOMPs. PMID:27253604

  10. ProtoBug: functional families from the complete proteomes of insects

    PubMed Central

    Rappoport, Nadav; Linial, Michal

    2015-01-01

    ProtoBug (http://www.protobug.cs.huji.ac.il) is a database and resource of protein families in Arthropod genomes. ProtoBug platform presents the relatedness of complete proteomes from 17 insects as well as a proteome of the crustacean, Daphnia pulex. The represented proteomes from insects include louse, bee, beetle, ants, flies and mosquitoes. Based on an unsupervised clustering method, protein sequences were clustered into a hierarchical tree, called ProtoBug. ProtoBug covers about 300 000 sequences that are partitioned to families. At the default setting, all sequences are partitioned to ∼20 000 families (excluding singletons). From the species perspective, each of the 18 analysed proteomes is composed of 5000–8000 families. In the regime of the advanced operational mode, the ProtoBug provides rich navigation capabilities for touring the hierarchy of the families at any selected resolution. A proteome viewer shows the composition of sequences from any of the 18 analysed proteomes. Using functional annotation from an expert system (Pfam) we assigned domains, families and repeats by 4400 keywords that cover 73% of the sequences. A strict inference protocol is applied for expanding the functional knowledge. Consequently, secured annotations were associated with 81% of the proteins, and with 70% of the families (≥10 proteins each). ProtoBug is a database and webtool with rich visualization and navigation tools. The properties of each family in relation to other families in the ProtoBug tree, and in view of the taxonomy composition are reported. Furthermore, the user can paste its own sequences to find relatedness to any of the ProtoBug families. The database and the navigation tools are the basis for functional discoveries that span 350 million years of evolution of Arthropods. ProtoBug is available with no restriction at: www.protobug.cs.huji.ac.il. Database URL: www.protobug.cs.huji.ac.il. PMID:25911153

  11. ProtoBug: functional families from the complete proteomes of insects.

    PubMed

    Rappoport, Nadav; Linial, Michal

    2015-01-01

    ProtoBug (http://www.protobug.cs.huji.ac.il) is a database and resource of protein families in Arthropod genomes. ProtoBug platform presents the relatedness of complete proteomes from 17 insects as well as a proteome of the crustacean, Daphnia pulex. The represented proteomes from insects include louse, bee, beetle, ants, flies and mosquitoes. Based on an unsupervised clustering method, protein sequences were clustered into a hierarchical tree, called ProtoBug. ProtoBug covers about 300,000 sequences that are partitioned to families. At the default setting, all sequences are partitioned to ∼20,000 families (excluding singletons). From the species perspective, each of the 18 analysed proteomes is composed of 5000-8000 families. In the regime of the advanced operational mode, the ProtoBug provides rich navigation capabilities for touring the hierarchy of the families at any selected resolution. A proteome viewer shows the composition of sequences from any of the 18 analysed proteomes. Using functional annotation from an expert system (Pfam) we assigned domains, families and repeats by 4400 keywords that cover 73% of the sequences. A strict inference protocol is applied for expanding the functional knowledge. Consequently, secured annotations were associated with 81% of the proteins, and with 70% of the families (≥10 proteins each). ProtoBug is a database and webtool with rich visualization and navigation tools. The properties of each family in relation to other families in the ProtoBug tree, and in view of the taxonomy composition are reported. Furthermore, the user can paste its own sequences to find relatedness to any of the ProtoBug families. The database and the navigation tools are the basis for functional discoveries that span 350 million years of evolution of Arthropods. ProtoBug is available with no restriction at: www.protobug.cs.huji.ac.il. Database URL: www.protobug.cs.huji.ac.il PMID:25911153

  12. Mass spectrometry-based functional proteomics of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1.

    PubMed

    Pic, Emilie; Gagné, Jean-Philippe; Poirier, Guy G

    2011-12-01

    PARP-1 is an abundant nuclear protein that plays an essential role in the regulation of many genome integrity and chromatin-based processes, such as DNA repair, replication or transcriptional regulation. PARP-1 modulates the function of chromatin and nuclear proteins through several poly(ADP-ribose) (pADPr)-dependent pathways. Aside from the clearly established role of PARP-1 in the maintenance of genome stability, PARP-1 also emerged as an important regulator that links chromatin functions with extranuclear compartments. pADPr signaling has notably been found to be responsible for PARP-1-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death. Defining the mechanisms that govern the intrinsic functions of PARP-1 is fundamental to the understanding of signaling networks regulated by pADPr. The emergence of mass spectrometry-based proteomics and its broad applications in the study of biological systems represents an outstanding opportunity to widen our knowledge of the functional spectrum of PARP-1. In this article, we summarize various PARP-1 targeted proteomics studies and proteome-wide analyses that shed light on its protein interaction partners, expression levels and post-translational modifications. PMID:22087659

  13. Moving from unsequenced to sequenced genome: Reanalysis of the proteome of Leishmania donovani☆

    PubMed Central

    Nirujogi, Raja Sekhar; Pawar, Harsh; Renuse, Santosh; Kumar, Praveen; Chavan, Sandip; Sathe, Gajanan; Sharma, Jyoti; Khobragade, Sweta; Pande, Janhavee; Modak, Bhakti; Prasad, T.S. Keshava; Harsha, H.C.; Patole, Milind S.; Pandey, Akhilesh

    2015-01-01

    The kinetoplastid protozoan parasite, Leishmania donovani, is the causative agent of kala azar or visceral leishmaniasis. Kala azar is a severe form of leishmaniasis that is fatal in the majority of untreated cases. Studies on proteomic analysis of L. donovani thus far have been carried out using homology-based identification based on related Leishmania species (L. infantum, L. major and L. braziliensis) whose genomes have been sequenced. Recently, the genome of L. donovani was fully sequenced and the data became publicly available. We took advantage of the availability of its genomic sequence to carry out a more accurate proteogenomic analysis of L. donovani proteome using our previously generated dataset. This resulted in identification of 17,504 unique peptides upon database-dependent search against the annotated proteins in L. donovani. These peptides were assigned to 3999 unique proteins in L. donovani. 2296 proteins were identified in both the life stages of L. donovani, while 613 and 1090 proteins were identified only from amastigote and promastigote stages, respectively. The proteomic data was also searched against six-frame translated L. donovani genome, which led to 255 genome search-specific peptides (GSSPs) resulting in identification of 20 novel genes and correction of 40 existing gene models in L. donovani. Biological significance Leishmania donovani genome sequencing was recently completed, which permitted us to use a proteogenomic approach to map its proteome and to carry out annotation of it genome. This resulted in mapping of 50% (3999 proteins) of L. donovani proteome. Our study identified 20 novel genes previously not predicted from the L. donovani genome in addition to correcting annotations of 40 existing gene models. The identified proteins may help in better understanding of stage-specific protein expression profiles in L. donovani and to identify novel stage-specific drug targets in L. donovani which could be used in the treatment of

  14. Proteomic and genomic analysis of PITX2 interacting and regulating networks

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yue; Huang, Kan; Boskovic, Goran; Dementieva, Yulia; Denvir, James; Primerano, Donald A.; Zhu, Guo-Zhang

    2009-01-01

    PITX2 is a homeodomain transcription factor that has a substantial role in cell proliferation and differentiation in various tissues. In this report, we have conducted a systematic study, using proteomic and genomic approaches, to characterize PITX2-interacting proteins and PITX2-regulating genes. We identified four novel PITX2-associated protein partners YB-1, hnRNP K, nucleolin and hnRNP U in mass spectrometry analysis. We also found that overexpression of PITX2 upregulated 868 genes (two-fold to twenty five-fold) and downregulated 191 genes (twofold to fifteen fold) in DNA microarray analysis. These data provide an insightful perspective for further studying PITX2 function and mechanism of action. PMID:19174163

  15. Application of Functional Genomics for Bovine Respiratory Disease Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Aswathy N.; Epperson, William B.; Nanduri, Bindu

    2015-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most common economically important disease affecting cattle. For developing accurate diagnostics that can predict disease susceptibility/resistance and stratification, it is necessary to identify the molecular mechanisms that underlie BRD. To study the complex interactions among the bovine host and the multitude of viral and bacterial pathogens, as well as the environmental factors associated with BRD etiology, genome-scale high-throughput functional genomics methods such as microarrays, RNA-seq, and proteomics are helpful. In this review, we summarize the progress made in our understanding of BRD using functional genomics approaches. We also discuss some of the available bioinformatics resources for analyzing high-throughput data, in the context of biological pathways and molecular interactions. Although resources for studying host response to infection are avail-able, the corresponding information is lacking for majority of BRD pathogens, impeding progress in identifying diagnostic signatures for BRD using functional genomics approaches. PMID:26526746

  16. Application of Functional Genomics for Bovine Respiratory Disease Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Rai, Aswathy N; Epperson, William B; Nanduri, Bindu

    2015-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most common economically important disease affecting cattle. For developing accurate diagnostics that can predict disease susceptibility/resistance and stratification, it is necessary to identify the molecular mechanisms that underlie BRD. To study the complex interactions among the bovine host and the multitude of viral and bacterial pathogens, as well as the environmental factors associated with BRD etiology, genome-scale high-throughput functional genomics methods such as microarrays, RNA-seq, and proteomics are helpful. In this review, we summarize the progress made in our understanding of BRD using functional genomics approaches. We also discuss some of the available bioinformatics resources for analyzing high-throughput data, in the context of biological pathways and molecular interactions. Although resources for studying host response to infection are avail-able, the corresponding information is lacking for majority of BRD pathogens, impeding progress in identifying diagnostic signatures for BRD using functional genomics approaches. PMID:26526746

  17. Strain-resolved microbial community proteomics reveals simultaneous aerobic and anaerobic function during gastrointestinal tract colonization of a preterm infant

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Brandon; Mueller, R. S.; Young, Jacque C.; Morowitz, Michael J.; Robert L. Hettich; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2015-07-01

    While there has been growing interest in the gut microbiome in recent years, it remains unclear whether closely related species and strains have similar or distinct functional roles and if organisms capable of both aerobic and anaerobic growth do so simultaneously. To investigate these questions, we implemented a high-throughput mass spectrometry-based proteomics approach to identify proteins in fecal samples collected on days of life 13 21 from an infant born at 28 weeks gestation. No prior studies have coupled strain-resolved community metagenomics to proteomics for such a purpose. Sequences were manually curated to resolve the genomes of two strains of Citrobacter that were present during the later stage of colonization. Proteome extracts from fecal samples were processed via a nano-2D-LC-MS/MS and peptides were identified based on information predicted from the genome sequences for the dominant organisms, Serratia and the two Citrobacter strains. These organisms are facultative anaerobes, and proteomic information indicates the utilization of both aerobic and anaerobic metabolisms throughout the time series. This may indicate growth in distinct niches within the gastrointestinal tract. We uncovered differences in the physiology of coexisting Citrobacter strains, including differences in motility and chemotaxis functions. Additionally, for both Citrobacter strains we resolved a community-essential role in vitamin metabolism and a predominant role in propionate production. Finally, in this case study we detected differences between genome abundance and activity levels for the dominant populations. This underlines the value in layering proteomic information over genetic potential.

  18. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Mitochondrial Proteins Reveals Pro-Survival Mechanisms in the Perpetuation of Radiation-Induced Genomic Instability

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Stefani N.; Waters, Katrina M.; Morgan, William F.; Yang, Austin; Baulch, Janet E.

    2012-07-26

    Radiation induced genomic instability is a well-studied phenomenon that is measured as mitotically heritable genetic alterations observed in the progeny of an irradiated cell. The mechanisms that perpetuate this instability are unclear, however, a role for chronic oxidative stress has consistently been demonstrated. In the chromosomally unstable LS12 cell line, oxidative stress and genomic instability were correlated with mitochondrial dysfunction. To clarify this mitochondrial dysfunction and gain insight into the mechanisms underlying radiation induced genomic instability we have evaluated the mitochondrial sub-proteome and performed quantitative mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of LS12 cells. Of 98 quantified mitochondrial proteins, 17 met criteria for fold changes and reproducibility; and 11 were statistically significant in comparison with the stable parental GM10115 cell line. Previous observations implicated defects in the electron transport chain (ETC) in the LS12 cell mitochondrial dysfunction. Proteomic analysis supports these observations, demonstrating significantly reduced levels of mitochondrial cytochrome c, the intermediary between complexes III and IV of the ETC. Results also suggest that LS12 cells compensate for ETC dysfunction and oxidative stress through increased levels of tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes and up-regulation of proteins that protect against oxidative stress and apoptosis. More than one cellular defect is likely to contribute to the genomic instability phenotype. These data suggest that LS12 cells have adapted mechanisms that allow survival under sub-optimal conditions of oxidative stress and compromised mitochondrial function to perpetuate genomic instability.

  19. [FUNCTIONAL DIFFERENTIATION IN BRYOZOAN COLONY: A PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS].

    PubMed

    Kutyumov, V A; Maltseva, A L; Kotenko, N; Ostrovsky, A N

    2016-01-01

    Bryozoans are typical modular organisms. They consist of repetitive structural units, the zooids. Bryozoan colonies grow by zooidal budding, with the distribution pattern of the budding loci underlying the diversity of colony forms. Budding is usually restricted to the zooids at the periphery of the colony, which form a "growing edge" or local terminal growth zones. Non-budding parts of the colony can be functionally subdivided, too. In many species colonies consists of regular, often repetitive zones of feeding and non-feeding modules, associated with a periodical degeneration and regeneration of the polypide, retractile tentacle crown with a gut and the accompanying musculature. So, there is functional differentiation in bryozoan colonies but its mechanisms are unknown. Presumably, budding and/or polypide recycling in different colony parts are induced or inhibited by certain determinants of functional specialization. An effective tool of their identification is the comparison of proteomes of functionally different zones. Here we report the results of proteomic analysis of three bryozoan species from the White Sea, which have a different colony form: Flustrellidra hispida, Terminoflustra membranaceotruncata and Securiflustra securifrons. Using differential two-dimensional electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), we compared proteomes of the growing edge and the zones consisting of feeding and non-feeding zooids in these species. We estimated the overall proteome variability, revealed proteins whose relative abundance gradually changed along the proximal-distal colony axis and suggested that they might be involved in the functional differentiation of the colony. PMID:27220253

  20. VESPA: Software to Facilitate Genomic Annotation of Prokaryotic Organisms Through Integration of Proteomic and Transcriptomic Data

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Elena S.; McCue, Lee Ann; Rutledge, Alexandra C.; Jensen, Jeffrey L.; Walker, Julia; Kobold, Mark A.; Webb, Samantha R.; Payne, Samuel H.; Ansong, Charles; Adkins, Joshua N.; Cannon, William R.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.

    2012-04-25

    Visual Exploration and Statistics to Promote Annotation (VESPA) is an interactive visual analysis software tool that facilitates the discovery of structural mis-annotations in prokaryotic genomes. VESPA integrates high-throughput peptide-centric proteomics data and oligo-centric or RNA-Seq transcriptomics data into a genomic context. The data may be interrogated via visual analysis across multiple levels of genomic resolution, linked searches, exports and interaction with BLAST to rapidly identify location of interest within the genome and evaluate potential mis-annotations.

  1. Single-Nucleotide Variations in Cardiac Arrhythmias: Prospects for Genomics and Proteomics Based Biomarker Discovery and Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Abunimer, Ayman; Smith, Krista; Wu, Tsung-Jung; Lam, Phuc; Simonyan, Vahan; Mazumder, Raja

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are a large contributor to causes of early death in developed countries. Some of these conditions, such as sudden cardiac death and atrial fibrillation, stem from arrhythmias—a spectrum of conditions with abnormal electrical activity in the heart. Genome-wide association studies can identify single nucleotide variations (SNVs) that may predispose individuals to developing acquired forms of arrhythmias. Through manual curation of published genome-wide association studies, we have collected a comprehensive list of 75 SNVs associated with cardiac arrhythmias. Ten of the SNVs result in amino acid changes and can be used in proteomic-based detection methods. In an effort to identify additional non-synonymous mutations that affect the proteome, we analyzed the post-translational modification S-nitrosylation, which is known to affect cardiac arrhythmias. We identified loss of seven known S-nitrosylation sites due to non-synonymous single nucleotide variations (nsSNVs). For predicted nitrosylation sites we found 1429 proteins where the sites are modified due to nsSNV. Analysis of the predicted S-nitrosylation dataset for over- or under-representation (compared to the complete human proteome) of pathways and functional elements shows significant statistical over-representation of the blood coagulation pathway. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis displays statistically over-represented terms related to muscle contraction, receptor activity, motor activity, cystoskeleton components, and microtubule activity. Through the genomic and proteomic context of SNVs and S-nitrosylation sites presented in this study, researchers can look for variation that can predispose individuals to cardiac arrhythmias. Such attempts to elucidate mechanisms of arrhythmia thereby add yet another useful parameter in predicting susceptibility for cardiac diseases. PMID:24705329

  2. Proteomic profiling reveals insights into Triticeae stigma development and function.

    PubMed

    Nazemof, Nazila; Couroux, Philippe; Rampitsch, Christof; Xing, Tim; Robert, Laurian S

    2014-11-01

    To our knowledge, this study represents the first high-throughput characterization of a stigma proteome in the Triticeae. A total of 2184 triticale mature stigma proteins were identified using three different gel-based approaches combined with mass spectrometry. The great majority of these proteins are described in a Triticeae stigma for the first time. These results revealed many proteins likely to play important roles in stigma development and pollen-stigma interactions, as well as protection against biotic and abiotic stresses. Quantitative comparison of the triticale stigma transcriptome and proteome showed poor correlation, highlighting the importance of having both types of analysis. This work makes a significant contribution towards the elucidation of the Triticeae stigma proteome and provides novel insights into its role in stigma development and function. PMID:25170101

  3. Proteomic profiling reveals insights into Triticeae stigma development and function

    PubMed Central

    Nazemof, Nazila; Couroux, Philippe; Rampitsch, Christof; Xing, Tim; Robert, Laurian S.

    2014-01-01

    To our knowledge, this study represents the first high-throughput characterization of a stigma proteome in the Triticeae. A total of 2184 triticale mature stigma proteins were identified using three different gel-based approaches combined with mass spectrometry. The great majority of these proteins are described in a Triticeae stigma for the first time. These results revealed many proteins likely to play important roles in stigma development and pollen–stigma interactions, as well as protection against biotic and abiotic stresses. Quantitative comparison of the triticale stigma transcriptome and proteome showed poor correlation, highlighting the importance of having both types of analysis. This work makes a significant contribution towards the elucidation of the Triticeae stigma proteome and provides novel insights into its role in stigma development and function. PMID:25170101

  4. The Eukaryotic Flagellum Makes the Day: Novel and Unforeseen Roles Uncovered After Post-Genomics and Proteomics Data

    PubMed Central

    Diniz, Michely C; Pacheco, Ana Carolina L; Farias, Kaio M; de Oliveira, Diana M

    2012-01-01

    This review will summarize and discuss the current biological understanding of the motile eukaryotic flagellum, as posed out by recent advances enabled by post-genomics and proteomics approaches. The organelle, which is crucial for motility, survival, differentiation, reproduction, division and feeding, among other activities, of many eukaryotes, is a great example of a natural nanomachine assembled mostly by proteins (around 350-650 of them) that have been conserved throughout eukaryotic evolution. Flagellar proteins are discussed in terms of their arrangement on to the axoneme, the canonical “9+2” microtubule pattern, and also motor and sensorial elements that have been detected by recent proteomic analyses in organisms such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, sea urchin, and trypanosomatids. Such findings can be remarkably matched up to important discoveries in vertebrate and mammalian types as diverse as sperm cells, ciliated kidney epithelia, respiratory and oviductal cilia, and neuro-epithelia, among others. Here we will focus on some exciting work regarding eukaryotic flagellar proteins, particularly using the flagellar proteome of C. reinhardtii as a reference map for exploring motility in function, dysfunction and pathogenic flagellates. The reference map for the eukaryotic flagellar proteome consists of 652 proteins that include known structural and intraflagellar transport (IFT) proteins, less well-characterized signal transduction proteins and flagellar associated proteins (FAPs), besides almost two hundred unannotated conserved proteins, which lately have been the subject of intense investigation and of our present examination. PMID:22708495

  5. Advances in genomic- and proteomic-based methods to study food-borne pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, a number of “omics” technologies, including genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and others are being utilized to enhance the understanding of the complexities of pathogen behavior at the molecular level and for the development of improved pathogen detection and typing systems. Gene...

  6. GENOMIC AND PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS OF SURROGATE TISSUES FOR ASSESSING TOXIC EXPOSURES AND DISEASE STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genomic and Proteomic Analysis of Surrogate Tissues for Assessing Toxic Exposures and Disease States
    David J. Dix and John C. Rockett
    Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, USEPA, ...

  7. USING GENOMICS AND PROTEOMICS TO DIAGNOSE EXPOSURE OF AQUATIC ORGANISMS TO ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Advances in molecular biology allow the use of cutting-edge genomic and proteomic tools to assess the effects of environmental contaminants on aquatic organisms. Techniques are available to measure changes in expression of single genes (quantitative real-time PCR) or to measure g...

  8. The Changing Face of Scientific Discourse: Analysis of Genomic and Proteomic Database Usage and Acceptance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Cecelia

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the growth in use and acceptance of Web-based genomic and proteomic databases (GPD) in scholarly communication. Confirms the role of GPD in the scientific literature cycle, suggests GPD are a storage and retrieval mechanism for molecular biology information, and recommends that existing models of scientific communication be updated to…

  9. A DATABASE FOR TRACKING TOXICOGENOMIC SAMPLES AND PROCEDURES WITH GENOMIC, PROTEOMIC AND METABONOMIC COMPONENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Database for Tracking Toxicogenomic Samples and Procedures with Genomic, Proteomic and Metabonomic Components
    Wenjun Bao1, Jennifer Fostel2, Michael D. Waters2, B. Alex Merrick2, Drew Ekman3, Mitchell Kostich4, Judith Schmid1, David Dix1
    Office of Research and Developmen...

  10. High-Throughput Cloning and Expression Library Creation for Functional Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Festa, Fernanda; Steel, Jason; Bian, Xiaofang; Labaer, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    The study of protein function usually requires the use of a cloned version of the gene for protein expression and functional assays. This strategy is particular important when the information available regarding function is limited. The functional characterization of the thousands of newly identified proteins revealed by genomics requires faster methods than traditional single gene experiments, creating the need for fast, flexible and reliable cloning systems. These collections of open reading frame (ORF) clones can be coupled with high-throughput proteomics platforms, such as protein microarrays and cell-based assays, to answer biological questions. In this tutorial we provide the background for DNA cloning, discuss the major high-throughput cloning systems (Gateway® Technology, Flexi® Vector Systems, and Creator™ DNA Cloning System) and compare them side-by-side. We also report an example of high-throughput cloning study and its application in functional proteomics. This Tutorial is part of the International Proteomics Tutorial Programme (IPTP12). Details can be found at http://www.proteomicstutorials.org. PMID:23457047

  11. Human genome protein function database.

    PubMed Central

    Sorenson, D. K.

    1991-01-01

    A database which focuses on the normal functions of the currently-known protein products of the Human Genome was constructed. Information is stored as text, figures, tables, and diagrams. The program contains built-in functions to modify, update, categorize, hypertext, search, create reports, and establish links to other databases. The semi-automated categorization feature of the database program was used to classify these proteins in terms of biomedical functions. PMID:1807638

  12. Applied proteomics: mitochondrial proteins and effect on function.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Mary F; Melov, Simon

    2002-03-01

    The identification of a majority of the polypeptides in mitochondria would be invaluable because they play crucial and diverse roles in many cellular processes and diseases. The endogenous production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a major limiter of life as illustrated by studies in which the transgenic overexpression in invertebrates of catalytic antioxidant enzymes results in increased lifespans. Mitochondria have received considerable attention as a principal source---and target---of ROS. Mitochondrial oxidative stress has been implicated in heart disease including myocardial preconditioning, ischemia/reperfusion, and other pathologies. In addition, oxidative stress in the mitochondria is associated with the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, prion diseases, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) as well as aging itself. The rapidly emerging field of proteomics can provide powerful strategies for the characterization of mitochondrial proteins. Current approaches to mitochondrial proteomics include the creation of detailed catalogues of the protein components in a single sample or the identification of differentially expressed proteins in diseased or physiologically altered samples versus a reference control. It is clear that for any proteomics approach prefractionation of complex protein mixtures is essential to facilitate the identification of low-abundance proteins because the dynamic range of protein abundance within cells has been estimated to be as high as 10(7). The opportunities for identification of proteins directly involved in diseases associated with or caused by mitochondrial dysfunction are compelling. Future efforts will focus on linking genomic array information to actual protein levels in mitochondria. PMID:11884366

  13. AgBase: a functional genomics resource for agriculture

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Fiona M; Wang, Nan; Magee, G Bryce; Nanduri, Bindu; Lawrence, Mark L; Camon, Evelyn B; Barrell, Daniel G; Hill, David P; Dolan, Mary E; Williams, W Paul; Luthe, Dawn S; Bridges, Susan M; Burgess, Shane C

    2006-01-01

    Background Many agricultural species and their pathogens have sequenced genomes and more are in progress. Agricultural species provide food, fiber, xenotransplant tissues, biopharmaceuticals and biomedical models. Moreover, many agricultural microorganisms are human zoonoses. However, systems biology from functional genomics data is hindered in agricultural species because agricultural genome sequences have relatively poor structural and functional annotation and agricultural research communities are smaller with limited funding compared to many model organism communities. Description To facilitate systems biology in these traditionally agricultural species we have established "AgBase", a curated, web-accessible, public resource for structural and functional annotation of agricultural genomes. The AgBase database includes a suite of computational tools to use GO annotations. We use standardized nomenclature following the Human Genome Organization Gene Nomenclature guidelines and are currently functionally annotating chicken, cow and sheep gene products using the Gene Ontology (GO). The computational tools we have developed accept and batch process data derived from different public databases (with different accession codes), return all existing GO annotations, provide a list of products without GO annotation, identify potential orthologs, model functional genomics data using GO and assist proteomics analysis of ESTs and EST assemblies. Our journal database helps prevent redundant manual GO curation. We encourage and publicly acknowledge GO annotations from researchers and provide a service for researchers interested in GO and analysis of functional genomics data. Conclusion The AgBase database is the first database dedicated to functional genomics and systems biology analysis for agriculturally important species and their pathogens. We use experimental data to improve structural annotation of genomes and to functionally characterize gene products. AgBase is also

  14. Evaluation of a Genome-Scale In Silico Metabolic Model for Geobacter metallireducens Using Proteomic Data from a Field Biostimulation Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Yilin; Wilkins, Michael J.; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Lipton, Mary S.; Long, Philip E.

    2012-12-12

    Biomass and shotgun global proteomics data that reflected relative protein abundances from samples collected during the 2008 experiment at the U.S. Department of Energy Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge site in Rifle, Colorado, provided an unprecedented opportunity to validate a genome-scale metabolic model of Geobacter metallireducens and assess its performance with respect to prediction of metal reduction, biomass yield, and growth rate under dynamic field conditions. Reconstructed from annotated genomic sequence, biochemical, and physiological data, the constraint-based in silico model of G. metallireducens relates an annotated genome sequence to the physiological functions with 697 reactions controlled by 747 enzyme-coding genes. Proteomic analysis showed that 180 of the 637 G. metallireducens proteins detected during the 2008 experiment were associated with specific metabolic reactions in the in silico model. When the field-calibrated Fe(III) terminal electron acceptor process reaction in a reactive transport model for the field experiments was replaced with the genome-scale model, the model predicted that the largest metabolic fluxes through the in silico model reactions generally correspond to the highest abundances of proteins that catalyze those reactions. Central metabolism predicted by the model agrees well with protein abundance profiles inferred from proteomic analysis. Model discrepancies with the proteomic data, such as the relatively low fluxes through amino acid transport and metabolism, revealed pathways or flux constraints in the in silico model that could be updated to more accurately predict metabolic processes that occur in the subsurface environment.

  15. Current Approaches on Viral Infection: Proteomics and Functional Validations

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jie; Tan, Boon Huan; Sugrue, Richard; Tang, Kai

    2012-01-01

    Viruses could manipulate cellular machinery to ensure their continuous survival and thus become parasites of living organisms. Delineation of sophisticated host responses upon virus infection is a challenging task. It lies in identifying the repertoire of host factors actively involved in the viral infectious cycle and characterizing host responses qualitatively and quantitatively during viral pathogenesis. Mass spectrometry based proteomics could be used to efficiently study pathogen-host interactions and virus-hijacked cellular signaling pathways. Moreover, direct host and viral responses upon infection could be further investigated by activity-based functional validation studies. These approaches involve drug inhibition of secretory pathway, immunofluorescence staining, dominant negative mutant of protein target, real-time PCR, small interfering siRNA-mediated knockdown, and molecular cloning studies. In this way, functional validation could gain novel insights into the high-content proteomic dataset in an unbiased and comprehensive way. PMID:23162545

  16. Functional Genomics in the Study of Mind-Body Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Niles, Halsey; Mehta, Darshan H.; Corrigan, Alexandra A.; Bhasin, Manoj K.; Denninger, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Mind-body therapies (MBTs) are used throughout the world in treatment, disease prevention, and health promotion. However, the mechanisms by which MBTs exert their positive effects are not well understood. Investigations into MBTs using functional genomics have revolutionized the understanding of MBT mechanisms and their effects on human physiology. Methods We searched the literature for the effects of MBTs on functional genomics determinants using MEDLINE, supplemented by a manual search of additional journals and a reference list review. Results We reviewed 15 trials that measured global or targeted transcriptomic, epigenomic, or proteomic changes in peripheral blood. Sample sizes ranged from small pilot studies (n=2) to large trials (n=500). While the reliability of individual genes from trial to trial was often inconsistent, genes related to inflammatory response, particularly those involved in the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway, were consistently downregulated across most studies. Conclusion In general, existing trials focusing on gene expression changes brought about by MBTs have revealed intriguing connections to the immune system through the NF-κB cascade, to telomere maintenance, and to apoptotic regulation. However, these findings are limited to a small number of trials and relatively small sample sizes. More rigorous randomized controlled trials of healthy subjects and specific disease states are warranted. Future research should investigate functional genomics areas both upstream and downstream of MBT-related gene expression changes—from epigenomics to proteomics and metabolomics. PMID:25598735

  17. Rice proteomics: A move toward expanded proteome coverage to comparative and functional proteomics uncovers the mysteries of rice and plant biology.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Rakwal, Randeep

    2011-05-01

    Growing rice is an important socio-economic activity. Rice proteomics has achieved a tremendous progress in establishing techniques to proteomes of almost all tissues, organs, and organelles during the past one decade (year 2000-2010). We have compiled these progresses time to time over this period. The present compilation discusses proteomics research in rice published between 1st April 2008 and 30th July 2010. Progress continues mainly towards protein cataloging deep into the proteome with high-confident protein assignment and some functional significance than ever before by (i) identifying previously unreported/low-abundance proteins, (ii) quantifying relative/absolute values of proteins, (iii) assigning protein responses to biotic/abiotic stresses, (iv) protein localization into organelles, (v) validating previous proteomes and eliminating false-positive proteins, and (vi) discovering potential biomarkers for tissues, organs, organelles, and for screening transgenic plants and food-safety evaluation. The notable achievements in global mapping of phosphorylation sites and identifying several novel secreted proteins into the extracellular space are worth appreciating. Our ever-increasing knowledge on the rice proteomics is beginning to impact the biology of not only rice, but also crops and plants. These major achievements will be discussed in this review keeping in mind newcomers, young, and established scientists in proteomics and plants. PMID:21462347

  18. Novel gene and gene model detection using a whole genome open reading frame analysis in proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Fermin, Damian; Allen, Baxter B; Blackwell, Thomas W; Menon, Rajasree; Adamski, Marcin; Xu, Yin; Ulintz, Peter; Omenn, Gilbert S; States, David J

    2006-01-01

    Background Defining the location of genes and the precise nature of gene products remains a fundamental challenge in genome annotation. Interrogating tandem mass spectrometry data using genomic sequence provides an unbiased method to identify novel translation products. A six-frame translation of the entire human genome was used as the query database to search for novel blood proteins in the data from the Human Proteome Organization Plasma Proteome Project. Because this target database is orders of magnitude larger than the databases traditionally employed in tandem mass spectra analysis, careful attention to significance testing is required. Confidence of identification is assessed using our previously described Poisson statistic, which estimates the significance of multi-peptide identifications incorporating the length of the matching sequence, number of spectra searched and size of the target sequence database. Results Applying a false discovery rate threshold of 0.05, we identified 282 significant open reading frames, each containing two or more peptide matches. There were 627 novel peptides associated with these open reading frames that mapped to a unique genomic coordinate placed within the start/stop points of previously annotated genes. These peptides matched 1,110 distinct tandem MS spectra. Peptides fell into four categories based upon where their genomic coordinates placed them relative to annotated exons within the parent gene. Conclusion This work provides evidence for novel alternative splice variants in many previously annotated genes. These findings suggest that annotation of the genome is not yet complete and that proteomics has the potential to further add to our understanding of gene structures. PMID:16646984

  19. Investigation of Yersinia pestis Laboratory Adaptation through a Combined Genomics and Proteomics Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Leiser, Owen P.; Merkley, Eric D.; Clowers, Brian H.; Kaiser, Brooke LD; Lin, Andy; Hutchison, Janine R.; Melville, Angela M.; Wagner, David M.; Keim, Paul S.; Foster, Jeff; Kreuzer, Helen W.

    2015-11-24

    The bacterial pathogen Yersinia pestis, the cause of plague in humans and animals, normally has a sylvatic lifestyle, cycling between fleas and mammals. In contrast, laboratory-grown Y. pestis experiences a more constant environment and conditions that it would not normally encounter. The transition from the natural environment to the laboratory results in a vastly different set of selective pressures, and represents what could be considered domestication. Understanding the kinds of adaptations Y. pestis undergoes as it becomes domesticated will contribute to understanding the basic biology of this important pathogen. In this study, we performed a Parallel Serial Passage Experiment (PSPE) to explore the mechanisms by which Y. pestis adapts to laboratory conditions, hypothesizing that cells would undergo significant changes in virulence and nutrient acquisition systems. Two wild strains were serially passaged in 12 independent populations each for ~750 generations, after which each population was analyzed using whole-genome sequencing. We observed considerable parallel evolution in the endpoint populations, detecting multiple independent mutations in ail, pepA, and zwf, suggesting that specific selective pressures are shaping evolutionary responses. Complementary LC-MS-based proteomic data provide physiological context to the observed mutations, and reveal regulatory changes not necessarily associated with specific mutations, including changes in amino acid metabolism, envelope biogenesis, iron storage and acquisition, and a type VI secretion system. Proteomic data support hypotheses generated by genomic data in addition to suggesting future mechanistic studies, indicating that future whole-genome sequencing studies be designed to leverage proteomics as a critical complement.

  20. Genomic and Proteomic Studies on the Mode of Action of Oxaboroles against the African Trypanosome

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Deuan C.; Foth, Bernardo J.; Urbaniak, Michael D.; Patterson, Stephen; Ong, Han B.; Berriman, Matthew; Fairlamb, Alan H.

    2015-01-01

    SCYX-7158, an oxaborole, is currently in Phase I clinical trials for the treatment of human African trypanosomiasis. Here we investigate possible modes of action against Trypanosoma brucei using orthogonal chemo-proteomic and genomic approaches. SILAC-based proteomic studies using an oxaborole analogue immobilised onto a resin was used either in competition with a soluble oxaborole or an immobilised inactive control to identify thirteen proteins common to both strategies. Cell-cycle analysis of cells incubated with sub-lethal concentrations of an oxaborole identified a subtle but significant accumulation of G2 and >G2 cells. Given the possibility of compromised DNA fidelity, we investigated long-term exposure of T. brucei to oxaboroles by generating resistant cell lines in vitro. Resistance proved more difficult to generate than for drugs currently used in the field, and in one of our three cell lines was unstable. Whole-genome sequencing of the resistant cell lines revealed single nucleotide polymorphisms in 66 genes and several large-scale genomic aberrations. The absence of a simple consistent mechanism among resistant cell lines and the diverse list of binding partners from the proteomic studies suggest a degree of polypharmacology that should reduce the risk of resistance to this compound class emerging in the field. The combined genetic and chemical biology approaches have provided lists of candidates to be investigated for more detailed information on the mode of action of this promising new drug class. PMID:26684831

  1. Strain-resolved microbial community proteomics reveals simultaneous aerobic and anaerobic function during gastrointestinal tract colonization of a preterm infant

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Brooks, Brandon; Mueller, R. S.; Young, Jacque C.; Morowitz, Michael J.; Robert L. Hettich; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2015-07-01

    While there has been growing interest in the gut microbiome in recent years, it remains unclear whether closely related species and strains have similar or distinct functional roles and if organisms capable of both aerobic and anaerobic growth do so simultaneously. To investigate these questions, we implemented a high-throughput mass spectrometry-based proteomics approach to identify proteins in fecal samples collected on days of life 13 21 from an infant born at 28 weeks gestation. No prior studies have coupled strain-resolved community metagenomics to proteomics for such a purpose. Sequences were manually curated to resolve the genomes of two strains ofmore » Citrobacter that were present during the later stage of colonization. Proteome extracts from fecal samples were processed via a nano-2D-LC-MS/MS and peptides were identified based on information predicted from the genome sequences for the dominant organisms, Serratia and the two Citrobacter strains. These organisms are facultative anaerobes, and proteomic information indicates the utilization of both aerobic and anaerobic metabolisms throughout the time series. This may indicate growth in distinct niches within the gastrointestinal tract. We uncovered differences in the physiology of coexisting Citrobacter strains, including differences in motility and chemotaxis functions. Additionally, for both Citrobacter strains we resolved a community-essential role in vitamin metabolism and a predominant role in propionate production. Finally, in this case study we detected differences between genome abundance and activity levels for the dominant populations. This underlines the value in layering proteomic information over genetic potential.« less

  2. Strain-resolved microbial community proteomics reveals simultaneous aerobic and anaerobic function during gastrointestinal tract colonization of a preterm infant.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Brandon; Mueller, Ryan S; Young, Jacque C; Morowitz, Michael J; Hettich, Robert L; Banfield, Jillian F

    2015-01-01

    While there has been growing interest in the gut microbiome in recent years, it remains unclear whether closely related species and strains have similar or distinct functional roles and if organisms capable of both aerobic and anaerobic growth do so simultaneously. To investigate these questions, we implemented a high-throughput mass spectrometry-based proteomics approach to identify proteins in fecal samples collected on days of life 13-21 from an infant born at 28 weeks gestation. No prior studies have coupled strain-resolved community metagenomics to proteomics for such a purpose. Sequences were manually curated to resolve the genomes of two strains of Citrobacter that were present during the later stage of colonization. Proteome extracts from fecal samples were processed via a nano-2D-LC-MS/MS and peptides were identified based on information predicted from the genome sequences for the dominant organisms, Serratia and the two Citrobacter strains. These organisms are facultative anaerobes, and proteomic information indicates the utilization of both aerobic and anaerobic metabolisms throughout the time series. This may indicate growth in distinct niches within the gastrointestinal tract. We uncovered differences in the physiology of coexisting Citrobacter strains, including differences in motility and chemotaxis functions. Additionally, for both Citrobacter strains we resolved a community-essential role in vitamin metabolism and a predominant role in propionate production. Finally, in this case study we detected differences between genome abundance and activity levels for the dominant populations. This underlines the value in layering proteomic information over genetic potential. PMID:26191049

  3. Strain-resolved microbial community proteomics reveals simultaneous aerobic and anaerobic function during gastrointestinal tract colonization of a preterm infant

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Brandon; Mueller, Ryan S.; Young, Jacque C.; Morowitz, Michael J.; Hettich, Robert L.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2015-01-01

    While there has been growing interest in the gut microbiome in recent years, it remains unclear whether closely related species and strains have similar or distinct functional roles and if organisms capable of both aerobic and anaerobic growth do so simultaneously. To investigate these questions, we implemented a high-throughput mass spectrometry-based proteomics approach to identify proteins in fecal samples collected on days of life 13–21 from an infant born at 28 weeks gestation. No prior studies have coupled strain-resolved community metagenomics to proteomics for such a purpose. Sequences were manually curated to resolve the genomes of two strains of Citrobacter that were present during the later stage of colonization. Proteome extracts from fecal samples were processed via a nano-2D-LC-MS/MS and peptides were identified based on information predicted from the genome sequences for the dominant organisms, Serratia and the two Citrobacter strains. These organisms are facultative anaerobes, and proteomic information indicates the utilization of both aerobic and anaerobic metabolisms throughout the time series. This may indicate growth in distinct niches within the gastrointestinal tract. We uncovered differences in the physiology of coexisting Citrobacter strains, including differences in motility and chemotaxis functions. Additionally, for both Citrobacter strains we resolved a community-essential role in vitamin metabolism and a predominant role in propionate production. Finally, in this case study we detected differences between genome abundance and activity levels for the dominant populations. This underlines the value in layering proteomic information over genetic potential. PMID:26191049

  4. Cyanobacterial KnowledgeBase (CKB), a Compendium of Cyanobacterial Genomes and Proteomes

    PubMed Central

    Mohandass, Shylajanaciyar; Varadharaj, Sangeetha; Thilagar, Sivasudha; Abdul Kareem, Kaleel Ahamed; Dharmar, Prabaharan; Gopalakrishnan, Subramanian; Lakshmanan, Uma

    2015-01-01

    Cyanobacterial KnowledgeBase (CKB) is a free access database that contains the genomic and proteomic information of 74 fully sequenced cyanobacterial genomes belonging to seven orders. The database also contains tools for sequence analysis. The Species report and the gene report provide details about each species and gene (including sequence features and gene ontology annotations) respectively. The database also includes cyanoBLAST, an advanced tool that facilitates comparative analysis, among cyanobacterial genomes and genomes of E. coli (prokaryote) and Arabidopsis (eukaryote). The database is developed and maintained by the Sub-Distributed Informatics Centre (sponsored by the Department of Biotechnology, Govt. of India) of the National Facility for Marine Cyanobacteria, a facility dedicated to marine cyanobacterial research. CKB is freely available at http://nfmc.res.in/ckb/index.html. PMID:26305368

  5. Genome-, Transcriptome- and Proteome-Wide Analyses of the Gliadin Gene Families in Triticum urartu

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dongzhi; Yang, Wenlong; Sun, Jiazhu; Zhang, Aimin; Zhan, Kehui

    2015-01-01

    Gliadins are the major components of storage proteins in wheat grains, and they play an essential role in the dough extensibility and nutritional quality of flour. Because of the large number of the gliadin family members, the high level of sequence identity, and the lack of abundant genomic data for Triticum species, identifying the full complement of gliadin family genes in hexaploid wheat remains challenging. Triticum urartu is a wild diploid wheat species and considered the A-genome donor of polyploid wheat species. The accession PI428198 (G1812) was chosen to determine the complete composition of the gliadin gene families in the wheat A-genome using the available draft genome. Using a PCR-based cloning strategy for genomic DNA and mRNA as well as a bioinformatics analysis of genomic sequence data, 28 gliadin genes were characterized. Of these genes, 23 were α-gliadin genes, three were γ-gliadin genes and two were ω-gliadin genes. An RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) survey of the dynamic expression patterns of gliadin genes revealed that their synthesis in immature grains began prior to 10 days post-anthesis (DPA), peaked at 15 DPA and gradually decreased at 20 DPA. The accumulation of proteins encoded by 16 of the expressed gliadin genes was further verified and quantified using proteomic methods. The phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the homologs of these α-gliadin genes were present in tetraploid and hexaploid wheat, which was consistent with T. urartu being the A-genome progenitor species. This study presents a systematic investigation of the gliadin gene families in T. urartu that spans the genome, transcriptome and proteome, and it provides new information to better understand the molecular structure, expression profiles and evolution of the gliadin genes in T. urartu and common wheat. PMID:26132381

  6. Genome-, Transcriptome- and Proteome-Wide Analyses of the Gliadin Gene Families in Triticum urartu.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanlin; Luo, Guangbin; Liu, Dongcheng; Wang, Dongzhi; Yang, Wenlong; Sun, Jiazhu; Zhang, Aimin; Zhan, Kehui

    2015-01-01

    Gliadins are the major components of storage proteins in wheat grains, and they play an essential role in the dough extensibility and nutritional quality of flour. Because of the large number of the gliadin family members, the high level of sequence identity, and the lack of abundant genomic data for Triticum species, identifying the full complement of gliadin family genes in hexaploid wheat remains challenging. Triticum urartu is a wild diploid wheat species and considered the A-genome donor of polyploid wheat species. The accession PI428198 (G1812) was chosen to determine the complete composition of the gliadin gene families in the wheat A-genome using the available draft genome. Using a PCR-based cloning strategy for genomic DNA and mRNA as well as a bioinformatics analysis of genomic sequence data, 28 gliadin genes were characterized. Of these genes, 23 were α-gliadin genes, three were γ-gliadin genes and two were ω-gliadin genes. An RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) survey of the dynamic expression patterns of gliadin genes revealed that their synthesis in immature grains began prior to 10 days post-anthesis (DPA), peaked at 15 DPA and gradually decreased at 20 DPA. The accumulation of proteins encoded by 16 of the expressed gliadin genes was further verified and quantified using proteomic methods. The phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the homologs of these α-gliadin genes were present in tetraploid and hexaploid wheat, which was consistent with T. urartu being the A-genome progenitor species. This study presents a systematic investigation of the gliadin gene families in T. urartu that spans the genome, transcriptome and proteome, and it provides new information to better understand the molecular structure, expression profiles and evolution of the gliadin genes in T. urartu and common wheat. PMID:26132381

  7. Functional Insights from Structural Genomics

    SciTech Connect

    Forouhar,F.; Kuzin, A.; Seetharaman, J.; Lee, I.; Zhou, W.; Abashidze, M.; Chen, Y.; Montelione, G.; Tong, L.; et al

    2007-01-01

    Structural genomics efforts have produced structural information, either directly or by modeling, for thousands of proteins over the past few years. While many of these proteins have known functions, a large percentage of them have not been characterized at the functional level. The structural information has provided valuable functional insights on some of these proteins, through careful structural analyses, serendipity, and structure-guided functional screening. Some of the success stories based on structures solved at the Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium (NESG) are reported here. These include a novel methyl salicylate esterase with important role in plant innate immunity, a novel RNA methyltransferase (H. influenzae yggJ (HI0303)), a novel spermidine/spermine N-acetyltransferase (B. subtilis PaiA), a novel methyltransferase or AdoMet binding protein (A. fulgidus AF{_}0241), an ATP:cob(I)alamin adenosyltransferase (B. subtilis YvqK), a novel carboxysome pore (E. coli EutN), a proline racemase homolog with a disrupted active site (B. melitensis BME11586), an FMN-dependent enzyme (S. pneumoniae SP{_}1951), and a 12-stranded {beta}-barrel with a novel fold (V. parahaemolyticus VPA1032).

  8. Novel Multivariate Methods for Integration of Genomics and Proteomics Data: Applications in a Kidney Transplant Rejection Study

    PubMed Central

    Günther, Oliver P.; Shin, Heesun; Ng, Raymond T.; McMaster, W. Robert; McManus, Bruce M.; Keown, Paul A.; Tebbutt, Scott. J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Multi-omics research is a key ingredient of data-intensive life sciences research, permitting measurement of biological molecules at different functional levels in the same individual. For a complete picture at the biological systems level, appropriate statistical techniques must however be developed to integrate different ‘omics’ data sets (e.g., genomics and proteomics). We report here multivariate projection-based analyses approaches to genomics and proteomics data sets, using the case study of and applications to observations in kidney transplant patients who experienced an acute rejection event (n=20) versus non-rejecting controls (n=20). In this data sets, we show how these novel methodologies might serve as promising tools for dimension reduction and selection of relevant features for different analytical frameworks. Unsupervised analyses highlighted the importance of post transplant time-of-rejection, while supervised analyses identified gene and protein signatures that together predicted rejection status with little time effect. The selected genes are part of biological pathways that are representative of immune responses. Gene enrichment profiles revealed increases in innate immune responses and neutrophil activities and a depletion of T lymphocyte related processes in rejection samples as compared to controls. In all, this article offers candidate biomarkers for future detection and monitoring of acute kidney transplant rejection, as well as ways forward for methodological advances to better harness multi-omics data sets. PMID:25387159

  9. Public Access for Teaching Genomics, Proteomics, and Bioinformatics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    2003-01-01

    When the human genome project was conceived, its leaders wanted all researchers to have equal access to the data and associated research tools. Their vision of equal access provides an unprecedented teaching opportunity. Teachers and students have free access to the same databases that researchers are using. Furthermore, the recent movement to…

  10. Global analyses of Ceratocystis cacaofunesta mitochondria: from genome to proteome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background The ascomycete fungus Ceratocystis cacaofunesta is the causal agent of wilt disease in cacao, which results in significant economic losses in the affected producing areas. Despite the economic importance of the Ceratocystis complex of species, no genomic data are available for any of its ...

  11. A New Literary Metaphor for the Genome or Proteome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappas, Gus

    2005-01-01

    Previously, the idea of a blueprint has been used to explain the genome. The concept of a play's cast of characters, the Dramatis Personae, is a more fluid metaphor that allows for mutations and time-dependent phenomena to be taken into account. It also provides an educational and mnemonic exercise for students.

  12. Evolution of early eukaryotic cells: genomes, proteomes, and compartments.

    PubMed

    Bogorad, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    Eukaryotes arose from an endosymbiotic association of an alpha-proteobacterium-like organism (the ancestor of mitochondria) with a host cell (lacking mitochondria or plastids). Plants arose by the addition of a cyanobacterium-like endosymbiont (the ancestor of plastids) to the two-member association. Each member of the association brought a unique internal environment and a unique genome. Analyses of recently acquired genomic sequences with newly developed algorithms have revealed (a) that the number of endosymbiont genes that remain in eukaryotic cells-principally in the nucleus-is surprisingly large, (b) that protein products of a large number of genes (or their descendents) that entered the association in the genome of the host are now directed to an organelle derived from an endosymbiont, and (c) that protein products of genes traceable to endosymbiont genomes are directed to the nucleo-cytoplasmic compartment. Consideration of these remarkable findings has led to the present suggestion that contemporary eukaryotic cells evolved through continual chance relocation and testing of genes as well as combinations of gene products and biochemical processes in each unique cell compartment derived from a member of the eukaryotic association. Most of these events occurred during about 300 million years, or so, before contemporary forms of eukaryotic cells appear in the fossil record; they continue today. PMID:17912611

  13. Investigation of Yersinia pestis Laboratory Adaptation through a Combined Genomics and Proteomics Approach.

    PubMed

    Leiser, Owen P; Merkley, Eric D; Clowers, Brian H; Deatherage Kaiser, Brooke L; Lin, Andy; Hutchison, Janine R; Melville, Angela M; Wagner, David M; Keim, Paul S; Foster, Jeffrey T; Kreuzer, Helen W

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial pathogen Yersinia pestis, the cause of plague in humans and animals, normally has a sylvatic lifestyle, cycling between fleas and mammals. In contrast, laboratory-grown Y. pestis experiences a more constant environment and conditions that it would not normally encounter. The transition from the natural environment to the laboratory results in a vastly different set of selective pressures, and represents what could be considered domestication. Understanding the kinds of adaptations Y. pestis undergoes as it becomes domesticated will contribute to understanding the basic biology of this important pathogen. In this study, we performed a parallel serial passage experiment (PSPE) to explore the mechanisms by which Y. pestis adapts to laboratory conditions, hypothesizing that cells would undergo significant changes in virulence and nutrient acquisition systems. Two wild strains were serially passaged in 12 independent populations each for ~750 generations, after which each population was analyzed using whole-genome sequencing, LC-MS/MS proteomic analysis, and GC/MS metabolomics. We observed considerable parallel evolution in the endpoint populations, detecting multiple independent mutations in ail, pepA, and zwf, suggesting that specific selective pressures are shaping evolutionary responses. Complementary LC-MS/MS proteomic data provide physiological context to the observed mutations, and reveal regulatory changes not necessarily associated with specific mutations, including changes in amino acid metabolism and cell envelope biogenesis. Proteomic data support hypotheses generated by genomic data in addition to suggesting future mechanistic studies, indicating that future whole-genome sequencing studies be designed to leverage proteomics as a critical complement. PMID:26599979

  14. Investigation of Yersinia pestis Laboratory Adaptation through a Combined Genomics and Proteomics Approach

    PubMed Central

    Clowers, Brian H.; Deatherage Kaiser, Brooke L.; Lin, Andy; Hutchison, Janine R.; Melville, Angela M.; Wagner, David M.; Keim, Paul S.; Foster, Jeffrey T.; Kreuzer, Helen W.

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial pathogen Yersinia pestis, the cause of plague in humans and animals, normally has a sylvatic lifestyle, cycling between fleas and mammals. In contrast, laboratory-grown Y. pestis experiences a more constant environment and conditions that it would not normally encounter. The transition from the natural environment to the laboratory results in a vastly different set of selective pressures, and represents what could be considered domestication. Understanding the kinds of adaptations Y. pestis undergoes as it becomes domesticated will contribute to understanding the basic biology of this important pathogen. In this study, we performed a parallel serial passage experiment (PSPE) to explore the mechanisms by which Y. pestis adapts to laboratory conditions, hypothesizing that cells would undergo significant changes in virulence and nutrient acquisition systems. Two wild strains were serially passaged in 12 independent populations each for ~750 generations, after which each population was analyzed using whole-genome sequencing, LC-MS/MS proteomic analysis, and GC/MS metabolomics. We observed considerable parallel evolution in the endpoint populations, detecting multiple independent mutations in ail, pepA, and zwf, suggesting that specific selective pressures are shaping evolutionary responses. Complementary LC-MS/MS proteomic data provide physiological context to the observed mutations, and reveal regulatory changes not necessarily associated with specific mutations, including changes in amino acid metabolism and cell envelope biogenesis. Proteomic data support hypotheses generated by genomic data in addition to suggesting future mechanistic studies, indicating that future whole-genome sequencing studies be designed to leverage proteomics as a critical complement. PMID:26599979

  15. Evaluation of a Genome-Scale In Silico Metabolic Model for Geobacter metallireducens by Using Proteomic Data from a Field Biostimulation Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Yilin; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Lipton, Mary S.; Long, Philip E.

    2012-01-01

    Accurately predicting the interactions between microbial metabolism and the physical subsurface environment is necessary to enhance subsurface energy development, soil and groundwater cleanup, and carbon management. This study was an initial attempt to confirm the metabolic functional roles within an in silico model using environmental proteomic data collected during field experiments. Shotgun global proteomics data collected during a subsurface biostimulation experiment were used to validate a genome-scale metabolic model of Geobacter metallireducens—specifically, the ability of the metabolic model to predict metal reduction, biomass yield, and growth rate under dynamic field conditions. The constraint-based in silico model of G. metallireducens relates an annotated genome sequence to the physiological functions with 697 reactions controlled by 747 enzyme-coding genes. Proteomic analysis showed that 180 of the 637 G. metallireducens proteins detected during the 2008 experiment were associated with specific metabolic reactions in the in silico model. When the field-calibrated Fe(III) terminal electron acceptor process reaction in a reactive transport model for the field experiments was replaced with the genome-scale model, the model predicted that the largest metabolic fluxes through the in silico model reactions generally correspond to the highest abundances of proteins that catalyze those reactions. Central metabolism predicted by the model agrees well with protein abundance profiles inferred from proteomic analysis. Model discrepancies with the proteomic data, such as the relatively low abundances of proteins associated with amino acid transport and metabolism, revealed pathways or flux constraints in the in silico model that could be updated to more accurately predict metabolic processes that occur in the subsurface environment. PMID:23042184

  16. Exome-based proteogenomics of HEK-293 human cell line: Coding genomic variants identified at the level of shotgun proteome.

    PubMed

    Lobas, Anna A; Karpov, Dmitry S; Kopylov, Arthur T; Solovyeva, Elizaveta M; Ivanov, Mark V; Ilina, Irina Y; Lazarev, Vassily N; Kuznetsova, Ksenia G; Ilgisonis, Ekaterina V; Zgoda, Victor G; Gorshkov, Mikhail V; Moshkovskii, Sergei A

    2016-07-01

    Genomic and proteomic data were integrated into the proteogenomic workflow to identify coding genomic variants of Human Embryonic Kidney 293 (HEK-293) cell line at the proteome level. Shotgun proteome data published by Geiger et al. (2012), Chick et al. (2015), and obtained in this work for HEK-293 were searched against the customized genomic database generated using exome data published by Lin et al. (2014). Overall, 112 unique variants were identified at the proteome level out of ∼1200 coding variants annotated in the exome. Seven identified variants were shared between all the three considered proteomic datasets, and 27 variants were found in any two datasets. Some of the found variants belonged to widely known genomic polymorphisms originated from the germline, while the others were more likely resulting from somatic mutations. At least, eight of the proteins bearing amino acid variants were annotated as cancer-related ones, including p53 tumor suppressor. In all the considered shotgun datasets, the variant peptides were at the ratio of 1:2.5 less likely being identified than the wild-type ones compared with the corresponding theoretical peptides. This can be explained by the presence of the so-called "passenger" mutations in the genes, which were never expressed in HEK-293 cells. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with the dataset identifier PXD002613 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD002613). PMID:27233776

  17. Quantitative reactivity profiling predicts functional cysteines in proteomes

    PubMed Central

    Weerapana, Eranthie; Wang, Chu; Simon, Gabriel M.; Richter, Florian; Khare, Sagar; Dillon, Myles B.D.; Bachovchin, Daniel A.; Mowen, Kerri; Baker, David; Cravatt, Benjamin F.

    2010-01-01

    Cysteine is the most intrinsically nucleophilic amino acid in proteins, where its reactivity is tuned to perform diverse biochemical functions. The absence of a consensus sequence that defines functional cysteines in proteins has hindered their discovery and characterization. Here, we describe a proteomics method to quantitatively profile the intrinsic reactivity of cysteine residues en masse directly in native biological systems. Hyperreactivity was a rare feature among cysteines and found to specify a wide range of activities, including nucleophilic and reductive catalysis and sites of oxidative modification. Hyperreactive cysteines were identified in several proteins of uncharacterized function, including a residue conserved across eukaryotic phylogeny that we show is required for yeast viability and involved in iron-sulfur protein biogenesis. Finally, we demonstrate that quantitative reactivity profiling can also form the basis for screening and functional assignment of cysteines in computationally designed proteins, where it discriminated catalytically active from inactive cysteine hydrolase designs. PMID:21085121

  18. Quantitative reactivity profiling predicts functional cysteines in proteomes.

    PubMed

    Weerapana, Eranthie; Wang, Chu; Simon, Gabriel M; Richter, Florian; Khare, Sagar; Dillon, Myles B D; Bachovchin, Daniel A; Mowen, Kerri; Baker, David; Cravatt, Benjamin F

    2010-12-01

    Cysteine is the most intrinsically nucleophilic amino acid in proteins, where its reactivity is tuned to perform diverse biochemical functions. The absence of a consensus sequence that defines functional cysteines in proteins has hindered their discovery and characterization. Here we describe a proteomics method to profile quantitatively the intrinsic reactivity of cysteine residues en masse directly in native biological systems. Hyper-reactivity was a rare feature among cysteines and it was found to specify a wide range of activities, including nucleophilic and reductive catalysis and sites of oxidative modification. Hyper-reactive cysteines were identified in several proteins of uncharacterized function, including a residue conserved across eukaryotic phylogeny that we show is required for yeast viability and is involved in iron-sulphur protein biogenesis. We also demonstrate that quantitative reactivity profiling can form the basis for screening and functional assignment of cysteines in computationally designed proteins, where it discriminated catalytically active from inactive cysteine hydrolase designs. PMID:21085121

  19. Medulloblastoma Exosome Proteomics Yield Functional Roles for Extracellular Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Epple, Laura M.; Griffiths, Steve G.; Dechkovskaia, Anjelika M.; Dusto, Nathaniel L.; White, Jason; Ouellette, Rodney J.; Anchordoquy, Thomas J.; Bemis, Lynne T.; Graner, Michael W.

    2012-01-01

    Medulloblastomas are the most prevalent malignant pediatric brain tumors. Survival for these patients has remained largely the same for approximately 20 years, and our therapies for these cancers cause significant health, cognitive, behavioral and developmental sequelae for those who survive the tumor and their treatments. We obviously need a better understanding of the biology of these tumors, particularly with regard to their migratory/invasive behaviors, their proliferative propensity, and their abilities to deflect immune responses. Exosomes, virus-sized membrane vesicles released extracellularly from cells after formation in, and transit thru, the endosomal pathway, may play roles in medulloblastoma pathogenesis but are as yet unstudied in this disease. Here we characterized exosomes from a medulloblastoma cell line with biochemical and proteomic analyses, and included characterization of patient serum exosomes. Further scrutiny of the proteomic data suggested functional properties of the exosomes that are relevant to medulloblastoma tumor biology, including their roles as proliferation stimulants, their activities as attractants for tumor cell migration, and their immune modulatory impacts on lymphocytes. Aspects of this held true for exosomes from other medulloblastoma cell lines as well. Additionally, pathway analyses suggested a possible role for the transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4A); however, inhibition of the protein’s activity actually increased D283MED cell proliferation/clonogenecity, suggesting that HNF4A may act as a tumor suppressor in this cell line. Our work demonstrates that relevant functional properties of exosomes may be derived from appropriate proteomic analyses, which translate into mechanisms of tumor pathophysiology harbored in these extracellular vesicles. PMID:22848702

  20. Evolution, language and analogy in functional genomics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benner, S. A.; Gaucher, E. A.

    2001-01-01

    Almost a century ago, Wittgenstein pointed out that theory in science is intricately connected to language. This connection is not a frequent topic in the genomics literature. But a case can be made that functional genomics is today hindered by the paradoxes that Wittgenstein identified. If this is true, until these paradoxes are recognized and addressed, functional genomics will continue to be limited in its ability to extrapolate information from genomic sequences.

  1. Global Shifts in Genome and Proteome Composition Are Very Tightly Coupled.

    PubMed

    Brbić, Maria; Warnecke, Tobias; Kriško, Anita; Supek, Fran

    2015-06-01

    The amino acid composition (AAC) of proteomes differs greatly between microorganisms and is associated with the environmental niche they inhabit, suggesting that these changes may be adaptive. Similarly, the oligonucleotide composition of genomes varies and may confer advantages at the DNA/RNA level. These influences overlap in protein-coding sequences, making it difficult to gauge their relative contributions. We disentangle these effects by systematically evaluating the correspondence between intergenic nucleotide composition, where protein-level selection is absent, the AAC, and ecological parameters of 909 prokaryotes. We find that G + C content, the most frequently used measure of genomic composition, cannot capture diversity in AAC and across ecological contexts. However, di-/trinucleotide composition in intergenic DNA predicts amino acid frequencies of proteomes to the point where very little cross-species variability remains unexplained (91% of variance accounted for). Qualitatively similar results were obtained for 49 fungal genomes, where 80% of the variability in AAC could be explained by the composition of introns and intergenic regions. Upon factoring out oligonucleotide composition and phylogenetic inertia, the residual AAC is poorly predictive of the microbes' ecological preferences, in stark contrast with the original AAC. Moreover, highly expressed genes do not exhibit more prominent environment-related AAC signatures than lowly expressed genes, despite contributing more to the effective proteome. Thus, evolutionary shifts in overall AAC appear to occur almost exclusively through factors shaping the global oligonucleotide content of the genome. We discuss these results in light of contravening evidence from biophysical data and further reading frame-specific analyses that suggest that adaptation takes place at the protein level. PMID:25971281

  2. Uncovering the Potential Pan Proteomes Encoded by Genomic Strand RNAs of Influenza A Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chu-Wen; Chen, Mei-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Influenza A virus genomes are composed of eight negative sense RNAs. In total, 16 proteins encoded by eight positive sense RNAs were identified. One putative protein coding sequence (PCS) encoded by genomic strand RNA of segment 8 has been previously proposed. In this study, 95,608, 123,965 and 35,699 genomic strand RNA sequences from influenza A viruses from avian, human and mammalian hosts, respectively, were used to identify PCSs encoded by the genomic strand RNAs. In total, 326,069 PCSs with lengths equal to or longer than 80 amino acids were identified and clustered into 270 PCS groups. Twenty of the 270 PCS groups which have greater than 10% proportion in influenza A viruses from avian, human or mammalian hosts were selected for detailed study. Maps of the 20 PCSGs in the influenza A virus genomes were constructed. The proportions of the 20 PCSGs in influenza A viruses from different hosts and serotypes were analyzed. One secretory and five membrane proteins predicted from the PCS groups encoded by genomic strand RNAs of segments 1, 2, 4, 6, 7 and 8 were identified. These results suggest the possibility of the ambisense nature of the influenza A virus genomic RNAs and a potential coding sequence reservoir encoding potential pan proteomes of influenza A viruses. PMID:26761196

  3. Comparative analysis of predicted plastid-targeted proteomes of sequenced higher plant genomes.

    PubMed

    Schaeffer, Scott; Harper, Artemus; Raja, Rajani; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Dhingra, Amit

    2014-01-01

    Plastids are actively involved in numerous plant processes critical to growth, development and adaptation. They play a primary role in photosynthesis, pigment and monoterpene synthesis, gravity sensing, starch and fatty acid synthesis, as well as oil, and protein storage. We applied two complementary methods to analyze the recently published apple genome (Malus × domestica) to identify putative plastid-targeted proteins, the first using TargetP and the second using a custom workflow utilizing a set of predictive programs. Apple shares roughly 40% of its 10,492 putative plastid-targeted proteins with that of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plastid-targeted proteome as identified by the Chloroplast 2010 project and ∼57% of its entire proteome with Arabidopsis. This suggests that the plastid-targeted proteomes between apple and Arabidopsis are different, and interestingly alludes to the presence of differential targeting of homologs between the two species. Co-expression analysis of 2,224 genes encoding putative plastid-targeted apple proteins suggests that they play a role in plant developmental and intermediary metabolism. Further, an inter-specific comparison of Arabidopsis, Prunus persica (Peach), Malus × domestica (Apple), Populus trichocarpa (Black cottonwood), Fragaria vesca (Woodland Strawberry), Solanum lycopersicum (Tomato) and Vitis vinifera (Grapevine) also identified a large number of novel species-specific plastid-targeted proteins. This analysis also revealed the presence of alternatively targeted homologs across species. Two separate analyses revealed that a small subset of proteins, one representing 289 protein clusters and the other 737 unique protein sequences, are conserved between seven plastid-targeted angiosperm proteomes. Majority of the novel proteins were annotated to play roles in stress response, transport, catabolic processes, and cellular component organization. Our results suggest that the current state of knowledge regarding

  4. The genome and proteome of a Campylobacter coli bacteriophage vB_CcoM-IBB_35 reveal unusual features

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Campylobacter is the leading cause of foodborne diseases worldwide. Bacteriophages (phages) are naturally occurring predators of bacteria, ubiquitous in the environment, with high host specificity and thus considered an appealing option to control bacterial pathogens. Nevertheless for an effective use of phages as antimicrobial agents, it is important to understand phage biology which renders crucial the analysis of phage genomes and proteomes. The lack of sequence data from Campylobacter phages adds further importance to these studies. Methods vB_CcoM-IBB_35 is a broad lytic spectrum Myoviridae Campylobacter phage with high potential for therapeutic use. The genome of this phage was obtained by pyrosequencing and the sequence data was further analyzed. The proteomic analysis was performed by SDS-PAGE and Mass spectrometry. Results and conclusions The DNA sequence data of vB_CcoM-IBB_35 consists of five contigs for a total of 172,065 bp with an average GC content of 27%. Attempts to close the gaps between contigs were unsuccessful since the DNA preparations appear to contain substances that inhibited Taq and ϕ29 polymerases. From the 210 identified ORFs, around 60% represent proteins that were not functionally assigned. Homology exists with members of the Teequatrovirinae namely for T4 proteins involved in morphogenesis, nucleotide metabolism, transcription, DNA replication and recombination. Tandem mass spectrometric analysis revealed 38 structural proteins as part of the mature phage particle. Conclusions Genes encoding proteins involved in the carbohydrate metabolism along with several incidences of gene duplications, split genes with inteins and introns have been rarely found in other phage genomes yet are found in this phage. We identified the genes encoding for tail fibres and for the lytic cassette, this later, expressing enzymes for bacterial capsular polysaccharides (CPS) degradation, which has not been reported before for Campylobacter phages

  5. Investigation of Yersinia pestis laboratory adaptation through a combined genomics and proteomics approach

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Leiser, Owen P.; Merkley, Eric D.; Clowers, Brian H.; Kaiser, Brooke L. Deatherage; Lin, Andy; Hutchison, Janine R.; Melville, Angela M.; Wagner, David M.; Keim, Paul S.; Foster, Jeff; et al

    2015-11-24

    Here, the bacterial pathogen Yersinia pestis, the cause of plague in humans and animals, normally has a sylvatic lifestyle, cycling between fleas and mammals. In contrast, laboratory-grown Y. pestis experiences a more constant environment and conditions that it would not normally encounter. The transition from the natural environment to the laboratory results in a vastly different set of selective pressures, and represents what could be considered domestication. Understanding the kinds of adaptations Y. pestis undergoes as it becomes domesticated will contribute to understanding the basic biology of this important pathogen. In this study, we performed a Parallel Serial Passage Experimentmore » (PSPE) to explore the mechanisms by which Y. pestis adapts to laboratory conditions, hypothesizing that cells would undergo significant changes in virulence and nutrient acquisition systems. Two wild strains were serially passaged in 12 independent populations each for ~750 generations, after which each population was analyzed using whole-genome sequencing. We observed considerable parallel evolution in the endpoint populations, detecting multiple independent mutations in ail, pepA, and zwf, suggesting that specific selective pressures are shaping evolutionary responses. Complementary LC-MS-based proteomic data provide physiological context to the observed mutations, and reveal regulatory changes not necessarily associated with specific mutations, including changes in amino acid metabolism, envelope biogenesis, iron storage and acquisition, and a type VI secretion system. Proteomic data support hypotheses generated by genomic data in addition to suggesting future mechanistic studies, indicating that future whole-genome sequencing studies be designed to leverage proteomics as a critical complement.« less

  6. Single-cell-type Proteomics: Toward a Holistic Understanding of Plant Function*

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Shaojun; Chen, Sixue

    2012-01-01

    Multicellular organisms such as plants contain different types of cells with specialized functions. Analyzing the protein characteristics of each type of cell will not only reveal specific cell functions, but also enhance understanding of how an organism works. Most plant proteomics studies have focused on using tissues and organs containing a mixture of different cells. Recent single-cell-type proteomics efforts on pollen grains, guard cells, mesophyll cells, root hairs, and trichomes have shown utility. We expect that high resolution proteomic analyses will reveal novel functions in single cells. This review provides an overview of recent developments in plant single-cell-type proteomics. We discuss application of the approach for understanding important cell functions, and we consider the technical challenges of extending the approach to all plant cell types. Finally, we consider the integration of single-cell-type proteomics with transcriptomics and metabolomics with the goal of providing a holistic understanding of plant function. PMID:22982375

  7. Endosperm and Amyloplast Proteomes of Wheat Grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Advances in proteomics and genomics have improved our understanding of the gluten proteins, a complex and functionally important protein group. Proteomic approaches also have been used to identify other proteins that may play roles in wheat flour functionality, to assign genes for gluten proteins to...

  8. A functional proteomics approach to the comprehension of sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Landi, C; Bargagli, E; Carleo, A; Bianchi, L; Gagliardi, A; Cillis, G; Perari, M G; Refini, R M; Prasse, A; Bini, L; Rottoli, P

    2015-10-14

    Pulmonary sarcoidosis (Sar) is an idiopathic disease histologically typified by non-caseating epitheliod cell sarcoid granulomas. A cohort of 37 Sar patients with chronic persistent pulmonary disease was described in this study. BAL protein profiles from 9 of these Sar patients were compared with those from 8 smoker (SC) and 10 no-smoker controls (NSC) by proteomic approach. Principal Component Analysis was performed to clusterize the samples in the corresponding conditions highlighting a differential pattern profiles primarily in Sar than SC. Spot identification reveals thirty-four unique proteins involved in lipid, mineral, and vitamin Dmetabolism, and immuneregulation of macrophage function. Enrichment analysis has been elaborated by MetaCore, revealing 14-3-3ε, α1-antitrypsin, GSTP1, and ApoA1 as "central hubs". Process Network as well as Pathway Maps underline proteins involved in immune response and inflammation induced by complement system, innate inflammatory response and IL-6signalling. Disease Biomarker Network highlights Tuberculosis and COPD as pathologies that share biomarkers with sarcoidosis. In conclusion, Sar protein expression profile seems more similar to that of NSC than SC, conversely to other ILDs. Moreover, Disease Biomarker Network revealed several common features between Sar and TB, exhorting to orientate the future proteomics investigations also in comparative BALF analysis of Sar and TB. PMID:26342673

  9. Comparative Analysis of Genomics and Proteomics in the New Isolated Bacillus thuringiensis X022 Revealed the Metabolic Regulation Mechanism of Carbon Flux Following Cu(2+) Treatment.

    PubMed

    Quan, Meifang; Xie, Junyan; Liu, Xuemei; Li, Yang; Rang, Jie; Zhang, Tong; Zhou, Fengjuan; Xia, Liqiu; Hu, Shengbiao; Sun, Yunjun; Ding, Xuezhi

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) X022 is a novel strain isolated from soil in China, and showed strong insecticidal activity against several Lepidopteran pests. In this work, we performed whole genome sequencing of this Bt strain using the next-generation sequencing technology, and further conducted a comparative analysis with the proteomics data of the specific spore-release period based on LC-MS/MS approach. The Bt X022 genome consisted of one circular chromosomal DNA and seven plasmids, which were further functionally annotated using the RAST server. Comparative analysis of insecticidal substances showed that X022 contained genes coding for three Cry proteins (Cry1Ac, Cry1Ia and Cry2Ab) and a vegetative insecticidal protein (Vip3A). However, three insecticidal crystal proteins (ICPs) (Cry1Ca, Cry1Ac and Cry1Da) were detected by proteomics in the spore-release period. Moreover, a putative biosynthetic gene cluster and the metabolic pathway for poly-β-hydroxybutyrate in Bt X022 were deduced based on the comparative analysis of genomic and proteomic data, which revealed the metabolic regulation mechanism of carbon flux correlated with increased production of ICPs caused by Cu(2+.) Hence, these results provided a deeper understanding of the genetic background and protein expression profile of Bt X022. This study established a foundation for directed genetic modification and further application of this new isolated Bt strain. PMID:27303381

  10. Comparative Analysis of Genomics and Proteomics in the New Isolated Bacillus thuringiensis X022 Revealed the Metabolic Regulation Mechanism of Carbon Flux Following Cu2+ Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Meifang; Xie, Junyan; Liu, Xuemei; Li, Yang; Rang, Jie; Zhang, Tong; Zhou, Fengjuan; Xia, Liqiu; Hu, Shengbiao; Sun, Yunjun; Ding, Xuezhi

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) X022 is a novel strain isolated from soil in China, and showed strong insecticidal activity against several Lepidopteran pests. In this work, we performed whole genome sequencing of this Bt strain using the next-generation sequencing technology, and further conducted a comparative analysis with the proteomics data of the specific spore-release period based on LC-MS/MS approach. The Bt X022 genome consisted of one circular chromosomal DNA and seven plasmids, which were further functionally annotated using the RAST server. Comparative analysis of insecticidal substances showed that X022 contained genes coding for three Cry proteins (Cry1Ac, Cry1Ia and Cry2Ab) and a vegetative insecticidal protein (Vip3A). However, three insecticidal crystal proteins (ICPs) (Cry1Ca, Cry1Ac and Cry1Da) were detected by proteomics in the spore-release period. Moreover, a putative biosynthetic gene cluster and the metabolic pathway for poly-β-hydroxybutyrate in Bt X022 were deduced based on the comparative analysis of genomic and proteomic data, which revealed the metabolic regulation mechanism of carbon flux correlated with increased production of ICPs caused by Cu2+. Hence, these results provided a deeper understanding of the genetic background and protein expression profile of Bt X022. This study established a foundation for directed genetic modification and further application of this new isolated Bt strain. PMID:27303381

  11. The Discovery of Novel Genomic, Transcriptomic, and Proteomic Biomarkers in Cardiovascular and Peripheral Vascular Disease: The State of the Art

    PubMed Central

    de Franciscis, Stefano; Metzinger, Laurent; Serra, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CD) and peripheral vascular disease (PVD) are leading causes of mortality and morbidity in western countries and also responsible of a huge burden in terms of disability, functional decline, and healthcare costs. Biomarkers are measurable biological elements that reflect particular physiological or pathological states or predisposition towards diseases and they are currently widely studied in medicine and especially in CD. In this context, biomarkers can also be used to assess the severity or the evolution of several diseases, as well as the effectiveness of particular therapies. Genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics have opened new windows on disease phenomena and may permit in the next future an effective development of novel diagnostic and prognostic medicine in order to better prevent or treat CD. This review will consider the current evidence of novel biomarkers with clear implications in the improvement of risk assessment, prevention strategies, and medical decision making in the field of CD. PMID:27298828

  12. Proteomics Analysis Reveals Overlapping Functions of Clustered Protocadherins*

    PubMed Central

    Han, Meng-Hsuan; Lin, Chengyi; Meng, Shuxia; Wang, Xiaozhong

    2010-01-01

    The three tandem-arrayed protocadherin (Pcdh) gene clusters, namely Pcdh-α, Pcdh-β, and Pcdh-γ, play important roles in the development of the vertebrate central nervous system. To gain insight into the molecular action of PCDHs, we performed a systematic proteomics analysis of PCDH-γ-associated protein complexes. We identified a list of 154 non-redundant proteins in the PCDH-γ complexes. This list includes nearly 30 members of clustered Pcdh-α, -β, and -γ families as core components of the complexes and additionally over 120 putative PCDH-associated proteins. We validated a selected subset of PCDH-γ-associated proteins using specific antibodies. Analysis of the identities of PCDH-associated proteins showed that the majority of them overlap with the proteomic profile of postsynaptic density preparations. Further analysis of membrane protein complexes revealed that several validated PCDH-γ-associated proteins exhibit reduced levels in Pcdh-γ-deficient brain tissues. Therefore, PCDH-γs are required for the integrity of the complexes. However, the size of the overall complexes and the abundance of many other proteins remained unchanged, raising a possibility that PCDH-αs and PCDH-βs might compensate for PCDH-γ function in complex formation. As a test of this idea, RNA interference knockdown of both PCDH-αs and PCDH-γs showed that PCDHs have redundant functions in regulating neuronal survival in the chicken spinal cord. Taken together, our data provide evidence that clustered PCDHs coexist in large protein complexes and have overlapping functions during vertebrate neural development. PMID:19843561

  13. Genome and Proteome of Campylobacter jejuni Bacteriophage NCTC 12673▿†

    PubMed Central

    Kropinski, Andrew M.; Arutyunov, Denis; Foss, Mary; Cunningham, Anna; Ding, Wen; Singh, Amit; Pavlov, Andrey R.; Henry, Matthew; Evoy, Stephane; Kelly, John; Szymanski, Christine M.

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni continues to be the leading cause of bacterial food-borne illness worldwide, so improvements to current methods used for bacterial detection and disease prevention are needed. We describe here the genome and proteome of C. jejuni bacteriophage NCTC 12673 and the exploitation of its receptor-binding protein for specific bacterial detection. Remarkably, the 135-kb Myoviridae genome of NCTC 12673 differs greatly from any other proteobacterial phage genome described (including C. jejuni phages CP220 and CPt10) and instead shows closest homology to the cyanobacterial T4-related myophages. The phage genome contains 172 putative open reading frames, including 12 homing endonucleases, no visible means of packaging, and a putative trans-splicing intein. The phage DNA appears to be strongly associated with a protein that interfered with PCR amplification and estimation of the phage genome mass by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Identification and analyses of the receptor-binding protein (Gp48) revealed features common to the Salmonella enterica P22 phage tailspike protein, including the ability to specifically recognize a host organism. Bacteriophage receptor-binding proteins may offer promising alternatives for use in pathogen detection platforms. PMID:21965409

  14. Comparative proteomics reveals a significant bias toward alternative protein isoforms with conserved structure and function.

    PubMed

    Ezkurdia, Iakes; del Pozo, Angela; Frankish, Adam; Rodriguez, Jose Manuel; Harrow, Jennifer; Ashman, Keith; Valencia, Alfonso; Tress, Michael L

    2012-09-01

    Advances in high-throughput mass spectrometry are making proteomics an increasingly important tool in genome annotation projects. Peptides detected in mass spectrometry experiments can be used to validate gene models and verify the translation of putative coding sequences (CDSs). Here, we have identified peptides that cover 35% of the genes annotated by the GENCODE consortium for the human genome as part of a comprehensive analysis of experimental spectra from two large publicly available mass spectrometry databases. We detected the translation to protein of "novel" and "putative" protein-coding transcripts as well as transcripts annotated as pseudogenes and nonsense-mediated decay targets. We provide a detailed overview of the population of alternatively spliced protein isoforms that are detectable by peptide identification methods. We found that 150 genes expressed multiple alternative protein isoforms. This constitutes the largest set of reliably confirmed alternatively spliced proteins yet discovered. Three groups of genes were highly overrepresented. We detected alternative isoforms for 10 of the 25 possible heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins, proteins with a key role in the splicing process. Alternative isoforms generated from interchangeable homologous exons and from short indels were also significantly enriched, both in human experiments and in parallel analyses of mouse and Drosophila proteomics experiments. Our results show that a surprisingly high proportion (almost 25%) of the detected alternative isoforms are only subtly different from their constitutive counterparts. Many of the alternative splicing events that give rise to these alternative isoforms are conserved in mouse. It was striking that very few of these conserved splicing events broke Pfam functional domains or would damage globular protein structures. This evidence of a strong bias toward subtle differences in CDS and likely conserved cellular function and structure is remarkable and

  15. Genomic and Proteomic Analyses of the Fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora Provide Insights into Nematode-Trap Formation

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yun; Li, Xiaomin; Zou, Chenggang; Xu, Jianping; Ren, Yan; Mi, Qili; Wu, Junli; Liu, Shuqun; Liu, Yu; Huang, Xiaowei; Wang, Haiyan; Niu, Xuemei; Li, Juan; Liang, Lianming; Luo, Yanlu; Ji, Kaifang; Zhou, Wei; Yu, Zefen; Li, Guohong; Liu, Yajun; Li, Lei; Qiao, Min; Feng, Lu; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2011-01-01

    Nematode-trapping fungi are “carnivorous” and attack their hosts using specialized trapping devices. The morphological development of these traps is the key indicator of their switch from saprophytic to predacious lifestyles. Here, the genome of the nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora Fres. (ATCC24927) was reported. The genome contains 40.07 Mb assembled sequence with 11,479 predicted genes. Comparative analysis showed that A. oligospora shared many more genes with pathogenic fungi than with non-pathogenic fungi. Specifically, compared to several sequenced ascomycete fungi, the A. oligospora genome has a larger number of pathogenicity-related genes in the subtilisin, cellulase, cellobiohydrolase, and pectinesterase gene families. Searching against the pathogen-host interaction gene database identified 398 homologous genes involved in pathogenicity in other fungi. The analysis of repetitive sequences provided evidence for repeat-induced point mutations in A. oligospora. Proteomic and quantitative PCR (qPCR) analyses revealed that 90 genes were significantly up-regulated at the early stage of trap-formation by nematode extracts and most of these genes were involved in translation, amino acid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, cell wall and membrane biogenesis. Based on the combined genomic, proteomic and qPCR data, a model for the formation of nematode trapping device in this fungus was proposed. In this model, multiple fungal signal transduction pathways are activated by its nematode prey to further regulate downstream genes associated with diverse cellular processes such as energy metabolism, biosynthesis of the cell wall and adhesive proteins, cell division, glycerol accumulation and peroxisome biogenesis. This study will facilitate the identification of pathogenicity-related genes and provide a broad foundation for understanding the molecular and evolutionary mechanisms underlying fungi-nematodes interactions. PMID:21909256

  16. Quantitative proteomic analysis of mitochondrial proteins reveals prosurvival mechanisms in the perpetuation of radiation-induced genomic instability

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Stefani N.; Waters, Katrina M.; Morgan, William F.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation-induced genomic instability is a well-studied phenomenon that is measured as mitotically heritable genetic alterations observed in the progeny of an irradiated cell. The mechanisms that perpetuate this instability are unclear; however, a role for chronic oxidative stress has consistently been demonstrated. In the chromosomally unstable LS12 cell line, oxidative stress and genomic instability were correlated with mitochondrial dysfunction. To clarify this mitochondrial dysfunction and gain insight into the mechanisms underlying radiation-induced genomic instability we have evaluated the mitochondrial subproteome and performed quantitative mass spectrometry analysis of LS12 cells. Of 98 quantified mitochondrial proteins, 17 met criteria for fold changes and reproducibility; and 11 were statistically significant in comparison with the stable parental GM10115 cell line. Previous observations implicated defects in the electron transport chain (ETC) in the LS12 cell mitochondrial dysfunction. Proteomic analysis supports these observations, demonstrating significantly reduced levels of mitochondrial cytochrome c, the intermediary between complexes III and IV of the ETC. Results also suggest that LS12 cells compensate for ETC dysfunction and oxidative stress through increased levels of tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes and upregulation of proteins that protect against oxidative stress and apoptosis. More than one cellular defect is likely to contribute to the genomic instability phenotype, and evaluation of gene and microRNA expression suggests that epigenetics play a role in the phenotype. These data suggest that LS12 cells have adapted mechanisms that allow survival under suboptimal conditions of oxidative stress and compromised mitochondrial function to perpetuate genomic instability. PMID:22569412

  17. Integration and Querying of Genomic and Proteomic Semantic Annotations for Biomedical Knowledge Extraction.

    PubMed

    Masseroli, Marco; Canakoglu, Arif; Ceri, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Understanding complex biological phenomena involves answering complex biomedical questions on multiple biomolecular information simultaneously, which are expressed through multiple genomic and proteomic semantic annotations scattered in many distributed and heterogeneous data sources; such heterogeneity and dispersion hamper the biologists' ability of asking global queries and performing global evaluations. To overcome this problem, we developed a software architecture to create and maintain a Genomic and Proteomic Knowledge Base (GPKB), which integrates several of the most relevant sources of such dispersed information (including Entrez Gene, UniProt, IntAct, Expasy Enzyme, GO, GOA, BioCyc, KEGG, Reactome, and OMIM). Our solution is general, as it uses a flexible, modular, and multilevel global data schema based on abstraction and generalization of integrated data features, and a set of automatic procedures for easing data integration and maintenance, also when the integrated data sources evolve in data content, structure, and number. These procedures also assure consistency, quality, and provenance tracking of all integrated data, and perform the semantic closure of the hierarchical relationships of the integrated biomedical ontologies. At http://www.bioinformatics.deib.polimi.it/GPKB/, a Web interface allows graphical easy composition of queries, although complex, on the knowledge base, supporting also semantic query expansion and comprehensive explorative search of the integrated data to better sustain biomedical knowledge extraction. PMID:27045824

  18. Streptococcus iniae SF1: Complete Genome Sequence, Proteomic Profile, and Immunoprotective Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bao-cun; Zhang, Jian; Sun, Li

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus iniae is a Gram-positive bacterium that is reckoned one of the most severe aquaculture pathogens. It has a broad host range among farmed marine and freshwater fish and can also cause zoonotic infection in humans. Here we report for the first time the complete genome sequence as well as the host factor-induced proteomic profile of a pathogenic S. iniae strain, SF1, a serotype I isolate from diseased fish. SF1 possesses a single chromosome of 2,149,844 base pairs, which contains 2,125 predicted protein coding sequences (CDS), 12 rRNA genes, and 45 tRNA genes. Among the protein-encoding CDS are genes involved in resource acquisition and utilization, signal sensing and transduction, carbohydrate metabolism, and defense against host immune response. Potential virulence genes include those encoding adhesins, autolysins, toxins, exoenzymes, and proteases. In addition, two putative prophages and a CRISPR-Cas system were found in the genome, the latter containing a CRISPR locus and four cas genes. Proteomic analysis detected 21 secreted proteins whose expressions were induced by host serum. Five of the serum-responsive proteins were subjected to immunoprotective analysis, which revealed that two of the proteins were highly protective against lethal S. iniae challenge when used as purified recombinant subunit vaccines. Taken together, these results provide an important molecular basis for future study of S. iniae in various aspects, in particular those related to pathogenesis and disease control. PMID:24621602

  19. Representative proteomes: a stable, scalable and unbiased proteome set for sequence analysis and functional annotation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chuming; Natale, Darren A; Finn, Robert D; Huang, Hongzhan; Zhang, Jian; Wu, Cathy H; Mazumder, Raja

    2011-01-01

    The accelerating growth in the number of protein sequences taxes both the computational and manual resources needed to analyze them. One approach to dealing with this problem is to minimize the number of proteins subjected to such analysis in a way that minimizes loss of information. To this end we have developed a set of Representative Proteomes (RPs), each selected from a Representative Proteome Group (RPG) containing similar proteomes calculated based on co-membership in UniRef50 clusters. A Representative Proteome is the proteome that can best represent all the proteomes in its group in terms of the majority of the sequence space and information. RPs at 75%, 55%, 35% and 15% co-membership threshold (CMT) are provided to allow users to decrease or increase the granularity of the sequence space based on their requirements. We find that a CMT of 55% (RP55) most closely follows standard taxonomic classifications. Further analysis of this set reveals that sequence space is reduced by more than 80% relative to UniProtKB, while retaining both sequence diversity (over 95% of InterPro domains) and annotation information (93% of experimentally characterized proteins). All sets can be browsed and are available for sequence similarity searches and download at http://www.proteininformationresource.org/rps, while the set of 637 RPs determined using a 55% CMT are also available for text searches. Potential applications include sequence similarity searches, protein classification and targeted protein annotation and characterization. PMID:21556138

  20. Open chromatin reveals the functional maize genome

    PubMed Central

    Rodgers-Melnick, Eli; Vera, Daniel L.; Bass, Hank W.

    2016-01-01

    Cellular processes mediated through nuclear DNA must contend with chromatin. Chromatin structural assays can efficiently integrate information across diverse regulatory elements, revealing the functional noncoding genome. In this study, we use a differential nuclease sensitivity assay based on micrococcal nuclease (MNase) digestion to discover open chromatin regions in the maize genome. We find that maize MNase-hypersensitive (MNase HS) regions localize around active genes and within recombination hotspots, focusing biased gene conversion at their flanks. Although MNase HS regions map to less than 1% of the genome, they consistently explain a remarkably large amount (∼40%) of heritable phenotypic variance in diverse complex traits. MNase HS regions are therefore on par with coding sequences as annotations that demarcate the functional parts of the maize genome. These results imply that less than 3% of the maize genome (coding and MNase HS regions) may give rise to the overwhelming majority of phenotypic variation, greatly narrowing the scope of the functional genome. PMID:27185945

  1. Open chromatin reveals the functional maize genome.

    PubMed

    Rodgers-Melnick, Eli; Vera, Daniel L; Bass, Hank W; Buckler, Edward S

    2016-05-31

    Cellular processes mediated through nuclear DNA must contend with chromatin. Chromatin structural assays can efficiently integrate information across diverse regulatory elements, revealing the functional noncoding genome. In this study, we use a differential nuclease sensitivity assay based on micrococcal nuclease (MNase) digestion to discover open chromatin regions in the maize genome. We find that maize MNase-hypersensitive (MNase HS) regions localize around active genes and within recombination hotspots, focusing biased gene conversion at their flanks. Although MNase HS regions map to less than 1% of the genome, they consistently explain a remarkably large amount (∼40%) of heritable phenotypic variance in diverse complex traits. MNase HS regions are therefore on par with coding sequences as annotations that demarcate the functional parts of the maize genome. These results imply that less than 3% of the maize genome (coding and MNase HS regions) may give rise to the overwhelming majority of phenotypic variation, greatly narrowing the scope of the functional genome. PMID:27185945

  2. Brewing yeast genomes and genome-wide expression and proteome profiling during fermentation.

    PubMed

    Smart, Katherine A

    2007-11-01

    The genome structure, ancestry and instability of the brewing yeast strains have received considerable attention. The hybrid nature of brewing lager yeast strains provides adaptive potential but yields genome instability which can adversely affect fermentation performance. The requirement to differentiate between production strains and assess master cultures for genomic instability has led to significant adoption of specialized molecular tool kits by the industry. Furthermore, the development of genome-wide transcriptional and protein expression technologies has generated significant interest from brewers. The opportunity presented to explore, and the concurrent requirement to understand both, the constraints and potential of their strains to generate existing and new products during fermentation is discussed. PMID:17879324

  3. Resources for Functional Genomics Studies in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Mohr, Stephanie E.; Hu, Yanhui; Kim, Kevin; Housden, Benjamin E.; Perrimon, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster has become a system of choice for functional genomic studies. Many resources, including online databases and software tools, are now available to support design or identification of relevant fly stocks and reagents or analysis and mining of existing functional genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, etc. datasets. These include large community collections of fly stocks and plasmid clones, “meta” information sites like FlyBase and FlyMine, and an increasing number of more specialized reagents, databases, and online tools. Here, we introduce key resources useful to plan large-scale functional genomics studies in Drosophila and to analyze, integrate, and mine the results of those studies in ways that facilitate identification of highest-confidence results and generation of new hypotheses. We also discuss ways in which existing resources can be used and might be improved and suggest a few areas of future development that would further support large- and small-scale studies in Drosophila and facilitate use of Drosophila information by the research community more generally. PMID:24653003

  4. Project management system for structural and functional proteomics: Sesame.

    PubMed

    Zolnai, Zsolt; Lee, Peter T; Li, Jing; Chapman, Michael R; Newman, Craig S; Phillips, George N; Rayment, Ivan; Ulrich, Eldon L; Volkman, Brian F; Markley, John L

    2003-01-01

    A computing infrastructure (Sesame) has been designed to manage and link individual steps in complex projects. Sesame is being developed to support a large-scale structural proteomics pilot project. When complete, the system is expected to manage all steps from target selection to data-bank deposition and report writing. We report here on the design criteria of the Sesame system and on results demonstrating successful achievement of the basic goals of its architecture. The Sesame software package, which follows the client/server paradigm, consists of a framework, which supports secure interactions among the three tiers of the system (the client, server, and database tiers), and application modules that carry out specific tasks. The framework utilizes industry standards. The client tier is written in Java2 and can be accessed anywhere through the Internet. All the development on the server tier is also carried out in Java2 so as to accommodate a wide variety of computer platforms. The database tier employs a commercial database management system. Each Sesame application module consists of a simple user interface in the client tier, corresponding objects in the server tier, and relevant data stored in the centralized database. For security, access to stored data is controlled by access privileges. The system facilitates both local and remote collaborations. Because users interact with the system using Java Web Start or through a web browser, access is limited only by the availability of an Internet connection. We describe several Sesame modules that have been developed to the point where they are being utilized routinely to support steps involved in structural and functional proteomics. This software is available to parties interested in using it and assisting to guide its further development. PMID:12943363

  5. Community genomic and proteomic analysis of chemoautotrophic, iron-oxidizing "Leptospirillum rubarum" (Group II) and Leptospirillum ferrodiazotrophum (Group III) in acid mine drainage biofilms

    SciTech Connect

    Goltsman, Daniela; Denef, Vincent; Singer, Steven; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Lefsrud, Mark G; Mueller, Ryan; Dick, Gregory J.; Sun, Christine; Wheeler, Korin; Zelma, Adam; Baker, Brett J.; Hauser, Loren John; Land, Miriam L; Shah, Manesh B; Thelen, Michael P.; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2009-01-01

    We analyzed near-complete population (composite) genomic sequences for coexisting acidophilic iron-oxidizing Leptospirillum Groups II and III bacteria (phylum Nitrospirae) and an extrachromosomal plasmid from a Richmond Mine, CA acid mine drainage (AMD) biofilm. Community proteomic analysis of the genomically characterized sample and two other biofilms identified 64.6% and 44.9% of the predicted proteins of Leptospirillum Groups II and III, respectively and 20% of the predicted plasmid proteins. The bacteria share 92% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity and > 60% of their genes, including integrated plasmid-like regions. The extrachromosomal plasmid encodes conjugation genes with detectable sequence similarity to genes in the integrated conjugative plasmid, but only those on the extrachromosomal element were identified by proteomics. Both bacteria have genes for community-essential functions, including carbon fixation, biosynthesis of vitamins, fatty acids and biopolymers (including cellulose); proteomic analyses reveal these activities. Both Leptospirillum types have multiple pathways for osmotic protection. Although both are motile, signal transduction and methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins are more abundant in Leptospirillum Group III, consistent with its distribution in gradients within biofilms. Interestingly, Leptospirillum Group II uses a methyl-dependent and Leptospirillum Group III a methyl-independent response pathway. Although only Leptospirillum Group III can fix nitrogen, these proteins were not identified by proteomics. Abundances of core proteins are similar in all communities, but abundance levels of unique and shared proteins of unknown function vary. Some proteins unique to one organism were highly expressed and may be key to the functional and ecological differentiation of Leptospirillum Groups II and III.

  6. Community Genomic and Proteomic Analyses of Chemoautotrophic Iron-Oxidizing "Leptospirillum rubarum" (Group II) and "Leptospirillum ferrodiazotrophum" (Group III) Bacteria in Acid Mine Drainage Biofilms

    SciTech Connect

    Goltsman, Daniela; Denef, Vincent; Singer, Steven; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Lefsrud, Mark G; Mueller, Ryan; Dick, Gregory J.; Sun, Christine; Wheeler, Korin; Zelma, Adam; Baker, Brett J.; Hauser, Loren John; Land, Miriam L; Shah, Manesh B; Thelen, Michael P.; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2009-01-01

    We analyzed near-complete population (composite) genomic sequences for coexisting acidophilic iron-oxidizing Leptospirillum group II and III bacteria (phylum Nitrospirae) and an extrachromosomal plasmid from a Richmond Mine, Iron Mountain, CA, acid mine drainage biofilm. Community proteomic analysis of the genomically characterized sample and two other biofilms identified 64.6% and 44.9% of the predicted proteins of Leptospirillum groups II and III, respectively, and 20% of the predicted plasmid proteins. The bacteria share 92% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity and >60% of their genes, including integrated plasmid-like regions. The extrachromosomal plasmid carries conjugation genes with detectable sequence similarity to genes in the integrated conjugative plasmid, but only those on the extrachromosomal element were identified by proteomics. Both bacterial groups have genes for community-essential functions, including carbon fixation and biosynthesis of vitamins, fatty acids, and biopolymers (including cellulose); proteomic analyses reveal these activities. Both Leptospirillum types have multiple pathways for osmotic protection. Although both are motile, signal transduction and methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins are more abundant in Leptospirillum group III, consistent with its distribution in gradients within biofilms. Interestingly, Leptospirillum group II uses a methyl-dependent and Leptospirillum group III a methyl-independent response pathway. Although only Leptospirillum group III can fix nitrogen, these proteins were not identified by proteomics. The abundances of core proteins are similar in all communities, but the abundance levels of unique and shared proteins of unknown function vary. Some proteins unique to one organism were highly expressed and may be key to the functional and ecological differentiation of Leptospirillum groups II and III.

  7. Functional Networks of Highest-Connected Splice Isoforms: From The Chromosome 17 Human Proteome Project.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-Dong; Menon, Rajasree; Govindarajoo, Brandon; Panwar, Bharat; Zhang, Yang; Omenn, Gilbert S; Guan, Yuanfang

    2015-09-01

    Alternative splicing allows a single gene to produce multiple transcript-level splice isoforms from which the translated proteins may show differences in their expression and function. Identifying the major functional or canonical isoform is important for understanding gene and protein functions. Identification and characterization of splice isoforms is a stated goal of the HUPO Human Proteome Project and of neXtProt. Multiple efforts have catalogued splice isoforms as "dominant", "principal", or "major" isoforms based on expression or evolutionary traits. In contrast, we recently proposed highest connected isoforms (HCIs) as a new class of canonical isoforms that have the strongest interactions in a functional network and revealed their significantly higher (differential) transcript-level expression compared to nonhighest connected isoforms (NCIs) regardless of tissues/cell lines in the mouse. HCIs and their expression behavior in the human remain unexplored. Here we identified HCIs for 6157 multi-isoform genes using a human isoform network that we constructed by integrating a large compendium of heterogeneous genomic data. We present examples for pairs of transcript isoforms of ABCC3, RBM34, ERBB2, and ANXA7. We found that functional networks of isoforms of the same gene can show large differences. Interestingly, differential expression between HCIs and NCIs was also observed in the human on an independent set of 940 RNA-seq samples across multiple tissues, including heart, kidney, and liver. Using proteomic data from normal human retina and placenta, we showed that HCIs are a promising indicator of expressed protein isoforms exemplified by NUDFB6 and M6PR. Furthermore, we found that a significant percentage (20%, p = 0.0003) of human and mouse HCIs are homologues, suggesting their conservation between species. Our identified HCIs expand the repertoire of canonical isoforms and are expected to facilitate studying main protein products, understanding gene

  8. Exploration of Panviral Proteome: High-Throughput Cloning and Functional Implications in Virus-host Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaobo; Bian, Xiaofang; Throop, Andrea; Song, Lusheng; Moral, Lerys Del; Park, Jin; Seiler, Catherine; Fiacco, Michael; Steel, Jason; Hunter, Preston; Saul, Justin; Wang, Jie; Qiu, Ji; Pipas, James M.; LaBaer, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Throughout the long history of virus-host co-evolution, viruses have developed delicate strategies to facilitate their invasion and replication of their genome, while silencing the host immune responses through various mechanisms. The systematic characterization of viral protein-host interactions would yield invaluable information in the understanding of viral invasion/evasion, diagnosis and therapeutic treatment of a viral infection, and mechanisms of host biology. With more than 2,000 viral genomes sequenced, only a small percent of them are well investigated. The access of these viral open reading frames (ORFs) in a flexible cloning format would greatly facilitate both in vitro and in vivo virus-host interaction studies. However, the overall progress of viral ORF cloning has been slow. To facilitate viral studies, we are releasing the initiation of our panviral proteome collection of 2,035 ORF clones from 830 viral genes in the Gateway® recombinational cloning system. Here, we demonstrate several uses of our viral collection including highly efficient production of viral proteins using human cell-free expression system in vitro, global identification of host targets for rubella virus using Nucleic Acid Programmable Protein Arrays (NAPPA) containing 10,000 unique human proteins, and detection of host serological responses using micro-fluidic multiplexed immunoassays. The studies presented here begin to elucidate host-viral protein interactions with our systemic utilization of viral ORFs, high-throughput cloning, and proteomic technologies. These valuable plasmid resources will be available to the research community to enable continued viral functional studies. PMID:24955142

  9. A peptide identification-free, genome sequence-independent shotgun proteomics workflow for strain-level bacterial differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Wenguang; Zhang, Min; Lam, Henry; Lau, Stanley C. K.

    2015-01-01

    Shotgun proteomics is an emerging tool for bacterial identification and differentiation. However, the identification of the mass spectra of peptides to genome-derived peptide sequences remains a key issue that limits the use of shotgun proteomics to bacteria with genome sequences available. In this proof-of-concept study, we report a novel bacterial fingerprinting method that enjoys the resolving power and accuracy of mass spectrometry without the burden of peptide identification (i.e. genome sequence-independent). This method uses a similarity-clustering algorithm to search for mass spectra that are derived from the same peptide and merge them into a unique consensus spectrum as the basis to generate proteomic fingerprints of bacterial isolates. In comparison to a traditional peptide identification-based shotgun proteomics workflow and a PCR-based DNA fingerprinting method targeting the repetitive extragenic palindromes elements in bacterial genomes, the novel method generated fingerprints that were richer in information and more discriminative in differentiating E. coli isolates by their animal sources. The novel method is readily deployable to any cultivable bacteria, and may be used for several fields of study such as environmental microbiology, applied microbiology, and clinical microbiology. PMID:26395646

  10. A peptide identification-free, genome sequence-independent shotgun proteomics workflow for strain-level bacterial differentiation.

    PubMed

    Shao, Wenguang; Zhang, Min; Lam, Henry; Lau, Stanley C K

    2015-01-01

    Shotgun proteomics is an emerging tool for bacterial identification and differentiation. However, the identification of the mass spectra of peptides to genome-derived peptide sequences remains a key issue that limits the use of shotgun proteomics to bacteria with genome sequences available. In this proof-of-concept study, we report a novel bacterial fingerprinting method that enjoys the resolving power and accuracy of mass spectrometry without the burden of peptide identification (i.e. genome sequence-independent). This method uses a similarity-clustering algorithm to search for mass spectra that are derived from the same peptide and merge them into a unique consensus spectrum as the basis to generate proteomic fingerprints of bacterial isolates. In comparison to a traditional peptide identification-based shotgun proteomics workflow and a PCR-based DNA fingerprinting method targeting the repetitive extragenic palindromes elements in bacterial genomes, the novel method generated fingerprints that were richer in information and more discriminative in differentiating E. coli isolates by their animal sources. The novel method is readily deployable to any cultivable bacteria, and may be used for several fields of study such as environmental microbiology, applied microbiology, and clinical microbiology. PMID:26395646

  11. Functional Complexity of the Axonal Growth Cone: A Proteomic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Estrada-Bernal, Adriana; Sanford, Staci D.; Sosa, Lucas J.; Simon, Glenn C.; Hansen, Kirk C.; Pfenninger, Karl H.

    2012-01-01

    The growth cone, the tip of the emerging neurite, plays a crucial role in establishing the wiring of the developing nervous system. We performed an extensive proteomic analysis of axonal growth cones isolated from the brains of fetal Sprague-Dawley rats. Approximately 2000 proteins were identified at ≥99% confidence level. Using informatics, including functional annotation cluster and KEGG pathway analysis, we found great diversity of proteins involved in axonal pathfinding, cytoskeletal remodeling, vesicular traffic and carbohydrate metabolism, as expected. We also found a large and complex array of proteins involved in translation, protein folding, posttranslational processing, and proteasome/ubiquitination-dependent degradation. Immunofluorescence studies performed on hippocampal neurons in culture confirmed the presence in the axonal growth cone of proteins representative of these processes. These analyses also provide evidence for rough endoplasmic reticulum and reveal a reticular structure equipped with Golgi-like functions in the axonal growth cone. Furthermore, Western blot revealed the growth cone enrichment, relative to fetal brain homogenate, of some of the proteins involved in protein synthesis, folding and catabolism. Our study provides a resource for further research and amplifies the relatively recently developed concept that the axonal growth cone is equipped with proteins capable of performing a highly diverse range of functions. PMID:22384089

  12. Characterization of the Genome, Proteome, and Structure of Yersiniophage ϕR1-37

    PubMed Central

    Hyytiäinen, Heidi J.; Happonen, Lotta J.; Kiljunen, Saija; Datta, Neeta; Mattinen, Laura; Williamson, Kirsty; Kristo, Paula; Szeliga, Magdalena; Kalin-Mänttäri, Laura; Ahola-Iivarinen, Elina; Kalkkinen, Nisse; Butcher, Sarah J.

    2012-01-01

    The bacteriophage vB_YecM-ϕR1-37 (ϕR1-37) is a lytic yersiniophage that can propagate naturally in different Yersinia species carrying the correct lipopolysaccharide receptor. This large-tailed phage has deoxyuridine (dU) instead of thymidine in its DNA. In this study, we determined the genomic sequence of phage ϕR1-37, mapped parts of the phage transcriptome, characterized the phage particle proteome, and characterized the virion structure by cryo-electron microscopy and image reconstruction. The 262,391-bp genome of ϕR1-37 is one of the largest sequenced phage genomes, and it contains 367 putative open reading frames (ORFs) and 5 tRNA genes. Mass-spectrometric analysis identified 69 phage particle structural proteins with the genes scattered throughout the genome. A total of 269 of the ORFs (73%) lack homologues in sequence databases. Based on terminator and promoter sequences identified from the intergenic regions, the phage genome was predicted to consist of 40 to 60 transcriptional units. Image reconstruction revealed that the ϕR1-37 capsid consists of hexameric capsomers arranged on a T=27 lattice similar to the bacteriophage ϕKZ. The tail of ϕR1-37 has a contractile sheath. We conclude that phage ϕR1-37 is a representative of a novel phage type that carries the dU-containing genome in a ϕKZ-like head. PMID:22973030

  13. Enriching the annotation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv proteome using remote homology detection approaches: insights into structure and function.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Gayatri; Ochoa-Montaño, Bernardo; Raghavender, Upadhyayula S; Mudgal, Richa; Joshi, Adwait G; Chandra, Nagasuma R; Sowdhamini, Ramanathan; Blundell, Tom L; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy

    2015-01-01

    The availability of the genome sequence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv has encouraged determination of large numbers of protein structures and detailed definition of the biological information encoded therein; yet, the functions of many proteins in M. tuberculosis remain unknown. The emergence of multidrug resistant strains makes it a priority to exploit recent advances in homology recognition and structure prediction to re-analyse its gene products. Here we report the structural and functional characterization of gene products encoded in the M. tuberculosis genome, with the help of sensitive profile-based remote homology search and fold recognition algorithms resulting in an enhanced annotation of the proteome where 95% of the M. tuberculosis proteins were identified wholly or partly with information on structure or function. New information includes association of 244 proteins with 205 domain families and a separate set of new association of folds to 64 proteins. Extending structural information across uncharacterized protein families represented in the M. tuberculosis proteome, by determining superfamily relationships between families of known and unknown structures, has contributed to an enhancement in the knowledge of structural content. In retrospect, such superfamily relationships have facilitated recognition of probable structure and/or function for several uncharacterized protein families, eventually aiding recognition of probable functions for homologous proteins corresponding to such families. Gene products unique to mycobacteria for which no functions could be identified are 183. Of these 18 were determined to be M. tuberculosis specific. Such pathogen-specific proteins are speculated to harbour virulence factors required for pathogenesis. A re-annotated proteome of M. tuberculosis, with greater completeness of annotated proteins and domain assigned regions, provides a valuable basis for experimental endeavours designed to obtain a better

  14. Ascribing Functions to Genes: Journey Towards Genetic Improvement of Rice Via Functional Genomics.

    PubMed

    Mustafiz, Ananda; Kumari, Sumita; Karan, Ratna

    2016-06-01

    Rice, one of the most important cereal crops for mankind, feeds more than half the world population. Rice has been heralded as a model cereal owing to its small genome size, amenability to easy transformation, high synteny to other cereal crops and availability of complete genome sequence. Moreover, sequence wealth in rice is getting more refined and precise due to resequencing efforts. This humungous resource of sequence data has confronted research fraternity with a herculean challenge as well as an excellent opportunity to functionally validate expressed as well as regulatory portions of the genome. This will not only help us in understanding the genetic basis of plant architecture and physiology but would also steer us towards developing improved cultivars. No single technique can achieve such a mammoth task. Functional genomics through its diverse tools viz. loss and gain of function mutants, multifarious omics strategies like transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and phenomics provide us with the necessary handle. A paradigm shift in technological advances in functional genomics strategies has been instrumental in generating considerable amount of information w.r.t functionality of rice genome. We now have several databases and online resources for functionally validated genes but despite that we are far from reaching the desired milestone of functionally characterizing each and every rice gene. There is an urgent need for a common platform, for information already available in rice, and collaborative efforts between researchers in a concerted manner as well as healthy public-private partnership, for genetic improvement of rice crop better able to handle the pressures of climate change and exponentially increasing population. PMID:27252584

  15. Functional genomics and cancer drug target discovery.

    PubMed

    Moody, Susan E; Boehm, Jesse S; Barbie, David A; Hahn, William C

    2010-06-01

    The recent development of technologies for whole-genome sequencing, copy number analysis and expression profiling enables the generation of comprehensive descriptions of cancer genomes. However, although the structural analysis and expression profiling of tumors and cancer cell lines can allow the identification of candidate molecules that are altered in the malignant state, functional analyses are necessary to confirm such genes as oncogenes or tumor suppressors. Moreover, recent research suggests that tumor cells also depend on synthetic lethal targets, which are not mutated or amplified in cancer genomes; functional genomics screening can facilitate the discovery of such targets. This review provides an overview of the tools available for the study of functional genomics, and discusses recent research involving the use of these tools to identify potential novel drug targets in cancer. PMID:20521217

  16. Molecular targets of TBBPA in zebrafish analysed through integration of genomic and proteomic approaches.

    PubMed

    De Wit, Marijke; Keil, Dorien; Remmerie, Noor; van der Ven, Karlijn; van den Brandhof, Evert-Jan; Knapen, Dries; Witters, Erwin; De Coen, Wim

    2008-12-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA) is nowadays one of the most frequently used brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and can be considered as a high production volume chemical. Over the last decade, numerous reports of increasing concentrations of BFRs in the environment and humans have been published. However, the toxicological knowledge on TBBPA, and more specifically its molecular mode of action, is rather fragmentary. In this study two populations of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed for 14 days to 0.75 microM and 1.5 microM TBBPA. Subsequently, we employed a combined transcriptomic and proteomic approach to evaluate the molecular effects of TBBPA in zebrafish liver. Oligonucleotide microarrays were used to study the effects on gene expression levels. These results were validated through real-time PCR. The proteome of the liver was analysed by means of differential in-gel electrophoresis (DiGE), an innovative application of traditional 2D-PAGE. Combination of the extracted datasets allowed reassembling of individual molecular responses into a comprehensive overview of affected molecular pathways. Interpretation of the results depicted an interference of thyroid and Vitamin A homeostasis in the exposed zebrafish, TBBPA also elicited responses indicating onset of oxidative stress and general stress responses. Additionally, numerous differentially expressed transcripts could be associated with defence mechanisms or corresponded to metabolizing enzymes. Furthermore, cellular metabolism was clearly affected, illustrated as disturbance of e.g. lipid, carbohydrate, and organic acid metabolic processes. Summarizing, these results enabled us to hypothesize several working mechanisms of TBBPA and demonstrated the potential of a combined genome and proteome approach to generate detailed mechanistic toxicological information. PMID:18976794

  17. Statistical Methods for Proteomic Biomarker Discovery based on Feature Extraction or Functional Modeling Approaches*

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Jeffrey S.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, developments in molecular biotechnology have led to the increased promise of detecting and validating biomarkers, or molecular markers that relate to various biological or medical outcomes. Proteomics, the direct study of proteins in biological samples, plays an important role in the biomarker discovery process. These technologies produce complex, high dimensional functional and image data that present many analytical challenges that must be addressed properly for effective comparative proteomics studies that can yield potential biomarkers. Specific challenges include experimental design, preprocessing, feature extraction, and statistical analysis accounting for the inherent multiple testing issues. This paper reviews various computational aspects of comparative proteomic studies, and summarizes contributions I along with numerous collaborators have made. First, there is an overview of comparative proteomics technologies, followed by a discussion of important experimental design and preprocessing issues that must be considered before statistical analysis can be done. Next, the two key approaches to analyzing proteomics data, feature extraction and functional modeling, are described. Feature extraction involves detection and quantification of discrete features like peaks or spots that theoretically correspond to different proteins in the sample. After an overview of the feature extraction approach, specific methods for mass spectrometry (Cromwell) and 2D gel electrophoresis (Pinnacle) are described. The functional modeling approach involves modeling the proteomic data in their entirety as functions or images. A general discussion of the approach is followed by the presentation of a specific method that can be applied, wavelet-based functional mixed models, and its extensions. All methods are illustrated by application to two example proteomic data sets, one from mass spectrometry and one from 2D gel electrophoresis. While the specific methods

  18. Statistical Methods for Proteomic Biomarker Discovery based on Feature Extraction or Functional Modeling Approaches.

    PubMed

    Morris, Jeffrey S

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, developments in molecular biotechnology have led to the increased promise of detecting and validating biomarkers, or molecular markers that relate to various biological or medical outcomes. Proteomics, the direct study of proteins in biological samples, plays an important role in the biomarker discovery process. These technologies produce complex, high dimensional functional and image data that present many analytical challenges that must be addressed properly for effective comparative proteomics studies that can yield potential biomarkers. Specific challenges include experimental design, preprocessing, feature extraction, and statistical analysis accounting for the inherent multiple testing issues. This paper reviews various computational aspects of comparative proteomic studies, and summarizes contributions I along with numerous collaborators have made. First, there is an overview of comparative proteomics technologies, followed by a discussion of important experimental design and preprocessing issues that must be considered before statistical analysis can be done. Next, the two key approaches to analyzing proteomics data, feature extraction and functional modeling, are described. Feature extraction involves detection and quantification of discrete features like peaks or spots that theoretically correspond to different proteins in the sample. After an overview of the feature extraction approach, specific methods for mass spectrometry (Cromwell) and 2D gel electrophoresis (Pinnacle) are described. The functional modeling approach involves modeling the proteomic data in their entirety as functions or images. A general discussion of the approach is followed by the presentation of a specific method that can be applied, wavelet-based functional mixed models, and its extensions. All methods are illustrated by application to two example proteomic data sets, one from mass spectrometry and one from 2D gel electrophoresis. While the specific methods

  19. Target selection for structural genomics based on combining fold recognition and crystallisation prediction methods: application to the human proteome.

    PubMed

    Bray, James E

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study is to automatically identify regions of the human proteome that are suitable for 3D structure determination by X-ray crystallography and to annotate them according to their likelihood to produce diffraction quality crystals. The results provide a powerful tool for structural genomics laboratories who wish to select human proteins based on the statistical likelihood of crystallisation success. Combining fold recognition and crystallisation prediction algorithms enables the efficient calculation of the crystallisability of the entire human proteome. This novel study estimates that there are approximately 40,000 crystallisable regions in the human proteome. Currently, only 15% of these regions (approx. 6,000 sequences) have been solved to at least 95% sequence identity. The remaining unsolved regions have been categorised into 5 crystallisation classes and an integral membrane protein (IMP) class, based on established structure prediction, crystallisation prediction and transmembrane (TM) helix prediction algorithms. Approximately 750 unsolved regions (2% of the proteome) have been identified as having a PDB fold representative (template) and an 'optimal' likelihood of crystallisation. At the other end of the spectrum, more than 10,500 non-IMP regions with a PDB template are classified as 'very difficult' to crystallise (26%) and almost 2,500 regions (6%) were predicted to contain at least 3 TM helices. The 3D-SPECS (3D Structural Proteomics Explorer with Crystallisation Scores) website contains crystallisation predictions for the entire human proteome and can be found at http://www.bioinformaticsplus.org/3dspecs. PMID:22354707

  20. metabolicMine: an integrated genomics, genetics and proteomics data warehouse for common metabolic disease research.

    PubMed

    Lyne, Mike; Smith, Richard N; Lyne, Rachel; Aleksic, Jelena; Hu, Fengyuan; Kalderimis, Alex; Stepan, Radek; Micklem, Gos

    2013-01-01

    Common metabolic and endocrine diseases such as diabetes affect millions of people worldwide and have a major health impact, frequently leading to complications and mortality. In a search for better prevention and treatment, there is ongoing research into the underlying molecular and genetic bases of these complex human diseases, as well as into the links with risk factors such as obesity. Although an increasing number of relevant genomic and proteomic data sets have become available, the quantity and diversity of the data make their efficient exploitation challenging. Here, we present metabolicMine, a data warehouse with a specific focus on the genomics, genetics and proteomics of common metabolic diseases. Developed in collaboration with leading UK metabolic disease groups, metabolicMine integrates data sets from a range of experiments and model organisms alongside tools for exploring them. The current version brings together information covering genes, proteins, orthologues, interactions, gene expression, pathways, ontologies, diseases, genome-wide association studies and single nucleotide polymorphisms. Although the emphasis is on human data, key data sets from mouse and rat are included. These are complemented by interoperation with the RatMine rat genomics database, with a corresponding mouse version under development by the Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) group. The web interface contains a number of features including keyword search, a library of Search Forms, the QueryBuilder and list analysis tools. This provides researchers with many different ways to analyse, view and flexibly export data. Programming interfaces and automatic code generation in several languages are supported, and many of the features of the web interface are available through web services. The combination of diverse data sets integrated with analysis tools and a powerful query system makes metabolicMine a valuable research resource. The web interface makes it accessible to first

  1. metabolicMine: an integrated genomics, genetics and proteomics data warehouse for common metabolic disease research

    PubMed Central

    Lyne, Mike; Smith, Richard N; Lyne, Rachel; Aleksic, Jelena; Hu, Fengyuan; Kalderimis, Alex; Stepan, Radek; Micklem, Gos

    2013-01-01

    Common metabolic and endocrine diseases such as diabetes affect millions of people worldwide and have a major health impact, frequently leading to complications and mortality. In a search for better prevention and treatment, there is ongoing research into the underlying molecular and genetic bases of these complex human diseases, as well as into the links with risk factors such as obesity. Although an increasing number of relevant genomic and proteomic data sets have become available, the quantity and diversity of the data make their efficient exploitation challenging. Here, we present metabolicMine, a data warehouse with a specific focus on the genomics, genetics and proteomics of common metabolic diseases. Developed in collaboration with leading UK metabolic disease groups, metabolicMine integrates data sets from a range of experiments and model organisms alongside tools for exploring them. The current version brings together information covering genes, proteins, orthologues, interactions, gene expression, pathways, ontologies, diseases, genome-wide association studies and single nucleotide polymorphisms. Although the emphasis is on human data, key data sets from mouse and rat are included. These are complemented by interoperation with the RatMine rat genomics database, with a corresponding mouse version under development by the Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) group. The web interface contains a number of features including keyword search, a library of Search Forms, the QueryBuilder and list analysis tools. This provides researchers with many different ways to analyse, view and flexibly export data. Programming interfaces and automatic code generation in several languages are supported, and many of the features of the web interface are available through web services. The combination of diverse data sets integrated with analysis tools and a powerful query system makes metabolicMine a valuable research resource. The web interface makes it accessible to first

  2. Functional proteomic and interactome analysis of proteins associated with beef tenderness in angus cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beef is a source of high quality protein for the human population, and beef tenderness has significant influence on beef palatability, consumer expectation and industry profitability. To further elucidate the factors affecting beef tenderness, functional proteomics and bioinformatics interactome ana...

  3. From genomes to function: haloarchaea as model organisms.

    PubMed

    Soppa, Jörg

    2006-03-01

    Haloarchaea are adapted to high-salt environments and accumulate equally high salt concentrations in the cytoplasm. The genomes of representatives of six haloarchaeal genera have been fully or partially sequenced, allowing the analysis of haloarchaeal properties in silico. Transcriptome and proteome analyses have been established for Halobacterium salinarum and Haloferax volcanii. Genetic systems are available including methods that allow the fast in-frame deletion or modification of chromosomal genes. The high-efficiency transformation system of Hf. volcanii allows the isolation of genes essential for a biological process by complementation of loss-of-function mutants. For the analysis of haloarchaeal biology many molecular genetic, biochemical, structural and cell biological methods have been adapted to application at high salt concentrations. Recently it has become clear that several different mechanisms allow the adaptation of proteins to the high salt concentration of the cytoplasm. Taken together, the wealth of techniques available make haloarchaea excellent archaeal model species. PMID:16514139

  4. Genomic, Proteomic, and Metabolite Characterization of Gemfibrozil-Degrading Organism Bacillus sp. GeD10.

    PubMed

    Kjeldal, Henrik; Zhou, Nicolette A; Wissenbach, Dirk K; von Bergen, Martin; Gough, Heidi L; Nielsen, Jeppe L

    2016-01-19

    Gemfibrozil is a widely used hypolipidemic and triglyceride lowering drug. Excess of the drug is excreted and discharged into the environment primarily via wastewater treatment plant effluents. Bacillus sp. GeD10, a gemfibrozil-degrader, was previously isolated from activated sludge. It is the first identified bacterium capable of degrading gemfibrozil. Gemfibrozil degradation by Bacillus sp. GeD10 was here studied through genome sequencing, quantitative proteomics and metabolite analysis. From the bacterial proteome of Bacillus sp. GeD10 1974 proteins were quantified, of which 284 proteins were found to be overabundant by more than 2-fold (FDR corrected p-value ≤0.032, fold change (log2) ≥ 1) in response to gemfibrozil exposure. Metabolomic analysis identified two hydroxylated intermediates as well as a glucuronidated hydroxyl-metabolite of gemfibrozil. Overall, gemfibrozil exposure in Bacillus sp. GeD10 increased the abundance of several enzymes potentially involved in gemfibrozil degradation as well as resulted in the production of several gemfibrozil metabolites. The potential catabolic pathway/modification included ring-hydroxylation preparing the substrate for subsequent ring cleavage by a meta-cleaving enzyme. The identified genes may allow for monitoring of potential gemfibrozil-degrading organisms in situ and increase the understanding of microbial processing of trace level contaminants. This study represents the first omics study on a gemfibrozil-degrading bacterium. PMID:26683816

  5. Microbial proteomics: the quiet revolution

    SciTech Connect

    Seraphin, Bertrand; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L

    2012-01-01

    Technological developments in DNA sequencing and their application to study thousands of microbial genomes or even microbial ecosystems still today often make the headlines of general newspapers and scientific journals. These revolutionary changes are hiding another revolution that is unfolding more quietly in the background: the development of microbial proteomics to study genome expression products. It is important to recognize that while DNA sequencing reveals extensive details about the genomic potential of an organism or community, proteomic measurements reveal the functional gene products that are present and operational under specific environmental conditions, and thus perhaps better characterize the critical biomolecules that execute the life processes (enzymes, signaling, structural factors, etc.).

  6. Biomarkers for Bone Tumors: Discovery from Genomics and Proteomics Studies and Their Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Wan-Ibrahim, Wan I; Singh, Vivek A; Hashim, Onn H; Abdul-Rahman, Puteri S

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosis of bone tumor currently relies on imaging and biopsy, and hence, the need to find less invasive ways for its accurate detection. More recently, numerous promising deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and protein biomarkers with significant prognostic, diagnostic and/or predictive abilities for various types of bone tumors have been identified from genomics and proteomics studies. This article reviewed the putative biomarkers for the more common types of bone tumors (that is, osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, chondrosarcoma [malignant] and giant cell tumor [benign]) that were unveiled from the studies. The benefits and drawbacks of these biomarkers, as well as the technology platforms involved in the research, were also discussed. Challenges faced in the biomarker discovery studies and the problems in their translation from the bench to the clinical settings were also addressed. PMID:26581086

  7. The Present and Future of Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer: Proteomics, Genomics, and Immunology Advancements

    PubMed Central

    Gaudreau, Pierre-Olivier; Stagg, John; Soulières, Denis; Saad, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the second most common form of cancer in men worldwide. Biomarkers have emerged as essential tools for treatment and assessment since the variability of disease behavior, the cost and diversity of treatments, and the related impairment of quality of life have given rise to a need for a personalized approach. High-throughput technology platforms in proteomics and genomics have accelerated the development of biomarkers. Furthermore, recent successes of several new agents in PC, including immunotherapy, have stimulated the search for predictors of response and resistance and have improved the understanding of the biological mechanisms at work. This review provides an overview of currently established biomarkers in PC, as well as a selection of the most promising biomarkers within these particular fields of development. PMID:27168728

  8. The Present and Future of Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer: Proteomics, Genomics, and Immunology Advancements.

    PubMed

    Gaudreau, Pierre-Olivier; Stagg, John; Soulières, Denis; Saad, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the second most common form of cancer in men worldwide. Biomarkers have emerged as essential tools for treatment and assessment since the variability of disease behavior, the cost and diversity of treatments, and the related impairment of quality of life have given rise to a need for a personalized approach. High-throughput technology platforms in proteomics and genomics have accelerated the development of biomarkers. Furthermore, recent successes of several new agents in PC, including immunotherapy, have stimulated the search for predictors of response and resistance and have improved the understanding of the biological mechanisms at work. This review provides an overview of currently established biomarkers in PC, as well as a selection of the most promising biomarkers within these particular fields of development. PMID:27168728

  9. Proteomics for Validation of Automated Gene Model Predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Kemin; Panisko, Ellen A.; Magnuson, Jon K.; Baker, Scott E.; Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2008-02-14

    High-throughput liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based proteomic analysis has emerged as a powerful tool for functional annotation of genome sequences. These analyses complement the bioinformatic and experimental tools used for deriving, verifying, and functionally annotating models of genes and their transcripts. Furthermore, proteomics extends verification and functional annotation to the level of the translation product of the gene model.

  10. Identification and Validation of Specific Markers of Bacillus anthracis Spores by Proteomics and Genomics Approaches*

    PubMed Central

    Chenau, Jérôme; Fenaille, François; Caro, Valérie; Haustant, Michel; Diancourt, Laure; Klee, Silke R.; Junot, Christophe; Ezan, Eric; Goossens, Pierre L.; Becher, François

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis is the causative bacteria of anthrax, an acute and often fatal disease in humans. The infectious agent, the spore, represents a real bioterrorism threat and its specific identification is crucial. However, because of the high genomic relatedness within the Bacillus cereus group, it is still a real challenge to identify B. anthracis spores confidently. Mass spectrometry-based tools represent a powerful approach to the efficient discovery and identification of such protein markers. Here we undertook comparative proteomics analyses of Bacillus anthracis, cereus and thuringiensis spores to identify proteoforms unique to B. anthracis. The marker discovery pipeline developed combined peptide- and protein-centric approaches using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry experiments using a high resolution/high mass accuracy LTQ-Orbitrap instrument. By combining these data with those from complementary bioinformatics approaches, we were able to highlight a dozen novel proteins consistently observed across all the investigated B. anthracis spores while being absent in B. cereus/thuringiensis spores. To further demonstrate the relevance of these markers and their strict specificity to B. anthracis, the number of strains studied was extended to 55, by including closely related strains such as B. thuringiensis 9727, and above all the B. cereus biovar anthracis CI, CA strains that possess pXO1- and pXO2-like plasmids. Under these conditions, the combination of proteomics and genomics approaches confirms the pertinence of 11 markers. Genes encoding these 11 markers are located on the chromosome, which provides additional targets complementary to the commonly used plasmid-encoded markers. Last but not least, we also report the development of a targeted liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry method involving the selection reaction monitoring mode for the monitoring of the 4 most suitable protein markers. Within a proof

  11. Genome-Wide Transcriptome and Proteome Analysis on Different Developmental Stages of Cordyceps militaris

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Yalin; Yu, Guojun; Chen, Yijie; Jiang, Shuai; Wang, Man; Jin, Yanxia; Lan, Xianqing; Liang, Yi; Sun, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Background Cordyceps militaris, an ascomycete caterpillar fungus, has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine for many years owing to its anticancer and immunomodulatory activities. Currently, artificial culturing of this beneficial fungus has been widely used and can meet the market, but systematic molecular studies on the developmental stages of cultured C. militaris at transcriptional and translational levels have not been determined. Methodology/Principal Findings We utilized high-throughput Illumina sequencing to obtain the transcriptomes of C. militaris mycelium and fruiting body. All clean reads were mapped to C. militaris genome and most of the reads showed perfect coverage. Alternative splicing and novel transcripts were predicted to enrich the database. Gene expression analysis revealed that 2,113 genes were up-regulated in mycelium and 599 in fruiting body. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis were performed to analyze the genes with expression differences. Moreover, the putative cordycepin metabolism difference between different developmental stages was studied. In addition, the proteome data of mycelium and fruiting body were obtained by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis (1-DGE) coupled with nano-electrospray ionization liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (nESI-LC-MS/MS). 359 and 214 proteins were detected from mycelium and fruiting body respectively. GO, KEGG and Cluster of Orthologous Groups (COG) analysis were further conducted to better understand their difference. We analyzed the amounts of some noteworthy proteins in these two samples including lectin, superoxide dismutase, glycoside hydrolase and proteins involved in cordycepin metabolism, providing important information for further protein studies. Conclusions/Significance The results reveal the difference in gene expression between the mycelium and fruiting body of artificially cultivated C. militaris by transcriptome and proteome

  12. Functional Module Search in Protein Networks based on Semantic Similarity Improves the Analysis of Proteomics Data*

    PubMed Central

    Boyanova, Desislava; Nilla, Santosh; Klau, Gunnar W.; Dandekar, Thomas; Müller, Tobias; Dittrich, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    The continuously evolving field of proteomics produces increasing amounts of data while improving the quality of protein identifications. Albeit quantitative measurements are becoming more popular, many proteomic studies are still based on non-quantitative methods for protein identification. These studies result in potentially large sets of identified proteins, where the biological interpretation of proteins can be challenging. Systems biology develops innovative network-based methods, which allow an integrated analysis of these data. Here we present a novel approach, which combines prior knowledge of protein-protein interactions (PPI) with proteomics data using functional similarity measurements of interacting proteins. This integrated network analysis exactly identifies network modules with a maximal consistent functional similarity reflecting biological processes of the investigated cells. We validated our approach on small (H9N2 virus-infected gastric cells) and large (blood constituents) proteomic data sets. Using this novel algorithm, we identified characteristic functional modules in virus-infected cells, comprising key signaling proteins (e.g. the stress-related kinase RAF1) and demonstrate that this method allows a module-based functional characterization of cell types. Analysis of a large proteome data set of blood constituents resulted in clear separation of blood cells according to their developmental origin. A detailed investigation of the T-cell proteome further illustrates how the algorithm partitions large networks into functional subnetworks each representing specific cellular functions. These results demonstrate that the integrated network approach not only allows a detailed analysis of proteome networks but also yields a functional decomposition of complex proteomic data sets and thereby provides deeper insights into the underlying cellular processes of the investigated system. PMID:24807868

  13. Proteomic Insight into the Molecular Function of the Vitreous

    PubMed Central

    Skeie, Jessica M.; Roybal, C. Nathaniel; Mahajan, Vinit B.

    2015-01-01

    The human vitreous contains primarily water, but also contains proteins which have yet to be fully characterized. To gain insight into the four vitreous substructures and their potential functions, we isolated and analyzed the vitreous protein profiles of three non-diseased human eyes. The four analyzed substructures were the anterior hyaloid, the vitreous cortex, the vitreous core, and the vitreous base. Proteins were separated by multidimensional liquid chromatography and identified by tandem mass spectrometry. Bioinformatics tools then extracted the expression profiles, signaling pathways, and interactomes unique to each tissue. From each substructure, a mean of 2,062 unique proteins were identified, with many being differentially expressed in a specific substructure: 278 proteins were unique to the anterior hyaloid, 322 to the vitreous cortex, 128 to the vitreous base, and 136 to the vitreous core. When the identified proteins were organized according to relevant functional pathways and networks, key patterns appeared. The blood coagulation pathway and extracellular matrix turnover networks were highly represented. Oxidative stress regulation and energy metabolism proteins were distributed throughout the vitreous. Immune functions were represented by high levels of immunoglobulin, the complement pathway, damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), and evolutionarily conserved antimicrobial proteins. The majority of vitreous proteins detected were intracellular proteins, some of which originate from the retina, including rhodopsin (RHO), phosphodiesterase 6 (PDE6), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). This comprehensive analysis uncovers a picture of the vitreous as a biologically active tissue, where proteins localize to distinct substructures to protect the intraocular tissues from infection, oxidative stress, and energy disequilibrium. It also reveals the retina as a potential source of inflammatory mediators. The vitreous proteome catalogues the

  14. Aging synaptic mitochondria exhibit dynamic proteomic changes while maintaining bioenergetic function

    PubMed Central

    Stauch, Kelly L.; Purnell, Phillip R.; Fox, Howard S.

    2014-01-01

    Aging correlates with a progressive impairment of mitochondrial homeostasis and is an influential factor for several forms of neurodegeneration. However, the mechanisms underlying age-related alterations in synaptosomal mitochondria, a neuronal mitochondria population highly susceptible to insults and critical for brain function, remain incompletely understood. Therefore this study investigates the synaptic mitochondrial proteomic and bioenergetic alterations that occur with age. The utilization of a state of the art quantitative proteomics approach allowed for the comparison of protein expression levels in synaptic mitochondria isolated from 5 (mature), 12 (old), and 24 (aged) month old mice. During the process of aging we find that dynamic proteomic alterations occur in synaptic mitochondria. Despite direct (mitochondrial DNA deletions) and indirect (increased antioxidant protein levels) signs of mitochondrial damage in the aged mice, there was an overall maintenance of mitochondrial function. Therefore the synaptic mitochondrial proteomic changes that occur with aging correlate with preservation of synaptic mitochondrial function. PMID:24827396

  15. Functional environmental proteomics: elucidating the role of a c-type cytochrome abundant during uranium bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Yun, Jiae; Malvankar, Nikhil S; Ueki, Toshiyuki; Lovley, Derek R

    2016-02-01

    Studies with pure cultures of dissimilatory metal-reducing microorganisms have demonstrated that outer-surface c-type cytochromes are important electron transfer agents for the reduction of metals, but previous environmental proteomic studies have typically not recovered cytochrome sequences from subsurface environments in which metal reduction is important. Gel-separation, heme-staining and mass spectrometry of proteins in groundwater from in situ uranium bioremediation experiments identified a putative c-type cytochrome, designated Geobacter subsurface c-type cytochrome A (GscA), encoded within the genome of strain M18, a Geobacter isolate previously recovered from the site. Homologs of GscA were identified in the genomes of other Geobacter isolates in the phylogenetic cluster known as subsurface clade 1, which predominates in a diversity of Fe(III)-reducing subsurface environments. Most of the gscA sequences recovered from groundwater genomic DNA clustered in a tight phylogenetic group closely related to strain M18. GscA was most abundant in groundwater samples in which Geobacter sp. predominated. Expression of gscA in a strain of Geobacter sulfurreducens that lacked the gene for the c-type cytochrome OmcS, thought to facilitate electron transfer from conductive pili to Fe(III) oxide, restored the capacity for Fe(III) oxide reduction. Atomic force microscopy provided evidence that GscA was associated with the pili. These results demonstrate that a c-type cytochrome with an apparent function similar to that of OmcS is abundant when Geobacter sp. are abundant in the subsurface, providing insight into the mechanisms for the growth of subsurface Geobacter sp. on Fe(III) oxide and suggesting an approach for functional analysis of other Geobacter proteins found in the subsurface. PMID:26140532

  16. Functional analysis of natural microbial consortia using community proteomics

    SciTech Connect

    Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Denef, Vincent; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2009-01-01

    It is widely accepted that microbial communities, not individual microorganisms, are the relevant ecological units, yet what we know about metabolic functioning of microbial communities could be written on a postage stamp. The recent developments in comprehensive molecular methods promise to gain a better understanding of how organisms within communities interact and how communities and their populations evolve. Here we highlight recent advances and insights gathered by the application of proteogenomics to microbial communities. We explore the history of how unrelated fields of microbial ecology, genomics, biological mass spectrometry and informatics converge to the development of a new field of metaproteomics.

  17. Deciphering Clostridium tyrobutyricum Metabolism Based on the Whole-Genome Sequence and Proteome Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joungmin; Jang, Yu-Sin; Han, Mee-Jung; Kim, Jin Young

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Clostridium tyrobutyricum is a Gram-positive anaerobic bacterium that efficiently produces butyric acid and is considered a promising host for anaerobic production of bulk chemicals. Due to limited knowledge on the genetic and metabolic characteristics of this strain, however, little progress has been made in metabolic engineering of this strain. Here we report the complete genome sequence of C. tyrobutyricum KCTC 5387 (ATCC 25755), which consists of a 3.07-Mbp chromosome and a 63-kbp plasmid. The results of genomic analyses suggested that C. tyrobutyricum produces butyrate from butyryl-coenzyme A (butyryl-CoA) through acetate reassimilation by CoA transferase, differently from Clostridium acetobutylicum, which uses the phosphotransbutyrylase-butyrate kinase pathway; this was validated by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) of related genes, protein expression levels, in vitro CoA transferase assay, and fed-batch fermentation. In addition, the changes in protein expression levels during the course of batch fermentations on glucose were examined by shotgun proteomics. Unlike C. acetobutylicum, the expression levels of proteins involved in glycolytic and fermentative pathways in C. tyrobutyricum did not decrease even at the stationary phase. Proteins related to energy conservation mechanisms, including Rnf complex, NfnAB, and pyruvate-phosphate dikinase that are absent in C. acetobutylicum, were identified. Such features explain why this organism can produce butyric acid to a much higher titer and better tolerate toxic metabolites. This study presenting the complete genome sequence, global protein expression profiles, and genome-based metabolic characteristics during the batch fermentation of C. tyrobutyricum will be valuable in designing strategies for metabolic engineering of this strain. PMID:27302759

  18. Discovery and annotation of small proteins using genomics, proteomics and computational approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiaohan; Tschaplinski, Timothy J.; Hurst, Gregory B.; Jawdy, Sara; Abraham, Paul E.; Lankford, Patricia K.; Adams, Rachel M.; Shah, Manesh B.; Hettich, Robert L.; Lindquist, Erika; Kalluri, Udaya C.; Gunter, Lee E.; Pennacchio, Christa; Tuskan, Gerald A.

    2011-03-02

    Small proteins (10 200 amino acids aa in length) encoded by short open reading frames (sORF) play important regulatory roles in various biological processes, including tumor progression, stress response, flowering, and hormone signaling. However, ab initio discovery of small proteins has been relatively overlooked. Recent advances in deep transcriptome sequencing make it possible to efficiently identify sORFs at the genome level. In this study, we obtained 2.6 million expressed sequence tag (EST) reads from Populus deltoides leaf transcriptome and reconstructed full-length transcripts from the EST sequences. We identified an initial set of 12,852 sORFs encoding proteins of 10 200 aa in length. Three computational approaches were then used to enrich for bona fide protein-coding sORFs from the initial sORF set: (1) codingpotential prediction, (2) evolutionary conservation between P. deltoides and other plant species, and (3) gene family clustering within P. deltoides. As a result, a high-confidence sORF candidate set containing 1469 genes was obtained. Analysis of the protein domains, non-protein-coding RNA motifs, sequence length distribution, and protein mass spectrometry data supported this high-confidence sORF set. In the high-confidence sORF candidate set, known protein domains were identified in 1282 genes (higher-confidence sORF candidate set), out of which 611 genes, designated as highest-confidence candidate sORF set, were supported by proteomics data. Of the 611 highest-confidence candidate sORF genes, 56 were new to the current Populus genome annotation. This study not only demonstrates that there are potential sORF candidates to be annotated in sequenced genomes, but also presents an efficient strategy for discovery of sORFs in species with no genome annotation yet available.

  19. Genomic, Proteomic, and Biochemical Analysis of the Organohalide Respiratory Pathway in Desulfitobacterium dehalogenans

    PubMed Central

    van de Pas, Bram A.; Atteia, Ariane; Krab, Klaas; Hagen, Wilfred R.; Goodwin, Lynne; Chain, Patrick; Boeren, Sjef; Maphosa, Farai; Schraa, Gosse; de Vos, Willem M.; van der Oost, John; Smidt, Hauke

    2014-01-01

    Desulfitobacterium dehalogenans is able to grow by organohalide respiration using 3-chloro-4-hydroxyphenyl acetate (Cl-OHPA) as an electron acceptor. We used a combination of genome sequencing, biochemical analysis of redox active components, and shotgun proteomics to study elements of the organohalide respiratory electron transport chain. The genome of Desulfitobacterium dehalogenans JW/IU-DC1T consists of a single circular chromosome of 4,321,753 bp with a GC content of 44.97%. The genome contains 4,252 genes, including six rRNA operons and six predicted reductive dehalogenases. One of the reductive dehalogenases, CprA, is encoded by a well-characterized cprTKZEBACD gene cluster. Redox active components were identified in concentrated suspensions of cells grown on formate and Cl-OHPA or formate and fumarate, using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), visible spectroscopy, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of membrane extracts. In cell suspensions, these components were reduced upon addition of formate and oxidized after addition of Cl-OHPA, indicating involvement in organohalide respiration. Genome analysis revealed genes that likely encode the identified components of the electron transport chain from formate to fumarate or Cl-OHPA. Data presented here suggest that the first part of the electron transport chain from formate to fumarate or Cl-OHPA is shared. Electrons are channeled from an outward-facing formate dehydrogenase via menaquinones to a fumarate reductase located at the cytoplasmic face of the membrane. When Cl-OHPA is the terminal electron acceptor, electrons are transferred from menaquinones to outward-facing CprA, via an as-yet-unidentified membrane complex, and potentially an extracellular flavoprotein acting as an electron shuttle between the quinol dehydrogenase membrane complex and CprA. PMID:25512312

  20. Proteome analysis of functionally differentiated bovine (Bos indicus) mammary epithelial cells isolated from milk.

    PubMed

    Janjanam, Jagadeesh; Jamwal, Manu; Singh, Surender; Kumar, Saravanan; Panigrahi, Aswini K; Hariprasad, Gururao; Jena, Manoj K; Anand, Vijay; Kumar, Sudarshan; Kaushik, Jai K; Dang, Ajay K; Mukesh, Manishi; Mishra, Bishnu P; Srinivasan, Alagiri; Reddy, Vanga S; Mohanty, Ashok K

    2013-11-01

    Mammary gland is made up of a branching network of ducts that end in alveoli. Terminally differentiated mammary epithelial cells (MECs) constitute the innermost layer of aveoli. They are milk-secreting cuboidal cells that secrete milk proteins during lactation. Little is known about the expression profile of proteins in the metabolically active MECs during lactation or their functional role in the lactation process. In the present investigation, we have reported the proteome map of MECs in lactating cows using 2DE MALDI-TOF/TOF MS and 1D-Gel-LC-MS/MS. MECs were isolated from milk using immunomagnetic beads and confirmed by RT-PCR and Western blotting. The 1D-Gel-LC-MS/MS and 2DE-MS/MS based approaches led to identification of 431 and 134 proteins, respectively, with a total of 497 unique proteins. Proteins identified in this study were clustered into functional groups using bioinformatics tools. Pathway analysis of the identified proteins revealed 28 pathways (p < 0.05) providing evidence for involvement of various proteins in lactation function. This study further provides experimental evidence for the presence of many proteins that have been predicted in annotated bovine genome. The data generated further provide a set of bovine MEC-specific proteins that will help the researchers to understand the molecular events taking place during lactation. PMID:24030930

  1. Proteome-wide dataset supporting functional study of tyrosine kinases in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Angelopoulos, Nicos; Stebbing, Justin; Xu, Yichen; Giamas, Georgios; Zhang, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Tyrosine kinases (TKs) play an essential role in regulating various cellular activities and dysregulation of TK signaling contributes to oncogenesis. However, less than half of the TKs have been thoroughly studied. Through a combined use of RNAi and stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based quantitative proteomics, a global functional proteomic landscape of TKs in breast cancer was recently revealed highlighting a comprehensive and highly integrated signaling network regulated by TKs (Stebbing et al., 2015) [1]. We collate the enormous amount of the proteomic data in an open access platform, providing a valuable resource for studying the function of TKs in cancer and benefiting the science community. Here we present a detailed description related to this study (Stebbing et al., 2015) [1] and the raw data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE partner repository with the identifier PXD002065. PMID:27054188

  2. Proteome-wide dataset supporting functional study of tyrosine kinases in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Angelopoulos, Nicos; Stebbing, Justin; Xu, Yichen; Giamas, Georgios; Zhang, Hua

    2016-06-01

    Tyrosine kinases (TKs) play an essential role in regulating various cellular activities and dysregulation of TK signaling contributes to oncogenesis. However, less than half of the TKs have been thoroughly studied. Through a combined use of RNAi and stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based quantitative proteomics, a global functional proteomic landscape of TKs in breast cancer was recently revealed highlighting a comprehensive and highly integrated signaling network regulated by TKs (Stebbing et al., 2015) [1]. We collate the enormous amount of the proteomic data in an open access platform, providing a valuable resource for studying the function of TKs in cancer and benefiting the science community. Here we present a detailed description related to this study (Stebbing et al., 2015) [1] and the raw data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE partner repository with the identifier PXD002065. PMID:27054188

  3. AgBase: a functional genomics resource for agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many agricultural species and their pathogens have sequenced genomes and more are in progress. However, systems biology from functional genomics data is hindered in agricultural species because agricultural genome sequences have relatively poor structural and functional annotation and agricultural ...

  4. Comparative Genome and Proteome Analysis of Anopheles gambiae and Drosophila melanogaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zdobnov, Evgeny M.; von Mering, Christian; Letunic, Ivica; Torrents, David; Suyama, Mikita; Copley, Richard R.; Christophides, George K.; Thomasova, Dana; Holt, Robert A.; Subramanian, G. Mani; Mueller, Hans-Michael; Dimopoulos, George; Law, John H.; Wells, Michael A.; Birney, Ewan; Charlab, Rosane; Halpern, Aaron L.; Kokoza, Elena; Kraft, Cheryl L.; Lai, Zhongwu; Lewis, Suzanna; Louis, Christos; Barillas-Mury, Carolina; Nusskern, Deborah; Rubin, Gerald M.; Salzberg, Steven L.; Sutton, Granger G.; Topalis, Pantelis; Wides, Ron; Wincker, Patrick; Yandell, Mark; Collins, Frank H.; Ribeiro, Jose; Gelbart, William M.; Kafatos, Fotis C.; Bork, Peer

    2002-10-01

    Comparison of the genomes and proteomes of the two diptera Anopheles gambiae and Drosophila melanogaster, which diverged about 250 million years ago, reveals considerable similarities. However, numerous differences are also observed; some of these must reflect the selection and subsequent adaptation associated with different ecologies and life strategies. Almost half of the genes in both genomes are interpreted as orthologs and show an average sequence identity of about 56%, which is slightly lower than that observed between the orthologs of the pufferfish and human (diverged about 450 million years ago). This indicates that these two insects diverged considerably faster than vertebrates. Aligned sequences reveal that orthologous genes have retained only half of their intron/exon structure, indicating that intron gains or losses have occurred at a rate of about one per gene per 125 million years. Chromosomal arms exhibit significant remnants of homology between the two species, although only 34% of the genes colocalize in small ``microsyntenic'' clusters, and major interarm transfers as well as intra-arm shuffling of gene order are detected.

  5. Comparative genome and proteome analysis of Anopheles gambiae and Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Zdobnov, Evgeny M; von Mering, Christian; Letunic, Ivica; Torrents, David; Suyama, Mikita; Copley, Richard R; Christophides, George K; Thomasova, Dana; Holt, Robert A; Subramanian, G Mani; Mueller, Hans-Michael; Dimopoulos, George; Law, John H; Wells, Michael A; Birney, Ewan; Charlab, Rosane; Halpern, Aaron L; Kokoza, Elena; Kraft, Cheryl L; Lai, Zhongwu; Lewis, Suzanna; Louis, Christos; Barillas-Mury, Carolina; Nusskern, Deborah; Rubin, Gerald M; Salzberg, Steven L; Sutton, Granger G; Topalis, Pantelis; Wides, Ron; Wincker, Patrick; Yandell, Mark; Collins, Frank H; Ribeiro, Jose; Gelbart, William M; Kafatos, Fotis C; Bork, Peer

    2002-10-01

    Comparison of the genomes and proteomes of the two diptera Anopheles gambiae and Drosophila melanogaster, which diverged about 250 million years ago, reveals considerable similarities. However, numerous differences are also observed; some of these must reflect the selection and subsequent adaptation associated with different ecologies and life strategies. Almost half of the genes in both genomes are interpreted as orthologs and show an average sequence identity of about 56%, which is slightly lower than that observed between the orthologs of the pufferfish and human (diverged about 450 million years ago). This indicates that these two insects diverged considerably faster than vertebrates. Aligned sequences reveal that orthologous genes have retained only half of their intron/exon structure, indicating that intron gains or losses have occurred at a rate of about one per gene per 125 million years. Chromosomal arms exhibit significant remnants of homology between the two species, although only 34% of the genes colocalize in small "microsyntenic" clusters, and major interarm transfers as well as intra-arm shuffling of gene order are detected. PMID:12364792

  6. Tomato functional genomics database (TFGD): a comprehensive collection and analysis package for tomato functional genomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato Functional Genomics Database (TFGD; http://ted.bti.cornell.edu) provides a comprehensive systems biology resource to store, mine, analyze, visualize and integrate large-scale tomato functional genomics datasets. The database is expanded from the previously described Tomato Expression Database...

  7. Ossifying Fibromyxoid Tumor of Soft Parts: A Clinicopathologic, Proteomic and Genomic Study

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Rondell P.D.; Dry, Sarah; Li, Xinmin; Binder, Scott; Bahrami, Armita; Raimondi, Susana C.; Dogan, Ahmet; Chakraborty, Subhankar; Souchek, Joshua J.; Folpe, Andrew L.

    2011-01-01

    Ossifying fibromyxoid tumor of soft parts (OFMT) is a rare soft tissue and bone tumor of borderline malignancy displaying an uncertain line of differentiation. The existence of fully malignant OFMT is controversial. In order to better understand the natural history and line of differentiation taken by OFMT, we studied 46 cases by light microscopic, immunohistochemical (IHC), genomic, proteomic, and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) methods. Cases were classified according to the 2003 Folpe and Weiss system. Clinical and follow-up information was obtained. IHC for S-100 protein, desmin, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), cytokeratins, smooth muscle actin (SMA), INI-1, neurofilament protein (NFP), CD56d excitatory amino acid transporter-4 (EAAT4), and MUC4 was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. Gene expression profiling and proteomic studies were performed on FFPE tissues from 13 and 5 cases, respectively. FISH for INI-1 was performed on 10 cases. The 46 tumors arose in 29 males and 17 females (median age 52 years, range 39-63 years) and involved the proximal (N=17) and distal extremities (N=13), head and neck (N=9) and trunk (N=5). Median tumor size was 5.4 cm (range 1.0-21.0 cm). Cases were classified as typical OFMT (26 of 46, 57%), atypical OFMT (5 of 46, 11%) and malignant OFMT (15 of 46 cases, 32%). Clinical follow-up (27 cases, median 55 months duration) showed all patients with typical and atypical OFMT to be alive without disease. Adverse events, including 3 local recurrences, 3 metastases, and 3 deaths, were seen only in malignant OFMT. IHC results were: S100 protein (30/41, 73%), desmin (15/39, 38%), cytokeratin (4/35 11%), EMA (5/32, 16%), SMA (2/34, 6%), INI-1 (lost in mosaic pattern in 14/19, 74%), EAAT4 (31/39, 80%), MUC4 (3/14, 21%), NFP (8/10, 80%) and CD56 (6/14, 43%). Gene expression profiling showed typical and malignant OFMT to cluster together, distinct from schwannian tumors. Proteomic study showed expression

  8. Assessing Susceptibility to Age-related Macular Degeneration with Proteomic and Genomic Biomarkers*

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Jiayin; Pauer, Gayle J. T.; Yue, Xiuzhen; Narendra, Umadevi; Sturgill, Gwen M.; Bena, James; Gu, Xiaorong; Peachey, Neal S.; Salomon, Robert G.; Hagstrom, Stephanie A.; Crabb, John W.

    2009-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a progressive disease and major cause of severe visual loss. Toward the discovery of tools for early identification of AMD susceptibility, we evaluated the combined predictive capability of proteomic and genomic AMD biomarkers. We quantified plasma carboxyethylpyrrole (CEP) oxidative protein modifications and CEP autoantibodies by ELISA in 916 AMD and 488 control donors. CEP adducts are uniquely generated from oxidation of docosahexaenoate-containing lipids that are abundant in the retina. Mean CEP adduct and autoantibody levels were found to be elevated in AMD plasma by ∼60 and ∼30%, respectively. The odds ratio for both CEP markers elevated was 3-fold greater or more in AMD than in control patients. Genotyping was performed for AMD risk polymorphisms associated with age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 (ARMS2), high temperature requirement factor A1 (HTRA1), complement factor H, and complement C3, and the risk of AMD was predicted based on genotype alone or in combination with the CEP markers. The AMD risk predicted for those exhibiting elevated CEP markers and risk genotypes was 2–3-fold greater than the risk based on genotype alone. AMD donors carrying the ARMS2 and HTRA1 risk alleles were the most likely to exhibit elevated CEP markers. The results compellingly demonstrate higher mean CEP marker levels in AMD plasma over a broad age range. Receiver operating characteristic curves suggest that CEP markers alone can discriminate between AMD and control plasma donors with ∼76% accuracy and in combination with genomic markers provide up to ∼80% discrimination accuracy. Plasma CEP marker levels were altered slightly by several demographic and health factors that warrant further study. We conclude that CEP plasma biomarkers, particularly in combination with genomic markers, offer a potential early warning system for assessing susceptibility to this blinding, multifactorial disease. PMID:19202148

  9. Discovery and annotation of small proteins using genomics, proteomics, and computational approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiaohan; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Hurst, Gregory {Greg} B; Jawdy, Sara; Abraham, Paul E; Lankford, Patricia K; Adams, Rachel M; Shah, Manesh B; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L; Kalluri, Udaya C; Gunter, Lee E; Pennacchio, Christa; Tuskan, Gerald A

    2011-01-01

    Small proteins (10 200 amino acids (AA) in length) encoded by short open reading frames (sORF) play important regulatory roles in various biological processes, including tumor progression, stress response, flowering and hormone signaling. However, ab initio discovery of small proteins has been relatively overlooked. Recent advances in deep transcriptome sequencing make it possible to efficiently identify sORFs at the genome level. In this study, we obtained ~2.6 million expressed sequence tag (EST) reads from Populus deltoides leaf transcriptome and reconstructed full-length transcripts from the EST sequences. We identified an initial set of 12,852 sORFs encoding proteins of 10 200 AA in length. Three computational approaches were then used to enrich for bona fide protein-coding sORFs from the initial sORF set: 1) coding-potential prediction, 2) evolutionary conservation between P. deltoides and other plant species, and 3) gene family clustering within P. deltoides. As a result, a high-confidence sORF candidate set containing 1,469 genes was obtained. Analysis of the protein domains, non-protein-coding RNA motifs, sequence length distribution, and protein mass spectrometry data supported this high-confidence sORF set. In the high-confidence sORF candidate set, known protein domains were identified in 1,282 genes (higher-confidence sORF candidate set), out of which 611 genes, designated as highest-confidence candidate sORF set, were also supported by proteomics data. This study not only demonstrates that there are potential sORF candidates to be annotated in sequenced genomes, but also presents an efficient strategy for discovery of sORFs in species with no genome annotation yet available.

  10. Proteomics of ovarian cancer: functional insights and clinical applications

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Elzek, Mohamed A.; Rodland, Karin D.

    2015-03-04

    In the past decade, there has been an increasing interest in applying proteomics to assist in understanding the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer, elucidating the mechanism of drug resistance, and in the development of biomarkers for early detection of ovarian cancer. Although ovarian cancer is a spectrum of different diseases, the strategies for diagnosis and treatment with surgery and adjuvant therapy are similar across ovarian cancer types, increasing the general applicability of discoveries made through proteomics research. While proteomic experiments face many difficulties which slow the pace of clinical applications, recent advances in proteomic technology contribute significantly to the identification ofmore » aberrant proteins and networks which can serve as targets for biomarker development and individualized therapies. This review provides a summary of the literature on proteomics’ contributions to ovarian cancer research and highlights the current issues, future directions, and challenges. In conclusion, we propose that protein-level characterization of primary lesion in ovarian cancer can decipher the mystery of this disease, improve diagnostic tools, and lead to more effective screening programs.« less

  11. Proteomics of ovarian cancer: functional insights and clinical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Elzek, Mohamed A.; Rodland, Karin D.

    2015-03-04

    In the past decade, there has been an increasing interest in applying proteomics to assist in understanding the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer, elucidating the mechanism of drug resistance, and in the development of biomarkers for early detection of ovarian cancer. Although ovarian cancer is a spectrum of different diseases, the strategies for diagnosis and treatment with surgery and adjuvant therapy are similar across ovarian cancer types, increasing the general applicability of discoveries made through proteomics research. While proteomic experiments face many difficulties which slow the pace of clinical applications, recent advances in proteomic technology contribute significantly to the identification of aberrant proteins and networks which can serve as targets for biomarker development and individualized therapies. This review provides a summary of the literature on proteomics’ contributions to ovarian cancer research and highlights the current issues, future directions, and challenges. In conclusion, we propose that protein-level characterization of primary lesion in ovarian cancer can decipher the mystery of this disease, improve diagnostic tools, and lead to more effective screening programs.

  12. Proteomics of ovarian cancer: functional insights and clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    Rodland, Karin D.

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, there has been an increasing interest in applying proteomics to assist in understanding the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer, elucidating the mechanism of drug resistance, and in the development of biomarkers for early detection of ovarian cancer. Although ovarian cancer is a spectrum of different diseases, the strategies for diagnosis and treatment with surgery and adjuvant therapy are similar across ovarian cancer types, increasing the general applicability of discoveries made through proteomics research. While proteomic experiments face many difficulties which slow the pace of clinical applications, recent advances in proteomic technology contribute significantly to the identification of aberrant proteins and networks which can serve as targets for biomarker development and individualized therapies. This review provides a summary of the literature on proteomics’ contributions to ovarian cancer research and highlights the current issues, future directions, and challenges. We propose that protein-level characterization of primary lesion in ovarian cancer can decipher the mystery of this disease, improve diagnostic tools, and lead to more effective screening programs. PMID:25736266

  13. Proteomics of ovarian cancer: functional insights and clinical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Elzek, Mohamed A.; Rodland, Karin D.

    2015-03-01

    In the past decade, there has been an increasing interest in applying proteomics to assist in understanding the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer, elucidating the mechanism of drug resistance, and in the development of biomarkers for early detection of ovarian cancer. Although ovarian cancer is a spectrum of different diseases, the strategies for diagnosis and treatment with surgery and adjuvant therapy are similar across ovarian cancer types, increasing the general applicabil- ity of discoveries made through proteomics research. While proteomic experiments face many difficulties which slow the pace of clinical applications, recent advances in proteomic technology contribute significantly to the identification of aberrant proteins and networks which can serve as targets for biomarker development and individualized therapies. This review provides a summary of the literature on proteomics’ contributions to ovarian cancer research and highlights the current issues, future directions, and challenges. We propose that protein-level characterization of primary lesion in ovarian cancer can decipher the mystery of this disease, improve diagnostic tools, and lead to more effective screening programs.

  14. From genome to function: the Arabidopsis aquaporins

    PubMed Central

    Quigley, Francoise; Rosenberg, Joshua M; Shachar-Hill, Yair; Bohnert, Hans J

    2002-01-01

    Background In the post-genomic era newly sequenced genomes can be used to deduce organismal functions from our knowledge of other systems. Here we apply this approach to analyzing the aquaporin gene family in Arabidopsis thaliana. The aquaporins are intrinsic membrane proteins that have been characterized as facilitators of water flux. Originally termed major intrinsic proteins (MIPs), they are now also known as water channels, glycerol facilitators and aqua-glyceroporins, yet recent data suggest that they facilitate the movement of other low-molecular-weight metabolites as well. Results The Arabidopsis genome contains 38 sequences with homology to aquaporin in four subfamilies, termed PIP, TIP, NIP and SIP. We have analyzed aquaporin family structure and expression using the A. thaliana genome sequence, and introduce a new NMR approach for the purpose of analyzing water movement in plant roots in vivo. Conclusions Our preliminary data indicate a strongly transcellular component for the flux of water in roots. PMID:11806824

  15. Proteomic analysis uncovers a metabolic phenotype in C. elegans after nhr-40 reduction of function

    SciTech Connect

    Pohludka, Michal; Simeckova, Katerina; Vohanka, Jaroslav; Yilma, Petr; Novak, Petr; Krause, Michael W.; Kostrouchova, Marta; Kostrouch, Zdenek

    2008-09-12

    Caenorhabditis elegans has an unexpectedly large number (284) of genes encoding nuclear hormone receptors, most of which are nematode-specific and are of unknown function. We have exploited comparative two-dimensional chromatography of synchronized cultures of wild type C. elegans larvae and a mutant in nhr-40 to determine if proteomic approaches will provide additional insight into gene function. Chromatofocusing, followed by reversed-phase chromatography and mass spectrometry, identified altered chromatographic patterns for a set of proteins, many of which function in muscle and metabolism. Prompted by the proteomic analysis, we find that the penetrance of the developmental phenotypes in the mutant is enhanced at low temperatures and by food restriction. The combination of our phenotypic and proteomic analysis strongly suggests that NHR-40 provides a link between metabolism and muscle development. Our results highlight the utility of comparative two-dimensional chromatography to provide a relatively rapid method to gain insight into gene function.

  16. The Karyote physico-chemical genomic, proteomic, metabolic cell modeling system.

    PubMed

    Ortoleva, P; Berry, E; Brun, Y; Fan, J; Fontus, M; Hubbard, K; Jaqaman, K; Jarymowycz, L; Navid, A; Sayyed-Ahmad, A; Shreif, Z; Stanley, F; Tuncay, K; Weitzke, E; Wu, L-C

    2003-01-01

    Modeling approaches to the dynamics of a living cell are presented that are strongly based on its underlying physical and chemical processes and its hierarchical spatio-temporal organization. Through the inclusion of a broad spectrum of processes and a rigorous analysis of the multiple scale nature of cellular dynamics, we are attempting to advance cell modeling and its applications. The presentation focuses on our cell modeling system, which integrates data archiving and quantitative physico-chemical modeling and information theory to provide a seamless approach to the modeling/data analysis endeavor. Thereby the rapidly growing mess of genomic, proteomic, metabolic, and cell physiological data can be automatically used to develop and calibrate a predictive cell model. The discussion focuses on the Karyote cell modeling system and an introduction to the CellX and VirusX models. The Karyote software system integrates three elements: (1) a model-building and data archiving module that allows one to define a cell type to be modeled through its reaction network, structure, and transport processes as well as to choose the surrounding medium and other parameters of the phenomenon to be modeled; (2) a genomic, proteomic, metabolic cell simulator that solves the equations of metabolic reaction, transcription/translation polymerization and the exchange of molecules between parts of the cell and with the surrounding medium; and (3) an information theory module (ITM) that automates model calibration and development, and integrates a variety of data types with the cell dynamic computations. In Karyote, reactions may be fast (equilibrated) or slow (finite rate), and the special effects of enzymes and other minority species yielding steady-state cycles of arbitrary complexities are accounted for. These features of the dynamics are handled via rigorous multiple scale analysis. A user interface allows for an automated generation and solution of the equations of multiple timescale

  17. Establishing Research Strategies, Methodologies and Technologies to Link Genomics and Proteomics to Seagrass Productivity, Community Metabolism, and Ecosystem Carbon Fluxes

    PubMed Central

    Mazzuca, Silvia; Björk, M.; Beer, S.; Felisberto, P.; Gobert, S.; Procaccini, G.; Runcie, J.; Silva, J.; Borges, A. V.; Brunet, C.; Buapet, P.; Champenois, W.; Costa, M. M.; D’Esposito, D.; Gullström, M.; Lejeune, P.; Lepoint, G.; Olivé, I.; Rasmusson, L. M.; Richir, J.; Ruocco, M.; Serra, I. A.; Spadafora, A.; Santos, Rui

    2013-01-01

    A complete understanding of the mechanistic basis of marine ecosystem functioning is only possible through integrative and interdisciplinary research. This enables the prediction of change and possibly the mitigation of the consequences of anthropogenic impacts. One major aim of the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) Action ES0609 “Seagrasses productivity. From genes to ecosystem management,” is the calibration and synthesis of various methods and the development of innovative techniques and protocols for studying seagrass ecosystems. During 10 days, 20 researchers representing a range of disciplines (molecular biology, physiology, botany, ecology, oceanography, and underwater acoustics) gathered at The Station de Recherches Sous-marines et Océanographiques (STARESO, Corsica) to study together the nearby Posidonia oceanica meadow. STARESO is located in an oligotrophic area classified as “pristine site” where environmental disturbances caused by anthropogenic pressure are exceptionally low. The healthy P. oceanica meadow, which grows in front of the research station, colonizes the sea bottom from the surface to 37 m depth. During the study, genomic and proteomic approaches were integrated with ecophysiological and physical approaches with the aim of understanding changes in seagrass productivity and metabolism at different depths and along daily cycles. In this paper we report details on the approaches utilized and we forecast the potential of the data that will come from this synergistic approach not only for P. oceanica but for seagrasses in general. PMID:23515425

  18. Functional genomics of the chicken - a model organism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chicken has reached model organism status after genome sequencing and development of high-throughput tools for the exploration of functional elements of the genome. Functional genomics focuses on understanding the function and regulation of genes and gene products on a global or genome-wide scal...

  19. The Use of Functional Genomics in Conjunction with Metabolomics for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Research

    PubMed Central

    Swanepoel, Conrad C.

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is a fatal infectious disease, resulting in 1.4 million deaths globally per annum. Over the past three decades, genomic studies have been conducted in an attempt to elucidate the functionality of the genome of the pathogen. However, many aspects of this complex genome remain largely unexplored, as approaches like genomics, proteomics, and transcriptomics have failed to characterize them successfully. In turn, metabolomics, which is relatively new to the “omics” revolution, has shown great potential for investigating biological systems or their modifications. Furthermore, when these data are interpreted in combination with previously acquired genomics, proteomics and transcriptomics data, using what is termed a systems biology approach, a more holistic understanding of these systems can be achieved. In this review we discuss how metabolomics has contributed so far to characterizing TB, with emphasis on the resulting improved elucidation of M. tuberculosis in terms of (1) metabolism, (2) growth and replication, (3) pathogenicity, and (4) drug resistance, from the perspective of systems biology. PMID:24771957

  20. An evolutionary classification of genomic function.

    PubMed

    Graur, Dan; Zheng, Yichen; Azevedo, Ricardo B R

    2015-03-01

    The pronouncements of the ENCODE Project Consortium regarding "junk DNA" exposed the need for an evolutionary classification of genomic elements according to their selected-effect function. In the classification scheme presented here, we divide the genome into "functional DNA," that is, DNA sequences that have a selected-effect function, and "rubbish DNA," that is, sequences that do not. Functional DNA is further subdivided into "literal DNA" and "indifferent DNA." In literal DNA, the order of nucleotides is under selection; in indifferent DNA, only the presence or absence of the sequence is under selection. Rubbish DNA is further subdivided into "junk DNA" and "garbage DNA." Junk DNA neither contributes to nor detracts from the fitness of the organism and, hence, evolves under selective neutrality. Garbage DNA, on the other hand, decreases the fitness of its carriers. Garbage DNA exists in the genome only because natural selection is neither omnipotent nor instantaneous. Each of these four functional categories can be 1) transcribed and translated, 2) transcribed but not translated, or 3) not transcribed. The affiliation of a DNA segment to a particular functional category may change during evolution: Functional DNA may become junk DNA, junk DNA may become garbage DNA, rubbish DNA may become functional DNA, and so on; however, determining the functionality or nonfunctionality of a genomic sequence must be based on its present status rather than on its potential to change (or not to change) in the future. Changes in functional affiliation are divided into pseudogenes, Lazarus DNA, zombie DNA, and Jekyll-to-Hyde DNA. PMID:25635041

  1. Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA010 Proteome Implicates Extracytoplasmic Function Sigma Factor in Stress Response

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Michael S.; Hurst, Gregory B.; Lu, Tse-Yuan S.; Perry, Leslie M.; Pan, Chongle; Lankford, Patricia K.; Pelletier, Dale A.

    2015-04-08

    Rhodopseudomonas palustris encodes 16 extracytoplasmic function (ECF) σ factors. In this paper, to begin to investigate the regulatory network of one of these ECF σ factors, the whole proteome of R. palustris CGA010 was quantitatively analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry from cultures episomally expressing the ECF σRPA4225 (ecfT) versus a WT control. Among the proteins with the greatest increase in abundance were catalase KatE, trehalose synthase, a DPS-like protein, and several regulatory proteins. Alignment of the cognate promoter regions driving expression of several upregulated proteins suggested a conserved binding motif in the -35 and -10 regions with the consensus sequence GGAAC-18N-TT. Additionally, the putative anti-σ factor RPA4224, whose gene is contained in the same predicted operon as RPA4225, was identified as interacting directly with the predicted response regulator RPA4223 by mass spectrometry of affinity-isolated protein complexes. Furthermore, another gene (RPA4226) coding for a protein that contains a cytoplasmic histidine kinase domain is located immediately upstream of RPA4225. The genomic organization of orthologs for these four genes is conserved in several other strains of R. palustris as well as in closely related α-Proteobacteria. Finally, taken together, these data suggest that ECF σRPA4225 and the three additional genes make up a sigma factor mimicry system in R. palustris.

  2. Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA010 Proteome Implicates Extracytoplasmic Function Sigma Factor in Stress Response

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Allen, Michael S.; Hurst, Gregory B.; Lu, Tse-Yuan S.; Perry, Leslie M.; Pan, Chongle; Lankford, Patricia K.; Pelletier, Dale A.

    2015-04-08

    Rhodopseudomonas palustris encodes 16 extracytoplasmic function (ECF) σ factors. In this paper, to begin to investigate the regulatory network of one of these ECF σ factors, the whole proteome of R. palustris CGA010 was quantitatively analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry from cultures episomally expressing the ECF σRPA4225 (ecfT) versus a WT control. Among the proteins with the greatest increase in abundance were catalase KatE, trehalose synthase, a DPS-like protein, and several regulatory proteins. Alignment of the cognate promoter regions driving expression of several upregulated proteins suggested a conserved binding motif in the -35 and -10 regions with the consensus sequencemore » GGAAC-18N-TT. Additionally, the putative anti-σ factor RPA4224, whose gene is contained in the same predicted operon as RPA4225, was identified as interacting directly with the predicted response regulator RPA4223 by mass spectrometry of affinity-isolated protein complexes. Furthermore, another gene (RPA4226) coding for a protein that contains a cytoplasmic histidine kinase domain is located immediately upstream of RPA4225. The genomic organization of orthologs for these four genes is conserved in several other strains of R. palustris as well as in closely related α-Proteobacteria. Finally, taken together, these data suggest that ECF σRPA4225 and the three additional genes make up a sigma factor mimicry system in R. palustris.« less

  3. Functional proteomic and structural insights into molecular recognition in the nitrilase family enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Barglow, Katherine T.; Saikatendu, Kumar S.; Bracey, Michael H.; Huey, Ruth; Morris, Garrett M.; Olson, Arthur J.; Stevens, Raymond C.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.

    2009-01-01

    Nitrilases are a large and diverse family of non-peptidic C-N hydrolases. The mammalian genome encodes eight nitrilase enzymes, several of which remain poorly characterized. Prominent among these are nitrilase-1 (Nit1) and nitrilase-2 (Nit2), which, despite having been shown to exert effects on cell growth and possibly serving as tumor suppressor genes, are without known substrates or selective inhibitors. In previous studies, we identified several nitrilases, including Nit1 and Nit2, as targets for dipeptide-chloroacetamide activity-based proteomics probes. Here, we have used these probes, in combination with high-resolution crystallography and molecular modeling, to systematically map the active site of Nit2 and identify residues involved in molecular recognition. We report the 1.4 Å crystal structure of mouse Nit2, and use this structure to identify residues that discriminate probe-labeling between the Nit1 and Nit2 enzymes. Interestingly, some of these residues are conserved across all vertebrate Nit2 enzymes and, conversely, not found in any vertebrate Nit1 enzymes, suggesting that they are key discriminators of molecular recognition between these otherwise highly homologous enzymes. Our findings thus point to a limited set of active site residues that establish distinct patterns of molecular recognition among nitrilases and provide chemical probes to selectively perturb the function of these enzymes in biological systems. PMID:19053248

  4. Identification of Multiple Metabolic Enzymes from Mice Cochleae Tissue Using a Novel Functional Proteomics Technology

    PubMed Central

    Wang, David L.; Li, Hui; Liang, Ruqiang; Bao, Jianxin

    2015-01-01

    A new type of technology in proteomics was developed in order to separate a complex protein mixture and analyze protein functions systematically. The technology combines the ability of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) to separate proteins with a protein elution plate (PEP) to recover active proteins for functional analysis and mass spectrometry (MS)-based identification. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of this functional proteomics approach, NADH and NADPH-dependent oxidases, major redox enzyme families, were identified from mice cochlear tissue after a specific drug treatment. By comparing the enzymatic activity between mice that were treated with a drug and a control group significant changes were observed. Using MS, five NADH-dependent oxidases were identified that showed highly altered enzymatic activities due to the drug treatment. In essence, the PEP technology allows for a systematic analysis of a large enzyme family from a complex proteome, providing insights in understanding the mechanism of drug treatment. PMID:25811366

  5. Green systems biology - From single genomes, proteomes and metabolomes to ecosystems research and biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Weckwerth, Wolfram

    2011-12-10

    biochemical networks up to whole species populations. This process relies on the development of new technologies for the analysis of molecular data, especially genomics, metabolomics and proteomics data. The ambitious aim of these non-targeted 'omic' technologies is to extend our understanding beyond the analysis of separated parts of the system, in contrast to traditional reductionistic hypothesis-driven approaches. The consequent integration of genotyping, pheno/morphotyping and the analysis of the molecular phenotype using metabolomics, proteomics and transcriptomics will reveal a novel understanding of plant metabolism and its interaction with the environment. The analysis of single model systems - plants, fungi, animals and bacteria - will finally emerge in the analysis of populations of plants and other organisms and their adaptation to the ecological niche. In parallel, this novel understanding of ecophysiology will translate into knowledge-based approaches in crop plant biotechnology and marker- or genome-assisted breeding approaches. In this review the foundations of green systems biology are described and applications in ecosystems research are presented. Knowledge exchange of ecosystems research and green biotechnology merging into green systems biology is anticipated based on the principles of natural variation, biodiversity and the genotype-phenotype environment relationship as the fundamental drivers of ecology and evolution. PMID:21802534

  6. Genomic and Proteomic Analyses of the Agarolytic System Expressed by Saccharophagus degradans 2-40†

    PubMed Central

    Ekborg, Nathan A.; Taylor, Larry E.; Longmire, Atkinson G.; Henrissat, Bernard; Weiner, Ronald M.; Hutcheson, Steven W.

    2006-01-01

    Saccharophagus degradans 2-40 (formerly Microbulbifer degradans 2-40) is a marine gamma-subgroup proteobacterium capable of degrading many complex polysaccharides, such as agar. While several agarolytic systems have been characterized biochemically, the genetics of agarolytic systems have been only partially determined. By use of genomic, proteomic, and genetic approaches, the components of the S. degradans 2-40 agarolytic system were identified. Five agarases were identified in the S. degradans 2-40 genome. Aga50A and Aga50D include GH50 domains. Aga86C and Aga86E contain GH86 domains, whereas Aga16B carries a GH16 domain. Novel family 6 carbohydrate binding modules (CBM6) were identified in Aga16B and Aga86E. Aga86C has an amino-terminal acylation site, suggesting that it is surface associated. Aga16B, Aga86C, and Aga86E were detected by mass spectrometry in agarolytic fractions obtained from culture filtrates of agar-grown cells. Deletion analysis revealed that aga50A and aga86E were essential for the metabolism of agarose. Aga16B was shown to endolytically degrade agarose to release neoagarotetraose, similarly to a β-agarase I, whereas Aga86E was demonstrated to exolytically degrade agarose to form neoagarobiose. The agarolytic system of S. degradans 2-40 is thus predicted to be composed of a secreted endo-acting GH16-dependent depolymerase, a surface-associated GH50-dependent depolymerase, an exo-acting GH86-dependent agarase, and an α-neoagarobiose hydrolase to release galactose from agarose. PMID:16672483

  7. Network Analysis of Epidermal Growth Factor Signaling using Integrated Genomic, Proteomic and Phosphorylation Data

    SciTech Connect

    Waters, Katrina M.; Liu, Tao; Quesenberry, Ryan D.; Willse, Alan R.; Bandyopadhyay, Somnath; Kathmann, Loel E.; Weber, Thomas J.; Smith, Richard D.; Wiley, H. S.; Thrall, Brian D.

    2012-03-29

    To understand how integration of multiple data types can help decipher cellular responses at the systems level, we analyzed the mitogenic response of human mammary epithelial cells to epidermal growth factor (EGF) using whole genome microarrays, mass spectrometry-based proteomics and large-scale western blots with over 1000 antibodies. A time course analysis revealed significant differences in the expression of 3172 genes and 596 proteins, including protein phosphorylation changes measured by western blot. Integration of these disparate data types showed that each contributed qualitatively different components to the observed cell response to EGF and that varying degrees of concordance in gene expression and protein abundance measurements could be linked to specific biological processes. Networks inferred from individual data types were relatively limited, whereas networks derived from the integrated data recapitulated the known major cellular responses to EGF and exhibited more highly connected signaling nodes than networks derived from any individual dataset. While cell cycle regulatory pathways were altered as anticipated, we found the most robust response to mitogenic concentrations of EGF was induction of matrix metalloprotease cascades, highlighting the importance of the EGFR system as a regulator of the extracellular environment. These results demonstrate the value of integrating multiple levels of biological information to more accurately reconstruct networks of cellular response.

  8. Application of functional genomics and proteomics to plant cryopreservation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant cryobiology has primarily emerged from the classical fields of cryobiology and plant stress physiology. Cryopreservation tools are now available to geneticists for germplasm preservation and the field itself is advancing significantly through the use of molecular techniques. Long-term preser...

  9. Application of Functional Genomics and Proteomics to Plant Cryopreservation

    PubMed Central

    Volk, Gayle M

    2010-01-01

    Plant cryobiology has primarily emerged from the classical fields of cryobiology and plant stress physiology. Cryopreservation tools are now available to geneticists for germplasm preservation and the field itself is advancing significantly through the use of molecular techniques. Long-term preservation of vegetatively propagated tissues can minimize the risks of long-term maintenance under tissue culture or field conditions. Cells can be successfully cryopreserved when the adverse affects of ice crystal formation are mitigated by the removal of water or procedures to limit ice formation and crystal growth. The addition of cryoprotectant solutions to hydrated cells may improve the survival of microdissected shoot tips or embryonic axes. Recent discoveries in the genetic pathways leading to cold acclimation and freezing tolerance suggest the involvement of key cold-regulated genes in the acquisition of cold tolerance in plant tissues. Model systems of banana and Arabidopsis have revealed the involvement of genes and proteins in the glycolytic and other metabolic pathways, particularly processes involved in dehydration tolerance, osmoprotection, and membrane transport. Furthermore, successful recovery appears to be dependent upon the presence of antioxidant protection from reactive oxygen species. Characterization of specific genes and proteins will lead to significant advances in plant cryobiology research. PMID:20808520

  10. Functional Annotation Analytics of Rhodopseudomonas palustris Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Shaneka S.; Isokpehi, Raphael D.; Brown, Shyretha D.; McAllister, Donee L.; Hall, Charnia C.; McDuffy, Wanaki M.; Medley, Tamara L.; Udensi, Udensi K.; Rajnarayanan, Rajendram V.; Ayensu, Wellington K.; Cohly, Hari H.P.

    2011-01-01

    Rhodopseudomonas palustris, a nonsulphur purple photosynthetic bacteria, has been extensively investigated for its metabolic versatility including ability to produce hydrogen gas from sunlight and biomass. The availability of the finished genome sequences of six R. palustris strains (BisA53, BisB18, BisB5, CGA009, HaA2 and TIE-1) combined with online bioinformatics software for integrated analysis presents new opportunities to determine the genomic basis of metabolic versatility and ecological lifestyles of the bacteria species. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the functional annotations available for multiple R. palustris genomes to identify annotations that can be further investigated for strain-specific or uniquely shared phenotypic characteristics. A total of 2,355 protein family Pfam domain annotations were clustered based on presence or absence in the six genomes. The clustering process identified groups of functional annotations including those that could be verified as strain-specific or uniquely shared phenotypes. For example, genes encoding water/glycerol transport were present in the genome sequences of strains CGA009 and BisB5, but absent in strains BisA53, BisB18, HaA2 and TIE-1. Protein structural homology modeling predicted that the two orthologous 240 aa R. palustris aquaporins have water-specific transport function. Based on observations in other microbes, the presence of aquaporin in R. palustris strains may improve freeze tolerance in natural conditions of rapid freezing such as nitrogen fixation at low temperatures where access to liquid water is a limiting factor for nitrogenase activation. In the case of adaptive loss of aquaporin genes, strains may be better adapted to survive in conditions of high-sugar content such as fermentation of biomass for biohydrogen production. Finally, web-based resources were developed to allow for interactive, user-defined selection of the relationship between protein family annotations and the R

  11. Non-coding genome functions in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Cebola, Inês; Pasquali, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Most of the genetic variation associated with diabetes, through genome-wide association studies, does not reside in protein-coding regions, making the identification of functional variants and their eventual translation to the clinic challenging. In recent years, high-throughput sequencing-based methods have enabled genome-scale high-resolution epigenomic profiling in a variety of human tissues, allowing the exploration of the human genome outside of the well-studied coding regions. These experiments unmasked tens of thousands of regulatory elements across several cell types, including diabetes-relevant tissues, providing new insights into their mechanisms of gene regulation. Regulatory landscapes are highly dynamic and cell-type specific and, being sensitive to DNA sequence variation, can vary with individual genomes. The scientific community is now in place to exploit the regulatory maps of tissues central to diabetes etiology, such as pancreatic progenitors and adult islets. This giant leap forward in the understanding of pancreatic gene regulation is revolutionizing our capacity to discriminate between functional and non-functional non-coding variants, opening opportunities to uncover regulatory links between sequence variation and diabetes susceptibility. In this review, we focus on the non-coding regulatory landscape of the pancreatic endocrine cells and provide an overview of the recent developments in this field. PMID:26438568

  12. A transgenic perspective on plant functional genomics.

    PubMed

    Pereira, A

    2000-01-01

    Transgenic crops are very much in the news due to the increasing public debate on their acceptance. In the scientific community though, transgenic plants are proving to be powerful tools to study various aspects of plant sciences. The emerging scientific revolution sparked by genomics based technologies is producing enormous amounts of DNA sequence information that, together with plant transformation methodology, is opening up new experimental opportunities for functional genomics analysis. An overview is provided here on the use of transgenic technology for the functional analysis of plant genes in model plants and a link made to their utilization in transgenic crops. In transgenic plants, insertional mutagenesis using heterologous maize transposons or Agrobacterium mediated T-DNA insertions, have been valuable tools for the identification and isolation of genes that display a mutant phenotype. To discover functions of genes that do not display phenotypes when mutated, insertion sequences have been engineered to monitor or change the expression pattern of adjacent genes. These gene detector insertions can detect adjacent promoters, enhancers or gene exons and precisely reflect the expression pattern of the tagged gene. Activation tag insertions can mis-express the adjacent gene and confer dominant phenotypes that help bridge the phenotype gap. Employment of various forms of gene silencing technology broadens the scope of recovering knockout phenotypes for genes with redundant function. All these transgenic strategies describing gene-phenotype relationships can be addressed by high throughput reverse genetics methods that will help provide functions to the genes discovered by genome sequencing. The gene functions discovered by insertional mutagenesis and silencing strategies along with expression pattern analysis will provide an integrated functional genomics perspective and offer unique applications in transgenic crops. PMID:11131004

  13. Current Progress in Tonoplast Proteomics Reveals Insights into the Function of the Large Central Vacuole

    PubMed Central

    Trentmann, Oliver; Haferkamp, Ilka

    2013-01-01

    Vacuoles of plants fulfill various biologically important functions, like turgor generation and maintenance, detoxification, solute sequestration, or protein storage. Different types of plant vacuoles (lytic versus protein storage) are characterized by different functional properties apparently caused by a different composition/abundance and regulation of transport proteins in the surrounding membrane, the tonoplast. Proteome analyses allow the identification of vacuolar proteins and provide an informative basis for assigning observed transport processes to specific carriers or channels. This review summarizes techniques required for vacuolar proteome analyses, like e.g., isolation of the large central vacuole or tonoplast membrane purification. Moreover, an overview about diverse published vacuolar proteome studies is provided. It becomes evident that qualitative proteomes from different plant species represent just the tip of the iceberg. During the past few years, mass spectrometry achieved immense improvement concerning its accuracy, sensitivity, and application. As a consequence, modern tonoplast proteome approaches are suited for detecting alterations in membrane protein abundance in response to changing environmental/physiological conditions and help to clarify the regulation of tonoplast transport processes. PMID:23459586

  14. Integration of genomic and proteomic data to identify candidate genes in HT-29 cells after incubation with Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 29521.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bao-Gui; Wu, Yaoping; Qiu, Liang; Shah, Nagendra P; Xu, Feng; Wei, Hua

    2016-09-01

    As the predominant group inhabiting the human gastrointestinal tract, bifidobacteria play a vital role in human nutrition, therapeutics, and health by shaping and maintaining the gut ecosystem, reducing blood cholesterol, and promoting the supply of nutrients. The interaction between bacterial cells and human intestinal epithelial cell lines has been studied for decades in an attempt to understand the mechanisms of action. These studies, however, have been limited by lack of genomic and proteomic database to aid in achieving comprehensive understanding of these mechanisms at molecular levels. Microarray data (GSE: 74119) coupled with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) were performed to detect differentially expressed genes and proteins in HT-29 cells after incubation with Bifidobacterium bifidum. Real-time quantitative PCR, gene ontology, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analyses were further conducted for mRNA validation, functional annotation, and pathway identification, respectively. According to the results of microarray, 1,717 differentially expressed genes, including 1,693 upregulated and 24 downregulated genes, were selected and classified by the gene ontology database. The iTRAQ analysis identified 43 differentially expressed proteins, where 29 proteins were upregulated and 14 proteins were downregulated. Eighty-two candidate genes showing consistent differences with microarray and iTRAQ were further validated in HT-29 and Caco-2 cells by real-time quantitative PCR. Nine of the top genes showing interesting results with high confidence were further investigated in vivo in mice intestine samples. Integration of genomic and proteomic data provides an approach to identify candidate genes that are more likely to function in ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, positive regulation of apoptosis, membrane proteins, and transferase catalysis. These findings might contribute to our understanding of molecular mechanisms regulating the

  15. Projection of gene-protein networks to the functional space of the proteome and its application to analysis of organism complexity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of biological complexity via a projection of protein-coding genes of complex organisms onto the functional space of the proteome. The latter can be defined as a set of all functions committed by proteins of an organism. Alternative splicing (AS) allows an organism to generate diverse mature RNA transcripts from a single mRNA strand and thus it could be one of the key mechanisms of increasing of functional complexity of the organism's proteome and a driving force of biological evolution. Thus, the projection of transcription units (TU) and alternative splice-variant (SV) forms onto proteome functional space could generate new types of relational networks (e.g. SV-protein function networks, SFN) and lead to discoveries of novel evolutionarily conservative functional modules. Such types of networks might provide new reliable characteristics of organism complexity and a better understanding of the evolutionary integration and plasticity of interconnection of genome-transcriptome-proteome functions. Results We use the InterPro and UniProt databases to attribute descriptive features (keywords) to protein sequences. UniProt database includes a controlled and curated vocabulary of specific descriptors or keywords. The keywords have been assigned to a protein sequence via conserved domains or via similarity with annotated sequences. Then we consider the unique combinations of keywords as the protein functional labels (FL), which characterize the biological functions of the given protein and construct the contingency tables and graphs providing the projections of transcription units (TU) and alternative splice-variants (SV) onto all FL of the proteome of a given organism. We constructed SFNs for organisms with different evolutionary history and levels of complexity, and performed detailed statistical parameterization of the networks. Conclusions The application of the algorithm to organisms with different evolutionary history and level of biological

  16. Application of an improved proteomics method for abundant protein cleanup: molecular and genomic mechanisms study in plant defense.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yixiang; Gao, Peng; Xing, Zhuo; Jin, Shumei; Chen, Zhide; Liu, Lantao; Constantino, Nasie; Wang, Xinwang; Shi, Weibing; Yuan, Joshua S; Dai, Susie Y

    2013-11-01

    High abundance proteins like ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase (Rubisco) impose a consistent challenge for the whole proteome characterization using shot-gun proteomics. To address this challenge, we developed and evaluated Polyethyleneimine Assisted Rubisco Cleanup (PARC) as a new method by combining both abundant protein removal and fractionation. The new approach was applied to a plant insect interaction study to validate the platform and investigate mechanisms for plant defense against herbivorous insects. Our results indicated that PARC can effectively remove Rubisco, improve the protein identification, and discover almost three times more differentially regulated proteins. The significantly enhanced shot-gun proteomics performance was translated into in-depth proteomic and molecular mechanisms for plant insect interaction, where carbon re-distribution was used to play an essential role. Moreover, the transcriptomic validation also confirmed the reliability of PARC analysis. Finally, functional studies were carried out for two differentially regulated genes as revealed by PARC analysis. Insect resistance was induced by over-expressing either jacalin-like or cupin-like genes in rice. The results further highlighted that PARC can serve as an effective strategy for proteomics analysis and gene discovery. PMID:23943779

  17. Application of an Improved Proteomics Method for Abundant Protein Cleanup: Molecular and Genomic Mechanisms Study in Plant Defense*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yixiang; Gao, Peng; Xing, Zhuo; Jin, Shumei; Chen, Zhide; Liu, Lantao; Constantino, Nasie; Wang, Xinwang; Shi, Weibing; Yuan, Joshua S.; Dai, Susie Y.

    2013-01-01

    High abundance proteins like ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase (Rubisco) impose a consistent challenge for the whole proteome characterization using shot-gun proteomics. To address this challenge, we developed and evaluated Polyethyleneimine Assisted Rubisco Cleanup (PARC) as a new method by combining both abundant protein removal and fractionation. The new approach was applied to a plant insect interaction study to validate the platform and investigate mechanisms for plant defense against herbivorous insects. Our results indicated that PARC can effectively remove Rubisco, improve the protein identification, and discover almost three times more differentially regulated proteins. The significantly enhanced shot-gun proteomics performance was translated into in-depth proteomic and molecular mechanisms for plant insect interaction, where carbon re-distribution was used to play an essential role. Moreover, the transcriptomic validation also confirmed the reliability of PARC analysis. Finally, functional studies were carried out for two differentially regulated genes as revealed by PARC analysis. Insect resistance was induced by over-expressing either jacalin-like or cupin-like genes in rice. The results further highlighted that PARC can serve as an effective strategy for proteomics analysis and gene discovery. PMID:23943779

  18. Genomic and proteomic characterization of “Candidatus Nitrosopelagicus brevis”: An ammonia-oxidizing archaeon from the open ocean

    PubMed Central

    Santoro, Alyson E.; Dupont, Christopher L.; Richter, R. Alex; Craig, Matthew T.; Carini, Paul; McIlvin, Matthew R.; Yang, Youngik; Orsi, William D.; Moran, Dawn M.; Saito, Mak A.

    2015-01-01

    Thaumarchaeota are among the most abundant microbial cells in the ocean, but difficulty in cultivating marine Thaumarchaeota has hindered investigation into the physiological and evolutionary basis of their success. We report here a closed genome assembled from a highly enriched culture of the ammonia-oxidizing pelagic thaumarchaeon CN25, originating from the open ocean. The CN25 genome exhibits strong evidence of genome streamlining, including a 1.23-Mbp genome, a high coding density, and a low number of paralogous genes. Proteomic analysis recovered nearly 70% of the predicted proteins encoded by the genome, demonstrating that a high fraction of the genome is translated. In contrast to other minimal marine microbes that acquire, rather than synthesize, cofactors, CN25 encodes and expresses near-complete biosynthetic pathways for multiple vitamins. Metagenomic fragment recruitment indicated the presence of DNA sequences >90% identical to the CN25 genome throughout the oligotrophic ocean. We propose the provisional name “Candidatus Nitrosopelagicus brevis” str. CN25 for this minimalist marine thaumarchaeon and suggest it as a potential model system for understanding archaeal adaptation to the open ocean. PMID:25587132

  19. Proteomic analysis of the royal jelly and characterization of the functions of its derivation glands in the honeybee.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Toshiyuki; Kozuka-Hata, Hiroko; Ao-Kondo, Hiroko; Kunieda, Takekazu; Oyama, Masaaki; Kubo, Takeo

    2013-01-01

    To identify candidate royal jelly (RJ) proteins that might affect the physiologic status of honeybee colony members, we used shotgun proteomics to comprehensively identify the RJ proteome as well as proteomes of the hypopharyngeal gland (HpG), postcerebral gland (PcG), and thoracic gland (TG), from which RJ proteins are assumed to be derived. We identified a total of 38 nonredundant RJ proteins, including 22 putative secretory proteins and Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein complex acid labile subunit. Among them, 9 proteins were newly identified from RJ. Comparison of the RJ proteome with the HpG, PcG, and TG proteomes revealed that 17 of the 22 putative secretory RJ proteins were derived from some of these glands, suggesting that the RJ proteome is a cocktail of proteins from these three glands. Furthermore, pathway analysis suggested that the HpG proteome represents the molecular basis of the extremely high protein-synthesizing ability, whereas the PcG proteome suggests that the PcG functions as a reservoir for the volatile compounds and a primer pheromone. Finally, to further characterize the possible total RJ proteome, we identified putative secretory proteins in the proteomes of these three glands. This will be useful for predicting novel RJ protein components in future studies. PMID:23157659

  20. Using CAVE technology for functional genomics studies.

    PubMed

    Sensen, Christoph W

    2002-01-01

    We have established the first Java 3D-enabled CAVE (CAVE automated virtual environment). The Java application programming interface allows the complete separation of the program development from the program execution, opening new application domains for the CAVE technology. Programs can be developed on any Java-enabled computer platform, including Windows, Macintosh, and Linux workstations, and executed in the CAVE without modification. The introduction of Java, one of the major programming environments for bioinformatics, into the CAVE environment allows the rapid development applications for genome research, especially for the analysis of the spatial and temporal data that are being produced by functional genomics experiments. The CAVE technology will play a major role in the modeling of biological systems that is necessary to understand how these systems are organized and how they function. PMID:12614491

  1. Biomarkers for pancreatic cancer: Recent achievements in proteomics and genomics through classical and multivariate statistical methods

    PubMed Central

    Marengo, Emilio; Robotti, Elisa

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the most aggressive and lethal neoplastic diseases. A valid alternative to the usual invasive diagnostic tools would certainly be the determination of biomarkers in peripheral fluids to provide less invasive tools for early diagnosis. Nowadays, biomarkers are generally investigated mainly in peripheral blood and tissues through high-throughput omics techniques comparing control vs pathological samples. The results can be evaluated by two main strategies: (1) classical methods in which the identification of significant biomarkers is accomplished by monovariate statistical tests where each biomarker is considered as independent from the others; and (2) multivariate methods, taking into consideration the correlations existing among the biomarkers themselves. This last approach is very powerful since it allows the identification of pools of biomarkers with diagnostic and prognostic performances which are superior to single markers in terms of sensitivity, specificity and robustness. Multivariate techniques are usually applied with variable selection procedures to provide a restricted set of biomarkers with the best predictive ability; however, standard selection methods are usually aimed at the identification of the smallest set of variables with the best predictive ability and exhaustivity is usually neglected. The exhaustive search for biomarkers is instead an important alternative to standard variable selection since it can provide information about the etiology of the pathology by producing a comprehensive set of markers. In this review, the most recent applications of the omics techniques (proteomics, genomics and metabolomics) to the identification of exploratory biomarkers for PC will be presented with particular regard to the statistical methods adopted for their identification. The basic theory related to classical and multivariate methods for identification of biomarkers is presented and then, the most recent applications in

  2. Salivary Proteomic and Genomic Biomarkers for Primary Sjögren’s Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shen; Wang, Jianghua; Meijer, Jiska; Ieong, Sonya; Xie, Yongming; Yu, Tianwei; Zhou, Hui; Henry, Sharon; Vissink, Arjan; Pijpe, Justin; Kallenberg, Cees; Elashoff, David; Loo, Joseph A.; Wong, David T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To identify a panel of protein and messenger RNA (mRNA) biomarkers in human whole saliva (WS) that may be used in the detection of primary Sjögren’s syndrome (SS). Methods Mass spectrometry and expression microarray profiling were used to identify candidate protein and mRNA biomarkers of primary SS in WS samples. Validation of the discovered mRNA and protein biomarkers was also demonstrated using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting techniques. Results Sixteen WS proteins were found to be down-regulated and 25 WS proteins were found to be up-regulated in primary SS patients compared with matched healthy control subjects. These proteins reflected the damage of glandular cells and inflammation of the oral cavity system in patients with primary SS. In addition, 16 WS peptides (10 up-regulated and 6 down-regulated in primary SS) were found at significantly different levels (P <0.05) in primary SS patients and controls. Using stringent criteria (3-fold change; P <0.0005), 27 mRNA in saliva samples were found to be significantly up-regulated in the primary SS patients. Strikingly, 19 of 27 genes that were found to be overex-pressed were interferon-inducible or were related to lymphocyte filtration and antigen presentation known to be involved in the pathogenesis of primary SS. Conclusion Our preliminary study has indicated that WS from patients with primary SS contains molecular signatures that reflect damaged glandular cells and an activated immune response in this autoimmune disease. These candidate proteomic and genomic biomarkers may improve the clinical detection of primary SS once they have been further validated. We also found that WS contains more informative proteins, peptides, and mRNA, as compared with gland-specific saliva, that can be used in generating candidate biomarkers for the detection of primary SS. PMID:17968930

  3. [Genomic, proteomic and metabolomic predictors of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease development in obese patients. Part I].

    PubMed

    Chernyak, O O; Sentsova, T B; Vorozhko, I V; Tutelyan, V A; Gapparova, K M; Isakov, V A

    2015-01-01

    The prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases associated to obesity require a qualitative increase of efficiency. There are still disputable questions about diagnostic significance of some molecules, including genomic, proteomic and metabolomic biomarkers. We observed 72 obese patients (20 men and 52 women, mean age--41.3 +/- 2.5) and performed ultrasound elastography and ultrasound of liver. We have identified two groups of patients: Group 1 consisted of 50 obese patients without complications (BMI 43.2 +/- 0.6), group 2 consisted of 22 patients with obesity complicated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (BMI 45.8 +/- 2.3). Determination of the adipokines (adiponectin, ghrelin, resistin, visfatin, and apelin), cytokine (interleukin--6, TNFalpha) oxidized lipoproteins (oxLDL), adhesion molecule sICAM (soluble intercellular cell adhesion molecule), fatty acid transporter L-FABP in serum was performed by ELISA. The study of the lipid metabolism involved determination of the concentration of total cholesterols, triglycerides, low and high density lipoproteins (LDL and HDL) by turbidimetry and spectrophotometry by analyzer. In addition, we conducted analysis of polymorphic alleles epsilon2, epsilon3, episolon4 of ApoE gene using polymerase chain reaction. Our data indicate that reducing the concentration of adiponectin (0.46-1.71 mcg/ml), increasing the level of glucose (5.57-6.25 mmol/l), triglycerides (2.06-3.94 mmol/l), TNFalpha (5.07-16.68 pg/ml) and L-FABP (11.62-23.76 pg/ml) are predictors of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in obese patients, and the presence of genotype epsilon3/epsilon4 of ApoE gene is a poor prognostic marker of severity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:26852528

  4. Investigation of Yersinia pestis laboratory adaptation through a combined genomics and proteomics approach

    SciTech Connect

    Leiser, Owen P.; Merkley, Eric D.; Clowers, Brian H.; Kaiser, Brooke L. Deatherage; Lin, Andy; Hutchison, Janine R.; Melville, Angela M.; Wagner, David M.; Keim, Paul S.; Foster, Jeff; Kreuzer, Helen W.

    2015-11-24

    Here, the bacterial pathogen Yersinia pestis, the cause of plague in humans and animals, normally has a sylvatic lifestyle, cycling between fleas and mammals. In contrast, laboratory-grown Y. pestis experiences a more constant environment and conditions that it would not normally encounter. The transition from the natural environment to the laboratory results in a vastly different set of selective pressures, and represents what could be considered domestication. Understanding the kinds of adaptations Y. pestis undergoes as it becomes domesticated will contribute to understanding the basic biology of this important pathogen. In this study, we performed a Parallel Serial Passage Experiment (PSPE) to explore the mechanisms by which Y. pestis adapts to laboratory conditions, hypothesizing that cells would undergo significant changes in virulence and nutrient acquisition systems. Two wild strains were serially passaged in 12 independent populations each for ~750 generations, after which each population was analyzed using whole-genome sequencing. We observed considerable parallel evolution in the endpoint populations, detecting multiple independent mutations in ail, pepA, and zwf, suggesting that specific selective pressures are shaping evolutionary responses. Complementary LC-MS-based proteomic data provide physiological context to the observed mutations, and reveal regulatory changes not necessarily associated with specific mutations, including changes in amino acid metabolism, envelope biogenesis, iron storage and acquisition, and a type VI secretion system. Proteomic data support hypotheses generated by genomic data in addition to suggesting future mechanistic studies, indicating that future whole-genome sequencing studies be designed to leverage proteomics as a critical complement.

  5. Orchidstra: an integrated orchid functional genomics database.

    PubMed

    Su, Chun-lin; Chao, Ya-Ting; Yen, Shao-Hua; Chen, Chun-Yi; Chen, Wan-Chieh; Chang, Yao-Chien Alex; Shih, Ming-Che

    2013-02-01

    A specialized orchid database, named Orchidstra (URL: http://orchidstra.abrc.sinica.edu.tw), has been constructed to collect, annotate and share genomic information for orchid functional genomics studies. The Orchidaceae is a large family of Angiosperms that exhibits extraordinary biodiversity in terms of both the number of species and their distribution worldwide. Orchids exhibit many unique biological features; however, investigation of these traits is currently constrained due to the limited availability of genomic information. Transcriptome information for five orchid species and one commercial hybrid has been included in the Orchidstra database. Altogether, these comprise >380,000 non-redundant orchid transcript sequences, of which >110,000 are protein-coding genes. Sequences from the transcriptome shotgun assembly (TSA) were obtained either from output reads from next-generation sequencing technologies assembled into contigs, or from conventional cDNA library approaches. An annotation pipeline using Gene Ontology, KEGG and Pfam was built to assign gene descriptions and functional annotation to protein-coding genes. Deep sequencing of small RNA was also performed for Phalaenopsis aphrodite to search for microRNAs (miRNAs), extending the information archived for this species to miRNA annotation, precursors and putative target genes. The P. aphrodite transcriptome information was further used to design probes for an oligonucleotide microarray, and expression profiling analysis was carried out. The intensities of hybridized probes derived from microarray assays of various tissues were incorporated into the database as part of the functional evidence. In the future, the content of the Orchidstra database will be expanded with transcriptome data and genomic information from more orchid species. PMID:23324169

  6. Microbial community proteomics for characterizing the range of metabolic functions and activities of human gut microbiota

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Xiong, Weili; Abraham, Paul E.; Li, Zhou; Pan, Chongle; Robert L. Hettich

    2015-01-01

    We found that the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a complex, dynamic ecosystem that consists of a carefully tuned balance of human host and microbiota membership. The microbiome component is not insignificant, but rather provides important functions that are absolutely critical to many aspects of human health, including nutrient transformation and absorption, drug metabolism, pathogen defense, and immune system development. Microbial community proteomics (sometimes referred to as metaproteomics) provides a powerful approach to measure the range and details of human gut microbiota functions and metabolic activities, revealing information about microbiome development and stability especially with regard to human health vs.more » disease states. In most cases, both microbial and human proteins are extracted from fecal samples and then measured by the high performance MS-based proteomics technology. We review the field of human gut microbiome community proteomics, with a focus on the experimental and informatics considerations involved in characterizing systems that range from low complexity defined model gut microbiota in gnotobiotic mice, to the simple gut microbiota in the GI tract of newborn infants, and finally to the complex gut microbiota in adults. Moreover, the current state-of-the-art in experimental and bioinformatics capabilities for community proteomics enable a detailed measurement of the gut microbiota, yielding valuable insights into the broad functional profiles of even complex microbiota. Future developments are likely to expand into improved analysis throughput and coverage depth, as well as post-translational modification characterizations.« less

  7. Microbial community proteomics for characterizing the range of metabolic functions and activities of human gut microbiota

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Weili; Abraham, Paul E.; Li, Zhou; Pan, Chongle; Robert L. Hettich

    2015-01-01

    We found that the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a complex, dynamic ecosystem that consists of a carefully tuned balance of human host and microbiota membership. The microbiome component is not insignificant, but rather provides important functions that are absolutely critical to many aspects of human health, including nutrient transformation and absorption, drug metabolism, pathogen defense, and immune system development. Microbial community proteomics (sometimes referred to as metaproteomics) provides a powerful approach to measure the range and details of human gut microbiota functions and metabolic activities, revealing information about microbiome development and stability especially with regard to human health vs. disease states. In most cases, both microbial and human proteins are extracted from fecal samples and then measured by the high performance MS-based proteomics technology. We review the field of human gut microbiome community proteomics, with a focus on the experimental and informatics considerations involved in characterizing systems that range from low complexity defined model gut microbiota in gnotobiotic mice, to the simple gut microbiota in the GI tract of newborn infants, and finally to the complex gut microbiota in adults. Moreover, the current state-of-the-art in experimental and bioinformatics capabilities for community proteomics enable a detailed measurement of the gut microbiota, yielding valuable insights into the broad functional profiles of even complex microbiota. Future developments are likely to expand into improved analysis throughput and coverage depth, as well as post-translational modification characterizations.

  8. Polyploidy and the proteome.

    PubMed

    Soltis, Douglas E; Misra, Biswapriya B; Shan, Shengchen; Chen, Sixue; Soltis, Pamela S

    2016-08-01

    Although major advances have been made during the past 20 years in our understanding of the genetic and genomic consequences of polyploidy, our knowledge of polyploidy and the proteome is in its infancy. One of our goals is to stimulate additional study, particularly broad-scale proteomic analyses of polyploids and their progenitors. Although it may be too early to generalize regarding the extent to which transcriptomic data are predictive of the proteome of polyploids, it is clear that the proteome does not always reflect the transcriptome. Despite limited data, important observations on the proteomes of polyploids are emerging. In some cases, proteomic profiles show qualitatively and/or quantitatively non-additive patterns, and proteomic novelty has been observed. Allopolyploids generally combine the parental contributions, but there is evidence of parental dominance of one contributing genome in some allopolyploids. Autopolyploids are typically qualitatively identical to but quantitatively different from their parents. There is also evidence of parental legacy at the proteomic level. Proteomes clearly provide insights into the consequences of genomic merger and doubling beyond what is obtained from genomic and/or transcriptomic data. Translating proteomic changes in polyploids to differences in morphology and physiology remains the holy grail of polyploidy--this daunting task of linking genotype to proteome to phenotype should emerge as a focus of polyploidy research in the next decade. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Proteomics--a bridge between fundamental processes and crop production, edited by Dr. Hans-Peter Mock. PMID:26993527

  9. Functional genomics for food fermentation processes.

    PubMed

    Smid, E J; Hugenholtz, J

    2010-01-01

    This review describes recent scientific and technological drivers of food fermentation research. In addition, a number of practical implications of the results of this development will be highlighted. The first part of the manuscript elaborates on the message that genome sequence information gives us an unprecedented view on the biodiversity of microbes in food fermentation. This information can be made applicable for tailoring relevant characteristics of food products through fermentation. The second part deals with the integration of genome sequence data into metabolic models and the use of these models for a number of topics that are relevant for food fermentation processes. The final part will be about metagenomics approaches to reveal the complexity and understand the functionality of undefined complex microbial consortia used in a diverse range of food fermentation processes. PMID:22129346

  10. Thermus thermophilus bacteriophage ϕYS40 genome and proteomic characterization of virions

    PubMed Central

    Naryshkina, Tatyana; Liu, Jing; Florens, Laurence; Swanson, Selene K.; Pavlov, Andrey R.; Pavlova, Nadejda V.; Inman, Ross; Kozyavkin, Sergei A.; Washburn, Michael; Mushegian, Arcady; Severinov, Konstantin

    2006-01-01

    We determined the sequence of the 152,372-bp genome of ϕYS40, a lytic tailed bacteriophage of Thermus thermophilus. The genome contains 170 putative open reading frames and three tRNA genes. Functions for 25% of ϕYS40 gene products were predicted on the basis of similarity to proteins of known function from diverse phages and bacteria. ϕYS40 encodes a cluster of proteins involved in nucleotide salvage, such as flavin-dependent thymidylate synthase, thymidylate kinase, ribonucleotide reductase, and deoxycytidylate deaminase, and in DNA replication, such as DNA primase, helicase, type A DNA polymerase, and predicted terminal protein involved in initiation of DNA synthesis. The structural genes of ϕYS40, most of which have no similarity to sequences in public databases, were identified by mass-spectrometric analysis of purified virions. Various ϕYS40 proteins have different phylogenetic neighbors, including Myovirus, Podovirus, and Siphovirus gene products, bacterial genes, and in one case, a dUTPase from a eukaryotic virus. ϕYS40 has apparently arisen through multiple acts of recombination between different phage genomes as well as through acquisition of bacterial genes. PMID:17027029

  11. A comprehensive proteomics and genomics analysis reveals novel transmembrane proteins in human platelets and mouse megakaryocytes including G6b-B, a novel ITIM protein

    PubMed Central

    Senis, Yotis A.; Tomlinson, Michael G.; García, Ángel; Dumon, Stephanie; Heath, Victoria L.; Herbert, John; Cobbold, Stephen P.; Spalton, Jennifer C.; Ayman, Sinem; Antrobus, Robin; Zitzmann, Nicole; Bicknell, Roy; Frampton, Jon; Authi, Kalwant; Martin, Ashley; Wakelam, Michael J.O.; Watson, Stephen P.

    2007-01-01

    Summary The platelet surface is poorly characterized due to the low abundance of many membrane proteins and the lack of specialist tools for their investigation. In this study we have identified novel human platelet and mouse megakaryocyte membrane proteins using specialist proteomic and genomic approaches. Three separate methods were used to enrich platelet surface proteins prior to identification by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry: lectin affinity chromatography; biotin/NeutrAvidin affinity chromatography; and free flow electrophoresis. Many known, abundant platelet surface transmembrane proteins and several novel proteins were identified using each receptor enrichment strategy. In total, two or more unique peptides were identified for 46, 68 and 22 surface membrane, intracellular membrane and membrane proteins of unknown sub-cellular localization, respectively. The majority of these were single transmembrane proteins. To complement the proteomic studies, we analysed the transcriptome of a highly purified preparation of mature primary mouse megakaryocytes using serial analysis of gene expression in view of the increasing importance of mutant mouse models in establishing protein function in platelets. This approach identified all of the major classes of platelet transmembrane receptors, including multi-transmembrane proteins. Strikingly, 17 of the 25 most megakaryocyte-specific genes (relative to 30 other SAGE libraries) were transmembrane proteins, illustrating the unique nature of the megakaryocyte/platelet surface. The list of novel plasma membrane proteins identified using proteomics includes the immunoglobulin superfamily member G6b, which undergoes extensive alternate splicing. Specific antibodies were used to demonstrate expression of the G6b-B isoform, which contains an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif. G6b-B undergoes tyrosine phosphorylation and association with the SH2-containing phosphatase, SHP-1, in stimulated

  12. Elucidating the Molecular Basis and Regulation of Chromium(VI) Reduction by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and Resistance to Metal Toxicity Using Integrated Biochemical, Genomic, and Proteomic Approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Dorothea K. Thompson; Steven D. Brown; Robert L. Hettich; Nathan VerBerkmoes; Jizhong Zhou

    2004-03-17

    The mediation of metal reduction by microorganisms has been investigated intensively from physiological and biochemical perspectives; however, little is known about the genetic basis and regulatory mechanisms underlying the ability of certain bacteria to transform or immobilize a wide array of heavy metals contaminating DOE field sites. Chromium(VI), for example, is one of several risk-driving contaminants at DOE sites and has been targeted by the DOE for bioremediation research. The bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 can potentially be used to immobilize chromium, a toxic and mutagenic metal, by reducing soluble Cr(VI) to the insoluble and less bioavailable form of Cr(III), thus facilitating its removal from contained-storage and natural sites. The overall goal of this study is to integrate targeted biochemical and proteomic analyses with genome-wide gene expression profiling to examine the molecular basis and regulation of chromium(VI) reduction by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. Towards this goal, we will (1) isolate and identify the terminal chromium(VI) reductase and the gene(s) encoding this activity using whole-genome sequence information for MR-1 and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in conjunction with conventional protein purification and characterization techniques; (2) verify the function of the gene(s) encoding the terminal Cr(VI) reductase and compare whole transcriptome data with whole proteome data in order to understand the regulation of chromium reduction; and (3) investigate the molecular stress response and adaptation of S. oneidensis to toxic levels of soluble Cr(VI) and other heavy metals. This research will provide important information on the functional components and regulatory mechanisms of microbial metal reduction, which should prove valuable in developing effective assessment strategies for in situ bioremediation and genetically engineering desired bacteria for enhanced bioremediation.

  13. Exploring the Yeast Acetylome Using Functional Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, Supipi Kaluarachchi; Friesen, Helena; Baryshnikova, Anastasia; Lambert, Jean-Philippe; Chong, Yolanda T.; Figeys, Daniel; Andrews, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Lysine acetylation is a dynamic posttranslational modification with a well-defined role in regulating histones. The impact of acetylation on other cellular functions remains relatively uncharacterized. We explored the budding yeast acetylome with a functional genomics approach, assessing the effects of gene overexpression in the absence of lysine deacetylases (KDACs). We generated a network of 463 synthetic dosage lethal (SDL) interactions involving class I and II KDACs, revealing many cellular pathways regulated by different KDACs. A biochemical survey of genes interacting with the KDAC RPD3 identified 72 proteins acetylated in vivo. In-depth analysis of one of these proteins, Swi4, revealed a role for acetylation in G1-specific gene expression. Acetylation of Swi4 regulates interaction with its partner Swi6, both components of the SBF transcription factor. This study expands our view of the yeast acetylome, demonstrates the utility of functional genomic screens for exploring enzymatic pathways, and provides functional information that can be mined for future studies. PMID:22579291

  14. Tetrahymena functional genomics database (TetraFGD): an integrated resource for Tetrahymena functional genomics.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Jie; Lu, Yuming; Feng, Jinmei; Yuan, Dongxia; Tian, Miao; Chang, Yue; Fu, Chengjie; Wang, Guangying; Zeng, Honghui; Miao, Wei

    2013-01-01

    The ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila is a useful unicellular model organism for studies of eukaryotic cellular and molecular biology. Researches on T. thermophila have contributed to a series of remarkable basic biological principles. After the macronuclear genome was sequenced, substantial progress has been made in functional genomics research on T. thermophila, including genome-wide microarray analysis of the T. thermophila life cycle, a T. thermophila gene network analysis based on the microarray data and transcriptome analysis by deep RNA sequencing. To meet the growing demands for the Tetrahymena research community, we integrated these data to provide a public access database: Tetrahymena functional genomics database (TetraFGD). TetraFGD contains three major resources, including the RNA-Seq transcriptome, microarray and gene networks. The RNA-Seq data define gene structures and transcriptome, with special emphasis on exon-intron boundaries; the microarray data describe gene expression of 20 time points during three major stages of the T. thermophila life cycle; the gene network data identify potential gene-gene interactions of 15 049 genes. The TetraFGD provides user-friendly search functions that assist researchers in accessing gene models, transcripts, gene expression data and gene-gene relationships. In conclusion, the TetraFGD is an important functional genomic resource for researchers who focus on the Tetrahymena or other ciliates. Database URL: http://tfgd.ihb.ac.cn/ PMID:23482072

  15. Functional Analysis of Shewanella, a cross genome comparison.

    SciTech Connect

    Serres, Margrethe H.

    2009-05-15

    The bacterial genus Shewanella includes a group of highly versatile organisms that have successfully adapted to life in many environments ranging from aquatic (fresh and marine) to sedimentary (lake and marine sediments, subsurface sediments, sea vent). A unique respiratory capability of the Shewanellas, initially observed for Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, is the ability to use metals and metalloids, including radioactive compounds, as electron acceptors. Members of the Shewanella genus have also been shown to degrade environmental pollutants i.e. halogenated compounds, making this group highly applicable for the DOE mission. S. oneidensis MR-1 has in addition been found to utilize a diverse set of nutrients and to have a large set of genes dedicated to regulation and to sensing of the environment. The sequencing of the S. oneidensis MR-1 genome facilitated experimental and bioinformatics analyses by a group of collaborating researchers, the Shewanella Federation. Through the joint effort and with support from Department of Energy S. oneidensis MR-1 has become a model organism of study. Our work has been a functional analysis of S. oneidensis MR-1, both by itself and as part of a comparative study. We have improved the annotation of gene products, assigned metabolic functions, and analyzed protein families present in S. oneidensis MR-1. The data has been applied to analysis of experimental data (i.e. gene expression, proteome) generated for S. oneidensis MR-1. Further, this work has formed the basis for a comparative study of over 20 members of the Shewanella genus. The species and strains selected for genome sequencing represented an evolutionary gradient of DNA relatedness, ranging from close to intermediate, and to distant. The organisms selected have also adapted to a variety of ecological niches. Through our work we have been able to detect and interpret genome similarities and differences between members of the genus. We have in this way contributed to the

  16. Open-Access Cancer Genomics - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    The completion of the Human Genome Project sparked a revolution in high-throughput genomics applied towards deciphering genetically complex diseases, like cancer. Now, almost 10 years later, we have a mountain of genomics data on many different cancer type

  17. Genomic and proteomic evidences unravel the UV-resistome of the poly-extremophile Acinetobacter sp. Ver3

    PubMed Central

    Kurth, Daniel; Belfiore, Carolina; Gorriti, Marta F.; Cortez, Néstor; Farias, María E.; Albarracín, Virginia H.

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation can damage biomolecules, with detrimental or even lethal effects for life. Even though lower wavelengths are filtered by the ozone layer, a significant amount of harmful UV-B and UV-A radiation reach Earth’s surface, particularly in high altitude environments. high-altitude Andean lakes (HAALs) are a group of disperse shallow lakes and salterns, located at the Dry Central Andes region in South America at altitudes above 3,000 m. As it is considered one of the highest UV-exposed environments, HAAL microbes constitute model systems to study UV-resistance mechanisms in environmental bacteria at various complexity levels. Herein, we present the genome sequence of Acinetobacter sp. Ver3, a gammaproteobacterium isolated from Lake Verde (4,400 m), together with further experimental evidence supporting the phenomenological observations regarding this bacterium ability to cope with increased UV-induced DNA damage. Comparison with the genomes of other Acinetobacter strains highlighted a number of unique genes, such as a novel cryptochrome. Proteomic profiling of UV-exposed cells identified up-regulated proteins such as a specific cytoplasmic catalase, a putative regulator, and proteins associated to amino acid and protein synthesis. Down-regulated proteins were related to several energy-generating pathways such as glycolysis, beta-oxidation of fatty acids, and electronic respiratory chain. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on a genome from a polyextremophilic Acinetobacter strain. From the genomic and proteomic data, an “UV-resistome” was defined, encompassing the genes that would support the outstanding UV-resistance of this strain. PMID:25954258

  18. Genomic and proteomic evidences unravel the UV-resistome of the poly-extremophile Acinetobacter sp. Ver3.

    PubMed

    Kurth, Daniel; Belfiore, Carolina; Gorriti, Marta F; Cortez, Néstor; Farias, María E; Albarracín, Virginia H

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation can damage biomolecules, with detrimental or even lethal effects for life. Even though lower wavelengths are filtered by the ozone layer, a significant amount of harmful UV-B and UV-A radiation reach Earth's surface, particularly in high altitude environments. high-altitude Andean lakes (HAALs) are a group of disperse shallow lakes and salterns, located at the Dry Central Andes region in South America at altitudes above 3,000 m. As it is considered one of the highest UV-exposed environments, HAAL microbes constitute model systems to study UV-resistance mechanisms in environmental bacteria at various complexity levels. Herein, we present the genome sequence of Acinetobacter sp. Ver3, a gammaproteobacterium isolated from Lake Verde (4,400 m), together with further experimental evidence supporting the phenomenological observations regarding this bacterium ability to cope with increased UV-induced DNA damage. Comparison with the genomes of other Acinetobacter strains highlighted a number of unique genes, such as a novel cryptochrome. Proteomic profiling of UV-exposed cells identified up-regulated proteins such as a specific cytoplasmic catalase, a putative regulator, and proteins associated to amino acid and protein synthesis. Down-regulated proteins were related to several energy-generating pathways such as glycolysis, beta-oxidation of fatty acids, and electronic respiratory chain. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on a genome from a polyextremophilic Acinetobacter strain. From the genomic and proteomic data, an "UV-resistome" was defined, encompassing the genes that would support the outstanding UV-resistance of this strain. PMID:25954258

  19. Impact of a short-term exposure to spaceflight on the phenotype, genome, transcriptome and proteome of Escherichia coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tianzhi; Chang, De; Xu, Huiwen; Chen, Jiapeng; Su, Longxiang; Guo, Yinghua; Chen, Zhenhong; Wang, Yajuan; Wang, Li; Wang, Junfeng; Fang, Xiangqun; Liu, Changting

    2015-07-01

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) is the most widely applied model organism in current biological science. As a widespread opportunistic pathogen, E. coli can survive not only by symbiosis with human, but also outside the host as well, which necessitates the evaluation of its response to the space environment. Therefore, to keep humans safe in space, it is necessary to understand how the bacteria respond to this environment. Despite extensive investigations for a few decades, the response of E. coli to the real space environment is still controversial. To better understand the mechanisms how E. coli overcomes harsh environments such as microgravity in space and to investigate whether these factors may induce pathogenic changes in E. coli that are potentially detrimental to astronauts, we conducted detailed genomics, transcriptomic and proteomic studies on E. coli that experienced 17 days of spaceflight. By comparing two flight strains LCT-EC52 and LCT-EC59 to a control strain LCT-EC106 that was cultured under the same temperature conditions on the ground, we identified metabolism changes, polymorphism changes, differentially expressed genes and proteins in the two flight strains. The flight strains differed from the control in the utilization of more than 30 carbon sources. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and one deletion were identified in the flight strains. The expression level of more than 1000 genes altered in flight strains. Genes involved in chemotaxis, lipid metabolism and cell motility express differently. Moreover, the two flight strains also differed extensively from each other in terms of metabolism, transcriptome and proteome, indicating the impact of space environment on individual cells is heterogeneous and probably genotype-dependent. This study presents the first systematic profile of E. coli genome, transcriptome and proteome after spaceflight, which helps to elucidate the mechanism that controls the adaptation of microbes to the space

  20. KEGG orthology-based annotation of the predicted proteome of Acropora digitifera: ZoophyteBase - an open access and searchable database of a coral genome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Contemporary coral reef research has firmly established that a genomic approach is urgently needed to better understand the effects of anthropogenic environmental stress and global climate change on coral holobiont interactions. Here we present KEGG orthology-based annotation of the complete genome sequence of the scleractinian coral Acropora digitifera and provide the first comprehensive view of the genome of a reef-building coral by applying advanced bioinformatics. Description Sequences from the KEGG database of protein function were used to construct hidden Markov models. These models were used to search the predicted proteome of A. digitifera to establish complete genomic annotation. The annotated dataset is published in ZoophyteBase, an open access format with different options for searching the data. A particularly useful feature is the ability to use a Google-like search engine that links query words to protein attributes. We present features of the annotation that underpin the molecular structure of key processes of coral physiology that include (1) regulatory proteins of symbiosis, (2) planula and early developmental proteins, (3) neural messengers, receptors and sensory proteins, (4) calcification and Ca2+-signalling proteins, (5) plant-derived proteins, (6) proteins of nitrogen metabolism, (7) DNA repair proteins, (8) stress response proteins, (9) antioxidant and redox-protective proteins, (10) proteins of cellular apoptosis, (11) microbial symbioses and pathogenicity proteins, (12) proteins of viral pathogenicity, (13) toxins and venom, (14) proteins of the chemical defensome and (15) coral epigenetics. Conclusions We advocate that providing annotation in an open-access searchable database available to the public domain will give an unprecedented foundation to interrogate the fundamental molecular structure and interactions of coral symbiosis and allow critical questions to be addressed at the genomic level based on combined aspects of

  1. Genome, Proteome and Structure of a T7-Like Bacteriophage of the Kiwifruit Canker Phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae.

    PubMed

    Frampton, Rebekah A; Acedo, Elena Lopez; Young, Vivienne L; Chen, Danni; Tong, Brian; Taylor, Corinda; Easingwood, Richard A; Pitman, Andrew R; Kleffmann, Torsten; Bostina, Mihnea; Fineran, Peter C

    2015-07-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae is an economically significant pathogen responsible for severe bacterial canker of kiwifruit (Actinidia sp.). Bacteriophages infecting this phytopathogen have potential as biocontrol agents as part of an integrated approach to the management of bacterial canker, and for use as molecular tools to study this bacterium. A variety of bacteriophages were previously isolated that infect P. syringae pv. actinidiae, and their basic properties were characterized to provide a framework for formulation of these phages as biocontrol agents. Here, we have examined in more detail φPsa17, a phage with the capacity to infect a broad range of P. syringae pv. actinidiae strains and the only member of the Podoviridae in this collection. Particle morphology was visualized using cryo-electron microscopy, the genome was sequenced, and its structural proteins were analysed using shotgun proteomics. These studies demonstrated that φPsa17 has a 40,525 bp genome, is a member of the T7likevirus genus and is closely related to the pseudomonad phages φPSA2 and gh-1. Eleven structural proteins (one scaffolding) were detected by proteomics and φPsa17 has a capsid of approximately 60 nm in diameter. No genes indicative of a lysogenic lifecycle were identified, suggesting the phage is obligately lytic. These features indicate that φPsa17 may be suitable for formulation as a biocontrol agent of P. syringae pv. actinidiae. PMID:26114474

  2. Integrative proteomic profiling of ovarian cancer cell lines reveals precursor cell associated proteins and functional status

    PubMed Central

    Coscia, F.; Watters, K. M.; Curtis, M.; Eckert, M. A.; Chiang, C. Y.; Tyanova, S.; Montag, A.; Lastra, R. R.; Lengyel, E.; Mann, M.

    2016-01-01

    A cell line representative of human high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) should not only resemble its tumour of origin at the molecular level, but also demonstrate functional utility in pre-clinical investigations. Here, we report the integrated proteomic analysis of 26 ovarian cancer cell lines, HGSOC tumours, immortalized ovarian surface epithelial cells and fallopian tube epithelial cells via a single-run mass spectrometric workflow. The in-depth quantification of >10,000 proteins results in three distinct cell line categories: epithelial (group I), clear cell (group II) and mesenchymal (group III). We identify a 67-protein cell line signature, which separates our entire proteomic data set, as well as a confirmatory publicly available CPTAC/TCGA tumour proteome data set, into a predominantly epithelial and mesenchymal HGSOC tumour cluster. This proteomics-based epithelial/mesenchymal stratification of cell lines and human tumours indicates a possible origin of HGSOC either from the fallopian tube or from the ovarian surface epithelium. PMID:27561551

  3. Morphology, Genome Sequence, and Structural Proteome of Type Phage P335 from Lactococcus lactis▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Labrie, Simon J.; Josephsen, Jytte; Neve, Horst; Vogensen, Finn K.; Moineau, Sylvain

    2008-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis phage P335 is a virulent type phage for the species that bears its name and belongs to the Siphoviridae family. Morphologically, P335 resembled the L. lactis phages TP901-1 and Tuc2009, except for a shorter tail and a different collar/whisker structure. Its 33,613-bp double-stranded DNA genome had 50 open reading frames. Putative functions were assigned to 29 of them. Unlike other sequenced genomes from lactococcal phages belonging to this species, P335 did not have a lysogeny module. However, it did carry a dUTPase gene, the most conserved gene among this phage species. Comparative genomic analyses revealed a high level of identity between the morphogenesis modules of the phages P335, ul36, TP901-1, and Tuc2009 and two putative prophages of L. lactis SK11. Differences were noted in genes coding for receptor-binding proteins, in agreement with their distinct host ranges. Sixteen structural proteins of phage P335 were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A 2.8-kb insertion was recognized between the putative genes coding for the activator of late transcription (Alt) and the small terminase subunit (TerS). Four genes within this region were autonomously late transcribed and possibly under the control of Alt. Three of the four deduced proteins had similarities with proteins from Streptococcus pyogenes prophages, suggesting that P335 acquired this module from another phage genome. The genetic diversity of the P335 species indicates that they are exceptional models for studying the modular theory of phage evolution. PMID:18539805

  4. Proteomics of Staphylococcus aureus--current state and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Hecker, Michael; Engelmann, Susanne; Cordwell, Stuart J

    2003-04-01

    This paper presents a short review of the proteome of Staphylococcus aureus, a gram-positive human pathogen of increasing importance for human health as a result of the increasing antibiotic resistance. A proteome reference map is shown which can be used for future studies and is followed by a demonstration of how proteomics could be applied to obtain new information on S. aureus physiology. The proteomic approach can provide new data on the regulation of metabolism as well as of the stress or starvation responses. Proteomic signatures encompassing specific stress or starvation proteins are excellent tools to predict the physiological state of a cell population. Furthermore proteomics is very useful for analysing the size and function of known and unknown regulons and will open a new dimension in the comprehensive understanding of regulatory networks in pathogenicity. Finally, some fields of application of S. aureus proteomics are discussed, including proteomics and strain evaluation, the role of proteomics for analysis of antibiotic resistance or for discovering new targets and diagnostics tools. The review also shows that the post-genome era of S. aureus which began in 2001 with the publication of the genome sequence is still in a preliminary stage, however, the consequent application of proteomics in combination with DNA array techniques and supported by bioinformatics will provide a comprehensive picture on cell physiology and pathogenicity in the near future. PMID:12659740

  5. Selfish drive can trump function when animal mitochondrial genomes compete.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hansong; O'Farrell, Patrick H

    2016-07-01

    Mitochondrial genomes compete for transmission from mother to progeny. We explored this competition by introducing a second genome into Drosophila melanogaster to follow transmission. Competitions between closely related genomes favored those functional in electron transport, resulting in a host-beneficial purifying selection. In contrast, matchups between distantly related genomes often favored those with negligible, negative or lethal consequences, indicating selfish selection. Exhibiting powerful selfish selection, a genome carrying a detrimental mutation displaced a complementing genome, leading to population death after several generations. In a different pairing, opposing selfish and purifying selection counterbalanced to give stable transmission of two genomes. Sequencing of recombinant mitochondrial genomes showed that the noncoding region, containing origins of replication, governs selfish transmission. Uniparental inheritance prevents encounters between distantly related genomes. Nonetheless, in each maternal lineage, constant competition among sibling genomes selects for super-replicators. We suggest that this relentless competition drives positive selection, promoting change in the sequences influencing transmission. PMID:27270106

  6. Systematic Characterization of the Murine Mitochondrial Proteome Using Functionally Validated Cardiac Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun; Li, Xiaohai; Mueller, Michael; Wang, Yueju; Zong, Chenggong; Deng, Ning; Vondriska, Thomas M.; Liem, David A.; Yang, Jeong-In; Korge, Paavo; Honda, Henry; Weiss, James N.; Apweiler, Rolf; Ping, Peipei

    2009-01-01

    Mitochondria play essential roles in cardiac pathophysiology and the murine model has been extensively used to investigate cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, we characterized murine cardiac mitochondria using an LC/MS/MS approach. We extracted and purified cardiac mitochondria; validated their functionality to ensure the final preparation contains necessary components to sustain their normal function; and subjected these validated organelles to LC/MS/MS-based protein identification. A total of 940 distinct proteins were identified from murine cardiac mitochondria, among which, 480 proteins were not previously identified by major proteomic profiling studies. The 940 proteins consist of functional clusters known to support oxidative phosphorylation, metabolism and biogenesis. In addition, there are several other clusters--including proteolysis, protein folding, and reduction/oxidation signaling-which ostensibly represent previously under-appreciated tasks of cardiac mitochondria. Moreover, many identified proteins were found to occupy other subcellular locations, including cytoplasm, ER, and golgi, in addition to their presence in the mitochondria. These results provide a comprehensive picture of the murine cardiac mitochondrial proteome and underscore tissue- and species-specification. Moreover, the use of functionally intact mitochondria insures that the proteomic observations in this organelle are relevant to its normal biology and facilitates decoding the interplay between mitochondria and other organelles. PMID:18348319

  7. Proteomic Analysis of the Arabidopsis Nucleolus Suggests Novel Nucleolar FunctionsD⃞

    PubMed Central

    Pendle, Alison F.; Clark, Gillian P.; Boon, Reinier; Lewandowska, Dominika; Lam, Yun Wah; Andersen, Jens; Mann, Matthias; Lamond, Angus I.; Brown, John W. S.; Shaw, Peter J.

    2005-01-01

    The eukaryotic nucleolus is involved in ribosome biogenesis and a wide range of other RNA metabolism and cellular functions. An important step in the functional analysis of the nucleolus is to determine the complement of proteins of this nuclear compartment. Here, we describe the first proteomic analysis of plant (Arabidopsis thaliana) nucleoli, in which we have identified 217 proteins. This allows a direct comparison of the proteomes of an important nuclear structure between two widely divergent species: human and Arabidopsis. The comparison identified many common proteins, plant-specific proteins, proteins of unknown function found in both proteomes, and proteins that were nucleolar in plants but nonnucleolar in human. Seventy-two proteins were expressed as GFP fusions and 87% showed nucleolar or nucleolar-associated localization. In a striking and unexpected finding, we have identified six components of the postsplicing exon-junction complex (EJC) involved in mRNA export and nonsense-mediated decay (NMD)/mRNA surveillance. This association was confirmed by GFP-fusion protein localization. These results raise the possibility that in plants, nucleoli may have additional functions in mRNA export or surveillance. PMID:15496452

  8. Genomic and Proteomic Analyses Indicate that Banchine and Campoplegine Polydnaviruses Have Similar, if Not Identical, Viral Ancestors

    PubMed Central

    Béliveau, Catherine; Cohen, Alejandro; Stewart, Don; Periquet, Georges; Djoumad, Abdelmadjid; Kuhn, Lisa; Stoltz, Don; Boyle, Brian; Volkoff, Anne-Nathalie; Herniou, Elisabeth A.; Drezen, Jean-Michel

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Polydnaviruses form a group of unconventional double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses transmitted by endoparasitic wasps during egg laying into caterpillar hosts, where viral gene expression is essential to immature wasp survival. A copy of the viral genome is present in wasp chromosomes, thus ensuring vertical transmission. Polydnaviruses comprise two taxa, Bracovirus and Ichnovirus, shown to have distinct viral ancestors whose genomes were “captured” by ancestral wasps. While evidence indicates that bracoviruses derive from a nudivirus ancestor, the identity of the ichnovirus progenitor remains unknown. In addition, ichnoviruses are found in two ichneumonid wasp subfamilies, Campopleginae and Banchinae, where they constitute morphologically and genomically different virus types. To address the question of whether these two ichnovirus subgroups have distinct ancestors, we used genomic, proteomic, and transcriptomic analyses to characterize particle proteins of the banchine Glypta fumiferanae ichnovirus and the genes encoding them. Several proteins were found to be homologous to those identified earlier for campoplegine ichnoviruses while the corresponding genes were located in clusters of the wasp genome similar to those observed previously in a campoplegine wasp. However, for the first time in a polydnavirus system, these clusters also revealed sequences encoding enzymes presumed to form the replicative machinery of the progenitor virus and observed to be overexpressed in the virogenic tissue. Homology searches pointed to nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses as the likely source of these genes. These data, along with an analysis of the chromosomal form of five viral genome segments, provide clear evidence for the relatedness of the banchine and campoplegine ichnovirus ancestors. IMPORTANCE Recent work indicates that the two recognized polydnavirus taxa, Bracovirus and Ichnovirus, are derived from distinct viruses whose genomes integrated into the genomes

  9. From bacterial genome to functionality; case bifidobacteria.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Marco; O'Connell-Motherway, Mary; Leahy, Sinead; Moreno-Munoz, Jose Antonio; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2007-11-30

    The availability of complete bacterial genome sequences has significantly furthered our understanding of the genetics, physiology and biochemistry of the microorganisms in question, particularly those that have commercially important applications. Bifidobacteria are among such microorganisms, as they constitute mammalian commensals of biotechnological significance due to their perceived role in maintaining a balanced gastrointestinal (GIT) microflora. Bifidobacteria are therefore frequently used as health-promoting or probiotic components in functional food products. A fundamental understanding of the metabolic activities employed by these commensal bacteria, in particular their capability to utilize a wide range of complex oligosaccharides, can reveal ways to provide in vivo growth advantages relative to other competing gut bacteria or pathogens. Furthermore, an in depth analysis of adaptive responses to nutritional or environmental stresses may provide methodologies to retain viability and improve functionality during commercial preparation, storage and delivery of the probiotic organism. PMID:17629975

  10. A Proteomic Approach to Investigating Gene Cluster Expression and Secondary Metabolite Functionality in Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Rebecca A.; Hammel, Stephen; Sheridan, Kevin J.; Jones, Gary W.; Doyle, Sean

    2014-01-01

    A combined proteomics and metabolomics approach was utilised to advance the identification and characterisation of secondary metabolites in Aspergillus fumigatus. Here, implementation of a shotgun proteomic strategy led to the identification of non-redundant mycelial proteins (n = 414) from A. fumigatus including proteins typically under-represented in 2-D proteome maps: proteins with multiple transmembrane regions, hydrophobic proteins and proteins with extremes of molecular mass and pI. Indirect identification of secondary metabolite cluster expression was also achieved, with proteins (n = 18) from LaeA-regulated clusters detected, including GliT encoded within the gliotoxin biosynthetic cluster. Biochemical analysis then revealed that gliotoxin significantly attenuates H2O2-induced oxidative stress in A. fumigatus (p>0.0001), confirming observations from proteomics data. A complementary 2-D/LC-MS/MS approach further elucidated significantly increased abundance (p<0.05) of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), NADH-quinone oxidoreductase and the gliotoxin oxidoreductase GliT, along with significantly attenuated abundance (p<0.05) of a heat shock protein, an oxidative stress protein and an autolysis-associated chitinase, when gliotoxin and H2O2 were present, compared to H2O2 alone. Moreover, gliotoxin exposure significantly reduced the abundance of selected proteins (p<0.05) involved in de novo purine biosynthesis. Significantly elevated abundance (p<0.05) of a key enzyme, xanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase Xpt1, utilised in purine salvage, was observed in the presence of H2O2 and gliotoxin. This work provides new insights into the A. fumigatus proteome and experimental strategies, plus mechanistic data pertaining to gliotoxin functionality in the organism. PMID:25198175

  11. A proteomic approach to investigating gene cluster expression and secondary metabolite functionality in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Owens, Rebecca A; Hammel, Stephen; Sheridan, Kevin J; Jones, Gary W; Doyle, Sean

    2014-01-01

    A combined proteomics and metabolomics approach was utilised to advance the identification and characterisation of secondary metabolites in Aspergillus fumigatus. Here, implementation of a shotgun proteomic strategy led to the identification of non-redundant mycelial proteins (n = 414) from A. fumigatus including proteins typically under-represented in 2-D proteome maps: proteins with multiple transmembrane regions, hydrophobic proteins and proteins with extremes of molecular mass and pI. Indirect identification of secondary metabolite cluster expression was also achieved, with proteins (n = 18) from LaeA-regulated clusters detected, including GliT encoded within the gliotoxin biosynthetic cluster. Biochemical analysis then revealed that gliotoxin significantly attenuates H2O2-induced oxidative stress in A. fumigatus (p>0.0001), confirming observations from proteomics data. A complementary 2-D/LC-MS/MS approach further elucidated significantly increased abundance (p<0.05) of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), NADH-quinone oxidoreductase and the gliotoxin oxidoreductase GliT, along with significantly attenuated abundance (p<0.05) of a heat shock protein, an oxidative stress protein and an autolysis-associated chitinase, when gliotoxin and H2O2 were present, compared to H2O2 alone. Moreover, gliotoxin exposure significantly reduced the abundance of selected proteins (p<0.05) involved in de novo purine biosynthesis. Significantly elevated abundance (p<0.05) of a key enzyme, xanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase Xpt1, utilised in purine salvage, was observed in the presence of H2O2 and gliotoxin. This work provides new insights into the A. fumigatus proteome and experimental strategies, plus mechanistic data pertaining to gliotoxin functionality in the organism. PMID:25198175

  12. A novel approach to the study of the functional proteome in breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Hennessy, Bryan; Lu, Yiling; Gonzalez-Angulo, Ana Maria; Carey, Mark; Myhre, Simen; Ju, Zhenlin; Coombes, Kevin; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Bedrosian, Isabelle; Davies, Michael A.; Siwak, Doris; Agarwal, Roshan; Zhang, Fan; Overgaard, Jens; Alsner, Jan; Neve, Richard M.; Kuo, Wen-Lin; Gray, Joe W.; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Mills, Gordon B.

    2008-10-10

    Factors including intratumoral heterogeneity and variability in tissue handling potentially hamper the application of reverse phase protein arrays (RPPA) to study of the solid tumor functional proteome. To address this, RPPA was applied to quantify protein expression and activation in 233 human breast tumors and 52 breast cancer cell lines. Eighty-two antibodies that recognize kinase and steroid signaling events and their effectors were validated for RPPA because of the importance of these proteins to breast carcinogenesis. Reproducibility in replicate lysates was excellent. Intratumoral protein expression was less variable than intertumoral expression, and prognostic biomarkers retained the ability to accurately predict patient outcomes when analyzed in different tumor sites. Although 21/82 total and phosphoproteins demonstrated time-dependent instability in breast tumors that were placed at room temperature after surgical excision for 24 hours prior to freezing, the functional proteomic 'fingerprint' was robust in most tumors until at least 24 hours before tissue freezing. Correlations between RPPA and immunohistochemistry were statistically significant for assessed proteins but RPPA demonstrated a superior dynamic range and detected, for example, an 866-fold difference in estrogen receptor alpha level across breast tumors. Protein and mRNA levels were concordant (at p {le} 0.05) for 41.3% and 61.1% of assayed targets in breast tumors and cell lines, respectively. Several phosphorylation and cleavage products did not correlate with the corresponding transcript levels. In conclusion, the reproducibility of RPPA, the faithfulness with which proteins and the functional proteomic 'fingerprint' are preserved in different sections derived from primary breast tumors, and the surprising stability of this 'fingerprint' with increasing time to freezing all facilitate the application of RPPA to the accurate study of protein biomarkers in non-microdissected tumor specimens

  13. The complete genome and proteome of Laribacter hongkongensis reveal potential mechanisms for adaptations to different temperatures and habitats.

    PubMed

    Woo, Patrick C Y; Lau, Susanna K P; Tse, Herman; Teng, Jade L L; Curreem, Shirly O T; Tsang, Alan K L; Fan, Rachel Y Y; Wong, Gilman K M; Huang, Yi; Loman, Nicholas J; Snyder, Lori A S; Cai, James J; Huang, Jian-Dong; Mak, William; Pallen, Mark J; Lok, Si; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2009-03-01

    Laribacter hongkongensis is a newly discovered Gram-negative bacillus of the Neisseriaceae family associated with freshwater fish-borne gastroenteritis and traveler's diarrhea. The complete genome sequence of L. hongkongensis HLHK9, recovered from an immunocompetent patient with severe gastroenteritis, consists of a 3,169-kb chromosome with G+C content of 62.35%. Genome analysis reveals different mechanisms potentially important for its adaptation to diverse habitats of human and freshwater fish intestines and freshwater environments. The gene contents support its phenotypic properties and suggest that amino acids and fatty acids can be used as carbon sources. The extensive variety of transporters, including multidrug efflux and heavy metal transporters as well as genes involved in chemotaxis, may enable L. hongkongensis to survive in different environmental niches. Genes encoding urease, bile salts efflux pump, adhesin, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and other putative virulence factors-such as hemolysins, RTX toxins, patatin-like proteins, phospholipase A1, and collagenases-are present. Proteomes of L. hongkongensis HLHK9 cultured at 37 degrees C (human body temperature) and 20 degrees C (freshwater habitat temperature) showed differential gene expression, including two homologous copies of argB, argB-20, and argB-37, which encode two isoenzymes of N-acetyl-L-glutamate kinase (NAGK)-NAGK-20 and NAGK-37-in the arginine biosynthesis pathway. NAGK-20 showed higher expression at 20 degrees C, whereas NAGK-37 showed higher expression at 37 degrees C. NAGK-20 also had a lower optimal temperature for enzymatic activities and was inhibited by arginine probably as negative-feedback control. Similar duplicated copies of argB are also observed in bacteria from hot springs such as Thermus thermophilus, Deinococcus geothermalis, Deinococcus radiodurans, and Roseiflexus castenholzii, suggesting that similar mechanisms for temperature adaptation may be employed by other

  14. The host-range, genomics and proteomics of Escherichia coli O157:H7 bacteriophage rV5

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bacteriophages (phages) have been used extensively as analytical tools to type bacterial cultures and recently for control of zoonotic foodborne pathogens in foods and in animal reservoirs. Methods We examined the host range, morphology, genome and proteome of the lytic E. coli O157 phage rV5, derived from phage V5, which is a member of an Escherichia coli O157:H7 phage typing set. Results Phage rV5 is a member of the Myoviridae family possessing an icosahedral head of 91 nm between opposite apices. The extended tail measures 121 x 17 nm and has a sheath of 44 x 20 nm and a 7 nm-wide core in the contracted state. It possesses a 137,947 bp genome (43.6 mol%GC) which encodes 233 ORFs and six tRNAs. Until recently this virus appeared to be phylogenetically isolated with almost 70% of its gene products ORFans. rV5 is closely related to coliphages Delta and vB-EcoM-FY3, and more distantly related to Salmonella phages PVP-SE1 and SSE-121, Cronobacter sakazakii phage vB_CsaM_GAP31, and coliphages phAPEC8 and phi92. A complete shotgun proteomic analysis was carried out on rV5, extending what had been gleaned from the genomic analyses. Host range studies revealed that rV5 is active against several other E. coli. PMID:23497209

  15. A genome scale resource for in vivo tag-based protein function exploration in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Sarov, Mihail; Murray, John; Schanze, Kristin; Pozniakovski, Andrei; Niu, Wei; Angermann, Karolin; Hasse, Susanne; Rupprecht, Michaela; Vinis, Elisabeth; Tinney, Matthew; Preston, Elicia; Zinke, Andrea; Enst, Susanne; Teichgraber, Tina; Janette, Judith; Reis, Kadri; Janosch, Stephan; Schloissnig, Siegfried; Ejsmont, Radoslaw K.; Slightam, Cindie; Xu, Xiao; Kim, Stuart K.; Reinke, Valerie; Stewart, A. Francis; Snyder, Michael; Waterston, Robert; Hyman, Anthony A.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the in vivo dynamics of protein localization and their physical interactions is important for many problems in Biology. To enable systematic protein function interrogation in a multicelluar context, we built a genome-scale transgenic platform for in vivo expression of fluorescent and affinity tagged proteins in Caenorhabditis elegans under endogenous cis regulatory control. The platform combines computer-assisted transgene design, massively parallel DNA engineering and next generation sequencing to generate a resource of 14637 genomic DNA transgenes, which covers 73% of the proteome. The multipurpose tag used allows any protein of interest to be localized in vivo or affinity purified using standard tag-based assays. We illustrate the utility of the resource by systematic chromatin immunopurification and automated 4D imaging, which produced detailed DNA binding and cell/tissue distribution maps for key transcription factor proteins PMID:22901814

  16. The function of genomes in bioenergetic organelles.

    PubMed Central

    Allen, John F

    2003-01-01

    Mitochondria and chloroplasts are energy-transducing organelles of the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They originated as bacterial symbionts whose host cells acquired respiration from the precursor of the mitochondrion, and oxygenic photosynthesis from the precursor of the chloroplast. The host cells also acquired genetic information from their symbionts, eventually incorporating much of it into their own genomes. Genes of the eukaryotic cell nucleus now encode most mitochondrial and chloroplast proteins. Genes are copied and moved between cellular compartments with relative ease, and there is no obvious obstacle to successful import of any protein precursor from the cytosol. So why are any genes at all retained in cytoplasmic organelles? One proposal is that these small but functional genomes provide a location for genes that is close to, and in the same compartment as, their gene products. This co-location facilitates rapid and direct regulatory coupling. Redox control of synthesis de novo is put forward as the common property of those proteins that must be encoded and synthesized within mitochondria and chloroplasts. This testable hypothesis is termed CORR, for co-location for redox regulation. Principles, predictions and consequences of CORR are examined in the context of competing hypotheses and current evidence. PMID:12594916

  17. Proteomics: a subcellular look at spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Male-factor infertility presents a vexing problem for many reproductively active couples. Many studies have focused on abnormal sperm parameters. Recent advances in proteomic techniques, especially in mass spectrometry, have aided in the study of sperm and more specifically, sperm proteins. The aim of this study was to review the current literature on the various proteomic techniques, and their usefulness in diagnosing sperm dysfunction and potential applications in the clinical setting. Methods Review of PubMed database. Key words: spermatozoa, proteomics, protein, proteome, 2D-PAGE, mass spectrometry. Results Recently employed proteomic methods, such as two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, and differential in gel electrophoresis, have identified numerous sperm-specific proteins. They also have provided a further understanding of protein function involved in sperm processes and for the differentiation between normal and abnormal states. In addition, studies on the sperm proteome have demonstrated the importance of post-translational modifications, and their ability to bring about physiological changes in sperm function. No longer do researchers believe that in order for them to elucidate the biochemical functions of genes, mere knowledge of the human genome sequence is sufficient. Moreover, a greater understanding of the physiological function of every protein in the tissue-specific proteome is essential in order to unravel the biological display of the human genome. Conclusion Recent advances in proteomic techniques have provided insight into sperm function and dysfunction. Several multidimensional separation techniques can be utilized to identify and characterize spermatozoa. Future developments in bioinformatics can further assist researchers in understanding the vast amount of data collected in proteomic studies. Moreover, such advances in proteomics may help to decipher metabolites which can act as biomarkers in

  18. Proteomic Analysis of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells

    PubMed Central

    Baycin-Hizal, Deniz; Tabb, David L.; Chaerkady, Raghothama; Chen, Lily; Lewis, Nathan E.; Nagarajan, Harish; Sarkaria, Vishaldeep; Kumar, Amit; Wolozny, Daniel; Colao, Joe; Jacobson, Elena; Tian, Yuan; O'Meally, Robert N.; Krag, Sharon S.; Cole, Robert N.; Palsson, Bernhard O.; Zhang, Hui; Betenbaugh, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In order to complement the recent genomic sequencing of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, proteomic analysis was performed on CHO including the cellular proteome, secretome, and glycoproteome using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) of multiple fractions obtained from gel electrophoresis, multi-dimensional liquid chromatography, and solid phase extraction of glycopeptides (SPEG). From the 120 different mass spectrometry analyses generating 682,097 MS/MS spectra, 93,548 unique peptide sequences were identified with at most a 0.02 false discovery rate (FDR). A total of 6164 grouped proteins were identified from both glycoproteome and proteome analysis, representing an 8-fold increase in the number of proteins currently identified in the CHO proteome. Furthermore, this is the first proteomic study done using CHO genome exclusively which provides for more accurate identification of proteins. From this analysis, the CHO codon frequency was determined and found to be distinct from humans, which will facilitate expression of human proteins in CHO cells. Analysis of the combined proteomic and mRNA data sets indicated the enrichment of a number of pathways including protein processing and apoptosis but depletion of proteins involved in steroid hormone and glycosphingolipid metabolism. 504 of the detected proteins included N-acetylation modifications and 1292 different proteins were observed to be N-glycosylated. This first large-scale proteomic analysis will enhance the knowledge base about CHO capabilities for recombinant expression and provide information useful in cell engineering efforts aimed at modifying CHO cellular functions. PMID:22971049

  19. Proteomic analysis of Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed

    Baycin-Hizal, Deniz; Tabb, David L; Chaerkady, Raghothama; Chen, Lily; Lewis, Nathan E; Nagarajan, Harish; Sarkaria, Vishaldeep; Kumar, Amit; Wolozny, Daniel; Colao, Joe; Jacobson, Elena; Tian, Yuan; O'Meally, Robert N; Krag, Sharon S; Cole, Robert N; Palsson, Bernhard O; Zhang, Hui; Betenbaugh, Michael

    2012-11-01

    To complement the recent genomic sequencing of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, proteomic analysis was performed on CHO cells including the cellular proteome, secretome, and glycoproteome using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) of multiple fractions obtained from gel electrophoresis, multidimensional liquid chromatography, and solid phase extraction of glycopeptides (SPEG). From the 120 different mass spectrometry analyses generating 682,097 MS/MS spectra, 93,548 unique peptide sequences were identified with at most 0.02 false discovery rate (FDR). A total of 6164 grouped proteins were identified from both glycoproteome and proteome analysis, representing an 8-fold increase in the number of proteins currently identified in the CHO proteome. Furthermore, this is the first proteomic study done using the CHO genome exclusively, which provides for more accurate identification of proteins. From this analysis, the CHO codon frequency was determined and found to be distinct from humans, which will facilitate expression of human proteins in CHO cells. Analysis of the combined proteomic and mRNA data sets indicated the enrichment of a number of pathways including protein processing and apoptosis but depletion of proteins involved in steroid hormone and glycosphingolipid metabolism. Five-hundred four of the detected proteins included N-acetylation modifications, and 1292 different proteins were observed to be N-glycosylated. This first large-scale proteomic analysis will enhance the knowledge base about CHO capabilities for recombinant expression and provide information useful in cell engineering efforts aimed at modifying CHO cellular functions. PMID:22971049

  20. Integration of Genomic and Proteomic Data to Predict Synthetic Genetic Interactions Using Semi-supervised Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Zhuhong; Zhang, Shanwen; Li, Liping

    Genetic interaction, in which two mutations have a combined effect not exhibited by either mutation alone, is a powerful and widespread tool for establishing functional linkages between genes. However, little is known about how genes genetic interact to produce phenotypes and the comprehensive identification of genetic interaction in genome-scale by experiment is a laborious and time-consuming work. In this paper, we present a computational method of system biology to analyze synthetic genetic interactions. We firstly constructed a high-quality functional gene network by integrating protein interaction, protein complex and microarray gene expression data together. Then we extracted the network properties such as network centrality degree, clustering coefficient, etc., which reflect the local connectivity and global position of a gene and are supposed to correlate with its functional properties. Finally we find relationships between synthetic genetic interactions and function network properties using the graph-based semi-supervised learning which incorporates labeled and unlabeled data together. Experimental results showed that Semi-supervised method outperformed standard supervised learning algorithms and reached 97.1% accuracy at a maximum. Especially, the semi-supervised method largely outperformed when the number of training samples is very small.

  1. The personal genome browser: visualizing functions of genetic variants.

    PubMed

    Juan, Liran; Teng, Mingxiang; Zang, Tianyi; Hao, Yafeng; Wang, Zhenxing; Yan, Chengwu; Liu, Yongzhuang; Li, Jie; Zhang, Tianjiao; Wang, Yadong

    2014-07-01

    Advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies have brought us into the individual genome era. Projects such as the 1000 Genomes Project have led the individual genome sequencing to become more and more popular. How to visualize, analyse and annotate individual genomes with knowledge bases to support genome studies and personalized healthcare is still a big challenge. The Personal Genome Browser (PGB) is developed to provide comprehensive functional annotation and visualization for individual genomes based on the genetic-molecular-phenotypic model. Investigators can easily view individual genetic variants, such as single nucleotide variants (SNVs), INDELs and structural variations (SVs), as well as genomic features and phenotypes associated to the individual genetic variants. The PGB especially highlights potential functional variants using the PGB built-in method or SIFT/PolyPhen2 scores. Moreover, the functional risks of genes could be evaluated by scanning individual genetic variants on the whole genome, a chromosome, or a cytoband based on functional implications of the variants. Investigators can then navigate to high risk genes on the scanned individual genome. The PGB accepts Variant Call Format (VCF) and Genetic Variation Format (GVF) files as the input. The functional annotation of input individual genome variants can be visualized in real time by well-defined symbols and shapes. The PGB is available at http://www.pgbrowser.org/. PMID:24799434

  2. The personal genome browser: visualizing functions of genetic variants

    PubMed Central

    Juan, Liran; Teng, Mingxiang; Zang, Tianyi; Hao, Yafeng; Wang, Zhenxing; Yan, Chengwu; Liu, Yongzhuang; Li, Jie; Zhang, Tianjiao; Wang, Yadong

    2014-01-01

    Advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies have brought us into the individual genome era. Projects such as the 1000 Genomes Project have led the individual genome sequencing to become more and more popular. How to visualize, analyse and annotate individual genomes with knowledge bases to support genome studies and personalized healthcare is still a big challenge. The Personal Genome Browser (PGB) is developed to provide comprehensive functional annotation and visualization for individual genomes based on the genetic–molecular–phenotypic model. Investigators can easily view individual genetic variants, such as single nucleotide variants (SNVs), INDELs and structural variations (SVs), as well as genomic features and phenotypes associated to the individual genetic variants. The PGB especially highlights potential functional variants using the PGB built-in method or SIFT/PolyPhen2 scores. Moreover, the functional risks of genes could be evaluated by scanning individual genetic variants on the whole genome, a chromosome, or a cytoband based on functional implications of the variants. Investigators can then navigate to high risk genes on the scanned individual genome. The PGB accepts Variant Call Format (VCF) and Genetic Variation Format (GVF) files as the input. The functional annotation of input individual genome variants can be visualized in real time by well-defined symbols and shapes. The PGB is available at http://www.pgbrowser.org/. PMID:24799434

  3. Proteomic and functional profiles of a follicle-stimulating hormone positive human nonfunctional pituitary adenoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaowei; Guo, Tianyao; Peng, Fang; Long, Ying; Mu, Yun; Yang, Haiyan; Ye, Ningrong; Li, Xuejun; Zhan, Xianquan

    2015-06-01

    Nonfunctional pituitary adenoma (NFPA) is highly heterogeneous with different hormone-expressed subtypes in NFPA tissues including follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) positive, luteinizing hormone-positive, FSH/luteinizing hormone-positive, and negative types. To analyze in-depth the variations in the proteomes among different NFPA subtypes for our long-term goal to clarify molecular mechanisms of NFPA and to detect tumor biomarker for personalized medicine practice, a reference map of proteome of a human FSH-expressed NFPA tissue was described here. 2DE and PDQuest image analysis were used to array each protein. MALDI-TOF PMF and human Swiss-Prot databases with MASCOT search were used to identify each protein. A good 2DE pattern with high level of between-gel reproducibility was attained with an average positional deviation 1.98 ± 0.75 mm in the IEF direction and 1.62 ± 0.68 mm in the SDS-PAGE direction. Approximately 1200 protein spots were 2DE-detected and 192 redundant proteins that were contained in 141 protein spots were PMF-identified, representing 107 nonredundant proteins. Those proteins were located in cytoplasm, nucleus, plasma membrane, extracellular space, and so on, and those functioned in transmembrane receptor, ion channel, transcription/translation regulator, transporter, enzyme, phosphatase, kinase, and so on. Several important pathway networks were characterized from those identified proteins with DAVID and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis systems, including gluconeogenesis and glycolysis, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, cell-cycle alteration, MAPKsignaling system, immune response, TP53-signaling, VEGF-signaling, and inflammation signaling pathways. Those resulting data contribute to a functional profile of the proteome of a human FSH-positive NFPA tissue, and will serve as a reference for the heterogeneity analysis of NFPA proteomes. PMID:25809007

  4. Genomic and Proteomic Dissection of the Ubiquitous Plant Pathogen, Armillaria mellea: Toward a New Infection Model System

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Armillaria mellea is a major plant pathogen. Yet, no large-scale “-omics” data are available to enable new studies, and limited experimental models are available to investigate basidiomycete pathogenicity. Here we reveal that the A. mellea genome comprises 58.35 Mb, contains 14473 gene models, of average length 1575 bp (4.72 introns/gene). Tandem mass spectrometry identified 921 mycelial (n = 629 unique) and secreted (n = 183 unique) proteins. Almost 100 mycelial proteins were either species-specific or previously unidentified at the protein level. A number of proteins (n = 111) was detected in both mycelia and culture supernatant extracts. Signal sequence occurrence was 4-fold greater for secreted (50.2%) compared to mycelial (12%) proteins. Analyses revealed a rich reservoir of carbohydrate degrading enzymes, laccases, and lignin peroxidases in the A. mellea proteome, reminiscent of both basidiomycete and ascomycete glycodegradative arsenals. We discovered that A. mellea exhibits a specific killing effect against Candida albicans during coculture. Proteomic investigation of this interaction revealed the unique expression of defensive and potentially offensive A. mellea proteins (n = 30). Overall, our data reveal new insights into the origin of basidiomycete virulence and we present a new model system for further studies aimed at deciphering fungal pathogenic mechanisms. PMID:23656496

  5. Identification of the pI 4.6 extensin peroxidase from Lycopersicon esculentum using proteomics and reverse-genomics

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Wen; Kieliszewski, Marcia; Held, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of plant cell growth and early defense response involves the insolubilization of hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs), such as extensin, in the primary cell wall. In tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), insolublization occurs by the formation of tyrosyl-crosslinks catalyzed specifically by the pI 4.6 extensin peroxidase (EP). To date, neither the gene encoding EP nor the protein itself has been identified. Here, we’ve identified tomato EP candidates using both proteomic and bioinformatic approaches. Bioinformatic screening of the tomato genome yielded eight EP candidates, which contained a putative signal sequence and a predicted pI near 4.6. Biochemical fractionation of tomato culture media followed by proteomic detection further refined our list of EP candidates to three, with the lead candidate designated (CG5). To test for EP crosslinking activity, we cloned into a bacterial expression vector the CG5 open-reading frame from tomato cDNA. The CG5 was expressed in E. coli, fractionated from inclusion bodies, and folded in vitro. The peroxidase activity of CG5 was assayed and quantified by ABTS (2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)) assay. Subsequent extensin crosslinking assays showed that CG5 can covalently crosslink authentic tomato P1 extensin and P3-type extensin analogs in vitro supporting our hypothesis that CG5 encodes a tomato EP. PMID:25446231

  6. Nuclear Functions of Nucleolin through Global Proteomics and Interactomic Approaches.

    PubMed

    Salvetti, Anna; Couté, Yohann; Epstein, Alberto; Arata, Loredana; Kraut, Alexandra; Navratil, Vincent; Bouvet, Philippe; Greco, Anna

    2016-05-01

    Nucleolin (NCL) is a major component of the cell nucleolus, which has the ability to rapidly shuttle to several other cells' compartments. NCL plays important roles in a variety of essential functions, among which are ribosome biogenesis, gene expression, and cell growth. However, the precise mechanisms underlying NCL functions are still unclear. Our study aimed to provide new information on NCL functions via the identification of its nuclear interacting partners. Using an interactomics approach, we identified 140 proteins co-purified with NCL, among which 100 of them were specifically found to be associated with NCL after RNase digestion. The functional classification of these proteins confirmed the prominent role of NCL in ribosome biogenesis and additionally revealed the possible involvement of nuclear NCL in several pre-mRNA processing pathways through its interaction with RNA helicases and proteins participating in pre-mRNA splicing, transport, or stability. NCL knockdown experiments revealed that NCL regulates the localization of EXOSC10 and the amount of ZC3HAV1, two components of the RNA exosome, further suggesting its involvement in the control of mRNA stability. Altogether, this study describes the first nuclear interactome of human NCL and provides the basis for further understanding the mechanisms underlying the essential functions of this nucleolar protein. PMID:27049334

  7. Tomato Functional Genomics Database: a comprehensive resource and analysis package for tomato functional genomics.

    PubMed

    Fei, Zhangjun; Joung, Je-Gun; Tang, Xuemei; Zheng, Yi; Huang, Mingyun; Lee, Je Min; McQuinn, Ryan; Tieman, Denise M; Alba, Rob; Klee, Harry J; Giovannoni, James J

    2011-01-01

    Tomato Functional Genomics Database (TFGD) provides a comprehensive resource to store, query, mine, analyze, visualize and integrate large-scale tomato functional genomics data sets. The database is functionally expanded from the previously described Tomato Expression Database by including metabolite profiles as well as large-scale tomato small RNA (sRNA) data sets. Computational pipelines have been developed to process microarray, metabolite and sRNA data sets archived in the database, respectively, and TFGD provides downloads of all the analyzed results. TFGD is also designed to enable users to easily retrieve biologically important information through a set of efficient query interfaces and analysis tools, including improved array probe annotations as well as tools to identify co-expressed genes, significantly affected biological processes and biochemical pathways from gene expression data sets and miRNA targets, and to integrate transcript and metabolite profiles, and sRNA and mRNA sequences. The suite of tools and interfaces in TFGD allow intelligent data mining of recently released and continually expanding large-scale tomato functional genomics data sets. TFGD is available at http://ted.bti.cornell.edu. PMID:20965973

  8. Differential Proteomics and Functional Research following Gene Therapy in a Mouse Model of Leber Congenital Amaurosis

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Qinxiang; Ren, Yueping; Tzekov, Radouil; Zhang, Yuanping; Chen, Bo; Hou, Jiangping; Zhao, Chunhui; Zhu, Jiali; Zhang, Ying; Dai, Xufeng; Ma, Shan; Li, Jia; Pang, Jijing; Qu, Jia; Li, Wensheng

    2012-01-01

    Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is one of the most severe forms of inherited retinal degeneration and can be caused by mutations in at least 15 different genes. To clarify the proteomic differences in LCA eyes, a cohort of retinal degeneration 12 (rd12) mice, an LCA2 model caused by a mutation in the RPE65 gene, were injected subretinally with an AAV vector (scAAV5-smCBA-hRPE65) in one eye, while the contralateral eye served as a control. Proteomics were compared between untreated rd12 and normal control retinas on P14 and P21, and among treated and untreated rd12 retinas and control retinas on P42. Gene therapy in rd12 mice restored retinal function in treated eyes, which was demonstrated by electroretinography (ERG). Proteomic analysis successfully identified 39 proteins expressed differently among the 3 groups. The expression of 3 proteins involved in regulation of apoptosis and neuroptotection (alpha A crystallin, heat shock protein 70 and peroxiredoxin 6) were investigated further. Immunofluorescence, Western blot and real-time PCR confirmed the quantitative changes in their expression. Furthermore, cell culture studies suggested that peroxiredoxin 6 could act in an antioxidant role in rd12 mice. Our findings support the feasibility of gene therapy in LCA2 patients and support a role for alpha A crystallin, heat shock protein 70 and peroxiredoxin 6 in the pathogenetic mechanisms involved in LCA2 disease process. PMID:22953002

  9. Differential proteomics and functional research following gene therapy in a mouse model of Leber congenital amaurosis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qinxiang; Ren, Yueping; Tzekov, Radouil; Zhang, Yuanping; Chen, Bo; Hou, Jiangping; Zhao, Chunhui; Zhu, Jiali; Zhang, Ying; Dai, Xufeng; Ma, Shan; Li, Jia; Pang, Jijing; Qu, Jia; Li, Wensheng

    2012-01-01

    Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is one of the most severe forms of inherited retinal degeneration and can be caused by mutations in at least 15 different genes. To clarify the proteomic differences in LCA eyes, a cohort of retinal degeneration 12 (rd12) mice, an LCA2 model caused by a mutation in the RPE65 gene, were injected subretinally with an AAV vector (scAAV5-smCBA-hRPE65) in one eye, while the contralateral eye served as a control. Proteomics were compared between untreated rd12 and normal control retinas on P14 and P21, and among treated and untreated rd12 retinas and control retinas on P42. Gene therapy in rd12 mice restored retinal function in treated eyes, which was demonstrated by electroretinography (ERG). Proteomic analysis successfully identified 39 proteins expressed differently among the 3 groups. The expression of 3 proteins involved in regulation of apoptosis and neuroptotection (alpha A crystallin, heat shock protein 70 and peroxiredoxin 6) were investigated further. Immunofluorescence, Western blot and real-time PCR confirmed the quantitative changes in their expression. Furthermore, cell culture studies suggested that peroxiredoxin 6 could act in an antioxidant role in rd12 mice. Our findings support the feasibility of gene therapy in LCA2 patients and support a role for alpha A crystallin, heat shock protein 70 and peroxiredoxin 6 in the pathogenetic mechanisms involved in LCA2 disease process. PMID:22953002

  10. Modifications of wheat germ cell-free system for functional proteomics of plant membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Nozawa, Akira; Tozawa, Yuzuru

    2014-01-01

    Functional proteomics of plant membrane proteins is an important approach to understand the comprehensive architecture of each metabolic pathway in plants. One bottleneck in the characterization of membrane proteins is the difficulty in producing sufficient quantities of functional protein for analysis. Here, we describe three methods for membrane protein production utilizing a wheat germ cell-free protein expression system. Owing to the open nature of cell-free synthesis reaction, protein synthesis can be modified with components necessary to produce functional protein. In this way we have developed modifications to a wheat germ cell-free system for the production of functional membrane proteins. Supplementation of liposomes or detergents allows the synthesis of functional integral membrane proteins. Furthermore, supplementation of myristic acid enables synthesis of N-myristylated peripheral membrane proteins. These modified cell-free synthesis methods facilitate the preparation and subsequent functional analyses of a wide variety of membrane proteins. PMID:24136528

  11. Characterization of Functional Reprogramming during Osteoclast Development Using Quantitative Proteomics and mRNA Profiling*

    PubMed Central

    An, Eunkyung; Narayanan, Manikandan; Manes, Nathan P.; Nita-Lazar, Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    In addition to forming macrophages and dendritic cells, monocytes in adult peripheral blood retain the ability to develop into osteoclasts, mature bone-resorbing cells. The extensive morphological and functional transformations that occur during osteoclast differentiation require substantial reprogramming of gene and protein expression. Here we employ -omic-scale technologies to examine in detail the molecular changes at discrete developmental stages in this process (precursor cells, intermediate osteoclasts, and multinuclear osteoclasts), quantitatively comparing their transcriptomes and proteomes. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000471. Our analysis identified mitochondrial changes, along with several alterations in signaling pathways, as central to the development of mature osteoclasts, while also confirming changes in pathways previously implicated in osteoclast biology. In particular, changes in the expression of proteins involved in metabolism and redirection of energy flow from basic cellular function toward bone resorption appeared to play a key role in the switch from monocytic immune system function to specialized bone-turnover function. These findings provide new insight into the differentiation program involved in the generation of functional osteoclasts. PMID:25044017

  12. Proteomics Analysis with a Nano Random Forest Approach Reveals Novel Functional Interactions Regulated by SMC Complexes on Mitotic Chromosomes*

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Shinya; Montaño-Gutierrez, Luis F.; de Lima Alves, Flavia; Ogawa, Hiromi; Toramoto, Iyo; Sato, Nobuko; Morrison, Ciaran G.; Takeda, Shunichi; Hudson, Damien F.; Earnshaw, William C.

    2016-01-01

    Packaging of DNA into condensed chromosomes during mitosis is essential for the faithful segregation of the genome into daughter nuclei. Although the structure and composition of mitotic chromosomes have been studied for over 30 years, these aspects are yet to be fully elucidated. Here, we used stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture to compare the proteomes of mitotic chromosomes isolated from cell lines harboring conditional knockouts of members of the condensin (SMC2, CAP-H, CAP-D3), cohesin (Scc1/Rad21), and SMC5/6 (SMC5) complexes. Our analysis revealed that these complexes associate with chromosomes independently of each other, with the SMC5/6 complex showing no significant dependence on any other chromosomal proteins during mitosis. To identify subtle relationships between chromosomal proteins, we employed a nano Random Forest (nanoRF) approach to detect protein complexes and the relationships between them. Our nanoRF results suggested that as few as 113 of 5058 detected chromosomal proteins are functionally linked to chromosome structure and segregation. Furthermore, nanoRF data revealed 23 proteins that were not previously suspected to have functional interactions with complexes playing important roles in mitosis. Subsequent small-interfering-RNA-based validation and localization tracking by green fluorescent protein-tagging highlighted novel candidates that might play significant roles in mitotic progression. PMID:27231315

  13. Proteomics Analysis with a Nano Random Forest Approach Reveals Novel Functional Interactions Regulated by SMC Complexes on Mitotic Chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Shinya; Montaño-Gutierrez, Luis F; de Lima Alves, Flavia; Ogawa, Hiromi; Toramoto, Iyo; Sato, Nobuko; Morrison, Ciaran G; Takeda, Shunichi; Hudson, Damien F; Rappsilber, Juri; Earnshaw, William C

    2016-08-01

    Packaging of DNA into condensed chromosomes during mitosis is essential for the faithful segregation of the genome into daughter nuclei. Although the structure and composition of mitotic chromosomes have been studied for over 30 years, these aspects are yet to be fully elucidated. Here, we used stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture to compare the proteomes of mitotic chromosomes isolated from cell lines harboring conditional knockouts of members of the condensin (SMC2, CAP-H, CAP-D3), cohesin (Scc1/Rad21), and SMC5/6 (SMC5) complexes. Our analysis revealed that these complexes associate with chromosomes independently of each other, with the SMC5/6 complex showing no significant dependence on any other chromosomal proteins during mitosis. To identify subtle relationships between chromosomal proteins, we employed a nano Random Forest (nanoRF) approach to detect protein complexes and the relationships between them. Our nanoRF results suggested that as few as 113 of 5058 detected chromosomal proteins are functionally linked to chromosome structure and segregation. Furthermore, nanoRF data revealed 23 proteins that were not previously suspected to have functional interactions with complexes playing important roles in mitosis. Subsequent small-interfering-RNA-based validation and localization tracking by green fluorescent protein-tagging highlighted novel candidates that might play significant roles in mitotic progression. PMID:27231315

  14. Salivary Genomics, Transcriptomics and Proteomics: The Emerging Concept of the Oral Ecosystem and their Use in the Early Diagnosis of Cancer and other Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Fábián, T.K; Fejérdy, P; Csermely, P

    2008-01-01

    There is an increasingly growing interest world-wide for the genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics of saliva and the oral cavity, since they provide a non-invasive source of unprecedently rich genetic information. The complexity of oral systems biology goes much beyond the human genome, transcriptome and proteome revealed by oral mucosal cells, gingival crevicular fluid, and saliva, and includes the complexity of the oral microbiota, the symbiotic assembly of bacterial, fungal and other microbial flora in the oral cavity. In our review we summarize the recent information on oral genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics, of both human and microbial origin. We also give an introduction and practical advice on sample collection, handling and storage for analysis. Finally, we show the usefulness of salivary and oral genomics in early diagnosis of cancer, as well as in uncovering other systemic diseases, infections and oral disorders. We close the review by highlighting a number of possible exploratory pathways in this emerging, hot research field. PMID:19424479

  15. Breast Cancer Proteomic and Phosphoproteomic Data Released - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    National Cancer Institute (NCI) Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) scientists have released a dataset of proteins and phophorylated phosphopeptides identified through deep proteomic and phosphoproteomic analysis of breast tumor samples, previously genomically analyzed by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA).

  16. CPTAC Releases Largest-Ever Breast Cancer Proteome Dataset - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    National Cancer Institute (NCI) Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) scientists have released a dataset of proteins and phophorylated phosphopeptides identified through deep proteomic and phosphoproteomic analysis of breast tumor samples, previously genomically analyzed by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA).

  17. Comparative genomic and proteomic analyses of Clostridium acetobutylicum Rh8 and its parent strain DSM 1731 revealed new understandings on butanol tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, Guanhui; Dong, Hongjun; Zhu, Yan; Mao, Shaoming; Zhang, Tianrui; Zhang, Yanping; Chen, Zugen; Li, Yin

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • Genomes of a butanol tolerant strain and its parent strain were deciphered. • Comparative genomic and proteomic was applied to understand butanol tolerance. • None differentially expressed proteins have mutations in its corresponding genes. • Mutations in ribosome might be responsible for the global difference of proteomics. - Abstract: Clostridium acetobutylicum strain Rh8 is a butanol-tolerant mutant which can tolerate up to 19 g/L butanol, 46% higher than that of its parent strain DSM 1731. We previously performed comparative cytoplasm- and membrane-proteomic analyses to understand the mechanism underlying the improved butanol tolerance of strain Rh8. In this work, we further extended this comparison to the genomic level. Compared with the genome of the parent strain DSM 1731, two insertion sites, four deletion sites, and 67 single nucleotide variations (SNVs) are distributed throughout the genome of strain Rh8. Among the 67 SNVs, 16 SNVs are located in the predicted promoters and intergenic regions; while 29 SNVs are located in the coding sequence, affecting a total of 21 proteins involved in transport, cell structure, DNA replication, and protein translation. The remaining 22 SNVs are located in the ribosomal genes, affecting a total of 12 rRNA genes in different operons. Analysis of previous comparative proteomic data indicated that none of the differentially expressed proteins have mutations in its corresponding genes. Rchange Algorithms analysis indicated that the mutations occurred in the ribosomal genes might change the ribosome RNA thermodynamic characteristics, thus affect the translation strength of these proteins. Take together, the improved butanol tolerance of C. acetobutylicum strain Rh8 might be acquired through regulating the translational process to achieve different expression strength of genes involved in butanol tolerance.

  18. Proteomic Profiling in the Brain of CLN1 Disease Model Reveals Affected Functional Modules.

    PubMed

    Tikka, Saara; Monogioudi, Evanthia; Gotsopoulos, Athanasios; Soliymani, Rabah; Pezzini, Francesco; Scifo, Enzo; Uusi-Rauva, Kristiina; Tyynelä, Jaana; Baumann, Marc; Jalanko, Anu; Simonati, Alessandro; Lalowski, Maciej

    2016-03-01

    Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL) are the most commonly inherited progressive encephalopathies of childhood. Pathologically, they are characterized by endolysosomal storage with different ultrastructural features and biochemical compositions. The molecular mechanisms causing progressive neurodegeneration and common molecular pathways linking expression of different NCL genes are largely unknown. We analyzed proteome alterations in the brains of a mouse model of human infantile CLN1 disease-palmitoyl-protein thioesterase 1 (Ppt1) gene knockout and its wild-type age-matched counterpart at different stages: pre-symptomatic, symptomatic and advanced. For this purpose, we utilized a combination of laser capture microdissection-based quantitative liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (MS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight MS imaging to quantify/visualize the changes in protein expression in disease-affected brain thalamus and cerebral cortex tissue slices, respectively. Proteomic profiling of the pre-symptomatic stage thalamus revealed alterations mostly in metabolic processes and inhibition of various neuronal functions, i.e., neuritogenesis. Down-regulation in dynamics associated with growth of plasma projections and cellular protrusions was further corroborated by findings from RNA sequencing of CLN1 patients' fibroblasts. Changes detected at the symptomatic stage included: mitochondrial functions, synaptic vesicle transport, myelin proteome and signaling cascades, such as RhoA signaling. Considerable dysregulation of processes related to mitochondrial cell death, RhoA/Huntington's disease signaling and myelin sheath breakdown were observed at the advanced stage of the disease. The identified changes in protein levels were further substantiated by bioinformatics and network approaches, immunohistochemistry on brain tissues and literature knowledge, thus identifying various functional modules affected in the CLN1 childhood

  19. AgBase: a unified resource for functional analysis in agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analysis of functional genomics (transcriptomics and proteomics) datasets is hindered in agricultural species because agricultural genome sequences have relatively poor structural and functional annotation. To facilitate systems biology in these species we have established the curated, web-accessib...

  20. Taxonomic reassessment of N4-like viruses using comparative genomics and proteomics suggests a new subfamily - "Enquartavirinae".

    PubMed

    Wittmann, Johannes; Klumpp, Jochen; Moreno Switt, Andrea I; Yagubi, Abdelbaset; Ackermann, Hans-Wolfgang; Wiedmann, Martin; Svircev, Antonet; Nash, John H E; Kropinski, Andrew M

    2015-12-01

    The GenBank database currently contains sequence data for 33 N4-like viruses, with only one, Escherichia phage N4, being formally recognized by the ICTV. The genus N4likevirus is uniquely characterized by that fact that its members possess an extremely large, virion-associated RNA polymerase. Using a variety of proteomic, genomic and phylogenetic tools, we have demonstrated that the N4-like phages are not monophyletic and that N4 is actually a genomic orphan. We propose to create four new genera: "G7cvirus" (consisting of phages G7C, IME11, KBNP21, vB_EcoP_PhAPEC5, vB_EcoP_PhAPEC7, Bp4, EC1-UPM and pSb-1), "Lit1virus" (LIT1, PA26 and vB_PaeP_C2-10_Ab09), "Sp58virus" (SP058 and SP076), and "Dss3virus" (DSS3φ2 and EE36φ1). We propose that coliphage N4, the members of "G7cvirus", Erwinia phage Ea9-2, and Achromobacter phage JWAlpha should be considered members of the same subfamily, which we tentatively call the "Enquartavirinae". PMID:26395091

  1. The Complete Genome and Proteome of Laribacter hongkongensis Reveal Potential Mechanisms for Adaptations to Different Temperatures and Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Curreem, Shirly O. T.; Tsang, Alan K. L.; Fan, Rachel Y. Y.; Wong, Gilman K. M.; Huang, Yi; Loman, Nicholas J.; Snyder, Lori A. S.; Cai, James J.; Huang, Jian-Dong; Mak, William; Pallen, Mark J.; Lok, Si; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2009-01-01

    Laribacter hongkongensis is a newly discovered Gram-negative bacillus of the Neisseriaceae family associated with freshwater fish–borne gastroenteritis and traveler's diarrhea. The complete genome sequence of L. hongkongensis HLHK9, recovered from an immunocompetent patient with severe gastroenteritis, consists of a 3,169-kb chromosome with G+C content of 62.35%. Genome analysis reveals different mechanisms potentially important for its adaptation to diverse habitats of human and freshwater fish intestines and freshwater environments. The gene contents support its phenotypic properties and suggest that amino acids and fatty acids can be used as carbon sources. The extensive variety of transporters, including multidrug efflux and heavy metal transporters as well as genes involved in chemotaxis, may enable L. hongkongensis to survive in different environmental niches. Genes encoding urease, bile salts efflux pump, adhesin, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and other putative virulence factors—such as hemolysins, RTX toxins, patatin-like proteins, phospholipase A1, and collagenases—are present. Proteomes of L. hongkongensis HLHK9 cultured at 37°C (human body temperature) and 20°C (freshwater habitat temperature) showed differential gene expression, including two homologous copies of argB, argB-20, and argB-37, which encode two isoenzymes of N-acetyl-L-glutamate kinase (NAGK)—NAGK-20 and NAGK-37—in the arginine biosynthesis pathway. NAGK-20 showed higher expression at 20°C, whereas NAGK-37 showed higher expression at 37°C. NAGK-20 also had a lower optimal temperature for enzymatic activities and was inhibited by arginine probably as negative-feedback control. Similar duplicated copies of argB are also observed in bacteria from hot springs such as Thermus thermophilus, Deinococcus geothermalis, Deinococcus radiodurans, and Roseiflexus castenholzii, suggesting that similar mechanisms for temperature adaptation may be employed by other bacteria. Genome and

  2. REVIEW: Zebrafish: A Renewed Model System For Functional Genomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xiao-Yan

    2008-01-01

    In the post genome era, a major goal in molecular biology is to determine the function of the many thousands of genes present in the vertebrate genome. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) provides an almost ideal genetic model to identify the biological roles of these novel genes, in part because their embryos are transparent and develop rapidly. The zebrafish has many advantages over mouse for genome-wide mutagenesis studies, allowing for easier, cheaper and faster functional characterization of novel genes in the vertebrate genome. Many molecular research tools such as chemical mutagenesis, transgenesis, gene trapping, gene knockdown, TILLING, gene targeting, RNAi and chemical genetic screen are now available in zebrafish. Combining all the forward, reverse, and chemical genetic tools, it is expected that zebrafish will make invaluable contribution to vertebrate functional genomics in functional annotation of the genes, modeling human diseases and drug discoveries.

  3. The proteome of schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, Juliana M; Martins-de-Souza, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    On observing schizophrenia from a clinical point of view up to its molecular basis, one may conclude that this is likely to be one of the most complex human disorders to be characterized in all aspects. Such complexity is the reflex of an intricate combination of genetic and environmental components that influence brain functions since pre-natal neurodevelopment, passing by brain maturation, up to the onset of disease and disease establishment. The perfect function of tissues, organs, systems, and finally the organism depends heavily on the proper functioning of cells. Several lines of evidence, including genetics, genomics, transcriptomics, neuropathology, and pharmacology, have supported the idea that dysfunctional cells are causative to schizophrenia. Together with the above-mentioned techniques, proteomics have been contributing to understanding the biochemical basis of schizophrenia at the cellular and tissue level through the identification of differentially expressed proteins and consequently their biochemical pathways, mostly in the brain tissue but also in other cells. In addition, mass spectrometry-based proteomics have identified and precisely quantified proteins that may serve as biomarker candidates to prognosis, diagnosis, and medication monitoring in peripheral tissue. Here, we review all data produced by proteomic investigation in the last 5 years using tissue and/or cells from schizophrenic patients, focusing on postmortem brain tissue and peripheral blood serum and plasma. This information has provided integrated pictures of the biochemical systems involved in the pathobiology, and has suggested potential biomarkers, and warrant potential targets to alternative treatment therapies to schizophrenia. PMID:27336025

  4. Retroelements and their impact on genome evolution and functioning.

    PubMed

    Gogvadze, Elena; Buzdin, Anton

    2009-12-01

    Retroelements comprise a considerable fraction of eukaryotic genomes. Since their initial discovery by Barbara McClintock in maize DNA, retroelements have been found in genomes of almost all organisms. First considered as a "junk DNA" or genomic parasites, they were shown to influence genome functioning and to promote genetic innovations. For this reason, they were suggested as an important creative force in the genome evolution and adaptation of an organism to altered environmental conditions. In this review, we summarize the up-to-date knowledge of different ways of retroelement involvement in structural and functional evolution of genes and genomes, as well as the mechanisms generated by cells to control their retrotransposition. PMID:19649766

  5. The human DNA ends proteome uncovers an unexpected entanglement of functional pathways

    PubMed Central

    Berthelot, Vivien; Mouta-Cardoso, Gildas; Hégarat, Nadia; Guillonneau, François; François, Jean-Christophe; Giovannangeli, Carine; Praseuth, Danièle; Rusconi, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    DNA ends get exposed in cells upon either normal or dysfunctional cellular processes or molecular events. Telomeres need to be protected by the shelterin complex to avoid junctions occurring between chromosomes while failing topoisomerases or clustered DNA damage processing may produce double-strand breaks, thus requiring swift repair to avoid cell death. The rigorous study of the great many proteins involved in the maintenance of DNA integrity is a challenging task because of the innumerous unspecific electrostatic and/or hydrophobic DNA—protein interactions that arise due to the chemical nature of DNA. We devised a technique that discriminates the proteins recruited specifically at DNA ends from those that bind to DNA because of a generic affinity for the double helix. Our study shows that the DNA ends proteome comprises proteins of an unexpectedly wide functional spectrum, ranging from DNA repair to ribosome biogenesis and cytoskeleton, including novel proteins of undocumented function. A global mapping of the identified proteome on published DNA repair protein networks demonstrated the excellent specificity and functional coverage of our purification technique. Finally, the native nucleoproteic complexes that assembled specifically onto DNA ends were shown to be endowed with a highly efficient DNA repair activity. PMID:26921407

  6. The human DNA ends proteome uncovers an unexpected entanglement of functional pathways.

    PubMed

    Berthelot, Vivien; Mouta-Cardoso, Gildas; Hégarat, Nadia; Guillonneau, François; François, Jean-Christophe; Giovannangeli, Carine; Praseuth, Danièle; Rusconi, Filippo

    2016-06-01

    DNA ends get exposed in cells upon either normal or dysfunctional cellular processes or molecular events. Telomeres need to be protected by the shelterin complex to avoid junctions occurring between chromosomes while failing topoisomerases or clustered DNA damage processing may produce double-strand breaks, thus requiring swift repair to avoid cell death. The rigorous study of the great many proteins involved in the maintenance of DNA integrity is a challenging task because of the innumerous unspecific electrostatic and/or hydrophobic DNA-protein interactions that arise due to the chemical nature of DNA. We devised a technique that discriminates the proteins recruited specifically at DNA ends from those that bind to DNA because of a generic affinity for the double helix. Our study shows that the DNA ends proteome comprises proteins of an unexpectedly wide functional spectrum, ranging from DNA repair to ribosome biogenesis and cytoskeleton, including novel proteins of undocumented function. A global mapping of the identified proteome on published DNA repair protein networks demonstrated the excellent specificity and functional coverage of our purification technique. Finally, the native nucleoproteic complexes that assembled specifically onto DNA ends were shown to be endowed with a highly efficient DNA repair activity. PMID:26921407

  7. Protease proteomics: revealing protease in vivo functions using systems biology approaches.

    PubMed

    Doucet, Alain; Overall, Christopher M

    2008-10-01

    Proteases irreversibly modify proteins by cleaving their amide bonds and are implicated in virtually every important biological process such as immunity, development and tissue repair. Accordingly, it is easy to see that deregulated proteolysis is a pathognomic feature of many diseases. Most of the current information available on proteases was acquired using in vitro methods, which reveals molecular structure, enzyme kinetics and active-site specificity. However, considerably less is known about the relevant biological functions and combined roles of proteases in moulding the proteome. Although models using genetically modified animals are powerful, they are slow to develop, they can be difficult to interpret, and while useful, they remain only models of human disease. Therefore, to understand how proteases accomplish their tasks in organisms and how they participate in pathology, we need to elucidate the protease degradome-the repertoire of proteases expressed by a cell, a tissue or an organism at a particular time-their expression level, activation state, their biological substrates, also known as the substrate degradome-the repertoire of substrates for each protease-and the effect of the activity of each protease on the pathways of the system under study. Achieving this goal is challenging because several proteases might cleave the same protein, and proteases also form pathways and interact to form the protease web [Overall, C.M., Kleifeld, O., 2006. Tumour microenvironment - opinion: validating matrix metalloproteinases as drug targets and anti-targets for cancer therapy. Nat. Rev. Cancer 6 (3), 227-239]. Hence, the net proteolytic potential of the degradome at a particular time on a substrate and pathway must also be understood. Proteomics offers one of the few routes to the understanding of proteolysis in complex in vivo systems and especially in man where genetic manipulations are impossible. The aim of this chapter is to review methods and tools that allow

  8. Automation, parallelism, and robotics for proteomics.

    PubMed

    Alterovitz, Gil; Liu, Jonathan; Chow, Jijun; Ramoni, Marco F

    2006-07-01

    The speed of the human genome project (Lander, E. S., Linton, L. M., Birren, B., Nusbaum, C. et al., Nature 2001, 409, 860-921) was made possible, in part, by developments in automation of sequencing technologies. Before these technologies, sequencing was a laborious, expensive, and personnel-intensive task. Similarly, automation and robotics are changing the field of proteomics today. Proteomics is defined as the effort to understand and characterize proteins in the categories of structure, function and interaction (Englbrecht, C. C., Facius, A., Comb. Chem. High Throughput Screen. 2005, 8, 705-715). As such, this field nicely lends itself to automation technologies since these methods often require large economies of scale in order to achieve cost and time-saving benefits. This article describes some of the technologies and methods being applied in proteomics in order to facilitate automation within the field as well as in linking proteomics-based information with other related research areas. PMID:16786489

  9. Proteomic and functional analysis of proline dehydrogenase 1 link proline catabolism to mitochondrial electron transport in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Cabassa-Hourton, Cécile; Schertl, Peter; Bordenave-Jacquemin, Marianne; Saadallah, Kaouthar; Guivarc'h, Anne; Lebreton, Sandrine; Planchais, Séverine; Klodmann, Jennifer; Eubel, Holger; Crilat, Emilie; Lefebvre-De Vos, Delphine; Ghelis, Thanos; Richard, Luc; Abdelly, Chedly; Carol, Pierre; Braun, Hans-Peter; Savouré, Arnould

    2016-09-01

    Proline accumulates in many plant species in response to environmental stresses. Upon relief from stress, proline is rapidly oxidized in mitochondria by proline dehydrogenase (ProDH) and then by pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase (P5CDH). Two ProDH genes have been identified in the genome of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana To gain a better understanding of ProDH1 functions in mitochondria, proteomic analysis was performed. ProDH1 polypeptides were identified in Arabidopsis mitochondria by immunoblotting gels after 2D blue native (BN)-SDS/PAGE, probing them with an anti-ProDH antibody and analysing protein spots by MS. The 2D gels showed that ProDH1 forms part of a low-molecular-mass (70-140 kDa) complex in the mitochondrial membrane. To evaluate the contribution of each isoform to proline oxidation, mitochondria were isolated from wild-type (WT) and prodh1, prodh2, prodh1prodh2 and p5cdh mutants. ProDH activity was high for genotypes in which ProDH, most likely ProDH1, was strongly induced by proline. Respiratory measurements indicate that ProDH1 has a role in oxidizing excess proline and transferring electrons to the respiratory chain. PMID:27303048

  10. Curation of the genome annotation of Pichia pastoris (Komagataella phaffii) CBS7435 from gene level to protein function.

    PubMed

    Valli, Minoska; Tatto, Nadine E; Peymann, Armin; Gruber, Clemens; Landes, Nils; Ekker, Heinz; Thallinger, Gerhard G; Mattanovich, Diethard; Gasser, Brigitte; Graf, Alexandra B

    2016-09-01

    As manually curated and non-automated BLAST analysis of the published Pichia pastoris genome sequences revealed many differences between the gene annotations of the strains GS115 and CBS7435, RNA-Seq analysis, supported by proteomics, was performed to improve the genome annotation. Detailed analysis of sequence alignment and protein domain predictions were made to extend the functional genome annotation to all P. pastoris sequences. This allowed the identification of 492 new ORFs, 4916 hypothetical UTRs and the correction of 341 incorrect ORF predictions, which were mainly due to the presence of upstream ATG or erroneous intron predictions. Moreover, 175 previously erroneously annotated ORFs need to be removed from the annotation. In total, we have annotated 5325 ORFs. Regarding the functionality of those genes, we improved all gene and protein descriptions. Thereby, the percentage of ORFs with functional annotation was increased from 48% to 73%. Furthermore, we defined functional groups, covering 25 biological cellular processes of interest, by grouping all genes that are part of the defined process. All data are presented in the newly launched genome browser and database available at www.pichiagenome.org In summary, we present a wide spectrum of curation of the P. pastoris genome annotation from gene level to protein function. PMID:27388471

  11. Proteomics: A new perspective for cancer.

    PubMed

    Shruthi, Basavaradhya Sahukar; Vinodhkumar, Palani; Selvamani

    2016-01-01

    In the past decades, several ground breaking discoveries in life science were made. The completion of sequencing the human genome certainly belongs to the key tasks successfully completed, representing a true milestone in the biomedicine. The accomplishment of the complete genome also brings along a new, even more challenging task for scientists: The characterization of the human proteome. Proteomics, the main tool for proteome research, is a relatively new and extremely dynamically evolving branch of science, focused on the evaluation of gene expression at proteome level. Due to the specific properties of proteins, current proteomics deals with different issues, such as protein identification, quantification, characterization of post-translational modification, structure and function elucidation, and description of possible interactions. This field incorporates technologies that can be applied to serum and tissue in order to extract important biological information in the form of biomarkers to aid clinicians and scientists in understanding the dynamic biology of their system of interest, such as a patient with cancer. The present review article provides a detail description of proteomics and its role in cancer research. PMID:27169098

  12. Proteomics: A new perspective for cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shruthi, Basavaradhya Sahukar; Vinodhkumar, Palani; Selvamani

    2016-01-01

    In the past decades, several ground breaking discoveries in life science were made. The completion of sequencing the human genome certainly belongs to the key tasks successfully completed, representing a true milestone in the biomedicine. The accomplishment of the complete genome also brings along a new, even more challenging task for scientists: The characterization of the human proteome. Proteomics, the main tool for proteome research, is a relatively new and extremely dynamically evolving branch of science, focused on the evaluation of gene expression at proteome level. Due to the specific properties of proteins, current proteomics deals with different issues, such as protein identification, quantification, characterization of post-translational modification, structure and function elucidation, and description of possible interactions. This field incorporates technologies that can be applied to serum and tissue in order to extract important biological information in the form of biomarkers to aid clinicians and scientists in understanding the dynamic biology of their system of interest, such as a patient with cancer. The present review article provides a detail description of proteomics and its role in cancer research. PMID:27169098

  13. The Cinderella story of metabolic profiling: does metabolomics get to go to the functional genomics ball?

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Julian L

    2005-01-01

    To date most global approaches to functional genomics have centred on genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics. However, since a number of high-profile publications, interest in metabolomics, the global profiling of metabolites in a cell, tissue or organism, has been rapidly increasing. A range of analytical techniques, including 1H NMR spectroscopy, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS), liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS), Fourier Transform mass spectrometry (FT–MS), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and electrochemical array (EC-array), are required in order to maximize the number of metabolites that can be identified in a matrix. Applications have included phenotyping of yeast, mice and plants, understanding drug toxicity in pharmaceutical drug safety assessment, monitoring tumour treatment regimes and disease diagnosis in human populations. These successes are likely to be built on as other analytical and bioinformatic approaches are developed to fully exploit the information obtained in metabolic profiles. To assist in this process, databases of metabolomic data will be necessary to allow the passage of information between laboratories. In this prospective review, the capabilities of metabolomics in the field of medicine will be assessed in an attempt to predict the impact this ‘Cinderella approach’ will have at the ‘functional genomic ball’. PMID:16553314

  14. Characterizing genomic alterations in cancer by complementary functional associations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Wook; Botvinnik, Olga B; Abudayyeh, Omar; Birger, Chet; Rosenbluh, Joseph; Shrestha, Yashaswi; Abazeed, Mohamed E; Hammerman, Peter S; DiCara, Daniel; Konieczkowski, David J; Johannessen, Cory M; Liberzon, Arthur; Alizad-Rahvar, Amir Reza; Alexe, Gabriela; Aguirre, Andrew; Ghandi, Mahmoud; Greulich, Heidi; Vazquez, Francisca; Weir, Barbara A; Van Allen, Eliezer M; Tsherniak, Aviad; Shao, Diane D; Zack, Travis I; Noble, Michael; Getz, Gad; Beroukhim, Rameen; Garraway, Levi A; Ardakani, Masoud; Romualdi, Chiara; Sales, Gabriele; Barbie, David A; Boehm, Jesse S; Hahn, William C; Mesirov, Jill P; Tamayo, Pablo

    2016-05-01

    Systematic efforts to sequence the cancer genome have identified large numbers of mutations and copy number alterations in human cancers. However, elucidating the functional consequences of these variants, and their interactions to drive or maintain oncogenic states, remains a challenge in cancer research. We developed REVEALER, a computational method that identifies combinations of mutually exclusive genomic alterations correlated with functional phenotypes, such as the activation or gene dependency of oncogenic pathways or sensitivity to a drug treatment. We used REVEALER to uncover complementary genomic alterations associated with the transcriptional activation of β-catenin and NRF2, MEK-inhibitor sensitivity, and KRAS dependency. REVEALER successfully identified both known and new associations, demonstrating the power of combining functional profiles with extensive characterization of genomic alterations in cancer genomes. PMID:27088724

  15. Proteomics and transcriptomics of the BABA-induced resistance response in potato using a novel functional annotation approach

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Induced resistance (IR) can be part of a sustainable plant protection strategy against important plant diseases. β-aminobutyric acid (BABA) can induce resistance in a wide range of plants against several types of pathogens, including potato infected with Phytophthora infestans. However, the molecular mechanisms behind this are unclear and seem to be dependent on the system studied. To elucidate the defence responses activated by BABA in potato, a genome-wide transcript microarray analysis in combination with label-free quantitative proteomics analysis of the apoplast secretome were performed two days after treatment of the leaf canopy with BABA at two concentrations, 1 and 10 mM. Results Over 5000 transcripts were differentially expressed and over 90 secretome proteins changed in abundance indicating a massive activation of defence mechanisms with 10 mM BABA, the concentration effective against late blight disease. To aid analysis, we present a more comprehensive functional annotation of the microarray probes and gene models by retrieving information from orthologous gene families across 26 sequenced plant genomes. The new annotation provided GO terms to 8616 previously un-annotated probes. Conclusions BABA at 10 mM affected several processes related to plant hormones and amino acid metabolism. A major accumulation of PR proteins was also evident, and in the mevalonate pathway, genes involved in sterol biosynthesis were down-regulated, whereas several enzymes involved in the sesquiterpene phytoalexin biosynthesis were up-regulated. Interestingly, abscisic acid (ABA) responsive genes were not as clearly regulated by BABA in potato as previously reported in Arabidopsis. Together these findings provide candidates and markers for improved resistance in potato, one of the most important crops in the world. PMID:24773703

  16. Proteomic and functional consequences of hexokinase deficiency in glucose-repressible Kluyveromyces lactis.

    PubMed

    Mates, Nadia; Kettner, Karina; Heidenreich, Falk; Pursche, Theresia; Migotti, Rebekka; Kahlert, Günther; Kuhlisch, Eberhard; Breunig, Karin D; Schellenberger, Wolfgang; Dittmar, Gunnar; Hoflack, Bernard; Kriegel, Thomas M

    2014-03-01

    The analysis of glucose signaling in the Crabtree-positive eukaryotic model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae has disclosed a dual role of its hexokinase ScHxk2, which acts as a glycolytic enzyme and key signal transducer adapting central metabolism to glucose availability. In order to identify evolutionarily conserved characteristics of hexokinase structure and function, the cellular response of the Crabtree-negative yeast Kluyveromyces lactis to rag5 null mutation and concomitant deficiency of its unique hexokinase KlHxk1 was analyzed by means of difference gel electrophoresis. In total, 2,851 fluorescent spots containing different protein species were detected in the master gel representing all of the K. lactis proteins that were solubilized from glucose-grown KlHxk1 wild-type and mutant cells. Mass spectrometric peptide analysis identified 45 individual hexokinase-dependent proteins related to carbohydrate, short-chain fatty acid and tricarboxylic acid metabolism as well as to amino acid and protein turnover, but also to general stress response and chromatin remodeling, which occurred as a consequence of KlHxk1 deficiency at a minimum 3-fold enhanced or reduced level in the mutant proteome. In addition, three proteins exhibiting homology to 2-methylcitrate cycle enzymes of S. cerevisiae were detected at increased concentrations, suggesting a stimulation of pyruvate formation from amino acids and/or fatty acids. Experimental validation of the difference gel electrophoresis approach by post-lysis dimethyl labeling largely confirmed the abundance changes detected in the mutant proteome via the former method. Taking into consideration the high proportion of identified hexokinase-dependent proteins exhibiting increased proteomic levels, KlHxk1 is likely to have a repressive function in a multitude of metabolic pathways. The proteomic alterations detected in the mutant classify KlHxk1 as a multifunctional enzyme and support the view of evolutionary conservation of

  17. Proteomic and Functional Consequences of Hexokinase Deficiency in Glucose-repressible Kluyveromyces lactis

    PubMed Central

    Mates, Nadia; Kettner, Karina; Heidenreich, Falk; Pursche, Theresia; Migotti, Rebekka; Kahlert, Günther; Kuhlisch, Eberhard; Breunig, Karin D.; Schellenberger, Wolfgang; Dittmar, Gunnar; Hoflack, Bernard; Kriegel, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of glucose signaling in the Crabtree-positive eukaryotic model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae has disclosed a dual role of its hexokinase ScHxk2, which acts as a glycolytic enzyme and key signal transducer adapting central metabolism to glucose availability. In order to identify evolutionarily conserved characteristics of hexokinase structure and function, the cellular response of the Crabtree-negative yeast Kluyveromyces lactis to rag5 null mutation and concomitant deficiency of its unique hexokinase KlHxk1 was analyzed by means of difference gel electrophoresis. In total, 2,851 fluorescent spots containing different protein species were detected in the master gel representing all of the K. lactis proteins that were solubilized from glucose-grown KlHxk1 wild-type and mutant cells. Mass spectrometric peptide analysis identified 45 individual hexokinase-dependent proteins related to carbohydrate, short-chain fatty acid and tricarboxylic acid metabolism as well as to amino acid and protein turnover, but also to general stress response and chromatin remodeling, which occurred as a consequence of KlHxk1 deficiency at a minimum 3-fold enhanced or reduced level in the mutant proteome. In addition, three proteins exhibiting homology to 2-methylcitrate cycle enzymes of S. cerevisiae were detected at increased concentrations, suggesting a stimulation of pyruvate formation from amino acids and/or fatty acids. Experimental validation of the difference gel electrophoresis approach by post-lysis dimethyl labeling largely confirmed the abundance changes detected in the mutant proteome via the former method. Taking into consideration the high proportion of identified hexokinase-dependent proteins exhibiting increased proteomic levels, KlHxk1 is likely to have a repressive function in a multitude of metabolic pathways. The proteomic alterations detected in the mutant classify KlHxk1 as a multifunctional enzyme and support the view of evolutionary conservation of

  18. Coxiella burnetii glycomics and proteomics--tools for linking structure to function.

    PubMed

    Toman, Rudolf; Skultety, Ludovit; Ihnatko, Robert

    2009-05-01

    Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, is an obligate intracellular bacterium and a highly infectious pathogen. The disease is a widespread zoonosis and is endemic throughout the world. An easy aerosol dissemination, environmental persistence, and high infectivity make the bacterium a serious threat for humans and animals. Lipopolysaccharide is considered one of the major factors of virulence expression and infection of the bacterium. Detailed glycomic studies enabled to better understand structural and functional peculiarities of this biopolymer and its role in pathogenesis and immunity of Q fever. Recent proteomic studies of C. burnetii have brought new approaches in accurate detection of the infectious agent and offered new insights into the inter- or intra-species relatedness. Thus, structure/function relationship studies are currently of utmost importance in the field. This paper will focus on glycomic and proteomic approaches providing information on unique glycan and protein species of the microorganism as the candidate molecules for the use in detection/diagnosis, therapy, and prophylaxis. PMID:19538265

  19. Functional Proteomics Analysis to Study ATM Dependent Signaling in Response to Ionizing Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Timofeeva, Olga; Zhang, Lihua; Kirilyuk, Alexander; Zandkarimi, Fereshteh; Kaur, Prabhjit; Ressom, Habtom W.; Jung, Mira; Dritschilo, Anatoly

    2013-01-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia (AT) is a human genetic disease characterized by radiation sensitivity, impaired neuronal development and predisposition to cancer. Using a genetically defined model cell system consisting of cells expressing a kinase dead or a kinase proficient ATM gene product, we previously reported systemic alterations in major metabolic pathways that translate at the gene expression, protein and small molecule metabolite levels. Here, we report ionizing radiation induced stress response signaling arising from perturbations in the ATM gene, by employing a functional proteomics approach. Functional pathway analysis shows robust translational and post-translational responses under ATM proficient conditions, which include enrichment of proteins in the Ephrin receptor and axonal guidance signaling pathways. These molecular networks offer a hypothesis generating function for further investigations of cellular stress responses. PMID:23642045

  20. The Genomes, Proteomes, and Structures of Three Novel Phages That Infect the Bacillus cereus Group and Carry Putative Virulence Factors

    PubMed Central

    Belnap, David M.; Jensen, Jordan D.; Mathis, Andrew D.; Prince, John T.; Merrill, Bryan D.; Burnett, Sandra H.; Breakwell, Donald P.

    2014-01-01

    the evolution of pathogenic strains. Herein we provide the results of detailed study of three novel B. cereus phages, two highly related myoviruses (JL and Shanette) and an unrelated siphovirus (Basilisk). The detailed characterization of host range and superinfection, together with results of genomic, proteomic, and structural analyses, reveal several putative virulence factors as well as the ability of these phages to infect different pathogenic species. PMID:25100842

  1. Partnering for functional genomics research conference: Abstracts of poster presentations

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    This reports contains abstracts of poster presentations presented at the Functional Genomics Research Conference held April 16--17, 1998 in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Attention is focused on the following areas: mouse mutagenesis and genomics; phenotype screening; gene expression analysis; DNA analysis technology development; bioinformatics; comparative analyses of mouse, human, and yeast sequences; and pilot projects to evaluate methodologies.

  2. Structural and Functional Proteomic Analysis of a Developing Energy Transducing Membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Niederman, Robert A

    2012-06-04

    While much is known about the light reactions of photosynthesis in purple bacteria, comparatively little information is available on how the requisite integral membrane proteins are assembled, their patterns of cellular localization are established or their apoproteins cooperate with numerous assembly factors in their insertion into the growing intracytoplasmic membrane (ICM). This problem was approached through a detailed structural and functional proteomic analysis of ICM assembly process in the well-characterized purple bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Proteomic approaches have focused upon identification of membrane proteins temporally expressed during ICM development and spatially localized in both membrane growth initiation sites and in mature ICM vesicles. Protocols were established for ICM induction under reduced aeration and ICM remodeling in cells adapting to low intensity illumination, which permitted isolation, in sucrose density gradients, of ICM growth initiation sites as an upper pigmented band (UPB) and mature ICM vesicles as the main (chromatophore) band. Non-denaturing clear native gel electrophoresis (CNE) of these isolated membrane fractions gave rise to pigmented bands containing the peripheral light-harvesting 2 (LH2) antenna and the reaction center-light-harvesting 1 (RC-LH1) core complex, together with a full array of other ICM proteins, which were subjected to proteomic analysis. Proteomic analysis of the gel bands from chromatophores revealed developmental changes including increasing levels of the LH2 complex as ICM development proceeded, as well as a large array of other associated proteins including high spectral counts for the F1FO ATP synthase subunits, given the inability to detect this coupling factor, as well as the more abundant cytochrome bc1 complex by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Significant levels of general membrane assembly factors were encountered, as well as high counts for RSP6124, a protein of unknown function

  3. Genome wide proteomics of ERBB2 and EGFR and other oncogenic pathways in inflammatory breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Emma Yue; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Robertson, Fredika; Reuben, James M; Mu, Zhaomei; Beavis, Ronald C; Im, Hogune; Snyder, Michael; Hofree, Matan; Ideker, Trey; Omenn, Gilbert S; Fanayan, Susan; Jeong, Seul-Ki; Paik, Young-Ki; Zhang, Anna Fan; Wu, Shiaw-Lin; Hancock, William S

    2013-06-01

    In this study we selected three breast cancer cell lines (SKBR3, SUM149 and SUM190) with different oncogene expression levels involved in ERBB2 and EGFR signaling pathways as a model system for the evaluation of selective integration of subsets of transcriptomic and proteomic data. We assessed the oncogene status with reads per kilobase per million mapped reads (RPKM) values for ERBB2 (14.4, 400, and 300 for SUM149, SUM190, and SKBR3, respectively) and for EGFR (60.1, not detected, and 1.4 for the same 3 cell lines). We then used RNA-Seq data to identify those oncogenes with significant transcript levels in these cell lines (total 31) and interrogated the corresponding proteomics data sets for proteins with significant interaction values with these oncogenes. The number of observed interactors for each oncogene showed a significant range, e.g., 4.2% (JAK1) to 27.3% (MYC). The percentage is measured as a fraction of the total protein interactions in a given data set vs total interactors for that oncogene in STRING (Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins, version 9.0) and I2D (Interologous Interaction Database, version 1.95). This approach allowed us to focus on 4 main oncogenes, ERBB2, EGFR, MYC, and GRB2, for pathway analysis. We used bioinformatics sites GeneGo, PathwayCommons and NCI receptor signaling networks to identify pathways that contained the four main oncogenes and had good coverage in the transcriptomic and proteomic data sets as well as a significant number of oncogene interactors. The four pathways identified were ERBB signaling, EGFR1 signaling, integrin outside-in signaling, and validated targets of C-MYC transcriptional activation. The greater dynamic range of the RNA-Seq values allowed the use of transcript ratios to correlate observed protein values with the relative levels of the ERBB2 and EGFR transcripts in each of the four pathways. This provided us with potential proteomic signatures for the SUM149 and 190 cell lines

  4. Genome wide proteomics of ERBB2 and EGFR and other oncogenic pathways in inflammatory breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Emma Yue; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Robertson, Fredika; Reuben, James M; Mu, Zhaomei; Beavis, Ronald C.; Im, Hogune; Snyder, Michael; Hofree, Matan; Ideker, Trey; Omenn, Gilbert S.; Fanayan, Susan; Jeong, Seul-Ki; Paik, Young-ki; Zhang, Anna Fan; Wu, Shiaw-Lin; Hancock, William S.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we selected three breast cancer cell lines (SKBR3, SUM149 and SUM190) with different oncogene expression levels involved in ERBB2 and EGFR signaling pathways as a model system for the evaluation of selective integration of subsets of transcriptomic and proteomic data. We assessed the oncogene status with RPKM values (Reads Per Kilobase per Million mapped reads1) for ERBB2 (14.4, 400 and 300 for SUM149, SUM 190 and SKBR3 respectively and for EGFR 60.1, not detected and 1.4 for the same 3 cell lines. We then used RNA-Seq data to identify those oncogenes with significant transcript levels in these cell lines (total 31) and interrogated the corresponding proteomics data sets for proteins with significant interaction values with these oncogenes. The number of observed interactors for each oncogene showed a significant range, e.g. 4.2% (JAK1) to 27.3% (MYC). The percentage is measured as a fraction of the total protein interactions in a given data set vs. total interactors for that oncogene in STRING (Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins, version 9.0) and I2D (Interologous Interaction Database, version 1.95). This approach allowed us to focus on 4 main oncogenes, ERBB2, EGFR, MYC, and GRB2, for pathway analysis. We used the following bioinformatics sites, GeneGo, PathwayCommons and NCI receptor signaling networks to identify pathways which contained the four main oncogenes, had good coverage in the transcriptomic and proteomic data sets as well as significant number of oncogene interactors. The four pathways identified were ERBB signaling, EGFR1 signaling, integrin outside-in signaling, and validated targets of C-MYC transcriptional activation. The greater dynamic range of the RNA-Seq values allowed the use of transcript ratios to correlate observed protein values with the relative levels of the ERBB2 and EGFR transcripts in each of the four pathways. This provided us with potential proteomic signatures for the SUM149 and 190 cell

  5. Proteome Characterization Centers - TCGA

    Cancer.gov

    The centers, a component of NCI’s Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium, will analyze a subset of TCGA samples to define proteins translated from cancer genomes and their related biological processes.

  6. Insights into the Malpighian tubule from functional genomics.

    PubMed

    Dow, Julian A T

    2009-02-01

    Classical physiological study of the Malpighian tubule has led to a detailed understanding of fluid transport and its control across several species. With the sequencing of the Drosophila genome, and the concurrent development of post-genomic technologies such as microarrays, proteomics, metabolomics and systems biology, completely unexpected roles for the insect Malpighian tubule have emerged. As the insect body plan is simpler than that of mammals, tasks analogous to those performed by multiple mammalian organ systems must be shared out among insect tissues. As well as the classical roles in osmoregulation, the Malpighian tubule is highly specialized for organic solute transport, and for metabolism and detoxification. In Drosophila, the adult Malpighian tubule is the key tissue for defence against insecticides such as DDT; and it can also detect and mount an autonomous defence against bacterial invasion. While it is vital to continue to set insights obtained in Drosophila into the context of work in other species, the combination of post-genomic technologies and physiological validation can provide insights that might not otherwise have been apparent for many years. PMID:19151219

  7. The genome and structural proteome of an ocean siphovirus: a new window into the cyanobacterial ‘mobilome’

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Matthew B; Krastins, Bryan; Hughes, Jennifer L; Kelly, Libusha; Chase, Michael; Sarracino, David; Chisholm, Sallie W

    2009-01-01

    Prochlorococcus, an abundant phototroph in the oceans, are infected by members of three families of viruses: myo-, podo- and siphoviruses. Genomes of myo- and podoviruses isolated on Prochlorococcus contain DNA replication machinery and virion structural genes homologous to those from coliphages T4 and T7 respectively. They also contain a suite of genes of cyanobacterial origin, most notably photosynthesis genes, which are expressed during infection and appear integral to the evolutionary trajectory of both host and phage. Here we present the first genome of a cyanobacterial siphovirus, P-SS2, which was isolated from Atlantic slope waters using a Prochlorococcus host (MIT9313). The P-SS2 genome is larger than, and considerably divergent from, previously sequenced siphoviruses. It appears most closely related to lambdoid siphoviruses, with which it shares 13 functional homologues. The ∼108 kb P-SS2 genome encodes 131 predicted proteins and notably lacks photosynthesis genes which have consistently been found in other marine cyanophage, but does contain 14 other cyanobacterial homologues. While only six structural proteins were identified from the genome sequence, 35 proteins were detected experimentally; these mapped onto capsid and tail structural modules in the genome. P-SS2 is potentially capable of integration into its host as inferred from bioinformatically identified genetic machinery int, bet, exo and a 53 bp attachment site. The host attachment site appears to be a genomic island that is tied to insertion sequence (IS) activity that could facilitate mobility of a gene involved in the nitrogen-stress response. The homologous region and a secondary IS-element hot-spot in Synechococcus RS9917 are further evidence of IS-mediated genome evolution coincident with a probable relic prophage integration event. This siphovirus genome provides a glimpse into the biology of a deep-photic zone phage as well as the ocean cyanobacterial prophage and IS element

  8. Caenorhabditis elegans proteomics comes of age.

    PubMed

    Shim, Yhong-Hee; Paik, Young-Ki

    2010-02-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans, a free-living soil nematode, is an ideal model system for studying various physiological problems relevant to human diseases. Despite its short history, C. elegans proteomics is receiving great attention in multiple research areas, including the genome annotation, major signaling pathways (e.g. TGF-beta and insulin/IGF-1 signaling), verification of RNA interference-mediated gene targeting, aging, disease models, as well as peptidomic analysis of neuropeptides involved in behavior and locomotion. For example, a proteome-wide profiling of developmental and aging processes not only provides basic information necessary for constructing a molecular network, but also identifies important target proteins for chemical modulation. Although C. elegans has a simple body system and neural circuitry, it exhibits very complicated functions ranging from feeding to locomotion. Investigation of these functions through proteomic analysis of various C. elegans neuropeptides, some of which are not found in the predicted genome sequence, would open a new field of peptidomics. Given the importance of nematode infection in plants and mammalian pathogenesis pathways, proteomics could be applied to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying plant- or animal-nematode pathogenesis and to identify novel antinematodal drugs. Thus, C. elegans proteomics, in combination of other molecular, biological and genetic techniques, would provide a versatile new tool box for the systematic analysis of gene functions throughout the entire life cycle of this nematode. PMID:20029841

  9. The Bemisia tabaci functional genomic project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bemisia tabaci, the genome of the whitefly and its expression has not been investigated on a large scale. To address this general shortage of information, we have constructed several cDNA libraries from virulifurous and non-viruliferous whiteflies. A cDNA spotted microarray was constructed in parall...

  10. Strawberry Part 3 - structural and functional genomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The area of strawberry genomics is rapidly changing because of the burgeoning interest in, and need for, reference plants for the Rosaceae family, which contains many important fruit, nut, ornamental and wood crops, including peach, apple, almond, rose and cherry. This chapter describes the current...

  11. SNUGB: a versatile genome browser supporting comparative and functional fungal genomics

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Kyongyong; Park, Jongsun; Choi, Jaeyoung; Park, Bongsoo; Kim, Seungill; Ahn, Kyohun; Choi, Jaehyuk; Choi, Doil; Kang, Seogchan; Lee, Yong-Hwan

    2008-01-01

    Background Since the full genome sequences of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were released in 1996, genome sequences of over 90 fungal species have become publicly available. The heterogeneous formats of genome sequences archived in different sequencing centers hampered the integration of the data for efficient and comprehensive comparative analyses. The Comparative Fungal Genomics Platform (CFGP) was developed to archive these data via a single standardized format that can support multifaceted and integrated analyses of the data. To facilitate efficient data visualization and utilization within and across species based on the architecture of CFGP and associated databases, a new genome browser was needed. Results The Seoul National University Genome Browser (SNUGB) integrates various types of genomic information derived from 98 fungal/oomycete (137 datasets) and 34 plant and animal (38 datasets) species, graphically presents germane features and properties of each genome, and supports comparison between genomes. The SNUGB provides three different forms of the data presentation interface, including diagram, table, and text, and six different display options to support visualization and utilization of the stored information. Information for individual species can be quickly accessed via a new tool named the taxonomy browser. In addition, SNUGB offers four useful data annotation/analysis functions, including 'BLAST annotation.' The modular design of SNUGB makes its adoption to support other comparative genomic platforms easy and facilitates continuous expansion. Conclusion The SNUGB serves as a powerful platform supporting comparative and functional genomics within the fungal kingdom and also across other kingdoms. All data and functions are available at the web site . PMID:19055845

  12. The Functional Genomics Initiative at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Dabney; Justice, Monica; Beattle, Ken; Buchanan, Michelle; Ramsey, Michael; Ramsey, Rose; Paulus, Michael; Ericson, Nance; Allison, David; Kress, Reid; Mural, Richard; Uberbacher, Ed; Mann, Reinhold

    1997-12-31

    The Functional Genomics Initiative at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory integrates outstanding capabilities in mouse genetics, bioinformatics, and instrumentation. The 50 year investment by the DOE in mouse genetics/mutagenesis has created a one-of-a-kind resource for generating mutations and understanding their biological consequences. It is generally accepted that, through the mouse as a surrogate for human biology, we will come to understand the function of human genes. In addition to this world class program in mammalian genetics, ORNL has also been a world leader in developing bioinformatics tools for the analysis, management and visualization of genomic data. Combining this expertise with new instrumentation technologies will provide a unique capability to understand the consequences of mutations in the mouse at both the organism and molecular levels. The goal of the Functional Genomics Initiative is to develop the technology and methodology necessary to understand gene function on a genomic scale and apply these technologies to megabase regions of the human genome. The effort is scoped so as to create an effective and powerful resource for functional genomics. ORNL is partnering with the Joint Genome Institute and other large scale sequencing centers to sequence several multimegabase regions of both human and mouse genomic DNA, to identify all the genes in these regions, and to conduct fundamental surveys to examine gene function at the molecular and organism level. The Initiative is designed to be a pilot for larger scale deployment in the post-genome era. Technologies will be applied to the examination of gene expression and regulation, metabolism, gene networks, physiology and development.

  13. Altered Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Proteome As the Basis of Disruption of Mitochondrial Function in Diabetic Mice.

    PubMed

    Zabielski, Piotr; Lanza, Ian R; Gopala, Srinivas; Heppelmann, Carrie J Holtz; Bergen, H Robert; Dasari, Surendra; Nair, K Sreekumaran

    2016-03-01

    Insulin plays pivotal role in cellular fuel metabolism in skeletal muscle. Despite being the primary site of energy metabolism, the underlying mechanism on how insulin deficiency deranges skeletal muscle mitochondrial physiology remains to be fully understood. Here we report an important link between altered skeletal muscle proteome homeostasis and mitochondrial physiology during insulin deficiency. Deprivation of insulin in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice decreased mitochondrial ATP production, reduced coupling and phosphorylation efficiency, and increased oxidant emission in skeletal muscle. Proteomic survey revealed that the mitochondrial derangements during insulin deficiency were related to increased mitochondrial protein degradation and decreased protein synthesis, resulting in reduced abundance of proteins involved in mitochondrial respiration and β-oxidation. However, a paradoxical upregulation of proteins involved in cellular uptake of fatty acids triggered an accumulation of incomplete fatty acid oxidation products in skeletal muscle. These data implicate a mismatch of β-oxidation and fatty acid uptake as a mechanism leading to increased oxidative stress in diabetes. This notion was supported by elevated oxidative stress in cultured myotubes exposed to palmitate in the presence of a β-oxidation inhibitor. Together, these results indicate that insulin deficiency alters the balance of proteins involved in fatty acid transport and oxidation in skeletal muscle, leading to impaired mitochondrial function and increased oxidative stress. PMID:26718503

  14. Dermal toxicity elicited by phthalates: evaluation of skin absorption, immunohistology, and functional proteomics.

    PubMed

    Pan, Tai-Long; Wang, Pei-Wen; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Hung, Yi-Yun; Lin, Chwan-Fwu; Fang, Jia-You

    2014-03-01

    The toxicity of phthalates is an important concern in the fields of environmental health and toxicology. Dermal exposure via skin care products, soil, and dust is a main route for phthalate delivery. We had explored the effect of topically-applied phthalates on skin absorption and toxicity. Immunohistology, functional proteomics, and Western blotting were employed as methodologies for validating phthalate toxicity. Among 5 phthalates tested, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) showed the highest skin reservoir. Only diethyl phthalate (DEP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) could penetrate across skin. Strat-M(®) membrane could be used as permeation barrier for predicting phthalate penetration through skin. The accumulation of DEHP in hair follicles was ∼15nmol/cm(2), which was significantly greater than DBP and DEP. DBP induced apoptosis of keratinocytes and fibroblasts via caspase-3 activation. This result was confirmed by downregulation of 14-3-3 and immunohistology of TUNEL. On the other hand, the HSP60 overexpression and immunostaining of COX-2 suggested inflammatory response induced by DEP and DEHP. The proteomic profiling verified the role of calcium homeostasis on skin inflammation. Some proteins investigated in this study can be sensitive biomarkers for dermal toxicity of phthalates. These included HSPs, 14-3-3, and cytokeratin. This work provided novel platforms for examining phthalate toxicity on skin. PMID:24384410

  15. Transposable elements in fish functional genomics: technical challenges and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Parinov, Serguei; Emelyanov, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    The recent introduction of several transposable elements in zebrafish opens new frontiers for genetic manipulation in this important vertebrate model. This review discusses transposable elements as mutagenesis tools for fish functional genomics. We review various mutagenesis strategies that were previously applied in other genetic models, such as Drosophila, Arabidopsis, and mouse, that may be beneficial if applied in fish. We also discuss the forthcoming challenges of high-throughput functional genomics in fish. PMID:18047698

  16. Defining functional DNA elements in the human genome

    PubMed Central

    Kellis, Manolis; Wold, Barbara; Snyder, Michael P.; Bernstein, Bradley E.; Kundaje, Anshul; Marinov, Georgi K.; Ward, Lucas D.; Birney, Ewan; Crawford, Gregory E.; Dekker, Job; Dunham, Ian; Elnitski, Laura L.; Farnham, Peggy J.; Feingold, Elise A.; Gerstein, Mark; Giddings, Morgan C.; Gilbert, David M.; Gingeras, Thomas R.; Green, Eric D.; Guigo, Roderic; Hubbard, Tim; Kent, Jim; Lieb, Jason D.; Myers, Richard M.; Pazin, Michael J.; Ren, Bing; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A.; Weng, Zhiping; White, Kevin P.; Hardison, Ross C.

    2014-01-01

    With the completion of the human genome sequence, attention turned to identifying and annotating its functional DNA elements. As a complement to genetic and comparative genomics approaches, the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements Project was launched to contribute maps of RNA transcripts, transcriptional regulator binding sites, and chromatin states in many cell types. The resulting genome-wide data reveal sites of biochemical activity with high positional resolution and cell type specificity that facilitate studies of gene regulation and interpretation of noncoding variants associated with human disease. However, the biochemically active regions cover a much larger fraction of the genome than do evolutionarily conserved regions, raising the question of whether nonconserved but biochemically active regions are truly functional. Here, we review the strengths and limitations of biochemical, evolutionary, and genetic approaches for defining functional DNA segments, potential sources for the observed differences in estimated genomic coverage, and the biological implications of these discrepancies. We also analyze the relationship between signal intensity, genomic coverage, and evolutionary conservation. Our results reinforce the principle that each approach provides complementary information and that we need to use combinations of all three to elucidate genome function in human biology and disease. PMID:24753594

  17. Characterizing genomic alterations in cancer by complementary functional associations | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Systematic efforts to sequence the cancer genome have identified large numbers of mutations and copy number alterations in human cancers. However, elucidating the functional consequences of these variants, and their interactions to drive or maintain oncogenic states, remains a challenge in cancer research. We developed REVEALER, a computational method that identifies combinations of mutually exclusive genomic alterations correlated with functional phenotypes, such as the activation or gene dependency of oncogenic pathways or sensitivity to a drug treatment.

  18. Significant Natural Product Biosynthetic Potential of Actinorhizal Symbionts of the Genus Frankia, as Revealed by Comparative Genomic and Proteomic Analyses▿

    PubMed Central

    Udwary, Daniel W.; Gontang, Erin A.; Jones, Adam C.; Jones, Carla S.; Schultz, Andrew W.; Winter, Jaclyn M.; Yang, Jane Y.; Beauchemin, Nicholas; Capson, Todd L.; Clark, Benjamin R.; Esquenazi, Eduardo; Eustáquio, Alessandra S.; Freel, Kelle; Gerwick, Lena; Gerwick, William H.; Gonzalez, David; Liu, Wei-Ting; Malloy, Karla L.; Maloney, Katherine N.; Nett, Markus; Nunnery, Joshawna K.; Penn, Kevin; Prieto-Davo, Alejandra; Simmons, Thomas L.; Weitz, Sara; Wilson, Micheal C.; Tisa, Louis S.; Dorrestein, Pieter C.; Moore, Bradley S.

    2011-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Frankia are mycelium-forming actinomycetes that are found as nitrogen-fixing facultative symbionts of actinorhizal plants. Although soil-dwelling actinomycetes are well-known producers of bioactive compounds, the genus Frankia has largely gone uninvestigated for this potential. Bioinformatic analysis of the genome sequences of Frankia strains ACN14a, CcI3, and EAN1pec revealed an unexpected number of secondary metabolic biosynthesis gene clusters. Our analysis led to the identification of at least 65 biosynthetic gene clusters, the vast majority of which appear to be unique and for which products have not been observed or characterized. More than 25 secondary metabolite structures or structure fragments were predicted, and these are expected to include cyclic peptides, siderophores, pigments, signaling molecules, and specialized lipids. Outside the hopanoid gene locus, no cluster could be convincingly demonstrated to be responsible for the few secondary metabolites previously isolated from other Frankia strains. Few clusters were shared among the three species, demonstrating species-specific biosynthetic diversity. Proteomic analysis of Frankia sp. strains CcI3 and EAN1pec showed that significant and diverse secondary metabolic activity was expressed in laboratory cultures. In addition, several prominent signals in the mass range of peptide natural products were observed in Frankia sp. CcI3 by intact-cell matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). This work supports the value of bioinformatic investigation in natural products biosynthesis using genomic information and presents a clear roadmap for natural products discovery in the Frankia genus. PMID:21498757

  19. The Proteomic and Genomic Teratogenicity Elicited by Valproic Acid Is Preventable with Resveratrol and α-Tocopherol

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yeh; Lin, Ping-Xiao; Hsieh, Chiu-Lan; Peng, Chiung-Chi; Peng, Robert Y.

    2014-01-01

    Background Previously, we reported that valproic acid (VPA), a common antiepileptic drug and a potent teratogenic, dowregulates RBP4 in chicken embryo model (CEM) when induced by VPA. Whether such teratogenicity is associated with more advanced proteomic and genomic alterations, we further performed this present study. Methodology/Principal Findings VPA (60 µM) was applied to 36 chicken embryos at HH stage 10 (day-1.5). Resveratrol (RV) and vitamin E (vit E) (each at 0.2 and 2.0 µM) were applied simultaneously to explore the alleviation effect. The proteins in the cervical muscles of the day-1 chicks were analyzed using 2D-electrophoresis and LC/MS/MS. While the genomics associated with each specific protein alteration was examined with RT-PCR and qPCR. At earlier embryonic stage, VPA downregulated PEBP1 and BHMT genes and at the same time upregulated MYL1, ALB and FLNC genes significantly (p<0.05) without affecting PKM2 gene. Alternatively, VPA directly inhibited the folate-independent (or the betaine-dependent) remethylation pathway. These features were effectively alleviated by RV and vit E. Conclusions VPA alters the expression of PEBP1, BHMT, MYL1, ALB and FLNC that are closely related with metabolic myopathies, myogenesis, albumin gene expression, and haemolytic anemia. On the other hand, VPA directly inhibits the betaine-dependent remethylation pathway. Taken together, VPA elicits hemorrhagic myoliposis via these action mechanisms, and RV and vit E are effective for alleviation of such adverse effects. PMID:25551574

  20. Shotgun crystallization strategy for structural genomics: an optimized two-tiered crystallization screen against the Thermotoga maritima proteome.

    PubMed

    Page, Rebecca; Grzechnik, Slawomir K; Canaves, Jaume M; Spraggon, Glen; Kreusch, Andreas; Kuhn, Peter; Stevens, Raymond C; Lesley, Scott A

    2003-06-01

    As the field of structural genomics continues to grow and new technologies are developed, novel strategies are needed to efficiently crystallize large numbers of protein targets, thus increasing output, not just throughput [Chayen & Saridakis (2002). Acta Cryst. D58, 921-927]. One strategy, developed for the high-throughput structure determination of the Thermotoga maritima proteome, is to quickly determine which proteins have a propensity for crystal formation followed by focused SeMet-incorporated protein crystallization attempts. This experimental effort has resulted in over 320 000 individual crystallization experiments. As such, it has provided one of the most extensive systematic data sets of commonly used crystallization conditions against a wide range of proteins to date. Analysis of this data shows that many of the original screening conditions are redundant, as all of the T. maritima proteins that crystallize readily could be identified using just 23% of the original conditions. It also shows that proteins that contain selenomethionine and are more extensively purified often crystallize in distinctly different conditions from those of their native less pure counterparts. Most importantly, it shows that the two-tiered strategy employed here is extremely successful for predicting which proteins will readily crystallize, as greater than 99% of the proteins identified as having a propensity to crystallize under non-optimal native conditions did so again as selenomethionine derivatives during the focused crystallization trials. This crystallization strategy can be adopted for both large-scale genomics programs and individual protein studies with multiple constructs and has the potential to significantly accelerate future crystallographic efforts. PMID:12777766

  1. Coverage of whole proteome by structural genomics observed through protein homology modeling database

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Akihiro; Go, Mitiko

    2006-01-01

    We have been developing FAMSBASE, a protein homology-modeling database of whole ORFs predicted from genome sequences. The latest update of FAMSBASE (http://daisy.nagahama-i-bio.ac.jp/Famsbase/), which is based on the protein three-dimensional (3D) structures released by November 2003, contains modeled 3D structures for 368,724 open reading frames (ORFs) derived from genomes of 276 species, namely 17 archaebacterial, 130 eubacterial, 18 eukaryotic and 111 phage genomes. Those 276 genomes are predicted to have 734,193 ORFs in total and the current FAMSBASE contains protein 3D structure of approximately 50% of the ORF products. However, cases that a modeled 3D structure covers the whole part of an ORF product are rare. When portion of an ORF with 3D structure is compared in three kingdoms of life, in archaebacteria and eubacteria, approximately 60% of the ORFs have modeled 3D structures covering almost the entire amino acid sequences, however, the percentage falls to about 30% in eukaryotes. When annual differences in the number of ORFs with modeled 3D structure are calculated, the fraction of modeled 3D structures of soluble protein for archaebacteria is increased by 5%, and that for eubacteria by 7% in the last 3 years. Assuming that this rate would be maintained and that determination of 3D structures for predicted disordered regions is unattainable, whole soluble protein model structures of prokaryotes without the putative disordered regions will be in hand within 15 years. For eukaryotic proteins, they will be in hand within 25 years. The 3D structures we will have at those times are not the 3D structure of the entire proteins encoded in single ORFs, but the 3D structures of separate structural domains. Measuring or predicting spatial arrangements of structural domains in an ORF will then be a coming issue of structural genomics. PMID:17146617

  2. Broad-Host-Range Yersinia Phage PY100: Genome Sequence, Proteome Analysis of Virions, and DNA Packaging Strategy▿

    PubMed Central

    Schwudke, Dominik; Ergin, Asgar; Michael, Kathrin; Volkmar, Sven; Appel, Bernd; Knabner, Dorothea; Konietzny, Antje; Strauch, Eckhard

    2008-01-01

    PY100 is a lytic bacteriophage with a broad host range within the genus Yersinia. The phage forms plaques on strains of the three human pathogenic species Yersinia enterocolitica, Y. pseudotuberculosis, and Y. pestis at 37°C. PY100 was isolated from farm manure and intended to be used in phage therapy trials. PY100 has an icosahedral capsid containing double-stranded DNA and a contractile tail. The genome consists of 50,291 bp and is predicted to contain 93 open reading frames (ORFs). PY100 gene products were found to be homologous to the capsid proteins and proteins involved in DNA metabolism of the enterobacterial phage T1; PY100 tail proteins possess homologies to putative tail proteins of phage AaΦ23 of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. In a proteome analysis of virion particles, 15 proteins of the head and tail structures were identified by mass spectrometry. The putative gene product of ORF2 of PY100 shows significant homology to the gene 3 product (small terminase subunit) of Salmonella phage P22 that is involved in packaging of the concatemeric phage DNA. The packaging mechanism of PY100 was analyzed by hybridization and sequence analysis of DNA isolated from virion particles. Newly replicated PY100 DNA is cut initially at a pac recognition site, which is located in the coding region of ORF2. PMID:17965162

  3. Integration of genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic data identifies two biologically distinct subtypes of invasive lobular breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Michaut, Magali; Chin, Suet-Feung; Majewski, Ian; Severson, Tesa M; Bismeijer, Tycho; de Koning, Leanne; Peeters, Justine K; Schouten, Philip C; Rueda, Oscar M; Bosma, Astrid J; Tarrant, Finbarr; Fan, Yue; He, Beilei; Xue, Zheng; Mittempergher, Lorenza; Kluin, Roelof J C; Heijmans, Jeroen; Snel, Mireille; Pereira, Bernard; Schlicker, Andreas; Provenzano, Elena; Ali, Hamid Raza; Gaber, Alexander; O'Hurley, Gillian; Lehn, Sophie; Muris, Jettie J F; Wesseling, Jelle; Kay, Elaine; Sammut, Stephen John; Bardwell, Helen A; Barbet, Aurélie S; Bard, Floriane; Lecerf, Caroline; O'Connor, Darran P; Vis, Daniël J; Benes, Cyril H; McDermott, Ultan; Garnett, Mathew J; Simon, Iris M; Jirström, Karin; Dubois, Thierry; Linn, Sabine C; Gallagher, William M; Wessels, Lodewyk F A; Caldas, Carlos; Bernards, Rene

    2016-01-01

    Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) is the second most frequently occurring histological breast cancer subtype after invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), accounting for around 10% of all breast cancers. The molecular processes that drive the development of ILC are still largely unknown. We have performed a comprehensive genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic analysis of a large ILC patient cohort and present here an integrated molecular portrait of ILC. Mutations in CDH1 and in the PI3K pathway are the most frequent molecular alterations in ILC. We identified two main subtypes of ILCs: (i) an immune related subtype with mRNA up-regulation of PD-L1, PD-1 and CTLA-4 and greater sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents in representative cell line models; (ii) a hormone related subtype, associated with Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), and gain of chromosomes 1q and 8q and loss of chromosome 11q. Using the somatic mutation rate and eIF4B protein level, we identified three groups with different clinical outcomes, including a group with extremely good prognosis. We provide a comprehensive overview of the molecular alterations driving ILC and have explored links with therapy response. This molecular characterization may help to tailor treatment of ILC through the application of specific targeted, chemo- and/or immune-therapies. PMID:26729235

  4. Combination of genomic and proteomic approaches to characterize the symbiotic population of the banana aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    De Clerck, C; Tsuchida, T; Massart, S; Lepoivre, P; Francis, F; Jijakli, M H

    2014-02-01

    Aphids are known to live in symbiosis with specific bacteria called endosymbionts that have positive or negative impacts on their hosts. In this study, six banana aphid (Pentalonia nigronervosa Coquerel) strains from various geographical origins (Gabon, Madagascar, and Burundi) were screened to determine their symbiotic content, using complementary genomic (16S rDNA sequencing and specific polymerase chain reaction) and proteomic (two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis coupled with protein identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry) approaches. Despite the geographical heterogeneity, the combined methods allowed us to identify the same two symbionts in the six aphids strains tested: Buchnera aphidicola and Wolbachia. Although B. aphidicola is found in almost all aphid species, the systematic presence of Wolbachia in banana aphids is particularly interesting, as this bacterium usually has a low prevalence in aphid species. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the Wolbachia sp. strain found in P. nigronervosa was very similar to the strain present in aphids of the genus Cinara, known to have developed a strong and long-term symbiotic association with Wolbachia. The high level of asexual reproduction in P. nigronervosa could be linked to the presence of Wolbachia, but its prevalence also suggests that this symbiotic bacterium could play a more essential role in its aphid host. PMID:24472200

  5. Integration of genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic data identifies two biologically distinct subtypes of invasive lobular breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Michaut, Magali; Chin, Suet-Feung; Majewski, Ian; Severson, Tesa M.; Bismeijer, Tycho; de Koning, Leanne; Peeters, Justine K.; Schouten, Philip C.; Rueda, Oscar M.; Bosma, Astrid J.; Tarrant, Finbarr; Fan, Yue; He, Beilei; Xue, Zheng; Mittempergher, Lorenza; Kluin, Roelof J.C.; Heijmans, Jeroen; Snel, Mireille; Pereira, Bernard; Schlicker, Andreas; Provenzano, Elena; Ali, Hamid Raza; Gaber, Alexander; O’Hurley, Gillian; Lehn, Sophie; Muris, Jettie J.F.; Wesseling, Jelle; Kay, Elaine; Sammut, Stephen John; Bardwell, Helen A.; Barbet, Aurélie S.; Bard, Floriane; Lecerf, Caroline; O’Connor, Darran P.; Vis, Daniël J.; Benes, Cyril H.; McDermott, Ultan; Garnett, Mathew J.; Simon, Iris M.; Jirström, Karin; Dubois, Thierry; Linn, Sabine C.; Gallagher, William M.; Wessels, Lodewyk F.A.; Caldas, Carlos; Bernards, Rene

    2016-01-01

    Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) is the second most frequently occurring histological breast cancer subtype after invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), accounting for around 10% of all breast cancers. The molecular processes that drive the development of ILC are still largely unknown. We have performed a comprehensive genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic analysis of a large ILC patient cohort and present here an integrated molecular portrait of ILC. Mutations in CDH1 and in the PI3K pathway are the most frequent molecular alterations in ILC. We identified two main subtypes of ILCs: (i) an immune related subtype with mRNA up-regulation of PD-L1, PD-1 and CTLA-4 and greater sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents in representative cell line models; (ii) a hormone related subtype, associated with Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), and gain of chromosomes 1q and 8q and loss of chromosome 11q. Using the somatic mutation rate and eIF4B protein level, we identified three groups with different clinical outcomes, including a group with extremely good prognosis. We provide a comprehensive overview of the molecular alterations driving ILC and have explored links with therapy response. This molecular characterization may help to tailor treatment of ILC through the application of specific targeted, chemo- and/or immune-therapies. PMID:26729235

  6. The plasticity of global proteome and genome expression analyzed in closely related W3110 and MG1655 strains of a well-studied model organism, Escherichia coli-K12.

    PubMed

    Vijayendran, Chandran; Polen, Tino; Wendisch, Volker F; Friehs, Karl; Niehaus, Karsten; Flaschel, Erwin

    2007-03-10

    The use of Escherichia coli as a model organism has provided a great deal of basic information in biomolecular sciences. Examining trait differences among closely related strains of the same species addresses a fundamental biological question: how much diversity is there at the single species level? The main aim of our research was to identify significant differences in the activities of groups of genes between two laboratory strains of an organism closely related in genome structure. We demonstrate that despite strict and controlled growth conditions, there is high plasticity in the global proteome and genome expression in two closely related E. coli K12 sub-strains (W3110 and MG1655), which differ insignificantly in genome structure. The growth patterns of these two sub-strains were very similar in a well-equipped bioreactor, and their genome structures were shown to be almost identical by DNA microarray. However, detailed profiling of protein and gene expression by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis and microarray analysis showed many differentially expressed genes and proteins, combinations of which were highly correlated. The differentially regulated genes and proteins belonged to the following functional categories: genes regulated by sigma subunit of RNA polymerase (RpoS), enterobactin-related genes, and genes involved in central metabolism. Genes involved in central cell metabolism - the glycolysis pathway, the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the glyoxylate bypass - were differentially regulated at both the mRNA and proteome levels. The strains differ significantly in central metabolism and thus in the generation of precursor metabolites and energy. This high plasticity probably represents a universal feature of metabolic activities in closely related species, and has the potential to reveal differences in regulatory networks. We suggest that unless care is taken in the choice of strains for any validating experiment, the results might be misleading. PMID

  7. A Systems Approach to the Proteomic Identification of Novel Cancer Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Pitteri, Sharon; Hanash, Sam

    2010-01-01

    The proteomics field has experienced rapid growth with technologies achieving ever increasing accuracy, sensitivity, and throughput, and with availability of computational tools to address particular applications. Given that the proteome represents the most functional component encoded for in the genome, a systems approach to disease investigations and biomarker identification benefits substantially from integration of proteome level studies. Here we present proteomic approaches that have allowed systematic searches for potential cancer markers by integrating cancer cell profiling with additional sources of data, as illustrated with recent studies of ovarian cancer. PMID:20534908

  8. Stylus: A System for Evolutionary Experimentation Based on a Protein/Proteome Model with Non-Arbitrary Functional Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Axe, Douglas D.; Dixon, Brendan W.; Lu, Philip

    2008-01-01

    The study of protein evolution is complicated by the vast size of protein sequence space, the huge number of possible protein folds, and the extraordinary complexity of the causal relationships between protein sequence, structure, and function. Much simpler model constructs may therefore provide an attractive complement to experimental studies in this area. Lattice models, which have long been useful in studies of protein folding, have found increasing use here. However, while these models incorporate actual sequences and structures (albeit non-biological ones), they incorporate no actual functions—relying instead on largely arbitrary structural criteria as a proxy for function. In view of the central importance of function to evolution, and the impossibility of incorporating real functional constraints without real function, it is important that protein-like models be developed around real structure–function relationships. Here we describe such a model and introduce open-source software that implements it. The model is based on the structure–function relationship in written language, where structures are two-dimensional ink paths and functions are the meanings that result when these paths form legible characters. To capture something like the hierarchical complexity of protein structure, we use the traditional characters of Chinese origin. Twenty coplanar vectors, encoded by base triplets, act like amino acids in building the character forms. This vector-world model captures many aspects of real proteins, including life-size sequences, a life-size structural repertoire, a realistic genetic code, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure, structural domains and motifs, operon-like genetic structures, and layered functional complexity up to a level resembling bacterial genomes and proteomes. Stylus is a full-featured implementation of the vector world for Unix systems. To demonstrate the utility of Stylus, we generated a sample set of homologous vector

  9. Coordinated international action to accelerate genome-to-phenome with FAANG, The Functional Annotation of Animal Genomes project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe the organization of a nascent international effort - the "Functional Annotation of ANimal Genomes" project - whose aim is to produce comprehensive maps of functional elements in the genomes of domesticated animal species....

  10. Assigning protein functions by comparative genome analysis protein phylogenetic profiles

    DOEpatents

    Pellegrini, Matteo; Marcotte, Edward M.; Thompson, Michael J.; Eisenberg, David; Grothe, Robert; Yeates, Todd O.

    2003-05-13

    A computational method system, and computer program are provided for inferring functional links from genome sequences. One method is based on the observation that some pairs of proteins A' and B' have homologs in another organism fused into a single protein chain AB. A trans-genome comparison of sequences can reveal these AB sequences, which are Rosetta Stone sequences because they decipher an interaction between A' and B. Another method compares the genomic sequence of two or more organisms to create a phylogenetic profile for each protein indicating its presence or absence across all the genomes. The profile provides information regarding functional links between different families of proteins. In yet another method a combination of the above two methods is used to predict functional links.

  11. Determining protein function and interaction from genome analysis

    DOEpatents

    Eisenberg, David; Marcotte, Edward M.; Thompson, Michael J.; Pellegrini, Matteo; Yeates, Todd O.

    2004-08-03

    A computational method system, and computer program are provided for inferring functional links from genome sequences. One method is based on the observation that some pairs of proteins A' and B' have homologs in another organism fused into a single protein chain AB. A trans-genome comparison of sequences can reveal these AB sequences, which are Rosetta Stone sequences because they decipher an interaction between A' and B. Another method compares the genomic sequence of two or more organisms to create a phylogenetic profile for each protein indicating its presence or absence across all the genomes. The profile provides information regarding functional links between different families of proteins. In yet another method a combination of the above two methods is used to predict functional links.

  12. Genomic and proteomic profiling of oxidative stress response in human diploid fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Lifang; Pandey, Ritu; Xu, Beibei; Tsaprailis, George; Chen, Qin M.

    2016-01-01

    A number of lines of evidence suggest that senescence of normal human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs) in culture is relevant to the process of aging in vivo. Using normal human skin diploid fibroblasts, we examine the changes in genes and proteins following treatment with a mild dose of H2O2, which induces premature senescence. Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology (MudPIT) in combination with mass spectrometry analyses of whole cell lysates from HDFs detected 65 proteins in control group, 48 proteins in H2O2-treated cells and 109 proteins common in both groups. In contrast, cDNA microarray analyses show 173 genes up-regulated and 179 genes down-regulated upon H2O2 treatment. Both MudPIT and cDNA microarray analyses indicate that H2O2 treatment caused elevated levels of thioredoxin reductase 1. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR and Western-blot were able to verify the finding. Out of a large number of genes or proteins detected, only a small fraction shows the overlap between the outcomes of microarray versus proteomics. The low overlap suggests the importance of considering proteins instead of transcripts when investigating the gene expression profile altered by oxidative stress. PMID:18654835

  13. Integrated genomics and proteomics define huntingtin CAG length-dependent networks in mice.

    PubMed

    Langfelder, Peter; Cantle, Jeffrey P; Chatzopoulou, Doxa; Wang, Nan; Gao, Fuying; Al-Ramahi, Ismael; Lu, Xiao-Hong; Ramos, Eliana Marisa; El-Zein, Karla; Zhao, Yining; Deverasetty, Sandeep; Tebbe, Andreas; Schaab, Christoph; Lavery, Daniel J; Howland, David; Kwak, Seung; Botas, Juan; Aaronson, Jeffrey S; Rosinski, Jim; Coppola, Giovanni; Horvath, Steve; Yang, X William

    2016-04-01

    To gain insight into how mutant huntingtin (mHtt) CAG repeat length modifies Huntington's disease (HD) pathogenesis, we profiled mRNA in over 600 brain and peripheral tissue samples from HD knock-in mice with increasing CAG repeat lengths. We found repeat length-dependent transcriptional signatures to be prominent in the striatum, less so in cortex, and minimal in the liver. Coexpression network analyses revealed 13 striatal and 5 cortical modules that correlated highly with CAG length and age, and that were preserved in HD models and sometimes in patients. Top striatal modules implicated mHtt CAG length and age in graded impairment in the expression of identity genes for striatal medium spiny neurons and in dysregulation of cyclic AMP signaling, cell death and protocadherin genes. We used proteomics to confirm 790 genes and 5 striatal modules with CAG length-dependent dysregulation at the protein level, and validated 22 striatal module genes as modifiers of mHtt toxicities in vivo. PMID:26900923

  14. Genomics and proteomics approaches to the study of cancer-stroma interactions

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The development and progression of cancer depend on its genetic characteristics as well as on the interactions with its microenvironment. Understanding these interactions may contribute to diagnostic and prognostic evaluations and to the development of new cancer therapies. Aiming to investigate potential mechanisms by which the tumor microenvironment might contribute to a cancer phenotype, we evaluated soluble paracrine factors produced by stromal and neoplastic cells which may influence proliferation and gene and protein expression. Methods The study was carried out on the epithelial cancer cell line (Hep-2) and fibroblasts isolated from a primary oral cancer. We combined a conditioned-medium technique with subtraction hybridization approach, quantitative PCR and proteomics, in order to evaluate gene and protein expression influenced by soluble paracrine factors produced by stromal and neoplastic cells. Results We observed that conditioned medium from fibroblast cultures (FCM) inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in Hep-2 cells. In neoplastic cells, 41 genes and 5 proteins exhibited changes in expression levels in response to FCM and, in fibroblasts, 17 genes and 2 proteins showed down-regulation in response to conditioned medium from Hep-2 cells (HCM). Nine genes were selected and the expression results of 6 down-regulated genes (ARID4A, CALR, GNB2L1, RNF10, SQSTM1, USP9X) were validated by real time PCR. Conclusions A significant and common denominator in the results was the potential induction of signaling changes associated with immune or inflammatory response in the absence of a specific protein. PMID:20441585

  15. Protein functional analysis data in support of comparative proteomics of the pathogenic black yeast Exophiala dermatitidis under different temperature conditions

    PubMed Central

    Tesei, Donatella; Marzban, Gorji; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina; Tafer, Hakim; Arcalis, Elsa; Sterflinger, Katja

    2015-01-01

    In the current study a comparative proteomic approach was used to investigate the response of the human pathogen black yeast Exophiala dermatitidis toward temperature treatment. Protein functional analysis – based on cellular process GO terms – was performed on the 32 temperature-responsive identified proteins. The bioinformatics analyses and data presented here provided novel insights into the cellular pathways at the base of the fungus temperature tolerance. A detailed analysis and interpretation of the data can be found in “Proteome of tolerance fine-tuning in the human pathogen black yeast Exophiala dermatitidis” by Tesei et al. (2015) [1]. PMID:26958594

  16. Protein functional analysis data in support of comparative proteomics of the pathogenic black yeast Exophiala dermatitidis under different temperature conditions.

    PubMed

    Tesei, Donatella; Marzban, Gorji; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina; Tafer, Hakim; Arcalis, Elsa; Sterflinger, Katja

    2015-12-01

    In the current study a comparative proteomic approach was used to investigate the response of the human pathogen black yeast Exophiala dermatitidis toward temperature treatment. Protein functional analysis - based on cellular process GO terms - was performed on the 32 temperature-responsive identified proteins. The bioinformatics analyses and data presented here provided novel insights into the cellular pathways at the base of the fungus temperature tolerance. A detailed analysis and interpretation of the data can be found in "Proteome of tolerance fine-tuning in the human pathogen black yeast Exophiala dermatitidis" by Tesei et al. (2015) [1]. PMID:26958594

  17. Thymine distribution in genes provides novel insight into the functional significance of the proteome of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum 3D7.

    PubMed

    Palanisamy, Balamurugan; Ekambaram, Rajasekaran; Heese, Klaus

    2014-03-01

    Plasmodium falciparum (Pf)-mediated malaria is one of the most devastating diseases in the world, and the search for suitable antimalarial drugs remains an extraordinary challenge for scientists working in this area. Novel unconventional approaches could reveal new potential targets that may be useful for the treatment of malaria. We used a bioinformatics approach to analyze the entire genome of the Pf3D7 strain. Because the carbon (C-) content is a pivotal parameter that determines the hydrophobicity of a protein, which in turn controls protein folding and function, we analyzed the entire Pf3D7 proteome based on the gene's thymine (T)-controlled amino acid expression. Our data disclose a total of 14 proteins encoded by chromosome-4 and chromosome-9 that have an outstanding T-encoded and C-controlled hydrophobic character. The identification of these proteins could open new pivotal drug-targeting avenues. PMID:24132930

  18. The first genomic and proteomic characterization of a deep-sea sulfate reducer: insights into the piezophilic lifestyle of Desulfovibrio piezophilus.

    PubMed

    Pradel, Nathalie; Ji, Boyang; Gimenez, Grégory; Talla, Emmanuel; Lenoble, Patricia; Garel, Marc; Tamburini, Christian; Fourquet, Patrick; Lebrun, Régine; Bertin, Philippe; Denis, Yann; Pophillat, Matthieu; Barbe, Valérie; Ollivier, Bernard; Dolla, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Desulfovibrio piezophilus strain C1TLV30(T) is a piezophilic anaerobe that was isolated from wood falls in the Mediterranean deep-sea. D. piezophilus represents a unique model for studying the adaptation of sulfate-reducing bacteria to hydrostatic pressure. Here, we report the 3.6 Mbp genome sequence of this piezophilic bacterium. An analysis of the genome revealed the presence of seven genomic islands as well as gene clusters that are most likely linked to life at a high hydrostatic pressure. Comparative genomics and differential proteomics identified the transport of solutes and amino acids as well as amino acid metabolism as major cellular processes for the adaptation of this bacterium to hydrostatic pressure. In addition, the proteome profiles showed that the abundance of key enzymes that are involved in sulfate reduction was dependent on hydrostatic pressure. A comparative analysis of orthologs from the non-piezophilic marine bacterium D. salexigens and D. piezophilus identified aspartic acid, glutamic acid, lysine, asparagine, serine and tyrosine as the amino acids preferentially replaced by arginine, histidine, alanine and threonine in the piezophilic strain. This work reveals the adaptation strategies developed by a sulfate reducer to a deep-sea lifestyle. PMID:23383081

  19. Genomics and Proteomics of Mycobacteriophage Patience, an Accidental Tourist in the Mycobacterium Neighborhood

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Welkin H.; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Russell, Daniel A.; Rubin, Daniel H. F.; Kajee, Afsana; Msibi, Zama N. P.; Larsen, Michelle H.; Jacobs, William R.; Lawrence, Jeffrey G.; Hendrix, Roger W.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Newly emerging human viruses such as Ebola virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) virus, and HIV likely originate within an extant population of viruses in nonhuman hosts and acquire the ability to infect and cause disease in humans. Although several mechanisms preventing viral infection of particular hosts have been described, the mechanisms and constraints on viral host expansion are ill defined. We describe here mycobacteriophage Patience, a newly isolated phage recovered using Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2155 as a host. Patience has genomic features distinct from its M. smegmatis host, including a much lower GC content (50.3% versus 67.4%) and an abundance of codons that are rarely used in M. smegmatis. Nonetheless, it propagates well in M. smegmatis, and we demonstrate the use of mass spectrometry to show expression of over 75% of the predicted proteins, to identify new genes, to refine the genome annotation, and to estimate protein abundance. We propose that Patience evolved primarily among lower-GC hosts and that the disparities between its genomic profile and that of M. smegmatis presented only a minimal barrier to host expansion. Rapid adaptions to its new host include recent acquisition of higher-GC genes, expression of out-of-frame proteins within predicted genes, and codon selection among highly expressed genes toward the translational apparatus of its new host. PMID:25467442

  20. Life on the edge: functional genomic response of Ignicoccus hospitalis to the presence of Nanoarchaeum equitans

    PubMed Central

    Giannone, Richard J; Wurch, Louie L; Heimerl, Thomas; Martin, Stanton; Yang, Zamin; Huber, Harald; Rachel, Reinhard; Hettich, Robert L; Podar, Mircea

    2015-01-01

    The marine hyperthermophilic crenarchaeon Ignicoccus hospitalis supports the propagation on its surface of Nanoarchaeum equitans, an evolutionarily enigmatic archaeon that resembles highly derived parasitic and symbiotic bacteria. The cellular and molecular mechanisms that enable this interarchaea relationship and the intimate physiologic consequences to I. hospitalis are unknown. Here, we used concerted proteomic and transcriptomic analyses to probe into the functional genomic response of I. hospitalis as N. equitans multiplies on its surface. The expression of over 97% of the genes was detected at mRNA level and over 80% of the predicted proteins were identified and their relative abundance measured by proteomics. These indicate that little, if any, of the host genomic information is silenced during growth in the laboratory. The primary response to N. equitans was at the membrane level, with increases in relative abundance of most protein complexes involved in energy generation as well as that of several transporters and proteins involved in cellular membrane stabilization. Similar upregulation was observed for genes and proteins involved in key metabolic steps controlling nitrogen and carbon metabolism, although the overall biosynthetic pathways were marginally impacted. Proliferation of N. equitans resulted, however, in selective downregulation of genes coding for transcription factors and replication and cell cycle control proteins as I. hospitalis shifted its physiology from its own cellular growth to that of its ectosymbiont/parasite. The combination of these multiomic approaches provided an unprecedented level of detail regarding the dynamics of this interspecies interaction, which is especially pertinent as these organisms are not genetically tractable. PMID:25012904

  1. Systems biology definition of the core proteome of metabolism and expression is consistent with high-throughput data.

    PubMed

    Yang, Laurence; Tan, Justin; O'Brien, Edward J; Monk, Jonathan M; Kim, Donghyuk; Li, Howard J; Charusanti, Pep; Ebrahim, Ali; Lloyd, Colton J; Yurkovich, James T; Du, Bin; Dräger, Andreas; Thomas, Alex; Sun, Yuekai; Saunders, Michael A; Palsson, Bernhard O

    2015-08-25

    Finding the minimal set of gene functions needed to sustain life is of both fundamental and practical importance. Minimal gene lists have been proposed by using comparative genomics-based core proteome definitions. A definition of a core proteome that is supported by empirical data, is understood at the systems-level, and provides a basis for computing essential cell functions is lacking. Here, we use a systems biology-based genome-scale model of metabolism and expression to define a functional core proteome consisting of 356 gene products, accounting for 44% of the Escherichia coli proteome by mass based on proteomics data. This systems biology core proteome includes 212 genes not found in previous comparative genomics-based core proteome definitions, accounts for 65% of known essential genes in E. coli, and has 78% gene function overlap with minimal genomes (Buchnera aphidicola and Mycoplasma genitalium). Based on transcriptomics data across environmental and genetic backgrounds, the systems biology core proteome is significantly enriched in nondifferentially expressed genes and depleted in differentially expressed genes. Compared with the noncore, core gene expression levels are also similar across genetic backgrounds (two times higher Spearman rank correlation) and exhibit significantly more complex transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulatory features (40% more transcription start sites per gene, 22% longer 5'UTR). Thus, genome-scale systems biology approaches rigorously identify a functional core proteome needed to support growth. This framework, validated by using high-throughput datasets, facilitates a mechanistic understanding of systems-level core proteome function through in silico models; it de facto defines a paleome. PMID:26261351

  2. Systems biology definition of the core proteome of metabolism and expression is consistent with high-throughput data

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Laurence; Tan, Justin; O’Brien, Edward J.; Monk, Jonathan M.; Kim, Donghyuk; Li, Howard J.; Charusanti, Pep; Ebrahim, Ali; Lloyd, Colton J.; Yurkovich, James T.; Du, Bin; Dräger, Andreas; Thomas, Alex; Sun, Yuekai; Saunders, Michael A.; Palsson, Bernhard O.

    2015-01-01

    Finding the minimal set of gene functions needed to sustain life is of both fundamental and practical importance. Minimal gene lists have been proposed by using comparative genomics-based core proteome definitions. A definition of a core proteome that is supported by empirical data, is understood at the systems-level, and provides a basis for computing essential cell functions is lacking. Here, we use a systems biology-based genome-scale model of metabolism and expression to define a functional core proteome consisting of 356 gene products, accounting for 44% of the Escherichia coli proteome by mass based on proteomics data. This systems biology core proteome includes 212 genes not found in previous comparative genomics-based core proteome definitions, accounts for 65% of known essential genes in E. coli, and has 78% gene function overlap with minimal genomes (Buchnera aphidicola and Mycoplasma genitalium). Based on transcriptomics data across environmental and genetic backgrounds, the systems biology core proteome is significantly enriched in nondifferentially expressed genes and depleted in differentially expressed genes. Compared with the noncore, core gene expression levels are also similar across genetic backgrounds (two times higher Spearman rank correlation) and exhibit significantly more complex transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulatory features (40% more transcription start sites per gene, 22% longer 5′UTR). Thus, genome-scale systems biology approaches rigorously identify a functional core proteome needed to support growth. This framework, validated by using high-throughput datasets, facilitates a mechanistic understanding of systems-level core proteome function through in silico models; it de facto defines a paleome. PMID:26261351

  3. Comparative genomics and functional annotation of bacterial transporters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfand, Mikhail S.; Rodionov, Dmitry A.

    2008-03-01

    Transport proteins are difficult to study experimentally, and because of that their functional characterization trails that of enzymes. The comparative genomic analysis is a powerful approach to functional annotation of proteins, which makes it possible to utilize the genomic sequence data from thousands of organisms. The use of computational techniques allows one to identify candidate transporters, predict their structure and localization in the membrane, and perform detailed functional annotation, which includes substrate specificity and cellular role. We overview the main techniques of analysis of transporters' structure and function. We consider the most popular algorithms to identify transmembrane segments in protein sequences and to predict topology of multispanning proteins. We describe the main approaches of the comparative genomics, and how they may be applied to the analysis of transporters, and provide examples showing how combinations of these techniques is used for functional annotation of new transporter specificities in known families, characterization of new families, and prediction of novel transport mechanisms.

  4. Determination of testicular function in adolescents with varicocoele - a proteomics approach.

    PubMed

    Del Giudice, P T; Belardin, L B; Camargo, M; Zylbersztejn, D S; Carvalho, V M; Cardozo, K H M; Bertolla, R P; Cedenho, A P

    2016-05-01

    The goal of this study was to determine seminal plasma biomarkers of testicular function in adolescents with varicocoele and to verify enriched gene ontology terms associated to these differential proteomes. An observational study was carried out in an academic research environment. A total of 77 adolescent patients were recruited from a local public school, of which 23 were without varicocoele and with normal semen analysis (control group), 37 were with varicocoele and normal semen (VNS) parameters, and 17 were with varicocoele and altered semen (VAS) parameters. Two semen collections were provided with a 1-week interval, after 2-5 days of ejaculatory abstinence. Seminal plasma proteins were identified and quantified utilizing a label-free shotgun proteomics approach, generating (i) proteins differentially expressed in each group (control, VNS, and VAS) and putative biomarkers using multivariate statistics followed by discriminant analysis. Confirmatory analysis was performed for two proteins by western blotting. Enriched biological processes and molecular functions were determined using gene ontology analysis. In total, 541 proteins were identified and quantified: 108 exclusive or overexpressed in controls, 26 in the VNS group, and 13 in the VAS group. The suggested biomarkers are Cab45/SDF4 (Q9BRK5), protein lefty-1 (O75610), DNase I (P24855), PAP2-alpha (O14494), IBP-7 (Q16270), HDC (P01860), and CRISP-3 (P54108). Western blotting results showed that Cab45 was significantly underexpressed in both varicocoele groups, and CRISP-3 was significantly overexpressed in seminal plasma of adolescents with VAS. In conclusion, specific biomarkers of spermatogenesis and homeostasis are observed in adolescents without varicocoele, and the presence of a palpable varicocoele progressively shifts these adolescents toward initially an immune response, and finally toward a chronic inflammatory profile. This shift is accompanied by decreased semen quality. PMID:27061999

  5. Interactions of photosynthesis with genome size and function.

    PubMed

    Raven, John A; Beardall, John; Larkum, Anthony W D; Sánchez-Baracaldo, Patricia

    2013-07-19

    Photolithotrophs are divided between those that use water as their electron donor (Cyanobacteria and the photosynthetic eukaryotes) and those that use a different electron donor (the anoxygenic photolithotrophs, all of them Bacteria). Photolithotrophs with the most reduced genomes have more genes than do the corresponding chemoorganotrophs, and the fastest-growing photolithotrophs have significantly lower specific growth rates than the fastest-growing chemoorganotrophs. Slower growth results from diversion of resources into the photosynthetic apparatus, which accounts for about half of the cell protein. There are inherent dangers in (especially oxygenic) photosynthesis, including the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and blue light sensitivity of the water spitting apparatus. The extent to which photolithotrophs incur greater DNA damage and repair, and faster protein turnover with increased rRNA requirement, needs further investigation. A related source of environmental damage is ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation (280-320 nm), whose flux at the Earth's surface decreased as oxygen (and ozone) increased in the atmosphere. This oxygenation led to the requirements of defence against ROS, and decreasing availability to organisms of combined (non-dinitrogen) nitrogen and ferrous iron, and (indirectly) phosphorus, in the oxygenated biosphere. Differential codon usage in the genome and, especially, the proteome can lead to economies in the use of potentially growth-limiting elements. PMID:23754816

  6. Interactions of photosynthesis with genome size and function

    PubMed Central

    Raven, John A.; Beardall, John; Larkum, Anthony W. D.; Sánchez-Baracaldo, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Photolithotrophs are divided between those that use water as their electron donor (Cyanobacteria and the photosynthetic eukaryotes) and those that use a different electron donor (the anoxygenic photolithotrophs, all of them Bacteria). Photolithotrophs with the most reduced genomes have more genes than do the corresponding chemoorganotrophs, and the fastest-growing photolithotrophs have significantly lower specific growth rates than the fastest-growing chemoorganotrophs. Slower growth results from diversion of resources into the photosynthetic apparatus, which accounts for about half of the cell protein. There are inherent dangers in (especially oxygenic) photosynthesis, including the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and blue light sensitivity of the water spitting apparatus. The extent to which photolithotrophs incur greater DNA damage and repair, and faster protein turnover with increased rRNA requirement, needs further investigation. A related source of environmental damage is ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation (280–320 nm), whose flux at the Earth's surface decreased as oxygen (and ozone) increased in the atmosphere. This oxygenation led to the requirements of defence against ROS, and decreasing availability to organisms of combined (non-dinitrogen) nitrogen and ferrous iron, and (indirectly) phosphorus, in the oxygenated biosphere. Differential codon usage in the genome and, especially, the proteome can lead to economies in the use of potentially growth-limiting elements PMID:23754816

  7. Integrative functional genomic analysis unveils the differing dysregulated metabolic processes across hepatocellular carcinoma stages.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Vignesh; Ganesan, Kumaresan

    2016-08-15

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a highly heterogeneous disease and the development of targeted therapeutics is still at an early stage. The 'omics' based genome-wide profiling comprising the transcriptome, miRNome and proteome are highly useful in identifying the deregulated molecular processes involved in hepatocarcinogenesis. One of the end products and processes of the central dogma being the metabolites and metabolic processes mediate the cellular functions. In recent years, metabolomics based investigations have revealed the major deregulated metabolic processes involved in carcinogenesis. However, the integrative analysis of the holistic metabolic processes with genomics is at an early stage. Since the gene-sets are highly useful in assessing the biological processes and pathways, we made an attempt to infer the deregulated cellular metabolic processes involved in HCC by employing metabolism associated gene-set enrichment analysis. Further, the metabolic process enrichment scores were integrated with the transcriptome profiles of HCC. Integrative analysis shows three distinct metabolic deregulations: i) hepatocyte function related molecular processes involving lipid/fatty acid/bile acid synthesis, ii) inflammatory processes with cytokine, sphingolipid & chondriotin sulphate metabolism and iii) enriched nucleotide metabolic process involving purine/pyrimidine & glucose mediated catabolic process, in hepatocarcinogenesis. The three distinct metabolic processes were found to occur both in tumor and liver cancer cell line profiles. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of the metabolic processes along with clinical sample information has identified two major clusters based on AFP (alpha-fetoprotein) and metastasis. The study reveals the three major regulatory processes involved in HCC stages. PMID:27107678

  8. Biological master games: using biologists' reasoning to guide algorithm development for integrated functional genomics.

    PubMed

    Breitling, Rainer; Herzyk, Pawel

    2005-01-01

    We review some powerful new algorithms that build on the intuitive biological interpretation techniques for statistical analysis of functional genomics experiments. Although they were originally designed for transcriptomics, we argue that these algorithms are applicable to any type of -omics study (transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics). Rank Products (RP), a strictly non-parametric test statistic to detect differentially regulated elements (genes, proteins, metabolites) in genome-wide screens. RP is particularly powerful for noisy data and low numbers of replicates and makes full use of the availability of a large number of parallel measurements that is typical of modern large-scale experiments. Iterative Group Analysis (iGA), a statistical method that makes the transition from regulated single elements to significant classes of elements, and thus provides an automatic functional annotation of an experiment. Graph-based iGA (GiGA), an extension of iGA that combines experimental data with a broad variety of biological annotations to highlight physiologically relevant regions in a given "evidence graph" (e.g., metabolic networks, signaling pathway diagrams, protein interaction maps). The sequential application of these techniques yields an increasingly abstract interpretation of experimental data that is at the same time quantitative, statistically rigorous, and biologically significant. The results can be used either as helpful tools to guide data visualization and exploration, or as the input for downstream computational applications in a systems biology framework. PMID:16209637

  9. Functional genomic and advanced genetic studies reveal novel insights into the metabolism, regulation, and biology of Haloferax volcanii.

    PubMed

    Soppa, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    The genome sequence of Haloferax volcanii is available and several comparative genomic in silico studies were performed that yielded novel insight for example into protein export, RNA modifications, small non-coding RNAs, and ubiquitin-like Small Archaeal Modifier Proteins. The full range of functional genomic methods has been established and results from transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic studies are discussed. Notably, Hfx. volcanii is together with Halobacterium salinarum the only prokaryotic species for which a translatome analysis has been performed. The results revealed that the fraction of translationally-regulated genes in haloarchaea is as high as in eukaryotes. A highly efficient genetic system has been established that enables the application of libraries as well as the parallel generation of genomic deletion mutants. Facile mutant generation is complemented by the possibility to culture Hfx. volcanii in microtiter plates, allowing the phenotyping of mutant collections. Genetic approaches are currently used to study diverse biological questions-from replication to posttranslational modification-and selected results are discussed. Taken together, the wealth of functional genomic and genetic tools make Hfx. volcanii a bona fide archaeal model species, which has enabled the generation of important results in recent years and will most likely generate further breakthroughs in the future. PMID:22190865

  10. Functional genomics of lactic acid bacteria: from food to health.

    PubMed

    Douillard, François P; de Vos, Willem M

    2014-08-29

    Genome analysis using next generation sequencing technologies has revolutionized the characterization of lactic acid bacteria and complete genomes of all major groups are now available. Comparative genomics has provided new insights into the natural and laboratory evolution of lactic acid bacteria and their environmental interactions. Moreover, functional genomics approaches have been used to understand the response of lactic acid bacteria to their environment. The results have been instrumental in understanding the adaptation of lactic acid bacteria in artisanal and industrial food fermentations as well as their interactions with the human host. Collectively, this has led to a detailed analysis of genes involved in colonization, persistence, interaction and signaling towards to the human host and its health. Finally, massive parallel genome re-sequencing has provided new opportunities in applied genomics, specifically in the characterization of novel non-GMO strains that have potential to be used in the food industry. Here, we provide an overview of the state of the art of these functional genomics approaches and their impact in understanding, applying and designing lactic acid bacteria for food and health. PMID:25186768

  11. Functional genomics of lactic acid bacteria: from food to health

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Genome analysis using next generation sequencing technologies has revolutionized the characterization of lactic acid bacteria and complete genomes of all major groups are now available. Comparative genomics has provided new insights into the natural and laboratory evolution of lactic acid bacteria and their environmental interactions. Moreover, functional genomics approaches have been used to understand the response of lactic acid bacteria to their environment. The results have been instrumental in understanding the adaptation of lactic acid bacteria in artisanal and industrial food fermentations as well as their interactions with the human host. Collectively, this has led to a detailed analysis of genes involved in colonization, persistence, interaction and signaling towards to the human host and its health. Finally, massive parallel genome re-sequencing has provided new opportunities in applied genomics, specifically in the characterization of novel non-GMO strains that have potential to be used in the food industry. Here, we provide an overview of the state of the art of these functional genomics approaches and their impact in understanding, applying and designing lactic acid bacteria for food and health. PMID:25186768

  12. Using proteomic data to assess a genome-scale "in silico" model of metal reducing bacteria in the simulation of field-scale uranium bioremediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yabusaki, S.; Fang, Y.; Wilkins, M. J.; Long, P.; Rifle IFRC Science Team

    2011-12-01

    A series of field experiments in a shallow alluvial aquifer at a former uranium mill tailings site have demonstrated that indigenous bacteria can be stimulated with acetate to catalyze the conversion of hexavalent uranium in a groundwater plume to immobile solid-associated uranium in the +4 oxidation state. While this bioreduction of uranium has been shown to lower groundwater concentrations below actionable standards, a viable remediation methodology will need a mechanistic, predictive and quantitative understanding of the microbially-mediated reactions that catalyze the reduction of uranium in the context of site-specific processes, properties, and conditions. At the Rifle IFRC site, we are investigating the impacts on uranium behavior of pulsed acetate amendment, acetate-oxidizing iron and sulfate reducing bacteria, seasonal water table variation, spatially-variable physical (hydraulic conductivity, porosity) and geochemical (reactive surface area) material properties. The simulation of three-dimensional, variably saturated flow and biogeochemical reactive transport during a uranium bioremediation field experiment includes a genome-scale in silico model of Geobacter sp. to represent the Fe(III) terminal electron accepting process (TEAP). The Geobacter in silico model of cell-scale physiological metabolic pathways is comprised of hundreds of intra-cellular and environmental exchange reactions. One advantage of this approach is that the TEAP reaction stoichiometry and rate are now functions of the metabolic status of the microorganism. The linkage of in silico model reactions to specific Geobacter proteins has enabled the use of groundwater proteomic analyses to assess the accuracy of the model under evolving hydrologic and biogeochemical conditions. In this case, the largest predicted fluxes through in silico model reactions generally correspond to high abundances of proteins linked to those reactions (e.g. the condensation reaction catalyzed by the protein

  13. Genomic, Proteomic, Morphological, and Phylogenetic Analyses of vB_EcoP_SU10, a Podoviridae Phage with C3 Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Mirzaei, Mohammadali Khan; Eriksson, Harald; Kasuga, Kie; Haggård-Ljungquist, Elisabeth; Nilsson, Anders S.

    2014-01-01

    A recently isolated phage, vB_EcoP_SU10 (SU10), with the unusual elongated C3 morphotype, can infect a wide range of Escherichia coli strains. We have sequenced the genome of this phage and characterized it further by mass spectrometry based proteomics, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and ultra-thin section electron microscopy. The genome size is 77,327 base pairs and its genes, and genome architecture, show high similarity to the phiEco32 phage genes and genome. The TEM images reveal that SU10 have a quite long tail for being a Podoviridae phage, and that the tail also changes conformation upon infection. The ultra-thin section electron microscopy images of phages at the stage of replication within the host cell show that the phages form a honeycomb-like structure under packaging of genomes and assembly of mature capsids. This implies a tight link between the replication and cutting of the concatemeric genome, genome packaging, and capsid assembly. We have also performed a phylogenetic analysis of the structural genes common between Podoviridae phages of the C1 and C3 morphotypes. The result shows that the structural genes have coevolved, and that they form two distinct groups linked to their morphotypes. The structural genes of C1 and C3 phages appear to have diverged around 280 million years ago applying a molecular clock calibrated according to the presumed split between the Escherichia – Salmonella genera. PMID:25551446

  14. Functional Analysis of the Human Genome:. Study of Genetic Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsui, Lap-Chee

    2003-04-01

    I will divide my remarks into 3 parts. First, I will give a brief summary of the Human Genome Project. Second, I will describe our work on human chromosome 7 to illustrate how we could contribute to the Project and disease research. Third, I would like to bring across the argument that study of genetic disease is an integral component of the Human Genome Project. In particular, I will use cystic fibrosis as an example to elaborate why I consider disease study is a part of functional genomics.

  15. High-throughput functional genomics using CRISPR-Cas9

    PubMed Central

    Shalem, Ophir; Sanjana, Neville E.; Zhang, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Forward genetic screens are powerful tools for the discovery and functional annotation of genetic elements. Recently, the RNA-guided CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat)-associated Cas9 nuclease has been combined with genome-scale guide RNA libraries for unbiased, phenotypic screening. In this Review, we describe recent advances using Cas9 for genome-scale screens, including knockout approaches that inactivate genomic loci and strategies that modulate transcriptional activity. We discuss practical aspects of screen design, provide comparisons with RNA interference (RNAi) screening, and outline future applications and challenges. PMID:25854182

  16. Genome-wide functional annotation and structural verification of metabolic ORFeome of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent advances in the field of metabolic engineering have been expedited by the availability of genome sequences and metabolic modelling approaches. The complete sequencing of the C. reinhardtii genome has made this unicellular alga a good candidate for metabolic engineering studies; however, the annotation of the relevant genes has not been validated and the much-needed metabolic ORFeome is currently unavailable. We describe our efforts on the functional annotation of the ORF models released by the Joint Genome Institute (JGI), prediction of their subcellular localizations, and experimental verification of their structural annotation at the genome scale. Results We assigned enzymatic functions to the translated JGI ORF models of C. reinhardtii by reciprocal BLAST searches of the putative proteome against the UniProt and AraCyc enzyme databases. The best match for each translated ORF was identified and the EC numbers were transferred onto the ORF models. Enzymatic functional assignment was extended to the paralogs of the ORFs by clustering ORFs using BLASTCLUST. In total, we assigned 911 enzymatic functions, including 886 EC numbers, to 1,427 transcripts. We further annotated the enzymatic ORFs by prediction of their subcellular localization. The majority of the ORFs are predicted to be compartmentalized in the cytosol and chloroplast. We verified the structure of the metabolism-related ORF models by reverse transcription-PCR of the functionally annotated ORFs. Following amplification and cloning, we carried out 454FLX and Sanger sequencing of the ORFs. Based on alignment of the 454FLX reads to the ORF predicted sequences, we obtained more than 90% coverage for more than 80% of the ORFs. In total, 1,087 ORF models were verified by 454 and Sanger sequencing methods. We obtained expression evidence for 98% of the metabolic ORFs in the algal cells grown under constant light in the presence of acetate. Conclusions We functionally annotated approximately 1

  17. Distinguishing between "function" and "effect" in genome biology.

    PubMed

    Doolittle, W Ford; Brunet, Tyler D P; Linquist, Stefan; Gregory, T Ryan

    2014-05-01

    Much confusion in genome biology results from conflation of possible meanings of the word "function." We suggest that, in this connection, attention should be paid to evolutionary biologists and philosophers who have previously dealt with this problem. We need only decide that although all genomic structures have effects, only some of them should be said to have functions. Although it will very often be difficult or impossible to establish function (strictly defined), it should not automatically be assumed. We enjoin genomicists in particular to pay greater attention to parsing biological effects. PMID:24814287

  18. Director's Update - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute’s Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (NCI-CPTAC) has recently begun the proteomic interrogation of genomically-characterized tumors from The Cancer Genome Atlas.

  19. Letter from the Director - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI’s Clinical Proteomic Technologies for Cancer (CPTC) initiative is focused on developing a better understanding of cancer biology through the proteomic interrogation of genomically characterized tumors from sources such as The Cancer Genome Atlas.

  20. Functional genomic analysis of chromosomal aberrations in a compendium of 8000 cancer genomes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Min; Xi, Ruibin; Luquette, Lovelace J.; Park, Richard W.; Johnson, Mark D.; Park, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    A large database of copy number profiles from cancer genomes can facilitate the identification of recurrent chromosomal alterations that often contain key cancer-related genes. It can also be used to explore low-prevalence genomic events such as chromothripsis. In this study, we report an analysis of 8227 human cancer copy number profiles obtained from 107 array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) studies. Our analysis reveals similarity of chromosomal arm-level alterations among developmentally related tumor types as well as a number of co-occurring pairs of arm-level alterations. Recurrent (“pan-lineage”) focal alterations identified across diverse tumor types show an enrichment of known cancer-related genes and genes with relevant functions in cancer-associated phenotypes (e.g., kinase and cell cycle). Tumor type-specific (“lineage-restricted”) alterations and their enriched functional categories were also identified. Furthermore, we developed an algorithm for detecting regions in which the copy number oscillates rapidly between fixed levels, indicative of chromothripsis. We observed these massive genomic rearrangements in 1%–2% of the samples with variable tumor type-specific incidence rates. Taken together, our comprehensive view of copy number alterations provides a framework for understanding the functional significance of various genomic alterations in cancer genomes. PMID:23132910

  1. Microfluidics-Based Single-Cell Functional Proteomics for Fundamental and Applied Biomedical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jing; Zhou, Jing; Sutherland, Alex; Wei, Wei; Shin, Young Shik; Xue, Min; Heath, James R.

    2014-06-01

    We review an emerging microfluidics-based toolkit for single-cell functional proteomics. Functional proteins include, but are not limited to, the secreted signaling proteins that can reflect the biological behaviors of immune cells or the intracellular phosphoproteins associated with growth factor-stimulated signaling networks. Advantages of the microfluidics platforms are multiple. First, 20 or more functional proteins may be assayed simultaneously from statistical numbers of single cells. Second, cell behaviors (e.g., motility) may be correlated with protein assays. Third, extensions to quantized cell populations can permit measurements of cell-cell interactions. Fourth, rare cells can be functionally identified and then separated for further analysis or culturing. Finally, certain assay types can provide a conduit between biology and the physicochemical laws. We discuss the history and challenges of the field then review design concepts and uses of the microchip platforms that have been reported, with an eye toward biomedical applications. We then look to the future of the field.

  2. FUNCTIONAL PROTEOME OF MACROPHAGE CARRIED NANOFORMULATED ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY DEMONSTRATES ENHANCED PARTICLE CARRYING CAPACITY

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Skinner, Andrea L.; Veerubhotla, Ram S.; Liu, Han; Xiong, Huangui; Yu, Fang; McMillan, JoEllyn M.; Gendelman, Howard E.

    2013-01-01

    Our laboratory has pioneered the development of long-acting nanoformulations of antiretroviral therapy (nanoART). NanoART serves to improve drug compliance, toxicities, and access to viral reservoirs. These all function to improve treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Formulations are designed to harness the carrying capacities of mononuclear phagocytes (MP; monocytes and macrophages) and to use these cells as Trojan horses for drug delivery. Such a drug distribution system limits ART metabolism and excretion while facilitating access to viral reservoirs. Our prior works demonstrated a high degree of nanoART sequestration in macrophage recycling endosomes with broad and sustained drug tissue biodistribution and depots with limited untoward systemic toxicities. Despite such benefits, the effects of particle carriage on the cells’ functional capacities remained poorly understood. Thus, we employed pulsed stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture to elucidate the macrophage proteome and assess any alterations in cellular functions that would affect cell-drug carriage and release kinetics. NanoART-MP interactions resulted in the induction of a broad range of activation-related proteins that can enhance phagocytosis, secretory functions, and cell migration. Notably, we now demonstrate that particle-cell interactions serve to enhance drug loading while facilitating drug tissue depots and transportation. PMID:23544708

  3. Functional proteome of macrophage carried nanoformulated antiretroviral therapy demonstrates enhanced particle carrying capacity.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Skinner, Andrea L; Veerubhotla, Ram S; Liu, Han; Xiong, Huangui; Yu, Fang; McMillan, JoEllyn M; Gendelman, Howard E

    2013-05-01

    Our laboratory developed long-acting nanoformulations of antiretroviral therapy (nanoART) to improve drug compliance, reduce toxicities, and facilitate access of drug to viral reservoirs. These all function to inevitably improve treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Formulations are designed to harness the carrying capacities of mononuclear phagocytes (MP; monocytes and macrophages) and to use these cells as Trojan horses for drug delivery. Such a drug distribution system limits ART metabolism and excretion while facilitating access to viral reservoirs. Our prior works demonstrated a high degree of nanoART sequestration in macrophage recycling endosomes with broad and sustained drug tissue biodistribution and depots with limited untoward systemic toxicities. Despite such benefits, the effects of particle carriage on the cells' functional capacities remained poorly understood. Thus, we employed pulsed stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture to elucidate the macrophage proteome and assess any alterations in cellular functions that would affect cell-drug carriage and release kinetics. NanoART-MP interactions resulted in the induction of a broad range of activation-related proteins that can enhance phagocytosis, secretory functions, and cell migration. Notably, we now demonstrate that particle-cell interactions serve to enhance drug loading while facilitating drug tissue depots and transportation. PMID:23544708

  4. Selective conjugation of proteins by mining active proteomes through click-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ilyas, Shaista; Ilyas, Muhammad; van der Hoorn, Renier A L; Mathur, Sanjay

    2013-11-26

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) coated with azide groups were functionalized at the surface with biotin (biotin@SPIONs) and cysteine protease inhibitor E-64 (E-64@SPIONs) with the purpose of developing nanoparticle-based assays for identifying cysteine proteases in proteomes. Magnetite particles (ca. 6 nm) were synthesized by microwave-assisted thermal decomposition of iron acetylacetonate and subsequently functionalized following a click chemistry protocol to obtain biotin and E-64 labeled particulate systems. Successful surface modification and covalent attachment of functional groups and molecules were confirmed by FT-IR spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis. The ability of the surface-grafted biotin terminal groups to specifically interact with streptavidin (either horseradish peroxidase [(HRP)-luminol-H2O2] or rhodamine) was confirmed by chemiluminescent assay. A quantitative assessment showed a capture limit of 0.55-1.65 μg protein/100 μg particles. Furthermore, E-64@SPIONs were successfully used to specifically label papain-like cysteine proteases from crude plant extracts. Owing to the simplicity and versatility of the technique, together with the superparamagnetic behavior of FeOx-nanoparticles, the results demonstrate that click chemistry on surface anchored azide group is a viable approach toward bioconjugations that can be extended to other nanoparticles surfaces with different functional groups to target specific therapeutic and diagnostic applications. PMID:24143894

  5. Functional proteomics of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: Mitochondrial proteins as targets of S-adenosylmethionine

    PubMed Central

    Santamaría, Enrique; Avila, Matías A.; Latasa, M. Ujue; Rubio, Angel; Martín-Duce, Antonio; Lu, Shelly C.; Mato, José M.; Corrales, Fernando J.

    2003-01-01

    Recent work shows that S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) helps maintain normal liver function as chronic hepatic deficiency results in spontaneous development of steatohepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The mechanisms by which these nontraditional functions of AdoMet occur are unknown. Here, we use knockout mice deficient in hepatic AdoMet synthesis (MAT1A−/−) to study the proteome of the liver during the development of steatohepatitis. One hundred and seventeen protein spots, differentially expressed during the development of steatohepatitis, were selected and identified by peptide mass fingerprinting. Among them, 12 proteins were found to be affected from birth, when MAT1A−/− expression is switched on in WT mouse liver, to the rise of histological lesions, which occurs at ≈8 months. Of the 12 proteins, 4 [prohibitin 1 (PHB1), cytochrome c oxidase I and II, and ATPase β-subunit] have known roles in mitochondrial function. We show that the alteration in expression of PHB1 correlates with a loss of mitochondrial function. Experiments in isolated rat hepatocytes indicate that AdoMet regulates PHB1 content, thus suggesting ways by which steatohepatitis may be induced. Importantly, we found the expression of these mitochondrial proteins was abnormal in ob/ob mice and obese patients who are at risk for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. PMID:12631701

  6. Detailed Functional and Proteomic Characterization of Fludarabine Resistance in Mantle Cell Lymphoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lorkova, Lucie; Scigelova, Michaela; Arrey, Tabiwang Ndipanquang; Vit, Ondrej; Pospisilova, Jana; Doktorova, Eliska; Klanova, Magdalena; Alam, Mahmudul; Vockova, Petra; Maswabi, Bokang

    2015-01-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a chronically relapsing aggressive type of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma considered incurable by currently used treatment approaches. Fludarabine is a purine analog clinically still widely used in the therapy of relapsed MCL. Molecular mechanisms of fludarabine resistance have not, however, been studied in the setting of MCL so far. We therefore derived fludarabine-resistant MCL cells (Mino/FR) and performed their detailed functional and proteomic characterization compared to the original fludarabine sensitive cells (Mino). We demonstrated that Mino/FR were highly cross-resistant to other antinucleosides (cytarabine, cladribine, gemcitabine) and to an inhibitor of Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) ibrutinib. Sensitivity to other types of anti-lymphoma agents was altered only mildly (methotrexate, doxorubicin, bortezomib) or remained unaffacted (cisplatin, bendamustine). The detailed proteomic analysis of Mino/FR compared to Mino cells unveiled over 300 differentially expressed proteins. Mino/FR were characterized by the marked downregulation of deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) and BTK (thus explaining the observed crossresistance to antinucleosides and ibrutinib), but also by the upregulation of several enzymes of de novo nucleotide synthesis, as well as the up-regulation of the numerous proteins of DNA repair and replication. The significant upregulation of the key antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 in Mino/FR cells was associated with the markedly increased sensitivity of the fludarabine-resistant MCL cells to Bcl-2-specific inhibitor ABT199 compared to fludarabine-sensitive cells. Our data thus demonstrate that a detailed molecular analysis of drug-resistant tumor cells can indeed open a way to personalized therapy of resistant malignancies. PMID:26285204

  7. A genome-scale resource for in vivo tag-based protein function exploration in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Sarov, Mihail; Murray, John I; Schanze, Kristin; Pozniakovski, Andrei; Niu, Wei; Angermann, Karolin; Hasse, Susanne; Rupprecht, Michaela; Vinis, Elisabeth; Tinney, Matthew; Preston, Elicia; Zinke, Andrea; Enst, Susanne; Teichgraber, Tina; Janette, Judith; Reis, Kadri; Janosch, Stephan; Schloissnig, Siegfried; Ejsmont, Radoslaw K; Slightam, Cindie; Xu, Xiao; Kim, Stuart K; Reinke, Valerie; Stewart, A Francis; Snyder, Michael; Waterston, Robert H; Hyman, Anthony A

    2012-08-17

    Understanding the in vivo dynamics of protein localization and their physical interactions is important for many problems in biology. To enable systematic protein function interrogation in a multicellular context, we built a genome-scale transgenic platform for in vivo expression of fluorescent- and affinity-tagged proteins in Caenorhabditis elegans under endogenous cis regulatory control. The platform combines computer-assisted transgene design, massively parallel DNA engineering, and next-generation sequencing to generate a resource of 14,637 genomic DNA transgenes, which covers 73% of the proteome. The multipurpose tag used allows any protein of interest to be localized in vivo or affinity purified using standard tag-based assays. We illustrate the utility of the resource by systematic chromatin immunopurification and automated 4D imaging, which produced detailed DNA binding and cell/tissue distribution maps for key transcription factor proteins. PMID:22901814

  8. Proteome map of the human hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Edgar, P F; Douglas, J E; Knight, C; Cooper, G J; Faull, R L; Kydd, R

    1999-01-01

    The proteins expressed by a genome have been termed the proteome. By comparing the proteome of a disease-affected tissue with the proteome of an unaffected tissue it is possible to identify proteins that play a role in a disease process. The hippocampus is involved in the processing of short-term memory and is affected in Alzheimer's disease. Any comparative proteome analysis that can identify proteins important in a disease affecting the hippocampus requires the characterization of the normal hippocampal proteome. Therefore, we homogenised normal hippocampal tissue and separated the proteins by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2DE). Seventy-two unique protein spots were collected from Coomassie blue-stained 2DE gels and subjected to in-gel digestion with trypsin, reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography peptide separation, and N-terminal protein sequencing. Sufficient protein sequence was obtained to successfully characterize 66 of the 72 protein spots chosen (92%). Three of the 66 proteins were not present in any database (4.5%). The characterized proteins comprised two dominant functional groups, i.e., enzymes involved in intermediary cellular metabolism (40%), and proteins associated with the cytoskeleton (15%). The identity, molecular mass, isoelectric point, and relative concentration of the characterized proteins are described and constitute a partial proteome map of the normal human hippocampus. PMID:10641757

  9. Novel aspects of grapevine response to phytoplasma infection investigated by a proteomic and phospho-proteomic approach with data integration into functional networks

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Translational and post-translational protein modifications play a key role in the response of plants to pathogen infection. Among the latter, phosphorylation is critical in modulating protein structure, localization and interaction with other partners. In this work, we used a multiplex staining approach with 2D gels to study quantitative changes in the proteome and phosphoproteome of Flavescence dorée-affected and recovered ‘Barbera’ grapevines, compared to healthy plants. Results We identified 48 proteins that differentially changed in abundance, phosphorylation, or both in response to Flavescence dorée phytoplasma infection. Most of them did not show any significant difference in recovered plants, which, by contrast, were characterized by changes in abundance, phosphorylation, or both for 17 proteins not detected in infected plants. Some enzymes involved in the antioxidant response that were up-regulated in infected plants, such as isocitrate dehydrogenase and glutathione S-transferase, returned to healthy-state levels in recovered plants. Others belonging to the same functional category were even down-regulated in recovered plants (oxidoreductase GLYR1 and ascorbate peroxidase). Our proteomic approach thus agreed with previously published biochemical and RT-qPCR data which reported down-regulation of scavenging enzymes and accumulation of H2O2 in recovered plants, possibly suggesting a role for this molecule in remission from infection. Fifteen differentially phosphorylated proteins (| ratio | > 2, p < 0.05) were identified in infected compared to healthy plants, including proteins involved in photosynthesis, response to stress and the antioxidant system. Many were not differentially phosphorylated in recovered compared to healthy plants, pointing to their specific role in responding to infection, followed by a return to a steady-state phosphorylation level after remission of symptoms. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment and statistical

  10. Genome-based proteomic analysis of Lignosus rhinocerotis (Cooke) Ryvarden sclerotium.

    PubMed

    Yap, Hui-Yeng Yeannie; Fung, Shin-Yee; Ng, Szu-Ting; Tan, Chon-Seng; Tan, Nget-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Lignosus rhinocerotis (Cooke) Ryvarden (Polyporales, Basidiomycota), also known as the tiger milk mushroom, has received much interest in recent years owing to its wide-range ethnobotanical uses and the recent success in its domestication. The sclerotium is the part with medicinal value. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry analysis, a total of 16 non-redundant, major proteins were identified with high confidence level in L. rhinocerotis sclerotium based on its genome as custom mapping database. Some of these proteins, such as the putative lectins, immunomodulatory proteins, superoxide dismutase, and aegerolysin may have pharmaceutical potential; while others are involved in nutrient mobilization and the protective antioxidant mechanism in the sclerotium. The findings from this study provide a molecular basis for future research on potential pharmacologically active proteins of L. rhinocerotis. PMID:25552915

  11. Genome-based Proteomic Analysis of Lignosus rhinocerotis (Cooke) Ryvarden Sclerotium

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Hui-Yeng Yeannie; Fung, Shin-Yee; Ng, Szu-Ting; Tan, Chon-Seng; Tan, Nget-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Lignosus rhinocerotis (Cooke) Ryvarden (Polyporales, Basidiomycota), also known as the tiger milk mushroom, has received much interest in recent years owing to its wide-range ethnobotanical uses and the recent success in its domestication. The sclerotium is the part with medicinal value. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry analysis, a total of 16 non-redundant, major proteins were identified with high confidence level in L. rhinocerotis sclerotium based on its genome as custom mapping database. Some of these proteins, such as the putative lectins, immunomodulatory proteins, superoxide dismutase, and aegerolysin may have pharmaceutical potential; while others are involved in nutrient mobilization and the protective antioxidant mechanism in the sclerotium. The findings from this study provide a molecular basis for future research on potential pharmacologically active proteins of L. rhinocerotis. PMID:25552915

  12. Aldosterone: from biosynthesis to non-genomic action onto the proteome.

    PubMed

    Zöllner, Susanne; Hwang, Kyung Hoon; Wilzewski, Britta; Carapito, Christine; Leize-Wagner, Emmanuelle; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Bernhardt, Rita

    2008-10-01

    An increased aldosterone concentration can lead to a progression of heart diseases and to myocardial fibrosis. These fatal processes can be prevented by e.g. inhibiting the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), which is nowadays part of a commonly applied standard therapy. Moreover, selective inhibition of aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) is a straightforward goal whereby CYP11B1, a key enzyme in glucocorticoid biosynthesis exhibiting a high structure identity with CYP11B2 should not be inhibited. Therefore, effective test systems have been developed and rather potent and selective CYP11B2 compounds like SIAS-1 have been identified by our group. In addition to finding new inhibitors, we investigated which proteins are directly influenced by aldosterone focussing on non-genomic effects. Schizosaccharomyces pombe was chosen as a model organism, since this yeast does not contain nuclear steroid receptors, but many genes and regulatory mechanisms that are close to those of mammals. Besides creating a reference map for this organism, protein spots affected by aldosterone as well as deoxycorticosterone (DOC) and corticosterone have been identified. In case of aldosterone, a regulatory effect of proteins that are connected with structural proteins, signal cascades, osmoregulation and calcium pathway as well as to general metabolism have been discovered. DOC causes overlapping but also different effects compared with aldosterone. As shown exemplarily for GAPDH, the aldosterone-mediated effects in S. pombe can also be verified in mammalian cells. These and further investigations contribute to a deeper understanding of so-called non-genomic aldosterone effects. PMID:18280527

  13. Genomics, microRNA, epigenetics, and proteomics for future diagnosis, treatment and monitoring response in upper GI cancers.

    PubMed

    Brücher, Björn L D M; Li, Yan; Schnabel, Philipp; Daumer, Martin; Wallace, Timothy J; Kube, Rainer; Zilberstein, Bruno; Steele, Scott; Voskuil, Jan L A; Jamall, Ijaz S

    2016-12-01

    One major objective for our evolving understanding in the treatment of cancers will be to address how a combination of diagnosis and treatment strategies can be used to integrate patient and tumor variables with an outcome-oriented approach. Such an approach, in a multimodal therapy setting, could identify those patients (1) who should undergo a defined treatment (personalized therapy) (2) in whom modifications of the multimodal therapy due to observed responses might lead to an improvement of the response and/or prognosis (individualized therapy), (3) who might not benefit from a particular toxic treatment regimen, and (4) who could be identified early on and thereby be spared the morbidity associated with such treatments. These strategies could lead in the direction of precision medicine and there is hope of integrating translational molecular data to improve cancer classifications. In order to achieve these goals, it is necessary to understand the key issues in different aspects of biotechnology to anticipate future directions of personalized and individualized diagnosis and multimodal treatment strategies. Providing an overview of translational data in cancers proved to be a challenge as different methods and techniques used to obtain molecular data are used and studies are based on different tumor entities with different tumor biology and prognoses as well as vastly different therapeutic approaches. The pros and cons of the available methodologies and the potential response data in genomics, microRNA, epigenetics and proteomics with a focus on upper gastrointestinal cancers are considered herein to allow for an understanding of where these technologies stand with respect to cancer diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. PMID:27053248

  14. Wheat proteomics: proteome modulation and abiotic stress acclimation

    PubMed Central

    Komatsu, Setsuko; Kamal, Abu H. M.; Hossain, Zahed

    2014-01-01

    Cellular mechanisms of stress sensing and signaling represent the initial plant responses to adverse conditions. The development of high-throughput “Omics” techniques has initiated a new era of the study of plant molecular strategies for adapting to environmental changes. However, the elucidation of stress adaptation mechanisms in plants requires the accurate isolation and characterization of stress-responsive proteins. Because the functional part of the genome, namely the proteins and their post-translational modifications, are critical for plant stress responses, proteomic studies provide comprehensive information about the fine-tuning of cellular pathways that primarily involved in stress mitigation. This review summarizes the major proteomic findings related to alterations in the wheat proteomic profile in response to abiotic stresses. Moreover, the strengths and weaknesses of different sample preparation techniques, including subcellular protein extraction protocols, are discussed in detail. The continued development of proteomic approaches in combination with rapidly evolving bioinformatics tools and interactive databases will facilitate understanding of the plant mechanisms underlying stress tolerance. PMID:25538718

  15. The Staphylococcus aureus proteome.

    PubMed

    Otto, Andreas; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Hecker, Michael; Becher, Dörte

    2014-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive commensal bacterium that is regarded as a major threat for modern health care systems. This relates both to the ability of S. aureus to overcome antibiotic therapy by developing high-level resistance against multiple antibiotics and this bacterium's extensive arsenal of virulence factors. Understanding the mechanisms of resistance and functional studies on stress and starvation responses are the main goals of proteomics in staphylococcal research. This review high-lights recent advances in gel-based and gel-free proteomics analyses of S. aureus and pinpoints the importance of location-specific proteomics studies targeting the cytosol, the membrane, the cell surface and the extracellular milieu in combination with integrated global proteome studies. Emerging hot topics in staphylococcal proteomics are discussed with special focus on in vivo proteomics, membrane vesicles, biofilm formation and the acquisition of absolute proteome data for systems biological modeling approaches. PMID:24439828

  16. Budding off: bringing functional genomics to Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Matthew Z; Bennett, Richard J

    2016-03-01

    Candidaspecies are the most prevalent human fungal pathogens, withCandida albicansbeing the most clinically relevant species.Candida albicansresides as a commensal of the human gastrointestinal tract but is a frequent cause of opportunistic mucosal and systemic infections. Investigation ofC. albicansvirulence has traditionally relied on candidate gene approaches, but recent advances in functional genomics have now facilitated global, unbiased studies of gene function. Such studies include comparative genomics (both between and withinCandidaspecies), analysis of total RNA expression, and regulation and delineation of protein-DNA interactions. Additionally, large collections of mutant strains have begun to aid systematic screening of clinically relevant phenotypes. Here, we will highlight the development of functional genomics inC. albicansand discuss the use of these approaches to addressing both commensalism and pathogenesis in this species. PMID:26424829

  17. Functional genomics of Plasmodium falciparum using metabolic modelling and analysis

    PubMed Central

    Oppenheim, Rebecca D.; Soldati-Favre, Dominique; Hatzimanikatis, Vassily

    2013-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum is an obligate intracellular parasite and the leading cause of severe malaria responsible for tremendous morbidity and mortality particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Successful completion of the P. falciparum genome sequencing project in 2002 provided a comprehensive foundation for functional genomic studies on this pathogen in the following decade. Over this period, a large spectrum of experimental approaches has been deployed to improve and expand the scope of functionally annotated genes. Meanwhile, rapidly evolving methods of systems biology have also begun to contribute to a more global understanding of various aspects of the biology and pathogenesis of malaria. Herein we provide an overview on metabolic modelling, which has the capability to integrate information from functional genomics studies in P. falciparum and guide future malaria research efforts towards the identification of novel candidate drug targets. PMID:23793264

  18. RNAi and functional genomics in plant parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Rosso, M N; Jones, J T; Abad, P

    2009-01-01

    Plant nematology is currently undergoing a revolution with the availability of the first genome sequences as well as comprehensive expressed sequence tag (EST) libraries from a range of nematode species. Several strategies are being used to exploit this wealth of information. Comparative genomics is being used to explore the acquisition of novel genes associated with parasitic lifestyles. Functional analyses of nematode genes are moving toward larger scale studies including global transcriptome profiling. RNA interference (RNAi) has been shown to reduce expression of a range of plant parasitic nematode genes and is a powerful tool for functional analysis of nematode genes. RNAi-mediated suppression of genes essential for nematode development, survival, or parasitism is revealing new targets for nematode control. Plant nematology in the genomics era is now facing the challenge to develop RNAi screens adequate for high-throughput functional analyses. PMID:19400649

  19. AUTOMATED ANALYSIS OF QUANTITATIVE IMAGE DATA USING ISOMORPHIC FUNCTIONAL MIXED MODELS, WITH APPLICATION TO PROTEOMICS DATA

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Jeffrey S.; Baladandayuthapani, Veerabhadran; Herrick, Richard C.; Sanna, Pietro; Gutstein, Howard

    2011-01-01

    Image data are increasingly encountered and are of growing importance in many areas of science. Much of these data are quantitative image data, which are characterized by intensities that represent some measurement of interest in the scanned images. The data typically consist of multiple images on the same domain and the goal of the research is to combine the quantitative information across images to make inference about populations or interventions. In this paper, we present a unified analysis framework for the analysis of quantitative image data using a Bayesian functional mixed model approach. This framework is flexible enough to handle complex, irregular images with many local features, and can model the simultaneous effects of multiple factors on the image intensities and account for the correlation between images induced by the design. We introduce a general isomorphic modeling approach to fitting the functional mixed model, of which the wavelet-based functional mixed model is one special case. With suitable modeling choices, this approach leads to efficient calculations and can result in flexible modeling and adaptive smoothing of the salient features in the data. The proposed method has the following advantages: it can be run automatically, it produces inferential plots indicating which regions of the image are associated with each factor, it simultaneously considers the practical and statistical significance of findings, and it controls the false discovery rate. Although the method we present is general and can be applied to quantitative image data from any application, in this paper we focus on image-based proteomic data. We apply our method to an animal study investigating the effects of opiate addiction on the brain proteome. Our image-based functional mixed model approach finds results that are missed with conventional spot-based analysis approaches. In particular, we find that the significant regions of the image identified by the proposed method

  20. Metabolomics-assisted proteomics identifies succinylation and SIRT5 as important regulators of cardiac function.

    PubMed

    Sadhukhan, Sushabhan; Liu, Xiaojing; Ryu, Dongryeol; Nelson, Ornella D; Stupinski, John A; Li, Zhi; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Sheng; Weiss, Robert S; Locasale, Jason W; Auwerx, Johan; Lin, Hening

    2016-04-19

    Cellular metabolites, such as acyl-CoA, can modify proteins, leading to protein posttranslational modifications (PTMs). One such PTM is lysine succinylation, which is regulated by sirtuin 5 (SIRT5). Although numerous proteins are modified by lysine succinylation, the physiological significance of lysine succinylation and SIRT5 remains elusive. Here, by profiling acyl-CoA molecules in various mouse tissues, we have discovered that different tissues have different acyl-CoA profiles and that succinyl-CoA is the most abundant acyl-CoA molecule in the heart. This interesting observation has prompted us to examine protein lysine succinylation in different mouse tissues in the presence and absence of SIRT5. Protein lysine succinylation predominantly accumulates in the heart whenSirt5is deleted. Using proteomic studies, we have identified many cardiac proteins regulated by SIRT5. Our data suggest that ECHA, a protein involved in fatty acid oxidation, is a major enzyme that is regulated by SIRT5 and affects heart function.Sirt5knockout (KO) mice have lower ECHA activity, increased long-chain acyl-CoAs, and decreased ATP in the heart under fasting conditions.Sirt5KO mice develop hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, as evident from the increased heart weight relative to body weight, as well as reduced shortening and ejection fractions. These findings establish that regulating heart metabolism and function is a major physiological function of lysine succinylation and SIRT5. PMID:27051063

  1. Functional Proteomics Screen Enables Enrichment of Distinct Cell Types from Human Pancreatic Islets

    PubMed Central

    Sharivkin, Revital; Walker, Michael D.; Soen, Yoav

    2015-01-01

    The current world-wide epidemic of diabetes has prompted attempts to generate new sources of insulin-producing cells for cell replacement therapy. An inherent challenge in many of these strategies is the lack of cell-surface markers permitting isolation and characterization of specific cell types from differentiating stem cell populations. Here we introduce an iterative proteomics procedure allowing tag-free isolation of cell types based on their function. Our method detects and associates specific cell-surface markers with particular cell functionality by coupling cell capture on antibody arrays with immunofluorescent labeling. Using this approach in an iterative manner, we discovered marker combinations capable of enriching for discrete pancreatic cell subtypes from human islets of Langerhans: insulin-producing beta cells (CD9high/CD56+), glucagon-producing alpha cells (CD9- /CD56+) and trypsin-producing acinar cells (CD9- /CD56-). This strategy may assist future beta cell research and the development of diagnostic tools for diabetes. It can also be applied more generally for function-based purification of desired cell types from other limited and heterogeneous biological samples. PMID:25706282

  2. Proteomic insights into the functional basis for the response regulator DrRRA of Deinococcus radiodurans.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liangyan; Hu, Jing; Liu, Mengjia; Yang, Su; Zhao, Ye; Cheng, Kaiying; Xu, Guangzhi; Li, Mingfeng; Tian, Bing; Hua, Yuejin

    2016-05-01

    Purpose To investigate the function basis of the recently discovered response regulator, drRRA (DNA damage response regulator A) in Deinococcus radiodurans, we compared the proteomic profile of the radiation-sensitive drRRA mutant with that of wild-type strain under both non-stress and gamma radiation treatment. Materials and methods Total proteins of D. radiodurans cells were subjected to two-dimension electrophoresis. Protein spots in 2-Dimension gels were silver stained and scanned. Spots that changed significantly in expression levels were selected for mass spectrometry analysis. Seven genes encoding representative proteins were knocked out for stress resistance analysis. Results A total of 52 proteins displayed significant expression level changes at least 1.5-fold in the mutant relative to wild-type strain under non-stress conditions, with 31 repressed and 21 induced proteins, which might affect the cell response of D. radiodurans to gamma radiation. The proteins were distributed into functional groups including stress response, metabolism, and function unknown. Disruptions of several altered proteins including DRA0259 (Catalase E) and DR1538 (Osmotically inducible protein C), reduced the antioxidant activity of D. radiodurans. Conclusion Combined with our previous result of transcriptional profile, we further confirmed that inactivation of DrRRA affects the expression of various stress response systems. PMID:26948123

  3. The Escherichia coli Proteome: Past, Present, and Future Prospects†

    PubMed Central

    Han, Mee-Jung; Lee, Sang Yup

    2006-01-01

    Proteomics has emerged as an indispensable methodology for large-scale protein analysis in functional genomics. The Escherichia coli proteome has been extensively studied and is well defined in terms of biochemical, biological, and biotechnological data. Even before the entire E. coli proteome was fully elucidated, the largest available data set had been integrated to decipher regulatory circuits and metabolic pathways, providing valuable insights into global cellular physiology and the development of metabolic and cellular engineering strategies. With the recent advent of advanced proteomic technologies, the E. coli proteome has been used for the validation of new technologies and methodologies such as sample prefractionation, protein enrichment, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, protein detection, mass spectrometry (MS), combinatorial assays with n-dimensional chromatographies and MS, and image analysis software. These important technologies will not only provide a great amount of additional information on the E. coli proteome but also synergistically contribute to other proteomic studies. Here, we review the past development and current status of E. coli proteome research in terms of its biological, biotechnological, and methodological significance and suggest future prospects. PMID:16760308

  4. Proteome Studies of Filamentous Fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Scott E.; Panisko, Ellen A.

    2011-04-20

    The continued fast pace of fungal genome sequence generation has enabled proteomic analysis of a wide breadth of organisms that span the breadth of the Kingdom Fungi. There is some phylogenetic bias to the current catalog of fungi with reasonable DNA sequence databases (genomic or EST) that could be analyzed at a global proteomic level. However, the rapid development of next generation sequencing platforms has lowered the cost of genome sequencing such that in the near future, having a genome sequence will no longer be a time or cost bottleneck for downstream proteomic (and transcriptomic) analyses. High throughput, non-gel based proteomics offers a snapshot of proteins present in a given sample at a single point in time. There are a number of different variations on the general method and technologies for identifying peptides in a given sample. We present a method that can serve as a “baseline” for proteomic studies of fungi.

  5. Proteomics research in India: an update.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Panga Jaipal; Atak, Apurva; Ghantasala, Saicharan; Kumar, Saurabh; Gupta, Shabarni; Prasad, T S Keshava; Zingde, Surekha M; Srivastava, Sanjeeva

    2015-09-01

    After a successful completion of the Human Genome Project, deciphering the mystery surrounding the human proteome posed a major challenge. Despite not being largely involved in the Human Genome Project, the Indian scientific community contributed towards proteomic research along with the global community. Currently, more than 76 research/academic institutes and nearly 145 research labs are involved in core proteomic research across India. The Indian researchers have been major contributors in drafting the "human proteome map" along with international efforts. In addition to this, virtual proteomics labs, proteomics courses and remote triggered proteomics labs have helped to overcome the limitations of proteomics education posed due to expensive lab infrastructure. The establishment of Proteomics Society, India (PSI) has created a platform for the Indian proteomic researchers to share ideas, research collaborations and conduct annual conferences and workshops. Indian proteomic research is really moving forward with the global proteomics community in a quest to solve the mysteries of proteomics. A draft map of the human proteome enhances the enthusiasm among intellectuals to promote proteomic research in India to the world.This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics in India. PMID:25868663

  6. Pre-fractionation strategies to resolve pea (Pisum sativum) sub-proteomes

    PubMed Central

    Meisrimler, Claudia-Nicole; Menckhoff, Ljiljana; Kukavica, Biljana M.; Lüthje, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Legumes are important crop plants and pea (Pisum sativum L.) has been investigated as a model with respect to several physiological aspects. The sequencing of the pea genome has not been completed. Therefore, proteomic approaches are currently limited. Nevertheless, the increasing numbers of available EST-databases as well as the high homology of the pea and medicago genome (Medicago truncatula Gaertner) allow the successful identification of proteins. Due to the un-sequenced pea genome, pre-fractionation approaches have been used in pea proteomic surveys in the past. Aside from a number of selective proteome studies on crude extracts and the chloroplast, few studies have targeted other components such as the pea secretome, an important sub-proteome of interest due to its role in abiotic and biotic stress processes. The secretome itself can be further divided into different sub-proteomes (plasma membrane, apoplast, cell wall proteins). Cell fractionation in combination with different gel-electrophoresis, chromatography methods and protein identification by mass spectrometry are important partners to gain insight into pea sub-proteomes, post-translational modifications and protein functions. Overall, pea proteomics needs to link numerous existing physiological and biochemical data to gain further insight into adaptation processes, which play important roles in field applications. Future developments and directions in pea proteomics are discussed. PMID:26539198

  7. Functional Genomic Analysis of C. elegans Molting

    PubMed Central

    Frand, Alison R; Russel, Sascha

    2005-01-01

    Although the molting cycle is a hallmark of insects and nematodes, neither the endocrine control of molting via size, stage, and nutritional inputs nor the enzymatic mechanism for synthesis and release of the exoskeleton is well understood. Here, we identify endocrine and enzymatic regulators of molting in C. elegans through a genome-wide RNA-interference screen. Products of the 159 genes discovered include annotated transcription factors, secreted peptides, transmembrane proteins, and extracellular matrix enzymes essential for molting. Fusions between several genes and green fluorescent protein show a pulse of expression before each molt in epithelial cells that synthesize the exoskeleton, indicating that the corresponding proteins are made in the correct time and place to regulate molting. We show further that inactivation of particular genes abrogates expression of the green fluorescent protein reporter genes, revealing regulatory networks that might couple the expression of genes essential for molting to endocrine cues. Many molting genes are conserved in parasitic nematodes responsible for human disease, and thus represent attractive targets for pesticide and pharmaceutical development. PMID:16122351

  8. Functional genomics identifies drivers of medulloblastoma dissemination.

    PubMed

    Mumert, Michael; Dubuc, Adrian; Wu, Xiaochong; Northcott, Paul A; Chin, Steven S; Pedone, Carolyn A; Taylor, Michael D; Fults, Daniel W

    2012-10-01

    Medulloblastomas are malignant brain tumors that arise in the cerebellum in children and disseminate via the cerebrospinal fluid to the leptomeningeal spaces of the brain and spinal cord. Challenged by the poor prognosis for patients with metastatic dissemination, pediatric oncologists have developed aggressive treatment protocols, combining surgery, craniospinal radiation, and high-dose chemotherapy, that often cause disabling neurotoxic effects in long-term survivors. Insights into the genetic control of medulloblastoma dissemination have come from transposon insertion mutagenesis studies. Mobilizing the Sleeping Beauty transposon in cerebellar neural progenitor cells caused widespread dissemination of typically nonmetastatic medulloblastomas in Patched(+/-) mice, in which Shh signaling is hyperactive. Candidate metastasis genes were identified by sequencing the insertion sites and then mapping these sequences back to the mouse genome. To determine whether genes located at transposon insertion sites directly caused medulloblastomas to disseminate, we overexpressed candidate genes in Nestin(+) neural progenitors in the cerebella of mice by retroviral transfer in combination with Shh. We show here that ectopic expression of Eras, Lhx1, Ccrk, and Akt shifted the in vivo growth characteristics of Shh-induced medulloblastomas from a localized pattern to a disseminated pattern in which tumor cells seeded the leptomeningeal spaces of the brain and spinal cord. PMID:22875024

  9. Jatropha curcas, a biofuel crop: Functional genomics for understanding metabolic pathways and genetic improvement

    PubMed Central

    Maghuly, Fatemeh; Laimer, Margit

    2013-01-01

    Jatropha curcas is currently attracting much attention as an oilseed crop for biofuel, as Jatropha can grow under climate and soil conditions that are unsuitable for food production. However, little is known about Jatropha, and there are a number of challenges to be overcome. In fact, Jatropha has not really been domesticated; most of the Jatropha accessions are toxic, which renders the seedcake unsuitable for use as animal feed. The seeds of Jatropha contain high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which negatively impact the biofuel quality. Fruiting of Jatropha is fairly continuous, thus increasing costs of harvesting. Therefore, before starting any improvement program using conventional or molecular breeding techniques, understanding gene function and the genome scale of Jatropha are prerequisites. This review presents currently available and relevant information on the latest technologies (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics) to decipher important metabolic pathways within Jatropha, such as oil and toxin synthesis. Further, it discusses future directions for biotechnological approaches in Jatropha breeding and improvement. PMID:24092674

  10. Jatropha curcas, a biofuel crop: functional genomics for understanding metabolic pathways and genetic improvement.

    PubMed

    Maghuly, Fatemeh; Laimer, Margit

    2013-10-01

    Jatropha curcas is currently attracting much attention as an oilseed crop for biofuel, as Jatropha can grow under climate and soil conditions that are unsuitable for food production. However, little is known about Jatropha, and there are a number of challenges to be overcome. In fact, Jatropha has not really been domesticated; most of the Jatropha accessions are toxic, which renders the seedcake unsuitable for use as animal feed. The seeds of Jatropha contain high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which negatively impact the biofuel quality. Fruiting of Jatropha is fairly continuous, thus increasing costs of harvesting. Therefore, before starting any improvement program using conventional or molecular breeding techniques, understanding gene function and the genome scale of Jatropha are prerequisites. This review presents currently available and relevant information on the latest technologies (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics) to decipher important metabolic pathways within Jatropha, such as oil and toxin synthesis. Further, it discusses future directions for biotechnological approaches in Jatropha breeding and improvement. PMID:24092674

  11. From Genetics to Functional Genomics: Improvement in Drought Signaling and Tolerance in Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Budak, Hikmet; Hussain, Babar; Khan, Zaeema; Ozturk, Neslihan Z.; Ullah, Naimat

    2015-01-01

    Drought being a yield limiting factor has become a major threat to international food security. It is a complex trait and drought tolerance response is carried out by various genes, transcription factors (TFs), microRNAs (miRNAs), hormones, proteins, co-factors, ions, and metabolites. This complexity has limited the development of wheat cultivars for drought tolerance by classical breeding. However, attempts have been made to fill the lost genetic diversity by crossing wheat with wild wheat relatives. In recent years, several molecular markers including single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with genes for drought signaling pathways have been reported. Screening of large wheat collections by marker assisted selection (MAS) and transformation of wheat with different genes/TFs has improved drought signaling pathways and tolerance. Several miRNAs also provide drought tolerance to wheat by regulating various TFs/genes. Emergence of OMICS techniques including transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and ionomics has helped to identify and characterize the genes, proteins, metabolites, and ions involved in drought signaling pathways. Together, all these efforts helped in understanding the complex drought tolerance mechanism. Here, we have reviewed the advances in wide hybridization, MAS, QTL mapping, miRNAs, transgenic technique, genome editing system, and above mentioned functional genomics tools for identification and utility of signaling molecules for improvement in wheat drought tolerance. PMID:26635838

  12. Single Cell Functional Proteomics for Assessing Immune Response in Cancer Therapy: Technology, Methods, and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Chao; Fan, Rong; Elitas, Meltem

    2013-01-01

    In the past decade, significant progresses have taken place in the field of cancer immunotherapeutics, which are being developed for most human cancers. New immunotherapeutics, such as Ipilimumab (anti-CTLA-4), have been approved for clinical treatment; cell-based immunotherapies such as adoptive cell transfer (ACT) have either passed the final stage of human studies (e.g., Sipuleucel-T) for the treatment of selected neoplastic malignancies or reached the stage of phase II/III clinical trials. Immunotherapetics has become a sophisticated field. Multimodal therapeutic regimens comprising several functional modules (up to five in the case of ACT) have been developed to provide focused therapeutic responses with improved efficacy and reduced side-effects. However, a major challenge remains: the lack of effective and clinically applicable immune assessment methods. Due to the complexity of antitumor immune responses within patients, it is difficult to provide comprehensive assessment of therapeutic efficacy and mechanism. To address this challenge, new technologies have been developed to directly profile the cellular immune functions and the functional heterogeneity. With the goal to measure the functional proteomics of single immune cells, these technologies are informative, sensitive, high-throughput, and highly multiplex. They have been used to uncover new knowledge of cellular immune functions and have been utilized for rapid, informative, and longitudinal monitoring of immune response in clinical anti-cancer treatment. In addition, new computational tools are required to integrate high-dimensional data sets generated from the comprehensive, single cell level measurements of patient’s immune responses to guide accurate and definitive diagnostic decision. These single cell immune function assessment tools will likely contribute to new understanding of therapy mechanism, pre-treatment stratification of patients, and ongoing therapeutic monitoring and assessment

  13. Functional genomics of tomato: opportunities and challenges in post-genome NGS era.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rahul; Khurana, Ashima

    2014-12-01

    The Tomato Genome Sequencing Project represented a landmark venture in the history of sequencing projects where both Sanger's and next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies were employed, and a highly accurate and one of the best assembled plant genomes along with a draft of the wild relative, Solanum pimpinellifolium, were released in 2012. However, the functional potential of the major portion of this newly generated resource is still undefined. The very first challenge before scientists working on tomato functional biology is to exploit this high-quality reference sequence for tapping of the wealth of genetic variants for improving agronomic traits in cultivated tomatoes. The sequence data generated recently by 150 Tomato Genome Consortium would further uncover the natural alleles present in different tomato genotypes. Therefore, we found it relevant to have a fresh outlook on tomato functional genomics in the context of application of NGS technologies in its post-genome sequencing phase. Herein, we provide an overview how NGS technologies vis-a-vis available reference sequence have assisted each other for their mutual improvement and how their combined use could further facilitate the development of other 'omics' tools, required to propel the Solanaceae research. Additionally, we highlight the challenges associated with the application of these cutting-edge technologies. PMID:25431420

  14. Functional decorations: post-translational modifications and heart disease delineated by targeted proteomics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The more than 300 currently identified post-translational modifications (PTMs) provides great scope for subtle or dramatic alteration of protein structure and function. Furthermore, the rapid and transient nature of many PTMs allows efficient signal transmission in response to internal and environmental stimuli. PTMs are predominantly added by enzymes, and the enzymes responsible (such as kinases) are thus attractive targets for therapeutic interventions. Modifications can be grouped according to their stability or transience (reversible versus irreversible): irreversible types (such as irreversible redox modifications or protein deamidation) are often associated with aging or tissue injury, whereas transient modifications are associated with signal propagation and regulation. This is particularly important in the setting of heart disease, which comprises a diverse range of acute (such as ischemia/reperfusion), chronic (such as heart failure, dilated cardiomyopathy) and genetic (such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy) disease states, all of which have been associated with protein PTM. Recently the interplay between diverse PTMs has been suggested to also influence cellular function, with cooperation or competition for sites of modification possible. Here we discuss the utility of proteomics for examining PTMs in the context of the molecular mechanisms of heart disease. PMID:23445784

  15. The use of proteomics to study infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    List, E O; Berryman, D E; Bower, B; Sackmann-Sala, L; Gosney, E; Ding, J; Okada, S; Kopchick, J J

    2008-03-01

    Technology surrounding genomics, or the study of an organism's genome and its gene use, has advanced rapidly resulting in an abundance of readily available genomic data. Although genomics is extremely valuable, proteins are ultimately responsible for controlling most aspects of cellular function. The field of proteomics, or the study of the full array of proteins produced by an organism, has become the premier arena for the identification and characterization of proteins. Yet the task of characterizing a proteomic profile is more complex, in part because many unique proteins can be produced by the same gene product and because proteins have more diverse chemical structures making sequencing and identification more difficult. Proteomic profiles of a particular organism, tissue or cell are influenced by a variety of environmental stimuli, including those brought on by infectious disease. The intent of this review is to highlight applications of proteomics used in the study of pathogenesis, etiology and pathology of infectious disorders. While many infectious agents have been the target of proteomic studies, this review will focus on those infectious diseases which rank among the highest in worldwide mortalities, such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, measles, and hepatitis. PMID:18473905

  16. A predicted functional gene network for the plant pathogen Phytophthora infestans as a framework for genomic biology

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Associations between proteins are essential to understand cell biology. While this complex interplay between proteins has been studied in model organisms, it has not yet been described for the oomycete late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Results We present an integrative probabilistic functional gene network that provides associations for 37 percent of the predicted P. infestans proteome. Our method unifies available genomic, transcriptomic and comparative genomic data into a single comprehensive network using a Bayesian approach. Enrichment of proteins residing in the same or related subcellular localization validates the biological coherence of our predictions. The network serves as a framework to query existing genomic data using network-based methods, which thus far was not possible in Phytophthora. We used the network to study the set of interacting proteins that are encoded by genes co-expressed during sporulation. This identified potential novel roles for proteins in spore formation through their links to proteins known to be involved in this process such as the phosphatase Cdc14. Conclusions The functional association network represents a novel genome-wide data source for P. infestans that also acts as a framework to interrogate other system-wide data. In both capacities it will improve our understanding of the complex biology of P. infestans and related oomycete pathogens. PMID:23865555

  17. Genomic Functionalization: The Next Revolution In Biology

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Peter; Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Imbro, Paula M.

    2014-07-01

    We have implemented a ligand-alignment algorithm into our developed computational pipeline for identifying specificity-determining features (SDFs) in protein-ligand complexes. Given a set of protein-ligand complex structures, the algorithm aligns the complexes by ligand rather than by the C -RMSD or standard approach, providing a single reference frame for extracting SDFs. We anticipate that this ligand-alignment capability will be highly useful for protein function prediction. We already have a database containing > 20 K ligand-protein complex crystal structures taken from the Protein Data Bank. By aligning these proteins to single reference frames using ligand alignment, we can submit the complexes to our pipeline for SDF extraction. The SDFs derived from this training procedure can be used as thumbprints that are hallmarks of individual enzyme classes. These SDF thumbprints may then serve as guides to the prediction of function of new unknown proteins.

  18. Using proteomics to study sexual reproduction in angiosperms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While a relative latecomer to the post-genomics era of functional biology, the application of mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis has increased exponentially over the past 10 years. Some of this increase is the result of transition of chemists physicists, and mathematicians to the study of ...

  19. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN PROTEOMICS: IMPLICATIONS FOR DAIRY PROTEIN RESEARCH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteomics, the systematic study of the identities, quantities, structures, and biochemical and cellular functions of all proteins in a cell, tissue or organism, promised a rapid transformation for biological and medical research in the post-genomic era. Tremendous progress has been made over the pa...

  20. Genomic and Proteomic Profiles Reveal the Association of Gelsolin to TP53 Status and Bladder Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Carbayo, Marta; Socci, Nicholas D.; Richstone, Lee; Corton, Marta; Behrendt, Nille; Wulkfuhle, Julia; Bochner, Bernard; Petricoin, Emmanuel; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    Bladder cancer transformation and immortalization require the inactivation of key regulatory genes, including TP53. Genotyping of a large cohort of bladder cancer patients (n = 256) using the TP53 GeneChip showed mutations in 103 cases (40.2%), the majority of them mapping to the DNA-binding core domain. TP53 mutation status was significantly associated with tumor stage (P = 0.0001) and overall survival for patients with advanced disease (P = 0.01). Transcript profiling using oligonucleotide arrays was performed on a subset of these cases (n = 46). Supervised analyses identified genes differentially expressed between invasive bladder tumors with wild-type (n = 24) and mutated TP53 (n = 22). Pathway analyses of top-ranked genes supported the central role of TP53 in the functional network of such gene patterns. A proteomic strategy using reverse phase arrays with protein extracts of bladder cancer cell lines validated the association of identified differentially expressed genes, such as gelsolin, to TP53 status. Immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays (n = 294) revealed that gelsolin was associated with tumor stage and overall survival, correlating positively with TP53 status in a subset of these patients. This study further reveals that TP53 mutations are frequent events in bladder cancer progression and identified gelsolin related to TP53 status, tumor staging, and clinical outcome by independent high-throughput strategies. PMID:17982131

  1. Genomics and proteomics of immune modulatory effects of a butanol fraction of echinacea purpurea in human dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chien-Yu; Staniforth, Vanisree; Chiao, Ming-Tsang; Hou, Chia-Chung; Wu, Han-Ming; Yeh, Kuo-Chen; Chen, Chun-Houh; Hwang, Pei-Ing; Wen, Tuan-Nan; Shyur, Lie-Fen; Yang, Ning-Sun

    2008-01-01

    Background Echinacea spp. extracts and the derived phytocompounds have been shown to induce specific immune cell activities and are popularly used as food supplements or nutraceuticals for immuno-modulatory functions. Dendritic cells (DCs), the most potent antigen presenting cells, play an important role in both innate and adaptive immunities. In this study, we investigated the specific and differential gene expression in human immature DCs (iDCs) in response to treatment with a butanol fraction containing defined bioactive phytocompounds extracted from stems and leaves of Echinacea purpurea, that we denoted [BF/S+L/Ep]. Results Affymetrix DNA microarray results showed significant up regulation of specific genes for cytokines (IL-8, IL-1β, and IL-18) and chemokines (CXCL 2, CCL 5, and CCL 2) within 4 h after [BF/S+L/Ep] treatment of iDCs. Bioinformatics analysis of genes expressed in [BF/S+L/Ep]-treated DCs revealed a key-signaling network involving a number of immune-modulatory molecules leading to the activation of a downstream molecule, adenylate cyclase 8. Proteomic analysis showed increased expression of antioxidant and cytoskeletal proteins after treatment with [BF/S+L/Ep] and cichoric acid. Conclusion This study provides information on candidate target molecules and molecular signaling mechanisms for future systematic research into the immune-modulatory activities of an important traditional medicinal herb and its derived phytocompounds. PMID:18847511

  2. Functional genomic response of apple to fire blight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this project is to use a functional genomic analysis to characterize the response of apple (Malus x domestica) to fire blight disease and in doing so, identify new opportunities for improving fire blight resistance. cDNA suppression subtractive hybridization and cDNA-AFLP analysis were ...

  3. Performing integrative functional genomics analysis in GeneWeaver.org.

    PubMed

    Jay, Jeremy J; Chesler, Elissa J

    2014-01-01

    Functional genomics experiments and analyses give rise to large sets of results, each typically quantifying the relation of molecular entities including genes, gene products, polymorphisms, and other genomic features with biological characteristics or processes. There is tremendous utility and value in using these data in an integrative fashion to find convergent evidence for the role of genes in various processes, to identify functionally similar molecular entities, or to compare processes based on their genomic correlates. However, these gene-centered data are often deposited in diverse and non-interoperable stores. Therefore, integration requires biologists to implement computational algorithms and harmonization of gene identifiers both within and across species. The GeneWeaver web-based software system brings together a large data archive from diverse functional genomics data with a suite of combinatorial tools in an interactive environment. Account management features allow data and results to be shared among user-defined groups. Users can retrieve curated gene set data, upload, store, and share their own experimental results and perform integrative analyses including novel algorithmic approaches for set-set integration of genes and functions. PMID:24233775

  4. Development of a TILLING Population for Sorghum Functional Genomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The need for a systematically mutagenized population to link gene function to sequence is becoming increasingly urgent as the sorghum genome sequencing is completed. A project was initiated to generate Annotated Individually-pedigreed Mutagenized Sorghum (AIMS) lines using (EMS) ethyl methane sulf...

  5. New structural and functional defects in polyphosphate deficient bacteria: A cellular and proteomic study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP), a polymer of tens or hundreds of phosphate residues linked by ATP-like bonds, is found in all organisms and performs a wide variety of functions. PolyP is synthesized in bacterial cells by the actions of polyphosphate kinases (PPK1 and PPK2) and degraded by exopolyphosphatase (PPX). Bacterial cells with polyP deficiencies due to knocking out the ppk1 gene are affected in many structural and important cellular functions such as motility, quorum sensing, biofilm formation and virulence among others. The cause of this pleiotropy is not entirely understood. Results The overexpression of exopolyphosphatase in bacteria mimicked some pleitropic defects found in ppk1 mutants. By using this approach we found new structural and functional defects in the polyP-accumulating bacteria Pseudomonas sp. B4, which are most likely due to differences in the polyP-removal strategy. Colony morphology phenotype, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) structure changes and cellular division malfunction were observed. Finally, we used comparative proteomics in order to elucidate the cellular adjustments that occurred during polyP deficiency in this bacterium and found some clues that helped to understand the structural and functional defects observed. Conclusions The results obtained suggest that during polyP deficiency energy metabolism and particularly nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) formation were affected and that bacterial cells overcame this problem by increasing the flux of energy-generating metabolic pathways such as tricarboxilic acid (TCA) cycle, β-oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation and by reducing energy-consuming ones such as active transporters and amino acid biosynthesis. Furthermore, our results suggest that a general stress response also took place in the cell during polyP deficiency. PMID:20067623

  6. Resurrection of DNA function in vivo from an extinct genome.

    PubMed

    Pask, Andrew J; Behringer, Richard R; Renfree, Marilyn B

    2008-01-01

    There is a burgeoning repository of information available from ancient DNA that can be used to understand how genomes have evolved and to determine the genetic features that defined a particular species. To assess the functional consequences of changes to a genome, a variety of methods are needed to examine extinct DNA function. We isolated a transcriptional enhancer element from the genome of an extinct marsupial, the Tasmanian tiger (Thylacinus cynocephalus or thylacine), obtained from 100 year-old ethanol-fixed tissues from museum collections. We then examined the function of the enhancer in vivo. Using a transgenic approach, it was possible to resurrect DNA function in transgenic mice. The results demonstrate that the thylacine Col2A1 enhancer directed chondrocyte-specific expression in this extinct mammalian species in the same way as its orthologue does in mice. While other studies have examined extinct coding DNA function in vitro, this is the first example of the restoration of extinct non-coding DNA and examination of its function in vivo. Our method using transgenesis can be used to explore the function of regulatory and protein-coding sequences obtained from any extinct species in an in vivo model system, providing important insights into gene evolution and diversity. PMID:18493600

  7. Resurrection of DNA Function In Vivo from an Extinct Genome

    PubMed Central

    Pask, Andrew J.; Behringer, Richard R.; Renfree, Marilyn B.

    2008-01-01

    There is a burgeoning repository of information available from ancient DNA that can be used to understand how genomes have evolved and to determine the genetic features that defined a particular species. To assess the functional consequences of changes to a genome, a variety of methods are needed to examine extinct DNA function. We isolated a transcriptional enhancer element from the genome of an extinct marsupial, the Tasmanian tiger (Thylacinus cynocephalus or thylacine), obtained from 100 year-old ethanol-fixed tissues from museum collections. We then examined the function of the enhancer in vivo. Using a transgenic approach, it was possible to resurrect DNA function in transgenic mice. The results demonstrate that the thylacine Col2A1 enhancer directed chondrocyte-specific expression in this extinct mammalian species in the same way as its orthologue does in mice. While other studies have examined extinct coding DNA function in vitro, this is the first example of the restoration of extinct non-coding DNA and examination of its function in vivo. Our method using transgenesis can be used to explore the function of regulatory and protein-coding sequences obtained from any extinct species in an in vivo model system, providing important insights into gene evolution and diversity. PMID:18493600

  8. Proteomic analysis of chromoplasts from six crop species reveals insights into chromoplast function and development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chromoplasts are unique plastids that accumulate massive amounts of carotenoids. To gain a general and comparative characterization of chromoplast proteins, we performed proteomic analysis of chromoplasts from six carotenoid-rich crops: watermelon, tomato, carrot, orange cauliflower, red papaya, and...

  9. The functional matrix hypothesis revisited. 3. The genomic thesis.

    PubMed

    Moss, M L

    1997-09-01

    Although the initial versions of the functional matrix hypothesis (FMH) theoretically posited the ontogenetic primacy of "function," it is only in recent years that advances in the morphogenetic, engineering, and computer sciences provided an integrated experimental and numerical data base that permitted recent significant revisions of the FMH--revisions that strongly support the primary role of function in craniofacial growth and development. Acknowledging that the currently dominant scientific paradigm suggests that genomic, instead of epigenetic (functional) factors, regulate (cause, control) such growth, an analysis of this continuing controversy was deemed useful. Accordingly the method of dialectical analysis, is employed, stating a thesis, an antithesis, and a resolving synthesis based primarily on an extensive review of the pertinent current literature. This article extensively reviews the genomic hypothesis and offers a critique intended to remove some of the unintentional conceptual obscurantism that has recently come to surround it. PMID:9294365

  10. Application of Proteomics to Soft Tissue Sarcomas

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Tadashi; Kubota, Daisuke; Kawai, Akira

    2012-01-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas are rare and account for less than 1% of all malignant cancers. Other than development of intensive therapies, the clinical outcome of patients with soft tissue sarcoma remains very poor, particularly when diagnosed at a late stage. Unique mutations have been associated with certain soft tissue sarcomas, but their etiologies remain unknown. The proteome is a functional translation of a genome, which directly regulates the malignant features of tumors. Thus, proteomics is a promising approach for investigating soft tissue sarcomas. Various proteomic approaches and clinical materials have been used to address clinical and biological issues, including biomarker development, molecular target identification, and study of disease mechanisms. Several cancer-associated proteins have been identified using conventional technologies such as 2D-PAGE, mass spectrometry, and array technology. The functional backgrounds of proteins identified were assessed extensively using in vitro experiments, thus supporting expression analysis. These observations demonstrate the applicability of proteomics to soft tissue sarcoma studies. However, the sample size in each study was insufficient to allow conclusive results. Given the low frequency of soft tissue sarcomas, multi-institutional collaborations are required to validate the results of proteomic approaches. PMID:22778956

  11. A Functional Genomics Approach to Tanshinone Biosynthesis Provides Stereochemical Insights

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Tanshinones are abietane-type norditerpenoid quinone natural products that are the bioactive components of the Chinese medicinal herb Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. The initial results from a functional genomics-based investigation of tanshinone biosynthesis, specifically the functional identification of the relevant diterpene synthases from S. miltiorrhiza, are reported. The cyclohexa-1,4-diene arrangement of the distal ring poises the resulting miltiradiene for the ensuing aromatization and hydroxylation to ferruginol suggested for tanshinone biosynthesis. PMID:19905026

  12. A functional genomics approach to tanshinone biosynthesis provides stereochemical insights.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wei; Hillwig, Matthew L; Huang, Luqi; Cui, Guanghong; Wang, Xueyong; Kong, Jianqiang; Yang, Bin; Peters, Reuben J

    2009-11-19

    Tanshinones are abietane-type norditerpenoid quinone natural products that are the bioactive components of the Chinese medicinal herb Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. The initial results from a functional genomics-based investigation of tanshinone biosynthesis, specifically the functional identification of the relevant diterpene synthases from S. miltiorrhiza, are reported. The cyclohexa-1,4-diene arrangement of the distal ring poises the resulting miltiradiene for the ensuing aromatization and hydroxylation to ferruginol suggested for tanshinone biosynthesis. PMID:19905026

  13. Quantitative proteomics in Giardia duodenalis-Achievements and challenges.

    PubMed

    Emery, Samantha J; Lacey, Ernest; Haynes, Paul A

    2016-08-01

    Giardia duodenalis (syn. G. lamblia and G. intestinalis) is a protozoan parasite of vertebrates and a major contributor to the global burden of diarrheal diseases and gastroenteritis. The publication of multiple genome sequences in the G. duodenalis species complex has provided important insights into parasite biology, and made post-genomic technologies, including proteomics, significantly more accessible. The aims of proteomics are to identify and quantify proteins present in a cell, and assign functions to them within the context of dynamic biological systems. In Giardia, proteomics in the post-genomic era has transitioned from reliance on gel-based systems to utilisation of a diverse array of techniques based on bottom-up LC-MS/MS technologies. Together, these have generated crucial foundations for subcellular proteomes, elucidated intra- and inter-assemblage isolate variation, and identified pathways and markers in differentiation, host-parasite interactions and drug resistance. However, in Giardia, proteomics remains an emerging field, with considerable shortcomings evident from the published research. These include a bias towards assemblage A, a lack of emphasis on quantitative analytical techniques, and limited information on post-translational protein modifications. Additionally, there are multiple areas of research for which proteomic data is not available to add value to published transcriptomic data. The challenge of amalgamating data in the systems biology paradigm necessitates the further generation of large, high-quality quantitative datasets to accurately model parasite biology. This review surveys the current proteomic research available for Giardia and evaluates their technical and quantitative approaches, while contextualising their biological insights into parasite pathology, isolate variation and eukaryotic evolution. Finally, we propose areas of priority for the generation of future proteomic data to explore fundamental questions in Giardia

  14. Functional Classification of Cellular Proteome Profiles Support the Identification of Drug Resistance Signatures in Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Drug resistance is a major obstacle in melanoma treatment. Recognition of specific resistance patterns, the understanding of the patho-physiology of drug resistance, and identification of remaining options for individual melanoma treatment would greatly improve therapeutic success. We performed mass spectrometry-based proteome profiling of A375 melanoma cells and HeLa cells characterized as sensitive to cisplatin in comparison to cisplatin resistant M24met and TMFI melanoma cells. Cells were fractionated into cytoplasm, nuclei and secretome and the proteome profiles classified according to Gene Ontology. The cisplatin resistant cells displayed increased expression of lysosomal as well as Ca2+ ion binding and cell adherence proteins. These findings were confirmed using Lysotracker Red staining and cell adhesion assays with a panel of extracellular matrix proteins. To discriminate specific survival proteins, we selected constitutively expressed proteins of resistant M24met cells which were found expressed upon challenging the sensitive A375 cells. Using the CPL/MUW proteome database, the selected lysosomal, cell adherence and survival proteins apparently specifying resistant cells were narrowed down to 47 proteins representing a potential resistance signature. These were tested against our proteomics database comprising more than 200 different cell types/cell states for its predictive power. We provide evidence that this signature enables the automated assignment of resistance features as readout from proteome profiles of any human cell type. Proteome profiling and bioinformatic processing may thus support the understanding of drug resistance mechanism, eventually guiding patient tailored therapy. PMID:23713901

  15. Elucidating the Molecular Basis and Regulation of Chromium (VI) Reduction by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 Using Biochemical, Genomic, and Proteomic Approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Hettich, Robert L.

    2006-10-30

    Although microbial metal reduction has been investigated intensively from physiological and biochemical perspectives, little is known about the genetic basis and regulatory mechanisms underlying the ability of certain bacteria to transform, detoxify, or immobilize a wide array of heavy metals contaminating DOE-relevant environments. The major goal of this work is to elucidate the molecular components comprising the chromium(VI) response pathway, with an emphasis on components involved in Cr(VI) detoxification and the enzyme complex catalyzing the terminal step in Cr(VI) reduction by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. We have identified and characterized (in the case of DNA-binding response regulator [SO2426] and a putative azoreductase [SO3585]) the genes and gene products involved in the molecular response of MR-1 to chromium(VI) stress using whole-genome sequence information for MR-1 and recently developed proteomic technology, in particular liquid chromatographymass spectrometry (LC-MS), in conjunction with conventional protein purification and characterization techniques. The proteome datasets were integrated with information from whole-genome expression arrays for S. oneidensis MR-1 (as illustrated in Figure 1). The genes and their encoded products identified in this study are of value in understanding metal reduction and bacterial resistance to metal toxicity and in developing effective metal immobilization strategies.

  16. Functional specifications of an integrated proteomics information management and analysis platform.

    PubMed

    Tsiknakis, M; Grangeat, P; Binz, P-A; Potamias, G; Lisacek, F; Gerfault, L; Paulus, C; Manakanatas, D; Kritsotakis, V; Kondylakis, H; Perez, M; Plexousakis, D; Kaforou, S; Kafetzopoulos, D

    2007-01-01

    Detecting proteins in human blood holds the promise of a revolution in cancer diagnosis. Also, the ability to perform laboratory operations on small scales using miniaturized (lab-on-a-chip) devices has many benefits. Designing and fabricating such systems is extremely challenging, but physicists and engineers are beginning to construct such highly integrated and compact labs on chips with exciting functionality. This paper focuses on the presentation of the requirements of the information technology layer in such an integrated platform been developed in the LOCCANDIA project. LOCCANDIA is a Specific Targeted Research project (STREP) funded under the 6th Framework program of the EC. Its ultimate objective is to develop an innovative nano-technology based (lab-on-a-chip) platform for the medical-proeomics field. The paper presents the main engineering aspects, challenges and architecture for creating an Integrated Clinico-Proteomic Environment. The environment will be used to monitor and document the analysis and discovery chain and to allow the physician to interpret the digital spectrogram data delivered by the mass spectrometer, for diagnostic purposes. PMID:18003398

  17. Proteomic characterization of the whole secretome of Legionella pneumophila and functional analysis of outer membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Galka, Frank; Wai, Sun Nyunt; Kusch, Harald; Engelmann, Susanne; Hecker, Michael; Schmeck, Bernd; Hippenstiel, Stefan; Uhlin, Bernt Eric; Steinert, Michael

    2008-05-01

    Secretion of effector molecules is one of the major mechanisms by which the intracellular human pathogen Legionella pneumophila interacts with host cells during infection. Specific secretion machineries which are responsible for the subfraction of secreted proteins (soluble supernatant proteins [SSPs]) and the production of bacterial outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) both contribute to the protein composition of the extracellular milieu of this lung pathogen. Here we present comprehensive proteome reference maps for both SSPs and OMVs. Protein identification and assignment analyses revealed a total of 181 supernatant proteins, 107 of which were specific to the SSP fraction and 33 of which were specific to OMVs. A functional classification showed that a large proportion of the identified OMV proteins are involved in the pathogenesis of Legionnaires' disease. Zymography and enzyme assays demonstrated that the SSP and OMV fractions possess proteolytic and lipolytic enzyme activities which may contribute to the destruction of the alveolar lining during infection. Furthermore, it was shown that OMVs do not kill host cells but specifically modulate their cytokine response. Binding of immunofluorescently stained OMVs to alveolar epithelial cells, as visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy, suggested that there is delivery of a large and complex group of proteins and lipids in the infected tissue in association with OMVs. On the basis of these new findings, we discuss the relevance of protein sorting and compartmentalization of virulence factors, as well as environmental aspects of the vesicle-mediated secretion. PMID:18250176

  18. Proteomics profiling reveals novel proteins and functions of the plant stigma exudate

    PubMed Central

    Rejón, Juan David; Delalande, François; Castro, Antonio Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Proteomic analysis of the stigmatic exudate of Lilium longiflorum and Olea europaea led to the identification of 51 and 57 proteins, respectively, most of which are described for the first time in this secreted fluid. These results indicate that the stigmatic exudate is an extracellular environment metabolically active, participating in at least 80 different biological processes and 97 molecular functions. The stigma exudate showed a markedly catabolic profile and appeared to possess the enzyme machinery necessary to degrade large polysaccharides and lipids secreted by papillae to smaller units, allowing their incorporation into the pollen tube during pollination. It may also regulate pollen-tube growth in the pistil through the selective degradation of tube-wall components. Furthermore, some secreted proteins were involved in pollen-tube adhesion and orientation, as well as in programmed cell death of the papillae cells in response to either compatible pollination or incompatible pollen rejection. Finally, the results also revealed a putative cross-talk between genetic programmes regulating stress/defence and pollination responses in the stigma. PMID:24151302

  19. Functional Differentiation of Bundle Sheath and Mesophyll Maize Chloroplasts Determined by Comparative ProteomicsW⃞

    PubMed Central

    Majeran, Wojciech; Cai, Yang; Sun, Qi; van Wijk, Klaas J.

    2005-01-01

    Chloroplasts of maize (Zea mays) leaves differentiate into specific bundle sheath (BS) and mesophyll (M) types to accommodate C4 photosynthesis. Consequences for other plastid functions are not well understood but are addressed here through a quantitative comparative proteome analysis of purified M and BS chloroplast stroma. Three independent techniques were used, including cleavable stable isotope coded affinity tags. Enzymes involved in lipid biosynthesis, nitrogen import, and tetrapyrrole and isoprenoid biosynthesis are preferentially located in the M chloroplasts. By contrast, enzymes involved in starch synthesis and sulfur import preferentially accumulate in BS chloroplasts. The different soluble antioxidative systems, in particular peroxiredoxins, accumulate at higher levels in M chloroplasts. We also observed differential accumulation of proteins involved in expression of plastid-encoded proteins (e.g., EF-Tu, EF-G, and mRNA binding proteins) and thylakoid formation (VIPP1), whereas others were equally distributed. Enzymes related to the C4 shuttle, the carboxylation and regeneration phase of the Calvin cycle, and several regulators (e.g., CP12) distributed as expected. However, enzymes involved in triose phosphate reduction and triose phosphate isomerase are primarily located in the M chloroplasts, indicating that the M-localized triose phosphate shuttle should be viewed as part of the BS-localized Calvin cycle, rather than a parallel pathway. PMID:16243905

  20. Two novel temperate bacteriophages co-existing in Aeromonas sp. ARM81 - characterization of their genomes, proteomes and DNA methyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Dziewit, Lukasz; Radlinska, Monika

    2016-08-01

    Aeromonas species are causative agents of a wide spectrum of diseases in animals and humans. Although these bacteria are commonly found in various environments, little is known about their phages. Thus far, only one temperate Aeromonas phage has been characterized. Whole-genome sequencing of an Aeromonas sp. strain ARM81 revealed the presence of two prophage clusters. One of them is integrated into the chromosome and the other was maintained as an extrachromosomal, linear plasmid-like prophage encoding a protelomerase. Both prophages were artificially and spontaneously inducible. We separately isolated both phages and compared their genomes with other known viruses. The novel phages show no similarity to the previously characterized Aeromonas phages and might represent new evolutionary lineages of viruses infecting Aeromonadaceae. Apart from the comparative genomic analyses of these phages, complemented with their structural and molecular characterization, a functional analysis of four DNA methyltransferases encoded by these viruses was conducted. One of the investigated N6-adenine-modifying enzymes shares sequence specificity with a Dam-like methyltransferase of its bacterial host, while another one is non-specific, as it catalyzes adenine methylation in various sequence contexts. The presented results shed new light on the diversity of Aeromonas temperate phages. PMID:27184451

  1. Trans-Proteomic Pipeline, a standardized data processing pipeline for large-scale reproducible proteomics informatics

    PubMed Central

    Deutsch, Eric W.; Mendoza, Luis; Shteynberg, David; Slagel, Joseph; Sun, Zhi; Moritz, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Democratization of genomics technologies has enabled the rapid determination of genotypes. More recently the democratization of comprehensive proteomics technologies is enabling the determination of the cellular phenotype and the molecular events that define its dynamic state. Core proteomic technologies include mass spectrometry to define protein sequence, protein:protein interactions, and protein post-translational modifications. Key enabling technologies for proteomics are bioinformatic pipelines to identify, quantitate, and summarize these events. The Trans-Proteomics Pipeline (TPP) is a robust open-source standardized data processing pipeline for large-scale reproducible quantitative mass spectrometry proteomics. It supports all major operating systems and instrument vendors via open data formats. Here we provide a review of the overall proteomics workflow supported by the TPP, its major tools, and how it can be used in its various modes from desktop to cloud computing. We describe new features for the TPP, including data visualization functionality. We conclude by describing some common perils that affect the analysis of tandem mass spectrometry datasets, as well as some major upcoming features. PMID:25631240

  2. Trans-Proteomic Pipeline, a standardized data processing pipeline for large-scale reproducible proteomics informatics.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Eric W; Mendoza, Luis; Shteynberg, David; Slagel, Joseph; Sun, Zhi; Moritz, Robert L

    2015-08-01

    Democratization of genomics technologies has enabled the rapid determination of genotypes. More recently the democratization of comprehensive proteomics technologies is enabling the determination of the cellular phenotype and the molecular events that define its dynamic state. Core proteomic technologies include MS to define protein sequence, protein:protein interactions, and protein PTMs. Key enabling technologies for proteomics are bioinformatic pipelines to identify, quantitate, and summarize these events. The Trans-Proteomics Pipeline (TPP) is a robust open-source standardized data processing pipeline for large-scale reproducible quantitative MS proteomics. It supports all major operating systems and instrument vendors via open data formats. Here, we provide a review of the overall proteomics workflow supported by the TPP, its major tools, and how it can be used in its various modes from desktop to cloud computing. We describe new features for the TPP, including data visualization functionality. We conclude by describing some common perils that affect the analysis of MS/MS datasets, as well as some major upcoming features. PMID:25631240

  3. Proteomic analysis of FUS interacting proteins provides insights into FUS function and its role in ALS.

    PubMed

    Kamelgarn, Marisa; Chen, Jing; Kuang, Lisha; Arenas, Alexandra; Zhai, Jianjun; Zhu, Haining; Gal, Jozsef

    2016-10-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease. Mutations in the Fused in Sarcoma/Translocated in Liposarcoma (FUS/TLS) gene cause a subset of familial ALS cases and are also implicated in sporadic ALS. FUS is typically localized to the nucleus. The ALS-related FUS mutations cause cytoplasmic mis-localization and the formation of stress granule-like structures. Abnormal cytoplasmic FUS localization was also found in a subset of frontotemporal dementia (FTLD) cases without FUS mutations. To better understand the function of FUS, we performed wild-type and mutant FUS pull-downs followed by proteomic identification of the interacting proteins. The FUS interacting partners we identified are involved in multiple pathways, including chromosomal organization, transcription, RNA splicing, RNA transport, localized translation, and stress response. FUS interacted with hnRNPA1 and Matrin-3, RNA binding proteins whose mutations were also reported to cause familial ALS, suggesting that hnRNPA1 and Matrin-3 may play common pathogenic roles with FUS. The FUS interactions displayed varied RNA dependence. Numerous FUS interacting partners that we identified are components of exosomes. We found that FUS itself was present in exosomes, suggesting that the secretion of FUS might contribute to the cell-to-cell spreading of FUS pathology. FUS interacting proteins were sequestered into the cytoplasmic mutant FUS inclusions that could lead to their mis-regulation or loss of function, contributing to ALS pathogenesis. Our results provide insights into the physiological functions of FUS as well as important pathways where mutant FUS can interfere with cellular processes and potentially contribute to the pathogenesis of ALS. PMID:27460707

  4. Functional Status and Inflammation after Preseason Training Program in Professional and Recreational Soccer Players: a Proteomic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Sánchez, Francisco J.; Villalón, José María; Zamorano-León, José J.; Rosas, Luis Fernández; Proietti, Ricardo; Mateos-Caceres, Petra J.; González-Armengol, Juan J.; Villarroel, Pedro; Macaya, Carlos; López-Farré, Antonio J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine if an intensive pre- season training program modifies the inflammatory status in professional soccer players and if this inflammatory profile may be associated with the physical state. We compared plasma protein biomarkers, using proteomics, and the physiological state and cardiac function in 12 professional soccer players and 9 recreational soccer players. Reduced cardiac low frequency [LF] after the pre- season training program previous competition with respect to recreational soccer players was found. No differences were found in cardiac high frequency, cardiac high frequency/low frequency ratio, tension index and oxygen volume consumption. Alpha-1-antitrypsin isotype-3, fibrinogen-gamma isotypes-1, 2 and 3 and vitamin-D-binding protein isotype-1 were reduced in professionals players compared with those in recreational players. However, an increased content of alpha-1-antitrypsin isotype-6 and alpha-1-antichymotrypsin 1 and 4 were found in professional soccer players. Spearman’s analysis showed a positive correlation between LF and fibrinogen-gamma chain isotype 3; but LF was negatively correlated with alpha-antichymotrypsin isotype 4. Professional soccer players submitted to an intensive training showed differences in the content of plasma proteins associated with inflammatory/oxidative stress and thrombosis with respect to recreational soccer players. Proteomics analysis in combination with the analysis of cardiac function assessment may be useful to know more in depth molecular processes associated with sport and intensive exercise. Key points Proteomics allow us to find differences in the plasma protein content in sportsmen. Just after pre-season training program, professional soccer players showed lower content of circulating proteins associated with inflammation compared to recreational soccer players. Proteomic analysis in combination with the analysis of cardiac function may be useful to know more in depth

  5. Functional status and inflammation after preseason training program in professional and recreational soccer players: a proteomic approach.

    PubMed

    Martín-Sánchez, Francisco J; Villalón, José María; Zamorano-León, José J; Rosas, Luis Fernández; Proietti, Ricardo; Mateos-Caceres, Petra J; González-Armengol, Juan J; Villarroel, Pedro; Macaya, Carlos; López-Farré, Antonio J

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine if an intensive pre- season training program modifies the inflammatory status in professional soccer players and if this inflammatory profile may be associated with the physical state. We compared plasma protein biomarkers, using proteomics, and the physiological state and cardiac function in 12 professional soccer players and 9 recreational soccer players. Reduced cardiac low frequency [LF] after the pre- season training program previous competition with respect to recreational soccer players was found. No differences were found in cardiac high frequency, cardiac high frequency/low frequency ratio, tension index and oxygen volume consumption. Alpha-1-antitrypsin isotype-3, fibrinogen-gamma isotypes-1, 2 and 3 and vitamin-D-binding protein isotype-1 were reduced in professionals players compared with those in recreational players. However, an increased content of alpha-1-antitrypsin isotype-6 and alpha-1-antichymotrypsin 1 and 4 were found in professional soccer players. Spearman's analysis showed a positive correlation between LF and fibrinogen-gamma chain isotype 3; but LF was negatively correlated with alpha-antichymotrypsin isotype 4. Professional soccer players submitted to an intensive training showed differences in the content of plasma proteins associated with inflammatory/oxidative stress and thrombosis with respect to recreational soccer players. Proteomics analysis in combination with the analysis of cardiac function assessment may be useful to know more in depth molecular processes associated with sport and intensive exercise. Key pointsProteomics allow us to find differences in the plasma protein content in sportsmen.Just after pre-season training program, professional soccer players showed lower content of circulating proteins associated with inflammation compared to recreational soccer players.Proteomic analysis in combination with the analysis of cardiac function may be useful to know more in depth molecular

  6. A New System for Comparative Functional Genomics of Saccharomyces Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Caudy, Amy A.; Guan, Yuanfang; Jia, Yue; Hansen, Christina; DeSevo, Chris; Hayes, Alicia P.; Agee, Joy; Alvarez-Dominguez, Juan R.; Arellano, Hugo; Barrett, Daniel; Bauerle, Cynthia; Bisaria, Namita; Bradley, Patrick H.; Breunig, J. Scott; Bush, Erin; Cappel, David; Capra, Emily; Chen, Walter; Clore, John; Combs, Peter A.; Doucette, Christopher; Demuren, Olukunle; Fellowes, Peter; Freeman, Sam; Frenkel, Evgeni; Gadala-Maria, Daniel; Gawande, Richa; Glass, David; Grossberg, Samuel; Gupta, Anita; Hammonds-Odie, Latanya; Hoisos, Aaron; Hsi, Jenny; Hsu, Yu-Han Huang; Inukai, Sachi; Karczewski, Konrad J.; Ke, Xiaobo; Kojima, Mina; Leachman, Samuel; Lieber, Danny; Liebowitz, Anna; Liu, Julia; Liu, Yufei; Martin, Trevor; Mena, Jose; Mendoza, Rosa; Myhrvold, Cameron; Millian, Christian; Pfau, Sarah; Raj, Sandeep; Rich, Matt; Rokicki, Joe; Rounds, William; Salazar, Michael; Salesi, Matthew; Sharma, Rajani; Silverman, Sanford; Singer, Cara; Sinha, Sandhya; Staller, Max; Stern, Philip; Tang, Hanlin; Weeks, Sharon; Weidmann, Maxwell; Wolf, Ashley; Young, Carmen; Yuan, Jie; Crutchfield, Christopher; McClean, Megan; Murphy, Coleen T.; Llinás, Manuel; Botstein, David; Troyanskaya, Olga G.; Dunham, Maitreya J.

    2013-01-01

    Whole-genome sequencing, particularly in fungi, has progressed at a tremendous rate. More difficult, however, is experimental testing of the inferences about gene function that can be drawn from comparative sequence analysis alone. We present a genome-wide functional characterization of a sequenced but experimentally understudied budding yeast, Saccharomyces bayanus var. uvarum (henceforth referred to as S. bayanus), allowing us to map changes over the 20 million years that separate this organism from S. cerevisiae. We first created a suite of genetic tools to facilitate work in S. bayanus. Next, we measured the gene-expression response of S. bayanus to a diverse set of perturbations optimized using a computational approach to cover a diverse array of functionally relevant biological responses. The resulting data set reveals that gene-expression patterns are largely conserved, but significant changes may exist in regulatory networks such as carbohydrate utilization and meiosis. In addition to regulatory changes, our approach identified gene functions that have diverged. The functions of genes in core pathways are highly conserved, but we observed many changes in which genes are involved in osmotic stress, peroxisome biogenesis, and autophagy. A surprising number of genes specific to S. bayanus respond to oxidative stress, suggesting the organism may have evolved under different selection pressures than S. cerevisiae. This work expands the scope of genome-scale evolutionary studies from sequence-based analysis to rapid experimental characterization and could be adopted for functional mapping in any lineage of interest. Furthermore, our detailed characterization of S. bayanus provides a valuable resource for comparative functional genomics studies in yeast. PMID:23852385

  7. Genomic islands predict functional adaptation in marine actinobacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Penn, Kevin; Jenkins, Caroline; Nett, Markus; Udwary, Daniel; Gontang, Erin; McGlinchey, Ryan; Foster, Brian; Lapidus, Alla; Podell, Sheila; Allen, Eric; Moore, Bradley; Jensen, Paul

    2009-04-01

    Linking functional traits to bacterial phylogeny remains a fundamental but elusive goal of microbial ecology 1. Without this information, it becomes impossible to resolve meaningful units of diversity and the mechanisms by which bacteria interact with each other and adapt to environmental change. Ecological adaptations among bacterial populations have been linked to genomic islands, strain-specific regions of DNA that house functionally adaptive traits 2. In the case of environmental bacteria, these traits are largely inferred from bioinformatic or gene expression analyses 2, thus leaving few examples in which the functions of island genes have been experimentally characterized. Here we report the complete genome sequences of Salinispora tropica and S. arenicola, the first cultured, obligate marine Actinobacteria 3. These two species inhabit benthic marine environments and dedicate 8-10percent of their genomes to the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. Despite a close phylogenetic relationship, 25 of 37 secondary metabolic pathways are species-specific and located within 21 genomic islands, thus providing new evidence linking secondary metabolism to ecological adaptation. Species-specific differences are also observed in CRISPR sequences, suggesting that variations in phage immunity provide fitness advantages that contribute to the cosmopolitan distribution of S. arenicola 4. The two Salinispora genomes have evolved by complex processes that include the duplication and acquisition of secondary metabolite genes, the products of which provide immediate opportunities for molecular diversification and ecological adaptation. Evidence that secondary metabolic pathways are exchanged by Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT) yet are fixed among globally distributed populations 5 supports a functional role for their products and suggests that pathway acquisition represents a previously unrecognized force driving bacterial diversification

  8. Neocaridina denticulata: A Decapod Crustacean Model for Functional Genomics.

    PubMed

    Mykles, Donald L; Hui, Jerome H L

    2015-11-01

    A decapod crustacean model is needed for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying physiological processes, such as reproduction, sex determination, molting and growth, immunity, regeneration, and response to stress. Criteria for selection are: life-history traits, adult size, availability and ease of culture, and genomics and genetic manipulation. Three freshwater species are considered: cherry shrimp, Neocaridina denticulata; red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii; and redclaw crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus. All three are readily available, reproduce year round, and grow rapidly. The crayfish species require more space for culture than does N. denticulata. The transparent cuticle of cherry shrimp provides for direct assessment of reproductive status, stage of molt, and tissue-specific expression of reporter genes, and facilitates screening of mutations affecting phenotype. Moreover, a preliminary genome of N. denticulata is available and efforts toward complete genome sequencing and transcriptome sequencing have been initiated. Neocaridina denticulata possesses the best combination of traits that make it most suitable as a model for functional genomics. The next step is to obtain the complete genome sequence and to develop molecular technologies for the screening of mutants and for manipulating tissue-specific gene expression. PMID:26002561

  9. Comparative testis proteome dataset between cattleyak and yak.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fang; Mipam, TserangDonko; Sun, Lei; Yu, Shumin; Cai, Xin

    2016-09-01

    Cattleyak are hybrid between cattle and yak, which exhibit equivalent adaptability on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau as yak and much higher capability in economic traits. However, the F1 males of cattleyak are infertile due to spermatogenic arrest and this greatly restricts the effective utilization of this hybrid. In this data article, differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were identified from testis proteome of cattleyak and yak using high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). All the DEPs were subjected to functional classification by Gene Ontology (GO) analysis and gene-pathway annotation by Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). The comparative testis proteome dataset here can shed new light on the molecular characteristics of male infertility of cattleyak on proteome level, "Comparative iTRAQ proteomics revealed proteins associated with spermatogenic arrest of cattleyak" [1]. PMID:27366779

  10. Functional Genomics Using the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yeast Deletion Collections.

    PubMed

    Nislow, Corey; Wong, Lai Hong; Lee, Amy Huei-Yi; Giaever, Guri

    2016-01-01

    Constructed by a consortium of 16 laboratories, the Saccharomyces genome-wide deletion collections have, for the past decade, provided a powerful, rapid, and inexpensive approach for functional profiling of the yeast genome. Loss-of-function deletion mutants were systematically created using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based gene deletion strategy to generate a start-to-stop codon replacement of each open reading frame by homologous recombination. Each strain carries two molecular barcodes that serve as unique strain identifiers, enabling their growth to be analyzed in parallel and the fitness contribution of each gene to be quantitatively assessed by hybridization to high-density oligonucleotide arrays or through the use of next-generation sequencing technologies. Functional profiling of the deletion collections, using either strain-by-strain or parallel assays, provides an unbiased approach to systematically survey the yeast genome. The Saccharomyces yeast deletion collections have proved immensely powerful in contributing to the understanding of gene function, including functional relationships between genes and genetic pathways in response to diverse genetic and environmental perturbations. PMID:27587784

  11. “Spatial Mapping of the Neurite and Soma Proteomes Reveals a Functional Cdc42/Rac Regulatory Network”

    SciTech Connect

    Pertz, Olivier C.; Wang, Yingchun; Yang, Feng; Wang, Wei; gay, laurie J.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Clauss, Therese RW; Anderson, David J.; Liu, Tao; Auberry, Kenneth J.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Klemke, Richard L.

    2008-02-12

    Neurite extension and growth cone navigation are guided by extracellular cues that control cytoskeletal rearrangements. However, understanding the complex signaling mechanisms that mediate neuritogenesis has been limited by the inability to biochemically separate the neurite and soma for spatial proteomic and bioinformatic analyses. Here, we apply global proteome profiling in combination with a novel neurite purification methodology for comparative analysis of the soma and neurite proteomes of neuroblastoma cells. The spatial relationship of 4855 proteins were mapped revealing networks of signaling proteins that control integrins, the actin cytoskeleton, and axonal guidance in the extending neurite. Bioinformatics and functional analyses revealed a spatially compartmentalized Rac/Cdc42 signaling network that operates in conjunction with multiple GEFs and GAPs to control neurite formation. Interestingly, RNA interference experiments revealed that the different GEFs and GAPs regulate specialized functions during neurite formation including neurite growth and retraction kinetics, cytoskeletal organization, and cell polarity. Our findings provide insight into the spatial organization of signaling networks that enable neuritogenesis and provide a comprehensive system-wide profile of proteins that mediate this process including those that control Rac and Cdc42 signaling.

  12. LC-MS/MS based proteomic analysis and functional inference of hypothetical proteins in Desulfovibrio vulgaris

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Weiwen; Culley, David E.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Moore, Ronald J.; Nie, Lei; Scholten, Johannes C.; Petritis, Konstantinos; Strittmatter, Eric F.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Brockman, Fred J.

    2006-11-03

    ABSTRACT In the previous study, the whole-genome gene expression profiles of D. vulgaris in response to oxidative stress and heat shock were determined. The results showed 24-28% of the responsive genes were hypothetical proteins that have not been experimentally characterized or whose function can not be deduced by simple sequence comparison. To further explore the protecting mechanisms employed in D. vulgaris against the oxidative stress and heat shock, attempt was made in this study to infer functions of these hypothetical proteins by phylogenomic profiling along with detailed sequence comparison against various publicly available databases. By this approach we were ableto assign possible functions to 25 responsive hypothetical proteins. The findings included that DVU0725, induced by oxidative stress, may be involved in lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis, implying that the alternation of lipopolysaccharide on cell surface might service as a mechanism against oxidative stress in D. vulgaris. In addition, two responsive proteins, DVU0024 encoding a putative transcriptional regulator and DVU1670 encoding predicted redox protein, were sharing co-evolution atterns with rubrerythrin in Archaeoglobus fulgidus and Clostridium perfringens, respectively, implying that they might be part of the stress response and protective systems in D. vulgaris. The study demonstrated that phylogenomic profiling is a useful tool in interpretation of experimental genomics data, and also provided further insight on cellular response to oxidative stress and heat shock in D. vulgaris.

  13. Proteomic analysis of chromoplasts from six crop species reveals insights into chromoplast function and development.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-Qiang; Yang, Yong; Fei, Zhangjun; Yuan, Hui; Fish, Tara; Thannhauser, Theodore W; Mazourek, Michael; Kochian, Leon V; Wang, Xiaowu; Li, Li

    2013-02-01

    Chromoplasts are unique plastids that accumulate massive amounts of carotenoids. To gain a general and comparative characterization of chromoplast proteins, this study performed proteomic analysis of chromoplasts from six carotenoid-rich crops: watermelon, tomato, carrot, orange cauliflower, red papaya, and red bell pepper. Stromal and membrane proteins of chromoplasts were separated by 1D gel electrophoresis and analysed using nLC-MS/MS. A total of 953-2262 proteins from chromoplasts of different crop species were identified. Approximately 60% of the identified proteins were predicted to be plastid localized. Functional classification using MapMan bins revealed large numbers of proteins involved in protein metabolism, transport, amino acid metabolism, lipid metabolism, and redox in chromoplasts from all six species. Seventeen core carotenoid metabolic enzymes were identified. Phytoene synthase, phytoene desaturase, ζ-carotene desaturase, 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase, and carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 1 were found in almost all crops, suggesting relative abundance of them among the carotenoid pathway enzymes. Chromoplasts from different crops contained abundant amounts of ATP synthase and adenine nucleotide translocator, which indicates an important role of ATP production and transport in chromoplast development. Distinctive abundant proteins were observed in chromoplast from different crops, including capsanthin/capsorubin synthase and fibrillins in pepper, superoxide dismutase in watermelon, carrot, and cauliflower, and glutathione-S-transferease in papaya. The comparative analysis of chromoplast proteins among six crop species offers new insights into the general metabolism and function of chromoplasts as well as the uniqueness of chromoplasts in specific crop species. This work provides reference datasets for future experimental study of chromoplast biogenesis, development, and regulation in plants. PMID:23314817

  14. Silencing of mitochondrial Lon protease deeply impairs mitochondrial proteome and function in colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Gibellini, Lara; Pinti, Marcello; Boraldi, Federica; Giorgio, Valentina; Bernardi, Paolo; Bartolomeo, Regina; Nasi, Milena; De Biasi, Sara; Missiroli, Sonia; Carnevale, Gianluca; Losi, Lorena; Tesei, Anna; Pinton, Paolo; Quaglino, Daniela; Cossarizza, Andrea

    2014-12-01

    Lon is a nuclear-encoded, mitochondrial protease that assists protein folding, degrades oxidized/damaged proteins, and participates in maintaining mtDNA levels. Here we show that Lon is up-regulated in several human cancers and that its silencing in RKO colon cancer cells causes profound alterations of mitochondrial proteome and function, and cell death. We silenced Lon in RKO cells by constitutive or inducible expression of Lon shRNA. Lon-silenced cells displayed altered levels of 39 mitochondrial proteins (26% related to stress response, 14.8% to ribosome assembly, 12.7% to oxidative phosphorylation, 8.5% to Krebs cycle, 6.3% to β-oxidation, and 14.7% to crista integrity, ketone body catabolism, and mtDNA maintenance), low levels of mtDNA transcripts, and reduced levels of oxidative phosphorylation complexes (with >90% reduction of complex I). Oxygen consumption rate decreased 7.5-fold in basal conditions, and ATP synthesis dropped from 0.25 ± 0.04 to 0.03 ± 0.001 nmol/mg proteins, in the presence of 2-deoxy-d-glucose. Hydrogen peroxide and mitochondrial superoxide anion levels increased by 3- and 1.3-fold, respectively. Mitochondria appeared fragmented, heterogeneous in size and shape, with dilated cristae, vacuoles, and electrondense inclusions. The triterpenoid 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9,-dien-28-oic acid, a Lon inhibitor, partially mimics Lon silencing. In summary, Lon is essential for maintaining mitochondrial shape and function, and for survival of RKO cells. PMID:25154874

  15. Towards a Semen Proteome of the Dengue Vector Mosquito: Protein Identification and Potential Functions

    PubMed Central

    Sirot, Laura K.; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Kimura, Mari; Deewatthanawong, Prasit; Wolfner, Mariana F.; Harrington, Laura C.

    2011-01-01

    Background No commercially licensed vaccine or treatment is available for dengue fever, a potentially lethal infection that impacts millions of lives annually. New tools that target mosquito control may reduce vector populations and break the cycle of dengue transmission. Male mosquito seminal fluid proteins (Sfps) are one such target since these proteins, in aggregate, modulate the reproduction and feeding patterns of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti. As an initial step in identifying new targets for dengue vector control, we sought to identify the suite of proteins that comprise the Ae. aegypti ejaculate and determine which are transferred to females during mating. Methodology and Principal Findings Using a stable-isotope labeling method coupled with proteomics to distinguish male- and female-derived proteins, we identified Sfps and sperm proteins transferred from males to females. Sfps were distinguished from sperm proteins by comparing the transferred proteins to sperm-enriched samples derived from testes and seminal vesicles. We identified 93 male-derived Sfps and 52 predicted sperm proteins that are transferred to females during mating. The Sfp protein classes we detected suggest roles in protein activation/inactivation, sperm utilization, and ecdysteroidogenesis. We also discovered that several predicted membrane-bound and intracellular proteins are transferred to females in the seminal fluids, supporting the hypothesis that Ae. aegypti Sfps are released from the accessory gland cells through apocrine secretion, as occurs in mammals. Many of the Ae. aegypti predicted sperm proteins were homologous to Drosophila melanogaster sperm proteins, suggesting conservation of their sperm-related function across Diptera. Conclusion and Significance This is the first study to directly identify Sfps transferred from male Ae. aegypti to females. Our data lay the groundwork for future functional analyses to identify individual seminal proteins that may trigger female post

  16. [Cardiovascular proteomics: challenges and opportunities for cardiologists of the future].

    PubMed

    Banfi, Cristina; Brioschi, Maura; Tremoli, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Proteomics is the study of the "proteome", that is the entire protein complement of a genome. However, it is well recognized that the proteome is far more complex than previously suggested by the "one-gene, one-protein" central dogma of biology. The proteome encompasses all proteins of a cell or organism at a given time, including not only those translated directly from genetic information but also the array of modified proteins arising from alternative splicing of transcripts and post-translational processing, resulting in modifications that have the potential to alter protein structure or biological function. As proteins are involved in virtually every cellular function, control every regulatory mechanism, and are modified in disease states, the proteome dictates the phenotype of the cell and, consequently, the tissue or organ that the cells comprise. This results in a dynamic, ongoing process of protein expression and modifications. The proteome thus consists of information from protein expression, post-translational modifications, processing and turnover, localization and time. Proteomics is aimed at identifying and characterizing these protein changes and, if applied to the field of cardiovascular sciences, it has the potential to reveal those proteins that are associated with pathogenesis and could be potentially used as predictive or prognostic markers. Cardioproteomic is still in its infancy and relatively few cardiovascular diseases have been investigated. However, it has enormously increased our knowledge of the complexity of the myocardium in terms of protein composition at cellular and organelle levels. The cardiac proteome is further complicated by protein post-translational modifications, which may regulate organelle function in physiological and pathological conditions. Therefore, the incorporation of proteomics into cardiovascular research will provide a means of exploring the mechanisms of disease onset and progression. This will in turn ultimately

  17. Functional genomics of Lactobacillus casei establishment in the gut

    PubMed Central

    Licandro-Seraut, Hélène; Scornec, Hélène; Pédron, Thierry; Cavin, Jean-François; Sansonetti, Philippe J.

    2014-01-01

    Although the composition of the gut microbiota and its symbiotic contribution to key host physiological functions are well established, little is known as yet about the bacterial factors that account for this symbiosis. We selected Lactobacillus casei as a model microorganism to proceed to genomewide identification of the functions required for a symbiont to establish colonization in the gut. As a result of our recent development of a transposon-mutagenesis tool that overcomes the barrier that had prevented L. casei random mutagenesis, we developed a signature-tagged mutagenesis approach combining whole-genome reverse genetics using a set of tagged transposons and in vivo screening using the rabbit ligated ileal loop model. After sequencing transposon insertion sites in 9,250 random mutants, we assembled a library of 1,110 independent mutants, all disrupted in a different gene, that provides a representative view of the L. casei genome. By determining the relative quantity of each of the 1,110 mutants before and after the in vivo challenge, we identified a core of 47 L. casei genes necessary for its establishment in the gut. They are involved in housekeeping functions, metabolism (sugar, amino acids), cell wall biogenesis, and adaptation to environment. Hence we provide what is, to our knowledge, the first global functional genomics analysis of L. casei symbiosis. PMID:25024222

  18. Comparison of genomic and proteomic data in recurrent airway obstruction affected horses using ingenuity pathway analysis®

    PubMed Centr