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1

Anisotropic Hardness Estimations of Some Inorganic Functional Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the first time, this work indicates that mechanical concerns of inorganic materials are highly demanded when well optimizing their functional applications. We quantitatively give the proper data of hardness on different planes of some representative inorganic functional materials including borides, carbides, nitrides and oxides. This work clearly indicates mechanical importance in studying functionality of inorganic materials, and provides people guidance in the practical applications of these materials.

Yang, Peng; Li, Keyan; Xue, Dongfeng

2012-03-01

2

Organic-Inorganic Layer Compounds as Molecular Functional Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many molecular charge transfer salts synthesised over the last 20 years contain alternating layers of organic donor cations and inorganic metal-complex anions. Here we survey some features of one of the most prolific families of such salts: (BEDT-TTF)4[AM(C2O4)3]. G, where BEDT-TTF is bis-ethylene-dithiotetrathiafulvalene, A is a monopositive cation, M a tri-positive cation and G an organic guest molecule. The roles

Peter Day

2006-01-01

3

Nanostructured Functional Inorganic Materials Templated by Natural Substances  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Naturally-produced sophisticated hierarchal structures and the astonishing properties of biological substances are difficult\\u000a to obtain artificially, even with the most technologically advanced synthetic methodologies. As the needs for the development\\u000a of advanced materials with improved performance characteristics become increasingly important, the potential of natural substances\\u000a for material design and fabrication is being actively explored. The combination of versatile synthetic chemical

Yuanqing Gu; Jianguo Huang

4

Inorganic polymer engineering materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Phosphazene-based, inorganic-polymer composites have been produced and evaluated as potential engineering materials. The thermal, chemical, and mechanical properties of several different composites made from one polymer formulation have been measured. Mea...

M. L. Stone

1993-01-01

5

Geological and Inorganic Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a review focusing on techniques and their application to the analysis of geological and inorganic materials that offer significant changes to research and routine work. Covers geostandards, spectroscopy, plasmas, microbeam techniques, synchrotron X-ray methods, nuclear activation methods, chromatography, and electroanalytical methods.…

Jackson, L. L.; And Others

1989-01-01

6

Inorganic materials using 'unusual' microorganisms.  

PubMed

A promising avenue of research in materials science is to follow the strategies used by Mother Nature to fabricate ornate hierarchical structures as exemplified by organisms such as diatoms, sponges and magnetotactic bacteria. Some of the strategies used in the biological world to create functional inorganic materials may well have practical implications in the world of nanomaterials. Therefore, the strive towards exploring nature's ingenious work for designing strategies to create inorganic nanomaterials in our laboratories has led to development of biological and biomimetic synthesis routes over the past decade or so. A large proportion of these relentless efforts have explored the use of those microorganisms, which are typically not known to encounter these inorganic materials in their natural environment. Therefore, one can consider these microorganisms as 'unusual' for the purpose for which they have been utilized - it is in this context that this review has been penned down. In this extensive review, we discuss the use of these 'unusual' microorganisms for deliberate biosynthesis of various nanomaterials including biominerals, metals, sulfides and oxides nanoparticles. In addition to biosynthesis approach, we have also discussed a bioleaching approach, which can provide a noble platform for room-temperature synthesis of inorganic nanomaterials using naturally available raw materials. Moreover, the unique properties and functionalities displayed by these biogenic inorganic materials have been discussed, wherever such properties have been investigated previously. Finally, towards the end of this review, we have made efforts to summarize the common outcomes of the biosynthesis process and draw conclusions, which provide a perspective on the current status of the biosynthesis research field and highlights areas where future research in this field should be directed to realize the full potential of biological routes towards nanomaterials synthesis. Furthermore, the review clearly demonstrates that the biological route to inorganic materials synthesis is not merely an addition to the existing list of synthesis routes; biological routes using 'unusual' microorganisms might in fact provide an edge over other nanomaterials synthesis routes in terms of their eco-friendliness, low energy intensiveness, and economically-viable synthesis. This review has significant importance for colloids and interface science since it underpins the synthesis of colloidal materials using 'unusual' microorganism, wherein the role of biological interfaces for controlled synthesis of technologically important nanomaterials is clearly evident. PMID:22818492

Bansal, Vipul; Bharde, Atul; Ramanathan, Rajesh; Bhargava, Suresh K

2012-07-04

7

Photofunctional terbium centered inorganic/organic hybrid material with the functionalized 5-dihydroxybenzoate linkage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, silica-based organic-inorganic hybrids were prepared using sol-gel methods. A new kind of monomer (DHBA-TESPI) was derived by modifying the double hydroxyl groups of 3, 5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) with 3-(triethoxysilyl)-propyl isocyanate (TESPI) through the addition reaction. Then, the obtained compound and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) were used as the inorganic and organic counterparts respectively. Coordination reaction between Tb3+ and the carboxylic groups of the monomer happen simultaneously. IR, NMR, UV/Vis absorption, low-temperature phosphorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy were used to characterize the hybrids. The final materials exhibited strong green-colored fluorescence (Tb3+), which can be explained by the intramolecular energy transfer caused by coordination of the organic counterpart. The spectroscopic data also revealed that the triplet state energy of the organic ligand matches the emissive energy level of Tb3+.

Li, Y.; Sui, Y. L.; Yan, B.

2012-03-01

8

Inorganic–organic hybrid materials based on functionalized silica and carbon: A comprehensive understanding toward the structural property and catalytic activity difference over mesoporous silica and carbon supports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inorganic–organic hybrid materials based on functionalized silica and carbon were synthesized by anchoring molybdovanadophosphoric acid (H5[PMo10V2O40]·32.5H2O) onto amine-functionalized SBA-15, ethane-bridged SBA-15 and mesoporous carbon, respectively. Small angle X-ray diffraction, N2 sorption analysis, HRTEM, SEM, FT-IR, CP-MAS NMR were used to diagnose the mesoporous structure of inorganic–organic hybrid materials. The structural integrity of molybdovanadophosphoric acid has been found to be retained

Ankur Bordoloi; Nevin T. Mathew; F. Lefebvre; S. B. Halligudi

2008-01-01

9

RETROSPECTIVE MONITORING OF INORGANIC MATERIALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The development of chronological reference points to which present levels of inorganic pollutants can be compared is increasingly needed. The requirements for retrospective monitoring methods are discussed in relation to their attainability. The literature has been reviewed for b...

10

Porphyrin photochemistry in inorganic\\/organic hybrid materials: Clays, layered semiconductors, nanotubes, and mesoporous materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porphyrin derivatives are known as useful functional dyes. Porphyrin derivatives exhibit various properties in complexes with inorganic host materials that are much different from those in homogeneous solutions. In this paper, the structure and photochemical properties of porphyrins in inorganic host materials such as clays, layered semiconductors, nanotubes, and mesoporous materials are described. The photochemical properties, including the absorption properties

Shinsuke Takagi; Miharu Eguchi; Donald A. Tryk; Haruo Inoue

2006-01-01

11

Inorganic-organic materials incorporating alumoxane nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemically functionalized alumina nanoparticles (carboxylate-alumoxanes) are used as the inorganic component of a new class of inorganic-organic material. Lysine- or para-hydroxybenzoic acid-derivatized alumoxanes are prepared from the reaction of boehmite, [Al(O)(OH)]n, with the appropriate carboxylic acid. The peripheral hydroxides and amines of these alumoxanes react directly with DER 332 epoxide to form a hybrid material, or in the presence of a resin and hardener system, to form a composite material. Solid state NMR spectroscopy demonstrates that the alumoxanes are chemically bound to the resin matrix. The properties and cure times of the alumoxane materials are distinct from both the pure resins and from a physical blend of the resins with traditional fillers. A significant increase in thermal stability and tensile strength is observed for the resin systems. In order to produce molecular coupling layers, epoxides cross-linked with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) grown on the native oxide of aluminum thin films on silicon substrates have been investigated. Specifically, SAMs have been formed by the attachment of different carboxylic acids. In order to investigate the cross-linking reaction between carboxylate monolayers and an epoxide, grown monolayers were reacted with a mono-epoxy resin. In addition to these surface materials, aluminum oxide surfaces supporting carboxylate monolayers were reacted in pairs with DER 332 to form a structural adhesive. These materials have been characterized variously by SEM, AFM, XPS, EDX, and contact angle measurements. The particle size dependence on pH of a series of alumoxanes was investigated. For each of the alumoxanes, PCS particle size measurements were obtained as a function of pH. In all cases, particle size control was afforded by variations in pH. Finally, crystal structures of several model compounds were determined by X-ray crystallography, and shown to form either sheets of dimers or tetrameric units. Through a review of structures found in the Cambridge Crystallographic Database, compounds of the type X-CH(OH)CH 2NH-Y were investigated. The results of this study lead to a generalized approach for predicting the packing motifs of racemic mixtures in polar space groups.

Vogelson, Cullen Taylor

12

FY 1997 report on the study on creation of inorganic materials under micro-gravity environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Study was made on creation of new functional inorganic materials under micro-gravity condition in an underground non-gravity experiment center to develop new production techniques of inorganic crystalline thin film, fine glass particle, anharmonic alloy, ...

1998-01-01

13

University of Southampton: Inorganic Materials Group  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Inorganic Materials Group at the University of Southampton created this Macromedia Flash Player-enhanced website to present its research in "synthetic and structural inorganic materials chemistry with the purpose of tailoring and controlling useful physical properties of solid state compounds." Visitors can find information about the group's research interests and successes in the areas of nitrides, zeolites, superconducting oxides, isotopes, and more. The website presents clear descriptions and figures of the group's equipment and facilities including the wet laboratory and the inert atmospheres created in the glove box rooms.

14

Inorganic polymers and materials. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This DOE-sponsored project was focused on the design, synthesis, characterization, and applications of new types of boron and silicon polymers with a goal of attaining processable precursors to advanced ceramic materials of technological importance. This work demonstrated a viable design strategy for the systematic formation of polymeric precursors to ceramics based on the controlled functionalization of preformed polymers with pendant groups of suitable compositions and crosslinking properties. Both the new dipentylamine-polyborazylene and pinacolborane-hydridopolysilazane polymers, unlike the parent polyborazylene and other polyborosilazanes, are stable as melts and can be easily spun into polymer fibers. Subsequent pyrolyses of these polymer fibers then provide excellent routes to BN and SiNCB ceramic fibers. The ease of synthesis of both polymer systems suggests new hybrid polymers with a range of substituents appended to polyborazylene or polysilazane backbones, as well as other types of preceramic polymers, should now be readily achieved, thereby allowing even greater control over polymer and ceramic properties. This control should now enable the systematic tailoring of the polymers and derived ceramics for use in different technological applications. Other major recent achievements include the development of new types of metal-catalyzed methods needed for the polymerization and modification of inorganic monomers and polymers, and the modification studies of polyvinylsiloxane and related polymers with substituents that enable the formation of single source precursors to high-strength, sintered SiC ceramics.

Sneddon, Larry G.

2001-01-01

15

Utilization of specific and non-specific peptide interactions with inorganic nanomaterials on the surface of bacteriophage M13: Methodologies towards phage supported bi-functional materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many types of organisms create a variety of nano and micro scale materials from precursors available in their surrounding environments by a process called biomineralization. As scientists begin to understand how these organisms utilize specific and non-specific interactions with a variety of biopolymers such as chitin, peptides, proteins and nucleic acids with these precursors to create inorganic/organic composite materials, they have begun to wonder about the synthesis of other types of non-biologically templated synthetic techniques that might be possible. Bioengineered organisms and biopolymers have begun to be used for these types of studies. A variety of selection techniques exist for discovering biopolymers with an affinity for a target material, however, one of the most notable is a technique called peptide phage display. This is a technique that utilizes a commercially available randomized peptide library attached at the tip of the filamentous bacteriophage M13. In this dissertation capabilities of bacteriophage M13 are explored in regard to the creation of bi-functional nano materials by exploiting both specific peptide interactions as well as non-specific peptide interactions on the surface of the organism. Chapter 2 focuses on utilizing the specific peptide interactions of the randomized library at pIII in order to discover peptides with high binding affinity for a variety of nanomaterials. Selection studies called biopanning are performed on a variety of nanomaterials such as CaMoO4, allotropes of Ni, Fe2O3 and Fe3O4, and Rh and Pt with the fcc type crystal structure. Similarities and differences between peptides discovered for these materials are discussed. Chapter 3 focuses on utilizing the non-specific peptide interactions on the long axis of M13 called pVIII. The pVIII region consists of 2700 copies of the same 50 amino acid protein which as a negatively charged domain which is exposed to solution. The pVIII region therefore provides the surface of the phage with a negative charge on which nanomaterials can be supported. Metal salt precursors reduced in the presence of WT M13 are studied in this chapter. Metal salt precursors of Fe, Co, Ru, Rh and Pd seem to be the most effective at coating the surface of the phage based on the positively charged metal-aquo complexes formed in water, which are attracted to the negative pVIII region. Other types of reactions are explored with WT phage as a scaffold such as conversion chemistry in a polyol solvent to access several intermetallic phases as well as co-precipitation reactions to access ternary oxides. Chapter 4 focuses on combining research from chapter 2 and chapter 3 to create a bi-functional material that utilizes both specific and non-specific peptide interactions with inorganic materials on the surface of M13 to attach two different types of nanomaterials. The example provided here is a magnetically recoverable hydrogenation catalyst made up of a pVIII region coated with rhodium nanoparticles held in place by non-specific peptide interactions and a pIII region attached to iron oxide nanoparticles via specific peptide interactions. This is the first example in the literature of a commercially available pIII bioengineered M13 bacteriophage forming a bi-functional material. This research provides a methodology to design and build single and multi-component materials on the surface of bacteriophage M13 without the necessity for additional bioengineering and library characterization. The simplicity of use will make the technique available to a wider variety of researchers in the materials science community.

Avery, Kendra Nicole

16

Inorganic-organic hybrid material for lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tetraethoxyorthosilicate and methacryloxypropyl trimethoxy silane are used to form inorganic and organic networks, respectively. Photosensitive agent is added to initiate free-radical cross-linking polymerization of unsaturated carbon bonds and thus makes the material act as a negative tone photoresist. Developed in dilute base solution, micro- optical element, such as lenses and gratings, were fabricated by contact with UV-exposure. Shrinkage effect is investigated after optical elements obtained. Compared with the mask, the spacing of the exposed areas in sol-gel film shrinks, and the shrinkage rate is about 20%.

Pang, Lin; Yan, Yingbai; Jin, Guofan; Wu, Minxian

2000-11-01

17

Inorganic Photovoltaics Materials and Devices: Past, Present, and Future.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes recent aspects of advanced inorganic materials for photovoltaics or solar cell applications. Specific materials examined will be high-efficiency silicon, gallium arsenide and related materials, and thin-film materials, particularly a...

A. F. Hepp S. G. Bailey R. P. Rafaelle

2005-01-01

18

Jahn-Teller distortions in transition metal compounds, and their importance in functional molecular and inorganic materials.  

PubMed

This tutorial review discusses the structural and electronic consequences of the Jahn-Teller effect in transition metal complexes, focussing on copper(ii) compounds which tend to be the most studied. The nature of a Jahn-Teller distortion in molecular complexes and extended lattices can be manipulated by application of pressure or temperature, by doping a molecule into a host lattice, or simply by molecular design. Many of these results have been achieved using compounds with a trans-[CuX(4)Y(2)] coordination sphere, which seems to afford copper centres that are particularly sensitive to their environment. Jahn-Teller distortions lead to some unusual phenomena in molecular magnetism, and are important to the functionality of important classes of conducting and superconducting ceramics. PMID:22968285

Halcrow, Malcolm A

2012-09-11

19

Characteristics of colored inorganic–organic hybrid materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inorganic–organic hybrid glasses are relatively new nanometric materials of Ormosil’s group (organic modified silicates). There co-existence, on a molecular scale, exists between inorganic structures in the form of silica-oxide network and organic structures based on carbon links. Properties of these materials are intermediate between those of inorganic glasses (hardness, chemical and thermal resistance) and organic polymers (low temperature of obtaining,

K. Wojtach; M. Laczka; K. Cholewakowalska; Z. Olejniczak; J. Sokolowska

2007-01-01

20

Strongly coupled inorganic/nanocarbon hybrid materials for advanced electrocatalysis.  

PubMed

Electrochemical systems, such as fuel cell and water splitting devices, represent some of the most efficient and environmentally friendly technologies for energy conversion and storage. Electrocatalysts play key roles in the chemical processes but often limit the performance of the entire systems due to insufficient activity, lifetime, or high cost. It has been a long-standing challenge to develop efficient and durable electrocatalysts at low cost. In this Perspective, we present our recent efforts in developing strongly coupled inorganic/nanocarbon hybrid materials to improve the electrocatalytic activities and stability of inorganic metal oxides, hydroxides, sulfides, and metal-nitrogen complexes. The hybrid materials are synthesized by direct nucleation, growth, and anchoring of inorganic nanomaterials on the functional groups of oxidized nanocarbon substrates including graphene and carbon nanotubes. This approach affords strong chemical attachment and electrical coupling between the electrocatalytic nanoparticles and nanocarbon, leading to nonprecious metal-based electrocatalysts with improved activity and durability for the oxygen reduction reaction for fuel cells and chlor-alkali catalysis, oxygen evolution reaction, and hydrogen evolution reaction. X-ray absorption near-edge structure and scanning transmission electron microscopy are employed to characterize the hybrids materials and reveal the coupling effects between inorganic nanomaterials and nanocarbon substrates. Z-contrast imaging and electron energy loss spectroscopy at single atom level are performed to investigate the nature of catalytic sites on ultrathin graphene sheets. Nanocarbon-based hybrid materials may present new opportunities for the development of electrocatalysts meeting the requirements of activity, durability, and cost for large-scale electrochemical applications. PMID:23339685

Liang, Yongye; Li, Yanguang; Wang, Hailiang; Dai, Hongjie

2013-02-04

21

Organic–Inorganic Hybrid Materials for Photonic Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic-inorganic hybrid materials are derived from the chemical reaction of silane coupling reagents and metal alkoxides, involving O-Si-C bonds in the matrix. They offer superior characters of combined organic groups and inorganic linkages for various optical applications. This paper reviews preparation and characterization of optical devices and materials derived from these hybrid materials. We mainly describe three topics for micrometer-nanometer

Shuichi Shibata; Tetsuji Yano; Hiroyo Segawa

2008-01-01

22

Synthesis and characterization of inorganic materials precipitated into polymeric and novel liquid crystalline systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of nanostructured, hybrid materials possesses great future potential. Many examples of nanostructured materials exist within nature, such as animal bone, animal teeth, and seashells. This research, inspired by nature, strove to mimic salient properties of natural materials, utilizing methods observed within nature to produce materials. Further, this research increased the functionality of the templates from "mere" template to functional participant. Different chemical methods to produce hybrid materials were employed within this research to achieve these goals. First, electro-osmosis was utilized to drive ions into a polymeric matrix to form hybrid inorganic polymer material, creating a material inspired by naturally occurring bone or seashell in which the inorganic component provides strength and the polymeric material decreases the brittleness of the combined hybrid material. Second, self-assembled amphiphiles, forming higher ordered structures, acted as a template for inorganic cadmium sulfide. Electronically active molecules based on ethylene oxide and aniline segments were synthesized to create interaction between the templating material and the resulting inorganic cadmium sulfide. The templating process utilized self-assembly to create the inorganic structure through the interaction of the amphiphiles with water. The use of self-assembly is itself inspired by nature. Self-assembled structures are observed within living cells as cell walls and cell membranes are created through hydrophilic and hydrophobic interactions. Finally, the mesostructured inorganic cadmium sulfide was itself utilized as a template to form mesostructured copper sulfide.

Lubeck, Christopher Ryan

23

Molecular interactions in inorganic-organic composite materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inorganic-organic interactions play a key role in determining the molecular and macroscopic properties of resulting composites. These materials have a wide variety of applications including use as catalysts, hosts for optical and electronic applications, and as adsorbents. Tailoring composites for each unique application is accomplished using local interactions between inorganic and organic species to control both local and mesoscopic ordering. For many inorganic-organic composites, no local order exists thereby inhibiting local characterization of these materials using diffraction techniques. However, using NMR methods that are not dependent upon periodicity, unique insight about inorganic-organic interactions in locally amorphous materials can be achieved. Using solid-state NMR methods, inorganic-organic interactions have been utilized to unambiguously establish the local organization of a variety of mesoporous materials as well as provide insight into the biological processes controlling biomineralization. For example, such experiments have revealed the location and coordination of aluminum species in the aluminosilicate framework of mesoporous materials. Such findings are crucial for the preparation of advanced catalytically active materials. These techniques have also provided increase understanding of the formation process of the inorganic network and have lead to the synthesis of the first mesophase material with a 2D crystalline architecture. This discovery is promising for enhancing the thermal and mechanical strength of mesoporous catalysts that had previously been locally disordered and thermally unstable. These investigations provide a wealth of knowledge for understanding the influence organic molecules exert upon silica structures and can be utilized to provide advanced, tailored composites.

Christiansen, Sean Condon

24

Strongly coupled inorganic-nano-carbon hybrid materials for energy storage.  

PubMed

The global shift of energy production from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources requires more efficient and reliable electrochemical energy storage devices. In particular, the development of electric or hydrogen powered vehicles calls for much-higher-performance batteries, supercapacitors and fuel cells than are currently available. In this review, we present an approach to synthesize electrochemical energy storage materials to form strongly coupled hybrids (SC-hybrids) of inorganic nanomaterials and novel graphitic nano-carbon materials such as carbon nanotubes and graphene, through nucleation and growth of nanoparticles at the functional groups of oxidized graphitic nano-carbon. We show that the inorganic-nano-carbon hybrid materials represent a new approach to synthesize electrode materials with higher electrochemical performance than traditional counterparts made by simple physical mixtures of electrochemically active inorganic particles and conducting carbon materials. The inorganic-nano-carbon hybrid materials are novel due to possible chemical bonding between inorganic nanoparticles and oxidized carbon, affording enhanced charge transport and increased rate capability of electrochemical materials without sacrificing specific capacity. Nano-carbon with various degrees of oxidation provides a novel substrate for nanoparticle nucleation and growth. The interactions between inorganic precursors and oxidized-carbon substrates provide a degree of control over the morphology, size and structure of the resulting inorganic nanoparticles. This paper reviews the recent development of inorganic-nano-carbon hybrid materials for electrochemical energy storage and conversion, including the preparation and functionalization of graphene sheets and carbon nanotubes to impart oxygen containing groups and defects, and methods of synthesis of nanoparticles of various morphologies on oxidized graphene and carbon nanotubes. We then review the applications of the SC-hybrid materials for high performance lithium ion batteries, rechargeable Li-S and Li-O2 batteries, supercapacitors and ultrafast Ni-Fe batteries, and new electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction, oxygen evolution and hydrogen evolution reactions. PMID:23361617

Wang, Hailiang; Dai, Hongjie

2013-04-01

25

Inorganic-organic electrolyte materials for energy applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis research is devoted to the development of phosphazene-based electrolyte materials for use in various energy applications. Phosphazenes are inorganic-organic materials that provide unusal synthetic advantages and unique process features that make them useful in energy research. This particular thesis consists of six chapters and is focused on four specific aspects: lithium battery, solar cell, and fuel cell electrolytes,

Shih-To Fei

2010-01-01

26

Functionalization of inorganic nanoparticles for bioimaging applications.  

PubMed

Modern biomedical imaging technologies have led to significant advances in diagnosis and therapy. Because most disease processes occur at the molecular and cellular levels, researchers continue to face challenges in viewing and understanding these processes precisely and in real time. The ideal imaging resolution would be in nanometers, because most biological processes take place on this length scale. Therefore, the functionalization of nanoparticles (NPs) and their use in therapeutic and diagnostic applications are of great interest. Molecular and cellular imaging agents made from inorganic NPs have been developed to probe such biological events noninvasively. The conjugation of tiny NPs with specific biomolecules allows researchers to target the desired location, reduce overall toxicity, and boost the efficiency of the imaging probes. In this Account, we review recent research on the functionalization of NPs for bioimaging applications. Several types of NPs have been employed for bioimaging applications, including metal (Au, Ag), metal oxide (Fe(3)O(4)), and semiconductor nanocrystals (e.g. quantum dots (QDs) and magnetic quantum dots (MQDs)). The preparation of NPs for bioimaging applications can include a variety of steps: synthesis, coating, surface functionalization, and bioconjugation. The most common strategies of engineering NP surfaces involve physical adsorption or chemisorption of the desired ligands onto the surface. Chemisorption or covalent linkages are preferred, and the coated NPs should possess high colloidal stability, biocompatibility, water solubility, and functional groups for further bioconjugation. Many of the functionalization techniques that have been reported in the literature suffer from limitations such as complex synthesis steps, poor biocompatibility, low stability, and hydrophobic products. Coating strategies based on chemisorption and ligand exchange often provide a better way to tailor the surface properties of NPs. After conjugation with the appropriate targeting ligands, antibodies, or proteins, the NPs may exhibit highly selective binding, making them useful for fluorescence imaging, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, and multimodal imaging. PMID:21648430

Erathodiyil, Nandanan; Ying, Jackie Y

2011-06-07

27

Gene delivery by functional inorganic nanocarriers.  

PubMed

Gene delivery into cells to elicit cellular response has received a great attention recently. Viruses, lipids, peptides, cationic polymers and certain inorganic nanomaterials have been reported as gene delivery vectors. In this review, we focus on the recent literature on gene delivery using inorganic nanoparticles. This emerging field of study is concisely summarized and illustrated by selected examples and recent patents. New approaches and directions towards the practical use of multifunctional nanocarriers are highlighted. PMID:22670611

Loh, Xian Jun; Lee, Tung-Chun

2012-08-01

28

MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES FOR INORGANIC TRACE MATERIALS IN CONTROL SYSTEM STREAMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study showing that inorganic materials in control process streams at trace levels can be determined using modified, commercially available sampling equipment and atomic absorption analysis procedures; however, special care must be taken to attain hig...

29

Thermal/chemical degradation of inorganic membrane materials  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this program is to evaluate the long-term thermal and chemical degradation of inorganic membranes that are developed to separate gases produced by coal combustion and coal gasification. Membrane materials tested include alumina, vycor, platinum foil, and palladium foils. The porosity, permeability, and characterization of physical and chemical changes after exposure to hot gas streams is described.

Krishnan, G.N.; Damle, A.S.; Sanjurjo, A.; Wood, B.J.; Lau, K.H.

1995-12-01

30

STABILITY AND TRANSPORT OF INORGANIC COLLOIDS THROUGH CONTAMINATED AQUIFER MATERIAL  

EPA Science Inventory

Laboratory columns using contaminated natural aquifer material from Globe, Arizona, were used to investigate the transport of inorganic colloids under saturated flow conditions. e2O3 radio-labeled spherical colloids of various diameters were synthesized and introduced into the co...

31

Nicander on stones and inorganic materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of all references to stones, gems and natural materials contained in his two poems, as well as of the testimonies\\u000a by Greek and Latin authors, suggests that Nicander of Colophon (fl. 2nd century BC) cannot be forgotten when studying the development of mineral studies during antiquity. He is the main, if\\u000a not the only evidence remaining of the

Annibale Mottana

2006-01-01

32

Inorganic molecular wires: Physical and functional properties of transition metal chalco-halide polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid development of nanotechnology has lead to demands on new one-dimensional materials with new functional properties. Carbon nanotubes have received most attention, followed by nanowires of very different kinds. Most recently inorganic molecular wires – particularly molybdenum halide or chalcogenide cluster polymers – have emerged as a new type of one-dimensional materials with remarkable molecular-scale functionality. These transition metal

Dragan Mihailovic

2009-01-01

33

Inorganic polarizing materials grown by physical vapor deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently there is a need for retarders that do not degrade under elevated temperatures and intense illumination for use in displays and devices such as rear projection televisions. A stack of inorganic planar layers with alternating high and low refractive indices behaves as a form birefringent uniaxial material, but the sign of the birefringence is always negative. In the presentation we outline the use of serial bideposition with 90 deg incremental substrate rotations to generate positive uniaxial materials with a typical difference of 0.12 between the ordinary and extraordinary refractive indices. Optical methods for displaying the axial symmetry of the coatings and for measuring the birefringence are described and contrasted with previous and current work on inorganic biaxial materials.

Hodgkinson, Ian; De Silva, Lakshman; Arnold, Matthew

2005-09-01

34

Hybrid organic–inorganic materials: from child’s play to energy applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of hybrids has boomed since its initial conception with silicones as structural materials to the wealth of different\\u000a types of hybrid materials studied nowadays as functional materials. Hybrids based on conducting polymers and a great variety\\u000a of inorganic species constitute a growing area of this field. We present a brief review of the intersection between conducting\\u000a polymer hybrids

Pedro Gómez-Romero; Omar Ayyad; Jullieth Suárez-Guevara; David Muñoz-Rojas

2010-01-01

35

Nanoelectromechanics of Inorganic and Biological Systems: From Structural Imaging to Local Functionalities  

SciTech Connect

Coupling between electrical and mechanical phenomena is extremely common in inorganic materials, and nearly ubiquitous in biological systems, underpinning phenomena and devices ranging from SONAR to cardiac activity and hearing. This paper briefly summarizes the Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) approach, referred to as Piezoresponse Force Microscopy (PFM), for probing electromechanical coupling on the nanometer scales, and delineates some existing and emerging applications to probe local structure and functionality in inorganic ferroelectrics, calcified and connective tissues, and complex biosystems based on electromechanical detection.

Rodriguez, Brian [University College, Dublin; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL; Jesse, Stephen [ORNL; Thompson, G. L. [Clemson University; Vertegel, Alexey [ORNL; Hohlbauch, Sophia [Asylum Research, Santa Barbara, CA; Proksch, Roger [Asylum Research, Santa Barbara, CA

2008-01-01

36

General route for the assembly of functional inorganic capsules.  

PubMed

Semipermeable, hollow capsules are attractive materials for the encapsulation and delivery of active agents in food processing, pharmaceutical and agricultural industries, and biomedicine. These capsules can be produced by forming a solid shell of close packed colloidal particles, typically polymeric particles, at the surface of emulsion droplets. However, current methods to prepare such capsules may involve multistep chemical procedures to tailor the surface chemistry of particles or are limited to particles that exhibit inherently the right hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance to adsorb around emulsion droplets. In this work, we describe a general and simple method to fabricate semipermeable, inorganic capsules from emulsion droplets stabilized by a wide variety of colloidal metal oxide particles. The assembly of particles at the oil-water interface is induced by the in situ hydrophobization of the particle surface through the adsorption of short amphiphilic molecules. The adsorption of particles at the interface leads to stable capsules comprising a single layer of particles in the outer shell. Such capsules can be used in the wet state or can be further processed into dry capsules. The permeability of the capsules can be modified by filling the interstices between the shell particles with polymeric or inorganic species. Functional capsules with biocompatible, bioresorbable, heat-resistant, chemical-resistant, and magnetic properties were prepared using alumina, silica, iron oxide, or tricalcium phosphate as particles in the shell. PMID:19803492

Akartuna, Ilke; Tervoort, Elena; Studart, André R; Gauckler, Ludwig J

2009-11-01

37

NEW PROTON CONDUCTIVE COMPOSITE MATERIALS WITH INORGANIC AND STYRENE GRAFTED AND SULFONATED VDF/CTFE FLUOROPOLYMERS  

SciTech Connect

Creation of new membrane materials for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) operating at elevated temperature and low relative humidity (RH) is one of the major challenges in the implementation of the fuel cell technology. New candidate membrane materials are required to efficiently conduct protons at 120oC and RH down to 15%. Based on these criteria, we are working on the development of new membrane materials, which are composites of inorganic proton conductors with a functionalized and cross-linkable Teflon-type polymer. The synthesis of crosslinkable P(VDF-CTFE) copolymer with controllable structure, molecular weight and terminal and side chain silane groups was described in [1]. The chemistry of the synthesis was centered on a specifically designed functional borane initiator containing silane groups. The major role of polymer matrix is to maintain the continuity of charge transfer and to ensure membrane integrity. The primary considerations include sufficient proton conductivity, thermal and chemical stability at elevated temperature, mechanical strength, compatibility with inorganic particulate phases, processibility to form uniform thin film, and cost effectiveness. Several classes of inorganic proton conductors with high water retention capability, including mesoporous materials (sulfated and/or sulfonated alumina, zirconia, titania) and zirconium phosphate of different structure have been chosen as candidate components for the new composite membranes for PEMFC operation at elevated temperatures and reduced RH. The primary requirement to the inorganic phases is the ability to provide high proton conductivity with the minimum amount of water (reduced humidity).

Lvov, Serguei [ORNL; Payne, Terry L [ORNL

2008-01-01

38

Abrasion resistant inorganic\\/organic coating materials prepared by the sol-gel method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel abrasion resistant coating materials prepared by the sol-gel method have been developed and applied on the polymeric substrates bisphenol-A polycarbonate and diallyl diglycol carbonate resin (CR-39). These coatings are inorganic\\/organic hybrid network materials synthesized from 3-isocyanatopropyltriethoxysilane functionalized organics and metal alkoxide. The organic components are 3,3'-iminobispropylamine (IMPA), resorcinol (RSOL), diethylenetriamine (DETA), poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI), glycerol and a series of diols.

J. Wen; V. J. Vasudevan; G. L. Wilkes

1995-01-01

39

Interactions between lipid bilayers and inorganic material surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because of their unique biological and material properties, lipid bilayers have been extensively studied for use in biosensor and drug delivery applications. In the past, these systems have mostly taken the form of bulk solutions. More recently, researchers have integrated bilayers with chip-based architectures to take advantage of advanced optical, scanning probe and electronic characterization. These applications typically involve the creation of hybrid devices with inorganic and bilayer components, both of which affect the final device performance. In particular, the properties of supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) are known to depend on the substrate chemistry and topography as well as the lipid used. In spite of the large body of work involving these systems, there is still much that remains unknown about the formation and ultimate structure of the interface between these very different materials. One outstanding question in the study of SLBs is the role that the bilayer deposition method plays in determining the bilayer properties. In this work, we have developed a new method for forming and patterning lipid bilayers: bubble collapse deposition (BCD). This method is similar to an in situ version of Langmuir-Blodgett deposition, and offers unique possibilities for the fabrication of lipid-based devices. Briefly, a lipid monolayer is "inked" onto the surface of an air bubble. This bubble is then brought down on a solid support and the air is withdrawn. This withdrawal of air shrinks the bubble, which causes the monolayer to fold over on itself and redeposit on the surface as a bilayer. With BCD, we have demonstrated the first SLB formation on alumina using uncharged lipids. Using this system, we have measured a previously unobserved enhanced hydrodynamic coupling at the alumina surface. We have also used BCD to produce a hybrid lipid-gated chemical delivery device with potentially sub-cellular spatial resolution. Because of the unique material properties of the lipid seals in this system, these devices can retain a chemical of interest for weeks and yet rapidly release this load (within tens of ms) when triggered by a simple optical input. Finally, we have used BCD to directly transfer lipids from a cell membrane to a substrate surface. We present studies characterizing which membrane components are transferred, including lipids, proteins and the cytoskeleton. These studies offer both increased functionality of hybrid lipid systems and fundamental insights into the interactions between lipids and common semiconductor fabrication materials.

Mager, Morgan Douglas

40

Porous inorganic-organic hybrid material by oxygen plasma treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present the pore formation on inorganic-organic hybrid material, ORMOCER©, by reactive ion etching. ORMOCERs are composed of inorganic backbone where organic side groups are attached by cross-linking. Etching of ORMOCER in oxygen plasma generates porous materials with different pore sizes depending on the etching parameters. In addition to planar films, this pore formation process is applicable to micro and nanostructures. Characteristics of porous materials are evaluated by contact angle measurement, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy, time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. Based on these analyses, it can be concluded that carbon is depleted in the plasma process and oxygen plasma converts the surface of the hybrid film to a more SiO2-like material. Area selective pore formation is also possible by using a metallic etch mask. The porous material is stable enough to allow further processing, e.g. sputtering, plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition and atomic layer thin film deposition. This method may thus be used in different applications in fluidics, optics and elsewhere in micro and nanotechnology.

Aura, Susanna; Jokinen, Ville; Laitinen, Mikko; Sajavaara, Timo; Franssila, Sami

2011-12-01

41

Synthesis of hybrid organic–inorganic nanocomposite materials based on CdS nanocrystals for energy conversion applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficient solar energy conversion is strongly related to the development of new materials with enhanced functional properties.\\u000a In this context, a wide variety of inorganic, organic, or hybrid nanostructured materials have been investigated. In particular,\\u000a in hybrid organic–inorganic nanocomposites are combined the convenient properties of organic polymers, such as easy manipulation\\u000a and mechanical flexibility, and the unique size-dependent properties of

A. M. Laera; V. Resta; M. C. Ferrara; M. Schioppa; E. Piscopiello; L. Tapfer

42

TOPICAL REVIEW: Hybrid inorganic organic materials: a new family in condensed matter physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review some recent trends in an emerging field at the interface between classical inorganic and organic materials. Hybrid inorganic-organic framework materials are crystalline systems in which both inorganic and organic structural elements co-exist within a single phase. Much of the focus in this area during the last few years has been on porous hybrid frameworks, which are of interest

C. N. R. Rao; A. K. Cheetham; A. Thirumurugan

2008-01-01

43

Hybrid inorganic–organic materials: a new family in condensed matter physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review some recent trends in an emerging field at the interface between classical inorganic and organic materials. Hybrid inorganic–organic framework materials are crystalline systems in which both inorganic and organic structural elements co-exist within a single phase. Much of the focus in this area during the last few years has been on porous hybrid frameworks, which are of interest

C N R Rao; A K Cheetham; A Thirumurugan

2008-01-01

44

Novel organic-inorganic hybrid materials for optical interconnects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical materials in the optical printed circuit board are required to overcome soldering process. In detail, the material should not have absorption and shape changes after several tens of seconds heating at around 250°C. For such application field, we have developed a novel organic-inorganic hybrid material having a high thermal stability and low absorption at telecom wavelength. The material is designed to UV and/or Thermal curable resin, and soluble to popular organic solvents. We fabricated a rigid optical waveguides on a SiO2/Si wafers by UV lithography. The size of waveguide was 40 ?m in width, 30 ?m in height, and 7 cm in length. Optical attenuation of the waveguide measured by the cut back method was 0.1 dB/cm at 850 nm, 0.29 dB/cm at 1310 nm, and 0.45 dB/cm at 1550 nm. These values are good low attenuation for the Near-IR optical communication. The 5% weight loss temperature of the UV cured material was 402°C. The waveguide showed almost no attenuation increase even after 1min heating at 300°C. In addition, the material is having a high refractive index of n=1.60 at 633 nm and a low curing shrinkage of 4.7%. We have demonstrated to fabricate a bulk body sample by UV curing, and obtained high uniformity cured materials with 5 mm-thick and 1 cm-diameter. From these properties, the developed organic-inorganic material is expected to be beneficial for the optical interconnection such as micro lenses and optical packages.

Sato, Tetsuo

2011-02-01

45

Heterogeneous Catalyst Design by Multiple Functional Group Positioning in Organic-Inorganic Materials: On the Route to Analogs of Multifunctional Enzymes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Enzymes catalyze reactions with high rates and selectivities through the sophisticated use of cooperative interactions between neighboring functional groups within an active site. For example, the “catalytic triad” in proteases is capable of accelerating the cleavage of amides by 1011 through neighboring interactions between carboxylic acid, imidazole, and alcohol sites. Guided by these principles, heterogeneous catalysts having two different types of functional groups have been prepared, and the cooperative behavior have been demonstrated with catalytic reactions in the liquid phase. Cooperative interactions between thiols and sulfonic acids and between incompatible acid and base groups are achievable with rates and selectivities that are superior to homogeneous systems, especially for the latter case wherein there is no reactivity.

Margelefsky, Eric L.; Zeidan, Ryan K.; Davis, Mark E.

46

Functionalized inorganic membranes for gas separation  

DOEpatents

A porous membrane for separation of carbon dioxide from a fluid stream at a temperature higher than about 200.degree. C. with selectivity higher than Knudsen diffusion selectivity. The porous membrane comprises a porous support layer comprising alumina, silica, zirconia or stabilized zirconia; a porous separation layer comprising alumina, silica, zirconia or stabilized zirconia, and a functional layer comprising a ceramic oxide contactable with the fluid stream to preferentially transport carbon dioxide. In particular, the functional layer may be MgO, CaO, SrO, BaO, La.sub.2O.sub.3, CeO.sub.2, ATiO.sub.3, AZrO.sub.3, AAl.sub.2O.sub.4, A.sup.1FeO.sub.3, A.sup.1MnO.sub.3, A.sup.1CoO.sub.3, A.sup.1NiO.sub.3, A.sup.2HfO.sub.3, A.sup.3CeO.sub.3, Li.sub.2ZrO.sub.3, Li.sub.2SiO.sub.3, Li.sub.2TiO.sub.3 or a mixture thereof; wherein A is Mg, Ca, Sr or Ba; A.sup.1 is La, Ca, Sr or Ba; A.sup.2 is Ca, Sr or Ba; and A.sup.3 is Sr or Ba.

Ku, Anthony Yu-Chung (Rexford, NY); Ruud, James Anthony (Delmar, NY); Molaison, Jennifer Lynn (Marietta, GA); Schick, Louis Andrew ,(Delmar, NY); Ramaswamy, Vidya (Niskayuna, NY)

2008-07-08

47

Bioinspired synthesis of multifunctional inorganic and bio-organic hybrid materials.  

PubMed

Owing to their physical and chemical properties, inorganic functional materials have tremendous impacts on key technologies such as energy generation and storage, information, medicine, and automotive engineering. Nature, on the other hand, provides evolution-optimized processes, which lead to multifunctional inorganic-bio-organic materials with complex structures. Their formation occurs under physiological conditions, and is goverened by a combination of highly regulated biological processes and intrinsic chemical properties. Nevertheless, insights into the molecular mechanisms of biomineralization open up promising perspectives for bioinspired and biomimetic design and the development of inorganic-bio-organic multifunctional hybrids. Therefore, biomimetic approaches may disclose new synthetic routes under ambient conditions by integrating the concept of gene-regulated biomineralization principles. The skeletal structures of marine sponges provide an interesting example of biosilicification via enzymatically controlled and gene-regulated silica metabolism. Spicule formation is initiated intracellularly by a fine-tuned genetic mechanism, which involves silica deposition in vesicles (silicassomes) under the control of the enzyme silicatein, which has both catalytic and templating functions. In this review, we place an emphasis on the fabrication of biologically inspired materials with silicatein as a biocatalyst. PMID:22510103

Andre, Rute; Tahir, Muhammad N; Natalio, Filipe; Tremel, Wolfgang

2012-04-17

48

Organic-inorganic hybrid films highly doped with functional centers for advanced photonics applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new family of organic-inorganic hybrid materials will be introduced as an undoubted candidate for advanced photonics applications. Alternating oxo-copolymers modified with organic functional groups were prepared through solventless and catalyst-free process. A variety of optical functional centers such as rare-earth ion, organic dye and metal\\/semiconductor nano-particles can be introduced into the systems with an excellent dispersivity to attain efficient

Hiroshi Kakiuchida; Masahide Takahashi

2011-01-01

49

Dense organic-inorganic framework materials containing transition metal ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hybrid inorganic-organic framework materials built upon metal cations and polyfunctional anionic ligands have arrived at the forefront of chemical research, boasting unique properties that derive from their diverse structures. The majority of these compounds are prepared through mild hydrothermal or solvothermal synthesis, at temperatures below 225°C. There has been a great deal of emphasis on porous coordination polymers, or "metal-organic frameworks" (MOFs), which exhibit a wide range of useful sorption and catalytic properties, but there is growing interest in a second class of hybrid frameworks which are denser and often have extended inorganic connectivity, which may be thought of as hybrid metal oxides. These denser compounds provide access to more oxide-like properties such as magnetism, along with improved thermal stability. The flourishing diversity of structures and dimensionalities seen in these materials has led to their growth into a major field of research. Here, the hydrothermal syntheses and crystal structures of fourteen new hybrid framework materials are reported, and additional properties are measured for several of them. The terminology used to describe this class of materials is laid out, and a classification scheme is introduced based on the dimensionalities of their structures. While a combinatorial approach for new compound discovery is often used, strategies for rational synthesis are also discussed. A family of isostructural 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate (gallate) hybrid frameworks of the first-row transition metals is produced, with chiral structures imparted by helical packing arrangements. Complex magnetic behavior is characterized in a pillared layered cobalt ethanedisulfonate, the structure of which features intricate metal-oxygen-metal connectivity. Frameworks of new, sometimes unreported, ligand molecules are created through the reactivities of aspartic acid and 5-hydroxyisophthalic acid under hydrothermal conditions. A family of two-ligand frameworks are created using 5-hydroxyisophthalic acid and 4,4'-bipyridyl, which form very different structures when reacted with Mn, Ni, Cu and Zn. Finally, reactions of Cu and Zn together with these two ligands lead to a family of four- and five-component hybrid frameworks showing even greater degrees of structural complexity.

Feller, Russell Kenneth

50

Synthesis, characterization, and antimicrobial properties of Cu-inorganic antibacterial material containing lanthanum  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a kind of new inorganic antibacterial material: Cu-antibacterial white carbon black containing lanthanum was synthesized. The characterization and antimicrobial effect of the Cu-antibacterial white carbon black containing lanthanum was investigated. Inorganic antibiotic materials comprised the carrier, the antibacterial ion and the additive. In this study, we choosed white carbon black as the carrier, which was compound by

Bin ZHANG; Yan LIN; Xiaoning TANG; Suqiong HE; Gang XIE

2010-01-01

51

Regeneration of mesoporous inorganic materials using ordered mesoporous carbon as the template  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regeneration of mesoporous inorganic materials from ordered mesoporous carbons has been successfully performed in the present work. A mesoporous silica SBA-15 are used as a template for the synthesis of the mesoporous carbon CMK-3. Subsequently, mesoporous inorganic replica materials can be obtained from the mesoporous carbon. This synthetic principle is very useful for the preparation of various kinds of the

Ji Man Kirn; Min Kang; Seung Hwan Yi; Jae Eui Yie; Sang Hoon Joo; Ryong Ryoo

2003-01-01

52

Functionalized coatings based on inorganic–organic polymers (ORMOCER ®s) and their combination with vapor deposited inorganic thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid polymers (ORMOCER®s) with inorganic and organic structural units can be used to generate new functionalized coatings on a variety of substrates (ceramics, metals, polymers, etc.). By processing at temperatures below 150°C, the formation of both inorganic and organic network structures using the sol–gel approach is possible.Due to the incorporation of special organic functional groups, important application related properties can

K.-H. Haas; S. Amberg-Schwab; K. Rose; G. Schottner

1999-01-01

53

Design and synthesis of inorganic/organic hybrid electrochemical materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ambient pressure method for drying sol-gel materials is developed to synthesize high porosity (80--90%), high surface area vanadium oxide and silica aerogel materials (150--300 and 1000 m2/g for vanadium pentoxide and silica, respectively). The synthesis approach uses liquid exchange to replace the pore fluid with a low surface tension, nonpolar solvent which reduces the capillary pressures developed during drying. The Good-Girifalco interaction parameter is used to calculate pore stresses resulting from drying silica gels from various liquids. Vanadium oxide/polypyrrole hybrid aerogels are prepared using three strategies. These approaches focus on either sequential or consecutive polymerization of the inorganic and organic networks. Microcomposite aerogels are synthesized by encapsulating a dispersion of preformed polypyrrole in a vanadium pentoxide gel. In the second approach, pyrrole is polymerized and doped within the pore volume of preformed vanadium pentoxide gel. When the inorganic and organic precursors are polymerized simultaneously, the resulting gels exhibited a nanometer scaled microstructure with homogeneous distributions of either phases. Through this route, a suitable microstructure and composition for a lithium secondary battery cathode is obtained. Lithiated aerogels of hydrated nickel, cobalt, and mixed nickel-cobalt oxides are synthesized from lithium hydroxide and transition metal acetate precursors. The XRD analyses indicate that the nickel containing gels exhibit a lithium deficiency (less than 1 Li/transition metal. By increasing the concentration of the lithium precursor the lithium content in nickel oxides is increased, and additional base solution is no longer required to catalyze gelation. A non-hydrolytic sol-gel approach is utilized to create tin oxide and tin-aluminum binary oxide aerogels with high porosity (90%) and high surface area (300 m2/g). XRD data from single phase tin oxide aerogel indicates the growth of SnO2 crystallites between 150--400°C in air, accompanied by a reduction in surface area (30 m2/g). Heated tin oxide aerogel exhibits comparable reversible specific capacity (390 mAh/g) as that of commercial SnO2 (420 mAh/g). Amorphous tin oxide aerogel is stabilized to higher temperatures when aluminum oxide is incorporated into the structure. The tin oxide phase remains electrochemically active towards lithium insertion and exhibits excellent reversibility during cycling.

Harreld, John H.

54

Miniemulsion Polymerization as a Means to Encapsulate Organic and Inorganic Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The miniemulsion technique greatly enhances the possibilities for the preparation of hybrid nanomaterials by encapsulating molecular compounds, liquids, or solid material. Using this technique, a wide variety of novel functional nanocomposites can be generated that are not accessible with other techniques. After briefly introducing miniemulsions and the miniemulsion polymerization techniques for the preparation of polymeric nanoparticles, this review focuses on the preparation of functional nanostructures by encapsulation of organic or inorganic material in polymeric matrices. The examples presented highlight the possibility to either protect the encapsulated material (e.g., dyes, drugs, magnetite, or DNA) and create completely new properties that emerge in a synergistic manner from the components of the nanocomposites, or to perform reactions in polymer-enclosed vessels of submicrometer size.

Weiss, Clemens K.; Landfester, Katharina

55

Inorganic Materials Biotechnology: A New Industrial Measurement Challenge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Biotechnological processing of inorganic, heavy elements has only begun to emerge as the authors start to understand microbial strategies and mechanisms of heavy element transformation. Chemical speciation of key, diagnostic intermediates and products of ...

G. J. Olson F. E. Brinckman

1986-01-01

56

Synthesis and applications of bioinspired inorganic nanostructured materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the study of biominerals may be traced back many centuries, it is only recently that biological principles have been applied to synthetic systems in processes termed "biomimetic" and "bioinspired" to yield materials syntheses that are otherwise not possible and may also reduce the expenditure of energy and/or eliminate toxic byproducts. Many investigators have taken inspiration from interesting and unusual minerals formed by organisms, in a process termed biomineralisation, to tailor the nanostructure of inorganic materials not necessarily found biogenically. However, the fields of nanoparticle synthesis and biomineralisation remain largely separate, and this thesis is an attempt to apply new studies on biomineralisation to nanomaterials science. Principally among the proteins that influence biomineralisation is a group comprised largely of negatively charged aspartic acid residues present in serum. This study is an investigation determining the ability of these serum proteins and other anolagous biomolecules to stabilise biologically relevant amorphous minerals and influence the formation of a variety of materials at the nanoscale. Three different materials were chosen to demonstrate this effect; gold was templated into nanosized single crystals by the action of bioorganic molecules, and the utility of these nanoparticles as a biosensor was explored. The influence of bioorganic molecules on the phase selection and crystal size restriction of titanium dioxide, an important semiconductor with many applications, was explored. The use of bioorganically derived nanoparticles of titanium dioxide was then demonstrated as a highly efficient photocatalyst. Finally, calcium carbonate, a prevalent biomineral was shown to form highly ordered structures over a variety of length scales and different crystalline polymorphs under the influence of a templating protein. In addition, an alternative route to producing calcium phosphate nanoparticle dispersions by mechanical filtration was explored and use as a transfection vector was optimised in two cell lines. Several significant achievements are presented: (i) the assessment of the relative ability of serum, serum derived proteins and their analogues to stabilize the amorphous state, (ii) the formation of single crystalline gold templated by an antibody, (iii) the formation of highly photocatalytically active nanoparticulate anatase by a phosphorylated cyclic esther, (iv) the formation of conical structures at the air liquid interface by the templating ability of a protein and (v) the optimisation of calcium phosphate nanoparticle mediated transfection in two cell lines by mechanical filtration.

Bassett, David C.

57

Functionally Graded Materials VII.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Functionally graded materials (FGMs) exhibit spatial variations, in composition and/or microstructure, which have been imposed for the specific purpose of controlling the resultant variations in the thermal, structural or functional properties. During the...

J. Gong L. Chen L. Zhang W. Pan

2003-01-01

58

Novel hybrid organic-inorganic sol-gel materials based on highly efficient heterocyclic push-pull chromophores  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the synthesis of sol-gel materials based on highly efficient heterocycle-based push-pull chromophores showing second- and third-order nonlinear optical activity. We show the proper functionalization of the best performing chromophores and their incorporation into a hybrid organic- inorganic sol-gel matrix. Different types of functionalization of the active molecule have been considered, including hydroxyl and alkoxysilyl end-groups. The functionalization strategy

Alessandro Abbotto; Renato Bozio; Giovanna Brusatin; Antonio Facchetti; Massimo Guglielmi; Plinio Innocenzi; Moreno Meneghetti; Giorgio A. Pagani; Raffaella Signorini

1999-01-01

59

Enhancement of laser properties of pyrromethene 567 dye incorporated into new organic–inorganic hybrid materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incorporation of pyrromethene 567 dye into newly synthesized organic–inorganic hybrid materials, laser photostabilities were demonstrated, which are, to the best of our knowledge, the highest achieved to date for both inorganic and hybrid matrices doped with pyrromethene dyes. These results evidence that, in order to reach the necessary photostability for a solid-state dye laser being competitive with liquid dye

Angel Costela; Inmaculada Garc??a-Moreno; Clara Gómez; Olga Garc??a; Roberto Sastre

2003-01-01

60

Metal ion-imprinted polymers—Novel materials for selective recognition of inorganics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ion-imprinted polymers (IIPs) are recently identified nano-porous polymeric materials which on leaching the imprint ion can rebind, sense or transport (when cast as membranes) selectively the target analyte in presence of closely related inorganic ions. The IIPs find interesting applications in solid phase extraction, sensors and membrane separations of inorganics. Unlike the molecularly imprinted polymers, the IIP field is in

T. Prasada Rao; R. Kala; S. Daniel

2006-01-01

61

Evaluation of the adhesion properties of inorganic materials with high surface energies.  

PubMed

With the aim of checking the validity of methods for characterizing the adhesion between inorganic materials with high surface energies, the properties of the adhesion between an inorganic material (indium tin oxide (ITO)) and model surfaces with various surface energies (Cl-, NH2-, CH(3)-, and CF3-functionalized surfaces) were evaluated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) apparatus. For this purpose, the AFM tip and the JKR lens were modified with ITO using radio frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering. The work of adhesion between the ITO coating and each model surface was estimated using AFM and the JKR apparatus and compared with the result obtained from contact angle measurements. The adhesion forces determined from the force-displacement curves (AFM) were found to agree with the predictions of the Derjaguin-Muller-Toporov (DMT) theory. The JKR equation used in the interpretation of the JKR experiments was modified by taking into account the differences between the surface and bulk moduli of the ITO-coated poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) lens. The ratio of the surface modulus to the bulk modulus we used in this modified JKR equation was obtained by determining the slope of the attracting part of the force-displacement curve. The values of the work of adhesion calculated using the modified JKR equation were also found to agree with the values obtained from contact angle measurements. We conclude that the two methods using AFM and the JKR apparatus can be used in the evaluation of the work of adhesion between inorganic materials with high surface energies such as metal and metal oxide surfaces. PMID:15518510

Cho, Jeong Ho; Lee, Dae Ho; Lim, Jung Ah; Cho, Kilwon; Je, Jung Ho; Yi, Jae Mok

2004-11-01

62

Generalized charge transport model for organic\\/inorganic material systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a generalized charge transport model for hybrid organic-inorganic semiconducting systems. The model is formed of five coupled nonlinear partial differential equations consisting of the Poisson's equation and four continuity equations for electrons, holes, excitons, and triplets. The model allows transformation of one particle (electron\\/hole, excitons, and triplets) to another through a transformation ratio. Variables are electric potential,

Seyyed Sadegh Mottaghian; Mahdi Farrokh Baroughi; Khadijeh Bayat; Matt Biesecker; Jung-Han Kimn

2010-01-01

63

New Organic-Inorganic Nanocomposite Materials for Energy Storage Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method is described by which the disulfide dimer of 2,5-dimercapto- 1,3,4-thiadiazole (diDMcT, see Scheme 1) can be oxidatively intercalated into the layered structure of a V2O5 xerogel. This intercalation reaction produces a new organic-inorganic compo...

E. Shouji D. A. Buttry

1998-01-01

64

Development of new inorganic luminescent materials by organic-metal complex route  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of novel inorganic luminescent materials has provided important improvements in lighting, display, and other technologically-important optical devices. The optical characteristics of inorganic luminescent materials (phosphors) depend on their physicochemical characteristics, including the atomic structure, homogeneity in composition, microstructure, defects, and interfaces which are all controlled by thermodynamics and kinetics of synthesis from various raw materials. A large variety of technologically-important phosphors have been produced using conventional high-temperature solid-state methods. For the synthesis of functional ceramic materials with ionic dopants in a host lattice, (such as phosphors), synthesis using organic-metal complex methods and other wet chemistry routes have been found to be excellent techniques. These methods have inherent advantages such as good control of stoichiometry by molecular level of mixing, product homogeneity, simpler synthesis procedures, and use of relatively-low calcination temperatures. Supporting evidence for this claim is accomplished by a comparison of photoluminescence characteristics of a commercially available green phosphor, Zn2SiO4:Mn, with the same material system synthesized by organic-metal synthesis route. In this study, new inorganic luminescent materials were produced using rare-earth elements (Eu3+, Ce3+, Tb3+ ) and transition metals (Cu+, Pb2+) as dopants within the crystalline host lattices; SrZnO2, Ba2YAlO 5, M3Al2O6 (M=Ca,Sr,Ba). These novel phosphors were prepared using the organic-metal complex route. Polyvinyl alcohol, sucrose, and adipic acid were used as the organic component to prepare the ceramic precursors. Materials characterization of the synthesized precursor powders and calcined phosphor samples was performed usingX-Ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Photon-Correlation spectroscopy, and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy techniques. In addition to the Fluorescence Spectrometer, and Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy, the Time Resolved Spectroscopy technique was also used to study the photoluminescence characteristics of the synthesized phosphors. Using these characterization techniques, and through careful comparisons with related studies in the literature, the mechanisms of luminescence for each of the new phosphor materials synthesized here was discussed in a detail.

Manavbasi, Alp

65

Calcium-containing inorganic polymers as potential bioactive materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vitro studies are reported of the behaviour of potassium aluminosilicate inorganic polymers containing 10 wt% Ca(OH)2, nanostructured calcium silicate and Ca3(PO4)2 exposed to simulated body fluid (SBF). Heating to 600 °C lowers the alkalinity of Ca3(PO4)2-containing samples, but their X-ray powder diffraction characteristics, 27Al, 29Si and 43Ca MAS NMR spectra are unchanged by heating. Exposure of the heated compounds to SBF

Kenneth J. D. MacKenzieNils; Nils Rahner; Mark E. Smith; Alan Wong

2010-01-01

66

Tetraalkylphosphonium polyoxometalate ionic liquids : novel, organic-inorganic hybrid materials.  

SciTech Connect

Pairing of a Keggin or Lindqvist polyoxometalate (POM) anion with an appropriate tetraalkylphosphonium cation is shown to yield the first members of a new family of ionic liquids (ILs). Detailed characterization of one of them, an ambient-temperature 'liquid POM' comprising the Lindqvist salt of the trihexyl(tetradecyl) phosphonium cation, by voltammetry, viscometry, conductimetry, and thermal analysis indicates that it exhibits conductivity and viscosity comparable to those of the one previously described inorganic-organic POM-IL hybrid but with substantially improved thermal stability.

Rickert, P. G.; Antonio, M. P.; Firestone, M. A.; Kubatko, K.-A.; Szreder, T.; Wishart, J. F.; Dietz, M. L.; Chemistry; Univ. of Notre Dame; BNL

2007-01-01

67

Strategies for the synthesis of thermoplastic polymer nanocomposite materials with high inorganic filling fraction.  

PubMed

The governing parameters controlling the miscibility of particle additives within polymeric host media are analyzed for the particular case of silica particle fillers embedded within a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) matrix. For athermal polymer-graft modification of particles (corresponding to equal chemical composition of graft and matrix polymer), compatibility is found to be a sensitive function of the degree of polymerization of graft and host polymer chains as well as the particle radius. In agreement with theoretical predictions, uniform particle dispersion is observed if the degree of polymerization of grafted chains is comparable to (or exceeds) the corresponding value of the polymer matrix. The resulting restriction to high degree of polymerization limits the accessible inorganic fraction that is attainable in athermal particle/polymer blends. In contrast, favorable interaction between grafted polymer chains and the polymeric host (as realized in the case of poly(styrene-r-acrylonitrile)-grafted particles embedded within PMMA matrix) is shown to facilitate thermodynamically stable and uniform particle dispersion across the entire compositional range even in the limit of large particle size, short grafted chains, and high molecular matrix chains. The synthesis of thermoplastic composite materials with inorganic fraction exceeding 50 vol % combining quantitative optical limiting within the UV frequency range and polymer-like mechanical properties is demonstrated. PMID:23786358

Ojha, Satyajeet; Dang, Alei; Hui, Chin Ming; Mahoney, Clare; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof; Bockstaller, Michael R

2013-07-01

68

Process for the pyrolytic treatment of organic, pseudo-organic and inorganic material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic and pseudo-organic materials such as waste materials, for example, are processed in a converter system and decomposed into various usable and reusable forms. Inorganic metals and salts are treated likewise in the same converter system and processed into various usable and reusable forms. While being carried by a conveyor through a controlled atmosphere treatment chamber, virtually free from combustion

1977-01-01

69

High Quality Direct Photo-patterned Microdisk Lasers with Organic\\/Inorganic Hybrid Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical microcavities are widely studied because they have many applications in fundamental physics, nonlinear optics, optical communication, and bio-sensing. At present, microcavity materials can be classified as two families: inorganic and organic materials. Organic microcavities usually have much lower cavity quality Q value, mostly due to the difficulties in obtaining very smooth cavity boundaries even with proper thermal reflow after

Xiang Wu; Qinghai Song; Hao Li; Zian He; Yanwu Zhang; Liying Liu; Lei Xu

2007-01-01

70

Structural control in the synthesis of inorganic porous materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mesoporous (2.0--50.0 nm pore diameter) and macroporous (50.0 nm on up) materials have been the basis of my studies. These materials, for many years, possessed large pore size distributions. Recently, however, it has been possible to synthesize both mesoporous and macroporous materials that possess highly ordered uniform pores throughout the material. Workers at Mobil Corporation in 1992 discovered a hexagonally

Brian Thomas Holland

1999-01-01

71

Synthesis of layered organic–inorganic nanohybrid material: an organic dye, naphthol blue black in magnesium–aluminum layered double hydroxide inorganic lamella  

Microsoft Academic Search

Open lamella systems such as layered double hydroxides (LDHs) can be used to generate new nanostructured materials of layered organic–inorganic nanohybrid type. The synthesis of a new nanocomposite material consisting of inorganic layers, Mg–Al-LDH (MAL) as a host and naphthol blue black (NBB), an organic dye as a guest was successfully done. Various concentrations of NBB, ranging from 0.001 to

Mohd Zobir bin Hussein; Zulkarnain Zainal; Asmah Hj Yahaya; Azira binti Abd Aziz

2002-01-01

72

Organic-inorganic hybrid films highly doped with functional centers for advanced photonics applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new family of organic-inorganic hybrid materials will be introduced as an undoubted candidate for advanced photonics applications. Alternating oxo-copolymers modified with organic functional groups were prepared through solventless and catalyst-free process. A variety of optical functional centers such as rare-earth ion, organic dye and metal/semiconductor nano-particles can be introduced into the systems with an excellent dispersivity to attain efficient optical activities. In the present paper, doping of rhodamine 6G dye or/and Au particles, etc., was demonstrated. Reversible photorefractive effect was observed in dye-doped hybrid thin film. Photothermal processing was used to attain such a reversible effect in combination with the slow dynamics of glassy nature of the photorefractive material. Rewritable holographic memory with a novel operating mechanism was studied.

Kakiuchida, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Masahide

2011-02-01

73

Inorganic Compounds for Passive Solar Energy Storage - Solid-State Dehydration Materials and High Specific Heat Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two classes of hydrated inorganic salts have been studied to assess their potential as materials for passive solar energy storage. The materials are part of the quaternary system CaO-A12O3-SO3-h2O and related chemical systems, and the two classes are typi...

L. Struble P. Brown

1986-01-01

74

New Polish certified reference materials for multielement inorganic trace analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of the activities of the Polish Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology in the field of preparation and certification of reference materials for multielement trace analysis is presented. A general strategy has been worked out and is briefly described with more detailed emphasis on the problem of data evaluation. Two geological-environmental materials recently issued [i.e. an Apatite Concentrate

Rajmund Dybczyfiski; Halina Polkowska-Motrenko; Zbigniew Samczyfiski; Zygmunt Szopa

1993-01-01

75

Structural control in the synthesis of inorganic porous materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mesoporous (2.0--50.0 nm pore diameter) and macroporous (50.0 nm on up) materials have been the basis of my studies. These materials, for many years, possessed large pore size distributions. Recently, however, it has been possible to synthesize both mesoporous and macroporous materials that possess highly ordered uniform pores throughout the material. Workers at Mobil Corporation in 1992 discovered a hexagonally arrayed mesoporous material, designated MCM-41, which exhibited uniform pores ranging from 2.0--10.0 nm in diameter. In my work MCM-41 was used as a host for the incorporation of meso-tetrakis(5-trimethylammoniumpentyl)porphyrin (TMAP-Cl) and as a model for the synthesis of mesoporous alumino- and galloaluminophosphates which were created using cluster precursors of the type MO4Al 12(OH)24(H2O)12 7+, M = Al or Ga. Macroporous materials with uniform pore sizes have been synthesized by our group with frameworks consisting of a variety of metal oxides, metals, organosilanes, aluminophosphates and bimodal pores. These materials are synthesized from the addition of metal precursors to preordered polystyrene spheres. Removal of the spheres results in the formation of macropores with highly uniform pores extending microns in length. Porous materials with uniform and adjustable pore sizes in the mesoporous and macroporous size regimes offer distinct advantages over non-ordered materials for numerous reasons. First, catalysis reactions that are based on the ability of the porous materials to impose size and shape restrictions on the substrate are of considerable interest in the petroleum and petrochemical industries. As pore diameters increase larger molecules can be incorporated into the pores, i.e., biological molecules, dyes, etc. For the macroporous materials synthesized by our group it has been envisioned that these structures may not only be used for catalysis because of increased efficiencies of flow but for more advanced applications, e.g., photonic crystals, porous electrodes, electrochemical capacitors, etc. One of the more interesting macroporous materials takes advantage of having silicalite as the framework. This bimodal pore material may find use as an acid catalyst as aluminum is doped into the framework.

Holland, Brian Thomas

76

Thermal and chemical degradation of inorganic membrane materials. Final report, August 1992--May 1995  

SciTech Connect

SRI International conducted a theoretical and experimental program to evaluate the long-term thermal and chemical degradation of inorganic membranes that are being developed to separate the gaseous products of coal gasification. A variety of developmental efforts are underway, including a number of projects sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), to improve the selectivity and permeability of porous inorganic membranes. DOE is also sponsoring efforts to extend the use of metallic membranes to new applications. Most developmental efforts have focused on hydrogen separation by inorganic membranes, which may be used to maximize hydrogen production from coal gas or to remove H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3} contaminants via thermal or catalytic decomposition in integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) systems. Inorganic membranes that have a high separation efficiency and exhibit both thermal and chemical stability would improve the economics of power generation from coal. Membrane materials that have been investigated include glass (silica), alumina, carbon, and metals (Pd and Pt). This report describes inorganic membrane materials, long term membrane exposure tests, membrane permeation tests, coal gasifier exposure tests, conclusions, and recommendations.

Damle, A.S.; Krishnan, G.N.; Sanjurjo, A.; Wood, B.J.; Lau, K.H.

1995-05-01

77

Composition and Electrical Property Relationships in Polycrystalline Inorganic Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this program is to establish the defect chemistry of compounds whose applicability depends on the types and amounts of ionic and electronic defects. Attention was focused in this project on LiNbO3, a material being studied for a variety of ele...

D. M. Smyth

1983-01-01

78

Radiation induced EPR centers in foodstuffs and inorganic materials.  

PubMed

EPR investigations of a variety of irradiated materials have provided the potential for useful dosimetry applications. Herbs and spices imported into Australia have been investigated to establish whether or not they have been irradiated. Post-irradiation studies have shown that there is more than one free radical species in most cases which decay rapidly with time. Changes to transition metal ion signals, e.g., Cu2+ or Fe3+, appear to be permanent against further irradiation. Thus if these signals change upon irradiation, the material almost certainly has not previously been irradiated. Power saturation studies of alanine, a favored dosimetry material, suggest two distinguishable types of behavior consistent with the presence of spin-flip transitions. Irradiation of vanadium doped beryl yields stable VO2+ ions which may provide a useful dosimetry material. Dosimetry applications would appear to demand low cost, user friendly, automated EPR spectrometers. A patented option based on a 2.5 GHz microstrip microwave bridge will be described briefly. PMID:8386046

Pilbrow, J R; Troup, G J; Hutton, D R; Rosengarten, G; Zhong, Y C; Hunter, C R

79

Biomimetic materials: recent developments in organic-inorganic hybrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are a variety of biological materials that are composites of ceramics and organic phases, and successfully combine impressive toughness with high modulus and strength. This behavior is in contrast to the general situation with synthetic composites, where toughness is generally found to decrease with increase in modulus and tensile strength. Preserving toughness is very important in many applications, as

Z. Ahmad; J. E. Mark

1998-01-01

80

Retention of organic and inorganic chemicals by the drainage\\/supply piping material  

Microsoft Academic Search

A critical issue facing the turfgrass industry is the environmental fate and transport of organic and inorganic chemicals used on golf courses. The fate and distribution of those chemicals are strongly influenced by sorptive interactions with soil and sediment. In this study, the drainage and water supply piping material (used for construction of a prototype encapsulated golf green) was utilized

Kun Li; W. A. Torello; Baoshan Xing

2000-01-01

81

Mechanical properties of hybrid inorganic-organic framework materials: establishing fundamental structure-property relationships.  

PubMed

The mechanical properties of hybrid framework materials, including both nanoporous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and dense inorganic-organic frameworks, are discussed in this critical review. Although there are relatively few studies of this kind in the literature, major recent advances in this area are beginning to shed light on the fundamental structure-mechanical property relationships. Indeed research into the mechanical behavior of this important new class of solid-state materials is central to the design and optimal performance of a multitude of technological applications envisaged. In this review, we examine the elasticity of hybrid frameworks by considering their Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, bulk modulus and shear modulus. This is followed by discussions of their hardness, plasticity, yield strength and fracture behavior. Our focus is on both experimental and computational approaches. Experimental work on single crystals and amorphized monoliths involved primarily the application of nanoindentation and atomic force microscopy to determine the elastic moduli and hardness properties. The compressibility and bulk moduli of single crystals and polycrystalline powders were studied by high-pressure X-ray crystallography in the diamond anvil cell, while in one instance spectroscopic ellipsometry has also been used to estimate the elastic moduli of MOF nanoparticles and deposited films. Theoretical studies, on the other hand, encompassed the application of first principles density-functional calculations and finite-temperature molecular dynamics simulations. Finally, by virtue of the diverse mechanical properties achievable in hybrid framework materials, we propose that a new domain be established in the materials selection map to define this emerging class of materials (137 references). PMID:21221446

Tan, Jin Chong; Cheetham, Anthony K

2011-01-10

82

Metal ion-imprinted polymers--novel materials for selective recognition of inorganics.  

PubMed

Ion-imprinted polymers (IIPs) are recently identified nano-porous polymeric materials which on leaching the imprint ion can rebind, sense or transport (when cast as membranes) selectively the target analyte in presence of closely related inorganic ions. The IIPs find interesting applications in solid phase extraction, sensors and membrane separations of inorganics. Unlike the molecularly imprinted polymers, the IIP field is in its infancy and has been briefly reviewed here along with some rough guidelines and concepts for further development of IIPs. PMID:17723701

Rao, T Prasada; Kala, R; Daniel, S

2006-06-30

83

Synthesis and characterizations of new negatively charged organic–inorganic hybrid materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of organic–inorganic hybrid membranes were prepared on microporous alumina substrates through dip-coating with the sol–gel solution of negatively charged polymer precursors PEO-[Si(OEt)3]2SO3H (preparation of which discussed in [C.M. Wu, T.W. Xu, W.H. Yang, Synthesis and characterizations of new negatively charged organic–inorganic hybrid materials: effect of molecular weight of sol–gel precursor, J. Solid State Chem. 177 (4–5) (2004) 1660–1666]).

Cuiming Wu; Tongwen Xu; Ming Gong; Weihua Yang

2005-01-01

84

Luminescent Organic-Inorganic Hybrids of Functionalized Mesoporous Silica SBA-15 by Thio-Salicylidene Schiff Base  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Novel organic-inorganic mesoporous luminescent hybrid material N, N'-bis(salicylidene)-thiocarbohydrazide (BSTC-SBA-15) has been obtained by co-condensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate and the organosilane in the presence of Pluronic P123 surfactant as a template. N, N'-bis(salicylidene)-thiocarbohydrazide (BSTC) grafted to the coupling agent 3-(triethoxysilyl)-propyl isocyanate (TESPIC) was used as the precursor for the preparation of mesoporous materials. In addition, for comparison, SBA-15 doped with organic ligand BSTC was also synthesized, denoted as BSTC/SBA-15. This organic-inorganic hybrid material was well-characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and photoluminescence spectra, which reveals that they all have high surface area, uniformity in the mesostructure. The resulting materials (BSTC-SBA-15 and BSTC/SBA-15) exhibit regular uniform microstructures, and no phase separation happened for the organic and the inorganic compounds was covalently linked through Si-O bonds via a self-assemble process. Furthermore, the two materials have different luminescence range: BSTC/SBA-15 presents the strong dominant green luminescence, while BSTC-functionalized material BSTC-SBA-15 shows the dominant blue emission.

Li, Ying; Yan, Bing; Liu, Jin-Liang

2010-05-01

85

Luminescent Organic-Inorganic Hybrids of Functionalized Mesoporous Silica SBA-15 by Thio-Salicylidene Schiff Base  

PubMed Central

Novel organic–inorganic mesoporous luminescent hybrid material N, N?-bis(salicylidene)-thiocarbohydrazide (BSTC-SBA-15) has been obtained by co-condensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate and the organosilane in the presence of Pluronic P123 surfactant as a template. N,N?-bis(salicylidene)-thiocarbohydrazide (BSTC) grafted to the coupling agent 3-(triethoxysilyl)-propyl isocyanate (TESPIC) was used as the precursor for the preparation of mesoporous materials. In addition, for comparison, SBA-15 doped with organic ligand BSTC was also synthesized, denoted as BSTC/SBA-15. This organic–inorganic hybrid material was well-characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and photoluminescence spectra, which reveals that they all have high surface area, uniformity in the mesostructure. The resulting materials (BSTC-SBA-15 and BSTC/SBA-15) exhibit regular uniform microstructures, and no phase separation happened for the organic and the inorganic compounds was covalently linked through Si–O bonds via a self-assemble process. Furthermore, the two materials have different luminescence range: BSTC/SBA-15 presents the strong dominant green luminescence, while BSTC-functionalized material BSTC-SBA-15 shows the dominant blue emission.

2010-01-01

86

Integrative self-assembly of functional hybrid nanoconstructs by inorganic wrapping of single biomolecules, biomolecule arrays and organic supramolecular assemblies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synthesis of functional hybrid nanoscale objects has been a core focus of the rapidly progressing field of nanomaterials science. In particular, there has been significant interest in the integration of evolutionally optimized biological systems such as proteins, DNA, virus particles and cells with functional inorganic building blocks to construct mesoscopic architectures and nanostructured materials. However, in many cases the fragile nature of the biomolecules seriously constrains their potential applications. As a consequence, there is an on-going quest for the development of novel strategies to modulate the thermal and chemical stabilities, and performance of biomolecules under adverse conditions. This feature article highlights new methods of ``inorganic molecular wrapping'' of single or multiple protein molecules, individual double-stranded DNA helices, lipid bilayer vesicles and self-assembled organic dye superstructures using inorganic building blocks to produce bio-inorganic nanoconstructs with core-shell type structures. We show that spatial isolation of the functional biological nanostructures as ``armour-plated'' enzyme molecules or polynucleotide strands not only maintains their intact structure and biochemical properties, but also enables the fabrication of novel hybrid nanomaterials for potential applications in diverse areas of bionanotechnology.

Patil, Avinash J.; Li, Mei; Mann, Stephen

2013-07-01

87

A study of the interaction of thioindigo dye, with several inorganic host materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Maya Blue has been the focus of numerous studies and is believed to be a mixture of palygorskite clay and indigo dye.1,2 Several derivatives of this pigment have been developed with intriguing properties. For instance, the dye thioindigo reacts with the palygorskite clay to exhibit a broad range of colors from red to blue under UV-Vis excitation. Based on FT-Raman and computer simulation, previous work performed in our group could relate indigo and thioindigo interaction to the aluminum sites in the framework. 3,4 The work performed with other inorganic host materials such as, layer structures and zeolites have displayed reversible acid indicator properties, similar to the ones observed in concentrated sulfuric acid. Spectroscopic analyses and computer modeling of the above mentioned interactions have been evaluated. Results obtained by these techniques showed that in dehydrated materials a disturbance of thioindigo C=O at 1655 cm-1 to lower frequencies occurs, due to the C=O---Lewis acid sites (LAS) interaction. In the presence of water, a smaller C=O shift due to C=O---HO(H)LAS was observed. Moreover, displacement of the 001 plane in some layer materials confirmed the effect of water on the color changes displayed by UV-Vis spectroscopy. Based on these premises, it was concluded that weak electron donor-acceptor interactions took place between thioindigo functional groups (electron donors) and LAS of the aluminum silicate framework (electron acceptor). LAS (extra-framework aluminum and exchangeable cations) high hydration enthalpy made them extremely susceptible to water molecules (electron donors); generating a hydrogen bond between the two sites. The reversibility of these chromatic hybrid materials could have potential applications as water sensors and charge transfer photosensitizers in nanocrystalline TiO2-based solar cells.

Ramirez, Alejandra

88

Development of Highly Efficient Two-photon Absorption Materials: Organic Dye-Inorganic Nanolayered Silicate Hybrid Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed highly efficient two-photon absorption (TPA) materials, which are consisted of organic TPA dye and inorganic nanolayered silicate (clay). Linear and nonlinear optical characterization for the TPA materials ware carried out.

Y. Tanamura; K. Kamada; H. Misawa

2005-01-01

89

Laboratory illustrations of the transformations and deposition of inorganic material in biomass boilers  

SciTech Connect

Boilers fired with certain woody biomass fuels have proven to be a viable, reliable means of generating electrical power. The behavior of the inorganic material in the fuels is one of the greatest challenges to burning the large variety of fuels available to biomass combustors. Unmanageable ash deposits and interactions between ash and bed material cause loss in boiler availability and significant increase in maintenance costs. The problems related to the behavior of inorganic material now exceed all other combustion-related challenges in biomass-fired boilers. This paper reviews the mechanisms of ash deposit formation, the relationship between fuel properties and ash deposit properties, and a series of laboratory tests in Sandia`s Multifuel Combustor designed to illustrate how fuel type, boiler design, and boiler operating conditions impact ash deposit properties.

Baxter, L.L. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Jenkins, B.M. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Biological and Argicultural Engineering

1995-08-01

90

Functioning of inorganic/organic battery separators in silver-zinc cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of three experimental studies related to the inorganic/organic battery separator operating mechanism are described: saponification of the plasticizer, resistivity of the simulated separators, and zincate diffusion through the separators. The inorganic/organic separator appears to be a particular example of a general class of ionic conducting films composed of inorganic fillers and/or substrates bonded together by an organic polymer containing an incompatible plasticizer that may be leached by the electrolyte. The I/O separator functions as a microporous film of varying tortuosity with essentially no specific chemical inhibition to zincate diffusion.

Philipp, W. H.; May, C. E.

1976-02-01

91

Functioning of inorganic/organic battery separators in silver--zinc cells  

SciTech Connect

The results of three experimental studies related to the inorganic/organic battery separator operating mechanism are described: saponification of the plasticizer, resistivity of the simulated separators, and zincate diffusion through the separators. The inorganic/organic separator appears to be a particular example of a general class of ionic conducting films composed of inorganic fillers and/or substrates bonded together by an organic polymer containing an incompatible plasticizer that may be leached by the electrolyte. The I/O separator functions as a microporous film of varying tortuosity with essentially no specific chemical inhibition to zincate diffusion. (auth)

Philipp, W.H.; May, C.E.

1976-02-01

92

A new anionic exchange stir bar sorptive extraction coating based on monolithic material for the extraction of inorganic anion.  

PubMed

A novel anionic exchange stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) coating based on poly(2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyltrimethylammonium chloride-co-divinylbenzene) monolithic material for the extraction of inorganic anion was prepared. The effect of preparation conditions such as ratio of functional monomer to cross-linker, content of porogenic solvent on the extraction efficiencies were investigated in detailed. The monolithic material was characterized by elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. In order to investigate the extraction capacity of the new coating for inorganic anion, the new SBSE was combined with ionic chromatography with conductivity detection, Br-, NO3-, PO4(3-) and SO4(2-) were selected as detected solutes. Several extractive parameters, including pH value and ionic strength in sample matrix, desorption solvent, extraction and desorption time were optimized. The results showed that strongly ionic strength did not favor the extraction of anlaytes. Under the optimum experimental conditions, low detection limits (S/N=3) and quantification limits (S/N=10) of the proposed method for the target anions were achieved within the range of 0.92-2.62 and 3.03-9.25 microg/L, respectively. The method also showed good linearity, simplicity, practicality and low cost for the extraction inorganic anions. Finally, the proposed method was successfully used to detect the two different trademarks of commercial purified water with satisfactory recovery in the range of 70.0-92.6%. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first to use SBSE to enrich inorganic anions. PMID:20576270

Huang, Xiaojia; Lin, Jianbing; Yuan, Dongxing

2010-06-08

93

Organic nanocrystals grown in sol-gel matrices: new hybrid organic-inorganic materials for optics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a simple and generic preparation of stable organic nanocry stals grown in gel-glass matrices. The synthesis\\u000a of these hybrid organic-inorganic materials is based on the confined nucleation and growth of organic phases in the pores\\u000a of dense gels. For bulk nanocomposite samples, narrow size distributions of particles (10–20 nm in diameter) are obtained.\\u000a We have extended this

Virginie Monnier; Emilie Dubuisson; Nathalie Sanz; Alain Ibanez

2008-01-01

94

The self-assembling and application of inorganic antibacterial material made of natural nanoporous carrier  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inorganic antimicrobial material was inhibited to the microbes with the added metal ion, Zn. The primary wet product carrying\\u000a 5%–10% zinc ion was generated under the following conditions: temperature was 95 °C, solution zinc concentration was 1.2–2.0\\u000a mol\\/L, and the ratio of Zn solution to zeolite weight was 5: 1. The final stable product was manufactured after baking in

Chunbao Sun; Beihai Zhou; Hao Ding; Dongdong Zeng

2008-01-01

95

Plaster materials from waste calcium sulfate containing chemicals, organic fibers and inorganic additives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plaster materials made of waste gypsum or flue-gas-desulferized (FGD) gypsum with chemicals;organic and inorganic additives were studied. Glucose;citric acid and sodium bicarbonate were incorporated to retard the hydration of plaster. Saw dust (SD);coconut fibers (CCF) and tobacco waste fiber (TWF) were incorporated to improve the thermal property. Diatomaceous earth (DE);fly ash (FA) and bottom ash (BA) were incorporated to improve

P. Chindaprasirt; K. Boonserm; T. Chairuangsri; W. Vichit-Vadakan; T. Eaimsin; T. Sato; K. Pimraksa

2011-01-01

96

Polarity controlled by the composition of inorganic recording materials in Al-Si binary system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique was introduced to control the polarity of discs. Inorganic materials of binary Al-Si were used as recording layers in our study. By adjusting the layer thickness of Al and Si individually, we found that over a certain thickness ratio of Al-Si double layers, the reflectivity shift measured by a static tester altered from high-to-low into low-to-high. By using

Ru-Lin Yeh; Hsun-Hao Chang; Bing-Mau Chen; Teng-Chien Yu

2004-01-01

97

Evaluation of thermal conductive resistance at organic-inorganic interface and development of thermal conductive insulation materials for electric devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of organic-inorganic interfaces on thermal conductivity of composite materials has been studied by evaluating thermal conductive resistance at the organic-inorganic interfaces experimentally. Polymer layer was sandwiched with thin ceramic plates to make multi-layer stacked samples. Through the comparison of the thermal conductivity of the multi-layer-stacked materials, and those of the single component materials for both polymer and ceramics,

Keiji Fukushima; Yoshitaka Takezawa; Tadafumi Adschiri

2011-01-01

98

Supramolecularly self-organized nanomaterials: A voyage from inorganic particles to organic light-harvesting materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2009 the U.S. National Science Foundation announced the realignment of the Chemistry Divisions introducing the new interdisciplinary program of "Macromolecular, Supramolecular and Nanochemistry." This statement officially recognizes a field of studies that has already seen the publication of many thousands of works in the past 20 years. Nanotechnology and supramolecular chemistry can be found in the most diverse disciplines, from biology to engineering, to physics. Furthermore, many technologies rely on nanoscale dimensions for more than one component. Nanomaterials and technologies are on the market with a range of applications from composite materials, to electronics, to medicine, to sensing and more. This thesis will introduce a variety of studies and applications of supramolecular chemistry to form nanoscale photonic materials from soft matter. We will first illustrate a method to synthesize metallic nanoparticles using plasmids DNA as a mold. The circular DNA functions as a sacrificial template to shape the particles into narrowly monodispersed nanodiscs. Secondly, we will describe the synthesis of a highly fluorinated porphyrin derivative and how the fluorines improve the formation of ultra thin films when the porphyrin is blended with fullerene C60. Finally, we will show how to increase the short-circuit current in a solar cell built with an internal parallel tandem light harvesting design. A blend of phthalocyanines, each with a decreasing optical band gap, is supramolecularly self-organized with pyridyl-C60 within thin films. The different band gaps of the single phthalocyanines capture a wider segment of the solar spectrum increasing the overall efficiency of the device. In conclusion, we have presented a number of studies for the preparation of inorganic and organic nanomaterials and their application in supramolecularly organized photonic devices.

Varotto, Alessandro

99

Design of Bioactive Organic-inorganic Hybrid Materials with Self-setting Ability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paste-like materials with ability of self-setting are attractive for bone substitutes, since they can be injected from the small hole with minimized invasion to the patient. Although bone cements which set as apatite are clinically used, there is limitation on clinical applications due to their mechanical properties such as high brittleness and low fracture toughness. To overcome this problem, organic-inorganic hybrids based on a flexible polymer are attractive. We have obtained an idea for design of self-setting hybrids using polyion complex fabricated by ionic interaction of anionic and cationic polymers. We aimed at preparation of organic-inorganic hybrids exhibiting self-setting ability and bioactivity. The liquid component was prepared from cationic chitosan aqueous solution. The powder component was prepared by mixing various carrageenans with ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP). The obtained cements set within 1 day. Compressive strength showed tendency to increase with increase in ?-TCP content in the powder component. The prepared cements formed the apatite in simulated body fluid within 3 days. Novel self-setting materials based on organic-inorganic hybrid can be designed utilizing ionic interaction of polysaccharide.

Miyazaki, T.; Machida, S.; Morita, Y.; Ishida, E.

2011-10-01

100

Cryogenic Properties of Inorganic Insulation Materials for ITER Magnets: A Review  

SciTech Connect

Results of a literature search on the cryogenic properties of candidate inorganic insulators for the ITER TF magnets are reported. The materials investigated include: Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, AlN, MgO, porcelain, SiO{sub 2}, MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, ZrO{sub 2}, and mica. A graphical presentation is given of mechanical, elastic, electrical, and thermal properties between 4 and 300 K. A companion report reviews the low temperature irradiation resistance of these materials.

Simon, N.J.

1994-12-01

101

Functional flexible organic-inorganic hybrid polymer for two photon patterning of optical waveguides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lately in literature described use of two photon based photo processes for producing optical interconnections arises the need of suitable optical functional materials. The present work concerns the development, investigation and processing of a flexible siloxane based organic-inorganic hybrid (OIH) material for the fabrication of optical waveguides for data transmission on printed circuit boards (PCBs). In the developed system the waveguide core is formed by two photon induced photopolymerization (TPIP) of selected monomers, which are dissolved in a polysiloxane matrix. Through the photo induced polymerization an interpenetrating network is generated, resulting in a refractive index change between the non-illuminated waveguide cladding and the illuminated core material. Due to the optical transparency, flexibility and chemical and thermal stability, polysiloxanes were chosen as optical matrix material. Different types of methacrylates with a high refractive index were used as monomers.In order to obtain a high contrast in refractive index, the monomers were removed from non-illuminated regions in a vacuum process after laser exposure. The written optical waveguides were evidenced by phase contrast microscopy, revealing an excellent structuring behavior of the developed material. Optical techniques e.g. cut-back measurements and light extraction tests were applied to characterize the inscribed waveguide structures and to detect the resulting optical loss. Conversion rate of the monomers, which occurred through structuring, was verified by FTIR. To determine the refractive index change upon UV irradiation spectroscopic ellipsometry was applied. As a result of the polymerization, a difference of ?n = 0.02 between the non-illuminated cladding and the illuminated core material was detected. Additionally, prototypes of optical interconnects on PCBs were fabricated by inscription of a waveguide bundle between a mounted laser and photo diode, resulting in the desired increase of the transmitted photocurrent after TPA structuring. In conclusion, the obtained results demonstrate that fully flexible optical interconnects are accessible by the developed process.

Bichler, Sabine; Feldbacher, Sonja; Woods, Rachel; Satzinger, Valentin; Schmidt, Volker; Jakopic, Georg; Langer, Gregor; Kern, Wolfgang

2012-03-01

102

Intelligent functionally graded material: Bamboo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the shape and ingenious construction of biological hard tissues are the result of a continuous process of optimization, their basic characteristics such as microstructures, functions, and modelling systems fascinate the designers of engineering structures. Through the study of functionally graded materials, we hope to develop new superior material\\/structure concepts by using or modifying the construction of living organisms. The

Hideaki Takahashi

1995-01-01

103

Chemico-physical and functional properties of inorganic sunscreens in cosmetic products.  

PubMed

Synopsis This paper reports preliminary results of a study carried out on liquid crystal emulsions added to three different inorganic sunscreens: ultrafine zinc oxide, ultrafine titanium dioxide (inorganic-treated) and ultrafine titanium dioxide (organic-treated hydrophobically). The aim of the work was to investigate the influence of chemico-physical properties of inorganic sunscreens on the microstructure of cosmetic emulsions. The study was carried out using three different techniques: rheological measurements performed in dynamic conditions, to study the homogeneity of samples and their structural features; dispersion of powders in emulsions by optical microscopy and SEM/EDX analysis; and functionality of emulsions by UV spectroscopy, with adhesive tape as substrate. Results show that the different chemico-physical properties of the micropigments lead to different interactions with emulsion components; these interactions may affect the functionality and microstructure of the whole system, with loss of stability. PMID:19250480

Semenzato, A; Dall'aglio, C; Boscarini, G M; Ongaro, A; Bettero, A; Sangalli, M E; Brunetta, F

1994-12-01

104

Polarity controlled by the composition of inorganic recording materials in Al-Si binary system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A technique was introduced to control the polarity of discs. Inorganic materials of binary Al-Si were used as recording layers in our study. By adjusting the layer thickness of Al and Si individually, we found that over a certain thickness ratio of Al-Si double layers, the reflectivity shift measured by a static tester altered from high-to-low into low-to-high. By using this technique, the feasibility for making both types of discs has been proved according to good testing results from dynamic tester.

Yeh, Ru-Lin; Chang, Hsun-Hao; Chen, Bing-Mau; Yu, Teng-Chien

2004-09-01

105

Organic-inorganic hybrid functional carbon dot gel glasses.  

PubMed

Silane pre-functionalized carbon dots, arbitrarily doped (0-100% scale) carbon dot nanohybrid gel glasses and macrostructures with high luminescence (quantum yields = 47% and 88%, respectively) and broadband optical limiting properties (532 and 1064 nm) are reported. These glasses are optically, thermally, and mechanically stable, as well as highly transmissive (ca. 90%) in the 400-1350 nm region. PMID:22396335

Xie, Zheng; Wang, Fu; Liu, Chun-yan

2012-03-06

106

Application of Highly Efficient, Recyclable Organic–Inorganic Hybrid Material Immobilized Palladium Catalyst in Amine? and Phosphine?Free Suzuki–Miyaura Reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palladium immobilized on organic–inorganic (silica?gel) hybrid materials behaves as a very efficient heterogeneous catalyst in the Suzuki–Miyaura coupling reaction. Aryl iodides, bromides, and activated chlorides, coupled with organoboronic acids (Suzuki–Miyaura reaction), smoothly afford the corresponding cross?coupling products in excellent yields under phosphine?free and amine?free reaction conditions in the presence of 3?aminopropyl functionalized silica?gel immobilized palladium (silica?APTS?Pd) as catalyst. Furthermore, the

Liyuan Zhang; Lei Wang; Hongji Li; Pinhua Li

2008-01-01

107

Polymer/inorganic nanocomposites with tailored hierarchical structure as advanced dielectric materials  

SciTech Connect

Most advances and commercial successes of polymer/inorganic nanocomposites rely only on the dispersion of nanoparticles in a polymer matrix. Such approaches leave untapped opportunities where performance can be improved by controlling the larger length-scale structures. Here, we review selected examples where the hierarchical structure (from millimeter to nanometer) is tailored to control the transport properties of the materials, giving rise to marked property enhancements, relevant to dielectric materials for power capacitors. These examples address composite structures that are self-assembled, both at the nm and the micron scales, and, thus, can be produced using standard industrial practices. Specifically, polyethylene (PE) blends or poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) copolymers are reinforced with nanofillers; these composites are designed with high filler orientation, which yielded marked improvements in electric-field breakdown strength and, consequently, large improvements in their recoverable energy densities.

Manias, Evangelos [Pennsylvania State University; Randall, Clive [Pennsylvania State University; Tomer, Vivek [Pennsylvania State University; Polyzos, Georgios [ORNL

2012-01-01

108

Selective oxidation of anthracene using inorganic–organic hybrid materials based on molybdovanadophosphoric acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inorganic–organic hybrid materials were synthesized by immobilization of molybdovanadophosphoric acids onto mesoporous silicas, such as MCM-41, MCM-48, and SBA-15, through an organic linker. 12-Molybdovanadophosphoric acids of the general formula H3+xPMo12?xVxO40 (x=0–3)?nH2O, such as H4[PMo11VO40]?32.5H2O, H5[PMo10V2O40]?32.5H2O, and H6[PMo9V3O40]?34H2O (represented as V1PA, V2PA, and V3PA, respectively) were prepared and immobilized onto mesoporous silica. All the catalyst materials were characterized by elemental analysis,

Ankur Bordoloi; F. Lefebvre; S. B. Halligudi

2007-01-01

109

Photochromic organic-inorganic composite materials prepared by sol-gel processing: properties and potentials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sol-gel method which features a low-temperature wet-chemical process opens vast possibilities to incorporating organic dyes into solid matrices for various optical applications. In this paper we present our experimental results on the sol-gel derived photochromic organic- inorganic composite (Ormocer) materials following an introductory description of the sol-gel process and a brief review on the state of the art of the photochromic solids prepared using this method. Our photochromic spirooxazine-Ormocer gels and coatings possess better photochromic response and color-change speed than the corresponding photochromic polymer coatings and similar photochemical stability to the latter. Further developments are proposed as to tackle the temperature dependence problem and further tap the potentialities of the photochromic dye-Ormocer material for practical applications.

Hou, Lisong; Mennig, Martin; Schmidt, Helmut

1994-09-01

110

Selective crystallization with preferred lithium-ion storage capability of inorganic materials  

PubMed Central

Lithium-ion batteries are supposed to be a key method to make a more efficient use of energy. In the past decade, nanostructured electrode materials have been extensively studied and have presented the opportunity to achieve superior performance for the next-generation batteries which require higher energy and power densities and longer cycle life. In this article, we reviewed recent research activities on selective crystallization of inorganic materials into nanostructured electrodes for lithium-ion batteries and discuss how selective crystallization can improve the electrode performance of materials; for example, selective exposure of surfaces normal to the ionic diffusion paths can greatly enhance the ion conductivity of insertion-type materials; crystallization of alloying-type materials into nanowire arrays has proven to be a good solution to the electrode pulverization problem; and constructing conversion-type materials into hollow structures is an effective approach to buffer the volume variation during cycling. The major goal of this review is to demonstrate the importance of crystallization in energy storage applications.

2012-01-01

111

Density-functional study of organic-inorganic hybrid single crystal ZnSe(C2H8N2)1/2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unusual properties (i.e., strong band dispersion, high carrier mobility, wide absorption-energy window, and sharp band-edge transition) that are desirable for hybrid-material electronics and for solar electric energy conversion are predicted to exist in the organic-inorganic chalcogenide single crystal ZnSe(C2H8N2)1/2 by using density-functional calculations. A simple mechanism, namely that the band-edge electronic states of the hybrid composite is predominantly determined by the inorganic constituent, is revealed to be responsible for governing these properties. Suggestions for further engineering hybrid semiconductors are also provided.

Fu, Huaxiang; Li, Jing

2004-04-01

112

Laser ablation and static secondary ion mass spectrometry capabilities in the characterization of inorganic materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, mass spectrometry techniques such as laser ablation and static secondary ion mass spectrometry (LA-MS and s-SIMS, respectively) have been successfully applied to the characterization of inorganic compounds in solid state phase: s-SIMS is known as a surface analytical technique whereas LA-MS involves atoms in a greater thickness (bulk). In the case of s-SIMS, the direct ejection of ions from the surface upon primary ion sputtering for ion fluence down to 10 13 ions/cm 2, leads to a simple and direct diagnostic by comparing the spectra to databases. On the opposite, characterization of inorganic compounds by means of LA-MS is not immediate due to the most detected ions are issued from complex gas phase reactions. This feature can be successfully applied to investigate matter transfer processes occurring during pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) experiments. By the mean of a systematic and comparative study of LA-MS and s-SIMS spectra for binary (Cu-O) or ternary (Fe-Cr-O) oxide systems, we demonstrate that both techniques are complementary to each other in the field of material science.

Aubriet, Frédéric; Poleunis, Claude; Chaoui, Nouari; Maunit, Beno??t; Millon, Eric; Muller, Jean-François; Bertrand, Patrick

2002-01-01

113

Assembly of bacteriophage into functional materials.  

PubMed

For the last decade, the fabrication of ordered structures of phage has been of great interest as a means of utilizing the outstanding biochemical properties of phage in developing useful materials. Combined with other organic/inorganic substances, it has been demonstrated that phage is a superior building block for fabricating various functional devices, such as the electrode in lithium-ion batteries, photovoltaic cells, sensors, and cell-culture supports. Although previous research has expanded the utility of phage when combined with genetic engineering, most improvements in device functionality have relied upon increases in efficiency owing to the compact, more densely packable unit size of phage rather than on the unique properties of the ordered nanostructures themselves. Recently, self-templating methods, which control both thermodynamic and kinetic factors during the deposition process, have opened up new routes to exploiting the ordered structural properties of hierarchically organized phage architectures. In addition, ordered phage films have exhibited unexpected functional properties, such as structural color and optical filtering. Structural colors or optical filtering from phage films can be used for optical phage-based sensors, which combine the structural properties of phage with target-specific binding motifs on the phage-coat proteins. This self-templating method may contribute not only to practical applications, but also provide insight into the fundamental study of biomacromolecule assembly in in vivo systems under complicated and dynamic conditions. PMID:23280916

Yang, Sung Ho; Chung, Woo-Jae; McFarland, Sean; Lee, Seung-Wuk

2012-12-20

114

Review on the latest design of graphene-based inorganic materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The breathtakingly fast evolution of research on graphene and its modification methods in the recent 8 years has made possible the various preparations and applications of its derivatives. These hybrid structures exhibit excellent material characteristics including high carrier mobility and radiate recombination rate as well as long-term stability since graphene sheets possess super electrical conductivity, mechanical flexibility and good optical transparency. Besides, the versatile and fascinating properties of the nanostructures grown on graphene layers make it possible to fabricate high-performance electronic, optoelectronic and catalytic devices. This review presents an overview of the latest design of structure, synthetic methods and applications of graphene-based inorganic nanocomposites. The challenges and perspectives of these emerging hybrid heterostructures are also discussed.

Li, Na; Cao, Minhua; Hu, Changwen

2012-09-01

115

a Comparative Study of Laser Cleaning of Archaeological Inorganic Materials with Traditional Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ancient artifacts excavated from archaeological site were covered with different soil contaminates and stains which changed their chemical composition and aesthetic appearance. Ancient inorganic materials such as bronze, glass and pottery covered with different contaminates such as corrosion products, soil deposits, organic stains and gray white encrustations. Lasers are currently being tested for a wide range of conservation applications. Since they are highly controllable and can be selectively applied, lasers can be used to achieve more effective and safer cleaning of archaeological artifacts and protect their surface details. In the present work we investigated in a general way the laser cleaning of bronze corrosion products, glass, and pottery by Q-switched Nd:YAG Lasers. The results were compared with conventional methods. The artifact samples were examined by Light Optical Microscope (LOM) and showed no noticeable damage.

Imam, Hisham; Elsayed, Khaled; Madkour, Fatma

2011-06-01

116

Synthesis and Characterization of New Organic, Inorganic, and Organometallic Tetrathiafulvalenes and Cadmium Selenide Hybrid Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of new organic, inorganic, and organometallic complexes based on the tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) backbone have been synthesized and characterized for the development of new materials. The organic research of this thesis outlines a novel one-pot synthetic procedure and new purification route for the selective recovery of unsymmetrical TTFs. The advancements regarding this chemistry center around the phosphorus mediated coupling of two different thione heterocycles, and are based on the results of mechanistic studies using ^{31}P NMR. In addition to this, the successful synthesis and characterization of three new classes of tetrathiafulvalenes is presented. These materials may be used for conductive liquid crystals, metal -ion sensor, or high-spin organic materials. The inorganic chemistry developed in this manuscript presents two firsts in TTF chemistry. The work begins with a synopsis of a new procedure for the selective generation and isolation of tetrathiafulvalene tetrathiolate (TTFS _4^{4-}); and following the discovery of this ligand synthesis, we succeeded in making the first reported homobimetallic TTFS_4 inorganic coordination complexes using the late transition metals Pt and Ni. The reactions to produce these complexes were accomplished by introducing TTFS _4^{4-} Li^+ 4 to the metal cis-dichlorides rm Cl_2Pt(PPh_3)_2, Cl _2Ni(DPPP), and rm Cl_2Ni(4,4 ^'-Mebipy) and subsequently isolating the products. These studies led to the recovery and characterization of first metal-TTF hybrid materials. As a direct consequence of the difficulties encountered with the late transition metal coordination complexes, we also synthesized the first early transition metal organometallic TTFS_4^ecies using the reaction of TTFS_4^{4-} Li^+_4 with rm Cl_2TiR_2 (R = Cp, Cp*, i-PrCp). An important result of this research was the first single crystal X-ray structure of a homobimetallic TTFS _4 complex. In addition to this, these materials proved useful in elucidating the photophysical and electrochemical perturbations resulting from changes in the ligand environment for a given metal. A final application of this class of compounds is that rm Cp_2TiTTFS_4TiCp _2 allows for the divergent approach (via transmetallation) to hetero- and homobimetallic coordination complexes. As an extension of the work on early transition metal metallocenes we also attempted to make rm Cp_2VTTFS_4VCp_2 complexes in order to study the electronic spin interactions through the TTFS_4 bridge. However, it was subsequently discovered that the reaction chemistry, on going from Ti to V, was quite different. This led us to explore the synthesis of alkyl substituted vanadocenes to facilitate the recovery of these metal-TTF materials. A major drawback toward accomplishing this goal was the paucity of literature results concerning vanadocene dichlorides. We therefore developed a new, completely general, approach to V based metallocenes, and crystallographically characterized two new complexes. A final area of research presented in this thesis concerns work undertaken on semiconducting CdSe nanocrystallites, or quantum dots. We developed the first nanocrystallite networks by bridging the CdSe clusters with TTFS _4, and subsequently explored the resulting materials photophysical properties. In addition to this we extended the current state of knowledge and postulated a new bonding model concerned with their (CdSe) surfaces using ^1H NMR. This allowed us to quantify the amount of coverage and what modes of bonding are present, and relate these attributes to the photochemical properties derived from passivation of the outer shell defect states. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

Belot, John Allen, Jr.

117

Deposition of sol-gel-derived inorganic and composite material films on InP for integrated optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present the fabrication of sol-gel derived silica based films on InP using both inorganic and composite material precursors. Thin silica films with thicknesses less than 0.5 micrometers are achieved using an inorganic precursor by means of multiple spin coatings and rapid thermal processing at an annealing temperature of 450 degrees C. The cracking pattern of the inorganic silica film on InP is analyzed. Thick films are derived from composite materials by multiple spin coatings with only furnace baking at 150 degrees C. In addition, the different properties of each type of films and their potential applications in terms of monolithic integration are discussed.

Liu, Jian; Lam, Yee Loy; Chan, YuenChuen; Zhou, Yan; Que, Wenxiu; Tan, Gu; Ooi, BoonSiew

1999-11-01

118

Optical properties and structure of a new, low-loss, hybrid organic-inorganic host material for molecular dopants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new hybrid organic-inorganic material has been developed which has excellent properties as an optical material and host for molecular dopants. The undoped material has very low optical loss at 1.06, 1.3, and 1.55 micrometers as well as in the visible region. In addition, a 20 mW HeNe laser beam directed through the sample is barely visible. The structure of

Carol A. Capozzi; Angela B. Seddon

1994-01-01

119

Effect of exposure test conditions on leaching behavior of inorganic contaminants from recycled materials for roadbeds.  

PubMed

Throughout the utilization of recycled materials, weathering factors such as humidity, gas composition and temperature have the potential to change the material properties and enhance the release of inorganic contaminants. In this research, the effects of weathering factors on recycled gravel materials for roadbeds were evaluated by applying three kinds of accelerating exposure tests: freezing-melting cycle test, carbonation test, and dry-humid cycle test. The effects of exposure tests were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and serial batch leaching test, making it possible to identify the change in release mechanisms. Sixteen elements, mainly metals, were investigated. Tested samples were molten slag from municipal solid waste, molten slag from automobile shredded residue, and crushed natural stone. After the exposure tests, the increase of cumulative release in the leaching test was generally less than 2.0 times that of the samples without the exposure test. Among the three test conditions, freezing-melting showed a slightly higher effect of enhancing the release of constituents. XRD analysis showed no change in chemical species. From these results, it was determined that the stony samples were stable enough so that their properties were not significantly changed by the exposure tests. PMID:19095431

Sakanakura, Hirofumi; Osako, Masahiro; Kida, Akiko

2008-12-17

120

Muorganic/inorganic nanostructured materials: Towards synergistic mechanical and optical properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study utilizes the "bricks" and "mortar" approach to assemble representative organic and inorganic nanostructures into functional hybrid nanomaterials. Zero-dimensional spherical nanoparticles, one-dimensional silver nanowires, and two-dimensional silver nanoplates represent the inorganic functional nanostructured "bricks". Functional-group bearing polystyrene2-polyethyleneoxide1 (PS2-PEO 1) star polymer, poly(allylamine hydrochloride), and poly(styrene sulfonate) were employed as the "mortar". Mechanical, optical, and electrical properties of the resulting organic/inorganic microstructures were investigated to establish structure-property relationships. Beyond the design, fabrication, and characterization of these novel hybrid nanomaterials two potential applications have been explored: (1) ultra-thin composite film-based pressure sensor and (2) single nanoparticle SERS-based chemical sensors. One-dimensional silver nanowires (diameter = 80 +/- 5 nm, length = 6 +/- 2 microm) were sandwiched into layer-by-layer (LbL) polyelectrolyte film to yield a series of robust freestanding ultrathin structures (< 100 nm thick). The sandwich architecture allows facile control over volume fraction of silver nanowires (2.5 ? ? ? 22.5%), and hence their composite Young's moduli. Furthermore, the composite film was found to be conductive (110--660 S/cm) within the range of volume fraction in par with percolation threshold predicted for a two-dimensional film. Subsequently, an array of silver nanowires was unidirectionally aligned by means of Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique. The unidirectionally oriented silver nanowires were sandwiched into LbL film to give an anisotropic nanocomposite film with much stiffer (fivefold) mechanical response in the direction of nanowire orientation. In addition to their tailored mechanical and electrical properties, these films are robust and can be easily transferred onto various microfabricated substrates. To fabricate these nanostructures, two experimental techniques were developed to characterize the micromechanical properties of the nanocomposite film and array of one-dimensional metallic nanostructures: interferometry of bulged film and buckling of array of highly-oriented nanowires, respectively. Next, using the same silver nanowire building block a different design of organic/inorganic hybrid nanostructures was explored. With the aid of a three-arm (X-PEO)1-(PS1-Y)2 star polymer linker, spherical gold nanoparticles were assembled onto a silver nanowire surface. We demonstrated that such hybrid, silver-gold nanowires resembling nanocobs, possess significant SERS ability and can serve as bright anisotropic SERS-markers for Raman-based chemical sensor. The influence of core nanostructure geometries (1-D silver nanowire versus 2-D silver nanoplates) were subsequently investigated for their single-nanoparticle hybrid SERS-enhancing ability and control over optical plasmon absorption within the visible and near infrared range. In the latter design, an improved design of SERS-nanostructure was explored by replacing the three-arm star polymer with polyelectrolyte "mortar" which can absorb chemical analytes into the intra-particle "hot-spots".

Gunawidjaja, Ray

121

Organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization utilizing fossil fuel combustion waste materials  

SciTech Connect

A laboratory study was conducted at the Western Research Institute to evaluate the ability of innovative clean coal technology (ICCT) waste to stabilize organic and inorganic constituents of hazardous wastes. The four ICCT wastes used in this study were: (1) the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) atmospheric fluidized bed combustor (AFBC) waste, (2) the TVA spray dryer waste, (3) the Laramie River Station spray dryer waste, and (4) the Colorado-Ute AFBC waste. Four types of hazardous waste stream materials were obtained and chemically characterized for use in evaluating the ability of the ICCT wastes to stabilize hazardous organic and inorganic wastes. The wastes included an API separator sludge, mixed metal oxide-hydroxide waste, metal-plating sludge, and creosote-contaminated soil. The API separator sludge and creosote-contaminated soil are US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-listed hazardous wastes and contain organic contaminants. The mixed metal oxide-hydroxide waste and metal-plating sludge (also an EPA-listed waste) contain high concentrations of heavy metals. The mixed metal oxide-hydroxide waste fails the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) for cadmium, and the metal-plating sludge fails the TCLP for chromium. To evaluate the ability of the ICCT wastes to stabilize the hazardous wastes, mixtures involving varying amounts of each of the ICCT wastes with each of the hazardous wastes were prepared, allowed to equilibrate, and then leached with deionized, distilled water. The leachates were analyzed for the hazardous constituent(s) of interest using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure.

Netzel, D.A.; Lane, D.C.; Brown, M.A.; Raska, K.A.; Clark, J.A.; Rovani, J.F.

1993-09-01

122

Inorganic nanotubes: One contribution of 12 to a Theme 'Nanotechnology of carbon and related materials'  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the discovery of carbon fullerenes and carbon nanotubes, it was hypothesized that nanoparticles of inorganic compounds with layered (two-dimensional) structure, such as MoS2, will not be stable against folding and form nanotubes and fullerene-like structures: IF. The synthesis of numerous other inorganic nanotubes has been reported in recent years. Various techniques for the synthesis of inorganic nanotubes, including high-temperature

Reshef Tenne; C. N. R. Rao

2004-01-01

123

Litter ammonia generation: moisture content and organic versus inorganic bedding materials.  

PubMed

Negative impacts on the environment, bird well-being, and farm worker health indicate the need for abatement strategies for poultry litter NH(3) generation. Type of bedding affects many parameters related to poultry production including NH(3) losses. In a randomized complete block design, 3 trials compared the cumulative NH(3) volatilization for laboratory-prepared litter (4 bedding types mixed with excreta) and commercial litter (sampled from a broiler house during the second flock on reused pine wood chips). Litters were assessed at the original moisture content and 2 higher moisture contents. Broiler excrement was mixed with pine wood shavings, rice hulls, sand, and vermiculite to create litter samples. Volumetrically uniform litter samples were placed in chambers receiving humidified air where the exhaust passed through H(3)BO(3) solution, trapping litter-emitted NH(3). At the original moisture content, sand and vermiculite litters generated the most NH(3) (5.3 and 9.1 mg of N, respectively) whereas wood shavings, commercial, and rice hull litters emitted the least NH(3) (0.9-2.6 mg of N). For reducing NH(3) emissions, the results support recommendations for using wood shavings and rice hulls, already popular bedding choices in the United States and worldwide. In this research, the organic bedding materials generated the least NH(3) at the original moisture content when compared with the inorganic materials. For each bedding type, incremental increases in litter moisture content increased NH(3) volatilization. However, the effects of bedding material on NH(3) volatilization at the increased moisture levels were not clearly differentiated across the treatments. Vermiculite generated the most NH(3) (26.3 mg of N) at the highest moisture content. Vermiculite was a novel bedding choice that has a high water absorption capacity, but because of high NH(3) generation, it is not recommended for further study as broiler bedding material. Controlling unnecessary moisture inputs to broiler litter is a key to controlling NH(3) emissions. PMID:21597054

Miles, D M; Rowe, D E; Cathcart, T C

2011-06-01

124

Periodic mesoporous organic–inorganic hybrid materials: Applications in membrane separations and adsorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review discusses the state of the art on the synthesis, functionalization and emerging applications of mesoporous silica materials. Mesoporous silica materials can be synthesized as membranes or powders with controlled pore size and geometry depending on the synthesis conditions. Mesoporous membranes are generally grown on porous supports by solvent evaporation or hydrothermal synthesis techniques. Synthesis of powdered mesoporous silica

Parveen Kumar; Vadim V. Guliants

2010-01-01

125

Synthesis and characterization of two new photochromic inorganic-organic hybrid materials based on Keggin-type polyoxometalates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new photochromic inorganic-organic hybrid materials formed from Keggin-type polyoxometalates(POMs) and metronidazole (C6H9N3O3, MNZ), formulated as H3PMo12O40·3MNZ·3H2O(1) and H3PW12O40·3MNZ·3H2O(2), were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectra, electronic spectra, electron spin resonance (ESR)\\u000a spectra and thermogravi-metry-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA). Reflectance spectra show the presence of weak intermolecular\\u000a charge transfer between the organic and inorganic moieties in the solid state.

Zongjun Ku; Surong Jin

2008-01-01

126

Oxidation control of fluxes for mixed-valent inorganic oxide materials synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation is concerned with controlling the flux synthesis and ensuing physical properties of mixed-valence metal oxides. Molten alkali metal nitrates and hydroxides have been explored to determine and exploit their variable redox chemistries for the synthesis of mixed-valent oxide materials. Cationic and anionic additives have been utilized in these molten salts to control the relative concentrations of the redox-active species present to effectively tune and cap the electrochemical potential of the flux. Atoms like bismuth, copper, and manganese are capable of providing different numbers of electrons for bonding. With appropriate doping near the metal-insulator transition, many of these mixed-valent inorganic metal oxides exhibit extraordinary electronic and magnetic properties. Traditionally, these materials have been prepared by classical high temperature solid state routes where microscopic homogeneity is hard to attain. In these routes, the starting composition dictates the doping level, and in turn, the formal oxidation state achieved. Molten flux syntheses developed in this work have provided the potential for preparing single-phase, homogeneous, and crystalline materials. The redox-active fluxes provide a medium for enhanced doping and mixed-valency control in which the electrochemical potential adjusts the formal oxidation state, and the doping takes place to maintain charge neutrality. The two superconductor systems investigated are: (1) the potassium-doped barium bismuth oxides, and (2) the alkali metal- and alkaline earth metal-doped lanthanum copper oxides. Controlled oxidative doping has been achieved in both systems by two different approaches. The superconducting properties of these materials have been assessed, and the materials have been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction and e-beam microprobe elemental analyses. In the course of these studies, several other materials have been identified. Analysis of these materials, and the conditions necessary to prepare them, have further aided in developing a model for use in controlling the electrochemical potential of the flux. The alkali metal hydroxide fluxes have large electrochemical windows, and a variety of chemical reducers have been explored in the copper system. Control of the electrochemical potential has been developed through compositional control of the flux whereby the entire range of copper oxidation states, including the metal, has been achieved at a single temperature, in a single flux system. Environmentally-friendly copper ore mimics have been prepared for thermodynamic analysis to aid in mineral transport modeling. The hydrothermally-prepared homogeneous copper- and cobalt-doped birnessites have been structurally, compositionally, and physically analyzed.

Schrier, Marc David

127

Mineral classification revisited: use of quasiternary diagrams in the visualization of compositional distribution of inorganic material in coal  

SciTech Connect

A comparative study to determine the elemental composition of individual inorganic particles in the Pittsburgh No. 8 coal sample has been carried out with two different magnifications by SEM-EDS. The classification of particles into mineral classes left 30-40% of the particles unclassified. It was deduced that the sample contained the following minerals: calcite, kaolinite, pyrite, quartz, apatite, muscovite, and montmorillonite. The information of the compositional distribution of inorganic material in the coal sample is enhanced by use of the quasiternary diagrams. Minerals, such as apatite, calcite, pyrite, and quartz, can clearly be identified from the quasiternary diagram. A suitable elemental definition of the three corners in the quasiternary diagram enables the discussion of the compositional distribution and identity of the inorganic material that remains unclassified in the mineral classification. By combining the information from mineral classification and quasiternary diagrams, the composition of the inorganic material of the coal sample can be understood. This information can be used in the prediction of ash-related problems regardless of the fuel type. 50 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Heikki J. Ollila; Jouni H.A. Daavitsainen; Laura H. Nuutinen; Minna S. Tiainen; Mika E. Virtanen; Risto S. Laitinen [University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland). Department of Chemistry

2006-03-15

128

Preference for different inorganic nitrogen forms among plant functional types and species of the Patagonian steppe.  

PubMed

We have explored species-specific preferences for nitrate (NO3 (-)) and ammonium (NH4 (+)) as an alternative niche separation in ecosystems where nitrogen (N) is present mostly in inorganic forms. The Patagonian steppe is dominated by shrubs and grasses. Shrubs absorb water and nutrients from deep soil layers, which are poor in N, while grasses have the opposite pattern, absorbing most of their water and nutrients from the upper layers of the soil. We hypothesized that the preferences of shrub and grass for inorganic N forms are different and that the rate of potential N uptake is greater in shrubs than in grasses. To test this hypothesis, we grew individuals of six dominant species in solutions of different NH4 (+):NO3 (-) concentration ratios. Nitrate uptake was found to be higher in shrubs, while ammonium uptake was similar between plant functional types. The NH4 (+):NO3 (-) uptake ratio was significantly lower for shrubs than grasses. Shrubs, which under field conditions have deeper rooting systems than grasses, showed a higher N absorption capacity than grasses and a preference for the more mobile N form, nitrate. Grasses, which had lower N uptake rates than shrubs, preferred ammonium over nitrate. These complementary patterns between grasses and shrubs suggest a more thorough exploitation of resources by diverse ecosystems than those dominated by just one functional type. The loss of one plant functional group or a significant change in its abundance would therefore represent a reduction in resource use efficiency and ecosystem functioning. PMID:23812108

Gherardi, Laureano A; Sala, Osvaldo E; Yahdjian, Laura

2013-06-29

129

Thermoplastics Modified with Nanoscale Inorganic Macromers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We have taken a unique approach to the synthesis and study of hybrid organic/inorganic materials. Our method involves synthesizing nano-size inorganic P(l0)R(7)Si(8)O(12) clusters which contain seven inert 'R' groups for solubility and only one functional...

T. S. Haddad P. T. Mather H. G. Jeon A. Romo- Uribe A. R. Farris

1998-01-01

130

A combined remote Raman and fluorescence spectrometer system for detecting inorganic and biological materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a combined remote telescopic Raman and laser-induced native fluorescence (LINF) spectrograph with 532 nm pulsed laser excitation and a gated CCD detector. With this system, we have measured time-resolved Raman and LINF spectral measurements at 9 m with 10-ns time resolution. A comparison of Raman spectra of calcite crystal and that of chicken eggshell show that the CaCO3 in the chicken eggshell is arranged in a calcite structure. The strong LINF band in the spectrum of the calcite crystal has lifetime longer than 1 µs, whereas the lifetime of LINF bands of the eggshell are in 10's of nano-sec (ns). The time-resolved Raman spectra of tomato and poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrimum) green leaves show resonance Raman features of carotenes. The time-resolved remote LINF spectrum of ruby crystals, and LINF spectra of tomato and poinsettia green leaves yield information that the LINF lifetime of ruby lines is much longer (in milliseconds (ms)) as compared with the fluorescence lifetime of the tomato and the poinsettia leaves (in 10s of ns). These results show that it will be possible to discriminate between inorganic and biogenic materials on the basis of LINF lifetimes even with 8 nano-sec laser pulses and gated detection.

Sharma, Shiv K.; Misra, Anupam K.; Lucey, Paul G.

2006-12-01

131

[Evaluation of mental functions in workers exposed to metallic mercury, inorganic lead and carbon disulfide].  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to determine the similarities and differences between the groups of dysfunctions detectable using psychologic tests in workers exposed to metallic mercury, inorganic lead and carbon disulfide. The study groups included male workers examined in the Clinic of Occupational Diseases of the Institute of Occupational Medicine in Lodz. The subjects were supposed to the chronically intoxicated with Hg (27 persons), Pb (40 persons) and CS2 (40 persons). A wide variety of tests was used to examine reference groups matched appropriately according to sex, age and level of education. The comparative analysis of results showed that the range and extend of a decrease in psychic functions depend on the type of a neurotoxic agent. The most serious disorders (frequently those of organic brain disease type) were found in subjects exposed to CS2. Exposure to metallic mercury resulted in functional disorders of the psychic sphere, while exposure to inorganic lead caused some minor functional changes. The results of the psychological examination of the subjects may be useful both for individual analysis and for screening. PMID:1435245

Sikora, A; Langauer-Lewowicka, H

1992-01-01

132

ROMP-Derived cyclooctene-based monolithic polymeric materials reinforced with inorganic nanoparticles for applications in tissue engineering  

PubMed Central

Summary Porous monolithic inorganic/polymeric hybrid materials have been prepared via ring-opening metathesis copolymerization starting from a highly polar monomer, i.e., cis-5-cyclooctene-trans-1,2-diol and a 7-oxanorborn-2-ene-derived cross-linker in the presence of porogenic solvents and two types of inorganic nanoparticles (i.e., CaCO3 and calcium hydroxyapatite, respectively) using the third-generation Grubbs initiator RuCl2(Py)2(IMesH2)(CHPh). The physico-chemical properties of the monolithic materials, such as pore size distribution and microhardness were studied with regard to the nanoparticle type and content. Moreover, the reinforced monoliths were tested for the possible use as scaffold materials in tissue engineering, by carrying out cell cultivation experiments with human adipose tissue-derived stromal cells.

Weichelt, Franziska; Lenz, Solvig; Tiede, Stefanie; Reinhardt, Ingrid

2010-01-01

133

Activation and splitting of carbon dioxide on the surface of an inorganic electride material.  

PubMed

Activation of carbon dioxide is the most important step in its conversion into valuable chemicals. Surfaces of stable oxide with a low work function may be promising for this purpose. Here we report that the surfaces of the inorganic electride [Ca24Al28O64](4+)(e(-))4 activate and split carbon dioxide at room temperature. This behaviour is attributed to a high concentration of localized electrons in the near-surface region and a corrugation of the surface that can trap oxygen atoms and strained carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide molecules. The [Ca24Al28O64](4+)(e(-))4 surface exposed to carbon dioxide is studied using temperature-programmed desorption, and spectroscopic methods. The results of these measurements, corroborated with ab initio simulations, show that both carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide adsorb on the [Ca24Al28O64](4+)(e(-))4 surface at RT and above and adopt unusual configurations that result in desorption of molecular carbon monoxide and atomic oxygen upon heating. PMID:23986101

Toda, Yoshitake; Hirayama, Hiroyuki; Kuganathan, Navaratnarajah; Torrisi, Antonio; Sushko, Peter V; Hosono, Hideo

2013-08-29

134

Organic-inorganic hybrid materials for optical fibres' protective coatings and luminophores' matrices in optical fibre's UV sensors applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the paper the preliminary results of the investigation on the possible application of the photo-curable hybrid material synthesis for either optical fibres' protective coatings or UV-VIS transducers' (luminophores in optical fibres' UV sensors) matrices have been described. As the initial synthesis materials the sol-gel silica and UV-curable polyglycols' acrylates have been used. The results of the organic-inorganic polymers' photopolymerization process investigation as well as the properties of the obtained materials have been presented.

Rayss, Jan; Podko?cielny, Wies?aw; Gorgol, Andrzej; Widomski, Jan; Chodkowska, Eliza; Kaczor, Karolina

2007-05-01

135

Functional materials for rechargeable batteries.  

PubMed

There is an ever-growing demand for rechargeable batteries with reversible and efficient electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Rechargeable batteries cover applications in many fields, which include portable electronic consumer devices, electric vehicles, and large-scale electricity storage in smart or intelligent grids. The performance of rechargeable batteries depends essentially on the thermodynamics and kinetics of the electrochemical reactions involved in the components (i.e., the anode, cathode, electrolyte, and separator) of the cells. During the past decade, extensive efforts have been dedicated to developing advanced batteries with large capacity, high energy and power density, high safety, long cycle life, fast response, and low cost. Here, recent progress in functional materials applied in the currently prevailing rechargeable lithium-ion, nickel-metal hydride, lead acid, vanadium redox flow, and sodium-sulfur batteries is reviewed. The focus is on research activities toward the ionic, atomic, or molecular diffusion and transport; electron transfer; surface/interface structure optimization; the regulation of the electrochemical reactions; and the key materials and devices for rechargeable batteries. PMID:21394791

Cheng, Fangyi; Liang, Jing; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun

2011-03-11

136

Use of a capacitance voltage technique to study copper drift diffusion in (porous) inorganic low- k materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cu+ drift diffusion in two inorganic low-k materials is evaluated. The diffusion is investigated by measuring shifts in the flatband voltage of capacitance\\/voltage measurements on Cu gate capacitors after bias temperature stressing. The Cu+ drift rate in SiOxCy (2.7?k?3.1) is considerably lower than in PECVD oxide. This electrical method is not suited for a porous silicon resin (k?2.0) because of

F. Lanckmans; K. Maex

2002-01-01

137

The effect of Si\\/Al ratio and moisture on an organic\\/inorganic hybrid material: Thioindigo\\/montmorillonite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colored Organic\\/Inorganic Hybrid Materials (OIHM) with reversible properties were prepared by a solid-state reaction between several montmorillonites (MMT) with different Si\\/Al ratio (Bentolite L®, Texas, Wyoming and Kunipia deposits) and a neutral organic dye (thioindigo) at 413K for nine hours. Spectroscopic and thermogravimetric analysis of the above mentioned interactions were evaluated. Results obtained by these techniques revealed an influence of

Alejandra Ramírez; Candice Sifuentes; Felicia S. Manciu; Sridhar Komarneni; Keith H. Pannell; Russell R. Chianelli

2011-01-01

138

Synthesis and characterization of nanocomposite organic/inorganic hybrid materials using living cationic polymerization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of novel chlorosilyl functional initiators have been prepared and applied for the first time in the living cationic polymerization of isobutylene (IB). Well-defined polyisobutylenes (PIBs) carrying mono-, di-, and trichlorosilyl head-group, and a tert-chloro end-group were synthesized using newly designed silyl-functional initiators in conjunction with TiCl4 in Hex:MeCl (60:40, v:v) at -80°C. End-group analysis by 1H NMR spectroscopy verified the product structure and the survival of the Si-Cl head-groups during the polymerization. The chlorosilyl functional initiators and chlorosilyl functional PIBs have been employed for the synthesis of PIB brushes on planar silicate substrates by the "grafting from" and "grafting to" techniques. Structurally well-defined polymer/inorganic nanocomposites were prepared by surface-initiated living cationic polymerization of isobutylene (IB). The living cationic polymerization of IB was initiated from initiators self-assembled on the surface of silica nanoparticles in the presence of additional soluble "free initiator" with TiCl4 in hexanes/CH3Cl (60/40, v/v) at -80°C. The polymerization displayed the diagnostic criteria for living cationic polymerization and provided densely grafted polymers of controlled molecular weight with an approximate graft density of 3.3 chains/nm 2. The surface-initiated polymerization of IB without added "free initiator" also yielded grafted polymer chains with good molecular weight control and narrow molecular weight distribution (Mw/M n). A series of novel hybrid poly(styryl-POSS), poly(isobutylene- b-(styryl-POSS)), and poly(isobutylene-b-(styryl-POSS)- b-isobutylene) are synthesized and characterized. Living cationic polymerization of styryl-POSS macromer was carried out using the 1-chloro-1-(4-methyphenyl)ethane (p-MeStCl)/TiCl4/MeChx:CH3Cl (60:40, v:v)/-80°C system in the presence of DTBP. Using these conditions, we have synthesized AB diblock, and ABA linear triblock copolymers containing polyisobutylene (PIB)-based rubbery mid block (B) with amorphous glassy poly(styryl-POSS) end blocks (A) by living cationic polymerization using sequential monomer addition. Well-defined PIB-b-P(styryl-POSS) and PIB- b-P(styryl-POSS)-b-PIB have been successfully prepared. The styryl-POSS based hybrid polymers were characterized by thermogravimetry and GPC measurements. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Kim, Iljin

139

Novel organic polymer-inorganic hybrid material zinc poly(styrene-phenylvinylphosphonate)-phosphate prepared with a simple method  

SciTech Connect

A novel type of organic polymer-inorganic hybrid material layered crystalline zinc poly(styrene-phenylvinylphosphonate)-phosphate (ZnPS-PVPP) was synthesized under mild conditions in the absence of any template. And the ZnPS-PVPP were characterized by FT-IR, diffusion reflection UV-vis, AAS, N{sub 2} volumetric adsorption, SEM, TEM and TG. Notably, this method was entirely different from the traditional means used for preparing other zinc phosphonate. Moreover, it could be deduced that ZnPS-PVPP possessed the potential applications for catalyst supports. In the initial catalytic tests, the catalysts immobilized onto ZnPS-PVPP showed comparable or higher activity and enantioselectivity with that of catalysts reported by our group in the asymmetric epoxidation of unfunctional olefins. - Graphical Abstract: Zinc poly(styrene-phenylvinylphosphonate)-phosphate was a novel type of layered crystalline organic polymer-inorganic hybrid material prepared under mild conditions without addition of any template and could be used as heterogeneous catalyst supports. Highlights: > New types of layered crystalline inorganic-organic polymer hybrid materials zinc poly(styrene-phenylvinylphosphonate-phosphate(ZnPS-PVPP)). > ZnPS-PVPP prepared under mild condition without adding of any template. > Immobilized chiral salen Mn (III) catalysts on ZnPS-PVPP supports show comparative activity and enantioselectivity with that of on ZSPP or ZPS-PVPA.

Huang Jing [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Southwest University, Research Institute of Applied Chemistry Southwest University, Key Laboratory of Applied Chemistry of Chongqing Municipality, Key Laboratory of Eco-environments in Three Gorges Reservoir Region Ministry of Education, Chongqing 400715 (China); Fu Xiangkai, E-mail: fxk@swu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Southwest University, Research Institute of Applied Chemistry Southwest University, Key Laboratory of Applied Chemistry of Chongqing Municipality, Key Laboratory of Eco-environments in Three Gorges Reservoir Region Ministry of Education, Chongqing 400715 (China); Wang Gang; Miao Qiang [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Southwest University, Research Institute of Applied Chemistry Southwest University, Key Laboratory of Applied Chemistry of Chongqing Municipality, Key Laboratory of Eco-environments in Three Gorges Reservoir Region Ministry of Education, Chongqing 400715 (China)

2011-09-15

140

Controlled polymerization in mesoporous silica toward the design of organic-inorganic composite nanoporous materials.  

PubMed

Free-radical polymerization inside mesoporous silica has been investigated in order to open a route to functional polymer-silica composite materials with well-defined mesoporosity. Various vinyl monomers, such as styrene, chloromethyl styrene, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, and methacrylic acid, were polymerized after impregnation into mesoporous silicas with various structures, which were synthesized using polyalkylene oxide-type block copolymers. The location of the polymers was systematically controlled with detailed structures of the silica framework and the polymerization conditions. Particularly noteworthy is the polymer-silica composite structure obtained by in situ polymerization after the selective adsorption of monomers as a uniform film on silica walls. The analysis of XRD data and the N(2) adsorption isotherms indicates the formation of uniform polymer nanocoating. The resultant polymer-silica composite materials can easily be post-functionalized to incorporate diverse functional groups in high density, due to the open porous structure allowing facile access for the chemical reagent. The fundamental characteristics of the composite materials are substantiated by testing the biomolecule's adsorption capacity and catalytic reactivity. Depending on the structure and composition of polymers, the resultant polymer-silica composite materials exhibit notably distinct adsorption properties toward biomolecules, such as proteins. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the nanocoatings of polymers deposited on the mesopore walls have remarkably enhanced catalytic activity and selectivity, as compared to that of bulk polymer resins. We believe that, due to facile functionalization and attractive textural properties, the mesoporous polymer-silica composite materials are very useful for applications, such as adsorption, separation, host-guest complexes, and catalysis. PMID:15701027

Choi, Minkee; Kleitz, Freddy; Liu, Dinan; Lee, Hee Yoon; Ahn, Wha-Seung; Ryoo, Ryong

2005-02-16

141

Hybrid organic–inorganic materials containing poled zwitterionic push–pull chromophores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dihydroxy functionalised zwitterionic push-pull chromophores have been introduced in 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane, tetraethylorthosilicate and N-[(3-trimethoxysilyl)propyl]ethylenediamine derived hybrid materials. Hybrid films have been deposited as thick layers via spin-coating. The amine groups introduced with the organically modified alkoxide bearing amine functionalities have been found to have an effective scavenger effect of the dye photobleaching.The addition, during the synthesis of the precursor sol, of

Giovanna Brusatin; Plinio Innocenzi; Alessandro Abbotto; Luca Beverina; Giorgio A. Pagani; Mauro Casalboni; Felice Sarcinelli; Roberto Pizzoferrato

2004-01-01

142

Miniemulsion Polymerization as a Means to Encapsulate Organic and Inorganic Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The miniemulsion technique greatly enhances the possibilities for the preparation of hybrid nanomaterials by encapsulating\\u000a molecular compounds, liquids, or solid material. Using this technique, a wide variety of novel functional nanocomposites can\\u000a be generated that are not accessible with other techniques. After briefly introducing miniemulsions and the miniemulsion polymerization\\u000a techniques for the preparation of polymeric nanoparticles, this review focuses on

Clemens K. Weiss; Katharina Landfester

2011-01-01

143

Anionexchange properties of metal cation-mediated bridged organic-inorganic hybrid mesostructured materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anion-exchange property of metal cation-mediated bridged hybrid mesostructured materials (MBH) prepared from functional ligands of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (aptes, H2NCH2CH2CH2Si(OEt)3) is carefully investigated. The results of chemical element analysis, XRD, FT-IR, and TG indicate that both small anions such as CH3COO?, NO3? and large anion surfactant such as SDS? can be exchanged into MBH. All anion sites in MBH are exchangeable,

X. Xu; Y. Han; F. Xiao

2004-01-01

144

Design of Chiral Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Mesoporous Materials as Enantioselective Epoxidation and Alkylation Catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nineties have seen important advances in the synthesis of hybrid organicinorganic mesoporous materials based on the functionalization\\u000a of the surface of new micelle-templated mineral oxides such as MCM-41 type silicates.1 The major advantages of these new supports are their large surface area, their regular system of monodisperse mesopores and\\u000a homogeneity of chemical surface properties, which allow the preparation of

Daniel Brunei; Monique Laspéras

145

Zeolites and mesoporous materials as advanced functional material  

Microsoft Academic Search

With their unique regular channel system, porous materials offer a wide range of applications as host-guest system ranging from membranes with a molecular sieve function to devices with laser or sensor function. The state of the art of the development of zeolites and zeolite-like materials as advanced materials with (i) separation, (ii) electric\\/electronic, and (iii) optical functions is evaluated.

2004-01-01

146

Inorganic-organic hybrid materials and abrasion resistant coatings based on a sol-gel approach  

SciTech Connect

Attempts to synthesize hybrid materials from polytetramethylene oxide (PTMO) end-functionalized with triethoxy silyl groups and, tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) under basic conditions met with only partial success. The films obtained had low mechanical stability. In contrast, films with good mechanical stability were obtained when the TEOS was replaced with tritanium tetraisopropoxide (TIOPR). The microstructure of the TIOPR/PTMO hybrid synthesized under near neutral conditions was generally similar to the acid catalyzed PTMO/TIOPR hybrids. In another closely related study, the effect of subjecting acid catalyzed hybrid materials to aqueous and basic solutions was examined. Two chemically different systems were chosen which were namely the PTMO-TEOS system and the PTMO-TIOPR system. In addition to the difference in the reactivity between the TEOS and TIOPR, another point of differentiation was the relative solubility of the silicon oxide in basic aqueous solutions in contrast to the relative insolubility of the titanium oxide species in all but the very concentrated basic solutions. An application of the hybrid materials in the area of abrasion resistant coatings was also studied. The effects of the various organic structures on abrasion resistance, the extent of reaction and the mechanism of abrasion was examined. Various low molecular weight organics were functionalized triethoxy silyl groups and coated on polycarbonate and cured. They were then subjected to a Taber abrader test. The results showed that all the functionalized organics showed better abrasion resistance than the polycarbonate if sufficiently cured. NMR data showed that the reaction of the functionalized coatings was limited by vitrification and the extent of reaction was influenced by the basicity of the organic backbone. SEM observations of the abraded surfaces showed that the polycarbonate was abraded by a mechanism different from the functionalized coatings.

Betrabet, C.S.

1993-01-01

147

Remote Raman Spectroscopic Detection of Inorganic, Organic and Biological Materials to 100 m and More  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have designed and tested a portable gated-Raman system that is capable of detecting organic and inorganic bulk chemicals over stand-off distances of 100 m and more during day and night time. Utilizing a 532 nm laser pulse (~35 mJ/pulse), Raman spectra of several organic and inorganic compounds have been measured with the portable Raman instrument over a distance of 100 m. Remote Raman spectra, obtained with a very short gate (2 micro second), from a variety of inorganic minerals such as calcite (CaCO3), ?-quartz (?-SiO2), barite (BaSO4), and FeSO4.7H2O, and organic compounds such as acetone, methanol, 2-propanol and naphthalene showed all major bands required for unambiguous chemical identification. We also measured the Raman and fluorescence spectra of plant leaves, tomato, and chicken eggshell excited with a 532 nm, 20 Hz pulsed laser and accumulated over 200 laser shots (10-s integration time) at 110 m with good signal-to-noise ratio. The results of these investigations show that remote Raman spectroscopy over a distance of 100 m can be used to identify Raman fingerprints of both inorganic, organic, and some biological compounds on planetary surfaces and could be useful for environmental monitoring.

Sharma, Shiv K.; Misra, Anupam K.

2008-11-01

148

Functioning of inorganic\\/organic battery separators in silver-zinc cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of three experimental studies related to the inorganic\\/organic battery separator operating mechanism are described: saponification of the plasticizer, resistivity of the simulated separators, and zincate diffusion through the separators. The inorganic\\/organic separator appears to be a particular example of a general class of ionic conducting films composed of inorganic fillers and\\/or substrates bonded together by an organic polymer

W. H. Philipp; C. E. May

1976-01-01

149

LOCAL RESONANCE INDUCED WAVE FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wave functional materials denote a class of artificial materials that possess the ability to manipulate electromagnetic and elastic waves. Photonic and phononic crystals are examples of wave functional materials. In this talk, I start by introducing briefly the concept of Bragg scattering-based photonic and phononic crystals (1-6) that have been extensively studied during the past decade, followed by a description

Ping Sheng

150

Synthesis and properties of soft nanocomposite materials with novel organic\\/inorganic network structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have fabricated new types of polymer hydrogels and polymer nanocomposites, that is, nanocomposite gels (NC gels) and soft polymer nanocomposites (M-NCs), with novel organic\\/inorganic network structures. Both NC gels and M-NCs were synthesized by in situ free-radical polymerization in the presence of exfoliated clay platelets in aqueous systems and were obtained in various forms and sizes with a wide

Kazutoshi Haraguchi

2011-01-01

151

Inorganic Recordable Disk with More Eco-Friendly Material for Blue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We realized an inorganic write-once disk using a high numerical aperture (NA) objective lens and a blue-violet laser diode. Its recording layer was Bi-Ge nitride alloy which was more environmentally friendly than that of the rewritable disk. The data-to-clock jitter of 5.7% was obtained at 25 GB capacity, using the limit equalizer. In addition, we confirmed that this disk had potential for application as a 1X-2X recordable disk.

Hosoda, Yasuo; Izumi, Tomoaki; Mitsumori, Ayumi; Yokogawa, Fumihiko; Jinno, Satoshi; Kudo, Hideo

2003-02-01

152

Dendronized organic–inorganic nonlinear optical hybrid materials with homogeneous morphology  

Microsoft Academic Search

To obtain excellent thermal stability, a series of dendronized organic–inorganic hybrids were synthesized and characterized. Dendronized alkoxysilane dyes were prepared via the ring opening addition reaction of azetidine-2,4-dione of chromophore-containing dendrons, with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane. Subsequently, the precursor, dendronized alkoxysilane dyes could be hydrolyzed and copolymerized with phenyltriethoxysilane (PTEOS) with the weight ratios of 1:1, 1:3, 1:5 and 1:7 in the presence

Yung-Chung Chen; Yu-Jen Yang; Tzong-Yuan Juang; Li-Hsin Chan; Shenghong A. Dai; Franklin M. C. Chen; Wen-Chiung Su; Ru-Jong Jeng

2009-01-01

153

Effect of inorganic materials on the solidification of heavy metal sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Portland cement, cement–fly ash and lime–fly ash binders were used to solidify a synthetic heavy metal sludge containing nitrates of Cr, Ni, Cd and Hg. The sludge to binder (cement, cement–fly ash and lime–fly ash) ratio was kept at 3.33, 1.43 and 1.25, respectively. In addition inorganic substances like Cu, Zn, Pb, Sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfate were added. The

A. K Minocha; Neeraj Jain; C. L Verma

2003-01-01

154

Crack deflection in functionally graded materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small crack deflection in brittle functionally graded materials (FGMs) is studied. The FGMs are modeled as simply nonhomogeneous materials, i.e., the effect of microstructure is neglected and the material property variation is considered to be continuous. Considering local homogeneity and the small scale inelasticity of brittle materials, the toughness is taken to be independent of direction; therefore, the crack propagates

Pei Gu; R. J. Asaro

1997-01-01

155

Optical sensor using functionalized composite materials  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The invention relates to a method for sensing the presence of at least one analyte in a medium, comprising disposing in the medium a functionalized composite material such that the at least one analyte is absorbed by the functionalized composite material, the functionalized composite material having at least one optical property that is modulated by absorption of the at least one analyte; and measuring modulation of the at least one optical property of the functionalized composite material; wherein modulation of the at least one optical property of the functionalized composite material is indicative of the presence of the analyte in the medium. The invention also relates to an optical sensor for sensing the presence of at least one analyte in a medium, and a functionalized composite material having at least one optical property that is modulated upon absorption of one or more analyte.

2010-08-17

156

Two inorganic–organic hybrid materials based on polyoxometalate anions and methylene blue: Preparations, crystal structures and properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two novel inorganic–organic hybrid materials based on an organic dye cation methylene blue (MB) and Lindqvist-type POM polyanions, [C22H18N3S]2Mo6O19 2DMF (1) and [C22H18N3S]2W6O19 2DMF (2) were synthesized under ambient conditions and characterized by CV, IR spectroscopy, solid diffuse reflectance spectrum, UV–vis spectra in DMF solution, luminescent spectrum and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Crystallographic data reveal that compounds 1 and 2

Shanshan Nie; Yaobin Zhang; Bin Liu; Zuoxi Li; Huaiming Hu; Ganglin Xue; Feng Fu; Jiwu Wang

2010-01-01

157

Oxyfunctionalisation of adamantane using inorganic–organic hybrid materials based on isopoly and heteropoly anions: Kinetics and mechanistic studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxyfunctionalisation of adamantane with 30% aq.H2O2 in butyronitrile solvent was efficiently catalyzed by inorganic–organic hybrid materials synthesized by the immobilisation of isopoly (WOx=sodium tungstate, MoOx=sodium molybdate and VOx=sodium metavanadate) and heteropoly anions (V1=H4[PMo11VO40]·32·5H2O,and V3=H6[PMo9V3O40]·34H2O, STA=silicotungstic acid, TPA=tungstophosphoric acid and MPA=molybdophosphoric acid) onto mesoporous silica (SBA-15). These catalysts were well characterized by standard techniques and it was found that polyoxometalate has

Ankur Bordoloi; Ajayan Vinu; S. B. Halligudi

2007-01-01

158

Assessment of renal function of workers exposed to inorganic lead, cadmium or mercury vapor  

SciTech Connect

The renal function of workers occupationally exposed to cadmium (n = 148), to mercury vapor (n = 63) or to inorganic lead (n = 25) has been compared with that of workers with no occupational exposure to heavy metals (n = 88). A moderate exposure to lead (Pb-B < 62 ..mu..g/100 ml) does not seem to alter renal function. Excessive exposure to cadmium increases the urinary excretion of both low- and high-molecular-weight proteins and of tubular enzymes. These changes are mainly observed in workers excreting more than 10 ..mu..g Cd/g creatinine or with Cd-B above 1 ..mu..g Cd/100 ml whole blood. Occupational exposure to mercury vapor induces glomerular dysfunction as evidenced by an increased urinary excretion of high-molecular-weight proteins and a slightly increased prevalence of higher ..beta../sub 2/-microglobulin concentration in plasma without concomitant change in urinary ..beta../sub 2/-microglobulin concentration. ..beta..-galactosidase activity in blood and in urine is also increased. The likelihood of these findings is greater in workers with Hg-B and Hg-U exceeding 3 ..mu..g/100 ml whole blood and 50 ..mu..g/g creatinine, respectively. The hypothesis is put forward that the glomerular dysfunction induced by cadmium and mercury might result from an autoimmune mechanism.

Buchet, J.P.; Roels, H.; Bernard, A.; Lauwerys, R.

1980-11-01

159

A new sensitive organic/inorganic hybrid material based on titanium oxide for the potentiometric detection of iron(III).  

PubMed

The formation of a new hybrid material based on titanium dioxide as inorganic support and containing an iron organochelator (ICL670) is described. An organophosphorous coupling agent was used to graft the organic molecule on the oxide surface. The attachment of the organic substrate was well-confirmed by FTIR (DRIFT), solid-state (31)P and (13)C CPMAS NMR, thermal analysis and the integrity of the structural and morphological parameters were verified using XRD and TEM analyses. The interaction between the material and dissolved iron(III) was also investigated through potentiometric measurements and demonstrated the interest of this new non-siliceous based hybrid material. The obtained linear evolution of the open circuit potential from 10(-2) to 10(-6) mol L(-1) can be used for the analytical detection of iron(III). PMID:23000208

Becuwe, M; Rouge, P; Gervais, C; Courty, M; Dassonville-Klimpt, A; Sonnet, P; Baudrin, E

2012-08-28

160

Multiscale Simulation of the Assembly of Hybrid Polymer-Inorganic Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By combining computational techniques ranging from ab initio quantum mechanical calculations to molecular dynamics simulations and coarse-grained mesoscale modeling methods we have developed a computational framework for the simulation of structural assembly in POSS nanocomposites. By simulating transport and reaction processes during nano-assembly including relevant details at every level, we generate detailed models that serve to establish their structure-property-processing relationships for these materials. Application of this approach will be discussed for POSS building blocks functionalized with various polymeric tethers. This work is done in collaboration with the groups of P.T. Cummings (Vanderbilt), S.C. Glotzer (Michigan), C. McCabe (Colorado) M. Neurock (Virginia)

Qi, Feng; Zhou, Jinhua; Durandurdu, Murat; Kieffer, John

2004-03-01

161

Yeast PPA2 gene encodes a mitochondrial inorganic pyrophosphatase that is essential for mitochondrial function.  

PubMed

We have cloned a gene encoding a mitochondrial inorganic pyrophosphatase (PPase) in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by low stringency hybridization to PPA1, the yeast gene for cytoplasmic PPase. The new gene, PPA2, is located on chromosome 13 and encodes a protein whose sequence is 49% identical to the cytoplasmic enzyme. The protein differs from cytoplasmic PPase in that it has a leader sequence enriched in basic and hydroxylated residues, which is typically found in mitochondrial proteins. Yeast cells overproducing PPA2 had a 47-fold increase in mitochondrial PPase activity. This activity was further stimulated 3-fold by the uncoupler carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone, which suggests that PPA2 is part of an energy-linked enzyme. Using gene disruptions, we found that PPA1 is required for cell growth. In contrast, cells disrupted for PPA2 are viable, but unable to grow on respiratory carbon sources. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that these cells have lost their mitochondrial DNA. We conclude that the mitochondrial PPase encoded by PPA2 is essential for mitochondrial function and maintenance of the mitochondrial genome. PMID:1648084

Lundin, M; Baltscheffsky, H; Ronne, H

1991-07-01

162

Distribution of inorganic mercury in Sacramento River water and suspended colloidal sediment material.  

PubMed

The concentration and distribution of inorganic Hg was measured using cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry in samples collected at selected sites on the Sacramento River from below Shasta Dam to Freeport, CA, at six separate times between 1996 and 1997. Dissolved (ultrafiltered, 0.005 microm equivalent pore size) Hg concentrations remained relatively constant throughout the system, ranging from the detection limit (< 0.4 ng/L) to 2.4 ng/L. Total Hg (dissolved plus colloidal suspended sediment) concentrations ranged from the detection limit at the site below Shasta Dam in September 1996 to 81 ng/L at the Colusa site in January 1997, demonstrating that colloidal sediment plays an important role in the downriver Hg transport. Sequential extractions of colloid concentrates indicate that the greatest amount of Hg associated with sediment was found in the "residual" (mineral) phase with a significant quantity also occurring in the "oxidizable" phase. Only a minor amount of Hg was observed in the "reducible" phase. Dissolved Hg loads remained constant or increased slightly in the downstream direction through the study area, whereas the total inorganic Hg load increased significantly downstream especially in the reach of the river between Bend Bridge and Colusa. Analysis of temporal variations showed that Hg loading was positively correlated to discharge. PMID:11243317

Roth, D A; Taylor, H E; Domagalski, J; Dileanis, P; Peart, D B; Antweiler, R C; Alpers, C N

2001-02-01

163

Distribution of inorganic mercury in Sacramento River water and suspended colloidal sediment material  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The concentration and distribution of inorganic Hg was measured using cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry in samples collected at selected sites on the Sacramento River from below Shasta Dam to Freeport, CA, at six separate times between 1996 and 1997. Dissolved (ultrafiltered, 0.005 ??m equivalent pore size) Hg concentrations remained relatively constant throughout the system, ranging from the detection limit (< 0.4 ng/L) to 2.4 ng/L. Total Hg (dissolved plus colloidal suspended sediment) concentrations ranged from the detection limit at the site below Shasta Dam in September 1996 to 81 ng/L at the Colusa site in January 1997, demonstrating that colloidal sediment plays an important role in the downriver Hg transport. Sequential extractions of colloid concentrates indicate that the greatest amount of Hg associated with sediment Was found in the "residual" (mineral) phase with a significant quantity also occurring in the "oxidizable" phase. Only a minor amount of Hg was observed in the "reducible" phase. Dissolved Hg loads remained constant or increased slightly in the downstream direction through the study area, whereas the total inorganic Hg load increased significantly downstream especially in the reach of the fiver between Bend Bridge and Colusa. Analysis of temporal variations showed that Hg loading was positively correlated to discharge.

Roth, D. A.; Taylor, H. E.; Domagalski, J.; Dileanis, P.; Peart, D. B.; Antweiler, R. C.; Alpers, C. N.

2001-01-01

164

Two inorganic-organic hybrid materials based on polyoxometalate anions and methylene blue: Preparations, crystal structures and properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two novel inorganic-organic hybrid materials based on an organic dye cation methylene blue (MB) and Lindqvist-type POM polyanions, [C22H18N3S]2Mo6O19 2DMF (1) and [C22H18N3S]2W6O19 2DMF (2) were synthesized under ambient conditions and characterized by CV, IR spectroscopy, solid diffuse reflectance spectrum, UV-vis spectra in DMF solution, luminescent spectrum and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Crystallographic data reveal that compounds 1 and 2 are isostructural and both crystallize in the triclinic space group P1¯. Their crystal structures present that the layers of organic molecules and inorganic anions array alternatively, and there exist strong ?···? stacking interactions between dimeric MB cations and near distance interactions among organic dye cations, Lindqvist-type POM polyanions and DMF molecules. The solid diffuse reflectance spectra and UV-vis spectra in DMF solution appear new absorption bands ascribed to the charge-transfer transition between the cationic MB donor and the POM acceptors. Studies of the photoluminescent properties show that the formation of 1 and 2 lead to the fluorescence quenching of starting materials.

Nie, Shanshan; Zhang, Yaobin; Liu, Bin; Li, Zuoxi; Hu, Huaiming; Xue, Ganglin; Fu, Feng; Wang, Jiwu

2010-12-01

165

Nanomechanics of functional and pathological amyloid materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amyloid or amyloid-like fibrils represent a general class of nanomaterials that can be formed from many different peptides and proteins. Although these structures have an important role in neurodegenerative disorders, amyloid materials have also been exploited for functional purposes by organisms ranging from bacteria to mammals. Here we review the functional and pathological roles of amyloid materials and discuss how

Tuomas P. J. Knowles; Markus J. Buehler

2011-01-01

166

Functioning of Inorganic/Organic Battery Separators in Silver-Zinc Cells.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of three experimental studies related to the inorganic/organic battery separator operating mechanism are described: saponification of the plasticizer, resistivity of the simulated separators, and zincate diffusion through the separators. The i...

W. H. Philipp C. E. May

1976-01-01

167

Characterization of the photosensitive response in polysilane-based organic/inorganic hybrid materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The motivation for the current work stems from a unique application, i.e. the photopatterning of optical functionality in a photosensitive material immediately prior to use. In this case, optical devices such as diffraction gratings and optical interconnects are produced in thin films using integrated photonic sources under relatively uncontrolled environmental conditions. The compatibility of the material photoexcitation mechanism with wavelength and fluence levels available from compact solid-state optical sources and the need to understand the impact of local atmospheric composition and temperature on the photosensitive material response are therefore of primary concern. The primary goal of the current study was to investigate photoexcitation mechanisms and photoinduced optical and structural changes in promising candidate material systems for this application: polysilane and polygermane-based molecular hybrid polymers. The work pursued the development of a fundamental understanding of the key photophysical and photostructural responses of thin films composed of both pure, linear-chain polysilanes and of a Ge-Si copolymer. The effects of molecular modifications to the polymers, including polymer backbone catenate structure and side-group identity, on the optical and photosensitive behavior observed in these systems are examined. Through such effort, an understanding of how such structural characteristics influence key photosensitive properties, i.e. the excitation wavelength and the resulting photoinduced optical property changes, was attained. A related objective in the present work was to characterize the thermal stability of these hybrid polymers, specifically in terms of the effect of thermal treatment on as-deposited and photomodified materials. In this case, an evaluation of the similarities and differences in structural modification in response to both thermal and optical fields was pursued. The primary mechanism associated with the photoinduced phenomena observed in both polysilane and polygermane involves backbone chain scissioning and the formation of silane-radicals upon absorption of near-UV (lambda ? 300 to 400 nm) photons, resonant with the lowest energy, sigma -- sigma* (HOMO-LUMO) transition of the Group IVA backbone. The final photoproducts obtained result from a mixture of different competing processes which occur subsequent to this initial photoscissioning. In aerobic atmospheric environments, the radicals formed capture oxygen and form oxide linkages forming the dominant photoproducts. On the other hand, under anaerobic conditions, photooxidation is suppressed while hydride passivation of the radical dominates the response. The oxidized product, resulting from irradiation under the aerobic environment, exhibited higher refractive index changes than irradiation under anaerobic conditions. Photoexcitation using higher energy photons (typically lambda ? 230 to 300 nm) are resonant with side-group transitions associated with pi-conjugated states of the cyclic moieties. Under these conditions, the excitation accesses both these organic side-groups as well as the Group IVA backbone structure. Such excitation conditions resulted in a larger photoinduced structural modification in the irradiated polymer, as observed both in terms of its electronic structure as well as the resulting refractive index change. Thermally induced structural modification to the backbone and side-group moieties were found to be qualitatively similar those produced under optical irradiation. For example, the primary structural changes were again associated with backbone chain scissioning. Photoinduced structural modifications through resonant optical excitation of the material, however, tended to be more focused on the specific structural moieties accessed.

Chandra, Haripin

168

Inorganic nanotubes reinforced polyvinylidene fluoride composites as low-cost electromagnetic interference shielding materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Novel polymer nanocomposites comprising of MnO2 nanotubes (MNTs), functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes ( f-MWCNTs), and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) were synthesized. Homogeneous distribution of f-MWCNTs and MNTs in PVDF matrix were confirmed by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Electrical conductivity measurements were performed on these polymer composites using four probe technique. The addition of 2 wt.% of MNTs (2 wt.%, f-MWCNTs) to PVDF matrix results in an increase in the electrical conductivity from 10-16S/m to 4.5 × 10-5S/m (3.2 × 10-1S/m). Electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness (EMI SE) was measured with vector network analyzer using waveguide sample holder in X-band frequency range. EMI SE of approximately 20 dB has been obtained with the addition of 5 wt.% MNTs-1 wt.% f-MWCNTs to PVDF in comparison with EMI SE of approximately 18 dB for 7 wt.% of f-MWCNTs indicating the potential use of the present MNT/ f-MWCNT/PVDF composite as low-cost EMI shielding materials in X-band region.

Eswaraiah, Varrla; Sankaranarayanan, Venkataraman; Ramaprabhu, Sundara

2011-12-01

169

Inorganic nanotubes reinforced polyvinylidene fluoride composites as low-cost electromagnetic interference shielding materials  

PubMed Central

Novel polymer nanocomposites comprising of MnO2 nanotubes (MNTs), functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNTs), and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) were synthesized. Homogeneous distribution of f-MWCNTs and MNTs in PVDF matrix were confirmed by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Electrical conductivity measurements were performed on these polymer composites using four probe technique. The addition of 2 wt.% of MNTs (2 wt.%, f-MWCNTs) to PVDF matrix results in an increase in the electrical conductivity from 10-16S/m to 4.5 × 10-5S/m (3.2 × 10-1S/m). Electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness (EMI SE) was measured with vector network analyzer using waveguide sample holder in X-band frequency range. EMI SE of approximately 20 dB has been obtained with the addition of 5 wt.% MNTs-1 wt.% f-MWCNTs to PVDF in comparison with EMI SE of approximately 18 dB for 7 wt.% of f-MWCNTs indicating the potential use of the present MNT/f-MWCNT/PVDF composite as low-cost EMI shielding materials in X-band region.

2011-01-01

170

Boundary Element Methods for Functionally Graded Materials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Functionally graded materials (FGMs) possess a smooth variation of material properties due to continuous change in microstructural details. For example, the material gradation may change gradually from a pure ceramic to a pure metal. This work focuses on potential (both steady state and transient) and elasticity problems for inhomogeneous materials. The Green\\'s function(GF) for these materials (e.g. exponentially graded) are expressed as the GF for the homogeneous material plus additional terms due to material gradation. The numerical implementations are performed using a Galerkin (rather than collocation) approximation. A number of examples have been carried out. The results of some specific test problems agree within plotting accuracy with available analytical solutions.

Paulino, Glaucio; Sutradhar, Alok; Gray, L. J.

2002-05-28

171

Photorefractive Inorganic/Organic Materials Prepared by a Novel Sol-Gel Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Photorefractive materials represent an important new class of materials with the potential to (1) reversibly and holographically store digital or analog information and (2) process information in an optical format. A number of polymeric composites have be...

R. Burzynski M. Casstevens

1996-01-01

172

Vertically Aligned Nanostructured Arrays of Inorganic Materials: Synthesis, Distinctive Physical Phenomena, and Device Integration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The manifestation of novel physical phenomena upon scaling materials to finite size has inspired new device concepts that take advantage of the distinctive electrical, mechanical, and optical, properties of nanostructures. The development of fabrication approaches for the preparation of their 1D nanostructured form, such as nanowires and nanotubes, has contributed greatly to advancing fundamental understanding of these systems, and has spurred the integration of these materials in novel electronics, photonic devices, power sources, and energy scavenging constructs. Significant progress has been achieved over the last decade in the preparation of ordered arrays of carbon nanotubes, II---VI and III---V semiconductors, and some binary oxides such as ZnO. In contrast, relatively less attention has been focused on layered materials with potential for electrochemical energy storage. Here, we describe the catalyzed vapor transport growth of vertical arrays of orthorhombic V2O 5 nanowires. In addition, near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy is used to precisely probe the alignment, uniformity in crystal growth direction, and electronic structure of single-crystalline V2O5 nanowire arrays prepared by a cobalt-catalyzed vapor transport process. The dipole selection rules operational for core-level electron spectroscopy enable angle-dependant NEXAFS spectroscopy to be used as a sensitive probe of the anisotropy of these systems and provides detailed insight into bond orientation and the symmetry of the frontier orbital states. The experimental spectra are matched to previous theoretical predictions and allow experimental verification of features such as the origin of the split-off conduction band responsible for the n-type conductivity of V2O5 and the strongly anisotropic nature of vanadyl-oxygen-derived (V=O) states thought to be involved in catalysis. We have also invested substantial effort in obtaining shape and size control of metal oxide materials to obtain a fundamental understanding of the influence of finite size and surface restructuring on electronic instabilities in the proximity of the Fermi level. We present here a novel synthetic approach that takes advantage of the intrinsic octahedral symmetry of rock-salt-structured VO to facilitate the growth of six-armed nanocrystallites of related, technologically more important binary vanadium oxide V2O5 . The prepared nanostructures exhibit clear six-fold symmetry and most notably show remarkable retention of electronic structure. The latter has been evidenced through extensive X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements. We have further designed a facile, generalizable, and entirely scalable approach for the fabrication of vertically aligned arrays of Fe2O 3/polypyrrole core---shell nanostructures and polypyrrole nanotubes. Our "all electrochemical" approach is based on the fabrication of ?-Fe 2O3 nanowire arrays by the simple heat treatment of commodity low carbon steel substrates, followed by electropolymerization of conformal polypyrrole sheaths around the nanowires. Subsequently, electrochemical etching of the nanowires yields large-area vertically aligned polypyrrole nanotube arrays on the steel substrate. The developed methodology is generalizable to functionalized pyrrole monomers and represents a significant practical advance of relevance to the technological implementation of conjugated polymer nanostructures in electrochromics, electrochemical energy storage, and sensing. As another variation of this general synthetic route, we have extended the practice of our simple oxidative process for the fabrication of large-area ZnO nanostructures, specifically highly aligned nanowire arrays integrated onto galvanized steel substrates which via a simple device design and additive piezoelectric nanopower generation were measured across the array substrates. The nanomaterial syntheses and device fabrication approaches developed here will enable facile integration of piezoelectric nanogenerators on to structural components.

Velazquez, Jesus Manuel

173

Functionalized pentamolybdodiphosphate-based inorganic-organic hybrids: synthesis, structure, and properties.  

PubMed

Three inorganic-organic hybrid compounds based on functionalized pentamolybdodiphosphonopropionate anion [(HO2CC2H4PO3)2Mo5O15](4-), [Co3(bipy)4(H2O)6{(HO2CC2H4PO3)2Mo5O15}2]·(H2bipy)2·18H2O (1), [Fe3(bipy)4(H2O)6{(HO2CC2H4PO3)2Mo5O15}2]·(H2bipy)2·18H2O (2), and [Cu(bipy)(H2O)2{(HO2CC2H4PO3)2Mo5O15}]·(H2bipy)·4H2O (3), where bipy = 4,4'-bipyridine, have been successfully synthesized at different pH values in aqueous solutions. In compound 1, [(HO2CC2H4PO3)2Mo5O15](4-) acts as a tridentate ligand and coordinates to the Co(2+) ions of trimeric complex cations [Co3(bipy)4(H2O)6](6+) forming a layer. In 3 [(HO2CC2H4PO3)2Mo5O15](4-) acts as a bidentate ligand and coordinates to the Cu(2+) ions of complex chains [Cu(bipy)(H2O)2]n(2n+), forming a different layer from that in 1. The three compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectra, and TGA. In addition, their fluorescent properties and magnetic properties have also been investigated. PMID:24020414

Li, Xiao-Min; Chen, Ya-Guang; Su, Chunnian; Zhou, Shi; Tang, Qun; Shi, Tian

2013-09-10

174

Novel organic polymer-inorganic hybrid material zinc poly(styrene-phenylvinylphosphonate)-phosphate prepared with a simple method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel type of organic polymer-inorganic hybrid material layered crystalline zinc poly(styrene-phenylvinylphosphonate)-phosphate (ZnPS-PVPP) was synthesized under mild conditions in the absence of any template. And the ZnPS-PVPP were characterized by FT-IR, diffusion reflection UV-vis, AAS, N 2 volumetric adsorption, SEM, TEM and TG. Notably, this method was entirely different from the traditional means used for preparing other zinc phosphonate. Moreover, it could be deduced that ZnPS-PVPP possessed the potential applications for catalyst supports. In the initial catalytic tests, the catalysts immobilized onto ZnPS-PVPP showed comparable or higher activity and enantioselectivity with that of catalysts reported by our group in the asymmetric epoxidation of unfunctional olefins.

Huang, Jing; Fu, Xiangkai; Wang, Gang; Miao, Qiang

2011-09-01

175

Nanostructuring of organic-inorganic hybrid materials for distributed feedback laser resonators by two-photon polymerization.  

PubMed

With two-photon absorption induced polymerization arbitrary three dimensional nano- and microstructures can be patterned directly into photoresists. We report on the fabrication of a low threshold organic semiconductor distributed feedback laser using the technique of two-photon absorption induced polymerization. A surface grating with 400 nm periodicity and 40 nm height modulation was fabricated by two-photon absorption induced polymerization in the organic-inorganic hybrid material ORMOCER. With structuring several stacked layers acting as a planar basis for the nanostructure microscopic substrate tilt can be compensated simply. This enabled us to uniformly nano-structure the surface grating over an area of 200 x 200 microm(2). PMID:19219153

Woggon, Thomas; Kleiner, Thomas; Punke, Martin; Lemmer, Uli

2009-02-16

176

Thermal shock resistance of functionally graded materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transient temperature field and associated thermal stresses in functionally graded materials (FGMs) are determined by a finite element\\/finite difference (FE\\/FD) method. Temperature-dependent material properties are taken into consideration. Explicit expressions for one-dimensional transient thermal conduction in some common elements, such as plate, shell and sphere, are given. These expressions are useful for material engineers and scientists to determine the thermal

Bao-Lin Wang; Yiu-Wing Mai; Xing-Hong Zhang

2004-01-01

177

Solvothermal crystal growth of functional materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrothermal crystal growth was associated with the development of ? -quartz single crystals for devices based on piezoelectric materials. This technology was then used to elaborate single crystals of different functional materials such as quartz-like oxides (AlPO4, GaPO4, GaAsO4, etc.), calcite CaCO3, etc. During the last few years two materials, GaN (using non-aqueous solvent) and ZnO, have been particularly investigated

Alain Largeteau; Stephane Darracq; Graziella Goglio; Gerard Demazeau

2008-01-01

178

ADIABATIC SHEAR BANDS IN FUNCTIONALLY GRADED MATERIALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The initiation and propagation of adiabatic shear bands (ASBs) in functionally graded materials (FGMs) deformed at high strain rates in plane-strain tension have been studied. An ASB is a narrow region, usually a few micrometers wide, of intense plastic deformation that forms after softening of the material due to its being heated up and the evolution of damage in the

R. C. Batra; B. M. Love

2004-01-01

179

Synthesis of novel inorganic-organic hybrid materials for simultaneous adsorption of metal ions and organic molecules in aqueous solution.  

PubMed

In this paper, atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and radical grafting polymerization were combined to synthesize a novel amphiphilic hybrid material, meanwhile, the amphiphilic hybrid material was employed in the absorption of heavy metal and organic pollutants. After the formation of attapulgite (ATP) ATRP initiator, ATRP block copolymers of styrene (St) and divinylbenzene (DVB) were grafted from it as ATP-P(S-b-DVB). Then radical polymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) was carried out with pendent double bonds in the DVD units successfully, finally we got the inorganic-organic hybrid materials ATP-P(S-b-DVB-g-AN). A novel amphiphilic hybrid material ATP-P(S-b-DVB-g-AO) (ASDO) was obtained after transforming acrylonitrile (AN) units into acrylamide oxime (AO) as hydrophilic segment. The adsorption capacity of ASDO for Pb(II) could achieve 131.6 mg/g, and the maximum removal capacity of ASDO towards phenol was found to be 18.18 mg/g in the case of monolayer adsorption at 30°C. The optimum pH was 5 for both lead and phenol adsorption. The adsorption kinetic suited pseudo-second-order equation and the equilibrium fitted the Freundlich model very well under optimal conditions. At the same time FT-IR, TEM and TGA were also used to study its structure and property. PMID:22047723

Jin, Xinliang; Li, Yanfeng; Yu, Cui; Ma, Yingxia; Yang, Liuqing; Hu, Huaiyuan

2011-10-18

180

TRANSPORT OF INORGANIC COLLOIDS THROUGH NATURAL AQUIFER MATERIAL: IMPLICATIONS FOR CONTAMINANT TRANSPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The stability and transport of radiolabeled Fe2O3 particles were studied using laboratory batch and column techniques. Core material collected from a shallow sand and gravel aquifer was used as the immobile column matrix material. Variables in the study incl...

181

TRANSPORT OF INORGANIC COLLOIDS THROUGH NATURAL AQUIFER MATERIAL: IMPLICATIONS FOR CONTAMINANT TRANSPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The stability and transport of radiolabeled Fe2O3 particles were studied using laboratory batch and column techniques. ore material collected from a shallow sand and gravel aquifer was used as the immobile column matrix material. ariables in the study included flow rate, pH, ioni...

182

LABORATORY STUDIES ON THE STABILITY AND TRANSPORT OF INORGANIC COLLOIDS THROUGH NATURAL AQUIFER MATERIAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The stability and transport of radio-labeled Fe2O3 particles were studied using laboratory batch and column techniques. Core material collected from shallow sand and gravel aquifer was used as the immobile column matrix material. Variables in the study included flow rate, pH, i...

183

Columnar phase structures of an organic-inorganic hybrid functionalized with eight calamitic mesogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

A liquid-crystalline octapode, formed by laterally connecting calamitic mesogens to an inorganic silsesquioxane cube through flexible siloxane spacers, is studied using polarized light microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The studies are extended to mixtures of the octapode with the respective monomer mesogens. The monomer and the octapode show a nematic phase. At lower temperatures, the octapode

Panagiota K. Karahaliou; Paul H. J. Kouwer; Thomas Meyer; Georg H. Mehl; Demetri J. Photinos

2007-01-01

184

Inorganic contents of peats  

SciTech Connect

Peat, the precursor of coal, is composed primarily of plant components and secondarily of inorganic matter derived from a variety of sources. The elemental, mineralogic, and petrographic composition of a peat is controlled by a combination of both its botanical and depositional environment. Inorganic contents of peats can vary greatly between geographically separated peat bogs as well as vertially and horizontally within an individual bog. Predicting the form and distribution of inorganic matter in a coal deposit requires understanding the distribution and preservation of inorganic matter in peat-forming environments and diagenetic alterations affecting such material during late-stage peatification and coalification processes. 43 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Raymond, R. Jr.; Bish, D.L.; Cohen, A.D.

1988-02-01

185

In situ intercalative polymerization of pyrrole in FeOCl: a new class of layered, conducting polymer-inorganic hybrid materials  

SciTech Connect

The authors report here a structural form of polypyrrole in which polymerization and intercalation of pyrrole are brought about within the constrained van der Waals gap of a layered inorganic solid (FeOCl). Oxidative intercalation of organic molecules with concomitant reduction of the inorganic lattice is well established for FeOCl, and in the present case affords a novel class of conductive polymer-inorganic hybrid materials. The reaction of FeOCl with excess neat pyrrole (60/sup 0/C) yields a material analyzing as (Ppy)/sub 0.34/FeOCl. X-ray diffraction measurements reveal high crystallinity and an increase in FeOCl interlayer (b-axis) spacing from 7.980 to 13.210 A.

Kanatzidis, M.G.; Tonge, L.M.; Marks, T.J.; Marcy, H.O.; Kannewurf, C.R.

1987-06-10

186

The freshwater tidal wetland Liberty Island, CA was both a source and sink of inorganic and organic material to the San Francisco Estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is hypothesized that perennial freshwater tidal wetland habitat exports inorganic and organic material needed to support\\u000a the estuarine food web and to create favorable habitat for aquatic organisms in San Francisco Estuary. It is also hypothesized\\u000a that most of the material flux in this river-dominated region is controlled by river flow. The production and export of material\\u000a by Liberty

P. W. LehmanS; S. Mayr; L. Mecum; C. Enright

2010-01-01

187

ATR-FTIR characterization of organic functional groups and inorganic ions in ambient aerosols at a rural site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopic method was used to measure organic functional groups and inorganic ions at Tonto National Monument (TNM), an Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) sampling site in a rural area near Phoenix, Arizona. Functional groups and ions from common aerosol compound classes such as aliphatic and aromatic CH, methylene, methyl, aldehydes/ketones, carboxylic acids, ammonium sulfate and nitrate as well as functional groups from difficult to measure compound classes such as esters/lactones, acid anhydrides, carbohydrate hydroxyl and ethers, amino acids, and amines were quantified. On average, ˜33% of the PM 1.0 mass was composed of organic aerosol. The average (standard deviation) composition of the organic aerosol at TNM was 34% (6%) biogenic functional groups, 21% (5%) oxygenated functional groups, 28% (7%) aliphatic hydrocarbon functional groups (aliphatic CH, methylene and methyl) and 17% (1%) aromatic hydrocarbon functional groups. Compositional analysis, functional group correlations, and back trajectories were used to identify three types of events with source signatures: primary biogenic-influenced, urban-influenced, and regional background. The biogenic-influenced event had high concentrations of amino acids and carbohydrate hydroxyl and ether, as well as aliphatic CH and aromatic CH functional groups and qualitatively high levels of silicate. The urban-influenced events had back trajectories traveling directly from the Phoenix area and high concentrations of hydrocarbons, oxygenated functional groups, and inorganic ions. This aerosol characterization suggests that both primary emissions in Phoenix and secondary formation of aerosols from Phoenix emissions had a major impact on the aerosol composition and concentration at TNM. The regional background source had low concentrations of all functional groups, but had higher concentrations of biogenic functional groups than the urban source.

Coury, Charity; Dillner, Ann M.

188

Microwave synthesis of hybrid inorganic-organic porous materials: phase-selective and rapid crystallization.  

PubMed

Microwave synthesis of two porous nickel glutarates was compared with conventional hydrothermal synthesis. The cubic nickel glutarate, [Ni20(C5H6O4)20(H2O)8] x 40 H2O (1), was synthesized by conventional electrical heating in several hours or days, depending on synthesis temperature. Crystallization was greatly accelerated by microwave irradiation, in which more stable, tetragonal nickel glutarate, [Ni22(C5H6O4)20(OH)4(H2O)10] x 38 H2O (2), was formed within a few minutes, suggesting the efficiency of the microwave technique in the synthesis of porous hybrid materials. The cubic phase 1 is formed preferentially at low pH, low temperature, and especially under conventional electrical heating. In contrast, the tetragonal phase 2 is obtained favorably at high pH, high temperature, and especially with microwave irradiation. This work demonstrates that the microwave method provides not only the very fast synthesis of a hybrid material, but also the possibility to discover a new porous hybrid material not yet identified by conventional hydrothermal synthesis. The hydrothermal formation of metal-organic hybrid materials in a matter of minutes is an important step towards developing commercially viable routes for producing this valuable class of materials. PMID:16871506

Jhung, Sung Hwa; Lee, Jin-Ho; Forster, Paul M; Férey, Gérard; Cheetham, Anthony K; Chang, Jong-San

2006-10-16

189

Work function for inorganic compounds (survey). I. Metallic hydrogen and hydrides of metals  

SciTech Connect

The work function {var_phi} is a parameter that makes it possible to reach fairly definite conclusions (associated with a certain degree of probability) in the analysis of the electronic structures of solids and to predict their properties. Such information is needed in the design and development of various types of materials for electronics and microelectronics, the study and interpretation of catalytic processes and adsorption phenomena, research into the physics and chemistry of solids, chemical and engineering physics, physical chemistry, the behavior of materials in a vacuum, and other applications. An enormous amount of data has been published here and abroad in the last decade. This is a reflection of the intensive ongoing research into traditional (but purer and less defective) and new materials being developed for different high-technology applications (atomic and nuclear power engineering, superconducting devices, laser and plasma technology, etc.). In addition, new research capabilities in the study of solids (both experimental and theoretical) now make it possible to compare electronic-emission properties with chemical composition and parameters of the electronic structure of the interior and surface of materials.

Fomenko, V.S. [Institute of Materials and Science Problems, Kiev (Russian Federation)

1995-09-01

190

Synthesis, characterization, and photochromic properties of hybrid organic-inorganic materials based on molybdate, DABCO, and piperazine.  

PubMed

Prompted by our interest in new photochromic organic-inorganic hybrid materials, the reactivity of [Mo7O24]6- toward a structure-directing reagent diamine such as 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO) and piperazine (pipz) has been investigated, and three new molybdenum(VI)-containing compounds, namely, (H2DABCO)3[Mo7O24].4H2O (1), (H2DABCO)[Mo3O10].H2O (2), and (H2DABCO)2(NH4)2[Mo8O27].4H2O (3), have been synthesized and characterized. New synthetic routes to achieve the known compounds (H2DABCO)2(H2pipz)[Mo8O27] (4), (H2pipz)3[Mo8O27] (5), and (H2DABCO)2[Mo8O26].4H2O (6) are also reported. All of these compounds contain different poly(oxomolybdate) clusters, i.e., discrete [Mo7O24]6- blocks in 1, infinite polymeric chains 1/infinity[Mo3O10]2- in 2, 1/infinity[Mo8O27]6- in 3-5, and 1/infinity[Mo8O26]4- in 6, associated in a tridimensional assembly by hydrogen bonds with H2DABCO2+ and/or H2pipz2+ cations. Interconversion pathways and chemical factors affecting the stabilization of the different species are highlighted and discussed. At the opposite of 6, compounds 1-5 show photochromic behavior under UV excitation. Namely, compounds 1-5 shift from white or pale yellow to pale pink, reddish brown, or purple under UV illumination depending on the chemical nature of the mineral framework, with the kinetics of the color change being dictated by the nature of the organic component and by the organic-inorganic interface. PMID:17323943

Coué, Violaine; Dessapt, Rémi; Bujoli-Doeuff, Martine; Evain, Michel; Jobic, Stéphane

2007-02-27

191

Bio-Inspired Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Electronic and Photonic Materials and Structures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this project was to use DNA and protein as templates to assemble nanoparticles and functional molecules for photonic and electronic applications such as plasmon-enhanced fluorescence and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) (Fig. 1). Towar...

A. K. Jen D. Ginger M. Sarikaya

2007-01-01

192

Laser ablation of organic materials for discrimination of bacteria in an inorganic background  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate in this paper that laser ablation allows efficient analysis of organic and biological materials. Such analysis is based on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) which consists in the detection of the optical emission from the plasma induced by a high intensity laser pulse focused on the sample surface. The optimization of the ablation regime in terms of laser parameters

Matthieu Baudelet; Myriam Boueri; Jin Yu; Xianglei Mao; Samuel S. Mao; Richard Russo

2009-01-01

193

Electromodulated Release of Nitric Oxide Through Polymer Material from Reservoir of Inorganic Nitrite Salt  

PubMed Central

Herein, we report a new approach to electromodulate the release of NO at physiological levels through polymeric materials from a stable nitrite electrolyte reservoir, with potential application in controlling biofilm formation and clotting on intravascular catheters. The NO flux can be turned ‘on’ and ‘off’ electrochemically, on demand.

Hofler, Lajos; Koley, Dipankar; Wu, Jianfeng; Xi, Chuanwu

2012-01-01

194

3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane functionalized inorganic membranes for high temperature CO 2\\/N 2 separation  

Microsoft Academic Search

High temperature inorganic membranes may play an important role in the development of economical processes for pre-combustion and\\/or post-combustion CO2 capture. The CO2\\/N2 selectivity of mesoporous silica membranes is enhanced by surface modification using APTS (3-aminopropyl-triethoxy silane). Unmodified silica membranes exhibit Knudsen diffusion behavior for most gases but also have some contribution from surface diffusion of heavier or interacting gases

Mayur Ostwal; Rajinder Pal Singh; Steve F. Dec; Mark T. Lusk

2011-01-01

195

Electron microscopy localization and characterization of functionalized composite organic-inorganic SERS nanoparticles on leukemia cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate the use of electron microscopy as a powerful characterization tool to identify and locate antibody-conjugated composite organic-inorganic nanoparticle (COINs) surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanoparticles on cells. U937 leukemia cells labeled with antibody CD54-conjugated COINs were characterized in their native, hydrated state using wet scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and in their dehydrated state using high-resolution SEM. In both

Ai Leen Koh; Catherine M. Shachaf; Sailaja Elchuri; Garry P. Nolan; Robert Sinclair

2008-01-01

196

Oxide-based inorganic/organic and nanoporous spherical particles: synthesis and functional properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reviews the recent progress in the preparation of oxide-based and heteroatom-doped particles. Surfactant-templated oxide particles, e.g. silica and titania, are possible candidates for various potential applications such as adsorbents, photocatalysts, and optoelectronic and biological materials. We highlight nanoporous oxides of one element, such as silicon or titanium, and those containing multiple elements, which exhibit properties that are not achieved with individual components. Although the multicomponent nanoporous oxides possess a number of attractive functions, the origin of their properties is hard to determine due to compositional/structural complexity. Particles with a well-defined size and shape are keys for a quantitative and detailed discussion on the unique complex properties of the particles. From this viewpoint, we review the synthesis techniques of the oxide particles, which are functionalized with organic molecules or doped with heteroatoms, the physicochemical properties of the particles and the possibilities for their photofunctional applications as complex systems.

Shiba, Kota; Tagaya, Motohiro; Tilley, Richard D.; Hanagata, Nobutaka

2013-04-01

197

Fracture Analysis of Functionally Graded Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports our recent research works on crack analysis in continuously non-homogeneous and linear elastic functionally graded materials. A meshless boundary element method is developed for this purpose. Numerical examples are presented and discussed to demonstrate the efficiency and the accuracy of the present numerical method, and to show the effects of the material gradation on the crack-opening-displacements and the stress intensity factors.

Zhang, Ch.; Gao, X. W.; Sladek, J.; Sladek, V.

2010-05-01

198

Sol-gel synthesis of hybrid organic-inorganic materials. Hexylene- and phenylene-bridged polysiloxanes  

SciTech Connect

New highly cross-linked polysiloxanes were prepared by sol-gel polymerization of 1,6-bis(diethoxymethylsilyl)hexane (1) and 1,4-bis(diethoxymethylsilyl)benzene (2). Hydrolysis and condensation of 1 and 2 under acidic and basic conditions with 4 equiv of water led to the rapid formation of hexylene- and phenylene-bridged polysiloxane gels. The dry gels (xerogels) were intractable, insoluble materials that were noticeably hydrophobic, exhibiting no swelling in organic solvents or water. Most of the xerogels were high surface area, mesoporous materials. Hexylene-bridged polysiloxanes prepared under acidic conditions were always nonporous regardless of whether they were processed to afford xerogels or supercritically dried as aerogels. Hexylene-bridged polysiloxanes prepared under basic conditions and all of the phenylene-bridged polysiloxanes were mesoporous with surface areas as high as 1025 m{sup 2}/g. 35 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

Loy, D.A.; Jamison, G.M.; Baugher, B.M.; Myers, S.A.; Assink, R.A.; Shea, K.J. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)]|[Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

1996-03-01

199

Hydrogen bonding and perhalometallate ions: A supramolecular synthetic strategy for new inorganic materials  

PubMed Central

A synthetic strategy for constructing ionic hydrogen-bonded materials by combining perhalometallate anions with cations able to serve as hydrogen bond donors is presented. The approach is based on identification of well defined hydrogen bond acceptor sites on the anions by a combination of experimental and theoretical approaches. Selective population of these sites by hydrogen bond donors has the potential to afford organized crystalline arrays in one, two, or three dimensions. The approach is applicable to a wide range of metal centers.

Brammer, Lee; Swearingen, John K.; Bruton, Eric A.; Sherwood, Paul

2002-01-01

200

Naked eye detection of cadmium using inorganic–organic hybrid mesoporous material  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel and low-cost optical sensor for the naked eye detection of Cd2+in aqueous media based on mesoporous silica containing 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol (PAR) as a probe molecule anchored by N-trimethoxysilylpropyl-N,N,N-trimethylammonium chloride (TMAC) was prepared. The effects of various factors such as pH, solvent volume, temperature, reaction\\u000a time, amount of the material, and the presence of various ions were studied in order

Tatineni Balaji; Manickam Sasidharan; Hideyuki Matsunaga

2006-01-01

201

Synthesis and characterization of nanocomposite organic\\/inorganic hybrid materials using living cationic polymerization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of novel chlorosilyl functional initiators have been prepared and applied for the first time in the living cationic polymerization of isobutylene (IB). Well-defined polyisobutylenes (PIBs) carrying mono-, di-, and trichlorosilyl head-group, and a tert-chloro end-group were synthesized using newly designed silyl-functional initiators in conjunction with TiCl4 in Hex:MeCl (60:40, v:v) at -80°C. End-group analysis by 1H NMR spectroscopy

Iljin Kim

2004-01-01

202

Formation of helix-containing rods in a hybrid inorganic-organic material  

SciTech Connect

The novel aluminum ethylenediphosphonate fluoride, [HN(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}NH{sub 3}){sub 3}][Al{sub 2}(O{sub 3}PCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}PO{sub 3}){sub 2}F{sub 2}].H{sub 2}O (1) (monoclinic, P2{sub 1}/n, a=12.145(4) A, b=9.265(3) A, c=20.422(6) A, beta=104.952(4){sup o}, Z=3, R{sub 1}=0.092, wR{sub 2}=0.196) has been synthesized by solvothermal methods in the presence of tris(2-aminoethyl)amine and its structure determined using single microcrystal X-ray diffraction data. Compound 1 is a one-dimensional extended chain structure composed of well-separated anionic [Al{sub 2}(O{sub 3}PCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}PO{sub 3}){sub 2}F{sub 2}]{sup 4-} rods containing helical chains of corner-shared cis-AlO{sub 4}F{sub 2} octahedra at their core. The charge-compensating tris(2-aminoethyl)ammonium cations separate the anionic [Al{sub 2}(O{sub 3}PCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}PO{sub 3}){sub 2}F{sub 2}]{sup 4-} rods that contain either left- or right-handed helical chains. The incorporation of the organic components into this hybrid material has aided the adoption of one-dimensionality by the compound and defined the pitch of the helical AlO{sub 4}F chain. - Graphical abstract: Helical chains of corner-shared cis-AlO{sub 4}F{sub 2} octahedra form the core of well-separated anionic [Al{sub 2}(O{sub 3}PCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}PO{sub 3}){sub 2}F{sub 2}]{sup 4-} rods in the novel hybrid aluminum diphosphonate material, (H{sub 4}tren)[Al{sub 2}(O{sub 3}PCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}PO{sub 3}){sub 2}F{sub 2}].(H{sub 2}O). The incorporation of the organic components into this hybrid material has aided the adoption of a uni-dimensional structure and a specific structural aspect, the helical pitch, within the resulting material, which indicates the potential of this approach to form particular structural features within hybrid materials.

Yuan Zhanhui [School of Chemistry, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Clegg, William, E-mail: w.clegg@ncl.ac.u [School of Chemistry, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Attfield, Martin P., E-mail: m.attfield@manchester.ac.u [Centre for Nanoporous Materials, School of Chemistry, University of Manchester, Brunswick Street, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

2009-11-15

203

Second-order nonlinear optical properties of trisubstituted Keggin and Wells-Dawson polyoxometalates: density functional theory investigation of the inorganic donor-conjugated bridge-acceptor structure.  

PubMed

The donor-conjugated bridge-acceptor (D-A) model, as a simple molecular scheme, has been successfully used in the development of second-order organic compound, organometallic compound, and metal complex nonlinear optical (NLO) materials. However, for the totally inorganic molecules, the use of this model is still prohibitive. In the present paper, time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) was used to investigate the second-order NLO properties of vanadium- and molybdenum-trisubstituted Keggin and Wells-Dawson polyoxometalates (POMs). The results show that these POM clusters possess D-A structures. The oxygen atoms in the cap region and metal (vanadium and molybdenum) atoms in another cap region in these POM clusters can be viewed as the electron donor and acceptor, respectively. The vanadium ion derivatives possess larger second-order NLO responses and dipole moment than molybdenum ions derivatives; thus, the three vanadium atoms in the cap region act as a strong acceptor related to the three molybdenum atoms in cap region in our D-A scheme. The vanadomolybdate with Wells-Dawson structure displays the good second-order NLO response because of the relevant long conjugated bridge and strong acceptor. This D-A model may be an effective approach for optimizing the first hyperpolarizabilities of inorganic POM clusters. PMID:19639969

Liu, Chun-Guang; Guan, Wei; Song, Ping; Su, Zhong-Min; Yao, Chan; Wang, En-Bo

2009-09-01

204

Treeing Breakdown in Inorganic-filler/LDPE Nano-composite Material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A nano-composite material of magnesium oxide (MgO) added to a low-density polyethylene (LDPE) was subjected to electrical tree breakdown investigation. The LDPE without nano-fillers was lower in breakdown voltage than the LDPE added with nano-fillers. The breakdown voltage was increased by increase of nano-filler concentrations in LDPE. This result much coincided with the result on tree inception voltage which was increased when the concentration of filler in LDPE was increased. It is considered that fillers would create such an obstruction to the tree bridging the counter electrode. However, even the tree had bridged the plate electrode; the breakdown was not always immediately to occur. There would be so-called time-lag between “bridging” and “final breakdown”. The time-lag to breakdown was increased with the nano-filler concentrations in LDPE. It is considered that the polymer nano-composites are more resistive against partial discharges than their base material.

Kurnianto, Rudi; Murakami, Yoshinobu; Nagao, Masayuki; Hozumi, Naohiro; Murata, Yoshinao

205

Prepare organic\\/inorganic hybrid nonlinear optical material containing two-dimensional spindle-type chromophores  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, functionalized alkoxysilane dye (ICTES-STC) was formed by the reaction of two-dimensional spindle-type chromophores (STC) with 3-isocyanatopropyltriethoxysilane (ICTES). The transparent films having silica network matrix and covalently bonded chromophores were fabricated via the sol–gel process. From TGA thermogram, the initial decomposition temperature of the hybrid film was determined to be 269°C. The electro-optic (EO) coefficient (r33) of the

Xiaolong Zhang; Ming Li; Zuosen Shi; Zhanchen Cui

2011-01-01

206

New nanocomposite hybrid inorganic-organic proton-conducting membranes based on functionalized silica and PTFE.  

PubMed

Two types of new nanocomposite proton-exchange membranes, consisting of functionalized and pristine nanoparticles of silica and silicone rubber (SR) embedded in a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) matrix, were prepared. The membrane precursor was obtained from a mechanical rolling process, and the SiO? nanoparticles were functionalized by soaking the membranes in a solution of 2-(4-chlorosulfonylphenyl)ethyl trichlorosilane (CSPhEtCS). The membranes exhibit a highly compact morphology and a lack of fibrous PTFE. At 125?°C, the membrane containing the functionalized nanoparticles has an elastic modulus (2.2?MPa) that is higher than that of pristine Nafion (1.28?MPa) and a conductivity of 3.6×10?³ ?S?cm?¹ despite a low proton-exchange capacity (0.11?meq?g?¹). The good thermal and mechanical stability and conductivity at T>100?°C make these membranes a promising low-cost material for application in proton-exchange membrane fuel cells operating at temperatures higher than 100?°C. PMID:22807005

Di Noto, Vito; Piga, Matteo; Giffin, Guinevere A; Negro, Enrico; Furlan, Claudio; Vezzù, Keti

2012-07-16

207

Synthesis and characterizations of new negatively charged organic–inorganic hybrid materials: effect of molecular weight of sol–gel precursor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of negatively charged hybrid (organic–inorganic) materials were prepared through sol–gel process. The alkoxysilane-containing sol–gel precursors PEO-[Si(OEt)3]2SO3H were obtained by endcapping polyethylene oxide (PEO) of different molecular weights with 2,4-diisocyanate toluene (TDI), followed by a coupling reaction with phenylaminomethyl triethoxysilane (ND-42) and sulfonation afterwards. The negatively charged precursors were then hydrolyzed and condensed to generate hybrid sol–gel materials, which

Cuiming Wu; Tongwen Xu; Weihua Yang

2004-01-01

208

Thermal evaporation furnace with improved configuration for growing nanostructured inorganic materials.  

PubMed

A tubular furnace specifically designed for growing nanostructured materials is presented in this work. The configuration allows an accurate control of evaporation temperature, substrate temperature, total pressure, oxygen partial pressure, volumetric flow and source-substrate distance, with the possibility of performing both downstream and upstream depositions. In order to illustrate the versatility of the equipment, the furnace was used for growing semiconducting oxide nanostructures under different deposition conditions. Highly crystalline indium oxide nanowires with different morphologies were synthesized by evaporating mixtures of indium oxide and graphite powders with different mass ratios at temperatures between 900 °C and 1050 °C. The nanostructured layers were deposited onto oxidized silicon substrates with patterned gold catalyst in the temperature range from 600 °C to 900 °C. Gas sensors based on these nanowires exhibited enhanced sensitivity towards oxygen, with good response and recovery times. PMID:21721724

Joanni, E; Savu, R; Valadares, L; Cilense, M; Zaghete, M A

2011-06-01

209

Sulfonium polyoxometalates: a new class of solid-state photochromic hybrid organic-inorganic materials.  

PubMed

For the very first time, sulfonium polyoxometalate (POM) assemblies are shown to develop efficient solid-state photochromism in ambient conditions. The optical properties of the already known Rb(0.75)(NH(4))(5.25)[(Mo(3)O(8))(2)O(O(3)PC(CH(2)S(CH(3))(2))OPO(3))(2)]·8H(2)O (1) and a new material (Me(3)S)(4)[Mo(8)O(26)] (2) under UV excitation are investigated by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, revealing that the color change effect is highly tunable playing with the nature of the POM. A mechanism involving the photoreduction of Mo(6+) cations associated with electron transfers from the sulfonium cations toward the POMs is proposed. PMID:23297648

Hakouk, Khadija; Oms, Olivier; Dolbecq, Anne; El Moll, Hani; Marrot, Jérôme; Evain, Michel; Molton, Florian; Duboc, Carole; Deniard, Philippe; Jobic, Stéphane; Mialane, Pierre; Dessapt, Rémi

2013-01-08

210

Structural and functional biological materials: Abalone nacre, sharp materials, and abalone foot adhesion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three-part study of lessons from nature is presented through the examination of various biological materials, with an emphasis on materials from the mollusk Haliotis rufescens, commonly referred to as the red abalone. The three categories presented are: structural hierarchy, self-assembly, and functionality. Ocean mollusk shells are composed of aragonite/calcite crystals interleaved with layers of a visco-elastic protein, having dense, tailored structures with excellent mechanical properties. The complex nano-laminate structure of this bio-composite material is characterized and related to its mechanical properties. Three levels of structural hierarchy are identified: macroscale mesolayers separating larger regions of tiled aragonite, microscale organization of 0.5 mum by 10 mum aragonite bricks; nanoscale mineral bridges passing through 30 nm layers of organic matrix separating individual aragonite tiles. Composition and growth mechanisms of this nanostructure were observed through close examination of laboratory-grown samples using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Glass slides and nacre pucks were implanted onto the growth surface of living abalone and removed periodically to observe trends in nacre deposition. Various deproteinization and demineralization experiments are used to explore the inorganic and organic components of the nacre's structure. The organic component of the shell is characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The functionality of various biological materials is described and investigated. Two specific types of functionality are characterized, the ability of some materials to cut and puncture through sharp designs, and the ability for some materials to be used as attachment devices. Aspects of cutting materials employed by a broad range of animals were characterized and compared. In respect to the attachment mechanisms the foot of the abalone and the tree frog were investigated. It is discovered that the foot of the abalone applies similar mechanics as that of the gecko foot to adhere to surfaces. Approximately 1011 100 nm diameter fibers found at the base of the foot pedal are found to create Van der Waals interactions along with capillary and suction mechanisms to enable attachment. This reusable adhesive is found to exhibit strength of ˜0.14 MPa. This represents an evolutionary convergence of design from two independent species (the gecko and the abalone) living in extremely dissimilar environments. The presented work provides a summary of an effort to investigate materials found in nature with the hope of inspiring novel technological advances in design.

Lin, Albert Yu-Min

211

Formation of helix-containing rods in a hybrid inorganic-organic material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The novel aluminum ethylenediphosphonate fluoride, [HN(CH2CH2NH3)3][Al2(O3PCH2CH2PO3)2F2]·H2O (1) (monoclinic, P21/n, a=12.145(4) Å, b=9.265(3) Å, c=20.422(6) Å, ?=104.952(4)°, Z=3, R1=0.092, wR2=0.196) has been synthesized by solvothermal methods in the presence of tris(2-aminoethyl)amine and its structure determined using single microcrystal X-ray diffraction data. Compound 1 is a one-dimensional extended chain structure composed of well-separated anionic [Al2(O3PCH2CH2PO3)2F2]4- rods containing helical chains of corner-shared cis-AlO4F2 octahedra at their core. The charge-compensating tris(2-aminoethyl)ammonium cations separate the anionic [Al2(O3PCH2CH2PO3)2F2]4- rods that contain either left- or right-handed helical chains. The incorporation of the organic components into this hybrid material has aided the adoption of one-dimensionality by the compound and defined the pitch of the helical AlO4F chain.

Yuan, Zhanhui; Clegg, William; Attfield, Martin P.

2009-11-01

212

Modeling Bamboo as a Functionally Graded Material  

SciTech Connect

Natural fibers are promising for engineering applications due to their low cost. They are abundantly available in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, and they can be employed as construction materials. Among natural fibers, bamboo has been widely used for housing construction around the world. Bamboo is an optimized composite material which exploits the concept of Functionally Graded Material (FGM). Biological structures, such as bamboo, are composite materials that have complicated shapes and material distribution inside their domain, and thus the use of numerical methods such as the finite element method and multiscale methods such as homogenization, can help to further understanding of the mechanical behavior of these materials. The objective of this work is to explore techniques such as the finite element method and homogenization to investigate the structural behavior of bamboo. The finite element formulation uses graded finite elements to capture the varying material distribution through the bamboo wall. To observe bamboo behavior under applied loads, simulations are conducted considering a spatially-varying Young's modulus, an averaged Young's modulus, and orthotropic constitutive properties obtained from homogenization theory. The homogenization procedure uses effective, axisymmetric properties estimated from the spatially-varying bamboo composite. Three-dimensional models of bamboo cells were built and simulated under tension, torsion, and bending load cases.

Silva, Emilio Carlos Nelli [Department of Mechatronics and Mechanical Systems, Escola Politecnica da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Professor Mello Moraes, 2231, Sao Paulo, SP, 05508-900 (Brazil); Walters, Matthew C.; Paulino, Glaucio H. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 205 North Mathews Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

2008-02-15

213

Lead(II) chloride ionic liquids and organic/inorganic hybrid materials--a study of chloroplumbate(II) speciation.  

PubMed

A range of chloroplumbate(II) organic salts, based on the two cations, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium and trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium, was prepared by ionothermal synthesis. Depending on the structure of the organic cation and on the molar ratio of PbCl2 in the product, ?PbCl2, the salts were room-temperature ionic liquids or crystalline organic/inorganic hybrid materials. The solids were studied using Raman spectroscopy; the crystal structure of [C2mim]{PbCl3} was determined and shown to contain 1D infinite chloroplumbate(II) strands formed by edge-sharing tetragonal pyramids of pentacoordinate (PbCl5) units. The liquids were analysed using (207)Pb NMR and Raman spectroscopies, as well as viscometry. Phase diagrams were constructed based on differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements. Discrete anions: [PbCl4](2-) and [PbCl3](-), were detected in the liquid state. The trichloroplumbate(II) anion was shown to have a flexible structure due to the presence of a stereochemically-active lone pair. The relationship between the liquid phase anionic speciation and the structure of the corresponding crystalline products of ionothermal syntheses was discussed, and the data were compared with analogous tin(II) systems. PMID:23392355

Coleman, Fergal; Feng, Guo; Murphy, Richard W; Nockemann, Peter; Seddon, Kenneth R; Swad?ba-Kwa?ny, Ma?gorzata

2013-04-14

214

Aripiprazole-montmorillonite: a new organic-inorganic nanohybrid material for biomedical applications.  

PubMed

Poor aqueous solubility and the unpleasant taste of aripiprazole (APZ) have been recurring problems, owing to its low bioavailability and low patient tolerance, respectively. Herein, we prepared a nanohybrid system that was based on a bentonite clay material, montmorillonite (MMT), which could both mask the taste and enhance the solubility of APZ (i.e., APZ-MMT). To further improve the efficacy of this taste masking and drug solubility, APZ-MMT was also coated with a cationic polymer, polyvinylacetal diethylamino acetate (AEA). In vitro dissolution tests at neutral pH showed that the amount of drug that was released from the AEA-coated APZ-MMT was greatly suppressed (<1%) for the first 3 min, thus suggesting that AEA-coated APZ-MMT has strong potential for the taste masking of APZ. Notably, in simulated gastric juice at pH 1.2, the total percentage of APZ that was released within the first 2 h increased up to 95% for AEA-coated APZ-MMT. Furthermore, this in vitro release profile was also similar to that of Abilify®, a commercially available medication. In vivo experiments by using Sprague-Dawley rats were also performed to compare the pharmacokinetics of AEA-coated APZ-MMT and Abilify®. AEA-coated APZ-MMT exhibited about 20% higher systemic exposure of APZ and its metabolite, dehydro-APZ, compared with Abilify®. Therefore, a new MMT-based nanovehicle, which is coated with a cationic polymer, can act as a promising delivery system for both taste masking and for enhancing the bioavailability of APZ. PMID:23436433

Oh, Yeon-Ji; Choi, Goeun; Choy, Young Bin; Park, Je Won; Park, Jung Hyun; Lee, Hwa Jeong; Yoon, Yeo Joon; Chang, Hee Chul; Choy, Jin-Ho

2013-02-21

215

Comparative studies of grafting and direct syntheses of inorganic-organic hybrid mesoporous materials  

SciTech Connect

Vinyl-functionalized MCM-41 samples were prepared by either a postsynthesis grafting (PSG) process or a direct co-condensation synthesis. The structures, stabilities, and reactivities of products from both methods were compared. The mesoscopic order of the hexagonal pore structure of vinyl-grafted MCM-41 (v-gr-MCM-41) resembled that of the MCM-41 host. On the basis of powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and bromination kinetics data, the vinyl groups appeared to be nonuniformly distributed in v-gr-MCM-41 prepared by the present PSG process, with a large proportion of vinyl groups on the external surface of the crystallites or inside channels but near the channel openings. The mesoscopic order of products from the direct synthesis (v-MCM-41) depended on the type of alkoxysilane precursor used and on the ratio of vinylsiloxane to alkoxysilane in the reaction mixture. The vinyl groups appeared to be more uniformly distributed in v-MCM-41. Vinyl-grafted MCM-41 exhibited greater hydrothermal stability than unmodified MCM-41 and was capable of adsorbing nonpolar solvents from aqueous mixtures or emulsions.

Lim, M.H.; Stein, A.

1999-11-01

216

Electron Microscopy Localization and Characterization of Functionalized Composite Organic-Inorganic SERS Nanoparticles on Leukemia Cells  

PubMed Central

We demonstrate the use of electron microscopy as a powerful characterization tool to identify and locate antibody-conjugated composite organic-inorganic (COINs) surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanoparticles on cells. U937 leukemia cells labeled with antibody CD54-conjugated COINs were characterized in their native, hydrated state using wet Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and in their dehydrated state using high-resolution SEM. In both cases, the backscattered electron detector (BSE) was used to detect and identify the silver constituents in COINs due to its high sensitivity to atomic number variations within a specimen. The imaging and analytical capabilities in the SEM were further complemented by higher resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) images and Scanning Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) data to give reliable and high-resolution information about nanoparticles and their binding to cell surface antigens.

Koh, Ai Leen; Shachaf, Catherine M.; Elchuri, Sailaja; Nolan, Garry P.; Sinclair, Robert

2008-01-01

217

Electron microscopy localization and characterization of functionalized composite organic-inorganic SERS nanoparticles on leukemia cells.  

PubMed

We demonstrate the use of electron microscopy as a powerful characterization tool to identify and locate antibody-conjugated composite organic-inorganic nanoparticle (COINs) surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanoparticles on cells. U937 leukemia cells labeled with antibody CD54-conjugated COINs were characterized in their native, hydrated state using wet scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and in their dehydrated state using high-resolution SEM. In both cases, the backscattered electron (BSE) detector was used to detect and identify the silver constituents in COINs due to its high sensitivity to atomic number variations within a specimen. The imaging and analytical capabilities in the SEM were further complemented by higher resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images and scanning Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) data to give reliable and high-resolution information about nanoparticles and their binding to cell surface antigens. PMID:18995965

Koh, Ai Leen; Shachaf, Catherine M; Elchuri, Sailaja; Nolan, Garry P; Sinclair, Robert

2008-10-02

218

Production of Functional Nanocrystalline Materials in Hydrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the example of KS25 and KS37 samarium–cobalt-base commercial alloys and LaNi4.5Al0.5 alloy, we show the possibility, in principle, of obtaining functional materials in the nanocrystalline state with the help of a planetary mill in hydrogen medium. Milling with a rotational speed of 600 rpm during 24 h leads to the disproportionation of KS25 and KS37 alloys into samarium hydride and iron–cobalt

I. I. Bulyk; Yu. B. Basaraba; V. I. Markovych

2003-01-01

219

Nanoscale hybrid protein\\/polymer functionalized materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Block copolymer-based membrane technology represents a versatile class of nanoscale materials in which biomolecules, such as membrane proteins, can be reconstituted. Our work has demonstrated the fabrication of large-area, protein- enhanced membranes that possess significant performance improvements in protein functionality. Among its many advantages over conventional lipid-based membrane systems, block copolymers can mimic natural cell biomembrane environments in a single

Dean Ho; Ben Chu; Hyeseung Lee; Carlo D. Montemagno

2004-01-01

220

Dental implants from functionally graded materials.  

PubMed

Functionally graded material (FGM) is a heterogeneous composite material including a number of constituents that exhibit a compositional gradient from one surface of the material to the other subsequently, resulting in a material with continuously varying properties in the thickness direction. FGMs are gaining attention for biomedical applications, especially for implants, owing to their reported superior composition. Dental implants can be functionally graded to create an optimized mechanical behavior and achieve the intended biocompatibility and osseointegration improvement. This review presents a comprehensive summary of biomaterials and manufacturing techniques researchers employ throughout the world. Generally, FGM and FGM porous biomaterials are more difficult to fabricate than uniform or homogenous biomaterials. Therefore, our discussion is intended to give the readers about successful and obstacles fabrication of FGM and porous FGM in dental implants that will bring state-of-the-art technology to the bedside and develop quality of life and present standards of care. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 101A: 3046-3057, 2013. PMID:23754641

Mehrali, Mehdi; Shirazi, Farid Seyed; Mehrali, Mohammad; Metselaar, Hendrik Simon Cornelis; Kadri, Nahrizul Adib Bin; Osman, Noor Azuan Abu

2013-06-11

221

Coordination assemblies of polyoxomolybdate cluster framework: from labile building blocks to stable functional materials.  

PubMed

Polyoxomolybdates, an important branch in polyoxometalates chemistry, present complicated solution chemistry and unmatched physicochemical properties, which endows us with both great opportunities and considerable challenges in creating new functional materials. This perspective highlights the recent development on the coordination assembly of transition-metal-substituted heteropolymolybdates by using labile lacunary heteropolymolybdates as inorganic multidentate ligands. A series of strategies have been used to stabilize the lacunary heteropolymolybdate building blocks. Finally, we introduce some researches on the modification of polymolybdates by organic groups in aqueous media, which may shed light on the green chemistry of the functionalization of polyoxomolybdates. PMID:21321727

Li, Fengyan; Xu, Lin

2011-02-14

222

Flexible hydrogel-based functional composite materials  

DOEpatents

A composite having a flexible hydrogel polymer formed by mixing an organic phase with an inorganic composition, the organic phase selected from the group consisting of a hydrogel monomer, a crosslinker, a radical initiator, and/or a solvent. A polymerization mixture is formed and polymerized into a desired shape and size.

Song, Jie; Saiz, Eduardo; Bertozzi, Carolyn R; Tomasia, Antoni P

2013-10-08

223

INFLUENCE OF PLANT FUNCTIONAL REMOVAL ON INORGANIC SOIL NITROGEN CONCENTRATIONS IN NATIVE GRASSLANDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

High plant functional group diversity has been suggested to reduce resource concentrations based on the assumption that species from one functional group acquire resources similarly to one another, while species from other functional groups acquire resources dissimilarly. Soil nutrient concentratio...

224

Modelling the concentration dependence of rare earth doping in inorganic materials for optical applications: Application to rare earth doped barium aluminate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports a method for modelling the concentration dependence of rare earth doping in inorganic materials. The method is applied to barium aluminate, which when doped with rare earth ions has important optical applications as a phosphor material. Interatomic potentials are derived by fitting to the structures of barium aluminates, and used to calculate defect formation energies and thus to predict intrinsic defect disorder in the material. Solution energies for rare earth doping are then calculated, which enable the location of the dopant ions and their solubility limits to be predicted.

Rezende, Marcos V. Dos S.; Valerio, Mário E. G.; Jackson, Robert A.

2011-11-01

225

Ultrathin films of inorganic materials (SiO 2 nanoparticle, montmorillonite microplate, and molybdenum oxide) prepared by alternate layer-by-layer assembly with organic polyions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have been investigating alternate assembling of inorganic materials, SiO2 nanoparticles, clay microplate, and polyoxometalates with oppositely-charged polyions. In this paper, previously reported results are summarized and compared in order to establish a unified interpretation. Reproducible film growth is observed in assembly of anionic SiO2 particles and cationic poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA). The adsorption time required for successful assembly of SiO2

Katsuhiko Ariga; Yuri Lvov; Izumi Ichinose; Toyoki Kunitake

1999-01-01

226

Magnetic spectroscopy and microscopy of functional materials  

SciTech Connect

Heusler intermetallics Mn{sub 2}Y Ga and X{sub 2}MnGa (X; Y =Fe, Co, Ni) undergo tetragonal magnetostructural transitions that can result in half metallicity, magnetic shape memory, or the magnetocaloric effect. Understanding the magnetism and magnetic behavior in functional materials is often the most direct route to being able to optimize current materials for todays applications and to design novel ones for tomorrow. Synchrotron soft x-ray magnetic spectromicroscopy techniques are well suited to explore the the competing effects from the magnetization and the lattice parameters in these materials as they provide detailed element-, valence-, and site-specifc information on the coupling of crystallographic ordering and electronic structure as well as external parameters like temperature and pressure on the bonding and exchange. Fundamental work preparing the model systems of spintronic, multiferroic, and energy-related compositions is presented for context. The methodology of synchrotron spectroscopy is presented and applied to not only magnetic characterization but also of developing a systematic screening method for future examples of materials exhibiting any of the above effects. The chapter progression is as follows: an introduction to the concepts and materials under consideration (Chapter 1); an overview of sample preparation techniques and results, and the kinds of characterization methods employed (Chapter 2); spectro- and microscopic explorations of X{sub 2}MnGa/Ge (Chapter 3); spectroscopic investigations of the composition series Mn{sub 2}Y Ga to the logical Mn{sub 3}Ga endpoint (Chapter 4); and a summary and overview of upcoming work (Chapter 5). Appendices include the results of a Think Tank for the Graduate School of Excellence MAINZ (Appendix A) and details of an imaging project now in progress on magnetic reversal and domain wall observation in the classical Heusler material Co{sub 2}FeSi (Appendix B).

Jenkins, C.A.

2011-01-28

227

A review on the application of inorganic nano-structured materials in the modification of textiles: focus on anti-microbial properties.  

PubMed

Textiles can provide a suitable substrate to grow micro-organisms especially at appropriate humidity and temperature in contact to human body. Recently, increasing public concern about hygiene has been driving many investigations for anti-microbial modification of textiles. However, using many anti-microbial agents has been avoided because of their possible harmful or toxic effects. Application of inorganic nano-particles and their nano-composites would be a good alternative. This review paper has focused on the properties and applications of inorganic nano-structured materials with good anti-microbial activity potential for textile modification. The discussed nano-structured anti-microbial agents include TiO(2) nano-particles, metallic and non-metallic TiO(2) nano-composites, titania nanotubes (TNTs), silver nano-particles, silver-based nano-structured materials, gold nano-particles, zinc oxide nano-particles and nano-rods, copper nano-particles, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), nano-clay and its modified forms, gallium, liposomes loaded nano-particles, metallic and inorganic dendrimers nano-composite, nano-capsules and cyclodextrins containing nano-particles. This review is also concerned with the application methods for the modification of textiles using nano-structured materials. PMID:20417070

Dastjerdi, Roya; Montazer, Majid

2010-03-30

228

Sorption of pure N2O to biochars and other organic and inorganic materials under anhydrous conditions.  

PubMed

Suppression of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from soil is commonly observed after amendment with biochar. The mechanisms accounting for this suppression are not yet understood. One possible contributing mechanism is N2O sorption to biochar. The sorption of N2O and carbon dioxide (CO2) to four biochars was measured in an anhydrous system with pure N2O. The biochar data were compared to those for two activated carbons and other components potentially present in soils-uncharred pine wood and peat-and five inorganic metal oxides with variable surface areas. Langmuir maximum sorption capacities (Qmax) for N2O on the pine wood biochars (generated between 250 and 500 °C) and activated carbons were 17-73 cm(3) g(-1) at 20 °C (median 51 cm(3) g(-1)), with Langmuir affinities (b) of 2-5 atm(-1) (median 3.4 atm(-1)). Both Qmax and b of the charred materials were substantially higher than those for peat, uncharred wood, and metal oxides [Qmax 1-34 cm(3) g(-1) (median 7 cm(3) g(-1)); b 0.4-1.7 atm(-1) (median 0.7 atm(-1))]. This indicates that biochar can bind N2O more strongly than both mineral and organic soil materials. Qmax and b for CO2 were comparable to those for N2O. Modeled sorption coefficients obtained with an independent polyparameter-linear free-energy relationship matched measured data within a factor 2 for mineral surfaces but underestimated by a factor of 5-24 for biochar and carbonaceous surfaces. Isosteric enthalpies of sorption of N2O were mostly between -20 and -30 kJ mol(-1), slightly more exothermic than enthalpies of condensation (-16.1 kJ mol(-1)). Qmax of N2O on biochar (50000-130000 ?g g(-1) biochar at 20 °C) exceeded the N2O emission suppressions observed in the literature (range 0.5-960 ?g g(-1) biochar; median 16 ?g g(-1)) by several orders of magnitude. Thus, the hypothesis could not be falsified that sorption of N2O to biochar is a mechanism of N2O emission suppression. PMID:23758057

Cornelissen, Gerard; Rutherford, David W; Arp, Hans Peter H; Dörsch, Peter; Kelly, Charlene N; Rostad, Colleen E

2013-06-28

229

Gen IV Materials Handbook Functionalities and Operation  

SciTech Connect

This document is prepared for navigation and operation of the Gen IV Materials Handbook, with architecture description and new user access initiation instructions. Development rationale and history of the Handbook is summarized. The major development aspects, architecture, and design principles of the Handbook are briefly introduced to provide an overview of its past evolution and future prospects. Detailed instructions are given with examples for navigating the constructed Handbook components and using the main functionalities. Procedures are provided in a step-by-step fashion for Data Upload Managers to upload reports and data files, as well as for new users to initiate Handbook access.

Ren, Weiju [ORNL

2009-12-01

230

Fabrication of functional materials in microfluidics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this thesis, we present a study on how droplets prepared in microfluidics can be used for fabrication of functional materials. We utilize the high degree of fluidic control enabled by miniaturizing the channels to achieve monodisperse single and multiple emulsion with high encapsulation efficiency. By engineering the interfaces of such emulsions and/or applying appropriate reactions, novel functional materials have been fabricated for encapsulation and release applications and for carrying out reactions in confined environments. Glass capillary microfluidics is used in the majority of the thesis. Glass offers excellent solvent resistance to most organic solvents needed for fabricating the desired materials. In Chapter 1, we describe a double-emulsion-templated approach to form polymer vesicles, also known as polymersomes. By dissolving amphiphilic block copolymers in a volatile solvent, which forms the shell layer of double emulsions, polymersomes are formed after evaporation of the volatile solvent. In Chapter 2, we apply the same approach to fabricate phospholipid vesicles. In Chapter 3, we investigate the physics of membrane formation at interfaces laden with amphiphilic diblock copolymers. In Chapter 4, we fabricate polymersomes with multiple compaitalents by using controlled double emulsion drops with multiple inner droplets as templates. In Chapter 5, we describe a non-microfluidic approach for fabricating similar polymersomes with large number of compartments. In Chapter 6, we show that the double-emulsion templated approach for forming polymersomes can be applied to two-dimensional stamped devices, which can be easily scaled up for production of large amount of polymersomes. Apart from polymersomes, controlled emulsions can also be used for generating other functional materials. In Chapter 7, we use double emulsion drops as microreactors for fabricating particles of hydroxyapatite. In Chapter 8, we generate solid capsules by emulsifying a molten phase as the shell phase of double emulsions and subsequently cooling the emulsions. In Chapter 9, we describe several strategies that have been applied to form non-spherical particles using microfluidic emulsions as templates. In Chapter 10, we demonstrate that controlled double emulsions cannot be formed at low interfacial tension between the shell and the continuous phases. Instead, compound jets with highly corrugated interfaces are observed.

Shum, Ho Cheung

231

The Synthesis of Functional Mesoporous Materials  

SciTech Connect

The ability to decorate a silica surface with specific ligand fields and/or metal complexes creates powerful new capabilities for catalysis, chemical separations and sensor development. Integrating this with the ability to control the spacing of these complexes across the surface, as well as the symmetry and size of the pore structure, allows the synthetic chemist to hierarchically tailor these structured nanomaterials to specific needs. The next step up the “scale ladder” is provided by the ability to coat these mesoporous materials onto complex shapes, allowing for the intimate integration of these tailored materials into device interfaces. The ability to tailor the pore structure of these mesoporous supports is derived from the surfactant templated synthesis of mesoporous materials, an area which has seen an explosion of activity over the last decade.[1,2] The ability to decorate the surface with the desired functionality requires chemical modification of the oxide interface, most commonly achieved using organosilane self-assembly.[3-6] This manuscript describes recent results from the confluence of these two research areas, with a focus on synthetic manipulation of the morphology and chemistry of the interface, with the ultimate goal of binding metal centers in a chemically useful manner.

Fryxell, Glen E.

2006-11-01

232

Bi-objective optimization design of functionally gradient materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a procedure for bi-objective optimization design of functionally gradient materials (FGM) is presented. Different microstructures formed by two primary materials are evaluated by a micromechanical analysis method. Macroscopically, FGMs are optimally designed by using these microstructures. Instead of using conventional simply assumed power law material distribution functions, a generic material distribution function is used. The bi-objective FGM

Jinhua Huang; George M. Fadel; Vincent Y. Blouin; Mica Grujicic

2002-01-01

233

Synthesis and Characterization of a Layered Manganese Oxide: Materials Chemistry for the Inorganic or Instrumental Methods Lab  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A three-week laboratory project involving synthesis and characterization of a layered manganese oxide provides an excellent vehicle for teaching important concepts of inorganic chemistry and instrumental methods related to non-molecular systems. Na-birnessite is an easily prepared manganese oxide with a 7 A interlayer spacing and Na[superscript…

Ching, Stanton; Neupane, Ram P.; Gray, Timothy P.

2006-01-01

234

Research Interests: Microporous and mesoporous solids, organic-inorganic hybrids and zeolites, structural studies, adsorption and catalysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our research is concerned with the design and synthesis of novel porous framework solids that find applications as functional materials, in particular as adsorbents and catalysts. These include zeolites and related structures, through novel organic-inorganic hybrid solids to well-ordered mesoporous solids. We introduce design into the synthesis of these materials by using molecular templates and inorganic building blocks. Once prepared,

Paul A. Wright

235

Inorganic membrane technology  

SciTech Connect

Objective of this program is to develop a variety of inorganic based high temperature separation membranes. Organic membranes are limited by temperature (<100/sup 0/C) and chemical environments, and would be unsuitable for high temperature applications. The higher temperature stabilities of inorganic materials make them ideal candidates for high temperature membrane applications. Inorganic polymer materials, such as the polyphosphazenes, are being examined for mid-temperature membrane separation applications (100/sup 0/C to 350/sup 0/C). Metallic and ceramic membrane materials are being examined for high temperature separation applications (350/sup 0/C to 1000/sup 0/C). The liquid and gas membrane test systems developed for this program are described. Preliminary results on the separation properties of poly bis- (2,2,2 trifluoroethoxy)phosphazene membranes are reported for dilute aqueous methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, and phenol feedstreams.

McCaffrey, R.R.; McAtee, R.E.; Grey, A.E.; Allen, C.A.; Appelhans, A.D.; Wright, R.B.; Jolley, J.G.

1985-01-01

236

Conducting Polymer-Inorganic Nanoparticle (CPIN) Nanoarrays for Battery Applications - Final Technical Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our objective was to develop new, self-assembling conducting polymer-inorganic nanoparticle nanoarrays (CPIN nanoarrays) comprised of nanoparticles of inorganic Li+ insertion compounds that are wired together with oligomeric chains of derivatives of polythiophene. Using these nanoarrays, we developed an understanding of the relationship between structure and electrochemical function for nanostructured materials. Such nanoarrays are expected to have extremely high specific energy

Buttry; Daniel A

2006-01-01

237

Divergence of Structure and Function in the Haloacid Dehalogenase Enzyme Superfamily: Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron BT2127 is an Inorganic Pyrophosphatase+  

PubMed Central

The explosion of protein sequence information requires that current strategies for function assignment must evolve to complement experimental approaches with computationally-based function prediction. This necessitates the development of strategies based on the identification of sequence markers in the form of specificity determinants and a more informed definition of orthologues. Herein, we have undertaken the function assignment of the unknown Haloalkanoate Dehalogenase superfamily member BT2127 (Uniprot accession # Q8A5V9) from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron using an integrated bioinformatics/structure/mechanism approach. The substrate specificity profile and steady-state rate constants of BT2127 (with kcat/Km value for pyrophosphate of ?1 × 105 M?1 s?1), together with the gene context, supports the assigned in vivo function as an inorganic pyrophosphatase. The X-ray structural analysis of the wild-type BT2127 and several variants generated by site-directed mutagenesis shows that substrate discrimination is based, in part, on active site space restrictions imposed by the cap domain (specifically by residues Tyr76 and Glu47). Structure guided site directed mutagenesis coupled with kinetic analysis of the mutant enzymes identified the residues required for catalysis, substrate binding, and domain-domain association. Based on this structure-function analysis, the catalytic residues Asp11, Asp13, Thr113, and Lys147 as well the metal binding residues Asp171, Asn172 and Glu47 were used as markers to confirm BT2127 orthologues identified via sequence searches. This bioinformatic analysis demonstrated that the biological range of BT2127 orthologue is restricted to the phylum Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi. The key structural determinants in the divergence of BT2127 and its closest homologue ?-phosphoglucomutase control the leaving group size (phosphate vs. glucose-phosphate) and the position of the Asp acid/base in the open vs. closed conformations. HADSF pyrophosphatases represent a third mechanistic and fold type for bacterial pyrophosphatases.

Huang, Hua; Yury, Patskovsky; Toro, Rafael; Farelli, Jeremiah D.; Pandya, Chetanya; Almo, Steven C.; Allen, Karen N.; Dunaway-Mariano, Debra

2012-01-01

238

Divergence of structure and function in the haloacid dehalogenase enzyme superfamily: Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron BT2127 is an inorganic pyrophosphatase.  

PubMed

The explosion of protein sequence information requires that current strategies for function assignment evolve to complement experimental approaches with computationally based function prediction. This necessitates the development of strategies based on the identification of sequence markers in the form of specificity determinants and a more informed definition of orthologues. Herein, we have undertaken the function assignment of the unknown haloalkanoate dehalogenase superfamily member BT2127 (Uniprot accession code Q8A5 V9) from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron using an integrated bioinformatics-structure-mechanism approach. The substrate specificity profile and steady-state rate constants of BT2127 (with a k(cat)/K(m) value for pyrophosphate of ~1 × 10(5) M(-1) s(-1)), together with the gene context, support the assigned in vivo function as an inorganic pyrophosphatase. The X-ray structural analysis of wild-type BT2127 and several variants generated by site-directed mutagenesis shows that substrate discrimination is based, in part, on active site space restrictions imposed by the cap domain (specifically by residues Tyr76 and Glu47). Structure-guided site-directed mutagenesis coupled with kinetic analysis of the mutant enzymes identified the residues required for catalysis, substrate binding, and domain-domain association. On the basis of this structure-function analysis, the catalytic residues Asp11, Asp13, Thr113, and Lys147 as well the metal binding residues Asp171, Asn172, and Glu47 were used as markers to confirm BT2127 orthologues identified via sequence searches. This bioinformatic analysis demonstrated that the biological range of BT2127 orthologue is restricted to the phylum Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi. The key structural determinants in the divergence of BT2127 and its closest homologue, ?-phosphoglucomutase, control the leaving group size (phosphate vs glucose phosphate) and the position of the Asp acid/base in the open versus closed conformations. HADSF pyrophosphatases represent a third mechanistic and fold type for bacterial pyrophosphatases. PMID:21894910

Huang, Hua; Patskovsky, Yury; Toro, Rafael; Farelli, Jeremiah D; Pandya, Chetanya; Almo, Steven C; Allen, Karen N; Dunaway-Mariano, Debra

2011-09-21

239

Functionalization and dispersion of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) nanosheets treated with inorganic reagents.  

PubMed

A mixture of bulk hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) with hydrazine, 30% H(2)O(2), HNO(3)/H(2)SO(4), or oleum was heated in an autoclave at 100 °C to produce functionalized h-BN. The product formed stable colloid solutions in water (0.26-0.32 g L(-1)) and N,N-dimethylformamide (0.34-0.52 g L(-1)) upon mild ultrasonication. The yield of "soluble" h-BN reached about 70 wt%. The dispersions contained few-layered h-BN nanosheets with lateral dimensions in the order of several hundred nanometers. The functionalized dispersible h-BN was characterized by IR spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, UV/Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). It is shown that h-BN preserves its hexagonal structure throughout the functionalization procedure. Its exfoliation into thin platelets upon contact with solvents is probably owing to the attachment of hydrophilic functionalities. PMID:22238118

Nazarov, Albert S; Demin, Viktor N; Grayfer, Ekaterina D; Bulavchenko, Alexander I; Arymbaeva, Aida T; Shin, Hyeon-Jin; Choi, Jae-Young; Fedorov, Vladimir E

2012-01-11

240

Facile synthesis of new fullerene–Ru(bpy) 3 dyads bearing phosphonate groups for hybrid organic–inorganic materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fullerene reacted with mono- and diphosphonate-bearing bipyridines by way of Bingel-type reactions to give adducts which were easily transformed in the corresponding dyads by forming Ru(bpy)3 complexes. Electrochemical measurements and the observation of heavy quenching of the Ru(bpy)3 luminescence manifested strong interactions between the active moieties. Attempts to include the dyads into inorganic matrices derived from zirconium phosphate are reported.

Ernesto Brunet; Marina Alonso; Ma Carmen Quintana; Olga Juanes; Juan-Carlos Rodríguez-Ubis

2007-01-01

241

Environment effects on the lasing photostability of Rhodamine 6G incorporated into organic-inorganic hybrid materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect on the lasing photostability of Rhodamine 6G (Rh6G), and the rigidity of a hybrid inorganic-organic matrix by controlled addition of di-, tri- and tetrafunctionalized alkoxides has been evaluated. The dye was incorporated into hybrid matrices of (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (HEMA) or vol\\/vol copolymers of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and HEMA with different weight proportions of polycondensated dimethyldiethoxysilane (DEOS), methyltriethoxysilane (TRIEOS),

A. Costela; I. García-Moreno; C. Gómez; O. García; R. Sastre

2004-01-01

242

Materials Assembly and Formation Using Engineered Polypeptides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular biomimetics can be defined as mimicking function, synthesis, or structure of materials and systems at the molecular scale using biological pathways. Here, inorganic-binding polypeptides are used as molecular building blocks to control assembly and formation of functional inorganic and hybrid materials and systems for nano- and nanobiotechnology applications. These polypeptides are selected via phage or cell surface display technologies

Mehmet Sarikaya; Candan Tamerler; Daniel T. Schwartz; Francois Baneyx

2004-01-01

243

Inorganic membrane technology  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this program is to develop a variety of inorganic based high temperature separation membranes. Organic membranes are limited by temperature (<100/sup 0/C) and chemical environments, and are unsuitable for high temperature applications. The higher temperature stabilities of inorganic materials make them ideal candidates for high temperature membrane applications. Polymers with inorganic backbone structures, such as the polyphosphazenes, are being examined for mid-temperature membrane separation applications (100/sup 0/C - 350/sup 0/C). Metallic and ceramic membrane materials are being examined for high temperature separation applications (350/sup 0/C - 1000/sup 0/C). The liquid and gas membrane test systems developed for this program are described. Preliminary results on the separation properties of poly(bis(2,2,2 trifluoroethoxy)phosphazene) membranes are reported for dilute aqueous methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, and phenol feedstreams.

McCaffrey, R.R.; McAtee, R.E.; Grey, A.E.; Allen, C.A.; Cummings, D.G.; Appelhans, A.D.; Wright, R.B.; Jolley, J.G.

1987-01-01

244

Indirectly detected through-bond chemical shift correlation NMR spectroscopy in solids under fast MAS: Studies of organic-inorganic hybrid materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indirectly detected, through-bond NMR correlation spectra between 13C and 1H nuclei are reported for the first time in solid state. The capabilities of the new method are demonstrated using naturally abundant organic-inorganic mesoporous hybrid materials. The time performance is significantly better, almost by a factor of 10, than in the corresponding 13C detected experiment. The proposed scheme represents a new analytical tool for studying other solid-state systems and the basis for the development of more advanced 2D and 3D correlation methods.

Mao, Kanmi; Wiench, Jerzy W.; Lin, Victor S.-Y.; Pruski, Marek

2009-01-01

245

Synthesis and characterization of tin telluride inorganic\\/organic composite materials with nanoscale periodicity through solution-phase self-assembly: a new class of composite materials based on Zintl cluster self-oligomerization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we demonstrate the synthesis of semiconducting tin telluride inorganic\\/organic composite materials with nanoscale\\u000a periodicity prepared using solution phase self-assembly. Oligomerization of anionic SnTe44? clusters by halogen-mediated tellurium elimination in the presence of surfactant leads to the formation of a meosotructured\\u000a composite. The composites initially forms as a mixture of mesophases, usually some combination of a layered phase

Andrew E. Riley; Sarah H. Tolbert

2007-01-01

246

Synthesis and luminescence behavior of inorganic–organic hybrid materials covalently bound with pyran-containing dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A DCM derivative, namely 4-Dicyanomethylene-2-methyl-6-{[4?-(N-hydroxyethyl-N-methyl)amino]styryl}-4H-pyran (DCMH), has been synthesized and covalently incorporated into the inorganic silica network as pendants via a sol–gel process. Molecular\\u000a structures of the resultants are confirmed by elemental analysis, 1H NMR, DSC, TGA, FTIR and UV–Vis spectroscopy. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra shows that the emission of DCMH peaked at 625 nm is almost completely quenched in DMF solution

Yuanjing Cui; Jiancan Yu; Junkuo Gao; Zhiyu Wang; Guodong Qian

2009-01-01

247

Inorganic photovoltaic cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inorganic semiconductor materials used to make photovoltaic cells include crystalline, multicrystalline, amorphous, and microcrystalline Si, the III-V compounds and alloys, CdTe, and the chalcopyrite compound, copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS). We show the structure of the different devices that have been developed, discuss the main methods of manufacture, and review the achievements of the different technologies.

Robert W. Miles; Guillaume Zoppi; Ian Forbes

2007-01-01

248

Encapsulated inorganic resist technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resolution in traditional single layer organic resists has been limited by the inability to image at aspect ratios (resist height to image width) of much greater than 3:1. Unless plasma etch selectivity increases several fold (an unlikely event with organic based resists) single layer resist chemistry will cease to be practical at sub-100-nm resolution. Multilayer resist schemes offer the capability of increased aspect ratio, but they add to the process complexity and cost. Encapsulated inorganic materials as resist components will be ultimately capable of sub-100-nm resolution with sufficient plasma etch selectivity. The encapsulated inorganic resist technology (EIRT) resist will act as a single layer hard mask compatible with existing resist processing steps. Material evaluation showed that encapsulated inorganic materials have properties compatible with current resist technology. Lithographic evaluations have been performed with electron beam, and with 248 nm and 157 nm projection systems. It was shown that 150-nm imaging is possible with resists having high inorganic material content. In all cases the EIRT resists have shown lithographic performance equivalent to control resists containing no SiO2. Reactive ion etch (RIE) etch rates in oxygen and chlorine plasmas are significantly reduced for resists containing SiO2 nanoparticles as compared to a commercial resist providing a proof of concept that EIRT resists can dramatically improved plasma etch rates.

Fedynyshyn, Theodore H.; Doran, Scott P.; Lind, Michele L.; Sondi, I.; Matijevic, Egon

2000-06-01

249

Development of Functional Inorganic Materials by Soft Chemical Process Using Ion-Exchange Reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our study on soft chemical process using the metal oxide and metal hydroxide nanosheets obtained by exfoliation their layered compounds were reviewed. Ni(OH)2?MnO2 sandwich layered nanostructure can be prepared by layer by-layer stacking of exfoliated manganese oxide nanosheets and nickel hydroxide layers. Manganese oxide nanotubes can be obtained by curling the manganese oxide nanosheets using the cationic surfactants as the template. The layered titanate oriented thin film can be prepared by restacking the titanate nanosheets on a polycrystalline substrate, and transformed to the oriented BaTiO3 and TiO2 thin films by the topotactic structural transformation reactions, respectively. The titanate nanosheets can be transformed anatase-type TiO2 nanocrystals under hydrothermal conditions. The TiO2 nanocrystals are formed by a topotactic structural transformation reaction. The TiO2 nanocrystals prepared by this method expose specific crystal plane on their surfaces, and show high photocatalytic activity and high dye adsorption capacity for high performance dye-sensitized solar cell. A series of layered basic metal salt (LBMS) compounds were prepared by hydrothermal reactions of transition metal hydroxides and organic acids. We succeeded in the exfoliation of these LBMS compounds in alcohol solvents, and obtained the transition metal hydroxide nanosheets for the first time.

Feng, Qi

250

Organic-inorganic hybrid superhydrophobic surfaces using methyltriethoxysilane and tetraethoxysilane sol-gel derived materials in emulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By applying alkaline-catalyzed co-hydrolysis and copolycondensation reactions of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and methyltriethoxysilane (MTES) in organic siloxane modified polyacrylate emulsion (OSPA emulsion), we are able to demonstrate the potential for developing a sol-gel derived organic-inorganic hybrid emulsion for a superhydrophobic surface research. TEOS and MTES derived sol-gel moieties can be designed for a physical roughness and hydrophobic characteristic (Si-CH3) of the hybrid superhydrophobic surface, while OSPA emulsion can be endowed for good film-forming property. The effect of formulation parameters on superhydrophobicity and film-forming property was analyzed. The water contact angle (WCA) on the sol-gel derived hybrid film is determined to be 156°, and the contact angle hysteresis is 5° by keeping the mole ratio of TEOS:MTES:C2H5OH:NH3·H2O:AMP-95 at 1:4:30:10:0.63 and the mass percentage of OSPA emulsion at 25%. The nanoparticle-based silica rough surface is observed as the mole ratio of MTES/TEOS at 4:1. The sol-gel derived organic-inorganic hybrid emulsion shows remarkable film-forming property when the mole ratio of MTES/TEOS reaches or exceeds 4:1. With the primer coating, the performance of superhydrophobic film achieve actual use standard. It reveals that this new procedure is an effective shortcut to obtain a superhydrophobic surface with potential applications.

Wen, Xiu-Fang; Wang, Kun; Pi, Pi-Hui; Yang, Jin-Xin; Cai, Zhi-Qi; Zhang, Li-Juan; Qian, Yu; Yang, Zhuo-Ru; Zheng, Da-Feng; Cheng, Jiang

2011-11-01

251

Metalorganic frameworks as functional, porous materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research presented in this thesis investigates the use of metal carboxylates as permanently porous materials called metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). The project has focused on three broad areas of study, each which strives to develop a further understanding of this class of materials. The first topic is concerned with the synthesis and structural characterization of MOFs. Our group and others

Jeffrey A. Rood

2009-01-01

252

A method to quantify organic functional groups and inorganic compounds in ambient aerosols using attenuated total reflectance FTIR spectroscopy and multivariate chemometric techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

An attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopic technique and a multivariate calibration method were developed to quantify ambient aerosol organic functional groups and inorganic compounds. These methods were applied to size-resolved particulate matter samples collected in winter and summer of 2004 at three sites: a downtown Phoenix, Arizona location, a rural site near Phoenix, and an urban fringe site

Charity Coury; Ann M. Dillner

2008-01-01

253

Thiol functionalized polymers for dielectric materials.  

SciTech Connect

The development of functionalized polymer dielectrics based on poly(norbornene) and poly(PhONDI) (PhONDI = N-phenyl-7-oxanorbornene-5,6-dicarboximide) is presented. Functionalization of the polymer backbones by the thiol-ene reaction was examined to determine if thiol addition improved dielectric properties. Poly(norbornene) was not amenable to functionalization due to the propensity to crosslink under the reaction conditions studied. Poly(PhONDI) could be successfully functionalized, and the functionalized polymer was found to have increased breakdown strength as well as improved solution stability. Initial studies on the development of thiol-functionalized silica/poly(PhONDI) nanocomposites and their dielectric properties will also be discussed.

Appelhans, Leah

2010-11-01

254

Ceramers—functional materials for adsorption techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ceramers were prepared by using commercially available polymethyl- and polymethylphenylsiloxanes as starting materials and converting them by pyrolysis in a nitrogen atmosphere to a hybrid state called ceramer. The microstructures were modified by adding prepyrolized polymethylsiloxanes as filler or by using a blowing agent to fabricate foamed ceramers. The porosity characteristics were quantitatively evaluated using nitrogen adsorption whereas the hydrocarbon

Michaela Wilhelm; Christian Soltmann; Dietmar Koch; Georg Grathwohl

2005-01-01

255

PREFACE: IUMRS-ICA 2008 Symposium 'AA. Rare-Earth Related Material Processing and Functions'  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rare-earth related materials have been widely used in various advanced technologies and devices because of their novel functions such as excellent magnetic and optical properties. For the fabrication of the next generation of new rare-earth related materials with novel functions, it is necessary to design a wide range of materials from nano-scale to macro-scale and to develop novel techniques realizing such designs. Indeed, there has been great progress in the preparation, processing and characterization of new rare-earth materials covering magnetic alloys, inorganic and organic fluorescence materials. In the International Union of Materials Research Societies International Conference in Asia 2008 (IUMRS-ICA2008) (9-13 December, Nagoya, Japan), the symposium on 'AA: Rare-Earth Related Material Processing and Functions' was organized to provide an interdisciplinary forum for the discussion of recent advances in fabrication processing and applications of rare-earth related materials with various scaled and unique morphologies. Many papers were presented in the symposium, and some papers were accepted to be published in this proceeding after review. Editors: Takayuki KOMATSU (Nagaoka University of Technology, Japan) Tsugio SATO (Tohoku University, Japan) Ken-ichi MACHIDA (Osaka University, Japan) Hirotoshi FUKUNAGA (Nagasaki University, Japan) Jiro YAMASAKI (Kyushu Institute of Technology, Japan) Honjie ZHANG (Chinese Academy of Sciences, China) Chun Hua YAN (Peking University, China) Jianrong QIU (Zhejiang University, China) Jong HEO (Pohang University, Korea) Setsuhisa TANABE (Kyoto University, Japan) Hiroshi TATEWAKI (Nagoya City University, Japan) Tomokatsu HAYAKAWA (Nagoya Institute of Technology, Japan) Yasufumi FUJIWARA (Osaka University, Japan)

Komatsu, Takayuki; Sato, Tsugio; Machida, Ken-ichi; Fukunaga, Hirotoshi

2009-02-01

256

Panchromatic photon-harvesting by hole-conducting materials in inorganic-organic heterojunction sensitized-solar cell through the formation of nanostructured electron channels.  

PubMed

Additional photon-harvesting by hole transporting materials in Sb(2)S(3)-sensitized solar cell is demonstrated through the formation of electron channels in the hole transporter such as P3HT (poly(3-hexylthiophene)) and PCPDTBT(poly(2,6-(4,4-bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b;3,4-b']dithiophene)-alt-4,7(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)) that can act as both a hole conductor and light absorber. As a result, the short-circuit current density is improved with an increment in overall efficiency. These findings provide new insights into use of light-absorbing conjugated polymers as a hole conductor in the inorganic-organic heterojunction sensitized solar cells. PMID:22401668

Chang, Jeong Ah; Im, Sang Hyuk; Lee, Yong Hui; Kim, Hi-Jung; Lim, Choong-Sun; Heo, Jin Hyuk; Seok, Sang Il

2012-03-08

257

New materials and functionality in spintronics devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The next generation of electronics devices, known as spintronics, which incorporate the spin property of the carriers in combination with their charge degree of freedom is the focus of to-date research. Therefore, exciting new classes of materials have been emerging for the last few years for the development of spintronics devices. This study has been carried out to understand/control various properties of such materials at the fundamental level which is important for the spintronics devices applications. Materials studied here include magnetic semiconductors, magnetostrictive alloys and magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJ) based sensors. In the first part, a comparative study of the room temperature ferromagnetism of Co doped ZnO and CeO2 is presented with emphasis on the role of dopant, defects and host oxide. Systemic structural, magnetic, and transport analyses reveal that the nature of donor defects and host oxide plays a vital role in establishing ferromagnetism. This study provides an insight into the underlying mechanisms responsible for the ferromagnetism in Co-ZnO and Co-CeO 2. Moreover, the discussed exchange mechanisms are in good agreement with the electronic structure calculation of magnetic impurity ions and defects. Composite materials with strong magneto-electric (ME) coupling require magnetic thin films with large saturation magnetostriction constant at low magnetic fields. In the second part of this dissertation, we have studied FeGa alloys where changes in their microstructure with the incorporation of boron occur. These changes make this material a soft magnetic alloy (coercivity ˜ 2 Oe) which has a narrow ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) line width, large magnetostriction and high saturation magnetization. The anisotropy values have been extracted from study of the angular dependence of FMR. This work highlights the role of crystalline anisotropy and induced uniaxial anisotropy which determine the magnetic softness and enhanced magnetostriction at small magnetic fields. In addition, the effects of rapid thermal annealing on the structure and magnetic properties of the crystalline as well as amorphous FeGaB thin films have been studied. Additionally, new electrode materials within the magnetic tunneling junction (MTJ) have been developed using FeGaB which serve as the sensing magnetic layer. This provides a method to measure mechanical strain or stress with high sensitivity. It has been shown that TMR of greater than 12% at room temperature could be achieved in CoFeB/MgO/FeGaB based junctions. This suggests that FeGaB could be a new magnetic electrode for MTJs based pressure devices. The ability of magnetoresistive (MR) material to sense very weak magnetic fields at room temperature can be used for the magnetic sensor's design. In the third part, the Al2O3 based sensors have been studied where the shape anisotropy in the free magnetic electrode has been observed to results in a linear and hysteresis free magnetoresistance (MR) curve. Moreover, Al2O3 based sensor have 28 - 30% TMR and sensitivity up to 0.4 %/Oe over a magnetic field range of -40 Oe to 40 Oe whereas the MgO-based sensor with superparamagnetic free layer has about 90 % TMR and sensitivity of 1.1 %/Oe over the same field range.

Shah, Lubna R.

258

Functional Nanofibre: Enabling Material for the Next Generations Smart Textiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional fibrous materials are a new family of fibre materials whose physical and chemical properties are sensitive to the change in the environment such as temperature, pressure, electric field, magnetic field, optical wavelength, adsorbed gas molecules and the pH value. This paper introduces a new approach to translate functions from nanoparticles to fibrous structures by co-electrospinning. Examples of nanofibres that

Frank K. Ko; Heejae Yang

2008-01-01

259

Mussel-inspired functionalization of graphene for synthesizing Ag-polydopamine-graphene nanosheets as antibacterial materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mussels have been shown to attach to virtually all types of inorganic and organic surfaces via their adhesive proteins. The adhesive proteins secreted by mussels contain high concentrations of catechol and amine functional groups, which have similar functional groups with polydopamine (PDA). Inspired by mussels, a mild and environmentally friendly method was used to synthesize Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) on functionalized PDA-graphene nanosheets (PDA-GNS) with uniform and high dispersion. First, a uniform layer of PDA was coated on graphene oxide (GO) by polymerizing dopamine (DA) at room temperature. During the process GO was reduced by the DA. The PDA layer on the surface of GNS can be used as a nanoscale guide to form uniform Ag NPs on the surface of PDA-GNS. The obtained Ag-PDA-GNS hybrid materials are characterized by atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and thermal gravimetric analysis. The resultant Ag-PDA-GNS hybrid materials exhibited strong antibacterial properties to both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria due to the synergistic effect of GNS and Ag NPs.Mussels have been shown to attach to virtually all types of inorganic and organic surfaces via their adhesive proteins. The adhesive proteins secreted by mussels contain high concentrations of catechol and amine functional groups, which have similar functional groups with polydopamine (PDA). Inspired by mussels, a mild and environmentally friendly method was used to synthesize Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) on functionalized PDA-graphene nanosheets (PDA-GNS) with uniform and high dispersion. First, a uniform layer of PDA was coated on graphene oxide (GO) by polymerizing dopamine (DA) at room temperature. During the process GO was reduced by the DA. The PDA layer on the surface of GNS can be used as a nanoscale guide to form uniform Ag NPs on the surface of PDA-GNS. The obtained Ag-PDA-GNS hybrid materials are characterized by atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and thermal gravimetric analysis. The resultant Ag-PDA-GNS hybrid materials exhibited strong antibacterial properties to both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria due to the synergistic effect of GNS and Ag NPs. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr32092d

Zhang, Zhe; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Bailin; Tang, Jilin

2012-12-01

260

A general method for the synthesis of monodisperse hollow inorganic-organic hybrid microspheres with interior functionalized poly(methacrylic acid) shells.  

PubMed

Hollow inorganic-organic hybrid microspheres, such as silica, titania, and zirconia, with interior poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) functionalized shell were synthesized by a general method containing a two-stage reaction. The hollow inorganic shell-layer with interior polymeric component was formed over the PMAA template during the second-stage controlled hydrolysis of inorganic precursors together with disintegration of PMAA cores and adhering to the interior wall of the silica during the drying process due to the capillary force as well as the competitive hydrogen bond interaction. In this process, PMAA microspheres were prepared by distillation precipitation polymerization of methacrylic acid (MAA) in acetonitrile as the first-stage reaction. The present work elaborately investigated the effects of the reaction conditions, including the amount of the tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) precursors and the amount of ammonium hydroxide catalyst on the morphology and structure of the resultant hollow composite microspheres, which were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and nitrogen adsorption-desorption. PMID:22218343

Liu, Bin; Yan, Enwei; Zhang, Xu; Yang, Xinlin; Bai, Feng

2011-12-19

261

Comparison of inorganic ion exchange materials for removing cesium, strontium, and transuranic elements from K-basin water  

SciTech Connect

The work presented in this report was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under the Efficient Separations and Crosscutting Program (ESP), Office of Science and Technology, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The objective of this work was to investigate radionuclide uptake by several newly produced ion exchange materials under actual waste conditions, and to compare the performance of those materials with that of commercially available ion exchangers. The equilibrium uptake data presented in this report are useful for identifying potential materials that are capable of removing cesium and strontium from 105-KE Basin water. The data show the relative selectivities of the ion exchange materials under similar operating conditions. Additional flow studies are needed to predict material capacities and to develop complete ion exchange process flow sheets. The materials investigated in this study include commercially available ion exchangers such as IONSIV{reg_sign} IE-911 (manufactured by UOP), clinoptilolite (a naturally occurring zeolite), and materials produced on an experimental basis by AlliedSignal (biotites and nonatitanates), 3M (hexacyanoferrates), Selion Technologies, Inc. (hexacyanoferrates and titanates), and Texas A&M University (pharmacosiderites, biotites, and nonatitanates). In all, the performance of 14 ion exchange materials was evaluated at two solution-to-exchanger mass ratios (i.e., 10{sup 4} and 10{sup 5}) using actual 105-KE Basin water. Evaluation consisted of determining cesium and strontium batch distribution coefficients, loading, and decontamination factors. Actual 105-KE Basin water was obtained from a sample collected during the sludge dissolution work conducted by PNNL in FY 1996. This sample was taken from the bottom of the basin and contained significantly higher concentrations of the radioactive constituents than do samples taken from the top of the basin.

Brown, G.N.; Bontha, J.R.; Carson, K.J.; Elovich, R.J.; DesChane, J.R.

1997-10-01

262

PREFACE: Annual Conference on Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies - FM&NT 2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Conference Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies (FM&NT-2011) was held in Riga, 5-8 April 2011 in the Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia (ISSP LU). The conference was organized in co-operation with projects ERANET 'MATERA' and National Research programme in Materials Science and Information Technologies. The purpose of the conference was to bring together scientists, engineers and students from universities, research institutes and related industrial companies active in the field of advanced material science and materials technologies trends and future activities. Scientific themes covered in the conference are: theoretical research and modelling of processes and materials; materials for energetics, renewable energy technologies and phtovoltaics; multifunctional inorganic, organic and hybrid materials for photonic, micro and nanoelectronic applications and innovative methods for research of nanostructures; advanced technologies for synthesis and research of nanostructured materials, nanoparticles, thin films and coatings; application of innovative materials in science and economics. The number of registered participants from 17 countries was nearly 300. During three days of the conference 22 invited, 69 oral reports and 163 posters were presented. 40 papers, based on these reports, are included in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. Additional information about FM&NT-2011 is available in its homepage http://www.fmnt.lu.lv. The Organizing Committee would like to thank all speakers, contributors, session chairs, referees and meeting staff for their efforts in making the FM&NT-2011 successful. The Organizing Committee sincerely hopes that that the conference gave all participants new insights into the widespread development of functional materials and nanotechnologies and would enhance the circulation of information released at the meeting. Andris Sternberg Inta Muzikante Janis Zicans Conference photograph ERAF logo International Organizing Committee Andris Sternberg (chairperson), Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Latvia, MATERA Juras Banys, Vilnius University, Lithuania Gunnar Borstel, University of Osnabrück, Germany Niels E Christensen, University of Aarhus, Denmark Robert A Evarestov, St. Petersburg State University, Russia Claes-Goran Granqvist, Uppsala University, Sweden Dag Høvik, The Research Council of Norway, Norway, MATERA Marco Kirm, Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Estonia Vladislav Lemanov, Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, Russia Witold Lojkowski, Institute of High Pressure Physics, Poland Ergo Nommiste, University of Tartu, Estonia Helmut Schober, Institut Laue-Langevin, France Sisko Sipilä, Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation, Finland, MATERA Ingólfur Torbjörnsson, Icelandic Centre for Research, Iceland, MATERA Marcel H Van de Voorde, University of Technology Delft, The Netherlands International Program Committee Inta Muzikante (chairperson), Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Latvia, MATERA Liga Berzina-Cimdina, Institute of Biomaterials and Biomechanics, Riga Technical University, Latvia Janis Grabis, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Riga Technical University, Latvia Leonid V Maksimov, Vavilov State Optical Institute, Russia Linards Skuja, Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Latvia Maris Springis, Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Latvia Ilmars Zalite, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Riga Technical University, Latvia Janis Zicans, Institute of Polymers, Riga Technical University Local Committee: Liga Grinberga, Anatolijs Sarakovskis, Jurgis Grube, Raitis Siatkovskis, Maris Kundzins, Anna Muratova, Maris Springis, Aivars Vembris, Krisjanis Smits, Andris Fedotovs, Dmitrijs Bocarovs, Anastasija Jozepa, Andris Krumins.

Sternberg, Andris; Muzikante, Inta; Zicans, Janis

2011-06-01

263

Designing Graphene-based Thermoelectric materials with Chemical Functionalization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphene has been explored as a thermoelectric (TE) material recently due to its superior mobility and ambipolar nature. However, the extremely high thermal conductivity (?) and only moderate Seebeck coefficient (S) make a graphene monolayer a highly inefficient TE material. Graphene superlattices made with chemical functionalization offer the possibility of tuning both the thermal and electronic properties via nano-patterning of the graphene surface. In this work, we investigate the effects of chemical functionalization on the thermoelectric transport properties of graphene using classical and quantum mechanical calculations. Our calculations show that chemical functionalization can control the power factor by changing the width of the pure graphene region and functionalization configuration, as well as ? depending on the functional groups and functionalization coverage. These results suggest that chemical functionalization could be an efficient route to designing graphene-based TE materials.

Kim, Jeong Yun; Grossman, Jeffrey

2013-03-01

264

Surface functionalized mesoporous material and method of making same  

DOEpatents

According to the present invention, an organized assembly of functional molecules with specific interfacial functionality (functional group(s)) is attached to available surfaces including within mesopores of a mesoporous material. The method of the present invention avoids the standard base soak that would digest the walls between the mesopores by boiling the mesoporous material in water for surface preparation then removing all but one or two layers of water molecules on the internal surface of a pore. Suitable functional molecule precursor is then applied to permeate the hydrated pores and the precursor then undergoes condensation to form the functional molecules on the interior surface(s) of the pore(s).

Feng, Xiangdong (West Richland, WA); Liu, Jun (West Richland, WA); Fryxell, Glen E. (Kennewick, WA)

2001-01-01

265

Fatigue Crack Growth Analysis Models for Functionally Graded Materials  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study is to develop crack growth analysis methods for functionally graded materials (FGMs) subjected to mode I cyclic loading. The study presents finite elements based computational procedures for both two and three dimensional problems to examine fatigue crack growth in functionally graded materials. Developed methods allow the computation of crack length and generation of crack front profile for a graded medium subjected to fluctuating stresses. The results presented for an elliptical crack embedded in a functionally graded medium, illustrate the competing effects of ellipse aspect ratio and material property gradation on the fatigue crack growth behavior.

Dag, Serkan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06531 (Turkey); Yildirim, Bora [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hacettepe University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Sabuncuoglu, Baris

2008-02-15

266

Characterization of a mixed diet reference material (NBS RM 8431) for inorganic elements and selected organic nutrients  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mixed diet reference material was produced from a typical diet menu selected from a human study. It included foods for 3 meals consumed in a day. Recommended values for 17 elements and for ash, fat and protein are given. In addition information is provided for individual sugars, total sugar and starch, where recommended values cannot yet be given.

Wayne R. Wolf; Nancy J. Miller-Ihli

1987-01-01

267

Solid state dye sensitized solar cells based on supersonic beam deposition of organic, inorganic cluster assembled, and nanohybrid materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of nanohybrids synthesized by supersonic beam codeposition of metal oxide clusters, produced by microplasma cluster source, and of aerodynamically accelerated molecules has been explored as a novel approach to the preparation of controlled dye sensitized materials for photovoltaic applications. The hybrid nanostructures are formed through deposition via supersonic expansion processes, controlling the kinetic energy of the precursors. With

M. Nardi; T. Toccoli; M. Tonezzer; F. Siviero; V. Micheli; A. C. Mayer; S. Iannotta

2010-01-01

268

Sol-Gel Synthesis of a Biotemplated Inorganic Photocatalyst: A Simple Experiment for Introducing Undergraduate Students to Materials Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As part of a laboratory course, undergraduate students were asked to use baker's yeast cells as biotemplate in preparing TiO[subscript 2] powders and to test the photocatalytic activity of the resulting materials. This laboratory experience, selected because of the important environmental implications of soft chemistry and photocatalysis,…

Boffa, Vittorio; Yue, Yuanzheng; He, Wen

2012-01-01

269

Topology optimization of compliant mechanisms with multiple materials using a peak function material interpolation scheme  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   In the topology optimization of structures, compliant mechanisms or materials, a density-like function is often used for material\\u000a interpolation to overcome the computational difficulties encountered in the large “0-1” type integer programming problem.\\u000a In this paper, we illustrate that a gradually formed continuous peak function can be used for material interpolation. One\\u000a of the advantages of introducing the peak

L. Yin; G. K. Ananthasuresh

2001-01-01

270

Functional materials for sustainable energy technologies: four case studies.  

PubMed

The critical topic of energy and the environment has rarely had such a high profile, nor have the associated materials challenges been more exciting. The subject of functional materials for sustainable energy technologies is demanding and recognized as a top priority in providing many of the key underpinning technological solutions for a sustainable energy future. Energy generation, consumption, storage, and supply security will continue to be major drivers for this subject. There exists, in particular, an urgent need for new functional materials for next-generation energy conversion and storage systems. Many limitations on the performances and costs of these systems are mainly due to the materials' intrinsic performance. We highlight four areas of activity where functional materials are already a significant element of world-wide research efforts. These four areas are transparent conducting oxides, solar energy materials for converting solar radiation into electricity and chemical fuels, materials for thermoelectric energy conversion, and hydrogen storage materials. We outline recent advances in the development of these classes of energy materials, major factors limiting their intrinsic functional performance, and potential ways to overcome these limitations. PMID:19943280

Kuznetsov, V L; Edwards, P P

2010-01-01

271

Material selection for Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility tanks  

SciTech Connect

This paper briefly summarizes the history of the materials selection for the US Department of Energy`s high-level waste carbon steel storage tanks. It also provides an evaluation of the materials for the construction of new tanks at the evaluation of the materials for the construction of new tanks at the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. The evaluation included a materials matrix that summarized the critical design, fabrication, construction, and corrosion resistance requirements: assessed. each requirement: and cataloged the advantages and disadvantages of each material. This evaluation is based on the mission of the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. On the basis of the compositions of the wastes stored in Hanford waste tanks, it is recommended that tanks for the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility be constructed of ASME SA 515, Grade 70, carbon steel.

Larrick, A.P.; Blackburn, L.D.; Brehm, W.F.; Carlos, W.C.; Hauptmann, J.P. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Danielson, M.J.; Westerman, R.E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Divine, J.R. [ChemMet Ltd., West Richland, WA (United States); Foster, G.M. [ICF Kaiser Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-03-01

272

Selenium, selected inorganic elements, and organochlorine pesticides in bottom material and biota from the Colorado River delta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of selenium (Se) in bottom material ranged from 0·6 to 5·0 lg g~1, and from 0·5 to 18·3 l gg ~1 in biota; 23% of samples exceeded the toxic threshold. Concentrations of DDE in biota exceeded the toxic threshold in 30% of the samples. Greater concentrations of selenium in biota were found at sites with strongly reducing conditions, no

Jaqueline GarcmH; Kirke A. King; Anthony L. Velasco; Evgueni Shumilin; Miguel A. MoraA; Edward P. Glenn

2001-01-01

273

Functional Role and Affinity of Inorganic Cations in Stabilizing the Tetrameric Structure of the KcsA K+ Channel  

PubMed Central

Crystal structures of the tetrameric KcsA K+ channel reveal seven distinct binding sites for K+ ions within the central pore formed at the fourfold rotational symmetry axis. Coordination of an individual K+ ion by eight protein oxygen atoms within the selectivity filter suggests that ion-subunit bridging by cation–oxygen interactions contributes to structural stability of the tetramer. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effect of inorganic cations on the temperature dependence of the KcsA tetramer as monitored by SDS-PAGE. Inorganic cations known to permeate or strongly block K+ channels (K+, Rb+, Cs+, Tl+, NH4+, Ba2+, and Sr2+) confer tetramer stability at higher temperatures (T0.5 range = 87°C to >99°C) than impermeant cations and weak blockers (Li+, Na+, Tris+, choline+; T0.5 range = 59°C to 77°C). Titration of K+, Ba2+, and other stabilizing cations protects against rapid loss of KcsA tetramer observed in 100 mM choline Cl at 90°C. Tetramer protection titrations of K+, Rb+, Cs+, Tl+, and NH4+ at 85°C or 90°C exhibit apparent Hill coefficients (N) ranging from 1.7 to 3.3 and affinity constants (K0.5) ranging from 1.1 to 9.6 mM. Ba2+ and Sr2+ titrations exhibit apparent one-site behavior (N ? 1) with K0.5 values of 210 nM and 11 ?M, respectively. At 95°C in the presence of 5 mM K+, titration of Li+ or Na+ destabilizes the tetramer with K0.5 values of 57 mM and 109 mM, respectively. We conclude that specific binding interactions of inorganic cations with the selectivity filter are an important determinant of tetramer stability of KscA.

Krishnan, Manoj N.; Bingham, Jon-Paul; Lee, Siew Hwee; Trombley, Patrick; Moczydlowski, Edward

2005-01-01

274

Marine polysaccharides and their conversion into functional materials.  

PubMed

Natural polysaccharides are supports for sensors, absorbents and catalysts. They are also gelling agents in the aqueous phase, due to the high level of dispersion of hydrocolloids. This article focuses on an effective method to prepare dry materials which retain the dispersion of the polymer hydrogel, namely polysaccharide aerogels. The diverse surface functionalities like hydroxy, carboxy or amino groups of the polysaccharide aerogels are accessible to catalysts and reactants and can be easily modified to tune the functionality of the materials. PMID:21469451

Robitzer, Mike; Quignard, Françoise

2011-01-01

275

Functional block copolymers: nanostructured materials with emerging applications.  

PubMed

Recent advances in polymer synthesis have significantly enhanced the ability to rationally design block copolymers with tailored functionality. The self-assembly of these macromolecules in the solid state or in solution allows the formation of nanostructured materials with a variety of properties and potential functions. This Review illustrates recent progress in the field of block copolymer materials by highlighting selected emerging applications. PMID:22806974

Schacher, Felix H; Rupar, Paul A; Manners, Ian

2012-07-16

276

Functional materials for microscale genomic and proteomic analyses.  

PubMed

The design of functional materials for genomic and proteomic analyses in microscale systems has begun to mature, from materials designed for capillary-based electrophoresis systems to those tailored for microfluidic-based or 'chip-based' platforms. In particular, recent research has focused on evaluating different polymer chemistries for microchannel surface passivation and improved DNA separation matrix performance. Additionally, novel bioconjugate materials designed specifically for electrophoretic separations in microscale channels are facilitating new separation modalities. PMID:11950557

Vreeland, Wyatt N; Barron, Annelise E

2002-04-01

277

Production of modern functional materials based on renewable vegetable resources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An energy-saving technology for production of variously structured carbon modifications from a renewable vegetable raw material, i.e., the waste of agricultural crops and peat moss, has been developed. Promising functional materials — refractory compounds (tungsten and titanium carbides) and oil sorbents possessing a combination of high operating characteristics — have been formed on the basis of the synthesized carbon modifications.

Onishchenko, D. V.; Reva, V. P.

2013-05-01

278

In situ intercalative polymerization of pyrrole in FeOCl: a new class of layered, conducting polymer-inorganic hybrid materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report here a structural form of polypyrrole in which polymerization and intercalation of pyrrole are brought about within the constrained van der Waals gap of a layered inorganic solid (FeOCl). Oxidative intercalation of organic molecules with concomitant reduction of the inorganic lattice is well established for FeOCl, and in the present case affords a novel class of conductive

M. G. Kanatzidis; L. M. Tonge; T. J. Marks; H. O. Marcy; C. R. Kannewurf

1987-01-01

279

Evaluation of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) in inorganic and organic oilfield scales from the Middle East.  

PubMed

The distribution of natural nuclide gamma-ray activities and their respective annual effective dose rates, produced by potassium-40 (??K), uranium-238 (²³?U), thorium-232 (²³²Th), and radium-226 (²²?Ra), were determined for 14 oilfield scale samples from the Middle East. Accumulated radioactive materials concentrate in tubing and surface equipment, and workers at equipment-cleaning facilities and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) disposal facilities are the population most at risk for exposure to NORM radiation. Gamma-spectra analysis indicated that photo-gamma lines represent the parents of 10 radioactive nuclides: ²³?Th, plutonium-239, actinium-228, ²²?Ra, lead-212 (²¹²Pb), ²¹?Pb, thallium-238 (²??Tl), bismuth-212 (²¹²Bi), ²¹?Bi, and ??K. These nuclides represent the daughters of the natural radioactive series ²³?U and ²³²Th with ??K as well. The mean activity concentration of ²³?U, ²³²Th, and ??K were found to be 25.8 ± 11.6, 18.3 ± 8.1, and 4487.2 ± 2.5% Bq kg?¹ (average values for 14 samples), respectively. The annual effective dose rates and the absorbed doses in air, both indoor and outdoor, for the samples were obtained as well. The results can be used to assess the respective hazard on workers in the field and represent a basis for revisiting current engineering practices. PMID:21892762

Bassioni, Ghada; Abdulla, Fareed; Morsy, Zeinab; El-Faramawy, Nabil

2011-09-03

280

Organic–inorganic nanotube hybrids: Organosilica-nanotubes containing ethane, ethylene and acetylene groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synthesis and characterization of novel organic–inorganic hybrid nanotubes containing silica and ethane (EtSNT), ethylene (ESNT) and acetylene (ASNT) units are presented. The unsaturated hydrocarbon linkers can be applied for a chemical functionalization of the surface of the silica nanotubes, e.g. for the grafting of organic\\/inorganic or organometallic molecules. These new materials are synthesized via a template method using V3O7·H2O

Christian E. Fischer; Alexander Raith; János Mink; Gabriele Raudaschl-Sieber; Mirza Cokoja; Fritz E. Kühn

2011-01-01

281

New multifunctional porous materials based on inorganic-organic hybrid single-walled carbon nanotubes: gas storage and high-sensitive detection of pesticides.  

PubMed

Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) that are covalently functionalized with benzoic acid (SWNT-PhCOOH) can be integrated with transition-metal ions to form 3D porous inorganic-organic hybrid frameworks (SWNT-Zn). In particular, N(2)-adsorption analysis shows that the BET surface area increases notably from 645.3 to 1209.9?m(2) ?g(-1) for SWNTs and SWNT-Zn, respectively. This remarkable enhancement in the surface area of SWNT-Zn is presumably due to the microporous motifs from benzoates coordinated to intercalated zinc ions between the functionalized SWNTs; this assignment was also corroborated by NLDFT pore-size distributions. In addition, the excess-H(2)-uptake maximum of SWNT-Zn reaches about 3.1?wt.?% (12?bar, 77?K), which is almost three times that of the original SWNTs (1.2?wt.?% at 12?bar, 77?K). Owing to its inherent conductivity and pore structure, as well as good dispersibility, SWNT-Zn is an effective candidate as a sensitive electrochemical stripping voltammetric sensor for organophosphate pesticides (OPs): By using solid-phase extraction (SPE) with SWNT-Zn-modified glassy carbon electrode, the detection limit of methyl parathion (MP) is 2.3?ng?mL(-1). PMID:22865502

Wang, Feng; Zhao, Jinbo; Gong, Jingming; Wen, Lili; Zhou, Li; Li, Dongfeng

2012-08-02

282

Hexamethylenetetramine directed synthesis and properties of a new family of alpha-nickel hydroxide organic-inorganic hybrid materials with high chemical stability.  

PubMed

A new family of organic-inorganic hybrid material of alpha-nickel hydroxide formulated as Ni(OH)2-x(An-)x/n-(C6H12N4)y.zH2O (A=Cl-, CH3COO-, SO4(2-), NO3-; x=0.05-0.18, y=0.09-0.11, z=0.36-0.43) with high stability and adjustable interlayer spacing ranging from 7.21 to 15.12 A has been successfully prepared by a simple hydrothermal method. The effects of various anions and hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) on the d values of alpha-nickel hydroxide have been systematically investigated. This family of hybrid materials is of such high stability that they can stand more than 40 days in 6 M KOH. The product with a formula Ni(OH)1.95(C6H12N4)0.11(Cl-)0.05(H2O)0.36 has a high surface area of about 299.26 m2/g and an average pore diameter of about 45.1 A. The coercivity (Hc) value is ca. 2000 Oe for the sample with a d spacing of 13.14 A. Moreover, the prepared alpha-Ni(OH)2 in our experiment is of high stability in strong alkali solution. Such high stability could be derived from strong chelating interactions between the Ni ions and HMT molecules with the interlayers. This high chemical stability could make this material more suitable for the applications. PMID:16509694

Liu, Bian-Hua; Yu, Shu-Hong; Chen, Shao-Feng; Wu, Chun-Yan

2006-03-01

283

Derivation of damage functions for atmospheric degradation of materials  

SciTech Connect

The information in the pape is directed to those who develop and use damage functions that relate atmospheric degradation of materials to various causal agents in the atmosphere. Such relationships must be quantified mathematically as part of the overall cost-benefit considerations associated with possible pollution control strategies. Damage functions may be derived from theoretical considerations, from controlled experiments in environmental simulation chambers, from essentially uncontrolled field experiments, or from semicontrolled field experiments. The paper discusses optimum ways of combining these methods to improve the credibility and applicability of materials damage functions for use in assessments, with reference to some of the research performed for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program.

Haynie, F.H.; Lipfert, F.W.

1986-05-01

284

Thermal stability and structural characterization of organic/inorganic hybrid nonlinear optical material containing a two-dimensional chromophore.  

PubMed

In this study, two nonlinear optic hybrid materials with different dimensional alkoxysilane dyes were prepared and characterized. One NLO silane (Cz2PhSO 2OH- TES), a two-dimensional structure based on carbazole, had a larger rotational volume than the other (DR19-TES). Second harmonic ( d 33) analysis verified there is an optimum heating process for the best poling efficiency. The maximum d 33 value of NLO hybrid film containing Cz2PhSO 2OH was obtained for 10.7 pm/V after precuring at 150 degrees C for 3 h and poling at 210 degrees C for 60 min. The solid-state (29)Si NMR spectrum shows that the main factor influencing poling efficiency and thermal stability was cross-linking degree of NLO silane, but not that of TMOS. In particular, the two-dimensional sol-gel system has a greater dynamic and temporary stability than the one-dimensional system due to Cz2PhSO 2OH-TES requiring a larger volume to rotate in the hybrid matrix after cross-linking. PMID:18816079

Chang, Po-Hsun; Tsai, Hsieh-Chih; Chen, Yu-Ren; Chen, Jian-Yu; Hsiue, Ging-Ho

2008-09-25

285

Organic-inorganic hybrid materials based on iron(III)-polyoxotungstates and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium cations.  

PubMed

The iron(III) ?-oxo bridged dimeric polyoxometalate [(PW(11)O(39)Fe)(2)O](10-) was isolated by reacting the transition metal monosubstituted Keggin anion [PW(11)O(39)Fe(H(2)O)](4-) and the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide, (Bmim)Br, at pH 5.5. The crystal structure of (Bmim)(10)[(PW(11)O(39)Fe)(2)O]·0.5H(2)O (1) (monoclinic, space group P2(1)/n, Z = 4) was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. By changing the reaction conditions, (Bmim)(4)[PW(11)O(39)Fe(H(2)O)]·H(2)O (2) was obtained, whilst the reaction between the Bmim(+) cation and the heteropolyanion [SiW(11)O(39)Fe(H(2)O](5-), in the pH conditions used for 1, afforded (Bmim)(5)[SiW(11)O(39)Fe(H(2)O)]·4H(2)O (3). The compounds were characterized by spectroscopic techniques, thermal analysis, cyclic voltammetry, magnetic measurements and mass spectrometry. This study contributes to the understanding of iron ?-oxo dimer formation in polyoxometalate chemistry and calls attention to the influence of the counter-cations on the stability and formation of compound 1. The combination of the cationic part of ionic liquids and iron-substituted polyoxotungstates is predicted to lead to new materials with interest to catalysis, electrocatalysis and ionic liquid based nanocomposites. PMID:22918482

Santos, Filipe M; Brandão, Paula; Félix, Vítor; Domingues, M Rosário M; Amaral, João S; Amaral, Vítor S; Nogueira, Helena I S; Cavaleiro, Ana M V

2012-10-21

286

First three-dimensional inorganic-organic hybrid material constructed from an "inverted Keggin" polyoxometalate and a copper(I)-organic complex.  

PubMed

A new polyoxometalate (POM) based on a flexible bidentate ligand and "inverted Keggin" inorganic building block, namely, [Cu(8)L(8)[Mo(12)O(46)(AsPh)(4)](2)]·H(2)O (1), where L is 1,3-bis(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)propane, has been synthesized under hydrothermal condition. In 1, the "inverted Keggin" [Mo(12)O(46)(AsPh)(4)](4-) building blocks are linked by the one-dimensional (1D) zigzag [Cu(I)(trans-L)](+) chains and [Cu(I)(4)(cis-L)(4)](4+) macrocycles to yield a three-dimensional (3D) framework. The compound 1 represents the first 3D "inverted Keggin" polyoxometalate modified by a transition-metal complex. Topologically, the 3D framework can be considered as an 8-connected net with a Schläfli symbol of 4(22)·6(6). As far as we know, compound 1 is the highest-connected uninodal network topology presently known for POM-based materials. The compound was characterized by its IR spectrum, UV-vis spectrum, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns. Remarkably, compound 1 exhibits photocatalytic activity for dye degradation under visible light irradiation and shows good stability toward visible-light photocatalysis. PMID:21842843

Liu, Bo; Yu, Zhen-Tao; Yang, Jin; Hua, Wu; Liu, Ying-Ying; Ma, Jian-Fang

2011-08-15

287

Ultrathin Coatings of Nanoporous Materials as Property Enhancements for Advanced Functional Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the findings of a five-month LDRD project funded through Sandia's NTM Investment Area. The project was aimed at providing the foundation for the development of advanced functional materials through the application of ultrathin coati...

E. N. Coker

2010-01-01

288

Polymers and Inorganics: A Happy Marriage?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most recent developments in two areas: (a) synthesis of inorganic particles with control over size and shape by polymer\\u000a additives, and (b) synthesis of inorganic-polymer hybrid materials by bulk polymerization of blends of monomers with nanosized\\u000a crystals are reviewed. The precipitations of inorganics, such as zinc oxide or calcium carbonate, in presence and under the\\u000a control of bishydrophilic block

Gerhard Wegner; Mustafa M. Demir; Michael Faatz; Katazyrna Gorna; Rafael Munoz-Espi; Baptiste Guillemet; Franziska Gröhn

2007-01-01

289

Functionalized Materials From Elastomers to High Performance Thermoplastics  

SciTech Connect

Synthesis and incorporation of functionalized materials continues to generate significant research interest in academia and in industry. If chosen correctly, a functional group when incorporated into a polymer can deliver enhanced properties, such as adhesion, water solubility, thermal stability, etc. The utility of these new materials has been demonstrated in drug-delivery systems, coatings, membranes and compatibilizers. Two approaches exist to functionalize a material. The desired moiety can be added to the monomer either before or after polymerization. The polymers used range from low glass transition temperature elastomers to high glass transition temperature, high performance materials. One industrial example of the first approach is the synthesis of Teflon(reg. sign). Poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE or Teflon(reg. sign)) is synthesized from tetrafluoroethylene, a functionalized monomer. The resulting material has significant property differences from the parent, poly(ethylene). Due to the fluorine in the polymer, PTFE has excellent solvent and heat resistance, a low surface energy and a low coefficient of friction. This allows the material to be used in high temperature applications where the surface needs to be nonabrasive and nonstick. This material has a wide spread use in the cooking industry because it allows for ease of cooking and cleaning as a nonstick coating on cookware. One of the best examples of the second approach, functionalization after polymerization, is the vulcanization process used to make tires. Natural rubber (from the Hevea brasiliensis) has a very low glass transition temperature, is very tacky and would not be useful to make tires without synthetic alteration. Goodyear's invention was the vulcanization of polyisoprene by crosslinking the material with sulfur to create a rubber that was tough enough to withstand the elements of weather and road conditions. Due to the development of polymerization techniques to make cis-polyisoprene, natural rubber is no longer needed for the manufacturing of tires, but vulcanization is still utilized.

Laura Ann Salazar

2003-05-31

290

Developing complex structures and functions through cell-directed assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integration of biological building blocks into functional platforms is important to applications across the field of nanotechnology. However, hybrid materials that incorporate biological units such as whole cells require functional bio\\/inorganic interfaces, benign synthesis conditions and fluidic support systems to avoid dehydration. Cell-directed assembly integrates biological materials in a uniformly nanostructured inorganic host that maintains cell accessibility, addressability, and

Helen K. Baca

2005-01-01

291

Novel Functionalized Ceramic Getter Materials for Adsorption of Radioiodine  

SciTech Connect

A new class of getter materials has been synthesized for immobilization of long-lived radionuclides such as 129I. These novel materials consist of nanoporous ceramic substrates with tailored pore sizes ranging from 2 – 20 nm. These high surface area (~1000 m2/g) ceramic substrates have been functionalized with self-assembled monolayers consisting of soft cation-capped thiol-functionality. The resulting getter materials exhibit highly dense binding sites, and excellent selectivity for iodide. The effectiveness of these novel getter materials was evaluated using radioiodide-spiked samples of surface water and concrete leachate and adsorption performance was compared with natural sulfide mineral getter materials. The data indicated that the novel getter materials have very high affinity for radioiodide (Kd: 4 x 104 – 3 x 105 ml/g and 6 x 105 ml/g in surface and concrete leachate respectively). Comparatively, the radioiodide Kd values for natural mineral getters were typically two to three orders magnitude less than the novel getters. The results indicated that the synthetic getter materials have the potential to immobilize and therefore retard the migration of 129I in the subsurface environment. Additional studies are being conducted to evaluate the long-term stability of these materials in waste disposal environments.

Mattigod, Shas V.; Fryxell, Glen E.; Parker, Kent E.; Kaplan, Daniel I.

2003-08-02

292

PREFACE: International Conference on Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies (FM&NT2012)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Conference Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies (FM&NT - 2012) was held in Riga, 17-20 April 2012 at the Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia (ISSP UL). The conference was organised by ISSP UL in co-operation with National Research programme in Materials Science and Information Technologies of Latvia. The purpose of this series of conferences is to bring together scientists, researchers, engineers and students from universities, research institutes and related industrial companies working in the field of advanced material science, energy and materials technologies. The contributions of the participants were grouped according to three main topics of the conference: 1. Multifunctional Materials including advanced inorganic, organic and hybrid materials; ferroics; multiscale and multiphenomenal material modeling and simulation 2. Nanotechnologies including progressive methods, technologies and design for investigation of nanoparticles, nanostructures, nanocomposites, thin films and coatings; 3. Energy including perspective materials and technologies for renewable and hydrogen energy, fuel cells, photovoltaics and developing diverse energy systems. A special section devoted to Organic Materials was organized to commemorate a long-time organizer of the FM&NT conference series, Dr. habil. phys, academician Inta Muzikante who passed away on 15 February 2012. The number of registered participants from 21 countries was nearly 300. During the three days of the conference 2 plenary, 16 invited, 54 oral reports and 184 posters were presented. 64 papers, based on these reports, are included in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. Additional information about FM&NT-2012 is available at its homepage http://www.fmnt.lu.lv. The Organizing Committee would like to thank all the speakers, contributors, session chairs, referees and other involved staff for their efforts in making the FM&NT-2012 successful. The Organizing Committee sincerely hopes that the Conference gave all the participants new insights into the widespread development of functional materials and nanotechnologies and would enhance the circulation of the information released at the meeting. Inta Muzikante Andris Sternberg Liga Grinberga Anatolijs Sarakovskis Conference photograph The manuscripts are published thanks to the financial support from ERAF project 'Atbalsts starptautiskas sadarbibas projektiem zinatne un tehnologijas LU Cietvielu fizikas instituta' Nr.2010/0204/2DP/2.1.1.2.0./10/APIA/VIAA/010 Sponsors Sponsors flag Sponsors logo International Organizing Committee 1. Andris Sternberg (chairperson), Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Latvia 2. Juras Banys, Vilnius University, Lithuania 3. Gunnar Borstel, University of Osnabrück, Germany 4. Niels E Christensen, University of Aarhus, Denmark 5. Robert A Evarestov, St. Petersburg State University, Russia 6. Claes-Goran Granqvist, Uppsala University, Sweden 7. Dag Høvik, The Research Council of Norway, Norway 8. Marco Kirm, Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Estonia 9. Jiri Kulda, Institut Laue-Langevin, France 10. Witold Lojkowski, Institute of High Pressure Physics, Poland 11. Ergo Nommiste, University of Tartu, Estonia 12. Ingólfur Torbjörnsson, Icelandic Centre for Research, Iceland 13. Marcel H. Van de Voorde, University of Technology Delft, The Netherlands International Program Committee 1. Liga Grinberga (chairperson), Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Latvia 2. Eugene Kotomin, Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Germany 3. Martins Rutkis, Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Latvia 4. Inta Muzikante, Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Latvia 5. Liga Berzina-Cimdina, Institute of Biomaterials and Biomechanics, Riga Technical University, Latvia 6. Janis Grabis, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Riga Technical University, Latvia 7. Linards Skuja, Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Latvia 8. Maris Spr

Sternberg, Andris; Muzikante, Inta; Sarakovskis, Anatolijs; Grinberga, Liga

2012-08-01

293

Study of nonproportionality in the light yield of inorganic scintillators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a phenomenological approach, the light yield is derived for inorganic scintillators as a function of the rates of linear, bimolecular, and Auger processes occurring in the electron track initiated by an x ray or a ?-ray photon. A relation between the track length and incident energy is also derived. It is found that the nonproportionality in the light yield can be eliminated if either nonlinear processes of interaction among the excited electrons, holes, and excitons can be eliminated from occurring or the high density situation can be relieved by diffusion of carriers from the track at a faster rate than the rate of activation of nonlinear processes. The influence of the track length and radius on the yield nonproportionality is discussed in view of the known experimental results. Inventing new inorganic scintillating materials with high carrier mobility can lead to a class of proportional inorganic scintillators. Results agree qualitatively with experimental results for the dependence of light yield on the incident energy.

Singh, Jai

2011-07-01

294

THE MATERIAL BONE: Structure-Mechanical Function Relations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The term bone refers to a family of materials, all of which are built up of mineralized collagen fibrils. They have highly complex structures, described in terms of up to 7 hierarchical levels of organization. These materials have evolved to fulfill a variety of mechanical functions, for which the structures are presumably fine-tuned. Matching structure to function is a challenge. Here we review the structure-mechanical relations at each of the hierarchical levels of organization, highlighting wherever possible both underlying strategies and gaps in our knowledge. The insights gained from the study of these fascinating materials are not only important biologically, but may well provide novel ideas that can be applied to the design of synthetic materials.

Weiner, S.; Wagner, H. D.

1998-08-01

295

Nanostructured functional materials prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) is the most extensively studied controlled\\/living radical polymerization (CRP) method, with the interest originating primarily in its simplicity and broad applicability, and in the ability to prepare previously inaccessible well-defined nanostructured polymeric materials. This review illustrates the range of well-defined advanced functional materials that can be prepared by ATRP. We detail the precise synthesis of

Krzysztof Matyjaszewski; Nicolay V. Tsarevsky

2009-01-01

296

Second-order homogenisation of functionally graded materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The homogenisation theory for periodic composites is generalised to the case of quasi-periodic composites. In quasi-periodic composites, the unit cell does not repeat throughout the medium but gradually changes along one or more directions of periodicity (grading directions). Quasi-periodic composites are thus to functionally graded materials (FGMs) what periodic composites are to statistically uniform composite materials. Contrarily to most of

Armelle Anthoine

2010-01-01

297

Thermal Fracture and Thermal Shock Resistance of Functionally Graded Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

We first analyze thermal stresses and thermal cracking in a strip of a functionally graded material (FGM) subjected to sudden\\u000a cooling. It is assumed that the shear modulus of the material decreases hyperbolically with the higher value occurring at\\u000a the surface exposed to the thermal shock and that thermal conductivity varies exponentially. It is shown that the maximum\\u000a tensile thermal

Z.-H. Jin; R. C. Batra

298

Preparation, characterization, and properties of novolac-type phenolic\\/SiO2 hybrid organic-inorganic nanocomposite materials by sol-gel method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the preparation of novolac-type phenolic resin\\/silica hybrid organic-inorganic nanocomposite, with a sol- gel process. The coupling agent was used to improve the interface between the organic and inorganic phases. The effect of the structure of the nanocomposite on its physical and chemical properties is dis- cussed. The coupling agent reacts with the resin to form covalent bonds.

Chin-Lung Chiang; Chen-Chi M. Ma; Dai-Lin Wu; Hsu-Chiang Kuan

2003-01-01

299

Inorganic electrolytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Part I. Analyses of the Hazard Potentials of Various Reaction Modes and Materials Incidental to the Operation of Li\\/SOCl2 Cells; Part II. Preliminary Survey of Alternative Anode Materials Compatible with Oxychloride Catholytes; Part III. Preliminary Survey of Alternative Catholytes for Improved Lithium Cell Performance; Part IV. Reserve Mode Configurations of the Li\\/SOCl2 Cell; Part V. Determination of the Discharge Reaction

M. Domeniconi; K. Klinedinst; N. Marincic; C. Schlaikjer; R. Staniewicz

1977-01-01

300

Multi Functional Uptake Behaviour of Materials Prepared by Calcining Waste Paper Sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study concerns with the utilization of waste paper sludge, which contains mainly cellulose fibers and inorganic fillers together with coating materials such as calcite, kaolinite and talc. Paper sludge was fired at 500–900°C for 6 h. The crystalline phases originally present decomposed at increasing temperatures (up to 800°C) in the order kaolinite < calcite < talc. Gehlenite was formed

VINAY KUMAR JHA; YOSHIKAZU KAMESHIMA; AKIRA NAKAJIMA; KIYOSHI OKADA; KENNETH J. D. MACKENZIE

2006-01-01

301

Synthesis and Applications of Functionalized Nanoporous Materials for Specific Adsorption  

SciTech Connect

Surface chemistry is one of the most important properties of mesoporous materis for many applications. There are several approaches to functionalize mesoporous materials in order to tailor the surface chemistry: one step synthesis by co-condensation, direct silanation of partially hydroxylated surface, controlled hydrolysis and condensation, and silanation using supercritical fluid as the reaction medium. Varying the amount chemically and physically adsorbed water can systematically tailor the quality and the population density of functional groups. Furthermore, using supercritical fluid as the reaction medium, organic molecules can be effectively delivered and attached to the internal surfaces of pores less than 1 nm in diameter. The ability to construct high quality functional monolayers allows rational design of molecular recognition and binding sites in mesoporous materials, and has led to the development of very efficient adsorbing materials. One approach to form a host structure that matches the size and shape of the target species is to take advantage of the coordinate chemistry between the functional molecules and metal ions. Highly selective bindings of the target species have been observed against competing species of similar sizes and shapes. More sophisticated surface sites can be constructed for the recognition of complicated molecules and species using large pore mesoporous materials.

Liu, Jun (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Fryxell, Glen E. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Mattigod, Shas V. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Zemanian, Thomas S. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Shin, Yongsoon (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Wang, L. Q. (PNNL)

2000-01-01

302

Analytical Model for Thermal Elastoplastic Stresses of Functionally Graded Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A modification analytical model is presented for the thermal elastoplastic stresses of functionally graded materials subjected to thermal loading. The presented model follows the analytical scheme presented by Y. L. Shen and S. Suresh [6]. In the present model, the functionally graded materials are considered as multilayered materials. Each layer consists of metal and ceramic with different volume fraction. The ceramic layer and the FGM interlayers are considered as elastic brittle materials. The metal layer is considered as elastic-perfectly plastic ductile materials. Closed-form solutions for different characteristic temperature for thermal loading are presented as a function of the structure geometries and the thermomechanical properties of the materials. A main advance of the present model is that the possibility of the initial and spread of plasticity from the two sides of the ductile layers taken into account. Comparing the analytical results with the results from the finite element analysis, the thermal stresses and deformation from the present model are in good agreement with the numerical ones.

Zhai, P. C.; Chen, G.; Liu, L. S.; Fang, C.; Zhang, Q. J.

2008-02-01

303

Synthesis and characterization of inorganic-organic hybrid materials based on the intercalation of stable organic radicals into a fluoromica clay.  

PubMed

Hybrid materials, in which stable organic radical cations are intercalated into layered inorganic host materials, can be successfully synthesized via an ion exchange reaction in a layered fluoromica clay, to yield recyclable heterogeneous catalysts for oxidation of various alcohols. We have conducted systematic synthetic and structural studies on the intercalation of the radical cations 4-(diethylmethylammonium)-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl (DEMTEP), 1-[2-(4-amino-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxyl)-2-oxoethyl]-1'-methyl-4,4'-bipyridinium (VIOTEP), and 2-(3-N-methylpyridinium)-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-1-oxyl-3-N-oxide (m-MPYNN) into a synthetic fluoromica clay named Somasif® ME 100, Na(2x)Mg(3.0-x)Si4O10(F(y)OH(1-y))2 (x = 0.33, y = 0.98). The guest-host interactions in these intercalation compounds have been characterized by X-ray powder diffraction and solid-state NMR of the constituent nuclei ((23)Na, (19)F, and (29)Si) of the Somasif structure. The intercalation process can be conveniently monitored using (23)Na MAS-NMR. Guest-guest interactions have been probed by magnetic susceptibility measurements as well as EPR and (1)H MAS NMR experiments. The (1)H MAS-NMR line widths and chemical shifts probe modifications in the electron spin density distributions and/or intermolecular interactions between the electron spins of the guest species. Despite these indications of weakly interacting spins, magnetic susceptibility measurements are consistent with the near-absence of cooperative magnetism. The VIOTEP and DEMTEP inclusion compounds demonstrate catalytic activity for the oxidation of benzyl alcohol, using NaOCl as a co-oxidant. Although the radical ion species is partially leached out under these conditions (ionic exchange with Na(+) in solution) the catalytic activity remains for up to 40 subsequent cycles. Fully leached materials can be regenerated by catalyst re-loading and this process can be conveniently monitored by X-band EPR spectroscopy. PMID:23677456

Zeng, Zhaoyang; Matuschek, David; Studer, Armido; Schwickert, Christian; Pöttgen, Rainer; Eckert, Hellmut

2013-05-15

304

Alkoxide routes to Inorganic Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

An all alkoxide solution chemistry utilizing metal 2-methoxyethoxide complexes in 2-methoxyethanol was used to deposit thin-films of metal oxides on single-crystal metal oxide substrates and on biaxially textured metal substrates. This same chemistry was used to synthesize complex metal oxide nanoparticles. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy was used to study precursor solutions of the alkaline niobates and tantalates. Film crystallization temperatures

Thomas; George H

2007-01-01

305

Alkoxide routes to Inorganic Materials  

SciTech Connect

An all alkoxide solution chemistry utilizing metal 2-methoxyethoxide complexes in 2-methoxyethanol was used to deposit thin-films of metal oxides on single-crystal metal oxide substrates and on biaxially textured metal substrates. This same chemistry was used to synthesize complex metal oxide nanoparticles. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy was used to study precursor solutions of the alkaline niobates and tantalates. Film crystallization temperatures were determined from x-ray diffraction patterns of powders derived from the metal oxide precursor solutions. Film structure was determined via x-ray diffraction. Film morphology was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Epitaxial thin-films of strontium bismuth tantalate (SrBi{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 9}, SBT) and strontium bismuth niobate (SrBi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9}, SBN) were deposited on single crystal [1 0 0] magnesium oxide (MgO) buffered with lanthanum manganate (LaMnO{sub 3}, LMO). Epitaxial thin films of LMO were deposited on single crystal [100] MgO via Rf-magnetron sputtering and on single crysal [100] lanthanum aluminate (LaAlO{sub 3}) via the chemical solution deposition technique. Epitaxial thin-films of sodium potassium tantalate (na{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5}TaO{sub 3}, NKT), sodium potassium niobate (Na{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5}NbO{sub 3}, NKN) and sodium potassium tantalum niobate (Na{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5}Ta{sub 0.5}O{sub 3}, NKTN) were deposited on single crystal [1 0 0] lanthanum aluminate and [1 0 0] MgO substrates (NKT and NKN) and biaxially textured metal substrates via the chemical solution deposition technique. Epitaxial growth of thin-films of NKT, NKN and NKTN was observed on LAO and Ni-5% W. Epitaxial growth of thin-films of NKN and the growth of c-axis aligned thin-films of NKT was observed on MgO. Nanoparticles of SBT, SBN, NKT and NKN were synthesized in reverse micelles from alkoxide precursor solutions. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron spectroscopy investigations reveal that amorphous nanoparticles ({approx} 5 nm) of SBT and SBN were synthesized. X-ray diffraction investigations reveal that nanoparticles ({approx} nm) of NKT and NKN were also synthesized by this method.

Thomas, George H [ORNL

2007-12-01

306

Force-controlled inorganic crystallization lithography.  

PubMed

Lithography plays a key role in integrated circuits, optics, information technology, biomedical applications, catalysis, and separation technologies. However, inorganic lithography techniques remain of limited utility for applications outside of the typical foci of integrated circuit manufacturing. In this communication, we have developed a novel stamping method that applies pressure on the upper surface of the stamp to regulate the dewetting process of the inorganic buffer and the evaporation rate of the solvent in this buffer between the substrate and the surface of the stamp. We focused on generating inorganic microstructures with specific locations and also on enabling the ability to pattern gradients during the crystallization of the inorganic salts. This approach utilized a combination of lithography with bottom-up growth and assembly of inorganic crystals. This work has potential applications in a variety of fields, including studying inorganic material patterning and small-scale fabrication technology. PMID:16967953

Cheng, Chao-Min; LeDuc, Philip R

2006-09-20

307

Cohesive modeling of dynamic fracture in functionally graded materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamic fracture of functionally graded materials (FGMs) is modeled using an explicit cohesive volumetric finite element scheme that incorporates spatially varying constitutive and failure properties. The cohesive element response is described by a rate-independent bilinear cohesive failure model between the cohesive traction acting along the cohesive zone and the associated crack opening displacement. A detailed convergence analysis is conducted

SOMA SEKHAR V. KANDULA; JORGE ABANTO-BUENO; PHILIPPE H. GEUBELLE; JOHN LAMBROS

2005-01-01

308

Gap Wave Propagation in Functionally Graded Piezoelectric Material Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shear horizontal gap wave propagating between functionally graded piezoelectric material (FGPM) layer and a layered piezoelectric structure is investigated analytically. The electrically open conditions on strip surface are applied to solve this problem. The phase velocity can be numerically calculated for the electrically open case, with different thickness of the layer and wavenumber. The effect of the gradient variation about

Jianke Du; Kai Xian; Ji Wang

2007-01-01

309

Hybrid organic/inorganic complexes based on electroactive tetrathiafulvalene-functionalized diphosphanes tethered to C(3)-symmetrized Mo(3)Q(4) (Q = S, Se) clusters.  

PubMed

A two-step procedure for the preparation of hybrid complexes based on electroactive tetrathiafulvalene (TTF)- functionalized o-P(2) diphosphanes (o-P(2) = 3,4-dimethyl-3,4-bis(diphenylphosphino)tetrathiafulvalene) and inorganic C(3)-symmetrized Mo(3)Q(4) (Q = S, Se) clusters, namely, [Mo(3)S(4)Cl(3)(o-P(2))(3)]PF(6) ([1]PF(6)) and [Mo(3)Se(4)Cl(3)(o-P(2))(3)]PF(6) ([2]PF(6)), is reported. Their molecular and electronic structures are also described on the basis of X-ray diffraction experiments and density functional theory (DFT) calculations aimed at understanding the interactions established between both the organic and the inorganic parts. Cyclic voltammograms of compounds [1]PF(6) and [2]PF(6) display reduction features associated to the Mo(3)Q(4) core and oxidation characteristics due to the TTF skeleton. The oxidation chemistry of [1]PF(6) and [2]PF(6) in solution is also investigated by means of in situ electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry, UV-vis, and, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements. Upon addition of increasing amounts of NOPF(6) (less than 3 equiv), the sequential formation of 1(n+) (n = 1-4) species was observed whereas addition of a 3-fold excess of NOPF(6) allows to access the three-electron oxidized [Mo(3)S(4)Cl(3)(o-P(2))(3)](4+) (1(4+)) and [Mo(3)Se(4)Cl(3)(o-P(2))(3)](4+) (2(4+)) cations. These 1(4+) and 2(4+) cations represent still rare examples of complexes with oxidized TTF-ligands that are remarkably stable either toward diphosphane dissociation or phosphane oxidation. Polycrystalline samples of compound [1](PF(6))(4) were obtained by oxidation of compound [1]PF(6) using NOPF(6) which were analyzed by solid state absorption, UV-vis, and Raman spectroscopies. PMID:20085305

Avarvari, Narcis; Kiracki, Kaplan; Llusar, Rosa; Polo, Victor; Sorribes, Ivan; Vicent, Cristian

2010-02-15

310

Inorganic Fullerenes, Onions, and Tubes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Buckminsterfullerene, which is in the shape of a soccer-ball was first discovered in 1985, has many applications as a good lubricant, or as a new superconductor. The synthesis of these inorganic fullerenes involves a great deal of interdisciplinary research between physicists, material scientists, engineers and chemists from various fields.|

York, Andrew P. E.

2004-01-01

311

Inorganic Reaction Mechanisms. Part I  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides a collection of data on the mechanistic aspects of inorganic chemical reactions. Wherever possible includes procedures for classroom demonstration or student project work. The material covered includes gas phase reactions, reactions in solution, mechanisms of electron transfer, the reaction between iron III and iodine, and hydrolysis.…

Cooke, D. O.

1976-01-01

312

The role of materials biocompatibility for functional electrical stimulation applications.  

PubMed

The biocompatibility of all metallic, polymeric, or ceramic materials used for functional electrical stimulation is governed by the inevitable inflammatory tissue response, but possibly also by immunological reactions to the bulk material or released constituents. Besides chemical, physical, and corrosion properties of the conductive electrode materials, increased surface area and roughness of the electrode can influence tissue contact and signal delivery, and can also affect electrode-tissue impedance due to increased connective tissue encapsulation. The polymeric materials used for electrode insulation and those for leads and stimulator packaging seem more or less compatible in an aggressive biological environment. For the long-term performance of electrodes and leads, the relative motion in the various implant bed situations also has to be considered. PMID:21401666

Plenk, Hanns

2011-03-01

313

Incorporating microorganisms into polymer layers provides bioinspired functional living materials.  

PubMed

Artificial two-dimensional biological habitats were prepared from porous polymer layers and inoculated with the fungus Penicillium roqueforti to provide a living material. Such composites of classical industrial ingredients and living microorganisms can provide a novel form of functional or smart materials with capability for evolutionary adaptation. This allows realization of most complex responses to environmental stimuli. As a conceptual design, we prepared a material surface with self-cleaning capability when subjected to standardized food spill. Fungal growth and reproduction were observed in between two specifically adapted polymer layers. Gas exchange for breathing and transport of nutrient through a nano-porous top layer allowed selective intake of food whilst limiting the microorganism to dwell exclusively in between a confined, well-enclosed area of the material. We demonstrated a design of such living materials and showed both active (eating) and waiting (dormant, hibernation) states with additional recovery for reinitiation of a new active state by observing the metabolic activity over two full nutrition cycles of the living material (active, hibernation, reactivation). This novel class of living materials can be expected to provide nonclassical solutions in consumer goods such as packaging, indoor surfaces, and in biotechnology. PMID:22198770

Gerber, Lukas C; Koehler, Fabian M; Grass, Robert N; Stark, Wendelin J

2011-12-22

314

Functional soft materials from metallopolymers and metallosupramolecular polymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synthetic polymers containing metal centres are emerging as an interesting and broad class of easily processable materials with properties and functions that complement those of state-of-the-art organic macromolecular materials. A diverse range of different metal centres can be harnessed to tune macromolecular properties, from transition- and main-group metals to lanthanides. Moreover, the linkages that bind the metal centres can vary almost continuously from strong, essentially covalent bonds that lead to irreversible or 'static' binding of the metal to weak and labile, non-covalent coordination interactions that allow for reversible, 'dynamic' or 'metallosupramolecular', binding. Here we review recent advances and challenges in the field and illustrate developments towards applications as emissive and photovoltaic materials; as optical limiters; in nanoelectronics, information storage, nanopatterning and sensing; as macromolecular catalysts and artificial enzymes; and as stimuli-responsive materials. We focus on materials in which the metal centres provide function; although they can also play a structural role, systems where this is solely their purpose have not been discussed.

Whittell, George R.; Hager, Martin D.; Schubert, Ulrich S.; Manners, Ian

2011-03-01

315

Hybrid organic-inorganic optoelectronic subsystems on a chip  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on hybrid organic-inorganic optoelectronic sysbsystems that integrate passive and active optical functions. The integration approaches involve various levels of hybridization, from splicing of pigtailed elements, to chip-to-chip attachment, to hybrid on-chip integration involving grafting and flip-chip mounting, and finally to true heteroepitaxy. The materials integrated include polymer, silica, silicon, silicon oxynitride, lithium niobate, indium phosphide, gallium arsenide, yttrium

Louay Eldada; Junichiro Fujita; Antonije Radojevic; Reinald Gerhardt; Tomoyuki Izuhara

2005-01-01

316

Speciation of dissolved inorganic arsenic by diffusive gradients in thin films: selective binding of AsIII by 3-mercaptopropyl-functionalized silica gel.  

PubMed

A diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique for selectively measuring As(III) utilizes commercially available 3-mercaptopropyl-functionalized silica gel. Deployment of the new technique alongside the Metsorb-DGT for total inorganic arsenic allows the calculation of As(III) directly and As(V) by difference. Uptake of As(III) by mercapto-silica was quantitative and elution with a mixture of 1 mol L(-1) HNO(3) and 0.01 mol L(-1) KIO(3) gave a recovery of 85.6 ± 1.7%. DGT validation experiments showed linear accumulation of As(III) over time (R(2) > 0.998). Accumulation was unaffected by varying ionic strength (0.0001-0.75 mol L(-1) NaNO(3)) and pH (3.5-8.5). Deployment of mercapto-silica DGT and Metsorb DGT in seawater spiked with As(III) and As(V) demonstrated the ability of the combined approach to accurately quantify both species in the presence of potential competing ions. Ferrihydrite DGT, which has been previously reported for the measurement of total inorganic arsenic, was evaluated in seawater and shown to underestimate both As(III) and As(V) at longer deployment times (72 h). Reproducibility of the new mercapto-silica DGT technique was good (relative standard deviations < 9%), and the average method detection limit was sufficiently low to allow quantification of ultratrace concentrations of As(III) (0.03 ?g L(-1); 72 h deployment). PMID:21967720

Bennett, William W; Teasdale, Peter R; Panther, Jared G; Welsh, David T; Jolley, Dianne F

2011-10-13

317

Acid Functionalized Mesoporous Ordered Materials for the Production of 5-Hydroxymethyfurfural from Carbohydrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solid acid catalysts were designed for the conversion of fructose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). Some of the catalysts incorporate thioether groups to promote the tautomerization of fructose to its furanose form, as well as sulfonic acid groups to catalyze its dehydration. A bifunctional silane, 3-((3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl)thio)propane-1-sulfonic acid (TESAS), was designed for incorporation into SBA-15-type silica by co-condensation. To achieve mesopore ordering in the functionalized silica, the standard SBA-15 synthetic protocol was modified, resulting in well-formed hexagonal particles. Functional groups incorporated into mesoporous silica by co-condensation are more robust under the reaction conditions than those grafted onto a non-porous silica. In a variation, the thioether group of TESAS was oxidized by H2O 2 to the sulfone during the synthesis of the modified SBA-15. The materials were tested in batch reactors and compared in the selective dehydration of fructose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). Compared to benchmark catalysts, the thioether-containing TESAS-SBA-15 showed the highest activity in the dehydration of aqueous fructose, as well as the highest selectivity towards HMF (71 % at 84 % conversion). In addition, the stability of several supported acid catalysts was evaluated in tubular reactors designed to produce 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) continuously. The reactors, packed with the solid catalysts, were operated at 403 K for extended periods, up to 180 h. The behaviors of three propylsulfonic acid-functionalized, ordered porous silicas (one inorganic SBA-15-type silica, and two ethane-bridged SBA-15-type organosilicas) were compared with that of a propylsulfonic acid-modified, non-ordered porous silica. The HMF selectivity of the catalysts with ordered pore structures ranged from 60 to 75 %, while the selectivity of the non-ordered catalyst peaked at 20 %. The latter was also the least stable, deactivating with a first-order rate constant of 0.152 h-1. The organosilicas are more hydrothermally stable and maintained a steady catalytic activity longer than inorganic SBA-15-type silica. The organosilica with an intermediate framework ethane content of 45 mol % was the most stable, with a first-order deactivation rate constant of only 0.012 h-1. Deactivation under flow conditions is caused primarily by hydrolytic cleavage of acid sites, which can be (to some extent) recaptured by the free surface hydroxyl groups of the silica surface.

Crisci, Anthony J.

318

Organic/Inorganic Composite Latexes: The Marriage of Emulsion Polymerization and Inorganic Chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This review article describes recent advances in the synthesis and properties of waterborne organic/inorganic colloids elaborated through conventional emulsion polymerization, a well-established technology. These materials can be defined as aqueous suspensions of composite latex particles made up of organic and inorganic domains organized into well-defined core-shell, multinuclear, raspberry-like, multipod-like, or armored morphologies. Particular emphasis is placed on the synthetic strategies for fabrication of these colloidal materials. Two main approaches are described: the polymerization of organic monomers in the presence of preformed inorganic particles, and the reverse approach by which inorganic materials are synthesized in the presence of preformed polymer latexes. The list of examples provided in this review is by no means exhaustive but rather intends to give an overview of synthetic methods for selected inorganic compounds (e.g., silica, iron oxide, pigments, clays, quantum dots, and metals), and briefly reports on potential applications of the resulting materials.

Bourgeat-Lami, Elodie; Lansalot, Muriel

319

Remote Monitoring, Inorganic Monitoring  

EPA Science Inventory

This chapter provides an overview of applicability, amenability, and operating parameter ranges for various inorganic parameters:this chapter will also provide a compilation of existing and new online technologies for determining inorganic compounds in water samples. A wide vari...

320

Organic--Inorganic Layer Compounds: Physical Properties and Chemical Reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contrast with intercalation compounds, which can exist both with and without organic molecules between the planes of inorganic material, `molecular composite' compounds have organic groups covalently or ionically bound to inorganic layers. In such crystals the aim is to combine magnetic or optical properties characteristic of the inorganic solid state, like magnetism and luminescence, with properties found in the

P. Day

1985-01-01

321

Functionally Graded Dual-Nanoparticulate-Reinforced Aluminum Matrix Composite Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Functionally graded carbon nanotubes (CNT) and nano Silicon carbide (nSiC) reinforced aluminum (Al) matrix composite materials were fully densified by a simple ball milling and hot-pressing processes. The nSiC was used as a physical mixing agent to increase dispersity of the CNT in the Al particles. It was observed that the CNT was better dispersed in the Al particles with a nSiC mixing agent compared to without it used. SEM micrograph showed that the interface of the each layers had very tightly adhesion without any serious pores and micro-cracks. This functionally graded dual-nanoparticulate-reinforced Al matrix composite by powder metallurgical approach could also be applied to comples matrix materials.

Kwon, Hansang; Lee, Gil-Geun; Leparoux, Marc; Kawasaki, Akira

2013-03-01

322

Surface acoustic wave depth profiling of a functionally graded material  

SciTech Connect

The potential and limitations of Rayleigh wave spectroscopy to characterize the elastic depth profile of heterogeneous functional gradient materials are investigated by comparing simulations of the surface acoustic wave dispersion curves of different profile-spectrum pairs. This inverse problem is shown to be quite ill posed. The method is then applied to extract information on the depth structure of a glass-ceramic (alumina) functionally graded material from experimental data. The surface acoustic wave analysis suggests the presence of a uniform coating region consisting of a mixture of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and glass, with a sharp transition between the coating and the substrate. This is confirmed by scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive x-ray analysis.

Goossens, Jozefien; Leclaire, Philippe; Xu Xiaodong; Glorieux, Christ; Martinez, Loic; Sola, Antonella; Siligardi, Cristina; Cannillo, Valeria; Van der Donck, Tom; Celis, Jean-Pierre [Laboratorium voor Akoestiek en Thermische Fysica, Departement Natuurkunde en Sterrenkunde, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, PO 2416, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Equipe Circuit Instrumentation et Modelisation en Electronique (ECIME) IUP GE, Universite de Cergy, Rue de Eragny, Neuville sur Oise, 95031 Cergy Pontoise Cedex (France); Dipartimento di Ingegneria dei Materiali e dell' Ambiente, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via Vignolese 905, 41100 Modena (Italy); Departement Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering (MTM), Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, PO 2450, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium)

2007-09-01

323

How Much Inorganic Spectroscopy and Photochemistry?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes three levels of courses to treat adequately the ground state electronic structures, the spectroscopy, and the photochemistry of inorganic molecules. Suggests sequences for the courses without repeating material taught in previous courses. (Author/JN)

Gray, Harry B.

1980-01-01

324

Biological Assembly of Hybrid Inorganic Nanomaterials (Preprint).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The assembly of two or more inorganic nanoparticles results in hybrid materials with enhanced properties. These include improvements in catalytic activity, changes in optical behavior and potential gains in electronic properties. However, these are only a...

J. M. Slocik R. R. Naik

2007-01-01

325

Engineering soft nanostructured functional materials via orthogonal chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanostructured amphiphilic block copolymers, graft copolymers, polymeric thermally responsive molecular brushes and polymer\\u000a stars are only few examples of macromolecular architectures accessible either via controlled\\/living radical polymerization\\u000a (CLRP) techniques or the combination of CLRP mechanisms with efficient post-polymerization routes including click chemistry.\\u000a Precise control over the composition, molecular weight and functionalities is a prerequisite for soft polymeric materials\\u000a to self-organize

Daniel Gromadzki

2010-01-01

326

EDITORIAL: The 2nd International Symposium on Functional Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the success of the 1st International Symposium on Functional Materials held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 5-8 December 2005, the second symposium was held in the beautiful city of Hangzhou, People's Republic of China, 16-19 May 2007. The latter symposium was a gathering of about 200 renowned researchers from 16 countries around the world. The conference consisted of 24 symposia,

L. Lu; M. O. Lai

2007-01-01

327

Facile synthesis of biomimetic honeycomb material with biological functionality.  

PubMed

A microfluidic approach to a honeycomb-structure material based on the synergistic effects of polymer rapid precipitation, double emulsion templating, and internal effervescent salt decomposition is reported. The delicate honeycomb structure exhibits unique characteristics with an external nanopore membrane and internal multiple cavities. The biological functionality of the artificial structure is explored to serve as microcarriers for cell culture and drug release, indicating their attractive properties for potential biomedical applications. PMID:23047525

Ma, Jingyun; Hui, Yu Sanna; Zhang, Min; Yu, Yue; Wen, Weijia; Qin, Jianhua

2012-10-09

328

Boundary conditions in periodic density functional calculations of insulating materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ewald’s method yields internal electric fields in a polar material consisting of local and macroscopic components. The macroscopic component is a priori undefined. It depends on the boundary conditions imposed at the surface of the macroscopic medium. The boundary conditions ordinarily used in periodic electronic-structure calculations correspond to assuming that the modeled material is embedded in a metal connected to the ground and are equivalent to considering the macroscopic components of the internal electric fields to be null. These boundary conditions are commonly referred to as closed-circuit boundary conditions. In this study, we discuss and use an alternative type of boundary conditions, suitable for describing the most common physical situation of a polar material with the surface exposed to the vacuum, that is, under open-circuit conditions. We implement these boundary conditions in a periodic density functional approach and use the resulting energy scheme to study NaCl, MgO, and BaO. A comparison with the experiments shows that periodic density functional calculations employing the open-circuit boundary conditions give an excellent description of both dynamical and dielectric properties of polar materials.

Chen, Shougang; Bongiorno, Angelo

2011-04-01

329

Ceramic/polymer functionally graded material (FGM) lightweight armor system  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Functionally graded material is an enabling technology for lightweight body armor improvements. The objective was to demonstrate the ability to produce functionally graded ceramic-polymer and ceramic-metal lightweight armor materials. This objective involved two aspects. The first and key aspect was the development of graded-porosity boron-carbide ceramic microstructures. The second aspect was the development of techniques for liquid infiltration of lightweight metals and polymers into the graded-porosity ceramic. The authors were successful in synthesizing boron-carbide ceramic microstructures with graded porosity. These graded-porosity boron-carbide hot-pressed pieces were then successfully liquid-infiltrated in vacuum with molten aluminum at 1,300 C, and with liquid polymers at room temperature. Thus, they were able to demonstrate the feasibility of producing boron carbide-aluminum and boron carbide-polymer functionally graded materials.

Petrovic, J.J.; McClellan, K.J.

1998-12-31

330

Material-specific transfer function model and SNR in CT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents an analytical model for the edge spread function (ESF) of a clinical CT system that allows reliable fits of noisy ESF data. The model was used for the calculation of the material-specific transfer function TF and an estimation of the signal transfer and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in 2D. Images of the Catphan phantom were acquired with a clinical Siemens Somatom Sensation Cardiac 64 CT scanner combining four different x-ray tube outputs (40, 150, 250 and 350 mAs) with four different reconstruction filters, which covered the range from very smooth (B10s) to very sharp (B70s). The images of the high- and mid-contrast cylinders of the phantom’s ‘Geometry and Sensitometry’ module (air, Teflon, Delrin and PMP) were used to sample material-specific ESF curves. The ESF curves were fitted with the analytical model we developed based on a linear combination of Boltzmann and Gaussian functions. The analytical model of the ESF was used to obtain the Fourier-based material-specific transfer function TF, as well as the spatial-domain point spread function (PSF). TF was subsequently used to estimate the signal transfer, which was compared to the actual reconstructed image of a 3.0 mm diameter Teflon pin. The noise power spectrum (NPS) was calculated from images of a uniform water phantom under the same technique parameters. The task-specific SNR was calculated for all technique parameters from the model-based TF, the measured NPS and simulated 3 mm diameter disc signals modeling the aforementioned materials. Bootstrapping was performed to estimate the standard deviation of the TF and the SNR. The analytical model we developed accurately captured the features of the CT ESF data. The coefficient of determination R2, a metric that describes the goodness of the fit, had a median value of 0.9995, and decreased for low tube output, low contrast and the sharp reconstruction filter. Our analysis showed that ESF, PSF and TF depended not only on the reconstruction filter, but also on the tube output and the material of the cylinders. For B40s and B70s, the TF of Delrin was significantly higher than the TF of other materials in the frequency range of 0.4-0.9 mm-1. The estimated signal transfer agreed well with the actual reconstructed image of the Teflon pin. For the technique parameters we used the SNR values ranged between [64, 320], [64, 281], [37, 137] and [33, 117] for air, Teflon, Delrin and PMP respectively. While for high-contrast materials the smoothest reconstruction filter resulted in the highest SNR, for mid-contrast materials the standard filter gave the best results. The presented approach provides an accurate, analytical description of the material-specific ESF, PSF and TF as well as an estimate of the signal transfer. The transfer function TF together with the NPS and simulated signals allow the calculation of a task-specific SNR.

Brunner, Claudia C.; Kyprianou, Iacovos S.

2013-10-01

331

Material-specific transfer function model and SNR in CT.  

PubMed

This study presents an analytical model for the edge spread function (ESF) of a clinical CT system that allows reliable fits of noisy ESF data. The model was used for the calculation of the material-specific transfer function TF and an estimation of the signal transfer and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in 2D. Images of the Catphan phantom were acquired with a clinical Siemens Somatom Sensation Cardiac 64 CT scanner combining four different x-ray tube outputs (40, 150, 250 and 350 mAs) with four different reconstruction filters, which covered the range from very smooth (B10s) to very sharp (B70s). The images of the high- and mid-contrast cylinders of the phantom's 'Geometry and Sensitometry' module (air, Teflon, Delrin and PMP) were used to sample material-specific ESF curves. The ESF curves were fitted with the analytical model we developed based on a linear combination of Boltzmann and Gaussian functions. The analytical model of the ESF was used to obtain the Fourier-based material-specific transfer function TF, as well as the spatial-domain point spread function (PSF). TF was subsequently used to estimate the signal transfer, which was compared to the actual reconstructed image of a 3.0 mm diameter Teflon pin. The noise power spectrum (NPS) was calculated from images of a uniform water phantom under the same technique parameters. The task-specific SNR was calculated for all technique parameters from the model-based TF, the measured NPS and simulated 3 mm diameter disc signals modeling the aforementioned materials. Bootstrapping was performed to estimate the standard deviation of the TF and the SNR. The analytical model we developed accurately captured the features of the CT ESF data. The coefficient of determination R(2), a metric that describes the goodness of the fit, had a median value of 0.9995, and decreased for low tube output, low contrast and the sharp reconstruction filter. Our analysis showed that ESF, PSF and TF depended not only on the reconstruction filter, but also on the tube output and the material of the cylinders. For B40s and B70s, the TF of Delrin was significantly higher than the TF of other materials in the frequency range of 0.4-0.9 mm(-1). The estimated signal transfer agreed well with the actual reconstructed image of the Teflon pin. For the technique parameters we used the SNR values ranged between [64, 320], [64, 281], [37, 137] and [33, 117] for air, Teflon, Delrin and PMP respectively. While for high-contrast materials the smoothest reconstruction filter resulted in the highest SNR, for mid-contrast materials the standard filter gave the best results. The presented approach provides an accurate, analytical description of the material-specific ESF, PSF and TF as well as an estimate of the signal transfer. The transfer function TF together with the NPS and simulated signals allow the calculation of a task-specific SNR. PMID:24081016

Brunner, Claudia C; Kyprianou, Iacovos S

2013-09-30

332

Optical functions of low-k materials for interlayer dielectrics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optical functions of low dielectric constant (low-k) materials have been determined using a high-precision four-zone null spectroscopic ellipsometer in the spectral range from 1.5 to 5.4 eV (230-840 nm wavelength region). The ellipsometric data were fitted simultaneously with near-normal incidence reflectivity spectra (ranging from 0.5 to 6.5 eV). A general method of simultaneous treatment of ellipsometric and reflectivity data is demonstrated on representative materials used in the semiconductor industry for interlayer dielectrics: (1) SiLK-organic dielectric resin from the Dow Chemical Company, (2) Nanoglass-nanoporous silica from the Honeywell Electronic Materials Company, and (3) tetra-ethyl-ortho-silicate (TEOS) (SiO2)-the standard dielectric material. The low-k materials (SiLK and Nanoglass) were prepared by a standard spin-coating process, while the SiO2 layer was prepared by thermal decomposition from TEOS onto single-crystal silicon wafers.

Postava, K.; Yamaguchi, T.

2001-02-01

333

Expression and functional roles of Bradyrhizobium japonicum genes involved in the utilization of inorganic and organic sulfur compounds in free-living and symbiotic conditions.  

PubMed

Strains of Bradyrhizobium spp. form nitrogen-fixing symbioses with many legumes, including soybean. Although inorganic sulfur is preferred by bacteria in laboratory conditions, sulfur in agricultural soil is mainly present as sulfonates and sulfur esters. Here, we show that Bradyrhizobium japonicum and B. elkanii strains were able to utilize sulfate, cysteine, sulfonates, and sulfur-ester compounds as sole sulfur sources for growth. Expression and functional analysis revealed that two sets of gene clusters (bll6449 to bll6455 or bll7007 to bll7011) are important for utilization of sulfonates sulfur source. The bll6451 or bll7010 genes are also expressed in the symbiotic nodules. However, B. japonicum mutants defective in either of the sulfonate utilization operons were not affected for symbiosis with soybean, indicating the functional redundancy or availability of other sulfur sources in planta. In accordance, B. japonicum bacteroids possessed significant sulfatase activity. These results indicate that strains of Bradyrhizobium spp. likely use organosulfur compounds for growth and survival in soils, as well as for legume nodulation and nitrogen fixation. PMID:21190435

Sugawara, Masayuki; Shah, Gopit R; Sadowsky, Michael J; Paliy, Oleg; Speck, Justin; Vail, Andrew W; Gyaneshwar, Prasad

2011-04-01

334

Surface functionalization of inorganic nano-crystals with fibronectin and E-cadherin chimera synergistically accelerates trans-gene delivery into embryonic stem cells  

SciTech Connect

Stem cells holding great promises in regenerative medicine have the potential to be differentiated to a specific cell type through genetic manipulation. However, conventional ways of gene transfer to such progenitor cells suffer from a number of disadvantages particularly involving safety and efficacy issues. Here, we report on the development of a bio-functionalized inorganic nano-carrier of DNA by embedding fibronectin and E-cadherin chimera on the carrier, leading to its high affinity interactions with embryonic stem cell surface and accelerated trans-gene delivery for subsequent expression. While only apatite nano-particles were very inefficient in transfecting embryonic stem cells, fibronectin-anchored particles and to a more significant extent, fibronectin and E-cadherin-Fc-associated particles dramatically enhanced trans-gene delivery with a value notably higher than that of commercially available lipofection system. The involvement of both cell surface integrin and E-cadherin in mediating intracellular localization of the hybrid carrier was verified by blocking integrin binding site with excess free fibronectin and up-regulating both integrin and E-cadherin through PKC activation. Thus, the new establishment of a bio-functional hybrid gene-carrier would promote and facilitate development of stem cell-based therapy in regenerative medicine.

Kutsuzawa, K. [Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8501 (Japan); Shizuoka Cancer Center Research Institute, 1007 Shimonagakubo, Nagaizumi-cho, Sunto-gun, Shizuoka 411-8777 (Japan); Chowdhury, E.H. [Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8501 (Japan); Shizuoka Cancer Center Research Institute, 1007 Shimonagakubo, Nagaizumi-cho, Sunto-gun, Shizuoka 411-8777 (Japan); Nagaoka, M. [Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8501 (Japan); Maruyama, K. [Shizuoka Cancer Center Research Institute, 1007 Shimonagakubo, Nagaizumi-cho, Sunto-gun, Shizuoka 411-8777 (Japan); Akiyama, Y. [Shizuoka Cancer Center Research Institute, 1007 Shimonagakubo, Nagaizumi-cho, Sunto-gun, Shizuoka 411-8777 (Japan); Akaike, T. [Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8501 (Japan) and Shizuoka Cancer Center Research Institute, 1007 Shimonagakubo, Nagaizumi-cho, Sunto-gun, Shizuoka 411-8777 (Japan)]. E-mail: takaike@bio.titech.ac.jp

2006-11-24

335

Applications of advanced hybrid organic-inorganic nanomaterials: from laboratory to market.  

PubMed

Today cross-cutting approaches, where molecular engineering and clever processing are synergistically coupled, allow the chemist to tailor complex hybrid systems of various shapes with perfect mastery at different size scales, composition, functionality, and morphology. Hybrid materials with organic-inorganic or bio-inorganic character represent not only a new field of basic research but also, via their remarkable new properties and multifunctional nature, hybrids offer prospects for many new applications in extremely diverse fields. The description and discussion of the major applications of hybrid inorganic-organic (or biologic) materials are the major topic of this critical review. Indeed, today the very large set of accessible hybrid materials span a wide spectrum of properties which yield the emergence of innovative industrial applications in various domains such as optics, micro-electronics, transportation, health, energy, housing, and the environment among others (526 references). PMID:21229132

Sanchez, Clément; Belleville, Philippe; Popall, Michael; Nicole, Lionel

2011-01-12

336

Preparation, characterization and properties of amino-functionalized montmorillonite and composite layer-by-layer assembly with inorganic nanosheets  

Microsoft Academic Search

An amino-functionalized montmorillonite (APTMS-MMT) was prepared by the grafting of 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS) on the surface of MMT via the ultrasonic synthesis process and characterized by a variety of techniques: FT-IR, thermogravimetic analysis (TGA), particles size analysis and ?-potential measurement. The results showed the size and size distribution of APTMS-MMT particles were decreased, and the ?-potential of particles was increased obviously

Guo-bo Huang; Chang-hua Ge; Bing-jing He

2011-01-01

337

PREFACE Surface Modifications and Functionalization of Materials for Biomedical Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conference photograph This special issue contains selected papers which were presented as invited and contributed communications at the workshop entitled 'Surface modification and functionalization of materials for biomedical applications' (BIO-COAT 2010) which was held on 24 June 2010 in Zaragoza (Spain). The surface of a material plays a major role in its interaction with the biological medium. Processes related to the mechanical stability of articular devices in contact, osseointegration, thrombogenicity, corrosion and leaching, or the inflammatory response of rejection of a material, are clearly conditioned by the surface properties. Therefore, the modification or functionalization of surfaces can have an important impact on these issues. New techniques for functionalization by thin film deposition or surface treatments help to improve superficial properties, while understanding the interaction of the surface-biological medium is critical for their application in new devices. Jointly organized by the Spanish Materials Research Society, BIO-COAT 2010 provided an open forum to discuss the progress and latest developments in thin film processing and the engineering of biomaterials. Invited lectures were particularly aimed at providing overviews on scientific topics and were given by recognized world-class scientists. Two of them have contributed with a proceedings article to this selected collection (articles 012001 and 012008). The contributed communications were focused on particular cutting-edge aspects of thin film science and functionalization technologies for biomaterials, showing the major scientific push of Spanish research groups in the field. The 2010 BIO-COAT conference was organized along four main topics: (1) functionalization and texture on surfaces, (2) tribology and corrosion, (3) the surface modification of biomaterials, and (4) surface-biological environment interactions. The papers published in this volume were accepted for publication after peer-review as are regular papers. The editor of this proceedings volume gratefully acknowledges all referees for their valuable work, sometimes working to quite short deadlines. Finally, BIO-COAT 2010 would not have been successful without the strong involvement and input of the local organizing committee in Zaragoza, and the support of the University of Zaragoza. We sincerely thank them all for their efforts. Jose L Endrino (Editor) Jose A Puértolas (Chairman) Jose M Albella (Chairman)

Endrino, Jose Luis; Puértolas, Jose A.; Albella, Jose M.

2010-11-01

338

Functionalized siloxane-based polymers and network materials for second-order nonlinear optics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a new chemical methodology, based on simple acid-base hydrolysis of aminosilanes with molecules containing terminal OH groups, to prepare robust siloxane based polymers and organic-inorganic hybrid network materials for second-order nonlinear optics. First, a variety of polymers containing NLO- active chromophores covalently bound to the siloxane backbones, [-R2Si-(O- SiR2)n-O-(NLO-Chromophore)-O-] n (R = CH3 or CH3\\/C6H4) and [-

Hongwei Jiang

1999-01-01

339

Architecture of macromolecular network of soft functional materials: from structure to function.  

PubMed

An enhanced macromolecular nanofiber network and its implications have been developed by employing the understanding of its formation with an emphasis on its topological aspect. Using agarose aqueous solution as a typical example, the macromolecular nanofiber network of soft functional materials has been clearly visualized for the first time using the developed technique of field emission scanning electronic microscopy coupled with flash-freeze-drying. Both the systematic kinetic study and the image evidence indicates that the nanofiber network in soft functional materials such as agarose turns out to form through a self-expitaxial nucleation-controlled process. This new understanding enables us to engineer ultra functions of soft materials via nanofiber network architecture, which in turn opens up a new direction in nano fabrication. PMID:17472367

Xiong, Jun-Ying; Liu, Xiang-Yang; Li, Jing-Liang; Vallon, Martin Wilhelm

2007-05-02

340

Functionalized Cyclophanes Incorporated into Molecular Architectures and Mechanized Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supramolecular chemistry, the chemistry of the noncovalent bond beyond the molecule, has been utilized historically to organize the formation of novel compounds and topologies, including mechanically interlocked molecules (MIMs). Specifically, the host-guest complex between the cyclophane cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) (CBPQT4+) and electron-rich guests has been exploited to template the formation of catenanes, rotaxanes and other topologically interesting molecules. By equipping CBPQT 4+ with new functional handles, previously unattainable topologies can be accessed. Moving beyond the synthesis of MIMs in solution, functionalizing the cyclophane enables the marriage of these existing topologies to different materials. In doing so, new properties can be obtained and new functions can be elicited. In this thesis, the functionalization of CBPQT4+ is featured in respect to a bioconjugate device that utilizes the cyclophane and a molecular Figure-of-Eight (Fo8). The DNA bioconjugate device is constructed characterized, and recognition properties are examined here. The donor-acceptor Fo8 is also synthesized and characterized here. The Fo8 possesses a structure that could not be attainable without the functionalized CBPQT4+ host. Furthermore, the resulting stereochemical implications and consequences of the Fo8 structure are presented.

Boyle, Megan Marie

341

Synthesis, crystal structure and thermal properties of Ca6(C12H14O4)4(CO3)(OH)2(H2O)x--a 3D inorganic hybrid material.  

PubMed

The inorganic-organic compound Ca(6)(1,3-adamantanedicarboxylate)(4)(CO(3))(OH)(2)(H(2)O)(x) with 0 < x < 15.2 was synthesized by hydrothermal methods. The crystal structure was determined on the basis of high resolution synchrotron powder diffraction data and poly-crystal measurements. The crystal structure of Ca(6)(C(12)H(14)O(4))(4)(CO(3))(OH)(2)(H(2)O)(14) is tetragonal, space group I4(1)/amd (141) with a = 29.12 Å, c = 15.85 Å, V = 13,440 Å(3) and Z = 8. The compound is classified as a 3D inorganic hybrid material with a 3-dimensional inorganic framework consisting of Ca and O, connected to 1,3-adamantanedicarboxylate anions. The structure shows hydrophilic channels in a diamond-like network. In between the channels there exist hydrophobic pores with surfaces defined by adamantane cages. The shortest distance between hydrogen atoms from different molecules in these pores is 3.6 Å. The largest hydrophilic cavity has a diameter of 10 Å and the pores connecting the channels have a diameter of 5 Å. In the as-synthesised state these channels are filled with water molecules. Reversible dehydration-rehydration occurs. The dehydrated compound easily takes up water from ambient air. PMID:22914759

Nielsen, Renie Birkedal; Norby, Poul; Kongshaug, Kjell Ove; Fjellvåg, Helmer

2012-10-21

342

Fluorescent Functionalized Mesoporous Silica for Radioactive Material Extraction  

SciTech Connect

Mesoporous silica with covalently bound salicylic acid molecules incorporated in the structure was synthesized with a one-pot, co-condensation reaction at room temperature. The as-synthesized material has a large surface area, uniform particle size, and an ordered pore structure as determined by characterization with transmission electron microscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, and infrared spectra, etc. Using the strong fluorescence and metal coordination capability of salicylic acid, functionalized mesoporous silica (FMS) was developed to track and extract radionuclide contaminants, such as uranyl [U(VI)] ions encountered in subsurface environments. Adsorption measurements showed a strong affinity of the FMS toward U(VI) with a Kd value of 105 mL/g, which is four orders of magnitude higher than the adsorption of U(VI) onto most of the sediments in natural environments. The new materials have a potential for synergistic environmental monitoring and remediation of the radionuclide U(VI) from contaminated subsurface environments.

Li, Juan; Zhu, Kake; Shang, Jianying; Wang, Donghai; Nie, Zimin; Guo, Ruisong; Liu, Chongxuan; Wang, Zheming; Li, Xiaolin; Liu, Jun

2012-08-01

343

Functionalized DNA materials for sensing and medical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Army has strong interests in nanoscale architectures that enable enhanced extraction and controllable multiplication of the THz/IR regime spectral signatures associated with specific bio-molecular targets. Emerging DNAbased nano-assemblies (i.e., either materials or structural devices) will be discussed that realize novel sensing paradigms through the incorporation of organic and/or biological molecules such that they effect highly predictable and controllable changes into the electro-optical properties of the resulting superstructures. Results will be given to illustrate the utility of functionalized DNA materials in biological (and chemical) sensing, and to demonstrate how the basic science can be leveraged to study and develop synthetic antibodies, reporters and vaccines for future medical applications.

Woolard, Dwight L.; Jensen, James O.

2011-05-01

344

Ion Beams: A Powerful Tool for Making New Functional Materials  

SciTech Connect

It is well known that ion beams play an important role in semiconductor industry, which utilizes ion implantation and irradiation for materials modification. Ion sputtering technique is used to fabricate multifunctional coatings and multilayers. Using ion implantation, there is a continued effort for fabrication of quantum bit structures for future quantum computers. Availability of focused ion beams (FIBs) has widened the applications of ion beams and nanostructured functional materials are being fabricated using FIBs. Various quantum structures can be fabricated using FIB. Ferromagnetism can either be induced or destroyed in special layered structures using ion irradiation. The magnetic exchange bias phenomenon is of tremendous utility in magnetic recording. Issues of lateral diffusion in nanoscale doping of semiconductors by FIB and an example of exchange bias enhancement by ion irradiation are discussed.

Dev, B. N. [Department of Materials Science, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India)

2010-12-01

345

Synthesis of organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposite material: alizarin-3-sulfonate in the lamella of zinc-aluminium-layered double hydroxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of new organic dye-interleaved nanocomposites (NCs) were prepared by intercalation of alizarin-3-sulfonate anion (Az3S) into Zn-Al-layered double hydroxide (LDH) inorganic lamella host at different concentrations via self-assembly method. The physicochemical properties of the as-synthesized LDH and NCs were studied using PXRD, FTIR, ICP-AES, CHNS, true density and SEM techniques. Basal spacing expansions from 9.0 Å in LDH to

Mohd Zobir b. Hussein; Chan W. Long; Zulkarnain Zainal; Asmah H. Yahaya

2005-01-01

346

A review on the application of inorganic nano-structured materials in the modification of textiles: Focus on anti-microbial properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Textiles can provide a suitable substrate to grow micro-organisms especially at appropriate humidity and temperature in contact to human body. Recently, increasing public concern about hygiene has been driving many investigations for anti-microbial modification of textiles. However, using many anti-microbial agents has been avoided because of their possible harmful or toxic effects. Application of inorganic nano-particles and their nano-composites would

Roya Dastjerdi; Majid Montazer

2010-01-01

347

A designed single-step method for synthesis and structural study of organic-inorganic hybrid materials: well-ordered layered manganese oxide nanocomposites.  

PubMed

A fast and single-step method was successfully developed toward synthesizing well-ordered organic-inorganic hybrid layered manganese oxide (LMO) nanocomposites and Keggin/organic ions intercalated into layered manganese oxide at room temperature in 1 day. The ordering of layered structures is highly dependent on pH and drying conditions. The Keggin/organic intercalated LMO shows improved thermal stability of the layered structure over that of hybrid LMO. PMID:18847264

Chen, Chun-Hu; Crisostomo, Vincent Mark B; Li, Wei-Na; Xu, Linping; Suib, Steven L

2008-10-11

348

High-Dielectric Constant Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Materials Prepared with Sol-Gel-Derived Crystalline BaTiO3  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preparation of ceramic\\/polymer composites (BaTiO3-polymer in particular) has received much current interest for various electronic applications, because of the possibility of combining the effect of the processability of the organic components with that of the desired electrical properties of the ceramics. The synthesis of polyimide-based inorganic-organic hybrid thin films containing crystalline BaTiO3 nanoparticles and their dielectric properties are discussed.

Nimai Chand Pramanik; Sang Il Seok

2008-01-01

349

Acetylacetone, an interesting anchoring group for ZnO-based organic-inorganic hybrid materials: a combined experimental and theoretical study.  

PubMed

Acetylacetone (acacH) adsorption on ZnO (10-10) surface has been studied by a theoretical periodic approach using density functional theory. Two dissociative adsorption modes were investigated and compared to the most stable adsorption mode of formic acid. Acetylacetone appears as a suitable anchoring group for hybrid materials, with adsorption energies of the same order of magnitude as formic acid. IR spectra of the acac/ZnO systems were computed in order to determine the spectral signature of adsorption and, possibly, of each adsorption mode to follow the coordination of acac on ZnO at the experimental level. The results have been compared to Fourier transform infrared (attenuated total reflection-IR) experimental spectra. The present investigation points out the interest of acetylacetone as an anchoring group for the development of new ZnO-based functionalized hybrid layers for corrosion protection, light emitting diodes, photocatalytic systems, and dye-sensitized solar cells. PMID:21341787

Le Bahers, Tangui; Pauporté, Thierry; Labat, Frédéric; Lefèvre, Grégory; Ciofini, Ilaria

2011-02-22

350

Transmission Electron Microscopy as a Tool to Image Bio-Inorganic Nanohybrids: The Case of Phage-Gold Nanocomposites  

PubMed Central

In recent years, bio-inorganic nanohybrids composed of biological macromolecules and functional inorganic nanomaterials have revealed many unique properties that show promise for the future. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a popular and relatively simple tool that can offer a direct visualization of the nanomaterials with high resolutions. When TEM is applied to visualize bio-inorganic nanohybrids, a treatment of negative staining is necessary due to the presence of biological molecules in the nanohybrids except for those with densely packed inorganic materials. However, the conventional negative-staining procedure for regular biological samples cannot be directly applied to such bio-inorganic nanohybrids. To image a specific bio-inorganic nanohybrid, negative-staining factors such as negative stain type, working pH, staining time, and drying method, should be identified. Currently, no detailed studies have been done to investigate how to adjust negative-staining factors based on specific bio-inorganic nanohybrids. In this study, bacteriophage-gold nanoparticle hybrids were chosen as a model to systematically study the effects of each factor on the negative staining of the nanohybrids. The best staining conditions for gold nanoparticle-phage nanohybrids were obtained and the effects of each factor on the negative staining of general nanohybrids were discussed. This work indicates that with proper staining it is possible to use TEM to directly visualize both biological and inorganic components without introducing any artifact.

Cao, Binrui; Xu, Hong; Mao, Chuanbin

2011-01-01

351

Effects of acute sodium fluoride exposure on kidney function, water homeostasis, and renal handling of calcium and inorganic phosphate.  

PubMed

Fluoride compounds are abundant and widely distributed in the environment at a variety of concentrations. Further, fluoride induces toxic effects in target organs such as the liver and kidney. In this study, we performed an early analysis of renal function using a clearance technique in Wistar rats acutely exposed to fluoride at a plasma concentration of 0.625 ?g/ml. Our results revealed that fluoride, at a concentration close to the concentration present in the serum after environmental exposure, induced a significant tubular dysfunction, resulting in diluted urine, impaired protein reabsorption, and increased calcium and phosphate urinary excretion. Our work demonstrates that even acute exposures to low concentrations of NaF may induce renal damage and confirms that, after exposure, the kidney participates directly in the calcium and phosphate deficiencies observed in fluoride-exposed populations. PMID:23400904

Santoyo-Sanchez, Mitzi Paola; del Carmen Silva-Lucero, Maria; Arreola-Mendoza, Laura; Barbier, Olivier Christophe

2013-02-12

352

Functionalized mesoporous silica materials for controlled drug delivery.  

PubMed

In the past decade, non-invasive and biocompatible mesoporous silica materials as efficient drug delivery systems have attracted special attention. Great progress in structure control and functionalization (magnetism and luminescence) design has been achieved for biotechnological and biomedical applications. This review highlights the most recent research progress on silica-based controlled drug delivery systems, including: (i) pure mesoporous silica sustained-release systems, (ii) magnetism and/or luminescence functionalized mesoporous silica systems which integrate targeting and tracking abilities of drug molecules, and (iii) stimuli-responsive controlled release systems which are able to respond to environmental changes, such as pH, redox potential, temperature, photoirradiation, and biomolecules. Although encouraging and potential developments have been achieved, design and mass production of novel multifunctional carriers, some practical biological application, such as biodistribution, the acute and chronic toxicities, long-term stability, circulation properties and targeting efficacy in vivo are still challenging. PMID:22441299

Yang, Piaoping; Gai, Shili; Lin, Jun

2012-03-22

353

New transducer material concepts for biosensors and surface functionalization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wide bandgap materials like SiC, ZnO, AlN form a strong platform as transducers for biosensors realized as e.g. ISFET (ion selective field effect transistor) devices or resonators. We have taken two main steps towards a multifunctional biosensor transducer. First we have successfully functionalized ZnO and SiC surfaces with e.g. APTES. For example ZnO is interesting since it may be functionalized with biomolecules without any oxidation of the surface and several sensing principles are possible. Second, ISFET devises with a porous metal gate as a semi-reference electrode are being developed. Nitric oxide, NO, is a gas which participates in the metabolism. Resistivity changes in Ga doped ZnO was demonstrated as promising for NO sensing also in humid atmosphere, in order to simulate breath.

Lloyd Spetz, Anita; Pearce, Ruth; Hedin, Linnea; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr; Söderlind, Fredrik; Käll, Per-Olov; Yakimova, Rositza; Uvdal, Kajsa

2009-05-01

354

Inorganic-organic hybrid materials with different dimensions constructed from copper-fluconazole metal-organic units and Keggin polyanion clusters.  

PubMed

Inorganic-organic hybrid materials based on Keggin polyoxometalate building blocks combined with Cu(II)/Cu(I) and flexible fluconazole ligand [1-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-1,1-bis[(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)methyl]methanol] (Hfcz) have been obtained by hydrothermal methods, namely, [Cu(II)(2)(Hfcz)(4)(SiW(12)O(40))].3H(2)O (1), [Cu(II)(4)(fcz)(4)(H(2)O)(4)(SiMo(12)O(40))].6H(2)O (2), [Cu(II)(2)(fcz)(2)][Cu(II)(4)(fcz)(4)(SiW(12)O(40))][Cu(II)(2)(fcz)(2)(H(2)O)(2)(SiW(12)O(40))].6H(2)O (3), (Et(3)NH)(2)[Cu(I)(2)(Hfcz)(2)(SiW(12)O(40))].2H(2)O (4), (Et(3)NH)(2)[Cu(I)(2)(Hfcz)(2)(SiW(12)O(40))].H(2)O (5) and [Cu(I)(4)(Hfcz)(4)(SiMo(12)O(40))] (6). Their structures have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses, and the compounds are further characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectra and thermogravimetric (TG) analyses. In 1, Cu(II) cations are bridged by fluconazole ligands to form a 3D lvt coordination polymeric network, which is connected by (SiW(12)O(40))(4-) anions to form a complicated 3D (4,6)-connected framework with the topology of (4(2).6(4))(4(6).6(7).8(2))(2). In 2, two fcz(-) anions chelate two Cu(2+) cations to form a [Cu(fcz)](2)(2+) dimer, which is bridged by (SiW(12)O(40))(4-) polyanions to generate a 2D (4,4) grid. Compound 3 is formed by three types of co-crystallizing subunits including a dimer [Cu(fcz)](2)(2+), a dumbbell molecule [Cu(4)(fcz)(4)(SiW(12)O(40))] and an infinite chain {[Cu(2)(fcz)(2)(H(2)O)(2)(SiW(12)O(40))](2-)}(infinity). In compounds 4 and 5, Hfcz ligands link Cu(+) cations to generate 1D coordination polymeric units, and (SiW(12)O(40))(4-) polyanions connect these metal-organic units to form two types of (6(3)) sheets which are topological isomerism. In compound 6, (SiMo(12)O(40))(4-) polyanions fixed in Cu(I)-Hfcz square rings are further extended into a 2D sheet via linking Cu(I) atoms of different rings. By carefully inspection of the structures of 1-6, it is believed that various transition-metal organic units and Keggin polyanions with different coordination modes are important for the formation of the different structures. In addition, electrochemical behaviors of compounds 1, 2, 5 and 6 have been investigated. PMID:18382779

Li, Shun-Li; Lan, Ya-Qian; Ma, Jian-Fang; Yang, Jin; Liu, Jie; Fu, Yao-Mei; Su, Zhong-Min

2008-02-18

355

Detonation Properties Measurements for Inorganic Explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many commonly available explosive materials have never been quantitatively or theoretically characterized in a manner suitable for use in analytical models. This includes inorganic explosive materials used in spacecraft ordnance, such as zirconium potassium perchlorate (ZPP). Lack of empirical information about these materials impedes the development of computational techniques. We have applied high fidelity measurement techniques to experimentally determine the

Brent A. Morgan; Angel Lopez

2005-01-01

356

Preparation, characterization and properties of amino-functionalized montmorillonite and composite layer-by-layer assembly with inorganic nanosheets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An amino-functionalized montmorillonite (APTMS-MMT) was prepared by the grafting of 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS) on the surface of MMT via the ultrasonic synthesis process and characterized by a variety of techniques: FT-IR, thermogravimetic analysis (TGA), particles size analysis and ?-potential measurement. The results showed the size and size distribution of APTMS-MMT particles were decreased, and the ?-potential of particles was increased obviously via the ultrasonic synthesis process. The particles of 30% APTMS-MMT US (MMT modified with 30 wt% APTMS with ultrasonic synthesis process) had a z-average diameter of about 500 nm and a polydispersity index of 0.2. The resultant 30% APTMS-MMT US was dispersed uniformly and stably in water. The poly(acrylic acid) (PAA)/APTMS-MMT multilayer films were grown through layer-by-layer (LBL) deposition of PAA and APTMS-MMT. SEM results indicated that the ultrasonic synthesis of APTMS-MMT increased dispersability of clay sheets at high loadings. The thermal stability and mechanical properties of PAA/APTMS-MMT composites were investigated by TGA and tensile test respectively. The results showed the ultrasonic synthesis of APTMS-MMT enhanced the thermal stability and mechanical properties of PAA/APTMS-MMT composites significantly. PAA/30% APTMS-MMT US composite displayed 3 times higher strength and 6 times higher Young's modulus when compared with pure PAA polymer.

Huang, Guo-bo; Ge, Chang-hua; He, Bing-jing

2011-06-01

357

Designing Meaningful Density Functional Theory Calculations in Materials Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Density functional theory (DFT) methods for calculating the quantum mechanical ground states of condensed matter systems are now a common and significant component of materials research. These methods are also increasingly used in Equation of State work, in particular in the warm dense matter regime. The growing importance of DFT reflects the development of sufficiently accurate functionals, efficient algorithms, and continuing improvements in computing capabilities. As the materials problems to which DFT is applied have become large and complex, so have the sets of calculations necessary to investigate a given problem. Highly versatile, powerful codes exist to serve the practitioner, but designing useful simulations is a complicated task, involving intricate manipulation of many variables, with many pitfalls for the unwary and the inexperienced. We give an overview of DFT and discuss several of the most important issues that go into designing a meaningful DFT calculation. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

Mattsson, A. E.

2005-07-01

358

Mn-based antiperovskite functional materials: Review of research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our recent research on the Mn-based antiperovskite functional materials AXMn3 (A: metal or semiconducting elements; X: C or N) is outlined. Antiperovskite carbides (e.g., AlCMn3) show large magnetocaloric effect comparable to those of typical magnetic refrigerant materials. Enhanced giant magnetoresistance up to 70% at 50 kOe (1 Oe = 79.5775 Am?1) over a wide temperature span was obtained in Ga1?xZnxCMn3 and GaCMn3?xNix. In Cu0.3Sn0.5NMn3.2, negative thermal expansion (NTE) was achieved in a wide temperature region covering room temperature (? = ?6.8 ppm/K, 150 K–400 K). Neutron pair distribution function analysis suggests the Cu/Sn-Mn bond fluctuation is the driving force for the NTE in Cu1?xSnxNMn3. In CuN1?xCxMn3 and CuNMn3?yCoy, the temperature coefficient of resistivity (TCR) decreases monotonically from positive to negative as Co or C content increases. TCR is extremely low when the composition approaches the critical points. For example, TCR is ~ 1.29 ppm/K between 240 K and 320 K in CuN0.95C0.05Mn3, which is one twentieth of that in the typical low-TCR materials (~ 25 ppm/K). By studying the critical scaling behavior and X deficiency effect, some clues of localized-electron magnetism have been found against the background of electronic itinerant magnetism.

Tong, Peng; Wang, Bo-Sen; Sun, Yu-Ping

2013-06-01

359

Hybrid materials of MCM-41 functionalized by lanthanide (Tb{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+}) complexes of modified meta-methylbenzoic acid: Covalently bonded assembly and photoluminescence  

SciTech Connect

Novel organic-inorganic mesoporous hybrid materials were synthesized by linking lanthanide (Tb{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+}) complexes to the mesoporous MCM-41 through the modified meta-methylbenzoic acid (MMBA-Si) using co-condensation method in the presence of the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant as template. The luminescence properties of these resulting materials (denoted as Ln-MMBA-MCM-41, Ln=Tb, Eu) were characterized in detail, and the results reveal that luminescent mesoporous materials have high surface area, uniformity in the ordered mesoporous structure. Moreover, the mesoporous material covalently bonded Tb{sup 3+} complex (Tb-MMBA-MCM-41) exhibits the stronger characteristic emission of Tb{sup 3+} and longer lifetime than Eu-MMBA-MCM-41 due to the triplet state energy of organic legend MMBA-Si matches with the emissive energy level of Tb{sup 3+} very well. - Graphical abstract: Novel organic-inorganic mesoporous luminescent materials were synthesized by linking lanthanide (Tb{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+}) complexes to covalently bond the functionalized ordered mesoporous MCM-41 with modified meta-methylbenzoic acid (MMBA)-Si by co-condensation of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) in the presence of the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant as template.

Li Ying [Department of Chemistry, Tongji University, Siping Road 1239, Shanghai 200092 (China); Yan Bing [Department of Chemistry, Tongji University, Siping Road 1239, Shanghai 200092 (China)], E-mail: byan@tongji.edu.cn

2008-05-15

360

Inorganic polymers for environmental protection applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aluminosilicate inorganic polymers have been proposed as low-energy cements since, unlike Portland cement, their production does not require high temperatures or generate large quantities of greenhouse gases. Other environmental protection applications for inorganic polymers are to encapsulate hazardous mining or radioactive wastes for safe long-term storage and as fireproof components for buildings and vehicles. However, newly developed methods for synthesising these materials have opened up the possibility of other novel environmental protection applications. These include porous cladding material for passive cooling of buildings, cost-effective exchange materials for removing heavy metals from wastewater, bacteriocidal materials for purifying polluted drinking water and materials for photodegrading hazardous organic environmental pollutants. The nature and synthesis of inorganic polymers for these environmental applications will be discussed here.

MacKenzie, K. J. D.

2011-10-01

361

Ultrathin coatings of nanoporous materials as property enhancements for advanced functional materials.  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the findings of a five-month LDRD project funded through Sandia's NTM Investment Area. The project was aimed at providing the foundation for the development of advanced functional materials through the application of ultrathin coatings of microporous or mesoporous materials onto the surface of substrates such as silicon wafers. Prior art teaches that layers of microporous materials such as zeolites may be applied as, e.g., sensor platforms or gas separation membranes. These layers, however, are typically several microns to several hundred microns thick. For many potential applications, vast improvements in the response of a device could be realized if the thickness of the porous layer were reduced to tens of nanometers. However, a basic understanding of how to synthesize or fabricate such ultra-thin layers is lacking. This report describes traditional and novel approaches to the growth of layers of microporous materials on silicon wafers. The novel approaches include reduction of the quantity of nutrients available to grow the zeolite layer through minimization of solution volume, and reaction of organic base (template) with thermally-oxidized silicon wafers under a steam atmosphere to generate ultra-thin layers of zeolite MFI.

Coker, Eric Nicholas

2010-11-01

362

Organic and inorganic selenium speciation in environmental and biological samples by nanometer-sized materials packed dual-column separation/preconcentration on-line coupled with ICP-MS.  

PubMed

A novel, fast, and cheap nonchromatographic method for direct speciation of dissolved inorganic and organic selenium species in environmental and biological samples was developed by flow injection (FI) dual-column preconcentration/separation on-line coupled with ICP-MS determination. In the developed technique, the first column packed with nanometer-sized Al(2)O(3) could selectively adsorb the inorganic selenium [Se(IV), Se(VI)], and the retained inorganic selenium could be eluted by 0.2 mol l(-1) NaOH, while the organic Se [selenocystine (SeCys(2)) and selenomethionine (Se-Met)] was not retained. On the other hand, the second column packed with mesoporous TiO(2) chemically modified by dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) could selectively adsorb Se(IV) and SeCys(2) and barely adsorb Se(VI) and Se-Met. When the sample solution was passed through the column 1, separation of inorganic selenium and organic selenium could be achieved first. Then, the effluent from column 1 was successively introduced into the column 2 and the speciation of organic selenium could be attained due to the different adsorption behaviors of Se-Met and SeCys(2) on DMSA modified TiO(2). After that, the eluent from column 1 contained Se(IV), and Se(VI) was adjusted to desired pH and injected into column 2, and the speciation of Se(IV) and Se(VI) could also be realized thanks to their different retention on column 2. The parameters affecting the separation were investigated systematically and the optimal separation conditions were established. The detection limits obtained for Se(IV), Se(VI), Se-Met and SeCys(2) were 45-210 ng l(-1) with precisions of 3.6-9.7%. The proposed method has been successfully applied for the speciation of dissolved inorganic and organic selenium in environmental and biological samples. In order to validate the methodology, the developed method was also applied to the speciation of selenium in certified reference material of SELM-1 yeast, and the determined values were in good agreement with the certified values. PMID:17994643

Huang, Chaozhang; Hu, Bin; He, Man; Duan, Jiankun

2008-03-01

363

Ultraviolet-nanoimprint of 40 nm scale patterns using functionally modified fluorinated hybrid materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photo-curable fluorinated organic-inorganic hybrid materials (F-hybrimers) present high modulus, low surface tension, low shrinkage, and high etching resistance. These are essential properties as a mould and as a resist for nanoimprint lithography (NIL). In order to control the properties of the fluorinated hybrimer, in this study it is modified by the optimal addition of appropriate acryl monomers as a mould and as a resist material for NIL. Accordingly, the viscosity in terms of the resist material and the modulus in terms of the mould material are modulated (low v F-hybrimer and flexible F-hybrimer). Finally, 30-40 nm half-pitch line patterns are imprinted, using identically modified F-hybrimer material systems as a mould and a resist.

Kim, Woo-Soo; Choi, Dae-Geun; Bae, Byeong-Soo

2006-07-01

364

ATRP in the design of functional materials for biomedical applications  

PubMed Central

Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP) is an effective technique for the design and preparation of multifunctional, nanostructured materials for a variety of applications in biology and medicine. ATRP enables precise control over macromolecular structure, order, and functionality, which are important considerations for emerging biomedical designs. This article reviews recent advances in the preparation of polymer-based nanomaterials using ATRP, including polymer bioconjugates, block copolymer-based drug delivery systems, cross-linked microgels/nanogels, diagnostic and imaging platforms, tissue engineering hydrogels, and degradable polymers. It is envisioned that precise engineering at the molecular level will translate to tailored macroscopic physical properties, thus enabling control of the key elements for realized biomedical applications.

Siegwart, Daniel J.; Oh, Jung Kwon; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof

2013-01-01

365

ATRP in the design of functional materials for biomedical applications.  

PubMed

Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP) is an effective technique for the design and preparation of multifunctional, nanostructured materials for a variety of applications in biology and medicine. ATRP enables precise control over macromolecular structure, order, and functionality, which are important considerations for emerging biomedical designs. This article reviews recent advances in the preparation of polymer-based nanomaterials using ATRP, including polymer bioconjugates, block copolymer-based drug delivery systems, cross-linked microgels/nanogels, diagnostic and imaging platforms, tissue engineering hydrogels, and degradable polymers. It is envisioned that precise engineering at the molecular level will translate to tailored macroscopic physical properties, thus enabling control of the key elements for realized biomedical applications. PMID:23525884

Siegwart, Daniel J; Oh, Jung Kwon; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof

2011-08-25

366

Functional nucleic acid entrapment in sol-gel derived materials.  

PubMed

Functional nucleic acids (FNAs) are single-stranded DNA or RNA molecules, typically generated through in vitro selection, that have the ability to act as receptors for target molecules (aptamers) or perform catalysis of a chemical reaction (deoxyribozymes and ribozymes). Fluorescence-signaling aptamers and deoxyribozymes have recently emerged as promising biological recognition and signaling elements, although little has been done to evaluate their potential for solid-phase assays, particularly with species made of RNA due to their lack of chemical stability and susceptibility to nuclease attack. Herein, we present a detailed overview of the methods utilized for solid-phase immobilization of FNAs using a sol-gel entrapment method that can provide protection from nuclease degradation and impart long-term chemical stability to the FNA reporter systems, while maintaining their signaling capabilities. This article will also provide a brief review of the results of such entrapment studies involving fluorescence-signaling versions of a DNA aptamer, selected RNA-cleaving deoxyribozymes, and two different RNA aptamers in a series of sol-gel derived composites, ranging from highly polar silica to hydrophobic methylsilsesquioxane-based materials. Given the ability to produce sol-gel derived materials in a variety of configurations, particularly as thin film coatings on electrodes, optical fibers, and other devices, this entrapment method should provide a useful platform for numerous solid-phase FNA-based biosensing applications. PMID:24025165

Carrasquilla, Carmen; Brennan, John D

2013-09-08

367

Thermal Fracture and Thermal Shock Resistance of Functionally Graded Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We first analyze thermal stresses and thermal cracking in a strip of a functionally graded material (FGM) subjected to sudden cooling. It is assumed that the shear modulus of the material decreases hyperbolically with the higher value occurring at the surface exposed to the thermal shock and that thermal conductivity varies exponentially. It is shown that the maximum tensile thermal stress induced in the strip is substantially reduced by the presumed thermal conductivity gradient. Thermal stress intensity factors (TSIFs) are also calculated for an edge crack at the surface exposed to the thermal shock and results show that while the TSIF is relatively insensitive to the shear modulus gradient, it is significantly reduced by the thermal conductivity gradient. The crack growth resistance curve of a ceramic-metal FGM is also studied and it is found that the FGM exhibits strong R-curve behavior when a crack grows from the ceramic-rich region into the metalrich region. Finally, the thermal shock resistance of FGMs is discussed.

Jin, Z.-H.; Batra, R. C.

368

N-terminal chimaeras with signal sequences enhance the functional expression and alter the subcellular localization of heterologous membrane-bound inorganic pyrophosphatases in yeast.  

PubMed

Expression of heterologous multispanning membrane proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a difficult task. Quite often, the use of multicopy plasmids where the foreign gene is under the control of a strong promoter does not guarantee efficient production of the corresponding protein. In the present study, we show that the expression level and/or subcellular localization in S. cerevisiae of a heterologous type of multispanning membrane protein, the proton-translocating inorganic pyrophosphatase (H+-PPase), can be changed by fusing it with various suitable N-terminal signal sequences. Chimaeric proteins were constructed by adding the putative N-terminal extra domain of Trypanosoma cruzi H+-PPase or the bona fide signal sequence of S. cerevisiae invertase Suc2p to H+-PPase polypeptides of different organisms (from bacteria to plants) and expressed in a yeast conditional mutant deficient in its cytosolic PPi hydrolysis activity when grown on glucose. Chimaeric constructs not only substantially enhanced H+-PPase expression levels in transformed mutant cells, but also allowed functional complementation in those cases in which native H+-PPase failed to accomplish it. Activity assays and Western blot analyses demonstrated further the occurrence of most H+-PPase in internal membrane fractions of these cells. The addition of N-terminal signal sequences to the vacuolar H+-PPase AVP1 from the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, a protein efficiently expressed in yeast in its natural form, alters the subcellular distribution of the chimaeras, suggesting further progression along the secretory sorting pathways, as shown by density gradient ultracentrifugation and in vivo fluorescence microscopy of the corresponding GFP (green fluorescent protein)-H+-PPase fusion proteins. PMID:20025609

Drake, Rocío; Serrano, Aurelio; Pérez-Castiñeira, José R

2010-02-09

369

Synthesis of functionally graded materials via electrophoretic deposition and sintering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this research, both the experiments and the modeling aspects of the net-shape fabrication of Functionally Graded Materials (FGM) by Electrophoretic Deposition (EPD) and consecutive sintering have been investigated. In order to obtain FGMs with desired final shape and properties, the issues regarding the shape evolution during sintering, the optimization of initial properties and composition profiles, and the fabrication of green components by EPD have been analyzed. In order to fabricate FGMs by the proposed technological sequence (EPD with the following sintering), the initial shape has to be optimized prior to sintering. In this research, the formulations to simulate sintering of an FGM were developed based on the continuum theory of sintering. A finite element sintering-modeling subroutine has been created and linked to the commercial finite element package ABAQUS. The shape changes of FGM disks during sintering were simulated. In order to obtain the desired final shape after sintering, an inverse modeling methodology was developed to optimize the initial shape. In order to fabricate the optimized initial shape of a green FGM specimen determined by the inverse continuum modeling of sintering, EPD of a number of FGMs was investigated. The FGM green specimens made of Al2O 3 and ZrO2 with the initial shape predicted by the inverse modeling, were deposited using self-designed equipments. The acetone-based suspension with n-butylamine as a particle-charging additive was used. The comparison of the shape between the sintered and the green FGM indicated that the developed experimental-theoretical methodology provided a reliable solution for near net shaping of complex 3-D FGM components. Other applications of EPD, such as in electronic packaging materials and zeolites, were also investigated. In order to fabricate functionally graded materials based on aligned porous structures, unidirectional freezing followed by freeze-drying and sintering has been investigated. The aligned porous preforms were sintered and then impregnated by brushing gold. After annealing at 600°C, the gold wires which have the diameters ranging from several hundreds of nanometers to several micrometers have been found in the ceramic preforms.

Wang, Xuan

370

Metal ion adsorption using polyamine-functionalized mesoporous materials prepared from bromopropyl-functionalized mesoporous silica.  

PubMed

Mesoporous silicas carrying di-, tri-, or penta-amine functional groups were prepared by prior functionalization of a mesoporous silica with bromopropyl-functional groups followed by nucleophilic displacement of the bromine atoms by ethylenediamine, diethylenetriamine, or tetraethylenepentamine, respectively. A synthetic method was developed that gave a starting material with very high surface coverage by the 3-brompropyl groups. Batch tests were conducted to investigate the capabilities of the prepared adsorbents for the removal of copper, zinc, and cadmium from aqueous solutions. The metal adsorption capacities for these metals were determined as a function of the polyamine group used and the total nitrogen content. The tendency to chemisorb divalent metal ions was found to follow the order: Cu(2+)>Zn(2+)>Cd(2+). It was found that the ethylenediamine derivative unexpectedly exhibited the highest capacities. The metal sorption by the ethylenediamine functionalized silica was found to follow first order kinetics with rate constants for Cu(2+), Zn(2+) and Cd(2+) uptake of 0.028, 0.019, and 0.014 min(-1), respectively. The substituted mesoporous silicas showed high resistance to leaching of the grafted polyamine groups. Copper ions that were adsorbed at the surface of the mesoporous silicas can be recovered by washing with an aqueous solution of 1.0 M HNO(3). The activities of the recovered mesoporous silicas were between 80 and 90% of the original materials. PMID:20663609

Alothman, Zeid A; Apblett, Allen W

2010-06-25

371

Diffusivity control in nanoporous membrane through organic–inorganic hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanoporous inorganic materials have attracted great interest due to their potential application as nanofilters, drug delivery carriers and adsorbents. In order to control the molecular passage through nanopores, we have modified the pore channel of inorganic materials with organic moieties and investigated the diffusion pattern of small molecules. The surface was modified by octyltriethoxysilane (OTS) by refluxing in toluene for

Mi Hee Kim; André Ayral; Jin-Ho Choy; Jae-Min Oh

2010-01-01

372

Ordered organic-inorganic mesostructures: Properties, structure and nanospace design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interfacial interactions of ordered inorganic mesoporous materials and organic-inorganic mesostructures with silanes were studied. The main objective of this dissertation was to demonstrate applicability of organosilanes for design and characterization of ordered silica-based mesostructures and to investigate the modification of physical and chemical properties of mesostructured materials at the nanoscale level. The complexity of interactions between alkylchlorosilanes and mesoporous silica

Valentyn Antochshuk

2002-01-01

373

Work Function of Cathode Emitter Materials Obtained by Ab-initio Quantum Mechanical Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work function of a material is a very important figure of merit in determining the material's applicability as an efficient electron emitter. Consequently, the work function of a variety of materials utilized in both thermionic and field-assisted cathodes for electron emission was investigated computationally using ab-initio quantum mechanical modeling methods based on the density functional theory (DFT) approach (Hohenberg

V. Viaho; E. F. Holby; A. K. Berta; D. D. Morgan; J. H. Booske

2006-01-01

374

The functional layered organosilica materials prepared with anion surfactant templates.  

PubMed

A novel strategy for the synthesis of layered organosilica is demonstrated. The ionic interaction between the anionic group of a surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate) and the cationic organic group of an organosilane (3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane, ATMS) under acidic conditions was utilized to create a layered organosilica at room temperature. The inorganic part of the organosilica layer was an Si-O hexagonal sheet, and organofunctional groups were alternately arranged on both sides of the sheet. The layered structure of the ATMS organosilica was retained after the removal of the surfactant with chloride anion. The properties of the layered ATMS organosilica were investigated. The layered ATMS-Cl organosilica is stable and possesses a definite layer structure in water or ethanol. Various kinds of anions can be intercalated in the interlayer space of the layered ATMS organosilicas and the layer was expanded dependent on the intercalated anions. The structure of the layered ATMS organosilica was well retained during the intercalation processes. PMID:15797421

Yao, Ken; Imai, Yusuke; Shi, LiYi; Dong, AiMei; Adachi, Yoshio; Nishikubo, Keiko; Abe, Eiichi; Tateyama, Hiroshi

2005-05-01

375

Silver-halide/organic-composite structures: Toward materials with multiple photographic functionalities  

SciTech Connect

We report the synthesis and structure of the novel silver-halide-based organic-inorganic hybrids Ag{sub 2}Br{sub 6}(PPD){sub 2}, Ag{sub 2}Br{sub 6}(CD-2){sub 2}.H{sub 2}O, Ag{sub 2}Br{sub 4}(TMBD), and Ag{sub 2}I{sub 6}(CD-2){sub 2}.H{sub 2}O. 1,4-phenylenediammonium hexabromodiargentate(I) [Ag{sub 2}Br{sub 6}(PPD){sub 2}] crystals are monoclinic (P2{sub 1}/n), with unit-cell dimensions, a=10.1915(3)A, b=7.7562(2)A, c=12.4340(5)A and {beta}=93.109(1){sup o}. N,N-diethyl-2-methyl-1,4-benzenediammonium hexabromodiargentate(I) monohydrate [Ag{sub 2}Br{sub 6}(CD-2){sub 2}.H{sub 2}O] crystals are monoclinic (space group P2{sub 1}/c) with a=10.8434(2)A, b=11.4293(2)A, c=14.3729(1)A, and {beta}=96.153(1){sup o}. N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-1,4-benzenediammonium tetrabromodiargentate(I) [Ag{sub 2}Br{sub 4}(TMBD)] crystals are orthorhombic (space group Pbcn) with a=17.0030(6)A, b=6.6163(2)A, and c=15.9762(6)A. N,N-diethyl-2-methyl-1,4-benzenediammonium hexaiododiargentate(I) monohydrate, [Ag{sub 2}I{sub 6}(CD-2){sub 2}.H{sub 2}O], are monoclinic (C2/c), with unit-cell dimensions, a=21.4691(4)A, b=12.1411(2)A, c=14.3102(2)A, and {beta}=98.657(1){sup o}. The novel structures are members of a class of silver-halide-based organic-inorganic hybrids based upon the assembly of [Ag{sub a}X{sub b}]{sup n-} clusters and protonated organoamines in aqueous mineral acids. The clusters display short intracluster Ag-Ag distances, and computational methods are used to evaluate intracluster Ag-Ag bonding. The diverse stoichiometries and cluster connectivities observed suggest a rich compositional and structural chemistry based upon the general assembly method. We have extended the methodology to include a silver-halide-organoamonium chemistry in which the organic moiety is chosen to serve a specific photographic function and demonstrate the first examples of such materials. The methodology allows for the direct assembly of [Ag{sub a}X{sub b}]{sup n-} clusters with commercial photographic color developer molecules, and we show that development is repressed but can later be 'switched on' in a unique photographic scheme. The photographic properties of Ag{sub 2}Br{sub 6}(PPD){sub 2} are examined and show an extremely facile development rate owing to the fact that the developer molecules are within molecular proximity to the clusters. As a result of their molecular nature, we anticipate that such materials could enable conventional or completely new imaging technologies with very fast image access rates and very high resolution.

Bringley, Joseph F. [Research and Development Laboratories, Eastman Kodak Company, 1999 Lake Avenue, Rochester, NY 14650-2002 (United States)]. E-mail: joseph.bringley@kodak.com; Rajeswaran, Manju [Research and Development Laboratories, Eastman Kodak Company, 1999 Lake Avenue, Rochester, NY 14650-2002 (United States); Olson, Leif P. [Research and Development Laboratories, Eastman Kodak Company, 1999 Lake Avenue, Rochester, NY 14650-2002 (United States); Liebert, Nancy M. [Research and Development Laboratories, Eastman Kodak Company, 1999 Lake Avenue, Rochester, NY 14650-2002 (United States)

2005-10-15

376

Development of a Liquid Jet for Disintegration of Organic and Inorganic Materials: Final Technical Report, September 15, 1986-September 14, 1987.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The work completed for this project includes the development of three working prototypes for disintegration of materials and the testing of the systems to determine performance characteristics. The material used was waste newsprint, books and fiberboard. ...

M. Mazurkiewicz

1987-01-01

377

Transient Elastodynamic Crack Growth in Functionally Graded Materials  

SciTech Connect

A generalized elastic solution for an arbitrarily propagating transient crack in Functionally Graded Materials (FGMs) is obtained through an asymptotic analysis. The shear modulus and mass density of the FGM are assumed to vary exponentially along the gradation direction. The mode-mixity due to the inclination of property gradient with respect to the propagating crack tip is accommodated in the analysis through superposition of the opening and shear modes. First three terms of out of plane displacement field and its gradients about the crack tip are obtained in powers of radial coordinates, with the coefficients depending on the time rate of change of crack tip speed and stress intensity factors. Using these displacement fields, the effect of transient stress intensity factors and acceleration on synthetic contours of constant out of plane displacement under both opening and mixed mode loading conditions has been studied. These contours show that the transient terms cause significant spatial variation on out of plane displacements around the crack tip. Therefore, in studying dynamic fracture of FGMs, it is appropriate to include the transient terms in the field equations for the situations of sudden variation of stress intensity factor or crack tip velocity.

Chalivendra, Vijaya B. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth North Dartmouth, MA 02747 (United States)

2008-02-15

378

Review of selected dynamic material control functions for international safeguards  

SciTech Connect

With the development of Dynamic Special Nuclear Material Accounting and Control systems used in nuclear manufacturing and reprocessing plants, there arises the question as to how these systems affect the IAEA inspection capabilities. The systems in being and under development provide information and control for a variety of purposes important to the plant operator, the safeguards purpose being one of them. This report attempts to judge the usefulness of these dynamic systems to the IAEA and have defined 12 functions that provide essential information to it. If the information acquired by these dynamic systems is to be useful to the IAEA, the inspectors must be able to independently verify it. Some suggestions are made as to how this might be done. But, even if it should not be possible to verify all the data, the availability to the IAEA of detailed, simultaneous, and plant-wide information would tend to inhibit a plant operator from attempting to generate a floating or fictitious inventory. Suggestions are made that might be helpful in the design of future software systems, an area which has proved to be fatally deficient in some systems and difficult in all.

Lowry, L.L.

1980-09-01

379

Microwave sintering of W/Cu functionally graded materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fabricating W/Cu functionally graded materials (FGM) with fine microstructure and good properties is extremely significant in the development of fusion reactors as well as spallation neutron sources. The five-layered W/Cu FGM (W30% + Cu70%/W50% + Cu50%/W70% + Cu30%/W90% + Cu10%/W100%, volume fraction) were fabricated by a microwave sintering method in a short time (30 min). Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer analysis showed that the graded structure can be retained although the microwave sintering temperature was as high as 1300 °C (well above the melting temperature of Cu) and the fine microstructure of W in each layer can be also maintained due to the short sintering time. The overall relative density of the W/Cu FGM sample microwave-sintered at 1350 °C reaches 93% and the copper-rich layers are almost 100% dense. The thermal conductivity of the sample is about 200 W/mK at room temperature and decreases with increasing temperature.

Liu, R.; Hao, T.; Wang, K.; Zhang, T.; Wang, X. P.; Liu, C. S.; Fang, Q. F.

2012-12-01

380

Highly efficient resonant coupling of optical excitations in hybrid organic\\/inorganic semiconductor nanostructures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integration of organic and inorganic semiconductors on the nanoscale offers the possibility of developing new photonic devices that combine the best features of these two distinct classes of material. Such devices could, for example, benefit from the large oscillator strengths found in organic materials and the nonlinear optical properties of inorganic species. Here we describe a novel hybrid organic\\/inorganic

Qiang Zhang; Tolga Atay; Jonathan R. Tischler; M. Scott Bradley; Vladimir Bulovic; A. V. Nurmikko

2007-01-01

381

Self-assembly of organic-inorganic hybrid materials constructed from eight-connected coordination polymer hosts with nanotube channels and polyoxometalate guests as templates.  

PubMed

Two polyoxometalate-templated organic-inorganic hybrid porous frameworks, namely, [Cu2(H2O)2(bpp)2Cl][PM12O40].approximately 20H2O (for 1, M = W; for 2, M = Mo; bpp = 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane), were self-assembly obtained and structurally determined by elemental analyses, inductively coupled plasma analyses, infrared spectroscopy, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Single-crystal X-ray analysis of these crystals revealed that both of the structures are constructed from eight-connected three-dimensional coordination polymer hosts [Cu2(H2O)2(bpp)2Cl]n(3n+) and ball-shaped Keggin-type guests [PM12O40]n(3n-) as templates. The polymer hosts resulted from a bcc-type framework with nanotubes, and the nanotubes can be regarded as a tetra-stranded helix structure. Furthermore, compounds 1 and 2 exhibit photoluminescent properties at ambient temperature, and the compound 2 bulk-modified carbon paste electrode ( 2-CPE) displays good electrocatalytic activity toward the reduction of nitrite. PMID:18333612

Wang, Xiuli; Bi, Yanfeng; Chen, Baokuan; Lin, Hongyan; Liu, Guocheng

2008-03-12

382

Hybrid Inorganic/Organic Diblock Copolymers. Nanostructure in Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane Polymorbornenes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Our main approach to the synthesis and study of hybrid organic/ inorganic materials involves incorporating nano-size inorganic polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) clusters into various polymeric resins. A typical POSS cluster is a discrete silicon...

T. S. Haddad P. T. Mather H. G. Jeon S. B. Chun S. H. Phillips

2000-01-01

383

Electrohydrodynamic fabrication of inorganic and hybrid (organic-inorganic) fibers and core-shell structures with micro- and nanometric dimensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation describes the fabrication of inorganic and hybrid (organic-inorganic) fibers and core-shell spheres and tubes with micro and submicrometric dimensions. These structures resulted from the application of electrohydrodynamic forces to carefully aged, viscous sol-gel precursors. The contribution of Dr. Larsen and Dr. Dzenis (Engineering Mechanics, UNL) to the field was to extend the electrospinning technique to the inorganic materials

Raffet Velarde-Ortiz

2004-01-01

384

Assessment of tissue conditioning materials for functional impressions.  

PubMed

The validity of two types of tissue conditioning materials was studied and compared with that of two commonly used impression materials. The effect of three important factors on the accuracy of the impressions was observed. These factors were thickness of the impression material, time of compression of the impression, and the time interval before pouring the impression. A chrome-cobalt master cast was specially designed and 500 impressions were made and poured, resulting in 900 casts. Conclusions reached from this investigation were that: 1. Visco-Gel and Coe-Comfort tissue conditioning materials can be used as impression materials. 2. The dimensional accuracy of Visco-Gel is better than that of the Coe-Comfort impressions. 3. There is no significant difference between using a tray with a space of 1.5 mm or 3.0 mm for the impression material. 4. The less bulky the impression, the less time is required for compression with fewer inaccuracies. 5. It is preferable to pour the cast in the impression immediately or within 2 hours. 6. Both kinds of materials tested can be used as duplicating materials under certain conditions. PMID:290790

Razek, M K

1979-10-01

385

Organic materials for printed electronics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic materials can offer a low-cost alternative for printed electronics and flexible displays. However, research in these systems must exploit the differences - via molecular-level control of functionality - compared with inorganic electronics if they are to become commercially viable.

M. Berggren; D. Nilsson; N. D. Robinson

2007-01-01

386

Model dielectric functional of amorphous materials including Urbach tail  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A generalization of the Tauc-Lorentz model dielectric function of amorphous semiconductors and dielectrics is presented in which the exponential Urbach tail is included. The generalized parameterization of the optical functions includes only six fitting parameters. The real part of the dielectric function is calculated using analytical Kramers-Kronig dispersion relations. The model is applied to hydrogenated amorphous silicon.

Foldyna, Martin; Postava, Kamil; Bouchala, J.; Pistora, Jaromir; Yamaguchi, Tomuo

2004-04-01

387

Synthesis of nanostructured materials in inverse miniemulsions and their applications.  

PubMed

Polymeric nanogels, inorganic nanoparticles, and organic-inorganic hybrid nanoparticles can be prepared via the inverse miniemulsion technique. Hydrophilic functional cargos, such as proteins, DNA, and macromolecular fluoresceins, may be conveniently encapsulated in these nanostructured materials. In this review, the progress of inverse miniemulsions since 2000 is summarized on the basis of the types of reactions carried out in inverse miniemulsions, including conventional free radical polymerization, controlled/living radical polymerization, polycondensation, polyaddition, anionic polymerization, catalytic oxidation reaction, sol-gel process, and precipitation reaction of inorganic precursors. In addition, the applications of the nanostructured materials synthesized in inverse miniemulsions are also reviewed. PMID:24056795

Cao, Zhihai; Ziener, Ulrich

2013-09-12

388

Synthesis of nanostructured materials in inverse miniemulsions and their applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymeric nanogels, inorganic nanoparticles, and organic-inorganic hybrid nanoparticles can be prepared via the inverse miniemulsion technique. Hydrophilic functional cargos, such as proteins, DNA, and macromolecular fluoresceins, may be conveniently encapsulated in these nanostructured materials. In this review, the progress of inverse miniemulsions since 2000 is summarized on the basis of the types of reactions carried out in inverse miniemulsions, including conventional free radical polymerization, controlled/living radical polymerization, polycondensation, polyaddition, anionic polymerization, catalytic oxidation reaction, sol-gel process, and precipitation reaction of inorganic precursors. In addition, the applications of the nanostructured materials synthesized in inverse miniemulsions are also reviewed.

Cao, Zhihai; Ziener, Ulrich

2013-10-01

389

New and extended parameterization of the thermodynamic model AIOMFAC: calculation of activity coefficients for organic-inorganic mixtures containing carboxyl, hydroxyl, carbonyl, ether, ester, alkenyl, alkyl, and aromatic functional groups  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new and considerably extended parameterization of the thermodynamic activity coefficient model AIOMFAC (Aerosol Inorganic-Organic Mixtures Functional groups Activity Coefficients) at room temperature. AIOMFAC combines a Pitzer-like electrolyte solution model with a UNIFAC-based group-contribution approach and explicitly accounts for interactions between organic functional groups and inorganic ions. Such interactions constitute the salt-effect, may cause liquid-liquid phase separation, and affect the gas-particle partitioning of aerosols. The previous AIOMFAC version was parameterized for alkyl and hydroxyl functional groups of alcohols and polyols. With the goal to describe a wide variety of organic compounds found in atmospheric aerosols, we extend here the parameterization of AIOMFAC to include the functional groups carboxyl, hydroxyl, ketone, aldehyde, ether, ester, alkenyl, alkyl, aromatic carbon-alcohol, and aromatic hydrocarbon. Thermodynamic equilibrium data of organic-inorganic systems from the literature are critically assessed and complemented with new measurements to establish a comprehensive database. The database is used to determine simultaneously the AIOMFAC parameters describing interactions of organic functional groups with the ions H+, Li+, Na+, K+, NH4+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl-, Br-, NO3-, HSO4-, and SO42-. Detailed descriptions of different types of thermodynamic data, such as vapor-liquid, solid-liquid, and liquid-liquid equilibria, and their use for the model parameterization are provided. Issues regarding deficiencies of the database, types and uncertainties of experimental data, and limitations of the model, are discussed. The challenging parameter optimization problem is solved with a novel combination of powerful global minimization algorithms. A number of exemplary calculations for systems containing atmospherically relevant aerosol components are shown. Amongst others, we discuss aqueous mixtures of ammonium sulfate with dicarboxylic acids and with levoglucosan. Overall, the new parameterization of AIOMFAC agrees well with a large number of experimental datasets. However, due to various reasons, for certain mixtures important deviations can occur. The new parameterization makes AIOMFAC a versatile thermodynamic tool. It enables the calculation of activity coefficients of thousands of different organic compounds in organic-inorganic mixtures of numerous components. Models based on AIOMFAC can be used to compute deliquescence relative humidities, liquid-liquid phase separations, and gas-particle partitioning of multicomponent mixtures of relevance for atmospheric chemistry or in other scientific fields.

Zuend, A.; Marcolli, C.; Booth, A. M.; Lienhard, D. M.; Soonsin, V.; Krieger, U. K.; Topping, D. O.; McFiggans, G.; Peter, T.; Seinfeld, J. H.

2011-09-01

390

New and extended parameterization of the thermodynamic model AIOMFAC: calculation of activity coefficients for organic-inorganic mixtures containing carboxyl, hydroxyl, carbonyl, ether, ester, alkenyl, alkyl, and aromatic functional groups  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new and considerably extended parameterization of the thermodynamic activity coefficient model AIOMFAC (Aerosol Inorganic-Organic Mixtures Functional groups Activity Coefficients) at room temperature. AIOMFAC combines a Pitzer-like electrolyte solution model with a UNIFAC-based group-contribution approach and explicitly accounts for interactions between organic functional groups and inorganic ions. Such interactions constitute the salt-effect, may cause liquid-liquid phase separation, and affect the gas-particle partitioning of aerosols. The previous AIOMFAC version was parameterized for alkyl and hydroxyl functional groups of alcohols and polyols. With the goal to describe a wide variety of organic compounds found in atmospheric aerosols, we extend here the parameterization of AIOMFAC to include the functional groups carboxyl, hydroxyl, ketone, aldehyde, ether, ester, alkenyl, alkyl, aromatic carbon-alcohol, and aromatic hydrocarbon. Thermodynamic equilibrium data of organic-inorganic systems from the literature are critically assessed and complemented with new measurements to establish a comprehensive database. The database is used to determine simultaneously the AIOMFAC parameters describing interactions of organic functional groups with the ions H+, Li+, Na+, K+, NH4+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl-, Br-, NO3-, HSO4-, and SO42-. Detailed descriptions of different types of thermodynamic data, such as vapor-liquid, solid-liquid, and liquid-liquid equilibria, and their use for the model parameterization are provided. Issues regarding deficiencies of the database, types and uncertainties of experimental data, and limitations of the model, are discussed. The challenging parameter optimization problem is solved with a novel combination of powerful global minimization algorithms. A number of exemplary calculations for systems containing atmospherically relevant aerosol components are shown. Amongst others, we discuss aqueous mixtures of ammonium sulfate with dicarboxylic acids and with levoglucosan. Overall, the new parameterization of AIOMFAC agrees well with a large number of experimental datasets. However, due to various reasons, for certain mixtures important deviations can occur. The new parameterization makes AIOMFAC a versatile thermodynamic tool. It enables the calculation of activity coefficients of thousands of different organic compounds in organic-inorganic mixtures of numerous components. Models based on AIOMFAC can be used to compute deliquescence relative humidities, liquid-liquid phase separations, and gas-particle partitioning of multicomponent mixtures of relevance for atmospheric chemistry or in other scientific fields.

Zuend, A.; Marcolli, C.; Booth, A. M.; Lienhard, D. M.; Soonsin, V.; Krieger, U. K.; Topping, D. O.; McFiggans, G.; Peter, T.; Seinfeld, J. H.

2011-05-01

391

Functional Nanofibers via Electospinning: New Materials and Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cyclodextrins are fascinating, amphiphilic molecules that are of considerable interest due to their ability to be used in a variety of applications ranging from pharmaceuticals and cosmetics to foods and agriculture. These are ring-shaped sugar molecules possess a hydrophobic cavity and a hydrophilic exterior which imparts them water solubility. There are three main types of naturally occurring cyclodextrins namely alpha-, beta- and gamma- CD which have 6, 7 and 8 member rings, respectively. Owing to their hydrophobic interior, cyclodextrin molecules encapsulate hydrophobic guest molecules (from small to macromolecules) to form host-guest supermolecular structures. Chemically modified CDs are often preferred to the natural forms, particularly methylated (MbetaCD) and hydroxypropylated (HPbetaCD) cyclodextrins, for their enhanced solubility and chemical stability. Electrostatic spinning (electrospinning) of nanofibers has drawn significant research attention in recent decades. This technique involves the stretching of a polymer solution or melt in a high electric field to produce fibers on the nanoscale. These 1-Dimensional nanostructures possess extraordinary surface-to-weight ratio and find applications that vary from filtration membranes and tissue scaffolding materials to drug delivery and many others. The scope of this research attempts to leverage the unique features of CDs with the high aspect ratio of nanofibers to create functional nanomaterials. The present study can be divided into three sections. In the first part, we establish that CDs can be electrospun without the need for a "carrier" polymer. This discovery may serve to extend the horizon of what is currently considered "electrospinnable" from macromolecules now to small molecules. The ability to electrospin CDs led to their incorporation of other polymers to create bicomponent fibers with poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and polyacrylonitrile (PAN). In the case of PVA we demonstrate the ability to not only to control the fiber properties based on PVA/CD ratio, but also crosslink these fibers to create water resistant fiber mats. Furthermore, the use of these fibers as rapid dissolving membranes for drug delivery is explored. Additionally, CDs are investigated for use as a porogen for PAN and carbon fibers. We find that CDs are particularly good candidates for us as porogens due to their amorphous nature and versatility to be dissolved in various solvent system. By nature, solution electrospinning is a low-throughput, solvent intensive process. In the last part we attempt to alleviate this issue by designing an extrusion based melt electrospinning device. We show that submicron fibers of polycaprolactone are possible through this technique without the use of organic solvents.

Manasco, Joshua Lee

392

Preparation and use of hybrid organic–inorganic catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various approaches towards the immobilization of molecular homogeneous catalysts are introduced, focusing on catalysts where an organic molecule is attached to the surface of an inorganic support material via a covalent bond forming the so-called hybrid organic–inorganic catalysts. The application of this new class of catalysts in a wide variety of organic reactions is reviewed.

Michael H. Valkenberg; Wolfgang F. Hölderich

2002-01-01

393

Overview of analytical methods for inorganic constituents in coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental legislation has had significant impact on coal utilization, especially coal combustion for power generation, in limiting emissions of potentially hazardous materials to the environment. For the most part, such emissions derive from the inorganic constituents in coal. However, as such legislation becomes ever more encompassing, it has increased the need to understand better the behavior of the inorganic species

Frank E Huggins

2002-01-01

394

Functional resist materials for negative tone development in advanced lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Challenges of lithography performance, dry etch resistance, and substrate dependency in resist materials dedicated to negative tone development (NTD) process were studied. The gamma-parameter in contrast curve was increased to achieve improvement in lithography performances, and CD-uniformity (CDU), DOF, and circularity of dense C/H pattern were studied for the resist material. Ohnishi-parameter of de-protected polymer was decreased to improve dry etch resistance, and dissolution property and lithography performance were studied to look at maturity of materials. Formulation dependency on pattern collapse property on spin-on-type Si-hard mask (Si-HM) were studied, and material property to suppress pattern collapse was discussed.

Tarutani, Shinji; Fujii, Kana; Yamamoto, Kei; Iwato, Kaoru; Shirakawa, Michihiro

2012-03-01

395

Keisha Kino Zairyo Deta Besu No Sakusei (Making of Functionally Gradient Materials Data Base).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to satisfy the severe requirements for super heat resistant materials to be used in spaceplanes or nuclear fusion reactors, the functionally gradient materials (FGM), which use ceramics on the high temperature side and metals on the low temperatu...

T. Sudo K. Kisara A. Moro M. Niino Y. Ishibashi

1990-01-01

396

Functionally-Graded NPR (Negative Poisson's Ratio) Material for a Blast- Protective Deflector.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A functionally-graded NPR (Negative Poisson's Ratio) material concept has been developed for a critical Army application - blast protection. The objective is to develop a combined computational design methodology and innovative structural-material concept...

C. Sun G. M. Hulbert H. Bian K. Bishnoi Z. Ma

2010-01-01

397

PREFACE: 3rd International Symposium on Functional Materials 2009 (ISFM 2009) 3rd International Symposium on Functional Materials 2009 (ISFM 2009)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 3rd International Symposium on Functional Materials 2009 (ISFM 2009) and its preconference, Advances in Functional Materials 2009 (AFM 2009), were successfully held in the Republic of Korea from 15-18 June 2009 and in the People's Republic of China from 8-12 June 2009, respectively. The two conferences attracted over 300 oral and poster presentations from over 12 countries including Australia,

Kim Kiwon; Lu Li; Nam Taehyun; Ahn Jouhyeon

2010-01-01

398

Nanomoulding of functional materials, a versatile complementary pattern replication method to nanoimprinting.  

PubMed

We describe a nanomoulding technique which allows low-cost nanoscale patterning of functional materials, materials stacks and full devices. Nanomoulding combined with layer transfer enables the replication of arbitrary surface patterns from a master structure onto the functional material. Nanomoulding can be performed on any nanoimprinting setup and can be applied to a wide range of materials and deposition processes. In particular we demonstrate the fabrication of patterned transparent zinc oxide electrodes for light trapping applications in solar cells. PMID:23380874

Battaglia, Corsin; Söderström, Karin; Escarré, Jordi; Haug, Franz-Josef; Despeisse, Matthieu; Ballif, Christophe

2013-01-23

399

Photophysical properties of a novel organic-inorganic hybrid material: Eu(III)-?-diketone complex covalently bonded to SiO(2) /ZnO composite matrix.  

PubMed

In this article, dibenzoylmethane (DBM) was first grafted with the coupling reagent 3-(triethoxysilyl)-propyl isocyanate (TESPIC) to form precursor DBM-Si, and ZnO quantum dot was modified with 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS) to form SiO(2) /ZnO nanocomposite particle. Then the precursor DBM-Si and the terminal ligand 1,10-phenthroline (phen) were coordinated to Eu(3+) ion to obtain ternary hybrid material phen-Eu-DBM-SiO(2) /ZnO after hydrolysis and copolycondensation between the tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), water molecules and the SiO(2) /ZnO network via the sol-gel process. In addition, for comparison, the binary hybrid material with SiO(2) /ZnO network and ternary hybrid material with pure Si-O network were also synthesized, denoted as Eu-DBM-SiO(2) /ZnO and phen-Eu-DBM-Si, respectively. The results reveal that hybrid material with SiO(2) /ZnO network phen-Eu-DBM-SiO(2) /ZnO exhibits the stronger red light, the longer lifetimes and higher quantum efficiency than hybrid material with pure Si-O network phen-Eu-DBM-Si, suggesting that SiO(2) /ZnO is a favorable host matrix for the luminescence of rare earth complexes. PMID:20553415

Li, Ya-Juan; Yan, Bing

400

Effect of co-sensitization in new hybrid photo-refractive materials based on PVK polymer matrix and inorganic LiNbO3 nano-crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new class of photo-refractive (PR) composite materials based on poly( N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) (co-)sensitized with nano-crystalline lithium niobate (LiNbO3) is presented. The steady-state performance, as well as the kinetics of the photo-refractive grating formation, was investigated by degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) and two-beam-coupling (TBC) experiments. We found an optimum content of LiNbO3 nano-particles of only 10-3 wt.%. Even at concentrations as low as 10-7 wt.% a notable effect of the nano-crystals was detected. This yields materials with improved PR performance compared to that of the standard PR polymer material sensitized by TNF only. The role of LiNbO3 nano-particles is discussed in detail: The particles support generation and transport of the free-charge carriers. Furthermore, they increase the electron trap density.

?liwi?ska, E.; Mansurova, S.; Hartwig, U.; Buse, K.; Meerholz, K.

2009-06-01

401

Functional tolerancing: Virtual material condition on complex junctions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In industry, functional tolerancing of mechanisms is today more and more based on ISO GPS (Geometrical Product Specification) and ASME standards. In this context, the CLIC method (French acronym for “Cotation en Localisation avec Influence des Contacts”) has been developed in our laboratory since 1998. The method describes the complete process involved in functional tolerancing. The three dimensional calculation of

Robin Chavanne; Bernard Anselmetti

402

Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings. Volume 724. Biological and Biomimetic Materials - Properties to Function.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partial contents: Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings. Extracellular Matrix Molecules Involved in Barnacle Shell Mineralization. Molecular Mechanism of Bacterial Magnetite Formation and Its Application. Mechanical and Microstructural Properti...

C. A. Orme J. Aizenberg J. M. McKittrick

2002-01-01

403

Tailoring organic/inorganic interfaces by surface grafting molecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic/inorganic hybrid interfaces are integral part of many existing and emerging electronic and optoelectronic devices. Surface grafting of organic molecules on inorganic surfaces is one way of imparting greater functionality and stability to the interface and also optimizing the electronic/optical characteristics of the device. Central to the design and preparation of these organic layers on surfaces is to understand the factors which control structural and electronic properties at interfaces. In this dissertation, we present the design and synthesis of both small molecules and macromolecules and develop new grafting methods that can be generalized to a wide range of functional organic materials and inorganic oxides. We probe the chemical, structural, and electronic properties of the grafted surfaces by using a combination of surface-sensitive techniques and device-like structures. The highlights of each chapter in this dissertation are provided as follows. First, we exploit the sensitivity of this interface by first grafting Disperse Red 19 (DR19), a dipolar molecule possessing a permanent dipole, on SiO2 to control the charge carrier density in pentacene- and C60-based field effect transistors (FETs). From this study, we demonstrate that a reconfigurable molecular layer at the electronic interface can be potentially incorporated in sensing devices or used as active layers that detect very small changes in response to external stimuli. Second, we study how the chemical nature of the molecular bridge affects the electron transfer kinetics by surface grafting of rhenium-bipyridine dyes on TiO 2 nanocrystalline films. Modulating the electron injection through tailored molecular bridges is the basis for designing high-yielding, fast electron injectors and charge transfer interfaces for many optoelectronic devices. Third, we develop a new grafting strategy to create stable organic layers on a range of oxides while incorporating highly functional groups in the organic moiety. Lastly, we outline a synthetic method to graft poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) brushes on the SiO2 surface. The grafting strategies developed in this dissertation will provide a means for creating stable, functional organic/inorganic interfaces through a chemical linkage and tremendously expand the functionality of the materials available to form these interfaces.

Paoprasert, Peerasak

404

Superhydrophobic graphene-based materials: surface construction and functional applications.  

PubMed

Many naturally occurring surfaces have superhydrophobicity that fulfils their functional demands, which has inspired considerable interest to develop similar artificial superhydrophobic surfaces with a variety of functionalities. Graphene is an ideal candidate for functional superhydrophobic surfaces due to its exceptional physicochemical properties. The recent advances in this emerging field are summarized, including the wetting behavior of water on graphene and the formation of crumpling/nanoparticle/foam-induced hierarchical structures, with emphasis on fundamental understanding for related processes. The potential applications in energy, environmental remediation, and thermal management are also discussed. PMID:24089354

Chen, Zhongxin; Dong, Lei; Yang, Dong; Lu, Hongbin

2013-09-02

405

Using biological inspiration to engineer functional nanostructured materials.  

PubMed

Humans have always looked to nature for design inspiration, and material design on the molecular level is no different. Here we explore how this idea applies to nanoscale biomimicry, specifically examining both recent advances and our own work on engineering lipid and polymer membrane systems with cellular processes. PMID:17192981

Wendell, David W; Patti, Jordan; Montemagno, Carlo D

2006-11-01

406

High-performance transparent inorganic-organic hybrid thin-film n-type transistors  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-performance thin-film transistors (TFTs) that can be fabricated at low temperature and are mechanically flexible, optically transparent and compatible with diverse substrate materials are of great current interest. To function at low biases to minimize power consumption, such devices must also contain a high-mobility semiconductor and\\/or a high-capacitance gate dielectric. Here we report transparent inorganic-organic hybrid n-type TFTs fabricated at

Lian Wang; Myung-Han Yoon; Gang Lu; Yu Yang; Antonio Facchetti; Tobin J. Marks

2006-01-01

407

Materials Assembly and Formation Using Engineered Polypeptides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular biomimetics can be defined as mimicking function, synthesis, or structure of materials and systems at the molecular scale using biological pathways. Here, inorganic-binding polypeptides are used as molecular building blocks to control assembly and formation of functional inorganic and hybrid materials and systems for nano- and nanobiotechnology applications. These polypeptides are selected via phage or cell surface display technologies and modified by molecular biology to tailor their binding and multifunctionality properties. The potential of this approach in creating new materials systems with useful physical and biological properties is enormous. This mostly stems from molecular recognition and self-assembly characteristics of the polypeptides plus the added advantage of genetic manipulation of their composition and structure. In this review, we highlight the basic premises of molecular biomimetics, describe the approaches in selecting and engineering inorganic-binding polypeptides, and present examples of their utility as molecular linkers in current and future applications.

Sarikaya, Mehmet; Tamerler, Candan; Schwartz, Daniel T.; Baneyx, Francois

2004-08-01

408

Towards the dynamics of the temperature field gradient in a layer of an inorganic material under radiation heating according to the data of experiments and numerical modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the process of temperature field formation in a layer of a weakly conducting medium with the example of wood and green moss under irradiation of one side with an energy flux and contact heat removal through the opposite back surface of the material onto an asbestos-cement support. The experimental results were compared with the data calculated on the basis of the relations of nonstationary heat transfer in the approximations of closeness and openness of the system. The conditions for heat removal suppression have been concretized and the role of the energy exchange under the prolonged action of radiant energy for estimating the thermal stability parameters of related materials has been elucidated. The obtained data can be used to control radiant fluxes in treating wood, for effective heating of living and industrial premises, improving the methods for opposing high energy fluxes, and preventing the propagation of fire in inhabited localities and in park and forest zones.

Sobol, V. R.; Goman, P. N.; Mazurenko, O. N.

2012-05-01

409

Path Planning and Control of Functionally graded Materials for Rapid Tooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid tooling (RT) has recently become more important due to the requirement of rapid manufacturing. RT can manufacture stronger mold and functional component than rapid prototyping (RP) does. Besides, functional component and production are valued gradually. Functionally graded materials (FGM) technology is proposed to apply to functional component. This study aims to propose a new path planning, contour path method,

Ren C. Luo; Yen Lin Pan; Chen Jun Wang; Zhong Hong Huang

2006-01-01

410

Inorganic Halogen Oxidizers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

New covalent inorganic perchlorates were prepared from chlorine perchlorate. The compound I(ClO4)3 was partially characterized and N(ClO4)3 deduced as a primary reaction product. CsI(ClO4)4 was synthesized. The action of ClSO3F and I2 produces a variety o...

C. J. Schack D. Pilipovich K. O. Christe R. D. Wilson

1971-01-01

411

High functionality of a polymer nanocomposite material for MEMS applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present on a carbon nanoparticle-filled SU-8 photosensitive polymer nanocomposite for use in microelectromechanical systems\\u000a (MEMS) or microsystems. Exposure and fabrication of the material was carried out using X-ray lithography. The polymer nanocomposite\\u000a was studied for its electrical, thermal and mechanical characteristics. It was found that at low filler weight percentages,\\u000a the SU-8 polymer became electrically and thermally conductive. A

Fareed Dawan; Yoonyoung Jin; Jost Goettert; Samuel Ibekwe

2008-01-01

412

Materials for Hydrogen Storage: From Complex Hydrides to Functionalized Nanostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The world wide effort for a transition to renewable and clean (i.e. carbon-free) form of energy has resulted in an upsurge of interest in harnessing and utilizing Hydrogen. Apart from being the most abundant element in the universe, hydrogen offers many advantages over other fuels: it is non-toxic, clean to use, and packs more energy per mass than any other fuel. Hydrogen energy production, storage and distribution constitute a multi-disciplinary area of research. Coming to the material issues for solid state storage of hydrogen, the most desirable criteria are high storage capacity, satisfactory kinetics, and optimal thermodynamics. Complex hydrides involving light metals, such as Alanates, Imides, Borates, Amidoboranes etc. show impressive gravimetric efficiencies, although the hydrogen desorption temperatures turn out to be rather high. Apart from complex hydrides, there are other kinds of novel materials that have been investigated, e.g. carbon based materials activated with nano-catalysts, clathrate hydrates, metal-organic complexes, and more recently nanostructured cages viz. fullerenes and nanotubes decorated with simple or transition metals that serve to attract hydrogen in molecular form. In this talk, after giving a broad overview on hydrogen economy, I shall focus on first-principles design of materials for hydrogen storage, from complex hydrides to various kinds of functinalized nanostructures, and discuss the recent results obtained in our laboratory [1-6]. Some outstanding issues and challenges, like how to circumvent the problem of metal clustering on surface, or how to bring down the hydrogen desorption temperature etc. will be discussed.

Das, G. P.

2011-07-01

413

Enhanced Functionality for Materials Analysis in the DTEM  

SciTech Connect

The recent explosion in the use of pump–probe studies on the picosecond timescale to investigate structural and electronic phase transitions and the dynamics of chemical reactions has been based largely on laser–induced reactions coupled with laser interrogation techniques, or on laser induced reactions coupled with synchrotron radiation interrogation techniques. Much less attention has been given to approaches based on laser–induced (or electron–beam–induced) reactions coupled with electron interrogation methods, despite the fact that electron sources are brighter, and their interactions with matter stronger (thereby giving higher signal levels). The use of electrons as probes has great potential to study complex transient events not only because of the possible high temporal resolution using ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) but also the potential for high spatial resolution using dynamic transmission electron microscopy (DTEM). Taking this potential of electron interrogation methods and turning it into a routine nanoscale characterization technique requires several key aspects of the instrumentation used for electron microscopy/diffraction to be optimized. In this proposal, several approaches to instrument optimization for DTEM and UED (to be performed in the same instrument) will be addressed. The new instrumentation developments will be used to study the dynamics of strongly driven materials, aging and corrosion in structural materials, as well as the nanoscale structural properties of other materials systems. In addition to providing new instrument capabilities (the technology for which will be transferred to the DTEM at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)) and fundamental insights into the dynamic properties of materials, the interaction between 3 universities (University of California-Davis, University of Illinois at Chicago and Arizona State University) and 2 national laboratories (LLNL and Sandia National Laboratory) will help train the next generation of students in areas of relevance to the stockpile stewardship.

Nigel D. Browning

2008-04-28

414

Taking the trivial doctrine seriously: Functionalism, eliminativism, and materialism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gold & Stoljar's characterization of the trivial doctrine and of its relationships with the radical one misses some differences that may be crucial. The radical doctrine can be read as a derivative of the computational version of functionalism that provides the backbone of current cognitive science and is fundamentally uninter- ested in biology: both doctrines are fundamentally wrong. The synthesis

Maurizio Tirassa

1999-01-01

415

Materials Design and Discovery with High-Throughput Density Functional Theory: The Open Quantum Materials Database (OQMD)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-throughput density functional theory (HT DFT) is fast becoming a powerful tool for accelerating materials design and discovery by the amassing tens and even hundreds of thousands of DFT calculations in large databases. Complex materials problems can be approached much more efficiently and broadly through the sheer quantity of structures and chemistries available in such databases. Our HT DFT database, the Open Quantum Materials Database (OQMD), contains over 200,000 DFT calculated crystal structures and will be freely available for public use at http://oqmd.org. In this review, we describe the OQMD and its use in five materials problems, spanning a wide range of applications and materials types: (I) Li-air battery combination catalyst/electrodes, (II) Li-ion battery anodes, (III) Li-ion battery cathode coatings reactive with HF, (IV) Mg-alloy long-period stacking ordered (LPSO) strengthening precipitates, and (V) training a machine learning model to predict new stable ternary compounds.

Saal, James E.; Kirklin, Scott; Aykol, Muratahan; Meredig, Bryce; Wolverton, C.

2013-09-01

416

Nanostructured multifunctional electromagnetic materials from the guest-host inorganic-organic hybrid ternary system of a polyaniline-clay-polyhydroxy iron composite: preparation and properties.  

PubMed

A nanostructured electromagnetic polyaniline-polyhydroxy iron-clay composite (PPIC) was prepared by oxidative radical emulsion polymerization of aniline in the presence of polyhydroxy iron cation (PIC) intercalated clays. Morphological observation through SEM, TEM, and AFM suggested the formation of self-assembled nanospheres of PIC with self-assembled PANI engulfed over PIC, and the presence of iron in PPIC was confirmed by the EDS analysis. XRD studies revealed that PPIC are comprised of exfoliated clay layers with PIC in the distorted spinel structure. Magnetic property measurements showed that saturation magnetization increased from 7.3 x 10(-3) to 2.5 emu/g upon varying the amount of PHIC content from 0 to 10%. Electrical conductivity measurements with the same composition were observed to be in the range of 3.0 x 10(-2) to 1.1 S/cm. Thermal stability studies using TGA in combination with DTG suggested that PPICs were thermally stable up to 350 degrees C. The interaction among clay layers, PIC, and PANI chains in PPIC were manifested from the studies made by FTIR and DSC analysis. The prospects for the direct application of this material are developing low-cost chemical sensors and also processable electromagnetic interference shielding materials for high technological applications. PMID:20136090

Reena, Viswan L; Pavithran, Chorappan; Verma, Vivek; Sudha, Janardhanan D

2010-03-01

417

Functionally Graded Designer Viscoelastic Materials Tailored to Perform Prescribed Tasks with Probabilistic Failures and Lifetimes  

SciTech Connect

Protocols are developed for formulating optimal viscoelastic designer functionally graded materials tailored to best respond to prescribed loading and boundary conditions. In essence, an inverse approach is adopted where material properties instead of structures per se are designed and then distributed throughout structural elements. The final measure of viscoelastic material efficacy is expressed in terms of failure probabilities vs. survival time000.

Hilton, Harry H. [Aerospace Engineering Department, Technology Research, Education and Commercialization Center, National Center for Supercomputing Applications, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 104 South Wright Street, MC-236 Urbana, IL 61801-2935 (United States)

2008-02-15

418

Transient thermal stress analysis of an edge crack in a functionally graded material  

Microsoft Academic Search

An edge crack in a strip of a functionally graded material (FGM) is studied under transient thermal loading conditions. The FGM is assumed having constant Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio, but the thermal properties of the material vary along the thickness direction of the strip. Thus the material is elastically homogeneous but thermally nonhomogeneous. This kind of FGMs include some

Z.-H. Jin; Glaucio H. Paulino

2001-01-01

419

Transient thermal stress analysis of an edge crack in a functionally graded material  

Microsoft Academic Search

An edge crack in a strip of a functionally graded material (FGM) is studied under transient thermal loading conditions. The FGM is assumed having constant Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio, but the thermal properties of the material vary along the thickness direction of the strip. Thus the material is elastically homoge- neous but thermally nonhomogeneous. This kind of FGMs include

Z.-H. JIN; GLAUCIO H. PAULINO

2001-01-01

420