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1

Crystallization and functionality of inorganic materials  

SciTech Connect

In this article, we briefly summarized our recent work on the studies of crystallization and functionality of inorganic materials. On the basis of the chemical bonding theory of single crystal growth, we can quantitatively simulate Cu{sub 2}O crystallization processes in solution system. We also kinetically controlled Cu{sub 2}O crystallization process in the reduction solution route. Lithium ion battery and supercapacitor performances of some oxides such as Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} and MnO{sub 2} were shown to elucidate the important effect of crystallization on functionality of inorganic materials. This work encourages us to create novel functionalities through the study of crystallization of inorganic materials, which warrants more chances in the field of functional materials.

Xue, Dongfeng, E-mail: dongfeng@ciac.jl.cn [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China) [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Li, Keyan [School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Liu, Jun [Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials and Application Technology, Ministry of Education, Faculty of Materials, Optoelectronics and Physics, Xiangtan University, 411105 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials and Application Technology, Ministry of Education, Faculty of Materials, Optoelectronics and Physics, Xiangtan University, 411105 (China); Sun, Congting; Chen, Kunfeng [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China) [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

2012-10-15

2

Functionalization of linen/cotton pigment prints using inorganic nano structure materials.  

PubMed

The present work opens up a novel strategy for the development of new multifunctional cellulosic pigment prints. The developed process aims at modifying the solvent-free pigment printing formulations via inclusion of certain inorganic nano materials namely silver (Ag-NPs), zinc oxide (ZnO-NPs), zirconium oxide (ZrO?-NPs) or titanium dioxide (TiO?-NPs) at 20 g/kg paste followed by screen printing and microwave fixation. The imparted functional properties together with the depth of the obtained prints are governed by the type of nano additives, type of binder and the pigment colorant. The imparted antibacterial and/or UV protection properties to the pigment prints were retained with an acceptable level (>70%) of durability even after 20 washing cycles. The presence of nano materials on the surface of the obtained pigment prints was confirmed using SEM images and EDX spectra. PMID:23911482

Ibahim, N A; Eid, B M; Abd El-Aziz, E; Abou Elmaaty, T M

2013-09-12

3

Inorganic materials using 'unusual' microorganisms.  

PubMed

A promising avenue of research in materials science is to follow the strategies used by Mother Nature to fabricate ornate hierarchical structures as exemplified by organisms such as diatoms, sponges and magnetotactic bacteria. Some of the strategies used in the biological world to create functional inorganic materials may well have practical implications in the world of nanomaterials. Therefore, the strive towards exploring nature's ingenious work for designing strategies to create inorganic nanomaterials in our laboratories has led to development of biological and biomimetic synthesis routes over the past decade or so. A large proportion of these relentless efforts have explored the use of those microorganisms, which are typically not known to encounter these inorganic materials in their natural environment. Therefore, one can consider these microorganisms as 'unusual' for the purpose for which they have been utilized - it is in this context that this review has been penned down. In this extensive review, we discuss the use of these 'unusual' microorganisms for deliberate biosynthesis of various nanomaterials including biominerals, metals, sulfides and oxides nanoparticles. In addition to biosynthesis approach, we have also discussed a bioleaching approach, which can provide a noble platform for room-temperature synthesis of inorganic nanomaterials using naturally available raw materials. Moreover, the unique properties and functionalities displayed by these biogenic inorganic materials have been discussed, wherever such properties have been investigated previously. Finally, towards the end of this review, we have made efforts to summarize the common outcomes of the biosynthesis process and draw conclusions, which provide a perspective on the current status of the biosynthesis research field and highlights areas where future research in this field should be directed to realize the full potential of biological routes towards nanomaterials synthesis. Furthermore, the review clearly demonstrates that the biological route to inorganic materials synthesis is not merely an addition to the existing list of synthesis routes; biological routes using 'unusual' microorganisms might in fact provide an edge over other nanomaterials synthesis routes in terms of their eco-friendliness, low energy intensiveness, and economically-viable synthesis. This review has significant importance for colloids and interface science since it underpins the synthesis of colloidal materials using 'unusual' microorganism, wherein the role of biological interfaces for controlled synthesis of technologically important nanomaterials is clearly evident. PMID:22818492

Bansal, Vipul; Bharde, Atul; Ramanathan, Rajesh; Bhargava, Suresh K

2012-11-01

4

Inorganic fullerene-like material as additives to lubricants: structure–function relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, inorganic fullerene-like (IF) supramolecules of metal dichalcogenide MX2 (M=Mo, W, etc.; X=S, Se), materials with structures closely related to (nested) carbon fullerenes and nanotubes have been synthesized. The main goal of the present work was to study the tribological properties of IF–WS2 in comparison to 2H–WS2 and MoS2 platelets over a wide range of loads and sliding velocities. The

L Rapoport; Y Feldman; M Homyonfer; H Cohen; J Sloan; J. L Hutchison; R Tenne

1999-01-01

5

Bridged polysilsesquioxanes: Hybrid organic-inorganic materials as fuel cell polyelectrolyte membranes and functional nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation describes the design, fabrication, and characterization of organic-inorganic hybrid materials. Several classes of bridged polysilsesquioxanes are presented. The first class is a membrane material suitable for fuel cell technology as a proton conducting polyelectrolyte. The second class includes hybrid nanoparticles for display device applications and chromatographic media. Chapter 1 is an introduction to hybrid organic-inorganic materials. Sol-gel chemistry is discussed, followed by a survey of prominent examples of silica hybrids. Examples of physical organic-silica blends and covalent organo-silicas, including ORMOCERSRTM, polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes, and bridged polysilsesquioxanes are discussed. Bridged polysilsesquioxanes are described in great detail. Monomer synthesis, sol-gel chemistry, processing, characterization, and physical properties are included. Chapter 2 describes the design of polyelectrolyte bridged polysilsesquioxane membranes. The materials contain covalently bound sulfonic acid groups originating from the corresponding disulfides. These organic-inorganic hybrid materials integrate a network supporting component which is systematically changed to fine-tune their physical properties. The membranes are characterized as PEM fuel cell electrolytes, where proton conductivities of 4-6 mS cm-1 were measured. In Chapter 3 techniques for the preparation of bridged polysilsesquioxane nanoparticles are described. An inverse water-in-oil microemulsion polymerization method is developed to prepare cationic nanoparticles, including viologen-bridged materials with applications in electrochromic display devices. An aqueous ammonia system is used to prepare neutral nanoparticles containing hydrocarbon bridging groups, which have potential applications as chromatographic media. Chapter 4 describes electrochromic devices developed in collaboration with the Heflin group of Virginia Tech, which incorporate viologen bridged nanoparticles described in Chapter 3. The devices are prepared via the layer-by-layer deposition technique and characterized by voltammetry and transmission spectroscopy. Contrast ratios between yellow and violet states were 45-50% with switching times of 3-3.5 seconds. Finally, Appendix I describes the resolution of racemic 3,3.3',3'-Tetramethyl-1,1"-spirobisindane-5,5',6,6'-tetrol by diastereomeric complex formation with (8S,9R)-(-)-N-benzylcinchonidinium chloride. Enantiomerically pure bisspirocatechol is used to prepare a chiral polymer, which exhibits differences in solid state packing from polymer made with the racemic monomer. Preliminary results on the use of the chiral polymer in enantioselective membrane separations technology are described.

Khiterer, Mariya

6

Hybrid organic-inorganic materials based on poly(o-phenylenediamine) and polyoxometallate functionalized carbon nanotubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical polymerization of o-phenylenediamine (OPD) on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in the presence of phosphomolybdic acid (H 3PMo 12O 40xH 2O) has been studied by surface enhanced resonant Raman scattering (SERRS) spectroscopy. One demonstrates that an organic-inorganic hybrid composite of the type poly(o-phenylenediamine)/polyoxometallate-functionalized SWCNTs is produced by the chemical interaction between polyoxometallate-functionalized SWCNTs and poly(o-phenylenediamine) (POPD) doped with [H 2PMo 12O 40] - ions. According to TEM investigations, a result of the chemical interaction of SWCNT with H 3PMo 12O 40xH 2O is the formation into the composite mass of tube fragments of shorter length, which behave like closed shell fullerenes since Raman fingerprint is given by lines situated at 240-275 and 1450-1472 cm -1. The chemical polymerization of OPD on SWCNTs achieved in the absence of H 3PMo 12O 40xH 2O leads to a covalent functionalization of the wall side of the tubes, which is revealed in Raman spectra, recorded at the excitation wavelength of 514 nm, by an enhancement of the lines associated with the tangential vibrational modes of SWCNTs. Using FTIR spectroscopy, significant hindrance steric effects are evidenced in the POPD/polyoxometallate-functionalized SWCNT composite.

Baibarac, M.; Baltog, I.; Smaranda, I.; Scocioreanu, M.; Lefrant, S.

2011-01-01

7

Sonochemical synthesis of inorganic materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methods of synthesis of highly dispersed inorganic materials based on the use of ultrasonic treatment are considered. Particular attention is paid to current trends in sonochemistry, namely, ultrasonic hydrothermal treatment and high-temperature ultrasonic processing of liquid- and solid-phase systems.

Baranchikov, Aleksandr Y.; Ivanov, Vladimir K.; Tretyakov, Yuri D.

2007-02-01

8

Geological and inorganic materials. [Review  

SciTech Connect

This review discusses publications describing methods for analysis of geological and inorganic materials during the period November 1982 through November 1984. The topical boundaries of the inorganic and geological materials are somewhat diffuse since closely related topics are reviewed in both the fundamental and application reviews. Articles of particular interest may be found in the reviews of air pollution, ferrous analysis, fuels, surface characterization, and water analysis in the application reviews and many of the fundamental reviews especially sampling, emission spectrometry, atomic adsorption and flame emission spectrophotometry, mass spectrometry, x-ray spectrometry, and surface analysis. The citations of this review may well, by necessity, include some of those listed in other reviews, but for the most part they have been selected from the many thousands available to give the reader an overview of recent advances in each specialty reviewed together with mentions of particularly interesting specific or specialized contributions. 212 references.

Moore, C.B.; Canepa, J.A.

1985-04-01

9

Plasma chemistry for inorganic materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Practical application of plasma chemistry to the development of inorganic materials using both low temperature and warm plasmas are summarized. Topics cover: the surface nitrification and oxidation of metals; chemical vapor deposition; formation of minute oxide particles; the composition of oxides from chloride vapor; the composition of carbides and nitrides; freezing high temperature phases by plasma arc welding and plasma jet; use of plasma in the development of a substitute for petroleum; the production of silicon for use in solar cell batteries; and insulating the inner surface of nuclear fusion reactor walls.

Matsumoto, O.

1980-01-01

10

High Temperature Thermochemistry of Inorganic Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The high temperature thermochemistry of inorganic materials naturally falls into three principal but related areas of research: Heat of Mixing Calorimetry, Solution Calorimetry, and Reaction Calorimetry of Solids. A brief survey will be presented of the d...

O. J. Kleppa

1977-01-01

11

Inorganic-organic materials incorporating alumoxane nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemically functionalized alumina nanoparticles (carboxylate-alumoxanes) are used as the inorganic component of a new class of inorganic-organic material. Lysine- or para-hydroxybenzoic acid-derivatized alumoxanes are prepared from the reaction of boehmite, [Al(O)(OH)]n, with the appropriate carboxylic acid. The peripheral hydroxides and amines of these alumoxanes react directly with DER 332 epoxide to form a hybrid material, or in the presence of a resin and hardener system, to form a composite material. Solid state NMR spectroscopy demonstrates that the alumoxanes are chemically bound to the resin matrix. The properties and cure times of the alumoxane materials are distinct from both the pure resins and from a physical blend of the resins with traditional fillers. A significant increase in thermal stability and tensile strength is observed for the resin systems. In order to produce molecular coupling layers, epoxides cross-linked with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) grown on the native oxide of aluminum thin films on silicon substrates have been investigated. Specifically, SAMs have been formed by the attachment of different carboxylic acids. In order to investigate the cross-linking reaction between carboxylate monolayers and an epoxide, grown monolayers were reacted with a mono-epoxy resin. In addition to these surface materials, aluminum oxide surfaces supporting carboxylate monolayers were reacted in pairs with DER 332 to form a structural adhesive. These materials have been characterized variously by SEM, AFM, XPS, EDX, and contact angle measurements. The particle size dependence on pH of a series of alumoxanes was investigated. For each of the alumoxanes, PCS particle size measurements were obtained as a function of pH. In all cases, particle size control was afforded by variations in pH. Finally, crystal structures of several model compounds were determined by X-ray crystallography, and shown to form either sheets of dimers or tetrameric units. Through a review of structures found in the Cambridge Crystallographic Database, compounds of the type X-CH(OH)CH 2NH-Y were investigated. The results of this study lead to a generalized approach for predicting the packing motifs of racemic mixtures in polar space groups.

Vogelson, Cullen Taylor

12

University of Southampton: Inorganic Materials Group  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Inorganic Materials Group at the University of Southampton created this Macromedia Flash Player-enhanced website to present its research in "synthetic and structural inorganic materials chemistry with the purpose of tailoring and controlling useful physical properties of solid state compounds." Visitors can find information about the group's research interests and successes in the areas of nitrides, zeolites, superconducting oxides, isotopes, and more. The website presents clear descriptions and figures of the group's equipment and facilities including the wet laboratory and the inert atmospheres created in the glove box rooms.

13

Combinatorial synthesis of inorganic or composite materials  

DOEpatents

Methods and apparatus for the preparation and use of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by delivering components of materials to predefined regions on a substrate, and simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two materials or, alternatively, allowing the components to interact to form at least two different materials. Materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. More particularly, materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, inorganic materials, intermetallic materials, metal alloys, ceramic materials, organic materials, organometallic materials, nonbiological organic polymers, composite materials (e.g., inorganic composites, organic composites, or combinations thereof), etc. Once prepared, these materials can be screened for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical, or other properties. Thus, the present invention provides methods for the parallel synthesis and analysis of novel materials having useful properties.

Goldwasser, Isy (Palo Alto, CA); Ross, Debra A. (Mountain Ranch, CA); Schultz, Peter G. (La Jolla, CA); Xiang, Xiao-Dong (Danville, CA); Briceno, Gabriel (Baldwin Park, CA); Sun, Xian-Dong (Fremont, CA); Wang, Kai-An (Cupertino, CA)

2010-08-03

14

Combinatorial screening of inorganic and organometallic materials  

DOEpatents

Methods and apparatus for the preparation and use of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by delivering components of materials to predefined regions on a substrate, and simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two materials. Materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. More particularly, materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, inorganic materials, intermetallic materials, metal alloys, ceramic materials, organic materials, organometallic materials, non-biological organic polymers, composite materials (e.g., inorganic composites, organic composites, or combinations thereof), etc. Once prepared, these materials can be screened for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical, or other properties. Thus, the present invention provides methods for the parallel synthesis and analysis of novel materials having useful properties.

Schultz, Peter G. (Oakland, CA); Xiang, Xiaodong (Alameda, CA); Goldwasser, Isy (Alameda, CA)

2002-01-01

15

Preparation and screening of crystalline inorganic materials  

DOEpatents

Methods and apparatus for the preparation and use of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by delivering components of materials to predefined regions on a substrate, and simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two materials. Materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. More particularly, materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, inorganic materials, intermetallic materials, metal alloys, ceramic materials, organic materials, organometallic materials, non-biological organic polymers, composite materials (e.g., inorganic composites, organic composites, or combinations thereof), etc. Once prepared, these materials can be screened for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical, or other properties. Thus, the present invention provides methods for the parallel synthesis and analysis of novel materials having useful properties.

Schultz, Peter G. (La Jolla, CA) [La Jolla, CA; Xiang, Xiaodong (Danville, CA) [Danville, CA; Goldwasser, Isy (Palo Alto, CA) [Palo Alto, CA; Brice{hacek over (n)}o, Gabriel (Baldwin Park, CA); Sun, Xiao-Dong (Fremont, CA) [Fremont, CA; Wang, Kai-An (Cupertino, CA) [Cupertino, CA

2008-10-28

16

Graphene analogues of inorganic layered materials.  

PubMed

The discovery of graphene has created a great sensation in chemistry, physics, materials science, and related areas. The unusual properties of graphene have aroused interest in other layered materials, such as molybdenum sulfide and boron nitride. In the last few years, single- as well as few-layer as well as chalcogenides and other inorganic materials have been prepared and characterized by a variety of methods. These materials possess interesting properties, and some have potential applications. This Review provides an up-to-date account of these emerging two-dimensional nanomaterials. Not only are the synthesis and characterization covered, but also important aspects such as spectroscopic and optical properties, magnetic and electrical properties, as well as applications. Salient features of the composites formed from the layered inorganic structures with graphene and polymers are presented along with a brief description of borocarbonitrides. PMID:24127325

Rao, C N R; Matte, H S S Ramakrishna; Maitra, Urmimala

2013-12-01

17

Inorganic polymers and materials. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This DOE-sponsored project was focused on the design, synthesis, characterization, and applications of new types of boron and silicon polymers with a goal of attaining processable precursors to advanced ceramic materials of technological importance. This work demonstrated a viable design strategy for the systematic formation of polymeric precursors to ceramics based on the controlled functionalization of preformed polymers with pendant groups of suitable compositions and crosslinking properties. Both the new dipentylamine-polyborazylene and pinacolborane-hydridopolysilazane polymers, unlike the parent polyborazylene and other polyborosilazanes, are stable as melts and can be easily spun into polymer fibers. Subsequent pyrolyses of these polymer fibers then provide excellent routes to BN and SiNCB ceramic fibers. The ease of synthesis of both polymer systems suggests new hybrid polymers with a range of substituents appended to polyborazylene or polysilazane backbones, as well as other types of preceramic polymers, should now be readily achieved, thereby allowing even greater control over polymer and ceramic properties. This control should now enable the systematic tailoring of the polymers and derived ceramics for use in different technological applications. Other major recent achievements include the development of new types of metal-catalyzed methods needed for the polymerization and modification of inorganic monomers and polymers, and the modification studies of polyvinylsiloxane and related polymers with substituents that enable the formation of single source precursors to high-strength, sintered SiC ceramics.

Sneddon, Larry G.

2001-01-01

18

Utilization of specific and non-specific peptide interactions with inorganic nanomaterials on the surface of bacteriophage M13: Methodologies towards phage supported bi-functional materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many types of organisms create a variety of nano and micro scale materials from precursors available in their surrounding environments by a process called biomineralization. As scientists begin to understand how these organisms utilize specific and non-specific interactions with a variety of biopolymers such as chitin, peptides, proteins and nucleic acids with these precursors to create inorganic/organic composite materials, they have begun to wonder about the synthesis of other types of non-biologically templated synthetic techniques that might be possible. Bioengineered organisms and biopolymers have begun to be used for these types of studies. A variety of selection techniques exist for discovering biopolymers with an affinity for a target material, however, one of the most notable is a technique called peptide phage display. This is a technique that utilizes a commercially available randomized peptide library attached at the tip of the filamentous bacteriophage M13. In this dissertation capabilities of bacteriophage M13 are explored in regard to the creation of bi-functional nano materials by exploiting both specific peptide interactions as well as non-specific peptide interactions on the surface of the organism. Chapter 2 focuses on utilizing the specific peptide interactions of the randomized library at pIII in order to discover peptides with high binding affinity for a variety of nanomaterials. Selection studies called biopanning are performed on a variety of nanomaterials such as CaMoO4, allotropes of Ni, Fe2O3 and Fe3O4, and Rh and Pt with the fcc type crystal structure. Similarities and differences between peptides discovered for these materials are discussed. Chapter 3 focuses on utilizing the non-specific peptide interactions on the long axis of M13 called pVIII. The pVIII region consists of 2700 copies of the same 50 amino acid protein which as a negatively charged domain which is exposed to solution. The pVIII region therefore provides the surface of the phage with a negative charge on which nanomaterials can be supported. Metal salt precursors reduced in the presence of WT M13 are studied in this chapter. Metal salt precursors of Fe, Co, Ru, Rh and Pd seem to be the most effective at coating the surface of the phage based on the positively charged metal-aquo complexes formed in water, which are attracted to the negative pVIII region. Other types of reactions are explored with WT phage as a scaffold such as conversion chemistry in a polyol solvent to access several intermetallic phases as well as co-precipitation reactions to access ternary oxides. Chapter 4 focuses on combining research from chapter 2 and chapter 3 to create a bi-functional material that utilizes both specific and non-specific peptide interactions with inorganic materials on the surface of M13 to attach two different types of nanomaterials. The example provided here is a magnetically recoverable hydrogenation catalyst made up of a pVIII region coated with rhodium nanoparticles held in place by non-specific peptide interactions and a pIII region attached to iron oxide nanoparticles via specific peptide interactions. This is the first example in the literature of a commercially available pIII bioengineered M13 bacteriophage forming a bi-functional material. This research provides a methodology to design and build single and multi-component materials on the surface of bacteriophage M13 without the necessity for additional bioengineering and library characterization. The simplicity of use will make the technique available to a wider variety of researchers in the materials science community.

Avery, Kendra Nicole

19

Effect of chromophore–chromophore electrostatic interactions in the NLO response of functionalized organic–inorganic sol–gel materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last years, important non-linear optical (NLO) results on sol–gel and polymeric materials have been reported, with values comparable to those found in crystals. These new materials contain push–pull chromophores either incorporated as guest in a high Tg polymeric matrix (doped polymers) or grafted onto the polymeric matrix. These systems present several advantages, however they require significant improvement at

J. Reyes-Esqueda; B. Darracq; J Garc??a-Macedo; M. Canva; M. Blanchard-Desce; F. Chaput; K. Lahlil; J. P. Boilot; A. Brun; Y. Lévy

2001-01-01

20

Integrated Vacuum Growth System for Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Our recent demonstrations of efficient inorganic-quantum-dot light- emitting devices in molecular organic hosts indicate the vast potential of hybrid organic/inorganic nanostructured materials for development of practical active devices. Experience shows ...

V. Bulovic

2004-01-01

21

Inorganic Photovoltaics Materials and Devices: Past, Present, and Future.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes recent aspects of advanced inorganic materials for photovoltaics or solar cell applications. Specific materials examined will be high-efficiency silicon, gallium arsenide and related materials, and thin-film materials, particularly a...

A. F. Hepp S. G. Bailey R. P. Rafaelle

2005-01-01

22

Organic materials as templates for the formation of mesoporous inorganic materials and ordered inorganic nanocomposites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hierarchically structured inorganic materials are everywhere in nature. From unicellular aquatic algae such as diatoms to the bones and/or cartilage that comprise the skeletal systems of vertebrates. Complex mechanisms involving site-specific chemistries and precision kinetics are responsible for the formation of such structures. In the synthetic realm, reproduction of even the most basic hierarchical structure effortlessly produced in nature is difficult. However, through the utilization of self-assembling structures or "templates", such as polymers or amphiphilic surfactants, combined with some favorable interaction between a chosen inorganic, the potential exists to imprint an inorganic material with a morphology dictated via synthetic molecular self-assembly. In doing so, a very basic hierarchical structure is formed on the angstrom and nanometer scales. The work presented herein utilizes the self-assembly of either surfactants or block copolymers with the desired inorganic or inorganic precursor to form templated inorganic structures. Specifically, mesoporous silica spheres and copolymer directed calcium phosphate-polymer composites were formed through the co-assembly of an organic template and a precursor to form the desired mesostructured inorganic. For the case of the mesoporous silica spheres, a silica precursor was mixed with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and cysteamine, a highly effective biomimetic catalyst for the conversion of alkoxysilanes to silica. Through charge-based interactions between anionic silica species and the micelle-forming cationic surfactant, ordered silica structures resulted. The incorporation of a novel, effective catalyst was found to form highly condensed silica spheres for potential application as catalyst supports or an encapsulation media. Ordered calcium phosphate-polymer composites were formed using two routes. Both routes take advantage of hydrogen bonding and ionic interactions between the calcium and phosphate precursors and the self-assembling copolymer template. Some evidence suggests that the copolymer morphology remained in the composite despite the known tendency for calcium phosphates to form highly elongated crystalline structures with time, as is commonly the case for synthetic hydroxyapatites. Such materials have obvious application as bone grafts and bone coatings due, in part, to the osteoconductive nature of calcium phosphate as well as to the mesoporosity generated through the cooperative assembly of the block copolymer and the inorganic. Future work, including potential experiments to determine osteoconductivity of as-prepared composites, is also presented herein.

Ziegler, Christopher R.

23

Inorganic nanotubes and fullerene-like materials.  

PubMed

Following the discovery of fullerenes and carbon nanotubes, it was shown that nanoparticles of inorganic layered compounds, like MoS2, are unstable in the planar form and they form closed cage structures with polyhedral or nanotubular shapes. Various issues on the structure, synthesis, and properties of such inorganic fullerene-like structures are reviewed, together with some possible applications. PMID:12432497

Tenne, Reshef

2002-12-01

24

Organic–Inorganic Hybrid Materials for Photonic Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic-inorganic hybrid materials are derived from the chemical reaction of silane coupling reagents and metal alkoxides, involving O-Si-C bonds in the matrix. They offer superior characters of combined organic groups and inorganic linkages for various optical applications. This paper reviews preparation and characterization of optical devices and materials derived from these hybrid materials. We mainly describe three topics for micrometer-nanometer

Shuichi Shibata; Tetsuji Yano; Hiroyo Segawa

2008-01-01

25

Bio-Based Approaches to Inorganic Material Synthesis (Postprint).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nature is exquisite designer of inorganic materials using biomolecules as templates. Diatoms create intricate silica wall structures with fine features using the protein family of silaffins as templates. Marine sponges create silica spicules also using pr...

J. M. Slocik M. O. Stone R. R. Naik

2007-01-01

26

Bio-Based Approaches to Inorganic Material Synthesis (Preprint).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nature is exquisite designer of inorganic materials using biomolecules as templates. Diatoms create intricate silica wall structures with fine features using the protein family of silaffins as templates. Marine sponges create silica spicules also using pr...

J. M. Slocik M. O. Stone R. R. Naik

2007-01-01

27

Strongly coupled inorganic-nano-carbon hybrid materials for energy storage.  

PubMed

The global shift of energy production from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources requires more efficient and reliable electrochemical energy storage devices. In particular, the development of electric or hydrogen powered vehicles calls for much-higher-performance batteries, supercapacitors and fuel cells than are currently available. In this review, we present an approach to synthesize electrochemical energy storage materials to form strongly coupled hybrids (SC-hybrids) of inorganic nanomaterials and novel graphitic nano-carbon materials such as carbon nanotubes and graphene, through nucleation and growth of nanoparticles at the functional groups of oxidized graphitic nano-carbon. We show that the inorganic-nano-carbon hybrid materials represent a new approach to synthesize electrode materials with higher electrochemical performance than traditional counterparts made by simple physical mixtures of electrochemically active inorganic particles and conducting carbon materials. The inorganic-nano-carbon hybrid materials are novel due to possible chemical bonding between inorganic nanoparticles and oxidized carbon, affording enhanced charge transport and increased rate capability of electrochemical materials without sacrificing specific capacity. Nano-carbon with various degrees of oxidation provides a novel substrate for nanoparticle nucleation and growth. The interactions between inorganic precursors and oxidized-carbon substrates provide a degree of control over the morphology, size and structure of the resulting inorganic nanoparticles. This paper reviews the recent development of inorganic-nano-carbon hybrid materials for electrochemical energy storage and conversion, including the preparation and functionalization of graphene sheets and carbon nanotubes to impart oxygen containing groups and defects, and methods of synthesis of nanoparticles of various morphologies on oxidized graphene and carbon nanotubes. We then review the applications of the SC-hybrid materials for high performance lithium ion batteries, rechargeable Li-S and Li-O2 batteries, supercapacitors and ultrafast Ni-Fe batteries, and new electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction, oxygen evolution and hydrogen evolution reactions. PMID:23361617

Wang, Hailiang; Dai, Hongjie

2013-04-01

28

Investigation of novel inorganic resist materials for EUV lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, both PSI1 and ASML2 illustrated champion EUVL resolution using slow, non-chemically amplified inorganic resists. However, the requirements for EUVL manufacturing require simultaneous delivery of high resolution, good sensitivity, and low line edge/width roughness (LER/LWR) on commercial grade hardware. As a result, we believe that new classes of materials should be explored and understood. This paper focuses on our efforts to assess metal oxide based nanoparticles as novel EUV resists3. Various spectroscopic techniques were used to probe the patterning mechanism of these materials. EUV exposure data is presented to investigate the feasibility of employing inorganic materials as viable EUV resists.

Krysak, Marie E.; Blackwell, James M.; Putna, Steve E.; Leeson, Michael J.; Younkin, Todd R.; Harlson, Shane; Frasure, Kent; Gstrein, Florian

2014-04-01

29

Inorganic-organic electrolyte materials for energy applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis research is devoted to the development of phosphazene-based electrolyte materials for use in various energy applications. Phosphazenes are inorganic-organic materials that provide unusal synthetic advantages and unique process features that make them useful in energy research. This particular thesis consists of six chapters and is focused on four specific aspects: lithium battery, solar cell, and fuel cell electrolytes,

Shih-To Fei

2010-01-01

30

Boron-10 loaded inorganic shielding material  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shielding material containing Boron 10 and gadoliunium for neutron absorption has been developed to reduce interference from low energy neutrons in measurement of fission neutron spectrum using Li-6 fast neutron spectrometer.

Baker, S. I.; Ryskiewicz, R. S.

1972-01-01

31

Inorganic nanostructured materials for high performance electrochemical supercapacitors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrochemical supercapacitors (ES) are a well-known energy storage system that has high power density, long life-cycle and fast charge-discharge kinetics. Nanostructured materials are a new generation of electrode materials with large surface area and short transport/diffusion path for ions and electrons to achieve high specific capacitance in ES. This mini review highlights recent developments of inorganic nanostructure materials, including carbon nanomaterials, metal oxide nanoparticles, and metal oxide nanowires/nanotubes, for high performance ES applications.

Liu, Sheng; Sun, Shouheng; You, Xiao-Zeng

2014-01-01

32

Inorganic Photovoltaics Materials and Devices: Past, Present, and Future  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes recent aspects of advanced inorganic materials for photovoltaics or solar cell applications. Specific materials examined will be high-efficiency silicon, gallium arsenide and related materials, and thin-film materials, particularly amorphous silicon and (polycrystalline) copper indium selenide. Some of the advanced concepts discussed include multi-junction III-V (and thin-film) devices, utilization of nanotechnology, specifically quantum dots, low-temperature chemical processing, polymer substrates for lightweight and low-cost solar arrays, concentrator cells, and integrated power devices. While many of these technologies will eventually be used for utility and consumer applications, their genesis can be traced back to challenging problems related to power generation for aerospace and defense. Because this overview of inorganic materials is included in a monogram focused on organic photovoltaics, fundamental issues and metrics common to all solar cell devices (and arrays) will be addressed.

Hepp, Aloysius F.; Bailey, Sheila G.; Rafaelle, Ryne P.

2005-01-01

33

STABILITY AND TRANSPORT OF INORGANIC COLLOIDS THROUGH CONTAMINATED AQUIFER MATERIAL  

EPA Science Inventory

Laboratory columns using contaminated natural aquifer material from Globe, Arizona, were used to investigate the transport of inorganic colloids under saturated flow conditions. e2O3 radio-labeled spherical colloids of various diameters were synthesized and introduced into the co...

34

MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES FOR INORGANIC TRACE MATERIALS IN CONTROL SYSTEM STREAMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study showing that inorganic materials in control process streams at trace levels can be determined using modified, commercially available sampling equipment and atomic absorption analysis procedures; however, special care must be taken to attain hig...

35

Solution Processable Hybrid Polymer-Inorganic Thermoelectric Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last decade thermoelectric material improvements have largely been attributed to a reduction in thermal conductivity due to nanostructuring. An alternative approach is to decouple and optimize the power factor using the unique properties of organic-inorganic interfaces. One method to do this could rely on the electrical properties of a conducting polymer in combination with the thermoelectrical proprieties of

Shannon Yee; Nelson Coates; Kevin See; Jeffrey Urban; Rachel Segalman

2011-01-01

36

Inorganic photochromic and cathodochromic recording materials.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discussion of studies at RCA Laboratories of the properties of rare-earth-doped CaF2, transition-metal-doped SrTiO3 and iron- or sulfur-doped sodalite as photochromic materials which change color during light or electron beam exposures. Particular attention is given to their photochromic characteristics in single-crystal and powder forms and to their cathodochromic properties in powder form. Details are given on the photochromic mechanisms, spectra, optical density, thermal decay rates, and coloring and bleaching efficiency of their single crystals and on the diffuse reflectance spectra, saturated photochromic contrast ratio, switching and erase sensitivities, and cathodochromic excitation of their photochromic powders. The many attractive characteristics of these materials when used in display storage systems are indicated.

Duncan, R. C., Jr.; Faughnan, B. W.; Phillips, W.

1971-01-01

37

Novel organic-inorganic hybrid mesoporous materials and nanocomposites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic-inorganic hybrid mesoporous materials have been prepared successfully via the nonsurfactant templated sol-gel pathway using dibenzoyl-L-tartaric acid (DBTA) as the templating compound. Styrene and methyl methacrylate polymers have been incorporated into the mesoporous silica matrix on the molecular level. The synthetic conditions have been systematically studied and optimized. Titania based mesoporous materials have also been made using nonionic polyethylene glycol surfactant as the pore forming or structure-directing agent. In all of the above mesoporous materials, pore structures have been studied in detail by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) characterizations. The relationship between the template concentration and the pore parameters has been established. This nonsurfactant templated pathway possesses many advantages over the known surfactant approaches such as low cost, environment friendly and biocompatability. To overcome the drawback of nonsurfactant templated mesoporous materials that lack a well ordered pore structure, a flow induced synthesis has been attempted to orientate the sol-gel solution in order to obtain aligned pore structures. The versatility of this nonsurfactant templated pathway can even be extended to the making of organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposite materials. On the basis of this approach, polymer-silica nanocomposite materials have been prepared using a polymerizable template. It is shown that the organic monomer such as hydroxyethyl methacrylate can act as a template in making nanoporous silica materials and then be further polymerized through a post synthesis technique. The properties and morphology of this new material have been studied by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy (FTIR). Electroactive organic-inorganic hybrid materials have also been synthesized via the sol-gel process. A coupling agent was used to covalently bond the organic and inorganic species. The morphology and conductivity of the products have been investigated.

Feng, Qiuwei

38

Novel organic–inorganic hybrid mesoporous materials for boron adsorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amine groups and polyol groups were sequentially grafted on mesoporous SBA-15 and MCM-41 to synthesize novel organic–inorganic hybrid mesoporous materials as boron adsorbents by a two-step post-grafting method. By means of small-angle XRD, N2 adsorption–desorption, solid-state NMR, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and elemental analysis, the structure and physicochemical properties of the materials were characterized. The behaviors of the resulting adsorbents

Lina Wang; Tao Qi; Yi Zhang

2006-01-01

39

Combinatorial Screening Of Inorganic And Organometallic Materials  

DOEpatents

A method for differentiating and enumerating nucleated red blood cells in a blood sample is described. The method includes the steps of lysing red blood cells of a blood sample with a lytic reagent, measuring nucleated blood cells by DC impedance measurement in a non-focused flow aperture, differentiating nucleated red blood cells from other cell types, and reporting nucleated red blood cells in the blood sample. The method further includes subtracting nucleated red blood cells and other interference materials from the count of remaining blood cells, and reporting a corrected white blood cell count of the blood sample. Additionally, the method further includes measuring spectrophotometric absorbance of the sample mixture at a predetermined wavelength of a hemoglobin chromogen formed upon lysing the blood sample, and reporting hemoglobin concentration of the blood sample.

Li, Yi (Miami, FL), Li, Jing (Miami, FL), Britton, Ted W. (Sunrise, FL)

2002-06-25

40

Bioinspired, functional nanoscale materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Functional nanomaterials in nature exhibit many unique functions and optical and mechanical properties. Examples of this include the dry adhesion of a gecko's foot, the reduced drag on a shark's skin, the high strength and toughness of nacre, and the superhydrophobic self-cleaning of a lotus leaf. This dissertation is devoted to creating unique and enhanced properties by mimicking such functional materials. We have developed a novel self-pumping membrane, which does not require an applied voltage. The self-pumping membrane harvests chemical energy from a surrounding fluid and uses it for accelerated mass transport across the membrane. A device such as this has promising applications in implantable or remotely operating autonomous devices and membrane-based purification systems. Reproducible and highly active surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates were developed using a bottom-up self-assembly technology. With their high sensitivity and good reproducibility, the developed nanostructures (gold nanoparticle and nanohole arrays) as SERS substrates are very promising for applications such as ultra-sensitive detectors for chemicals and reproducible sensors for chemical and biological molecules. Binary colloidal crystals were created using a simple, fast, and scalable spin-coating technology. Although further investigation of the procedure is needed to improve the ordering of particles in the individual layers, the developed assembly technology has a promising outlook in applications such as optical integrated circuits and high-speed optical computing. Inorganic-organic nanocomposites were realized by assembling synthesized gibbsite nanoplatelets using the electrophoretic deposition and infiltration of a monomer followed by polymerization. Via surface modifications of gibbsite nanoplatelets, nanocomposites were further reinforced with covalent linkages between the inorganic platelets and organic matrix.

Jun, In-Kook

41

Silica-Based Sol-Gel Organic-Inorganic Nanocomposite Materials: A Review of Different Material Technologies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Organic-inorganic nanocomposite materials continue to interest researchers. The idea of combining the properties of organic systems with the properties of inorganic systems in a synergistic fashion is not only desirable but also widely sought in materials...

S. K. Young

2002-01-01

42

Specific Templating of Inorganic Materials on Self-Assembled Clathrin Proteins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nature has evolved numerous methods for the reproducible self-assembly of nanoscale architectures that are ideal templates for patterning inorganic nanostructures. For example, the protein clathrin assembles into a variety of 2D and 3D structures depending on environmental conditions during assembly. The ability of this single protein to form multiple architectures makes clathrin an ideal model system for investigating the kinetic and thermodynamic principles of self-assembly, which will lead to the ability to predictably control template architecture. We design bi-functional peptide linkers to serve as molecular bridges between distinct sites on the clathrin monomers and specific inorganic materials including gold, titania, and cobalt oxide. By generating a family of bi-functional peptides, we develop a flexible, modular system that enables the rapid development of multiple inorganic nanostructures from a single protein template without requiring re-design of the template. We present examples of gold and anatase titania catalysts fabricated through this method.

Heilshorn, Sarah

2010-03-01

43

NEW PROTON CONDUCTIVE COMPOSITE MATERIALS WITH INORGANIC AND STYRENE GRAFTED AND SULFONATED VDF/CTFE FLUOROPOLYMERS  

SciTech Connect

Creation of new membrane materials for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) operating at elevated temperature and low relative humidity (RH) is one of the major challenges in the implementation of the fuel cell technology. New candidate membrane materials are required to efficiently conduct protons at 120oC and RH down to 15%. Based on these criteria, we are working on the development of new membrane materials, which are composites of inorganic proton conductors with a functionalized and cross-linkable Teflon-type polymer. The synthesis of crosslinkable P(VDF-CTFE) copolymer with controllable structure, molecular weight and terminal and side chain silane groups was described in [1]. The chemistry of the synthesis was centered on a specifically designed functional borane initiator containing silane groups. The major role of polymer matrix is to maintain the continuity of charge transfer and to ensure membrane integrity. The primary considerations include sufficient proton conductivity, thermal and chemical stability at elevated temperature, mechanical strength, compatibility with inorganic particulate phases, processibility to form uniform thin film, and cost effectiveness. Several classes of inorganic proton conductors with high water retention capability, including mesoporous materials (sulfated and/or sulfonated alumina, zirconia, titania) and zirconium phosphate of different structure have been chosen as candidate components for the new composite membranes for PEMFC operation at elevated temperatures and reduced RH. The primary requirement to the inorganic phases is the ability to provide high proton conductivity with the minimum amount of water (reduced humidity).

Lvov, Serguei [ORNL; Payne, Terry L [ORNL

2008-01-01

44

Abrasion resistant inorganic\\/organic coating materials prepared by the sol-gel method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel abrasion resistant coating materials prepared by the sol-gel method have been developed and applied on the polymeric substrates bisphenol-A polycarbonate and diallyl diglycol carbonate resin (CR-39). These coatings are inorganic\\/organic hybrid network materials synthesized from 3-isocyanatopropyltriethoxysilane functionalized organics and metal alkoxide. The organic components are 3,3'-iminobispropylamine (IMPA), resorcinol (RSOL), diethylenetriamine (DETA), poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI), glycerol and a series of diols.

J. Wen; V. J. Vasudevan; G. L. Wilkes

1995-01-01

45

Interactions between lipid bilayers and inorganic material surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because of their unique biological and material properties, lipid bilayers have been extensively studied for use in biosensor and drug delivery applications. In the past, these systems have mostly taken the form of bulk solutions. More recently, researchers have integrated bilayers with chip-based architectures to take advantage of advanced optical, scanning probe and electronic characterization. These applications typically involve the creation of hybrid devices with inorganic and bilayer components, both of which affect the final device performance. In particular, the properties of supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) are known to depend on the substrate chemistry and topography as well as the lipid used. In spite of the large body of work involving these systems, there is still much that remains unknown about the formation and ultimate structure of the interface between these very different materials. One outstanding question in the study of SLBs is the role that the bilayer deposition method plays in determining the bilayer properties. In this work, we have developed a new method for forming and patterning lipid bilayers: bubble collapse deposition (BCD). This method is similar to an in situ version of Langmuir-Blodgett deposition, and offers unique possibilities for the fabrication of lipid-based devices. Briefly, a lipid monolayer is "inked" onto the surface of an air bubble. This bubble is then brought down on a solid support and the air is withdrawn. This withdrawal of air shrinks the bubble, which causes the monolayer to fold over on itself and redeposit on the surface as a bilayer. With BCD, we have demonstrated the first SLB formation on alumina using uncharged lipids. Using this system, we have measured a previously unobserved enhanced hydrodynamic coupling at the alumina surface. We have also used BCD to produce a hybrid lipid-gated chemical delivery device with potentially sub-cellular spatial resolution. Because of the unique material properties of the lipid seals in this system, these devices can retain a chemical of interest for weeks and yet rapidly release this load (within tens of ms) when triggered by a simple optical input. Finally, we have used BCD to directly transfer lipids from a cell membrane to a substrate surface. We present studies characterizing which membrane components are transferred, including lipids, proteins and the cytoskeleton. These studies offer both increased functionality of hybrid lipid systems and fundamental insights into the interactions between lipids and common semiconductor fabrication materials.

Mager, Morgan Douglas

46

Thermal and chemical degradation of inorganic membrane materials. Topical report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of a literature review to evaluate the long-term thermal and chemical degradation of inorganic membranes that are being developed to separate gaseous products produced by the gasification or combustion of coal in fixed-, fluidized-, and entrained-bed gasifiers, direct coal-fired turbines, and pressurized-fluidized-bed combustors. Several impurities, such as H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and trace metal compounds are generated during coal conversion, and they must be removed from the coal gas or the combustor flue gas to meet environmental standards. The use of membranes to separate these noxious gases is an attractive alternative to their removal by sorbents such as zinc titanate or calcium oxide. Inorganic membranes that have a high separation efficiency and exhibit both thermal and chemical stability would improve the economics of power generation from coal. The U.S. Department of Energy is supporting investigations to develop inorganic membranes for separating hydrogen from coal gas streams and noxious impurities from hot coal- and flue-gas streams. Membrane materials that have been investigated in the past include glass (silica), alumina, zirconia, carbon, and metals (Pd and Pt).

Krishnan, G.N.; Sanjurjo, A.; Wood, B.J.; Lau, K.H.

1994-04-01

47

Organic-inorganic hybrid materials for nanoimprint lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) technology has been focused on its wide variety of applications and good cost performance. It has also been indicated that the selection of materials depending on the application fields is important. In this research, we selected silicasol nanoparticles as inorganic materials and successfully dispersed them uniformly into photofunctional monomers with non-solvent systems. Dispersed silicasols were also treated with a photofunctional crosslinker and were mixed with other monomers to prepare various imprint materials. The UV-NIL performance, obtained by using an imprint test machine "LTNIP-5000" from Litho Tech Japan Co. showed greatly improved UV hardening properties and physical properties such as refractivity, thermal stability compared to organic (non-hybrid) materials. As a result, 200 nm line and space patterns were successfully imprinted with no shrinkage at pressure of 3.1 MPa and exposure doses of 1 J/cm2.

Katayama, Junko; Yamaki, Shigeru; Mitsuyama, Masahiro; Hanabata, Makoto

2006-04-01

48

Novel inorganic materials for polymer electrolyte and alkaline fuel cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inorganic materials with high ionic conductivity must have big advantages for the thermal and long term stability when the materials are used as the electrolyte of fuel cells. In the present paper, novel ionic conductive inorganic materials for polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) and all solid state alkaline fuel cells (AFCs) that have been developed by our group have been reviewed. PEFCs which can operate in temperature range from 100 to 200 °C are intensively studied because of some advantages such as reduction of CO poisoning of Pt catalyst and acceleration of electrode reactions. We showed that the fuel cells using the composite membranes prepared from phosphosilicate gel powder and polyimide precursor can operate in the temperature range from 30 to 180 °C. We also found that the inorganic-organic hybrid membranes with acid-base pairs from 3-aminopropyl triethoxy silane and H2SO4 or H3PO4 show high proton conductivity under dry atmosphere, and the membranes are thermally stable at intermediate temperatures. On the other hand, because the use of noble platinum is the serious problem for the commercialization of PEFCs and because oxidation reactions are usually faster than those of acid-type fuel cells, alkaline type fuel cells, in which a nonplatinum catalyst can be used, are attractive. Recently, we have proposed an alkaline-type direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) using a natural clay electrolyte with non-platinum catalysts. So-called hydrotalcite clay, Mg-Al layered double hydroxide intercalated with CO32- (Mg-Al CO32- LDH), has been proved to be a hydroxide ion conductor. An alkalinetype DEFC using Mg-Al CO32- LDH as the electrolyte and aqueous solution of ethanol and potassium hydroxide as a source of fuel exhibited excellent electrochemical performance.

Tadanaga, Kiyoharu

2012-06-01

49

Hybrid exciton recombination dynamics in inorganic-organic materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A systematic analysis of hybrid Frenkel-Wannier-Mott excitons recombination dynamics in nanocomposite material (organic-inorganic) is performed. A theoretical model based on the rate equation is used in the calculation of the light intensity and relative quantum efficiency. Numerical results have been presented for low and high concentration of quantum dots (Qds). Our results show that the light emission and relative quantum efficiency are significantly enhanced by incorporation of Qds in polymer matrix. Moreover our calculations were found to be in good agreement with the experimental data.

Mastour, N.; Bouchriha, H.

2013-12-01

50

Organic inorganic materials for fabrication of integrated optical circuits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last few years, ORganically MOdified SIlicates (ORMOSILS) [R xSi(OR) 4- x] prepared by sol-gel process were particularly attractive for integrated optics fabrication. A composition based on 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propylmethacrylate (MAPTMS) has already allowed the industrial fabrication of optical integrated devices. For this kind of materials, the polymerization of the organic network is typical of free radical curing. In this work, we try to obtain waveguides with another hybrid precursor [2-(3,4-epoxycyclohexylethyltrimethoxysilane)] using cationic polymerization. The main advantage of cationic polymerization is its ability to allow spontaneous cure reaction in presence of oxygen, in contrast with radical polymerization. We choose cycloaliphatic compounds because of their well-known high polymerization rates. The polymerization of the organic network of this hybrid material requires a cationic photoinitiator. The purpose of this paper is dedicated to the inorganic part of the material. Hydrolysis and polycondensation are followed by 29Si NMR. The main objective is to obtain the highest reactive multifunctional oligomer with the lowest OH groups content. Based on our results, we obtained 3D waveguides with a cross-section of 5 ?m × 5 ?m.

Jabbour, J.; Calas-Etienne, S.; Smaïhi, M.; Gatti, S.; Kribich, R.; Pille, G.; Moreau, Y.; Etienne, P.

2007-07-01

51

Release of inorganic material during coal devolatilization. Milestone report  

SciTech Connect

Experimental results presented in this paper indicate that coal devolatilization products convectively remove a fraction of the nonvolatile components of inorganic material atomically dispersed in the coal matrix. Results from three facilities burning six different coals illustrate this mechanism of ash transformation and release from coal particles. Titanium is chosen to illustrate this type of mass release from coal particles on the basis of its low volatility and mode of occurrence in the coal. During moderate rates of devolatilization (10{sup 4} K/s heating rate), no significant loss of titanium is noted. At more rapid rates of heating/devolatilization (10{sup 5} K/s) a consistent but minor (3-4 %) loss of titanium is noted. During rapid devolatilization (5xl0{sup 5} K/s and higher), significant (10-20 %) amounts of titanium leave the coal. The loss of titanium monitored in coals ranging in rank from subbituminous to high-volatile bituminous coals and under conditions typical of pulverized-coal combustion. The amount of titanium lost during devolatilization exhibits a complex rank dependence. These results imply that other atomically dispersed material (alkali and alkaline earth elements) may undergo similar mechanisms of transformation and release.

Baxter, L.L.

1995-07-01

52

A review of nitrate reduction using inorganic materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a biological denitrification system for water and wastewater treatment, an external carbon source (electron donor) is usually needed to generate dedicated microbial communities if intrinsic organic substances are insufficient. Alternative sources of electron donors, especially inorganic donors, are becoming more and more attractive in order to replace or reduce carbon use. In this article, inorganic electron donors, i.e. zero-valent

Ivan Zhu

2012-01-01

53

Inorganic-organic electrolyte materials for energy applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis research is devoted to the development of phosphazene-based electrolyte materials for use in various energy applications. Phosphazenes are inorganic-organic materials that provide unusal synthetic advantages and unique process features that make them useful in energy research. This particular thesis consists of six chapters and is focused on four specific aspects: lithium battery, solar cell, and fuel cell electrolytes, and artificial muscles. Chapter 1 is written as an introduction and review of phosphazene electrolytes used in energy applications. In this introduction the basic history and characteristics of the phosphazenes are discussed briefly, followed by examples of current and future applications of phosphazene electrolytes related to energy. Notes are included on how the rest of the chapters relate to previous work. Chapters 2 and 3 discuss the conductivity and fire safety of ethyleneoxy phosphazene gel electrolytes. The current highly flammable configurations for rechargeable lithium batteries generate serious safety concerns. Although commercial fire retardant additives have been investigated, they tend to decrease the overall efficiency of the battery. In these two chapters the discussion is focused on ionically conductive, non-halogenated lithium battery additives based on a methoxyethoxyethoxyphosphazene oligomer and the corresponding high polymer, both of which can increase the fire resistance of a battery while retaining a high energy efficiency. Conductivities in the range of 10 -4 Scm-1 have been obtained for self-extinguishing, ion-conductive methoxyethoxyethoxyphosphazene oligomers. The addition of 25 wt% high polymeric poly[bis(methoxyethoxyethoxy)phosphazene] to propylene carbonate electrolytes lowers the flammability by 90% while maintaining a good ionic conductivity of 2.5x10--3 Scm -1 Chapter 2 is focused more on the electrochemical properties of the electrolytes and how they compare to other similar materials, while Chapter 3 emphasizes the flammability studies. Chapter 4 expands the application of the ethyleneoxy phosphazene system to dye sensitized solar cell systems, and uses this material as a model for the study of electrode-electrolyte interfaces. We report here the results of our study on polymer electrolyte infiltration and its effect on dye-sensitized solar cells. In-depth studies have been made to compare the effects of different cell assembly procedures on the electrochemical properties as well as infiltration of electrolytes into various electrode designs. The first part of the study is based on the use of thermoplastic phosphazene electrolytes and how the overall fabrication procedure affects electrochemical performance, and the second is the use of cross-section microscopy to characterize the degree of electrolyte infiltration into various nanostructured titanium dioxide electrode surfaces. The results of this study should eventually improve the efficiency and longevity of thermally stable polymer dye solar cell systems. In Chapter 5 the effect of pendant polymer design on methanol fuel cell membrane performance was investigated. A synthetic method is described to produce a proton conductive polymer membrane with a polynorbornane backbone and inorganic-organic cyclic phosphazene pendent groups that bear sulfonic acid units. This hybrid polymer combines the inherent hydrophobicity and flexibility of the organic polymer with the tuning advantages of the cyclic phosphazene to produce a membrane with high proton conductivity and low methanol crossover at room temperature. The ion exchange capacity (IEC), the water swelling behavior of the polymer, and the effect of gamma radiation crosslinking were studied, together with the proton conductivity and methanol permeability of these materials. A typical membrane had an IEC of 0.329 mmolg-1 and had water swelling of 50 wt%. The maximum proton conductivity of 1.13x10 -4 Scm-1 at room temperature is less than values reported for some commercially available materials such as Nafion. However the average methanol permeability was aro

Fei, Shih-To

54

Removal of Radioactive Nuclides by MultiFunctional Microcapsules Enclosing Inorganic Ion-Exchangers and Organic Extractants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microcapsules enclosing two kinds of functional materials, inorganic ion-exchangers and organic extractants, were prepared by taking advantage of the high immobilization ability of alginate gel polymer. The fine powders of inorganic ion-exchanger and oil drops of extractant were kneaded with sodium alginate (NaALG) solution and the kneaded sol readily gelled in a salt solution of CaCl2, BaCl2 or HCl

H. Mimura; K. Akiba; Y. Onodera

2002-01-01

55

Persistent spectral hole burning in organic and inorganic materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Persistent spectral hole burning (PSHB) was experimentally and theoretically investigated in several organic and inorganic materials. A practical approach for the determination of the quantum efficiency PSHB was suggested. The quantum efficiency was found from the experimental kinetics of hole formation. The method takes into account all primary mechanisms of dispersion for the hole burning kinetics and can be applied to the characterization and the comparison of materials with different mechanisms of hole burning. The quantum efficiency of PSHB has been found for free-base and metallo naphthalocyanines, which have photochemical and photophysical mechanisms of PSHB, respectively. For the first time, PSHB in Si impurity center in CVD diamond film with zero-phonon line (ZPL) at 737 nm was demonstrated in temperature range 1.4-21 K. Photoluminescence, fluorescence line narrowing, and spectral hole burning of the Si center were studied. Di- atomic quasi-molecular Si2 structure of the defect has been confirmed. The temperature broadening of homogeneous ZPL involves local vibration with energy 19 cm-1. High thermostability (up to 120 K) of spectral holes and high multiplicity ratio in CVD diamond show a good potential of this material for high temperature high density hole burning. For the first time, persistent spectral hole burning in ?-diketone tris chelates of thulium blended in a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) was observed and studied. Hole burning mechanism based on TLS model for amorphous media was proposed. Quantum efficiency of hole burning was obtained and compared for all samples. Gaussian shape of distribution for TLS parameters was established by the dispersive kinetics of hole burning. Distribution parameters for excited and ground states were obtained and compared for all samples. Temperature dependence of quantum efficiency of hole burning and results of temperature cycling experiments were explained by introduction of reversal thermally assisted tunneling processes in the excited and ground state respectively. Primary parameters of these tunneling processes were obtained.

Turukhin, Alexey Vladimir

56

PECASE: Nanostructure Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Materials for Active Opto-Electronic Devices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The scope of this proposal is nanoscale integration of organic and inorganic materials into hybrid optoelectronic structures to create active devices that combine the diversity of organic materials with the high performance electronic and optical properti...

V. Bulovic

2011-01-01

57

Interfacial and transport properties of nanoconstrained inorganic and organic materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoscale constraints impact the material properties of both organic and inorganic systems. The systems specifically studied here are (i) nanoconstrained polymeric systems, poly(l-trimethylsilyl-1-propyne) (PTMSP) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) relevant to gas separation membranes (ii) Zwitterionic polymers poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate)(pSBMA), poly(carboxybetaine acrylamide) (pCBAA), and poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl methacrylate) (PEGMA) brushes critical for reducing bio-fouling (iii) Surface properties of N-layer graphene sheets. Interfacial constraints in ultrathin poly(l-trimethylsilyl-1-propyne) (PTMSP) membranes yielded gas permeabilities and CO2/helium selectivities that exceed bulk PTMSP membrane transport properties by up to three-fold for membranes of submicrometer thickness. Indicative of a free volume increase, a molecular energetic mobility analysis (involving intrinsic friction analysis) revealed enhanced methyl side group mobilities in thin PTMSP membranes with maximum permeation, compared to bulk films. Aging studies conducted over the timescales relevant to the conducted experiments signify that the free volume states in the thin film membranes are highly unstable in the presence of sorbing gases such as CO2. To maintain this high free volume configuration of polymer while improving the temporal stability an "inverse" architecture to conventional polymer nanocomposites was investigated, in which the polymer phase of PTMSP and PEO were interfacially and dimensionally constrained in nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes. While with this architecture the benefits of nanocomposite and ultrathin film membranes of PTMSP could be reproduced and improved upon, also the temporal stability could be enhanced substantially. The PEO-AAO nanocomposite membranes also revealed improved gas selectivity properties of CO2 over helium. In the thermal transition studies of zwitterionic pSBMA brushes a reversible critical transition temperature of 60 °C in 27 nm films was evidenced, indicating changes in molecular conformations with respect to the temperature. pCBAA and pEGMA brushes displayed no thermal transitions, suggesting that the molecular conformations of these systems were insensitive to temperature in the investigated regime. The surface energy of a dimensionally constrained inorganic system, graphene is studied via local Hamaker constant determination from a single graphene layer to bulk graphite. Intrinsic friction scattering analysis of dipolar fluctuations of the Van der Waals interactions between an atomic force microscopy tip and graphene layers revealed a four-fold reduction in the surface energy from bulk HOPG to graphene. A numerical analysis based on electron energy loss spectroscopy confirms quantitatively the results.

Kocherlakota, Lakshmi Suhasini

58

Functionally Graded Materials VII.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Functionally graded materials (FGMs) exhibit spatial variations, in composition and/or microstructure, which have been imposed for the specific purpose of controlling the resultant variations in the thermal, structural or functional properties. During the...

J. Gong L. Chen L. Zhang W. Pan

2003-01-01

59

Functional material and functional device  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Disclosed are a functional material and a functional device, each of which is capable of changing a wavelength of a transmission electromagnetic wave such as transmission light or a transmission sound wave such as a transmission ultrasonic wave through the device on the basis of a signal supplied from external. Each of the functional material and the functional device includes a periodic structure having a periodicity with a unit cycle on the order of a wavelength of an electromagnetic wave or a sound wave, and means for disturbing the periodicity which is inserted in at least one portion of the periodic structure, wherein a wavelength of the electromagnetic wave or sound wave passing through the periodic structure by controlling the means on a signal supplied from external.

2005-09-27

60

Fluidized-Bed Coating with Organic and Inorganic Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report reviews the present technology of fluidizedbed coating processes. The first part deals with the coating of bulk substrates with organic polymers. The second part describes the use of the fluidized-bed method for obtaining inorganic coatings on ...

W. M. Goldberger

1964-01-01

61

Inorganic Materials Biotechnology: A New Industrial Measurement Challenge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Biotechnological processing of inorganic, heavy elements has only begun to emerge as the authors start to understand microbial strategies and mechanisms of heavy element transformation. Chemical speciation of key, diagnostic intermediates and products of ...

G. J. Olson F. E. Brinckman

1986-01-01

62

Morphogenetic behavior of periodontium on inorganic implant materials: an experimental study of canines.  

PubMed

Periodontal ligament derived cells have the potential to regenerate all the components of the periodontium on the surface of inorganic implants, as well as on dentin. This suggests the hypothesis that the nature of the material affects the migration, proliferation, and differentiation of the progenitor cells for periodontium formation. To clarify this hypothesis, we evaluated the material-specific morphogenetic potential of periodontium-derived cells using an animal model for inducing cell migration from the functioning periodontium onto bioactive (hydroxyapatite, HA) and bioinert (titanium alloy, TA) material. Histologically, total periodontium including calcified cementum-like tissue only formed on HA and not on TA. Morphometrically, however, the length of fibrous connective tissue formed on HA was the same as on TA. This suggests that the bioactivity of the material does not affect the migration of periodontium-derived cells but strongly influences cell differentiation. PMID:10559742

Urabe, M; Hosokawa, R; Chiba, D; Sato, Y; Akagawa, Y

2000-01-01

63

Synthesis and applications of bioinspired inorganic nanostructured materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the study of biominerals may be traced back many centuries, it is only recently that biological principles have been applied to synthetic systems in processes termed "biomimetic" and "bioinspired" to yield materials syntheses that are otherwise not possible and may also reduce the expenditure of energy and/or eliminate toxic byproducts. Many investigators have taken inspiration from interesting and unusual minerals formed by organisms, in a process termed biomineralisation, to tailor the nanostructure of inorganic materials not necessarily found biogenically. However, the fields of nanoparticle synthesis and biomineralisation remain largely separate, and this thesis is an attempt to apply new studies on biomineralisation to nanomaterials science. Principally among the proteins that influence biomineralisation is a group comprised largely of negatively charged aspartic acid residues present in serum. This study is an investigation determining the ability of these serum proteins and other anolagous biomolecules to stabilise biologically relevant amorphous minerals and influence the formation of a variety of materials at the nanoscale. Three different materials were chosen to demonstrate this effect; gold was templated into nanosized single crystals by the action of bioorganic molecules, and the utility of these nanoparticles as a biosensor was explored. The influence of bioorganic molecules on the phase selection and crystal size restriction of titanium dioxide, an important semiconductor with many applications, was explored. The use of bioorganically derived nanoparticles of titanium dioxide was then demonstrated as a highly efficient photocatalyst. Finally, calcium carbonate, a prevalent biomineral was shown to form highly ordered structures over a variety of length scales and different crystalline polymorphs under the influence of a templating protein. In addition, an alternative route to producing calcium phosphate nanoparticle dispersions by mechanical filtration was explored and use as a transfection vector was optimised in two cell lines. Several significant achievements are presented: (i) the assessment of the relative ability of serum, serum derived proteins and their analogues to stabilize the amorphous state, (ii) the formation of single crystalline gold templated by an antibody, (iii) the formation of highly photocatalytically active nanoparticulate anatase by a phosphorylated cyclic esther, (iv) the formation of conical structures at the air liquid interface by the templating ability of a protein and (v) the optimisation of calcium phosphate nanoparticle mediated transfection in two cell lines by mechanical filtration.

Bassett, David C.

64

Processing and optimization of functional ceramic coatings and inorganic nanomaterials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Processing of functional inorganic materials including zero (0-D) dimensional (e.g. nanoparticles), 1-D (nanorods, nanofibers), and 2-D (films/coating) structures is of fundamental and technological interest. This research will have two major sections. The first part of section one focuses on the deposition of silicon dioxide onto a pre-deposited molybdenum disilicide coating on molybdenum substrates for both high (>1000 °C) and moderate (500-600 °C) temperature oxidation protection. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD/MOCVD) techniques will be utilized to deposit the metal suicide and oxide coatings. The focus of this study will be to establish optimum deposition conditions and evaluate the metal oxide coating as oxidation - thermal barriers for Mo substrates under both isothermal (static) and cyclic oxidation conditions. The second part of this section will involve a systematic evaluation of a boron nitride (BN) interface coating prepared by chemical vapor deposition. Ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) are prospective candidates for high (>1000 °C) temperature applications and fiber- matrix interfaces are the dominant design parameters in ceramic matrix composites (CMCs). An important goal of the study is to determine a set of process parameters, which would define a boron nitride (BN) interface coating by a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process with respect to coating. In the first part of the second section, we will investigate a new approach to synthesize ultrafine metal oxides that combines microwave heating and an in-situ ultrasonic mixing of two or more liquid precursors with a tubular flow reactor. Different metal oxides such as nickel ferrite and zinc aluminate spinels will be studied. The synthesis of metal oxides were investigated in order to study the effects of the nozzle and microwave (INM process) on the purity, composition, and particle size of the resulting powders. The second part of this research section involves a study of microwave frequency effects on the synthesis of nanocrystalline tetragonal barium titanate. The effects of microwave frequency (fixed and variable), microwave bandwidths sweep time, and aging time on the microstructure, particle sizes, phase purity, surface areas, and porosities of the as-prepared BaTiO3 were systematically investigated. The final part of the research involves a new rapid and facile synthetic route to prepare size-tunable, ultranarrow, high surface area OMS-2 nanomaterials via open-vessel microwave-assisted refluxing preparations without employing templates or surfactants. The particle size control is achieved by varying the concentration or type of non-aqueous co-solvent. The structural, textural, and catalytic application properties of the prepared nanomaterials are investigated.

Nyutu, Edward Kennedy G.

65

Inorganic arsenic impairs differentiation and functions of human dendritic cells  

SciTech Connect

Experimental studies have demonstrated that the antileukemic trivalent inorganic arsenic prevents the development of severe pro-inflammatory diseases mediated by excessive Th1 and Th17 cell responses. Differentiation of Th1 and Th17 subsets is mainly regulated by interleukins (ILs) secreted from dendritic cells (DCs) and the ability of inorganic arsenic to impair interferon-? and IL-17 secretion by interfering with the physiology of DCs is unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that high concentrations of sodium arsenite (As(III), 1–2 ?M) clinically achievable in plasma of arsenic-treated patients, block differentiation of human peripheral blood monocytes into immature DCs (iDCs) by inducing their necrosis. Differentiation of monocytes in the presence of non-cytotoxic concentrations of As(III) (0.1 to 0.5 ?M) only slightly impacts endocytotic activity of iDCs or expression of co-stimulatory molecules in cells activated with lipopolysaccharide. However, this differentiation in the presence of As(III) strongly represses secretion of IL-12p70 and IL-23, two major regulators of Th1 and Th17 activities, from iDCs stimulated with different toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists in metalloid-free medium. Such As(III)-exposed DCs also exhibit reduced mRNA levels of IL12A and/or IL12B genes when activated with TLR agonists. Finally, differentiation of monocytes with non-cytotoxic concentrations of As(III) subsequently reduces the ability of activated DCs to stimulate the release of interferon-? and IL-17 from Th cells. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that clinically relevant concentrations of inorganic arsenic markedly impair in vitro differentiation and functions of DCs, which may contribute to the putative beneficial effects of the metalloid towards inflammatory autoimmune diseases. Highlights: ? Inorganic arsenic impairs differentiation and functions of human dendritic cells (DCs) ? Arsenite (> 1 ?M) blocks differentiation of dendritic cells by inducing necrosis ? Arsenite (0.1 to 0.5 ?M) slightly reduces endocytotic activity of immature DCs ? Arsenite (0.1 to 0.5 ?M) represses expression of IL-12p70 and IL-23 in activated DCs ? Arsenite (0.1 to 0.5 ?M) reduces the ability of DCs to activate human T lymphocytes.

Macoch, Mélinda; Morzadec, Claudie [UMR INSERM U1085, Institut de Recherche sur la Santé, l'Environnement et le Travail (IRSET), Université de Rennes 1, 2 avenue du Professeur Léon Bernard, 35043 Rennes (France)] [UMR INSERM U1085, Institut de Recherche sur la Santé, l'Environnement et le Travail (IRSET), Université de Rennes 1, 2 avenue du Professeur Léon Bernard, 35043 Rennes (France); Fardel, Olivier [UMR INSERM U1085, Institut de Recherche sur la Santé, l'Environnement et le Travail (IRSET), Université de Rennes 1, 2 avenue du Professeur Léon Bernard, 35043 Rennes (France) [UMR INSERM U1085, Institut de Recherche sur la Santé, l'Environnement et le Travail (IRSET), Université de Rennes 1, 2 avenue du Professeur Léon Bernard, 35043 Rennes (France); Pôle Biologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) Rennes, 2 rue Henri Le Guilloux, 35033 Rennes (France); Vernhet, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.vernhet@univ-rennes1.fr [UMR INSERM U1085, Institut de Recherche sur la Santé, l'Environnement et le Travail (IRSET), Université de Rennes 1, 2 avenue du Professeur Léon Bernard, 35043 Rennes (France)] [UMR INSERM U1085, Institut de Recherche sur la Santé, l'Environnement et le Travail (IRSET), Université de Rennes 1, 2 avenue du Professeur Léon Bernard, 35043 Rennes (France)

2013-01-15

66

Inorganic/organic doped carbon aerogels as biosensing materials for the detection of hydrogen peroxide.  

PubMed

In this article, three different inorganic/organic doped carbon aerogel (CA) materials (Ni-CA, Pd-CA, and Ppy-CA) were, respectively, mixed with ionic liquid (IL) to form three stable composite films, which were used as enhanced elements for an integrated sensing platform to increase the surface area and to improve the electronic transmission rate. Subsequently, the effect of the materials performances such as adsorption, specific surface area and conductivity on electrochemistry for myoglobin (Mb) was discussed using N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Moreover, they could act as sensors toward the detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) with lower detection limits (1.68 ?M, 1.02 ?M, and 0.85 ?M, for Ni-CA/IL/Mb-CPE, Pd-CA/IL/Mb-CPE, and Ppy-CA/IL/Mb-CPE, respectively) and smaller apparent Michaelis-Menten constants KM. The results indicated that the electroconductibility of the doped CA materials would become dominant, thus playing an important role in facilitating the electron transfer. Meanwhile, the synergetic effect with [BMIm]BF4 IL improved the capability of the composite inorganic/organic doped CA/IL matrix for protein immobilization. This work demonstrates the feasibility and the potential of a series of CA-based hybrid materials as biosensors, and further research and development are required to prepare other functional CAs and make them valuable for more extensive application in biosensing. PMID:24279516

Dong, Sheying; Li, Nan; Suo, Gaochao; Huang, Tinglin

2013-12-17

67

From iron oxide nanoparticles towards advanced iron-based inorganic materials designed for biomedical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last decade the progress achieved on the synthesis of inorganic nanostructures has been accompanied by the parallel exploitation of these systems in various fields, among them are biology and medicine. We provide here an overview of the iron-based inorganic nanostructured materials that have been developed and tested in these fields. We will highlight the major concepts on the

Albert Figuerola; Riccardo Di Corato; Liberato Manna; Teresa Pellegrino

2010-01-01

68

In situ studies of a platform for metastable inorganic crystal growth and materials discovery.  

PubMed

Rapid shifts in the energy, technological, and environmental demands of materials science call for focused and efficient expansion of the library of functional inorganic compounds. To achieve the requisite efficiency, we need a materials discovery and optimization paradigm that can rapidly reveal all possible compounds for a given reaction and composition space. Here we provide such a paradigm via in situ X-ray diffraction measurements spanning solid, liquid flux, and recrystallization processes. We identify four new ternary sulfides from reactive salt fluxes in a matter of hours, simultaneously revealing routes for ex situ synthesis and crystal growth. Changing the flux chemistry, here accomplished by increasing sulfur content, permits comparison of the allowable crystalline building blocks in each reaction space. The speed and structural information inherent to this method of in situ synthesis provide an experimental complement to computational efforts to predict new compounds and uncover routes to targeted materials by design. PMID:25024201

Shoemaker, Daniel P; Hu, Yung-Jin; Chung, Duck Young; Halder, Gregory J; Chupas, Peter J; Soderholm, L; Mitchell, J F; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

2014-07-29

69

Hybrid Nanocomposite Materials between Inorganic Glasses and Organic Polymers. (Reannouncement with New Availability Information).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The sol-gel process, with its associated mild conditions, offers a new approach to the synthesis of composite materials with domain sizes approaching the molecular level. Transparent organic-inorganic composites can be prepared by dissolving preformed pol...

B. M. Novak

1993-01-01

70

Behavior of Inorganic Materials during Pulverized Coal Combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the analysis of CCSEM data of raw coal, chars and fly ash of Coal A and Coal B, the results regarding the behavior of\\u000a inorganic particles during coal combustion was obtained as follows.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1) \\u000a Aluminosilicates (Si-Al) particles such as Kaolinite react Ca and Fe particles to produce calcium aluminosilicates (Si-Al-Ca)\\u000a particles and iron calcium aluminosilicates (Si-Al-Ca-Fe) particles. The production

Tsuyoshi Teramae; Toru Yamashita; Takashi Ando

71

Application of Cross-Flow Ultrafiltration on Inorganic Membranes in Purification of Food Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

HINKOVÁ A., BUBNÍK Z., POUR V., HENKE S., KADLEC P. (2005): Application of cross-flow ultrafiltration on inorganic membranes in purification of food materials. Czech J. Food Sci., 23: 103-110. This paper brings data on ultrafiltration on inorganic membranes (MEMBRALOX, France, mean pore size 20 and 100 nm, 0.8 m long, filtration area 0.2 m2), which were used for the purification

ANDREA HINKOV; ZDENEK BUBN ÍK; SVATOPLUK HENKE; PAVEL KADLEC

72

Lunar building materials: Some considerations on the use of inorganic polymers. [adhesives, coatings, and binders  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of inorganic polymer systems synthesized from the available lunar chemical elements, viz., silicon, aluminum, and oxygen to make adhesives, binders, and sealants needed in the fabrication of lunar building materials and the assembly of structures is considered. Inorganic polymer systems, their background, status, and shortcomings, and the use of network polymers as a possible approach to synthesis are examined as well as glassy metals for unusual structural strength, and the use of cold-mold materials as well as foam-sintered lunar silicates for lightweight shielding and structural building materials.

Lee, S. M.

1979-01-01

73

THE REMOVAL OF STRONTIUM AND CESIUM FROM SIMULATED HANFORD GROUNDWATER USING INORGANIC ION EXCHANGE MATERIALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of inorganic ion exchange materials that are commercially available or under development were evaluated for the removal of strontium and cesium from a simulated groundwater found in the Hanford waste storage area using a groundwater simulant spiked with either 89Sr or 137 Cs. The most promising materials for strontium were found to be a sodium titanosilicate from Texas

Paul Sylvester; Abraham Clearfield

1998-01-01

74

Hybrid Inorganic\\/Organic Light Emitting Materials and Devices for Displays and Lighting  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a review of hybrid inorganic\\/organic light emitting materials and devices. The essence of the Hybrid I\\/O™ approach is to combine materials and structures from each category in such a way as to obtain best-of-both-worlds performance. Examples of Hybrid I\\/O™ applications to displays and solid state lighting are discussed.

A. J. Steckl; J. Heikenfeld; S. C. Allen

2004-01-01

75

Nanostructured Organic/Inorganic Composites as Transparent Materials for Optical Components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been found that nanostructured organic/inorganic composites, in which nanometer-sized inorganic inclusions are uniformly dispersed in and fixed to a matrix polymer, can modify the property of the matrix polymer while suppressing Rayleigh scattering to exhibit preferable transparency. Rather, when compared with the transparency of a matrix polymer alone, the composite could exhibit better transparency as the content of inorganic inclusions increases. Furthermore, because the refractive index of the composite agrees well with the Maxwell-Garnett model, it is suggested that synergetic effects obtained by the bulk properties of both the matrix polymer and inorganic inclusions can be exhibited. Such a potential has been verified by applying the composites to optical waveguides and optically athermal materials.

Mataki, Hiroshi; Yamaki, Shigeru; Fukui, Toshimi

2004-08-01

76

Nanoscale Structure of Self-Assembling Hybrid Materials of Inorganic and Electronically Active Organic Phases  

SciTech Connect

Hybrid materials with nanoscale structure that incorporates inorganic and organic phases with electronic properties offer potential in an extensive functional space that includes photovoltaics, light emission, and sensing. This work describes the nanoscale structure of model hybrid materials with phases of silica and electronically active bola-amphiphile assemblies containing either oligo(p-phenylene vinylene) or oligo(thiophene) segments. The hybrid materials studied here were synthesized by evaporation-induced self-assembly and characterized by X-ray scattering techniques. Grazing-incidence X-ray scattering studies of these materials revealed the formation of two-dimensional hexagonally packed cylindrical micelles of the organic molecules with diameters between 3.1 and 3.6 nm and cylindrical axes parallel to the surface. During the self-assembly process at low pH, the cylindrical aggregates of conjugated molecules become surrounded by silica giving rise to a hybrid structure with long-range order. Specular X-ray reflectivity confirmed the long-range periodicity of the hybrid films within a specific range of molar ratios of tetraethyl orthosilicate to cationic amphiphile. We did not observe any long-range ordering in fully organic analogues unless quaternary ammonium groups were replaced by tertiary amines. These observations suggest that charge screening in these biscationic conjugated molecules by the mineral phase is a key factor in the evolution of long range order in the self-assembling hybrids.

Sofos, M.; Goswami, D.A. Stone D.K.; Okasinski, J.S.; Jin, H.; Bedzyk, M.J.; Stupp, S.I. (NWU)

2008-10-06

77

Hybrid materials based on organic luminophores in inorganic glass matrix  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hybrid materials were synthesized based on borate glass matrix and the tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) organic luminophore, which is used as a green luminophore in OLED devices. The luminescent properties of hybrid materials with 0.02-0.1 wt % of Alq3 in glass were studied. The luminescence peak of the hybrid material is significantly shifted to shorter wavelengths (443 nm versus 518 nm in pure Alq3 powder).

Petrova, O. B.; Avetisov, R. I.; Avetisov, I. Kh.; Mushkalo, O. A.; Khomyakov, A. V.; Cherednichenko, A. G.

2013-06-01

78

New Polish certified reference materials for multielement inorganic trace analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of the activities of the Polish Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology in the field of preparation and certification of reference materials for multielement trace analysis is presented. A general strategy has been worked out and is briefly described with more detailed emphasis on the problem of data evaluation. Two geological-environmental materials recently issued [i.e. an Apatite Concentrate

Rajmund Dybczyfiski; Halina Polkowska-Motrenko; Zbigniew Samczyfiski; Zygmunt Szopa

1993-01-01

79

Structural control in the synthesis of inorganic porous materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mesoporous (2.0--50.0 nm pore diameter) and macroporous (50.0 nm on up) materials have been the basis of my studies. These materials, for many years, possessed large pore size distributions. Recently, however, it has been possible to synthesize both mesoporous and macroporous materials that possess highly ordered uniform pores throughout the material. Workers at Mobil Corporation in 1992 discovered a hexagonally arrayed mesoporous material, designated MCM-41, which exhibited uniform pores ranging from 2.0--10.0 nm in diameter. In my work MCM-41 was used as a host for the incorporation of meso-tetrakis(5-trimethylammoniumpentyl)porphyrin (TMAP-Cl) and as a model for the synthesis of mesoporous alumino- and galloaluminophosphates which were created using cluster precursors of the type MO4Al 12(OH)24(H2O)12 7+, M = Al or Ga. Macroporous materials with uniform pore sizes have been synthesized by our group with frameworks consisting of a variety of metal oxides, metals, organosilanes, aluminophosphates and bimodal pores. These materials are synthesized from the addition of metal precursors to preordered polystyrene spheres. Removal of the spheres results in the formation of macropores with highly uniform pores extending microns in length. Porous materials with uniform and adjustable pore sizes in the mesoporous and macroporous size regimes offer distinct advantages over non-ordered materials for numerous reasons. First, catalysis reactions that are based on the ability of the porous materials to impose size and shape restrictions on the substrate are of considerable interest in the petroleum and petrochemical industries. As pore diameters increase larger molecules can be incorporated into the pores, i.e., biological molecules, dyes, etc. For the macroporous materials synthesized by our group it has been envisioned that these structures may not only be used for catalysis because of increased efficiencies of flow but for more advanced applications, e.g., photonic crystals, porous electrodes, electrochemical capacitors, etc. One of the more interesting macroporous materials takes advantage of having silicalite as the framework. This bimodal pore material may find use as an acid catalyst as aluminum is doped into the framework.

Holland, Brian Thomas

80

Fifteen years of operation with inorganic highly selective ion exchange materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

During latest fifteen years three highly selective inorganic ion exchange materials, CsTreat{sup R}, SrTreat{sup R}, and CoTreat, have been in full scale commercial use. All these materials have high capacity, and they give high decontamination factor (DF) and remarkably good volume reduction factor for storage and final disposal. A new material for antimony removal is currently coming for demonstration phase.

E. Tusa; R. Harjula; P. Yarnell

2007-01-01

81

Light Wave Coupled Flat Panel Displays and Solid-State Lighting Using Hybrid Inorganic\\/Organic Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a review of light-emitting materials and devices that combine inorganic and organic lumophores and hosts. The essence of this hybrid inorganic\\/organic (I\\/O) approach is to combine materials, structures and devices from each category in such a way as to obtain best-of-both-worlds performance. The combination of high power\\/high efficiency inorganic light pump sources with high conversion efficiency organic lumophores

Andrew J. Steckl; Jason Heikenfeld; Steven C. Allen

2005-01-01

82

Biomimetic materials: recent developments in organic-inorganic hybrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are a variety of biological materials that are composites of ceramics and organic phases, and successfully combine impressive toughness with high modulus and strength. This behavior is in contrast to the general situation with synthetic composites, where toughness is generally found to decrease with increase in modulus and tensile strength. Preserving toughness is very important in many applications, as

Z. Ahmad; J. E. Mark

1998-01-01

83

INORGANIC ION-EXCHANGE MATERIALS FOR WATER PURIFICATION IN CVTR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrous zirconium phosphate and oxide, were selected for intensive ; evaluation as candidate materials for high temperature, nuclear reactor water ; puriffcation. Experiments with unfired zirconium phosphate and zircorium oxide ; gels seemed to indicate the existence of a polyolated structure. When these ; polymeric gels were exposed to sufficiently high temperatures, crystallization ; resulted and characteristic x-ray diffraction patterns

N. Michael; W. D. Fletcher; M. J. Bell; D. E. Croucher

1961-01-01

84

Inorganic Materials as Ameliorants for Soil Remediation of Metal Toxicity to Wild Mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ameliorating effects of different inorganic materials were investigated on a soil originating from a zinc smelter dumping site contaminated by toxic metals. Wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) was used as a test plant. The soil was amended with different doses of mining sludge, Perferric Red Latosol (LVj), steel shots, cyclonic ash, silifertil, and superphosphate. The most effective amendments improved

Mateus Rosas Ribeiro Filho; José Oswaldo Siqueira; Jaco Vangronsveld; Cláudio Roberto Fonsêca Sousa Soares; Nilton Curi

2011-01-01

85

Polymer\\/inorganic nanocomposites with tailored hierarchical structure as advanced dielectric materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most advances and commercial successes of polymer\\/inorganic nanocomposites rely only on the dispersion of nanoparticles in a polymer matrix. Such approaches leave untapped opportunities where performance can be improved by controlling the larger length-scale structures. Here, we review selected examples where the hierarchical structure (from millimeter to nanometer) is tailored to control the transport properties of the materials, giving rise

Evangelos Manias; Clive Randall; Vivek Tomer

2012-01-01

86

Luminescent Organic-Inorganic Hybrids of Functionalized Mesoporous Silica SBA-15 by Thio-Salicylidene Schiff Base  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Novel organic-inorganic mesoporous luminescent hybrid material N, N'-bis(salicylidene)-thiocarbohydrazide (BSTC-SBA-15) has been obtained by co-condensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate and the organosilane in the presence of Pluronic P123 surfactant as a template. N, N'-bis(salicylidene)-thiocarbohydrazide (BSTC) grafted to the coupling agent 3-(triethoxysilyl)-propyl isocyanate (TESPIC) was used as the precursor for the preparation of mesoporous materials. In addition, for comparison, SBA-15 doped with organic ligand BSTC was also synthesized, denoted as BSTC/SBA-15. This organic-inorganic hybrid material was well-characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and photoluminescence spectra, which reveals that they all have high surface area, uniformity in the mesostructure. The resulting materials (BSTC-SBA-15 and BSTC/SBA-15) exhibit regular uniform microstructures, and no phase separation happened for the organic and the inorganic compounds was covalently linked through Si-O bonds via a self-assemble process. Furthermore, the two materials have different luminescence range: BSTC/SBA-15 presents the strong dominant green luminescence, while BSTC-functionalized material BSTC-SBA-15 shows the dominant blue emission.

Li, Ying; Yan, Bing; Liu, Jin-Liang

2010-05-01

87

Treeing Breakdown in Inorganic-filler\\/LDPE Nanocomposite Material  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nano-composite material of magnesium oxide (MgO) added to a low-density polyethylene (LDPE) was subjected to electrical tree breakdown investigation. The LDPE without nano-fillers was lower in breakdown voltage than the LDPE added with nano-fillers. The breakdown voltage was increased by increase of nano-filler concentrations in LDPE. This result much coincided with the result on tree inception voltage which was

Rudi Kurnianto; Yoshinobu Murakami; Masayuki Nagao; Naohiro Hozumi; Yoshinao Murata

2007-01-01

88

Observing assembly of complex inorganic materials from polyoxometalate building blocks.  

PubMed

Understanding the aqueous state of discrete metal-oxo clusters, prenucleation clusters, and even simple ions is valuable for controlling the growth of metal-oxide materials from water. Niobium polyoxometalates (Nb-POMs) are unique in the aqueous metal-oxo cluster landscape in their unusual solubility behavior: specifically, their solubility in water increases with increasing ion-pairing contact with their counterions, and thus provides a rare opportunity to observe these and related solution phenomena. Here, we isolate in the solid state the monomeric and dimeric building blocks, capped Keggin ions, of the extended Keggin chain materials that are now well-known: not only in Nb-POM chemistry, but Mo and V POM chemistry as well. Rb13[GeNb13O41]·23H2O (Rb1), Cs10.6[H2.4GeNb13O41]·27H2O (Cs1) and Cs18H6[(NbOH)SiNb12O40]2·38H2O (Cs2) were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) of solutions of Rb1 and Cs1 in varying conditions revealed oligomerization of the monomers into chain structures: the extent of oligomerization is controlled by pH, concentration, and the counterion. We distinctly observe chains of up to six Keggin ions in solution, with the large alkali cations for charge-balance. This combined solid state and solution study reveals in great detail the growth of a complex material from discrete monomeric building blocks. The fundamentals of the processes we are able to directly observe in this study, ion-association and hydrolysis leading to condensation, universally control the self-assembly and precipitation of materials from water. PMID:24116690

Hou, Yu; Zakharov, Lev N; Nyman, May

2013-11-01

89

Inorganic chemical analysis of environmental materials—A lecture series  

USGS Publications Warehouse

At the request of the faculty of the Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado, the authors prepared and presented a lecture series to the students of a graduate level advanced instrumental analysis class. The slides and text presented in this report are a compilation and condensation of this series of lectures. The purpose of this report is to present the slides and notes and to emphasize the thought processes that should be used by a scientist submitting samples for analyses in order to procure analytical data to answer a research question. First and foremost, the analytical data generated can be no better than the samples submitted. The questions to be answered must first be well defined and the appropriate samples collected from the population that will answer the question. The proper methods of analysis, including proper sample preparation and digestion techniques, must then be applied. Care must be taken to achieve the required limits of detection of the critical analytes to yield detectable analyte concentration (above "action" levels) for the majority of the study's samples and to address what portion of those analytes answer the research question-total or partial concentrations. To guarantee a robust analytical result that answers the research question(s), a well-defined quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) plan must be employed. This QA/QC plan must include the collection and analysis of field and laboratory blanks, sample duplicates, and matrix-matched standard reference materials (SRMs). The proper SRMs may include in-house materials and/or a selection of widely available commercial materials. A discussion of the preparation and applicability of in-house reference materials is also presented. Only when all these analytical issues are sufficiently addressed can the research questions be answered with known certainty.

Crock, J.G.; Lamothe, P.J.

2011-01-01

90

Characterization of Functionally Graded Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study was to characterize the behavior of a functionally graded material through experimentation and analytical modeling. Functionally graded materials are a ceramic metal composite which transitions from metal on one face to ceramic o...

B. D. Chapman

2006-01-01

91

Functioning of inorganic/organic battery separators in silver-zinc cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of three experimental studies related to the inorganic/organic battery separator operating mechanism are described: saponification of the plasticizer, resistivity of the simulated separators, and zincate diffusion through the separators. The inorganic/organic separator appears to be a particular example of a general class of ionic conducting films composed of inorganic fillers and/or substrates bonded together by an organic polymer containing an incompatible plasticizer that may be leached by the electrolyte. The I/O separator functions as a microporous film of varying tortuosity with essentially no specific chemical inhibition to zincate diffusion.

Philipp, W. H.; May, C. E.

1976-01-01

92

Intrinsic mechanical properties and strengthening methods in inorganic crystalline materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper deals with strength and fracture in metals, ceramics and intermetallic compounds. The emphasis is on the interrelation between microstructure and macroscopic behavior and how the concepts for alloy design are mirroring this interrelationship. The three materials classes are distinguished by the physical nature of the atomic bonding forces. In metals metallic bonding predominates which causes high ductility but poor strength. Accordingly material development concentrates on production of microstructures which optimize the yield strength without unacceptable loss in ductility. In ceramics covalent bonding prevails which results in high hardness and high elastic stiffness but at the same time extreme brittleness. Contrary to the metal-ease material development aims at a kind of pseudo ductility in order to rise the fracture toughness to sufficiently high levels. In intermetallic phases the atomic bonds are a mixture of metallic and covalent bonding where depending on the alloying system the balance between the two contributions may be quite different. Accordingly the properties of intermetallics are in the range between metals and ceramics. By a variety of microstructural measures their properties can be changed in direction. either towards metallic or ceramic behavior. General rules for alloy design are not available, rather every system demands very specific experience since properties depend to a considerable part on intrinsic properties of lattice defects such as dislocations, antiphase boundaries, stacking faults and grain boundaries. Cet article traite de la résistance et de la fracture des métaux, des céramiques et des composés intermétalliques. L'accent est mis sur les correspondances entre la microstructure et le comportement macroscopique ainsi que sur la façon dont de tels concepts se reflètent dans la création de nouveaux alliages. C'est la nature des forces de liaisons qui distingue chaque type de matériaux. Dans les métaux, les liaisons métalliques dominent, ce qui entraîne une grande ductilité mais une médiocre résistance. En conséquence, dans le développement de nouveaux matériaux on cherche préférentiellement à produire des microstructures qui optimisent la résistance élastique sans perte inacceptable de ductilité. Dans les céramiques, les liaisons covalentes prédominent; ceci entraîne une dureté élevée, une grande rigidité, mais en même temps une extrême fragilité. Au contraire des métaux, le développement de ces matériaux vise à obtenir une pseudoductilité afin d'amener la tenacité à des niveaux suffisamment élevés. Dans les phases intermétalliques les liaisons atomiques correspondent à un mélange de liaisons métalliques et covalentes. La contribution de chacune d'entre elles varie en fonction du système allié. En conséquence, les propriétés des intermétalliques se situent entre celles des métaux et des céramiques. Par divers changements microstructuraux des propriétés peuvent être déplacées pour se rapprocher d'un comportement de type métallique ou de type céramique. Donner des règles générales pour la création de nouveaux alliages n'est pas possible car chaque système demande à être testé, les propriétés dépendent en effet, pour une part considérable, des propriétés intrinsèques des défauts de réseau comme les dislocations, les parois d'antiphase ou les joints de grains.

Mecking, H.; Hartig, Ch.; Seeger, J.

1991-06-01

93

Nanostructured inorganic materials: Synthesis and associated electrochemical properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synthetic strategy for preparing potential battery materials at low temperature was developed. Magnetite (Fe3O4), silver hollandnite (AgxMn8O16), magnesium manganese oxide (MgxMnO 2?yH2O), and silver vanadium phosphorous oxide (Ag 2VO2PO4) were studied. Magnetite (Fe3O4) was prepared by coprecipitation induced by triethylamine from aqueous iron(II) and iron(III) chloride solutions of varying concentrations. Variation of the iron(II) and iron(III) concentrations results in crystallite size control of the Fe3O4 products. Materials characterization of the Fe3O4 samples is reported, including Brunauer-Emmitt-Teller (BET) surface area, x-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), particle size, and saturation magnetization results. A strong correlation between discharge capacity and voltage recovery behavior versus crystallite size was observed when tested as an electrode material in lithium electrochemical cells. Silver hollandite (AgxMn8O16) was successfully synthesized through a low temperature reflux reaction. The crystallite size and silver content of AgxMn8O16 by varying the reactant ratio of silver permanganate (AgMnO4) and manganese sulfate monohydrate (MnSO4?H2O). Silver hollandite was characterized by Brunauer-Emmitt-Teller (BET) surface area, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission (ICP-OES) spectrometry, helium pycnometry, simultaneous thermogravimetric analysis/differential scanning calorimetry (TGA/DSC), and x-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The crystallite size showed a strong correlation with silver content, BET surface area, and particle sizes. The silver hollandite cathode showed good discharge capacity retention in 30 cycles of discharge-charge. There were a good relationship between crystallite size and rate capability and pulse ability. Magnesium manganese oxide (MgxMnO2?yH 2O) was made by redox reaction by mixing sodium hydroxide (NaOH), manganese sulfate monohydrate (MnSO4?HO2), and potassium persulfate (K2S2O8). The solid samples were characterized by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission (ICP-OES) spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), simultaneous thermogravimetric analysis/differential scanning calorimetry (TGA/DSC), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The solid had a plate-like morphology. The preliminary electrochemical results showed that MgxMnO2?yH2O had a very good cycliability and the capacity retention in 20 discharge-charge cycles. When the sample was dried at 100°C after collection, the discharge capacity would increase from 80 mAh/g to 155 mAh/g in the first discharge process in cycling test. Silver vanadium phosphorous oxide (SVPO, Ag2VO2PO 4) was prepared in various reaction temperatures. It was the first time that Ag2VO2PO4 was synthesized successfully at room temperature. The solid was characterized by Brunauer-Emmitt-Teller surface area (BET), inductively coupled plasma-optical emission (ICP-OES) spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), magnetic susceptibility measurement, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and x-ray powder diffraction (XRD). Ag2VO2PO4 crystallite sizes showed a strong linear correlation with reaction temperature. The BET surface area was decreased as the crystallite size increased linearly. In addition, the acicular morphology started to develop at 50°C. The impact of silver deposition loading on the silver-polypyrrole composite electrode was studied using cyclic voltammetry. The minimum Ag loading of 0.08 mg/cm2 was determined to maximize the oxygen reduction activity for the Ag/Ppy composite catalyst. In addition, the Ag/Ppy coated carbon electrode showed higher oxygen reduction activities in both air and oxygen compared to the uncoated carbon electrode.

Yau, Shali Zhu

94

Electrodeposition of inorganic materials with tailored shapes and chiral morphologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation investigates the electrodeposition of metal oxide films and biomaterial deposits on polycrystalline and single crystal substrates. Paper I describes the mechanisms and the characterization of an electrodeposited polycrystalline insulator, ceria (CeO2), on Hastelloy substrates produced by the electrochemical oxidation of Ce(III) acetate complexes. In Paper II, epitaxial films of magnetite (Fe3O4) and fenihydrite (Fe10O14(OH)2) are deposited on gold single crystals. Paper III reports the electrodeposition of epitaxial e3O 4 and zinc ferrite (ZnFe2O4) periodic nanostructures known as superlattices by pulsing between two potentials. Papers IV and V describe chiral electrodeposition. In Paper IV, epitaxial, chiral orientations of cupric oxide (CuO) are electrodeposited on Au(00l) single crystals. In Paper V, chiral morphologies of the biomaterial calcite (CaCO3) are electrochemically deposited on stainless steel substrates. In both chiral electrodeposition studies, the chirality of these materials is controlled by the enantiomer in solution. The first two appendices of this dissertation cover morphology and x-ray diffraction characterization. The third appendix has supplementary information from the calcite paper (Paper V) followed by unpublished biomineralization results.

Kulp, Elizabeth Ann

95

Size-controlled hydroxyapatite nanoparticles as self-organized organic-inorganic composite materials.  

PubMed

This paper presents some results concerning the size-controlled hydroxyapatite nanoparticles obtained in aqueous media in a biopolymer matrix from soluble precursors salts. Taking the inspiration from nature, where composite materials made of a polymer matrix and inorganic fillers are often found, e.g. bone, shell of crustaceans, shell of eggs, etc., the feasibility on making composite materials containing chitosan and nanosized hydroxyapatite was investigated. A stepwise co-precipitation approach was used to obtain different types of composites by means of different ratio between components. The synthesis of hydroxyapatite was carried out in the chitosan matrix from calcium chloride and sodium dihydrogenphosphate in alkaline solutions at moderate pH of 10-11 for 24 h. Our research is focused on studying and understanding the structure of this class of composites, aiming at the development of novel materials, controlled at the nanolevel scale. The X-ray diffraction technique was employed in order to study the kinetic of hydroxyapatite formation in the chitosan matrix as well as to determine the HAp crystallite sizes in the composite samples. The hydroxyapatite synthesized using this route was found to be nano-sized (15-50 nm). Moreover, applying an original approach to analyze the (002) XRD diffraction peak profile of hydroxyapatite by using a sum of two Gauss functions, the bimodal distribution of nanosized hydroxyapatite within the chitosan matrix was revealed. Two types of size distribution domains such as cluster-like (between 200 and 400 nm), which are the habitat of ''small'' hydroxyapatite nanocrystallites and scattered-like, which are the habitat of ''large'' hydroxyapatite nanocrystallites was probed by TEM and CSLM. The structural features of composites suggest that self-assembly processes might be involved. The composites contain nanosized hydroxyapatite with structural features close to those of biological apatites that make them attractive for bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:15814140

Rusu, Viorel Marin; Ng, Chuen-How; Wilke, Max; Tiersch, Brigitte; Fratzl, Peter; Peter, Martin G

2005-09-01

96

Dark inorganic carbon fixation sustains the functioning of benthic deep-sea ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

studies have provided evidence that dark inorganic carbon fixation is an important process for the functioning of the ocean interior. However, its quantitative relevance and ecological significance in benthic deep-sea ecosystems remain unknown. We investigated the rates of inorganic carbon fixation together with prokaryotic abundance, biomass, assemblage composition, and heterotrophic carbon production in surface sediments of different benthic deep-sea systems along the Iberian margin (northeastern Atlantic Ocean) and in the Mediterranean Sea. Inorganic carbon fixation rates in these surface deep-sea sediments did not show clear depth-related patterns, and, on average, they accounted for 19% of the total heterotrophic biomass production. The incorporation rates of inorganic carbon were significantly related to the abundance of total Archaea (as determined by catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization) and completely inhibited using an inhibitor of archaeal metabolism, N1-guanyl-1,7-diaminoheptane. This suggests a major role of the archaeal assemblages in inorganic carbon fixation. We also show that benthic archaeal assemblages contribute approximately 25% of the total 3H-leucine incorporation. Inorganic carbon fixation in surface deep-sea sediments appears to be dependent not only upon chemosynthetic processes but also on heterotrophic/mixotrophic metabolism, as suggested by estimates of the chemolithotrophic energy requirements and the enhanced inorganic carbon fixation due to the increase in the availability of organic trophic resources. Overall, our data suggest that archaeal assemblages of surface deep-sea sediments are responsible for the high rates of inorganic carbon incorporation and thereby sustain the functioning of the food webs as well as influence the carbon cycling of benthic deep-sea ecosystems.

Molari, Massimiliano; Manini, Elena; Dell'Anno, Antonio

2013-01-01

97

A new CMC-AA resin\\/inorganic-gel super absorbent material  

Microsoft Academic Search

A super absorbent material was prepared with the super absorbent resin (SAR) and inorganic gel. The SAR of the carboxymethyl\\u000a cellulose grafting acrylic acid (CMC-AA) was copolymer synthesized using the method of inversephase suspension polymerization.\\u000a The influences of the monomer concentration, neutralization degree, the initiator, dispersion agent, cross-linking agent,\\u000a reaction and drying temperature on the grafting copolymer properties were examined.

Wang Yong; Toshinori Kojima; Li Ming; Liu Jie

2006-01-01

98

Dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical solar cells based on nanocomposite organic–inorganic materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical solar cells have been constructed by using nanocomposite organic–inorganic sol–gel electrolytes and a titania nanocrystalline film also based on a sol–gel nanocomposite material. Among other advantages connected with nanocomposite electrolytes is the balance between hydrophilic and hydrophobic domains that allows reducing polarity-connected repulsive forces developing between the titania-dye system and the electrolyte. The overall efficiencies of these cells

Elias Stathatos; Panagiotis Lianos; Vasko Jovanovski; Boris Orel

2005-01-01

99

Investigation of electrical phenomena of inorganic-filler\\/LDPE nanocomposite material  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nanocomposite material, composed of nano-size inorganic-filler added to a low-density polyethylene (LDPE), was subjected to electrical property investigations. The volume resistibility of LDPE, under 80 kV\\/mm DC field at 90 C, increases by the power of 10 due to the addition of only a few percent of nano-filler. On the other hand, lightning impulse breakdown strength was estimated by

Y. Murata; Y. Sekiguchi; Y. Inoue; M. Kanaoka

2005-01-01

100

Applications of Solid-State NMR to the Study of Organic\\/Inorganic Multicomponent Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characterization of a variety of organic\\/inorganic multicomponent materials (OIMM) through solid-state NMR (SSNMR) spectroscopy will be reviewed. Many examples of applications to OIMM will be described, based on the observation of different nuclei and the use of various SSNMR methods, such as 1D and 2D techniques, measurements on relaxation and spin diffusion processes. OIMM are a very general category

Marco Geppi; Silvia Borsacchi; Giulia Mollica; Carlo Alberto Veracini

2009-01-01

101

Synthesis of inorganic-organic hybrid materials from TEOS, TBT and PDMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inorganic-organic hybrid materials have been synthesized by reaction of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), titanium tetrabutoxide (TBT) and silanol-terminated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The hydrolysis and polymerization reactions of TEOS and PDMS in presence of TBT have been followed by means of FT-IR spectroscopy. Hydrolysis reactions have been characterized by Si—O—C and Ti—O—C bonds and polymerization reactions by Si—O—Si, Si—O—Ti and Ti—O—Ti bonds. The instantaneous

L. Téllez; J. Rubio; F. Rubio; E. Morales; J. L. Oteo

2003-01-01

102

Novel polymer–inorganic hybrid materials fabricated with in situ composition and luminescent properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new polymer–inorganic material was synthesized from terephthalic acid (TPA) and rare-earth ion (Tb3+, Eu3+) complex, which rare-earth ions connect with polymer by covalent bands. The luminescent europium and terbium coordination polymers, PET–Tb and PET–Eu, were produced in situ through low temperature solution polycondensation (PET=polyethyl terephthate ester). FTIR spectroscopy, ultraviolet absorption and scanning electron microscopy were applied to characterize the

Li-Min Zhao; Bing Yan

2007-01-01

103

Atomic layer deposition of organic-inorganic hybrid materials based on saturated linear carboxylic acids.  

PubMed

Atomic layer deposition (ALD) has successfully provided thin films of organic-inorganic hybrid materials based on saturated linear carboxylic acids and trimethylaluminium (TMA). Films were grown for seven carboxylic acids: oxalic, malonic, succinic, glutaric, pimelic, suberic and sebacic acid, i.e. ranging from 2 to 10 carbon atoms in the molecular structure. These processes show exceptionally high growth rates; up to 4.3 nm/cycle for the pimelic acid-TMA system. Quartz crystal microbalance measurements of the growth dynamics indicate that all systems are of a self limiting ALD-type. Nevertheless, temperature dependent growth was observed in several systems. The width of the ALD windows shows correlations with the length of the carbon chains. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy clearly proved that the deposited films are of a hybrid character, where the carboxylic acids primarily form bidentate complexes, though bridging complexes may also form. All films are X-ray amorphous as deposited. The films were further analyzed by atomic force microscopy for surface roughness and topography, UV-Vis spectroscopy and ellipsometry for optical properties, and the goniometer method for measuring sessile drops for surface wetting properties. Apart from the oxalic and malonic acid-TMA systems, the films are stable in contact with water. The films are generally smooth, transparent and have a refractive index close to 1.5. The complete coverage and accurate growth control offered by the ALD technique is here proven to provide surface-functionalized hybrid materials resembling metal-organic frameworks (MOF), probably as rather dense structures, yet with substantial potential for applications. PMID:21442116

Klepper, Karina Barnholt; Nilsen, Ola; Hansen, Per-Anders; Fjellvåg, Helmer

2011-05-01

104

Use of reinforced inorganic cement materials for spark wire and drift chamber wire frames  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a survey, materials test, and analysis study directed toward the development of an inorganic glass-fiber reinforced cement material for use in the construction of space qualified spark wire frames and drift chamber frames are presented. The purpose for this research was to evaluate the feasibility of using glass fiber reinforced cement (GFRC) for large dimensioned structural frames for supporting a number of precisely located spark wires in multiple planes. A survey of the current state of the art in fiber reinforced cement materials was made; material sample mixes were made and tested to determine their laboratory performances. Tests conducted on sample materials showed that compressive and flexural strengths of this material could approach values which would enable fabrication of structural spark wire frames.

1987-01-01

105

Design of heterogeneous catalysts via multiple active site positioning in organic-inorganic hybrid materials.  

PubMed

Catalytic materials bearing multiple sulfonic acid functional groups and positioned at varying distances from one another on the surface of mesoporous solids are prepared to explore the effects that the spatial arrangement of active sites have on catalytic activity and selectivity. A series of organosiloxane precursors containing either disulfide or sulfonate ester functionalities (synthons of the eventual sulfonic acid groups) are synthesized. From these molecular precursors, a variety of organic-inorganic hybrid, mesostructured SBA-15 silica materials are prepared using a postsynthetic grafting procedure that leads to disulfide and sulfonate ester modified silicas: [Si]CH(2)CH(2)CH(2)SS-pyridyl, 2.SBA, [Si]CH(2)CH(2)CH(2)SSCH(2)CH(2)CH(2)[Si], 3.SBA, [Si]CH(2)CH(2)(C(6)H(4))(SO(2))OCH(2)CH(3), 4.SBA, and [Si]CH(2)CH(2)(C(6)H(4))(SO(2))OC(6)H(4)O(SO(2))(C(6)H(4))CH(2)CH(2)[Si], 6.SBA ([Si] = (tbd1;SiO)(x)()(RO)(3)(-)(x)()Si, where x = 1, 2). By subsequent chemical derivatization of the grafted species, thiol and sulfonic acid modified silicas are obtained. The materials are characterized by a variety of spectroscopic ((13)C and (29)Si CP MAS NMR, X-ray diffraction) and quantitative (TGA/DTA, elemental analysis, acid capacity titration) techniques. In all cases, the organic fragment of the precursor molecule is grafted onto the solid without measurable decomposition, and the precursors are, in general, attached to the surface of the mesoporous oxide by multiple siloxane bridges. The disulfide species 2.SBA and 3.SBA are reduced to the corresponding thiols 7.SBA and 8.SBA, respectively, and 4.SBA and 6.SBA are transformed to the aryl sulfonic acids 11.SBA and 12.SBA, respectively. 7.SBA and 8.SBA differ only in terms of the level of control of the spatial arrangement of the thiol groups. Both 7.SBA and 8.SBA are further modified by oxidation with hydrogen peroxide to produce the alkyl sulfonic acid modified materials 9.SBA and 10.SBA, respectively. The performances of the sulfonic acid containing SBA-15 silica materials (with the exception of 12.SBA) are tested as catalysts for the condensation reaction of phenol and acetone to bisphenol A. The alkyl sulfonic acid modified material 10.SBA derived from the cleavage and oxidation of the dipropyl disulfide modified material 3.SBA is more active than not only its monosite analogue 9.SBA, but also the presumably stronger acid aryl sulfonic acid material 11.SBA. It appears that a cooperative effect between two proximal functional groups may be operating in this reaction. PMID:12889971

Dufaud, Véronique; Davis, Mark E

2003-08-01

106

PEGylated Inorganic Nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

Application of inorganic nanoparticles in diagnosis and therapy has become a critical component in targeted treatment of diseases. The surface modification of inorganic oxides is important for providing diversity in size, shape, solubility, long term stability and attachment of selective functional groups. PEGylation of surfaces is a key strategic approach for providing stealth characteristics to nanomaterials otherwise identified as foreign materials by human body. The current review describes the role of surface modification of oxides by polyethylene glycol (PEG) in providing versatile characteristics to inorganic oxide nanoparticles with a focus on their biomedical applications. The role of PEG as structure directing agent in synthesis of oxides is also captured in this short review.

Karakoti, Ajay S.; Das, Soumya; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Seal, Sudipta

2011-02-25

107

Cryogenic Properties of Inorganic Insulation Materials for ITER Magnets: A Review  

SciTech Connect

Results of a literature search on the cryogenic properties of candidate inorganic insulators for the ITER TF magnets are reported. The materials investigated include: Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, AlN, MgO, porcelain, SiO{sub 2}, MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, ZrO{sub 2}, and mica. A graphical presentation is given of mechanical, elastic, electrical, and thermal properties between 4 and 300 K. A companion report reviews the low temperature irradiation resistance of these materials.

Simon, N.J.

1994-12-01

108

Inorganic resist materials based on zirconium phosphonate for atomic force microscope lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New inorganic resist materials based on metal complexes were investigated for atomic force microscope (AFM) lithography. Phosphoric acids are good for self-assembly because of their strong binding energy. In this work, zirconium phosphonate system are newly synthesized for spin-coatable materials in aqueous solutions and leads to negative tone pattern for improving line edge roughness. Low electron exposure by AFM lithography could generate a pattern by electrochemical reaction and cross-linking of metal-oxo complexes. It has been reported that the minimum pattern results are affected by lithographic speed, and the applied voltage between a tip and a substrate.

Kang, Mankyu; Kim, Seonae; Jung, JinHyuck; Kim, Heebom; Shin, Inkyun; Jeon, Chanuk; Lee, Haiwon

2014-03-01

109

Cracks in functionally graded materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The weight function method is described to analyze the crack growth behavior in functionally graded materials and in particular materials with a rising crack growth resistance curve. Further, failure of graded thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) under cyclic surface heating by laser irradiation is modeled on the basis of fracture mechanics. The damage of both graded and non-graded TBCs is found

H.-A Bahr; H Balke; T Fett; I Hofinger; G Kirchhoff; D Munz; A Neubrand; A. S Semenov; H.-J Weiss; Y. Y Yang

2003-01-01

110

Intelligent functionally graded material: Bamboo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the shape and ingenious construction of biological hard tissues are the result of a continuous process of optimization, their basic characteristics such as microstructures, functions, and modelling systems fascinate the designers of engineering structures. Through the study of functionally graded materials, we hope to develop new superior material\\/structure concepts by using or modifying the construction of living organisms. The

Hideaki Takahashi

1995-01-01

111

Mapping Proxy Sensitivity: A New Technique for Compositional Analysis of Cultured Biominerals and Inorganically Precipitated Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mineral composition is controlled by a host of environmental factors during precipitation. To build accurate paleo-reconstructions we need to separate the impact of each parameter on proxy behavior and use these data to build a chemical-scale understanding of mineral growth. Biomineral culture and inorganic precipitation experiments, where growth parameters can be manipulated independently, are uniquely suited to calibrate proxies and probe mechanism. Culture and precipitation experiments often involve overgrowth of an initial material. For example, seed crystals are used to control mineralogy and avoid nucleation during inorganic precipitation, while culture experiments in marine organisms typically start with wild specimens. New growth corresponding to the experimental conditions must be resolved from the initial material. Separation is typically achieved using microanalysis, skeletal dissection, or estimates of the initial mass and composition. Each approach imposes limits on the accuracy, precision or types of materials that can be analyzed. Slow growth rates and complicated geometries can make these techniques especially challenging when applied to biominerals. We present a method of compositional analysis for use in biological culture and inorganic growth experiments that overcomes many of these challenges. This method relies on growth in a mixed element stable isotope spike, requires neither the initial mass nor the initial composition to be known, harnesses the precision and sensitivity of bulk analysis, and applies even when it is impossible to physically identify newly grown material. Error analysis suggests this method can significantly improve the precision of metal/calcium measurements in experimentally grown material compared to current methods. Furthermore, the method can isolate different events through time, separating, for example, the impact of day and night cycles on biomineral composition. We will present metal/calcium ratios measured using the new method with living planktic foraminifera that were cultured at The Wrigley Marine Science Center on Santa Catalina Island during summer 2011 and compare our approach to other micro-analytical techniques.

Gagnon, A. C.; DePaolo, D. J.; DeYoreo, J.; Spero, H. J.; Russell, A. D.

2011-12-01

112

Bioactive inorganic-materials/alginate composite microspheres with controllable drug-delivery ability.  

PubMed

Alginate microspheres are considered a promising material as a drug carrier in bone repair because of excellent biocompatibility, but their main disadvantage is low drug entrapment efficiency and noncontrollable release. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of incorporating mesoporous bioglass (MBG), nonmesoporous bioglass (BG), or hydroxyapatite (HAp) into alginate microspheres on their drug-loading and release properties. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and atomic emission spectroscopy (AES) were used to analyze the composition, structure, and dissolution of bioactive inorganic materials and their microspheres. Dexamethasone (DEX)-loading and release ability of four microspheres were tested in phosphate buffered saline with varying pH. Results showed that the drug-loading capacity was enhanced with the incorporation of bioactive inorganic materials into alginate microspheres. The MBG/alginate microspheres had the highest drug loading ability. DEX release from alginate microspheres correlated to the dissolution of MBG, BG, and HAp in PBS, and that the pH was an efficient factor in controlling the DEX release; a high pH resulted in greater DEX release, whereas a low pH delayed DEX release. In addition, MBG/alginate, BG/alginate, and HAp/alginate microspheres had varying apatite-formation and dissolution abilities, which indicate that the composites would behave differently with respect to bioactivity. The study suggests that microspheres made of a composite of bioactive inorganic materials and alginate have a bioactivity and degradation profile which greatly improves their drug delivery capacity, thus enhancing their potential applications as bioactive filler materials for bone tissue regeneration. PMID:20225253

Wu, Chengtie; Zhu, Yufang; Chang, Jiang; Zhang, Yufeng; Xiao, Yin

2010-07-01

113

Novel approaches to the synthesis and cooperative assembly of inorganic materials utilizing block copolypeptides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biominerals and biocomposites are highly ornate and functional materials. Nature controls the properties of these materials by organizing their organic and inorganic constituents on the atomic, molecular, nano, and micron scales. The remarkable precision and complexity of this organization is accomplished using a combination of electrostatics, hydrogen bonding, disulfide bonding, and other molecular-level interactions. The goal of the work described in this dissertation was to use the principles employed by Nature in the biological assembly of biomaterials as inspiration for developing (1) completely synthetic and novel composite materials, and (2) new general methods for the synthesis of composite materials. Specifically, block copolypeptides were used as structure-directing agents in several successful applications of this approach. One application involves the rational design of an organic polymer molecule to direct the crystallization of calcium carbonate into microspheres. I have shown that the doubly-hydrophilic block copolypeptide poly{Nepsilon-2[2-(2 methoxy-ethoxy)ethoxy]acetyl-L-lysine}100-block-poly(L-aspartate sodium salt)30 can act as the structure-directing agent in this process. In addition, control over the morphology of calcium carbonate crystals can be exerted using anionic, amphiphilic block copolypeptides, such as poly(L-aspartate sodium salt)100-block-poly(L-phenylalanine- random-L-leucine)50 and poly(L-glutamate sodium salt) 100-block-poly(L-phenylalanine-random-L-leucine) 50. I have demonstrated that microspheres of calcium carbonate can be prepared by introducing the polymer additive during crystallization. These self-assembling polymers control the precipitation of the microspheres by acting as templates for sphere formation. Another application involves the organization of magnetic nanoparticles into well-defined, soluble nanoclusters. First, I have demonstrated that highly crystalline, monodisperse maghemite (gamma-Fe2O3) nanoparticles, synthesized in organic solvents, can be transferred effectively into an aqueous medium using an ammonium salt. The nanoparticles remain monodisperse, as characterized by TEM and XRD, as well as superparamagnetic, as determined by SQUID magnetometry. Then when the aqueous maghemite is combined with the biologically-inspired block copolypeptide poly(EG2-L-lys) 100-block-poly(L-asp)30, the nanoparticles assemble into uniform clusters of approximately twenty nanoparticles. These water-soluble, block copolypeptide-nanoparticle structures have been characterized by TEM, SQUID, and XRD. Furthermore, I have shown that it is possible to tag the polypeptides with folate molecules (cell-targeting ligands) to produce magnetic microshells with potential applications in the biological imaging and drug delivery fields.

Euliss, Larken E.

114

Fire Retardance Effectiveness of High Molecular Weight, High Oxygen Containing Inorganic Additives in Cellulosic and Synthetic Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A feasibility study was conducted to determine whether high-molecular-weight inorganic additives, particularly those with high oxygen content, can be used effectively as permanent flame retardants for cotton, rayon, roofing material, nylon, and polyester....

A. E. Lipska

1972-01-01

115

The encapsulation of an organic light-emitting diode using organic–inorganic hybrid materials and MgO  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of organic–inorganic multi-barriers were investigated in this study. Polymerized cycloaliphatic epoxy hybrid materials (hybrimers), synthesized by a sol–gel method and MgO were used as an organic and inorganic material, respectively. We performed a Ca test at 30°C and 90% R.H. A multi-barrier of 6 dyads on 100?m thick PET resulted in a water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of

Yun Cheol Han; Cheol Jang; Kuk Joo Kim; Kyung Cheol Choi; KyungHo Jung; Byeong-Soo Bae

2011-01-01

116

U.S./Russian materials protection, control and accounting program efforts at the Institute of Inorganic Materials  

SciTech Connect

The All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Inorganic Materials (VNIINM) performs research in nuclear power reactor fuel, spent fuel reprocessing and waste management, materials science of fissionable and reactor structural materials, metallurgy, superconducting materials, and analytical sciences. VNIINM supports the Ministry of Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation (MINATOM) in technologies for fabrication and processing of nuclear fuel. As a participant in the U.S./Russian nuclear materials protection, control and accounting (MPC&A) program, VNIINM is providing support for measurements of nuclear materials in bulk forms by developing specifications, test and evaluation, certification, and implementation of measurement methods for such materials. In 1997, VNIINM worked with Brookhaven staff in developing and documenting material control and accounting requirements for nuclear materials in bulk form, Livermore and Los Alamos staff in testing and evaluating gamma-ray spectrometry methods for bulk materials, Los Alamos staff in test and evaluation of neutron-coincidence counting techniques, Livermore and Oak Ridge staff in upgrading VNIINM'S mass-spectrometry laboratory, Pacific Northwest staff on automating VNIINM's coulometric titration system and starting a task to develop a general MC&A plan for the VNHNM site, Los Alamos staff in developing a computerized accounting system for nuclear material within VNHNM and their storage facility, and Los Alamos and Oak Ridge staff in developing a bar-code system to complement the computerized accounting system. Our paper will describe the status of this work in 1997.

Ruhter, W. D., LLNL

1997-09-01

117

The organic-inorganic hybrid material 1-cyclohexylpiperazine-1,4-diium tetrachloridozincate.  

PubMed

In the crystal structure of the title organic-inorganic hybrid material, (C10H22N2)[ZnCl4], the tetrachloridozincate anions and 1-cyclohexylpiperazine-1,4-diium dications are interconnected via N-H...Cl and C-H...Cl hydrogen bonds to form layers parallel to the (001) plane. The cyclohexyl groups from adjacent chains interdigitate, thus building the three-dimensional structure. The piperazinium and cyclohexyl rings exhibit regular spatial chair conformations. The title salt was also characterized by FT-IR and Raman spectroscopic analyses. PMID:24192176

Soudani, Sarra; Aubert, Emmanuel; Jelsch, Christian; Ben Nasr, Cherif

2013-11-01

118

Surface Functionalization of Graphene-based Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphene-based materials have generated tremendous interest in the past decade. Manipulating their characteristics using wet-chemistry methods holds distinctive value, as it provides a means towards scaling up, while not being limited by yield. The majority of this thesis focuses on the surface functionalization of graphene oxide (GO), which has drawn tremendous attention as a tunable precursor due to its readily chemically manipulable surface and richly functionalized basal plane. Firstly, a room-temperature based method is presented to reduce GO stepwise, with each organic moiety being removed sequentially. Characterization confirms the carbonyl group to be reduced first, while the tertiary alcohol is reduced last, as the optical gap decrease from 3.5 eV down to 1 eV. This provides greater control over GO, which is an inhomogeneous system, and is the first study to elucidate the order of removal of each functional group. In addition to organically manipulating GO, this thesis also reports a chemical methodology to inorganically functionalize GO and tune its wetting characteristics. A chemical method to covalently attach fluorine atoms in the form of tertiary alkyl fluorides is reported, and confirmed by MAS 13C NMR, as two forms of fluorinated graphene oxide (FGO) with varying C/F and C/O ratios are synthesized. Introducing C-F bonds decreases the overall surface free energy, which drastically reduces GO's wetting behavior, especially in its highly fluorinated form. Ease of solution processing leads to development of sprayable inks that are deposited on a range of porous and nonporous surfaces to impart amphiphobicity. This is the first report that tunes the wetting characteristics of GO. Lastly as a part of a collaboration with ConocoPhillips, another class of carbon nanomaterials - carbon nanotubes (CNTs), have been inorganically functionalized to repel 30 wt% MEA, a critical solvent in CO 2 recovery. In addition to improving the solution processability of CNTs, composite, homogeneous solutions are created with polysulfones and polyimides to fabricate CNT-polymer nanocomposites that display contact angles greater than 150o with 30 wt% MEA. This yields materials that are inherently supersolvophobic, instead of simply surface treating polymeric films, while the low density of fluorinated CNTs makes them a better alternative to superhydrophobic polymer materials.

Mathkar, Akshay

119

Bridged polysilsesquioxane xerogels: A molecular based approach for the preparation of porous hybrid organic-inorganic materials  

SciTech Connect

Bridged polysilsesquioxanes represent an interesting family of hybrid organic-inorganic composite materials. It has been shown that manipulation of the organic bridging component offers the potential for the synthesis of a variety of materials with a range of surface areas and porosities. In addition, incorporation of a heteroatom within the bridging organic component allows for further chemical transformation of the polysilsesquioxane material.

Small, J.H.; Shea, K.J. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Loy, D.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-06-01

120

Cracks in functionally graded materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A semi-infinite crack in a strip of an isotropic, functionally graded material under edge loading and in-plane deformation conditions is analyzed. Mixed mode stress intensity factors are analytically solved for up to a numerically determined parameter. The effects of material gradients on the mode I and mode II stress intensity factors and the phase angle used to measure mode mixity

Pei Gu; R. J. Asaro

1997-01-01

121

Layered zeolitic materials: an approach to designing versatile functional solids.  

PubMed

Relevant layered zeolites have been considered in this perspective article from the point of view of the synthesis methodologies, materials characterization and catalytic implications, considering the unique physico-chemical characteristics of lamellar materials. The potential of layered zeolitic precursors to generate novel lamellar accessible zeolites through swelling, intercalation, pillarization, delamination and/or exfoliation treatments is studied, showing the chemical, functional and structural versatility exhibited by layered zeolites. Recent approaches based on the assembly of zeolitic nanosheets which act as inorganic structural units through the use of dual structural directing agents, the selective modification of germanosilicates and the direct generation of lamellar hybrid organic-inorganic aluminosilicates are also considered to obtain layered solids with well-defined functionalities. The catalytic applications of the layered zeolites are also highlighted, pointing out the high accessibility and reactivity of active sites present in the lamellar framework. PMID:24457617

Díaz, Urbano; Corma, Avelino

2014-07-21

122

Nanocrystal-Based Polymer Composites as Novel Functional Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter provides an overall picture of nanocrystal-polymer based composites and describes the key properties of these\\u000a original functional materials, particularly suited for advanced applications in photonic, optoelectronic as well as in sensing.\\u000a Here, we aim at pointing out the relevance of the incorporation of inorganic colloidal nanocrystals with size-dependent properties\\u000a in highly processable polymers. Due to the countless different

M. Striccoli; M. L. Curri; R. Comparelli

123

Inorganically functionalized PbS-CdS colloidal nanocrystals: integration into amorphous chalcogenide glass and luminescent properties.  

PubMed

Inorganic semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) with bright, stable, and wavelength-tunable luminescence are very promising emitters for various photonic and optoelectronic applications. Recently developed strategies for inorganic surface capping of colloidal NCs using metal chalcogenide complexes have opened new perspectives for their applications. Here we report an all-inorganic surface functionalization of highly luminescent IR-emitting PbS-CdS NCs and studies of their luminescence properties. We show that inorganic capping allows simple low-temperature encapsulation of inorganic NCs into a solution-cast IR-transparent amorphous As(2)S(3) matrix. The resulting all-inorganic thin films feature stable IR luminescence in the telecommunication wavelength region. The high optical dielectric constant of As(2)S(3) also helps reduce the dielectric screening of the radiating field inside the quantum dot, enabling fast radiative recombination in PbS-CdS NCs. PMID:22239647

Kovalenko, Maksym V; Schaller, Richard D; Jarzab, Dorota; Loi, Maria A; Talapin, Dmitri V

2012-02-01

124

Polymer/inorganic nanocomposites with tailored hierarchical structure as advanced dielectric materials  

SciTech Connect

Most advances and commercial successes of polymer/inorganic nanocomposites rely only on the dispersion of nanoparticles in a polymer matrix. Such approaches leave untapped opportunities where performance can be improved by controlling the larger length-scale structures. Here, we review selected examples where the hierarchical structure (from millimeter to nanometer) is tailored to control the transport properties of the materials, giving rise to marked property enhancements, relevant to dielectric materials for power capacitors. These examples address composite structures that are self-assembled, both at the nm and the micron scales, and, thus, can be produced using standard industrial practices. Specifically, polyethylene (PE) blends or poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) copolymers are reinforced with nanofillers; these composites are designed with high filler orientation, which yielded marked improvements in electric-field breakdown strength and, consequently, large improvements in their recoverable energy densities.

Manias, Evangelos [Pennsylvania State University; Randall, Clive [Pennsylvania State University; Tomer, Vivek [Pennsylvania State University; Polyzos, Georgios [ORNL

2012-01-01

125

Hybrid nanosheets of an inorganic-organic framework material: facile synthesis, structure, and elastic properties.  

PubMed

We report a new 2-D inorganic-organic framework material, MnDMS [Mn 2,2-dimethylsuccinate], featuring weakly bound hybrid layers in its bulk crystals that can be readily exfoliated into nanosheets via ultrasonication. The fully exfoliated hybrid nanosheets correspond to a unilamellar thickness of about 1 nm, while the partially exfoliated nanosheets (multilayer films) exhibit a typical thickness on the order of 10 nm. We used atomic force microscopy to characterize their surface topography and to map the variation of nanomechanical properties across the surface of the delaminated nanosheets. The morphology and crystallographic orientation of the exfoliated layers were further studied by transmission electron microscopy. Additionally, we investigated the elastic anisotropy underlying the bulk host material by means of single-crystal nanoindentation, from which the critical resolved shear stress (?(crit)) needed for the micromechanical delamination of individual layers was determined to be relatively small (?0.4 GPa). PMID:22117817

Tan, Jin-Chong; Saines, Paul J; Bithell, Erica G; Cheetham, Anthony K

2012-01-24

126

Synthesis and mechanical properties of organic-inorganic hybrid materials from lignin and polysiloxanes.  

PubMed

The preparation of silica-containing organic-inorganic hybrid materials composed of kraft lignin, alkoxysilanes, and organic linkers was investigated. 3-Glycidyloxypropyltrimethoxysilane, 3-(triethoxysilyl)propylisocyanate (IPTES), and bis(trimethoxysilyl)hexane were selected as the most promising linkers. The best materials obtained showed improved mechanical and thermal properties compared with lignin itself. The reaction of the hydroxyl groups with IPTES and the sol-gel reaction between the organic linker molecules were studied by attenuated total reflectance FTIR and solid-state ²?Si magic-angle spinning NMR spectroscopy. The homogeneous composition was demonstrated by electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy mapping. The mechanical properties were investigated by microindentation and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis. PMID:22807462

Lippach, Andreas K W; Krämer, Ramona; Hansen, Michael R; Roos, Stephan; Stöwe, Klaus; Stommel, Markus; Wenz, Gerhard; Maier, Wilhelm F

2012-09-01

127

Deposition of thin films of organic-inorganic hybrid materials based on aromatic carboxylic acids by atomic layer deposition.  

PubMed

Thin films of organic-inorganic hybrid materials have been grown by the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique, using trimethylaluminium (TMA) and aromatic carboxylic acids such as 1,2-benzene dicarboxylic acid, 1,3-benzene dicarboxylic acid, 1,4-benzene dicarboxylic acid, 1,3,5-benzene tricarboxylic acid, 1,2,4,5-benzene tetracarboxylic acid as precursors. Growth rates as function of temperature show that all systems, with the exception of the benzoic acid-TMA system, possess ALD-windows and provides growth rates in the range of 0.25-1.34 nm/cycle. X-ray diffraction studies of the as-deposited films reveal their amorphous character, which is also supported by very low surface roughness as measured by atomic force microscopy. As-deposited films were investigated by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy proving that the deposited films are of a hybrid character. PMID:21038067

Klepper, Karina Barnholt; Nilsen, Ola; Fjellvåg, Helmer

2010-12-28

128

Selective crystallization with preferred lithium-ion storage capability of inorganic materials  

PubMed Central

Lithium-ion batteries are supposed to be a key method to make a more efficient use of energy. In the past decade, nanostructured electrode materials have been extensively studied and have presented the opportunity to achieve superior performance for the next-generation batteries which require higher energy and power densities and longer cycle life. In this article, we reviewed recent research activities on selective crystallization of inorganic materials into nanostructured electrodes for lithium-ion batteries and discuss how selective crystallization can improve the electrode performance of materials; for example, selective exposure of surfaces normal to the ionic diffusion paths can greatly enhance the ion conductivity of insertion-type materials; crystallization of alloying-type materials into nanowire arrays has proven to be a good solution to the electrode pulverization problem; and constructing conversion-type materials into hollow structures is an effective approach to buffer the volume variation during cycling. The major goal of this review is to demonstrate the importance of crystallization in energy storage applications.

2012-01-01

129

Fifteen years of operation with inorganic highly selective ion exchange materials  

SciTech Connect

During latest fifteen years three highly selective inorganic ion exchange materials, CsTreat{sup R}, SrTreat{sup R}, and CoTreat, have been in full scale commercial use. All these materials have high capacity, and they give high decontamination factor (DF) and remarkably good volume reduction factor for storage and final disposal. A new material for antimony removal is currently coming for demonstration phase. Since 1991 only 160 liters (5.7 cu.ft) of cesium specific material, CsTreat{sup R}, has been used to purify over 1,100 m{sup 3} (over 290,000 gal) of high salt evaporator concentrates in Fortum's Loviisa NPP in Finland (1-3). In Olkiluoto NPP about 240 m{sup 3} (63,400 gal) of pool water was purified by a single 12 liter (0.4 cu.ft) column. First US application at Callaway NPP purified cesium from about 3,000 m{sup 3} (800,000 gallons) with about 250 liters (9 cu.ft) of CsTreat in their de-min system. A demonstration project at SRS site showed possibilities to remove cesium and strontium from pool water by recirculation. In Japan, reprocessing liquid was efficiently treated at JAERI site in Tokai-mura. Original cesium and strontium concentrations of about 7,4 GBq/liter (200 mCi/liter) were reduced by factors of well over 1,000. In UK, UKAEA has used CsTreat in their effluent treatment system to remove cesium from sodium coolant of their prototype fast reactor (PFR). 950 tons of sodium resulting in the generation of approximately 9000 tons of liquid effluent was treated. Cesium levels were reduced to below detection limit for release. Because of slow kinetics of inorganic materials the use of these materials in powder form was developed. Powder form CoTreat was successfully tested for use as pre-coat to existing Funda filters in THOPR feed pond plant (Sellafield, UK). Based on the same chemistry, Graver Technologies developed CsFloc and CoFloc materials for US market. CoFloc material has also demonstrated a secondary specificity for antimony removal, but this is still under testing. Well over 200 different cases were tested by customers for these ion exchange materials. Many of those tests have led to real applications and there are still many cases to come. Best benefit for users come from high volume reduction of waste volume and from high decontamination of purified liquid. (authors)

Tusa, E. [Fortum Nuclear Services Ltd (Finland); Harjula, R. [Helsinki Univ., Radiochemical laboratory (Finland); Yarnell, P. [Graver Technologies, LLC, Glasgow, DE (United States)

2007-07-01

130

Assembly of bacteriophage into functional materials.  

PubMed

For the last decade, the fabrication of ordered structures of phage has been of great interest as a means of utilizing the outstanding biochemical properties of phage in developing useful materials. Combined with other organic/inorganic substances, it has been demonstrated that phage is a superior building block for fabricating various functional devices, such as the electrode in lithium-ion batteries, photovoltaic cells, sensors, and cell-culture supports. Although previous research has expanded the utility of phage when combined with genetic engineering, most improvements in device functionality have relied upon increases in efficiency owing to the compact, more densely packable unit size of phage rather than on the unique properties of the ordered nanostructures themselves. Recently, self-templating methods, which control both thermodynamic and kinetic factors during the deposition process, have opened up new routes to exploiting the ordered structural properties of hierarchically organized phage architectures. In addition, ordered phage films have exhibited unexpected functional properties, such as structural color and optical filtering. Structural colors or optical filtering from phage films can be used for optical phage-based sensors, which combine the structural properties of phage with target-specific binding motifs on the phage-coat proteins. This self-templating method may contribute not only to practical applications, but also provide insight into the fundamental study of biomacromolecule assembly in in vivo systems under complicated and dynamic conditions. PMID:23280916

Yang, Sung Ho; Chung, Woo-Jae; McFarland, Sean; Lee, Seung-Wuk

2013-02-01

131

Inorganic compounds for passive solar energy storage: Solid-state dehydration materials and high specific heat materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two classes of hydrated inorganic salts have been studied to assess their potential as materials for passive solar energy storage. The materials are part of the quaternary system CaO-Al2O3-SO3-H2O and related chemical systems, and the two classes are typified by ettringite, a trisubstituted salt, and Friedel's salt, a monosubstituted salt. The trisubstituted salts were studied for their possible application in latent heat storage, utilizing a low-temperature dehydration reaction, and both classes were studies for their application in sensible heat storage. In order to assess their potential for energy storage, the salts have been synthesized, characterized by several analytical techniques, and thermal properties measured. The dehydration data of that the trisubstituted salts vary somewhat with chemical composition, with the temperature of the onset of dehydration ranging from 6(0)C to 33(0)C, and enthalpy changes on dehydration ranging from 60 to 200 cal/g. Heat capacity is less variable with composition; values for the trisubstituted phases are 30 cal/g/(0)C and for the monosubstituted phases between 0.23 and 0.28 cal/g/(0)C. Preliminary experiments indicate that the dehydration is reversible, and suggest that the materials might have additional potential as solar desiccant materials. These thermal data demonstrate the trisubstituted salts have potential as latent heat storage materials, and that both classes of salts have potential as sensible heat storage materials.

Struble, L. J.; Brown, P. W.

1986-04-01

132

Azobenzene-containing small molecules organic inorganic hybrid sol gel materials for photonic applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Azobenzene-containing germania-ormosil hybrid materials are prepared by combining a low-temperature sol gel technique with a spin-coating process, which can be used for the simple and low cost fabrication of waveguide devices for photonic applications. The planar waveguide and structural properties of the hybrid waveguide films are characterized by a prism coupling technique and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The effects of azobenzene content and heat treatment temperature on the photo-responsive properties of the hybrid films are also studied by photoirradiation with UV light. The results indicate that the azobenzene in hybrid materials can undergo trans cis trans photoisomerization efficiently by photoirradiation with UV light, and surface pattern structure induced due to UV light photoirradiation can be easily observed on such azobenzene-doped hybrid materials. Thus, this as-prepared organic inorganic hybrid sol gel material shows promising candidates for optical switch applications and allows for directly integrating on a single chip waveguide device with optical data storage and optical switching devices.

Que, W. X.; Yao, X.; Liu, W. G.

2008-06-01

133

Electrochemical properties of sulfur as cathode materials in a solid-state lithium battery with inorganic solid electrolytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfur was investigated as positive electrode materials for all-solid-state lithium batteries with an inorganic solid electrolyte a-60Li2S·40SiS2 (mol%). The sulfur (54 mass%) was ball-milled with metallic copper (42.8 mass%) and acetylene black (3.2 mass%) for 10 h and the obtained composite was used as the positive electrode materials of the solid-state battery. The composite worked as reversible positive electrode materials

Nobuya Machida; Kazuma Kobayashi; Yutaka Nishikawa; Toshihiko Shigematsu

2004-01-01

134

Effect of exposure test conditions on leaching behavior of inorganic contaminants from recycled materials for roadbeds  

SciTech Connect

Throughout the utilization of recycled materials, weathering factors such as humidity, gas composition and temperature have the potential to change the material properties and enhance the release of inorganic contaminants. In this research, the effects of weathering factors on recycled gravel materials for roadbeds were evaluated by applying three kinds of accelerating exposure tests: freezing-melting cycle test, carbonation test, and dry-humid cycle test. The effects of exposure tests were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and serial batch leaching test, making it possible to identify the change in release mechanisms. Sixteen elements, mainly metals, were investigated. Tested samples were molten slag from municipal solid waste, molten slag from automobile shredded residue, and crushed natural stone. After the exposure tests, the increase of cumulative release in the leaching test was generally less than 2.0 times that of the samples without the exposure test. Among the three test conditions, freezing-melting showed a slightly higher effect of enhancing the release of constituents. XRD analysis showed no change in chemical species. From these results, it was determined that the stony samples were stable enough so that their properties were not significantly changed by the exposure tests.

Sakanakura, Hirofumi [National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2, Onogawa, Tsukuba 305-8506 (Japan)], E-mail: sakanakura@nies.go.jp; Osako, Masahiro; Kida, Akiko [National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2, Onogawa, Tsukuba 305-8506 (Japan)

2009-05-15

135

Conceptual study of in-tank cesium removal using an inorganic ion exchange material  

SciTech Connect

Presently, the Hanford Site contains approximately 230,000 m{sup 3} of mixed waste stored in 177 underground tanks. Approximately 55,000 m{sup 3} of this waste is sludge, 90,000 m{sup 3} is salt cake, and 80,000 m{sup 3} is supernate. Although the pretreatment and final disposal requirements for the waste have not been entirely defined, it is likely that some supernatant pretreatment will be required to remove {sup 137}Cs and possibly {sup 90}Sr and the transuranic components. The objective of this study was to estimate the number of HLW glass canisters resulting from the use of inorganic ion exchanger materials as in-tank pretreatment technology. The variables in the study were: number of contacts between waste and ion exchange material; ion exchange material; and decontamination requirement. This conceptual study investigates a generic in-tank Cs removal flowsheet using crystalline silico-titanates and IE-96 zeolites, and the impact of each ion exchanger on the number of glass canisters produced. In determining glass formulation, data based on current reference technology was used. Sample calculations from the worksheets and summaries of final calculated results are included at the end of this report.

Goheen, R.S.; Kurath, D.E.

1996-04-01

136

Organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization utilizing fossil fuel combustion waste materials  

SciTech Connect

A laboratory study was conducted at the Western Research Institute to evaluate the ability of innovative clean coal technology (ICCT) waste to stabilize organic and inorganic constituents of hazardous wastes. The four ICCT wastes used in this study were: (1) the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) atmospheric fluidized bed combustor (AFBC) waste, (2) the TVA spray dryer waste, (3) the Laramie River Station spray dryer waste, and (4) the Colorado-Ute AFBC waste. Four types of hazardous waste stream materials were obtained and chemically characterized for use in evaluating the ability of the ICCT wastes to stabilize hazardous organic and inorganic wastes. The wastes included an API separator sludge, mixed metal oxide-hydroxide waste, metal-plating sludge, and creosote-contaminated soil. The API separator sludge and creosote-contaminated soil are US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-listed hazardous wastes and contain organic contaminants. The mixed metal oxide-hydroxide waste and metal-plating sludge (also an EPA-listed waste) contain high concentrations of heavy metals. The mixed metal oxide-hydroxide waste fails the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) for cadmium, and the metal-plating sludge fails the TCLP for chromium. To evaluate the ability of the ICCT wastes to stabilize the hazardous wastes, mixtures involving varying amounts of each of the ICCT wastes with each of the hazardous wastes were prepared, allowed to equilibrate, and then leached with deionized, distilled water. The leachates were analyzed for the hazardous constituent(s) of interest using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure.

Netzel, D.A.; Lane, D.C.; Brown, M.A.; Raska, K.A.; Clark, J.A.; Rovani, J.F.

1993-09-01

137

Physical properties and structure of organic-inorganic hybrid materials produced by sol-gel process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two approaches of the sol-gel process to prepare organic-inorganic hybrids are reviewed. One method is simple and involves mixing an organic polymer with a metal alkoxide such as tetraethoxysilane (TEOS). During the sol-gel process the inorganic mineral is deposited in the organic polymer matrix forming hydrogen bonding between organic phase and inorganic phase. In the small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS)

Shoichiro Yano; Keisuke Iwata; Kimio Kurita

1998-01-01

138

Inorganic nanotubes: One contribution of 12 to a Theme 'Nanotechnology of carbon and related materials'  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the discovery of carbon fullerenes and carbon nanotubes, it was hypothesized that nanoparticles of inorganic compounds with layered (two-dimensional) structure, such as MoS2, will not be stable against folding and form nanotubes and fullerene-like structures: IF. The synthesis of numerous other inorganic nanotubes has been reported in recent years. Various techniques for the synthesis of inorganic nanotubes, including high-temperature

Reshef Tenne; C. N. R. Rao

2004-01-01

139

Solution Phase Routes to Functional Nanostructured Materials for Energy Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solution-phase processing presents an attractive avenue for building unique architectures from a wide variety of materials that exhibit functional properties, making them ideal candidates for various energy applications. The most basic building block or precursor in solution-based syntheses is a soluble species that can either self-assemble, or coassemble with a structure directing agent or template, to create a unique architecture. Soluble inorganic-based building blocks ranging from atomic-scale charged molecular complexes to nanometer-scale preformed nanocrystals are utilized to construct functional inorganic materials. These nanostructured materials are excellent candidates for integrating into electronic and energy-storage devices, including photovoltaics and pseudocapacitors. The goal of this work is to create inorganic nanostructured materials from solution-based methods. This work is divided into two parts: the first involves the synthesis of inorganic semiconductor-based nanostructured materials; the second focuses on developing porous metal oxide-based pseudocapacitors. The first part describes three distinct synthetic approaches to nanostructured semiconductors: the synthesis of complex metal chalcogenide semiconductors produced from highly soluble hydrazinium-based precursors using a porous template; low-temperature melt processing of an organic-inorganic hybrid semiconductor into porous templates to produce vertically-aligned arrays with a concentric multilayered structure; and solution-phase assembly of semiconductor nanocrystals of CdSe into nanoporous architectures via polymer templating. These nanostructured semiconductors are electrically interconnected through intimate contact between the molecular or nanoscale precursors achieved during solution-phase synthesis, making them suitable for a range of applications. In the second part, porous metal-oxide based materials are constructed by the assembly of nanosized building blocks into 3D porous architectures via polymer templating. Two main approaches are described: first, a general route for templating both redox-active oxides (Mn3O4, MnFe2O4) and conducting indium tin oxide (ITO) nanocrystals is described; second, nanocrystal-based porous architectures of a ITO are coated with redox-active V2O5 via atomic layer deposition to produce nanoporous composites. The porous architectures exhibit high surface areas, providing ample redox active sites, and an interconnected open porosity, facilitating solvent/ion diffusion to those sites. In the ITO-V2O 5 composites, the electron-transfer reactions are facilitated by the increased conductivity leading to high pseudocapacitive contributions to charge storage that are accompanied by fast charging/discharging rates.

Rauda, Iris Ester

140

Recent advances in magnetic resonance microscopy to the physical structure characterization of carbonaceous and inorganic materials  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) techniques have been employed to study the molecular architectures and properties of structural polymers, fossil fuels, microporous carbons and inorganic catalysts.

Gregory, D.M.; Gerald, R.E.; Cody, G.D.; Botto, R.E.

1997-04-01

141

Preference for different inorganic nitrogen forms among plant functional types and species of the Patagonian steppe.  

PubMed

We have explored species-specific preferences for nitrate (NO3(-)) and ammonium (NH4(+)) as an alternative niche separation in ecosystems where nitrogen (N) is present mostly in inorganic forms. The Patagonian steppe is dominated by shrubs and grasses. Shrubs absorb water and nutrients from deep soil layers, which are poor in N, while grasses have the opposite pattern, absorbing most of their water and nutrients from the upper layers of the soil. We hypothesized that the preferences of shrub and grass for inorganic N forms are different and that the rate of potential N uptake is greater in shrubs than in grasses. To test this hypothesis, we grew individuals of six dominant species in solutions of different NH4(+):NO3(-) concentration ratios. Nitrate uptake was found to be higher in shrubs, while ammonium uptake was similar between plant functional types. The NH4(+):NO3(-) uptake ratio was significantly lower for shrubs than grasses. Shrubs, which under field conditions have deeper rooting systems than grasses, showed a higher N absorption capacity than grasses and a preference for the more mobile N form, nitrate. Grasses, which had lower N uptake rates than shrubs, preferred ammonium over nitrate. These complementary patterns between grasses and shrubs suggest a more thorough exploitation of resources by diverse ecosystems than those dominated by just one functional type. The loss of one plant functional group or a significant change in its abundance would therefore represent a reduction in resource use efficiency and ecosystem functioning. PMID:23812108

Gherardi, Laureano A; Sala, Osvaldo E; Yahdjian, Laura

2013-11-01

142

Seminal Plasma pH, Inorganic Phosphate, Total and Ionized Calcium Concentrations In The Assessment of Human Spermatozoa Function  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Fertilization in humans is dependent on viability of the male spermatozoa among other factors and there have been conflicting reports on the role of pH, calcium and phosphate concentrations in sperm function. This study therefore aimed to investigate seminal plasma pH, inorganic phosphate, total and ionized calcium concentrations relative to spermatozoa function. Material and Methods: Seminal plasma concentrations of pH, total calcium, ionized calcium (Ca++); inorganic phosphate, motility and spermatozoa count were determined in 80 males by standard methods. Results: Forty-nine of the subjects had normal spermatozoa motility (> 60%) and 31 had hypomotility (< 60%). The hypomotility group exhibited lower calcium ion (Ca2+) concentrations; 0.19+0.01mmol/L compared with normal motility group; 0.24+0.01mmol/L (p<0.001) the latter also had significantly higher inorganic phosphate; 7.83+1.27 while the former had 5.64+1.62mmol/L (p= 0.004). The mean spermatozoa counts for hypomotility and normal motility group were 42.0 ± 13 x 106 , 72.35 + 20 x 106 respectively (p< 0.001). No significant differences were observed in pH, volume of ejaculate and total calcium concentration between the hypomotility and normal motility groups The mean concentrations of pH were 7.51 ± 0.02 and 7.54 ± 0.03 respectively (p= 0.21) and total calcium; 3.10 ± 0.12 and 3.36 ± 0.14mmol/L respectively (p= 0.16 ). There was a significant difference in percentage of abnormal forms in both groups with hypomotile group having 36% compared to mormal motility group with 5% (p< 0.05). Conclusion: Correlations were observed between seminal concentrations of calcium ions, inorganic phosphate, spermatozoa count and motility but not with total calcium concentrations and pH and therefore should be considered in understanding male infertility and preparation of media for sperm preservation for in vitro fertilization.

Banjoko, S. Olatunbosun; Adeseolu, Fasiu O.

2013-01-01

143

Inorganic polyphosphate in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae with a mutation disturbing the function of vacuolar ATPase.  

PubMed

A mutation in the vma2 gene disturbing V-ATPase function in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae results in a five- and threefold decrease in inorganic polyphosphate content in the stationary and active phases of growth on glucose, respectively. The average polyphosphate chain length in the mutant cells is decreased. The mutation does not prevent polyphosphate utilization during cultivation in a phosphate-deficient medium and recovery of its level on reinoculation in complete medium after phosphate deficiency. The content of short chain acid-soluble polyphosphates is recovered first. It is supposed that these polyphosphates are less dependent on the electrochemical gradient on the vacuolar membrane. PMID:21073428

Tomaschevsky, A A; Ryasanova, L P; Kulakovskaya, T V; Kulaev, I S

2010-08-01

144

Litter ammonia generation: moisture content and organic versus inorganic bedding materials.  

PubMed

Negative impacts on the environment, bird well-being, and farm worker health indicate the need for abatement strategies for poultry litter NH(3) generation. Type of bedding affects many parameters related to poultry production including NH(3) losses. In a randomized complete block design, 3 trials compared the cumulative NH(3) volatilization for laboratory-prepared litter (4 bedding types mixed with excreta) and commercial litter (sampled from a broiler house during the second flock on reused pine wood chips). Litters were assessed at the original moisture content and 2 higher moisture contents. Broiler excrement was mixed with pine wood shavings, rice hulls, sand, and vermiculite to create litter samples. Volumetrically uniform litter samples were placed in chambers receiving humidified air where the exhaust passed through H(3)BO(3) solution, trapping litter-emitted NH(3). At the original moisture content, sand and vermiculite litters generated the most NH(3) (5.3 and 9.1 mg of N, respectively) whereas wood shavings, commercial, and rice hull litters emitted the least NH(3) (0.9-2.6 mg of N). For reducing NH(3) emissions, the results support recommendations for using wood shavings and rice hulls, already popular bedding choices in the United States and worldwide. In this research, the organic bedding materials generated the least NH(3) at the original moisture content when compared with the inorganic materials. For each bedding type, incremental increases in litter moisture content increased NH(3) volatilization. However, the effects of bedding material on NH(3) volatilization at the increased moisture levels were not clearly differentiated across the treatments. Vermiculite generated the most NH(3) (26.3 mg of N) at the highest moisture content. Vermiculite was a novel bedding choice that has a high water absorption capacity, but because of high NH(3) generation, it is not recommended for further study as broiler bedding material. Controlling unnecessary moisture inputs to broiler litter is a key to controlling NH(3) emissions. PMID:21597054

Miles, D M; Rowe, D E; Cathcart, T C

2011-06-01

145

Oxidation control of fluxes for mixed-valent inorganic oxide materials synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation is concerned with controlling the flux synthesis and ensuing physical properties of mixed-valence metal oxides. Molten alkali metal nitrates and hydroxides have been explored to determine and exploit their variable redox chemistries for the synthesis of mixed-valent oxide materials. Cationic and anionic additives have been utilized in these molten salts to control the relative concentrations of the redox-active species present to effectively tune and cap the electrochemical potential of the flux. Atoms like bismuth, copper, and manganese are capable of providing different numbers of electrons for bonding. With appropriate doping near the metal-insulator transition, many of these mixed-valent inorganic metal oxides exhibit extraordinary electronic and magnetic properties. Traditionally, these materials have been prepared by classical high temperature solid state routes where microscopic homogeneity is hard to attain. In these routes, the starting composition dictates the doping level, and in turn, the formal oxidation state achieved. Molten flux syntheses developed in this work have provided the potential for preparing single-phase, homogeneous, and crystalline materials. The redox-active fluxes provide a medium for enhanced doping and mixed-valency control in which the electrochemical potential adjusts the formal oxidation state, and the doping takes place to maintain charge neutrality. The two superconductor systems investigated are: (1) the potassium-doped barium bismuth oxides, and (2) the alkali metal- and alkaline earth metal-doped lanthanum copper oxides. Controlled oxidative doping has been achieved in both systems by two different approaches. The superconducting properties of these materials have been assessed, and the materials have been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction and e-beam microprobe elemental analyses. In the course of these studies, several other materials have been identified. Analysis of these materials, and the conditions necessary to prepare them, have further aided in developing a model for use in controlling the electrochemical potential of the flux. The alkali metal hydroxide fluxes have large electrochemical windows, and a variety of chemical reducers have been explored in the copper system. Control of the electrochemical potential has been developed through compositional control of the flux whereby the entire range of copper oxidation states, including the metal, has been achieved at a single temperature, in a single flux system. Environmentally-friendly copper ore mimics have been prepared for thermodynamic analysis to aid in mineral transport modeling. The hydrothermally-prepared homogeneous copper- and cobalt-doped birnessites have been structurally, compositionally, and physically analyzed.

Schrier, Marc David

146

Large pore volume mesoporous copper particles and scaffold microporous carbon material obtained from an inorganic–organic nanohybrid material, copper-succinate-layered hydroxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Copper-succinate-layered hydroxide (CSLH), a new nanohybrid material, was synthesized as an inorganic–organic nanohybrid, in which organic moiety was intercalated between the layers of a single cation layered material, copper hydroxide nitrate. Microporous scaffold carbon material was obtained by thermal decomposition of the nanohybrid at 500°C under argon atmosphere followed by acid washing process. Furthermore, the heat-treated product of the nanohybrid

Mohammad Yeganeh Ghotbi; Narjes Bagheri; S. K. Sadrnezhaad

2011-01-01

147

Lanthanide-centered organic-inorganic hybrids through a functionalized aza-crown ether bridge: coordination bonding assembly, microstructure and multicolor luminescence.  

PubMed

This work focuses on the synthesis of a series of chemically bonded lanthanide/inorganic/organic hybrid materials (CE-15-Si-Ln, CE-16-Si-Ln, CE-18-Si-Ln) containing a novel aza-crown ether organic component. The materials show red emission (Ln = Eu), green emission (Ln = Tb) and near-infrared (NIR) luminescence (Ln = Nd). Three functional molecular precursors (denoted as CE-15-Si, CE-16-Si, CE-18-Si) have been synthesized with two or three N-substituted pendant arms containing chelating groups which can not only fulfill the high coordination numbers of Ln(3+) ions but also form an inorganic Si-O-Si network with tetraethoxysilane (TEOS). The resulting amorphous materials exhibit regular uniform microstructures for the organic and the inorganic components which are covalently linked through Si-O bonds via a self-assembly process. These hybrids present strong luminescent intensities in red, green and NIR ranges by embedding selected Ln(3+) ions into the hybrid system, which may lead to potential applications in organic electroluminescence displays, light emitting devices, functional membranes or chemical/biomedical sensors. PMID:21283861

Liu, Jin-Liang; Yan, Bing

2011-03-01

148

Immunity induced by a broad class of inorganic crystalline materials is directly controlled by their chemistry.  

PubMed

There is currently no paradigm in immunology that enables an accurate prediction of how the immune system will respond to any given agent. Here we show that the immunological responses induced by members of a broad class of inorganic crystalline materials are controlled purely by their physicochemical properties in a highly predictable manner. We show that structurally and chemically homogeneous layered double hydroxides (LDHs) can elicit diverse human dendritic cell responses in vitro. Using a systems vaccinology approach, we find that every measured response can be modeled using a subset of just three physical and chemical properties for all compounds tested. This correlation can be reduced to a simple linear equation that enables the immunological responses stimulated by newly synthesized LDHs to be predicted in advance from these three parameters alone. We also show that mouse antigen-specific antibody responses in vivo and human macrophage responses in vitro are controlled by the same properties, suggesting they may control diverse responses at both individual component and global levels of immunity. This study demonstrates that immunity can be determined purely by chemistry and opens the possibility of rational manipulation of immunity for therapeutic purposes. PMID:24799501

Williams, Gareth R; Fierens, Kaat; Preston, Stephen G; Lunn, Daniel; Rysnik, Oliwia; De Prijck, Sofie; Kool, Mirjam; Buckley, Hannah C; Lambrecht, Bart N; O'Hare, Dermot; Austyn, Jonathan M

2014-06-01

149

Discovery and application of peptides that bind to proteins and solid state inorganic materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of three projects was undertaken on the theme of peptide-based molecular recognition. In the first project, a messenger RNA (mRNA) display selection was carried out against the II-VI semiconductors zinc sulfide (ZnS), zinc selenide (ZnSe), and cadmium sulfide (CdS). Sequence analysis of 18-mer semiconductor-binding peptides (SBPs) following four rounds of selection indicated that the amino acid sequences were enriched in polar residues compared to the naive library, suggesting that hydrogen-bonding interactions are a dominant mode of interaction between the SBPs and their cognate inorganic surfaces. Select peptides were expressed as fusions of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) to visualize their recognition of semiconductor crystals. Interpretation of the results was complicated by a high fluorescence background that was observed with certain control GFP fusions. Additional experiments, including cross-specificity binding assays, are needed to characterize the peptides that were isolated in this selection. A second project described the practical application of a known inorganic-binding and nucleating peptide. Peptide A3, which was previously isolated by phage display, was chemically conjugated to a short DNA strand using the heterobifunctional linker succinimidyl 4-[N-maleimidomethyl]cyclohexane-1-carboxylate (SMCC). The resulting peptide-DNA conjugate was hybridized to ten complementary single-stranded capture probes extending outward from the surface of an origami DNA nanotube. A gold precursor solution was added to initiate nucleation and growth of gold nanoparticles at the site of the peptide. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to visualize the gold nanoparticle-decorated nanostructures. This approach holds immense promise for organizing compositionally-diverse materials at the nanoscale. In a third project, a novel non-iterative approach to mRNA display called covalent capture was demonstrated. Using human transferrin as a target protein, peptides with low-nanomolar affinity were isolated from a combinatorial library of one trillion distinct 12-mer peptide sequences by using UV light to covalently crosslink the peptides to a photoreactive arm that was displayed on the protein surface. The best peptide isolated from this screen exhibited a binding affinity constant (Kd) of 3 nM, which is equivalent to some of the best peptides isolated after many rounds of traditional bead-based selection. The approach itself is general and could be applied to many different types of problems in molecular biology.

Stearns, Linda A.

150

Design of hybrid conjugated polymer materials: 1) Novel inorganic/organic hybrid semiconductors and 2) Surface modification via grafting approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research presented in this dissertation focuses on the design and synthesis of novel hybrid conjugated polymer materials using two different approaches: (1) inorganic/organic hybrid semiconductors through the incorporation of carboranes into the polymer structure and (2) the modification of surfaces with conjugated polymers via grafting approaches. Hybrid conjugated polymeric materials, which are materials or systems in which conjugated polymers are chemically integrated with non-traditional structures or surfaces, have the potential to harness useful properties from both components of the material to help overcome hurdles in their practical realization in polymer-based devices. This work is centered around the synthetic challenges of creating new hybrid conjugated systems and their potential for advancing the field of polymer-based electronics through both greater understanding of the behavior of hybrid systems, and access to improved performance and new applications. Chapter 1 highlights the potential applications and advantages for these hybrid systems, and provides some historical perspective, along with relevant background materials, to illustrate the rationale behind this work. Chapter 2 explores the synthesis of poly(fluorene)s with pendant carborane cages. The Ni(0) dehalogenative polymerization of a dibromofluorene with pendant carborane cages tethered to the bridging 9-position produced hybrid polymers produced polymers which combined the useful emissive characteristics of poly(fluorene) with the thermal and chemical stability of carborane cages. The materials were found to display increased glass transition temperatures and showed improved emission color stability after annealing at high temperatures relative to the non-hybrid polymer. The design and synthesis of a poly(fluorene)-based hybrid material with carborane cages in the backbone, rather than as pendant groups, begins in chapter 3. Poly(fluorene) with p-carborane in the backbone is synthesized and characterized, and the material is found to be a high MW, soluble blue emitter which shows a higher glass transition temperature and greater stability than a non-hybrid polymer. UV absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy indicated some electronic interaction between the conjugated polymer and the cages, but they did not appear to be fully conjugated in the traditional sense. Chapter 4 describes the design, synthesis, and characterization of poly(fluorene) with o-carborane in the backbone. Profound changes in the behavior of the polymer, from its polymerization behavior to its emission characteristics, were observed and their origins are discussed. Experiments to explore the nature of the cage/polymer interactions were performed and possible applications which take advantage of the unique nature of the o-carborane hybrid polymer are explored and discussed. Hybrid conjugated polymer materials via grafting approaches to surfaces and surface modification are discussed starting in chapter 5. The synthesis of a dibromofluorene-based silane coupling agent for the surface functionalization of oxide surfaces is presented, and the surface directed Ni(0) dehalogenative polymerization of poly(dihexylfluorene) is explored. Chapter 6 focuses on the exploration of conjugated polymer/cellulose hybrid materials. Surface medication of cellulose materials with monomer-like anchor points is discussed. Grafting of the modified cellulose with conjugated polymers was explored and the grafting of three different repeat structures based on fluorene-, fluorenevinylene-, and fluoreneethynylene motifs were optimized to provide a general route to cellulose/conjugated polymer hybrid materials. Characterization and possible applications of such hybrid materials are discussed. Finally, chapter 7 is devoted to the simultaneous surface patterning and functionalization of poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate) thin films using a silane infusion-based wrinkling technique. While not a conjugated polymer system, the spontaneous patterning and functionalization methods explored in this chapter prod

Peterson, Joseph J.

151

Molecular design of luminescent organic-inorganic hybrid materials activated by europium (III) ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Luminescent hybrid materials consisting in rare-earth (Eu 3+, Gd 3+) organic complexes covalently attached to a silica-based network have been obtained by a sol-gel process. Four dicarboxylic acids with different aromatic subunits (dipicolinic acid, 4-phenyl-2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid, 4-(phenylethynyl)-2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid and 2,6-Bis(3-carboxy-1-pyrazolyl)pyridine) have been chosen as ligands for Ln 3+ ions. They were grafted to 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) to give organically modified alkoxysilanes that were used as molecular precursors for the preparation of hybrid materials. Ln 3+ first coordination sphere, composition of the siloxane matrix and connection between the organic and inorganic parts have been characterized by infrared spectroscopy, by 13C 29Si solid-state NMR as well as by elemental analyses. UV excitation in the organic component resulted in strong emission from Eu 3+ ions due to an efficient ligand-to-metal energy transfer. As compared to reference organic molecules, hybrid samples exhibited similar emission properties under UV excitation in addition to mainly unchanged excited states lifetimes. However, by direct excitation of the Eu 3+- 5D 0 energy level, the presence of two different site distributions were evidenced in the four hybrid compounds. Emission features related to each of these site distributions and their respective attribution were investigated. Variations in the relative emission intensities were observed according to the nature of the organic chromophore. These variations were discussed in relation to the ATE (Absorption-Transfer-Emission) mechanism and to the relative energy positions of the ligand and the rare-earth ions respectively.

Franville, Anne-Christine; Mahiou, Rachid; Zambon, Daniel; Cousseins, Jean-Claude

2001-02-01

152

A comparison of common swabbing materials for the recovery of organic and inorganic explosive residues.  

PubMed

The efficiency of solvent based extraction methods used to remove explosive residues from four different swab types was investigated. Known amounts of organic and inorganic residues were spiked onto a swab surface with acetonitrile or ethanol:water combined with ultrasonication or physical manipulation used to extract the residues from each swab. The efficiency of each procedure was then calculated using liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection for organic residues and ion chromatography for inorganic residues. Results indicated that acetonitrile combined with physical agitation proved to be the most efficient method; returning analyte recoveries c. 95% for both alcohol based swabs and cotton balls. Inorganic residues were efficiently extracted using ethanol:water, while the use of acetonitrile followed by water significantly reduced the recovery of inorganic residues. Swab storage conditions were then investigated with results indicating decreased storage temperatures are required to retain the more volatile explosives. PMID:23458187

DeTata, David A; Collins, Peter A; McKinley, Allan J

2013-05-01

153

Functional materials for rechargeable batteries.  

PubMed

There is an ever-growing demand for rechargeable batteries with reversible and efficient electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Rechargeable batteries cover applications in many fields, which include portable electronic consumer devices, electric vehicles, and large-scale electricity storage in smart or intelligent grids. The performance of rechargeable batteries depends essentially on the thermodynamics and kinetics of the electrochemical reactions involved in the components (i.e., the anode, cathode, electrolyte, and separator) of the cells. During the past decade, extensive efforts have been dedicated to developing advanced batteries with large capacity, high energy and power density, high safety, long cycle life, fast response, and low cost. Here, recent progress in functional materials applied in the currently prevailing rechargeable lithium-ion, nickel-metal hydride, lead acid, vanadium redox flow, and sodium-sulfur batteries is reviewed. The focus is on research activities toward the ionic, atomic, or molecular diffusion and transport; electron transfer; surface/interface structure optimization; the regulation of the electrochemical reactions; and the key materials and devices for rechargeable batteries. PMID:21394791

Cheng, Fangyi; Liang, Jing; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun

2011-04-19

154

Structure and magnetic properties of SiO2/PCL novel sol-gel organic-inorganic hybrid materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic-inorganic nanocomposite materials have been synthesized via sol-gel. They consist of an inorganic SiO2 matrix, in which different percentages of poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) have been incorporated. The formation of H-bonds among the carbonyl groups of the polymer chains and Si-OH group of the inorganic matrix has been proved by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis and has been confirmed by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). X-Ray diffraction (XRD) analysis highlighted the amorphous nature of the synthesized materials. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrograph and atomic force microscope (AFM) topography showed their homogeneous morphology and nanostructure nature. Considering the opportunity to synthesize these hybrid materials under microgravity conditions by means of magnetic levitation, superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry has been used to quantify their magnetic susceptibility. This measure has shown that the SiO2/PCL hybrid materials are diamagnetic and that their diamagnetic susceptibility is independent of temperature and increases with the PCL amount.

Catauro, Michelina; Bollino, Flavia; Cristina Mozzati, Maria; Ferrara, Chiara; Mustarelli, Piercarlo

2013-07-01

155

The Features of Self-Assembling Organic Bilayers Important to the Formation of Anisotropic Inorganic Materials in Microgravity Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is a growing need for inorganic anisotropic particles in a variety of materials science applications. Structural, optical, and electrical properties can be greatly augmented by the fabrication of composite materials with anisotropic microstructures or with anisotropic particles uniformly dispersed in an isotropic matrix. Examples include structural composites, magnetic and optical recording media, photographic film, certain metal and ceramic alloys, and display technologies including flat panel displays. While considerable progress has been made toward developing an understanding of the synthesis of powders composed of monodispersed, spherical particles, these efforts have not been transferred to the synthesis of anisotropic nanoparticles. The major objective of the program is to develop a fundamental understanding of the growth of anisotropic particles at organic templates, with emphasis on the chemical and structural aspects of layered organic assemblies that contribute to the formation of anisotropic inorganic particles.

Talham, Daniel R.; Adair, James H.

1999-01-01

156

Microwave-assisted Synthesis and Biomedical Applications of Inorganic Nanostructured Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inorganic nanostrucured materials have attracted much attention owing to their unique features and important applications in biomedicine. This thesis describes the development of rapid and efficient approaches to synthesize inorganic nanostructures, and introduces some potential applications. Magnetic nanostructures, such as necklace-like FeNi3 magnetic nanochains and magnetite nanoclusters, were synthesized by an efficient microwave-hydrothermal process. They were used as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents. Magnetic FeNi3 nanochains were synthesized by reducing iron(III) acetylacetonate and nickel(II) acetylacetonate with hydrazine in ethylene glycol solution without any template under microwave irradiation. This was a rapid and economical route based on an efficient microwave-hydrothermal process which significantly shortened the synthesis time to mins. The morphologies and size of the materials could be effectively controlled by adjusting the reaction conditions, such as, the reaction time, temperature and concentrations of reactants. The morphology and composition of the as-prepared products were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The size of the aligned nanospheres in the magnetic FeNi 3 chains could be adjusted from 150nm to 550nm by increasing the amounts of the precursors. Magnetic measurements revealed that the FeNi3 nanochains showed enhanced coercivity and saturation magnetization. Toxicity tests by exposure of FeNi3 nanochains to the zebrafish larvae showed that the as-prepared nanochains were biocompatible. In vitro magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirms the effectiveness of the FeNi 3 nanochains as sensitive MRI probes. Magnetite nanoclusters were synthesized by reducing iron(III) acetylacetonate with hydrazine in ethylene glycol under microwave irradiation. The nanoclusters showed enhanced T2 relaxivity. In vitro and in vivo MRI confirmed the effectiveness of the magnetite nanoclusters as sensitive MRI probes. We also investigated the biodistribution of the nanoclusters in rat liver and spleen. Bifunctional mesoporous core/shell Ag FeNi3 nanospheres were synthesized by reducing iron(III) chloride, nickel(II) chloride and silver nitrate with hydrazine in ethylene glycol under microwave irradiation. The efficient microwave-hydrothermal process significantly shortened the synthesis time to one minute. The toxicity of Ag FeNi3 nanospheres were tested by exposing to zebrafish, they were less toxic than silver nanoparticles. In vitro MRI confirmed the effectiveness of the Ag FeNi3 nanospheres as sensitive MRI probes. The interaction of Rhodamine Band nanospheres showed greatly enhanced fluorescence over the FeNi3 nanoparticles. A series of interesting core/shell silver/phenol formaldehyde resin (PFR) nano/microstructures were also synthesized through an efficient microwave process by self-assembly growth. Various morphologies, including monodispersed nanospheres, nanocables, and microcages were obtained by changing the fundamental experimental parameters, such as the reaction time and the surfactants (Pluronic P123 or CTAB). The results indicated that the presence of triblock copolymer Pluronic P123 would result in hollow silver/PFR microcages, while CTAB would prefer the formation of ultralong silver/PFR coaxial nanocables. In the absence of surfactants, monodispersed core/shell silver/PFR nanospheres could be obtained. The size of the nanospheres can be controlled in the range of 110 to 450 nm by changing the molar ratio of reagents (phenol:hexamine). The morphology and composition of the as-prepared products were characterized. The formation mechanism of the products was discussed based on the obtained results. Finally, a series of ZnO microarchitectures including monodispersed spindles, branches, flowers, paddies, and sphere-like clusters were prepared by an efficient microwave-hydrothermal process. The ZnO mophologies could be effectively controlled

Jia, Juncai

157

Inorganic-organic hybrid materials and abrasion resistant coatings based on a sol-gel approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attempts to synthesize hybrid materials from polytetramethylene oxide (PTMO) end-functionalized with triethoxy silyl groups and, tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) under basic conditions met with only partial success. The films obtained had low mechanical stability. In contrast, films with good mechanical stability were obtained when the TEOS was replaced with tritanium tetraisopropoxide (TIOPR). The microstructure of the TIOPR\\/PTMO hybrid synthesized under near neutral

Betrabet

1993-01-01

158

Use of a capacitance voltage technique to study copper drift diffusion in (porous) inorganic low- k materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cu+ drift diffusion in two inorganic low-k materials is evaluated. The diffusion is investigated by measuring shifts in the flatband voltage of capacitance\\/voltage measurements on Cu gate capacitors after bias temperature stressing. The Cu+ drift rate in SiOxCy (2.7?k?3.1) is considerably lower than in PECVD oxide. This electrical method is not suited for a porous silicon resin (k?2.0) because of

F. Lanckmans; K. Maex

2002-01-01

159

Improvement of thermo-oxidative stability of electrically insulating polymeric materials by organic–inorganic hybrid coating  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermo-oxidative stability of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and low-density polyethylene (LDPE) films, coated with organic–inorganic hybrid coatings of various compositions, has been investigated after accelerated ageing tests, in order to ascertain a possible beneficial effect of these coatings on the electrical performances of these insulating materials. The results have shown that the coating affects degradation mechanisms for both LDPE and

M. Marini; F. Pilati; A. Saccani; M. Toselli

2008-01-01

160

Synthesis and characterization of nanocomposite organic/inorganic hybrid materials using living cationic polymerization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of novel chlorosilyl functional initiators have been prepared and applied for the first time in the living cationic polymerization of isobutylene (IB). Well-defined polyisobutylenes (PIBs) carrying mono-, di-, and trichlorosilyl head-group, and a tert-chloro end-group were synthesized using newly designed silyl-functional initiators in conjunction with TiCl4 in Hex:MeCl (60:40, v:v) at -80°C. End-group analysis by 1H NMR spectroscopy verified the product structure and the survival of the Si-Cl head-groups during the polymerization. The chlorosilyl functional initiators and chlorosilyl functional PIBs have been employed for the synthesis of PIB brushes on planar silicate substrates by the "grafting from" and "grafting to" techniques. Structurally well-defined polymer/inorganic nanocomposites were prepared by surface-initiated living cationic polymerization of isobutylene (IB). The living cationic polymerization of IB was initiated from initiators self-assembled on the surface of silica nanoparticles in the presence of additional soluble "free initiator" with TiCl4 in hexanes/CH3Cl (60/40, v/v) at -80°C. The polymerization displayed the diagnostic criteria for living cationic polymerization and provided densely grafted polymers of controlled molecular weight with an approximate graft density of 3.3 chains/nm 2. The surface-initiated polymerization of IB without added "free initiator" also yielded grafted polymer chains with good molecular weight control and narrow molecular weight distribution (Mw/M n). A series of novel hybrid poly(styryl-POSS), poly(isobutylene- b-(styryl-POSS)), and poly(isobutylene-b-(styryl-POSS)- b-isobutylene) are synthesized and characterized. Living cationic polymerization of styryl-POSS macromer was carried out using the 1-chloro-1-(4-methyphenyl)ethane (p-MeStCl)/TiCl4/MeChx:CH3Cl (60:40, v:v)/-80°C system in the presence of DTBP. Using these conditions, we have synthesized AB diblock, and ABA linear triblock copolymers containing polyisobutylene (PIB)-based rubbery mid block (B) with amorphous glassy poly(styryl-POSS) end blocks (A) by living cationic polymerization using sequential monomer addition. Well-defined PIB-b-P(styryl-POSS) and PIB- b-P(styryl-POSS)-b-PIB have been successfully prepared. The styryl-POSS based hybrid polymers were characterized by thermogravimetry and GPC measurements. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Kim, Iljin

161

Inorganic nanowires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the discovery of carbon nanotubes, there has been great interest in the synthesis and characterization of other one-dimensional materials. A variety of inorganic materials have been prepared in the form of nanowires with a diameter of a few nm and lengths going up to several microns. In order to produce the nanowires, both vapor-growth and solution-growth processes have been

C. N. R Rao; F. L Deepak; Gautam Gundiah; A Govindaraj

2003-01-01

162

A new method for synthesizing fluid inclusions in fused silica capillaries containing organic and inorganic material  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Considerable advances in our understanding of physicochemical properties of geological fluids and their roles in many geological processes have been achieved by the use of synthetic fluid inclusions. We have developed a new method to synthesize fluid inclusions containing organic and inorganic material in fused silica capillary tubing. We have used both round (0.3 mm OD and 0.05 or 0.1 mm ID) and square cross-section tubing (0.3 ?? 0.3 mm with 0.05 ?? 0.05 mm or 0.1 ?? 0.1 mm cavities). For microthermometric measurements in a USGS-type heating-cooling stage, sample capsules must be less than 25 mm in length. The square-sectioned capsules have the advantage of providing images without optical distortion. However, the maximum internal pressure (P; about 100 MPa at 22 ??C) and temperature (T; about 500 ??C) maintained by the square-sectioned capsules are less than those held by the round-sectioned capsules (about 300 MPa at room T, and T up to 650 ??C). The fused silica capsules can be applied to a wide range of problems of interest in fluid inclusion and hydrothermal research, such as creating standards for the calibration of thermocouples in heating-cooling stages and frequency shifts in Raman spectrometers. The fused silica capsules can also be used as containers for hydrothermal reactions, especially for organic samples, including individual hydrocarbons, crude oils, and gases, such as cracking of C18H38 between 350 and 400 ??C, isotopic exchanges between C18H38 and D2O and between C19D40 and H2O at similar temperatures. Results of these types of studies provide information on the kinetics of oil cracking and the changes of oil composition under thermal stress. When compared with synthesis of fluid inclusions formed by healing fractures in quartz or other minerals or by overgrowth of quartz at elevated P-T conditions, the new fused-silica method has the following advantages: (1) it is simple; (2) fluid inclusions without the presence of water can be formed; (3) synthesized inclusions are large and uniform, and they are able to tolerate high internal P; (4) it is suitable for the study of organic material; and (5) redox control is possible due to high permeability of the fused silica to hydrogen.

Chou, I. -M.; Song, Y.; Burruss, R. C.

2008-01-01

163

SNL-1, a highly selective inorganic crystalline ion exchange material for Sr{sup 2+} in acidic solutions  

SciTech Connect

A new inorganic ion exchange material, called SNL-1, has been prepared at Sandia National Laboratories. Developmental samples of SNL-1 have been determined to have high selectivity for the adsorption of Strontium from highly acidic solutions (1 M HNO{sub 3}). This paper presents results obtained for the material in batch ion exchange tests conducted at various solution pH values and in the presence of a number of competing cations. Results from a continuous flow column ion exchange experiment are also presented.

Nenoff, T.M.; Thoma, S.G.; Miller, J.E.; Trudell, D.E.

1995-11-01

164

Exponentially Modified Gaussian Function. An Empirical Equation for Description of the Band Emission of Inorganic Phosphors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The empirically found, exponentially modified Gaussian function is used for the description of the band emission of inorganic phosphors. The function includes the two parameters, the intensity of the maximum (I0) and its spectral position (-0), and besides two parameters for the slope of the flanks of the emission band (k1, k2) and two parameters for their deviation from the true Gaussian distribution (n1, n2). The equation is applied to the emission spectra of centre phosphors and crystal phosphors doped by different activator ions and moreover of non-activated phosphors. Correlation coefficients are in the order of magnitude of 0.9999. The function also succeeded in splitting up emission bands into two bands. Die empirisch gefundene Gleichung ist eine exponentiell modifizierte Gauss-Funktion. Sie dient zur Beschreibung der Emissionsspektren von anorganischen Leuchtstoffen mit bandenf<>oeh<>rmiger Emission. Die Funktion enthält neben den beiden Parametern Maximumsintensität (I0) und Maximumslage (-0) für jeden der beiden Kurven<>aeh<>ste jeweils einen Parameter für seine Neigung (k1, k2) und jeweils einen für seine Abweichung von der Gauss-Verteilung (n1, n2). Die Gleichung wird auf die Emissionsspektren von Zentren- und Kristallphosphoren mit unterschiedlichen Aktivatoren sowie von Reinstoffluminophoren angewendet. Die Korrelationskoeffizienten liegen im Bereich von 0,9999. Die Funktion wird auch bei Bandentrennungen mit Erfolg eingesetzt.

Nötzold, D.

1997-09-01

165

Remote Raman Spectroscopic Detection of Inorganic, Organic and Biological Materials to 100 m and More  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have designed and tested a portable gated-Raman system that is capable of detecting organic and inorganic bulk chemicals over stand-off distances of 100 m and more during day and night time. Utilizing a 532 nm laser pulse (~35 mJ/pulse), Raman spectra of several organic and inorganic compounds have been measured with the portable Raman instrument over a distance of 100 m. Remote Raman spectra, obtained with a very short gate (2 micro second), from a variety of inorganic minerals such as calcite (CaCO3), ?-quartz (?-SiO2), barite (BaSO4), and FeSO4.7H2O, and organic compounds such as acetone, methanol, 2-propanol and naphthalene showed all major bands required for unambiguous chemical identification. We also measured the Raman and fluorescence spectra of plant leaves, tomato, and chicken eggshell excited with a 532 nm, 20 Hz pulsed laser and accumulated over 200 laser shots (10-s integration time) at 110 m with good signal-to-noise ratio. The results of these investigations show that remote Raman spectroscopy over a distance of 100 m can be used to identify Raman fingerprints of both inorganic, organic, and some biological compounds on planetary surfaces and could be useful for environmental monitoring.

Sharma, Shiv K.; Misra, Anupam K.

2008-11-01

166

UTILIZATION OF ALUMINA RED MUD FOR SYNTHESIS OF INORGANIC POLYMERIC MATERIALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red mud is a residue coming from the metallurgical treatment of bauxite with the Bayer process. Million of tons of red mud are produced annually worldwide and disposed of on land, degrading vast areas. Therefore, red mud utilization is a first-priority issue for any alumina plant. In the present work, the potential use of red mud for synthesis of inorganic

Dimitrios D. Dimas; Ioanna P. Giannopoulou; Dimitrios Panias

2009-01-01

167

Synthesis of nanostructured organic and inorganic materials by self-assembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis investigated the nanostructure, morphology of organic and inorganic materials grown in ordered organic matrices. The matrix is a binary system of water and the nonionic surfactant of oligo(ethylene oxide) n¯ oleyl ether. Initial studies were conducted on mineralization of a calcium phosphate mineral at the interface between ion doped hexagonal mesophases. Investigation of mesophase structure indicates that the binding of calcium and acetate ions to surfactant reduces the mesophase stability but phosphate ions, with low affinity to surfactant, do not affect the mesophase structure. SEM investigation of the mineral reveals plate-like crystals with a surface nanostructure resembling the orientational order of cylindrical assemblies in the mesophase. A similar surfactant system is considered for the organic synthesis by photopolymerization of a semi-polar monomer, carboxylated oligobutadiene, at the interfacial region of surfactant assemblies in non-lamellar mesophases. Investigation of mesophase structure in the presence of the oligomer n¯=6 indicates a transformation of hexagonal to lamellar structure at low oligomer contents. For a surfactant with longer hydrophile, this transformation takes place at higher oligomer concentrations. A similar phase transformation is observed with mesophases containing the oligomer ( n¯ = 12). Photopolymerization of hexagonal mesophases of either oligomer results in elongated objects with dimensions matching the dimension of cylindrical assemblies in the hexagonal mesophase. The isotropic texture of the polymer formed by the oligomer ( n¯ = 6) along with a larger effective diameter of the polymeric particles point to a highly interconnected structure of the elongated objects. This interconnection is reduced in the polymer formed by the oligomer ( n¯ = 12) as observed by the shorter effective diameter and the nematic-like optical texture. The replacement of water in the hexagonal mesophase of the oligomer ( n¯ = 12) with phosphoric acid results in a bicontinuous structure. Photopolymerization of this mesophase gives rise to nano-spherical particles with continuous hydrophilic and hydrophobic domains, which when mineralized, form a composite network of mineral and polymer with improved mechanical properties over the mineralized-nonpolymerized structure. Crosslinking seems to enhance the binding of mineral to organic matrix. This study introduces a new direction for the control of morphology via self assembly.

Eftekharzadeh, Shirin

168

Crack deflection in functionally graded materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small crack deflection in brittle functionally graded materials (FGMs) is studied. The FGMs are modeled as simply nonhomogeneous materials, i.e., the effect of microstructure is neglected and the material property variation is considered to be continuous. Considering local homogeneity and the small scale inelasticity of brittle materials, the toughness is taken to be independent of direction; therefore, the crack propagates

Pei Gu; R. J. Asaro

1997-01-01

169

Fracture Mechanics of Functionally Graded Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Functionally graded materials are generally two-phase composites with continuously varying volume fractions. Used as coatings and interfacial zones, they help to reduce mechanically and thermally induced stresses caused by the material property mismatch a...

F. Erdogan

1996-01-01

170

Sensors for inorganic vapor detection based on carbon nanotubes and poly( o-anisidine) nanocomposite material  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gas sensor, fabricated by selective growth of aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by pulsed plasma on Si3N4\\/Si substrates patterned by metallic platinum, is presented for inorganic vapor detection at room temperature. Poly(o-anisidine) (POAS) deposition onto the CNTs device was shown to impart higher sensitivity to the sensor. Upon exposure to HCl the variation of the CNTs sensitivity is less than

L. Valentini; V Bavastrello; E Stura; I Armentano; C Nicolini; J. M Kenny

2004-01-01

171

Distribution of Inorganic Mercury in Sacramento River Water and Suspended Colloidal Sediment Material  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentration and distribution of inorganic Hg was measured using cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry in samples\\u000a collected at selected sites on the Sacramento River from below Shasta Dam to Freeport, CA, at six separate times between 1996\\u000a and 1997. Dissolved (ultrafiltered, 0.005 ?m equivalent pore size) Hg concentrations remained relatively constant throughout\\u000a the system, ranging from the detection limit (<

D. A. Roth; H. E. Taylor; J. Domagalski; P. Dileanis; D. B. Peart; R. C. Antweiler; C. N. Alpers

2001-01-01

172

Thermomechanical Behavior of Functionally Graded Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Functionally graded materials are studied with emphasis on fracture resistance behavior and piezoelectric performance. Several types of metal/ ceramic FGM plates are processed and their fracture resistance, Kr as a function of crack length was examined ex...

A. Almajid S. Hudnut M. Taya

2000-01-01

173

Polyester-inorganic nanocomposite materials via sol-gel reactions: Synthesis and characterization of fundamental properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A scheme was developed for producing poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET) ionomer)/silicate hybrid materials via polymer-in situ sol-gel reactions for tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) using different solvents. Scanning electron microscopy/EDAX studies revealed that silicate structures can be grown deep within PET ionomer films that were melt pressed from silicate-incorporated resin pellets. 29Si solid-state NMR spectroscopy revealed considerable, successful Si-O-Si bond formation, but also a significant fraction of uncondensed SiOH groups. 23Na solid-state NMR spectra suggested the presence of ionic aggregates within the unfilled PET ionomer and that these aggregates do not suffer major structural re-arrangements by silicate incorporation. For an ionomer treated with TEOS using MeCl2 solvent, Na + ions are less self-associated than in the unfilled control, suggesting silicate intrusion between PET-SO3- Na + ion pair associations. The ionomer treated with TEOS + tetrachloroethane had more poorly formed ionic aggregates, which illustrates the influence of solvent type on ionic aggregation. First-scan DSC thermograms for the ionomers demonstrate an increase in crystallinity after the incorporation of silicates, but solvent induced crystallization also appears to be operative. Second-scan DSC thermograms also suggest that the addition of silicate particles is not the only factor implicated in re-crystallization, and that solvent type is important even in second scan behavior. Silicate incorporation does not profoundly affect the second scan Tg vs. solvent type, i.e., chain mobility in the amorphous regions is not severely restricted by silicate incorporation. Re-crystallization and melting in these hybrids appears to be due to an interplay between a solvent induced crystallization that strongly depends on solvent type, and interactions between PET chains and in situ-grown, sol-gel-derived silicate particles. Isothermal studies confirmed that the crystallization rate and melting behavior of PET 5% Na+ ionomers depend on processing conditions. PET ionomer/ORMOSIL composites were formed via in situ sol-gel reactions using the ionic regions of PET as preferential reaction sites. TGA analysis revealed successful uptake for all three different solvents and TEOS:MTES composition ratios. TGA derivative curves suggest that for the THF and MeCl2 carrier solvent systems the MTES-generated network interacts more with the PET ionomer matrix. In the case of TCE, the TEOS-generated network interaction appears to be more operative. First scan DSC traces reveal that the in situ sol-gel processing of ORMOSIL phases induces PET ionomer crystallinity, although systems with higher silicate uptake have reduced induced crystallinity. Second scan DSC traces show that Tg is not effected by the incorporation of silicates into the PET ionomer. Also, for the ORMOSIL phases generated using THF and MeCl2 as the swelling solvent, only the pure silicate networks (synthesized using only TEOS) allow recrystallization and melting during the quick scan timeframe. It is thought that the presence of semi-organic MTES silicate networks do not allow fast nucleation onto the inorganic nuclei. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Lambert, Alexander Adam, III

174

Organic-inorganic electronics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic-inorganic hybrid materials enable the integration of useful organic and inorganic characteristics within a single molecular-scale composite. Unique electronic and optical properties have been observed, and many others can be envisioned for this promising class of materials. In this paper, we review the crystal structures and physical properties of one family of crystalline, self-assembling, organic-inorganic hybrids based on the layered

David B. Mitzi; Konstantinos Chondroudis; Cherie R. Kagan

2001-01-01

175

A new sensitive organic/inorganic hybrid material based on titanium oxide for the potentiometric detection of iron(III).  

PubMed

The formation of a new hybrid material based on titanium dioxide as inorganic support and containing an iron organochelator (ICL670) is described. An organophosphorous coupling agent was used to graft the organic molecule on the oxide surface. The attachment of the organic substrate was well-confirmed by FTIR (DRIFT), solid-state (31)P and (13)C CPMAS NMR, thermal analysis and the integrity of the structural and morphological parameters were verified using XRD and TEM analyses. The interaction between the material and dissolved iron(III) was also investigated through potentiometric measurements and demonstrated the interest of this new non-siliceous based hybrid material. The obtained linear evolution of the open circuit potential from 10(-2) to 10(-6) mol L(-1) can be used for the analytical detection of iron(III). PMID:23000208

Becuwe, M; Rouge, P; Gervais, C; Courty, M; Dassonville-Klimpt, A; Sonnet, P; Baudrin, E

2012-12-15

176

Two inorganic-organic hybrid materials based on polyoxometalate anions and methylene blue: Preparations, crystal structures and properties  

SciTech Connect

Two novel inorganic-organic hybrid materials based on an organic dye cation methylene blue (MB) and Lindqvist-type POM polyanions, [C{sub 22}H{sub 18}N{sub 3}S]{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}O{sub 19} 2DMF (1) and [C{sub 22}H{sub 18}N{sub 3}S]{sub 2}W{sub 6}O{sub 19} 2DMF (2) were synthesized under ambient conditions and characterized by CV, IR spectroscopy, solid diffuse reflectance spectrum, UV-vis spectra in DMF solution, luminescent spectrum and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Crystallographic data reveal that compounds 1 and 2 are isostructural and both crystallize in the triclinic space group P1-bar . Their crystal structures present that the layers of organic molecules and inorganic anions array alternatively, and there exist strong {pi}...{pi} stacking interactions between dimeric MB cations and near distance interactions among organic dye cations, Lindqvist-type POM polyanions and DMF molecules. The solid diffuse reflectance spectra and UV-vis spectra in DMF solution appear new absorption bands ascribed to the charge-transfer transition between the cationic MB donor and the POM acceptors. Studies of the photoluminescent properties show that the formation of 1 and 2 lead to the fluorescence quenching of starting materials. -- Graphical abstract: Their crystal structures present that the layers of organic molecules and inorganic anions array alternatively, and there exist strong {pi}...{pi} stacking interactions between dimeric MB cations. Display Omitted

Nie Shanshan; Zhang Yaobin; Liu Bin; Li Zuoxi; Hu Huaiming [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry (Ministry of Education), Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Physico-Inorganic Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Northwest University, Xi'an 710069 (China); Xue Ganglin, E-mail: xglin707@163.co [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry (Ministry of Education), Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Physico-Inorganic Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Northwest University, Xi'an 710069 (China); Fu Feng; Wang Jiwu [Department of Chemistry, Yanan University, Yan'an 716000 (China)

2010-12-15

177

Functionally graded materials for prescribed field evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present communication is concerned with a numerical procedure to determine an optimal material layout of a functionally graded material (FGM) within the context of a transient phenomenon. In particular, the physical problem considered here is transient heat conduction. The idea is to determine the effective material properties (via volume fraction of an isotropic composite) with the goal of controlling

Sergio Turteltaub

2002-01-01

178

Ceramic transactions: Functionally gradient materials. Volume 34  

SciTech Connect

A functionally gradient material (FGM) is a composite that smoothly transitions from one material at one surface to another material at the opposite surface. Metals and ceramics are usually the materials that are combined in a controlled manner to optimize a specific property. The First International Symposium on Functionally Gradient Materials was held in Sendai, Japan, in August 1990. Contained in the present volume are the Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Functionally Gradient Materials, presented at the Third International Ceramic Science and Technology Congress, held in San Francisco, CA, November 1-4, 1992. The papers presented here are divided into eight sections: the concept of FGM; mathematical modeling; methods of fabrication; material evaluation; applications; joining processes in FGM; process characterization; and design considerations. Separate abstracts are provided for each of the 54 papers.

Holt, J.B.; Koizumi, Mitsue; Hirai, Toshio; Munir, Z.A. (eds.)

1993-01-01

179

U.S./Russian lab-to-lab materials protection, control and accounting program efforts at the Institute of Inorganic Materials. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Inorganic Materials (VNIINM) performs research in nuclear power reactor fuel, spent fuel reprocessing and waste management, materials science of fissionable and reactor structural materials, metallurgy, superconducting materials, and analytical sciences. VNIINM supports the Ministry of Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation (MINATOM) in technologies for fabrication and processing of nuclear fuel. As a participant in the US/Russian Lab-to-Lab nuclear materials protection, control and accounting (MPC and A) program, VNIINM is providing support for measurements of nuclear materials in bulk forms by developing specifications, test and evaluation, certification, and implementation of measurement methods for such materials. In 1996, VNIINM will be working with Brookhaven staff in developing and documenting material control and accounting requirements for nuclear materials in bulk form, Livermore and Los Alamos staff in testing and evaluating gamma-ray spectrometry methods for bulk materials, Los Alamos staff in test and evaluation of neutron-coincidence counting techniques, Oak Ridge staff in accounting of bulk materials with process instrumentation, and Pacific Northwest staff on automating VNIINM`s coulometric titration system. In addition, VNIINM will develop a computerized accounting system for nuclear material within VNIINM and their storage facility. The paper will describe the status of this work and anticipated progress in 1996.

Ruhter, W.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Kositsyn, V.; Rudenko, V. [A.A. Bochvar`s All-Russian Scientific Research Inst. of Inorganic Materials, Moscow (Russian Federation); Siskind, B.; Bieber, A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Hoida, Hiroshi; Augustson, R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Ehinger, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Smith, B.W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1996-07-24

180

Advanced water treatment of high turbid source by hybrid module of ceramic microfiltration and activated carbon adsorption: Effect of organic\\/inorganic materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effect of organic or inorganic materials on membrane fouling in advanced drinking water treatment by hybrid\\u000a module packed with granular activated carbon (GAC) outside a tubular ceramic microfiltration membrane. Instead of natural\\u000a organic matters (NOM) and fine inorganic particles in the natural water source, synthetic water was prepared with humic acid\\u000a and kaolin. Concentrations of kaolin or

Hyuk Chan Lee; Jin Yong Park; Do-Young Yoon

2009-01-01

181

A solid-state light-emitting device based on ballistic electron excitation using an inorganic material as a fluorescent film  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been demonstrated that a solid-state light-emitting device based on ballistic electron excitation generated in nanocrystalline porous silicon (nc-PS) layer can be fabricated using an inorganic material as a fluorescent film. This device is composed of a semitransparent thin Au film, an inorganic fluorescent film (in this case, ZnS: Mn), a nc-PS layer, n-type Si substrate and an ohmic

Yoshiki Nakajima; Hajime Toyama; Akira Kojima; Nobuyoshi Koshida

2003-01-01

182

Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technique used to align liquid crystals-rubbing the surface of a substrate on which a liquid crystal is subsequently deposited-has been perfected by the multibillion-dollar liquid-crystal display industry. However, it is widely recognized that a non-contact alignment technique would be highly desirable for future generations of large, high-resolution liquid-crystal displays. A number of alternative alignment techniques have been reported, but none of these have so far been implemented in large-scale manufacturing. Here, we report a non-contact alignment process, which uses low-energy ion beams impinging at a glancing angle on amorphous inorganic films, such as diamond-like carbon. Using this approach, we have produced both laptop and desktop displays in pilot-line manufacturing, and found that displays of higher quality and reliability could be made at a lower cost than the rubbing technique. The mechanism of alignment is explained by adopting a random network model of atomic arrangement in the inorganic films. Order is induced by exposure to an ion beam because unfavourably oriented rings of atoms are selectively destroyed. The planes of the remaining rings are predominantly parallel to the direction of the ion beam.

Chaudhari, P.; Lacey, James; Doyle, James; Galligan, Eileen; Lien, Shui-Chi Alan; Callegari, Alesandro; Hougham, Gareth; Lang, Norton D.; Andry, Paul S.; John, Richard; Yang, Kei-Hsuing; Lu, Minhua; Cai, Chen; Speidell, James; Purushothaman, Sampath; Ritsko, John; Samant, Mahesh; Stöhr, Joachim; Nakagawa, Yoshiki; Katoh, Yoshimine; Saitoh, Yukito; Sakai, Kazumi; Satoh, Hiroyuki; Odahara, Shuichi; Nakano, Hiroki; Nakagaki, Johji; Shiota, Yasuhiko

2001-05-01

183

Distribution of inorganic mercury in Sacramento River water and suspended colloidal sediment material  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The concentration and distribution of inorganic Hg was measured using cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry in samples collected at selected sites on the Sacramento River from below Shasta Dam to Freeport, CA, at six separate times between 1996 and 1997. Dissolved (ultrafiltered, 0.005 ??m equivalent pore size) Hg concentrations remained relatively constant throughout the system, ranging from the detection limit (< 0.4 ng/L) to 2.4 ng/L. Total Hg (dissolved plus colloidal suspended sediment) concentrations ranged from the detection limit at the site below Shasta Dam in September 1996 to 81 ng/L at the Colusa site in January 1997, demonstrating that colloidal sediment plays an important role in the downriver Hg transport. Sequential extractions of colloid concentrates indicate that the greatest amount of Hg associated with sediment Was found in the "residual" (mineral) phase with a significant quantity also occurring in the "oxidizable" phase. Only a minor amount of Hg was observed in the "reducible" phase. Dissolved Hg loads remained constant or increased slightly in the downstream direction through the study area, whereas the total inorganic Hg load increased significantly downstream especially in the reach of the fiver between Bend Bridge and Colusa. Analysis of temporal variations showed that Hg loading was positively correlated to discharge.

Roth, D. A.; Taylor, H. E.; Domagalski, J.; Dileanis, P.; Peart, D. B.; Antweiler, R. C.; Alpers, C. N.

2001-01-01

184

Discrete covalent organic-inorganic hybrids: terpyridine functionalized polyoxometalates obtained by a modular strategy and their metal complexation.  

PubMed

The rational design and synthesis of organic-inorganic hybrids as functional molecular materials relies on both the careful conception of building-blocks and the strategy for their assembly. Three families of trialkoxo polyoxometalates (Lindqvist 2, Anderson 3, Dawson 4) grafted with remote terpyridine coordination sites have been synthesized to extend the available building-blocks. These new units can be combined with metal complexes that play a role as (i) chromophores toward charge-separated systems in light-harvesting devices and (ii) coordination motifs for metal-directed self-assembly toward multifunctional molecular hybrid materials. The X-ray crystal structures of polyoxometalate-terpyridine hybrids indicate distances of 21 Å and 19 Å between the two terpyridyl coordination sites in 2 and 3, respectively, with angles between the coordination vectors of 180° and 177.4°, respectively. Lindqvist 2 displays a reduction at -0.52 V vs SCE while Anderson 3 exhibits one reversible oxidation attributed to Mn(III)/Mn(IV) (+0.75 V vs SCE) and a broad wave at -1.28 V vs SCE assigned to the Mn(III)/Mn(II) reduction. Dawson 4 displays several processes on a wide range of potentials (+0.5 to -2.0 V vs SCE) centered on V(V), W(VI) and the organic ligand in order of decreasing potentials. The grafted terpyridine ligands in Anderson 3 and Dawson 4 were successfully coordinated to {PdCl}(+) and {RuCl(3)} moieties, respectively. The polyoxometalates and transition metal complexes retain their intrinsic properties in the final assemblies. PMID:21661721

Santoni, Marie-Pierre; Pal, Amlan K; Hanan, Garry S; Proust, Anna; Hasenknopf, Bernold

2011-07-18

185

Application of modified Gran functions and derivative methods to potentiometric acid titration studies of the distribution of inorganic carbon species in cultivation medium of marine microalgae  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an evaluation of the modified Gran functions (MGFs) and derivative methods for assessing the concentrations of inorganic carbon species, CO2, HCO3? and CO32?, in the cultivation medium of the marine microalgae Tetraselmis gracilis. Both methods were applied to simulated and experimental potentiometric titration data and were able to detect small variations of inorganic carbon species during 10

Marilda Rigobello-Masini; Jorge C. Masini

2001-01-01

186

Applications of density functional theory in materials science and engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Density Functional Theory (DFT) is a powerful tool that can be used to model various systems in materials science. Our research applies DFT to two problems of interest. First, an organic/inorganic complex dye system known as a Mayan pigment is modeled to determine chemical binding sites, verifying each model with physical data such as UV/Vis spectra. Preliminary studies on palygorskite-based mayan pigments (mayacrom blue, mayacrom purple) show excellent agreement with experimental studies when using a dimer dye geometry binding with tetrahedrally-coordinated aluminum impurity sites in palygorksite. This approach is applied to a sepiolite-based organic/inorganic dye system using thioindigo attached to a tetrahedral aluminum impurity site with an additional aluminum impurity site in close proximity to the binding site. As a second application of DFT, various grain orientations in beta-Sn are modeled under imposed strains in order to calculate elastic properties of this system. These calculations are intended to clarify discrepancies in published, experimental crystal compliance values.

Alvarado, Manuel, Jr.

187

MATERIALS AEROMETRIC DATABASE FOR USE IN DEVELOPING MATERIALS DAMAGE FUNCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Meteorological and air quality data acquired at field exposure sites have been accumulated into the Materials Aerometric Database (MAD). Task Group VII of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) will use the MAD to develop damage functions for materials exposed...

188

U.S./Russian lab-to-lab materials protection, control and accounting program efforts at the Institute of Inorganic Materials  

SciTech Connect

The All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Inorganic Materials (VNIINM) performs research in nuclear power reactor fuel,m spent fuel reprocessing and waste management, materials science of fissionable and reactor structural materials, metallurgy, superconducting materials, and analytical sciences. VNIINM supports the Ministry of Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation (MINATOM) in technologies for fabrication and processing of nuclear fuel. As a participant in the U. S./Russian Lab-to-Lab nuclear materials protection, control and accounting (MPC&A) program, VNIINM is providing evaluation, certification, and implementation of measurement methods for such materials. In 1966, VNIINM will be working with Brookhaven staff in developing and documenting material control and accounting requirements for nuclear materials in bulk form, Livermore and Los Alamos staff in testing and evaluating gamma-ray spectrometry methods for bulk materials, Los Alamos staff in test and evaluation of neutron-coincidence counting techniques, Oak Ridge staff in accounting of bulk materials with process instrumentation, and Pacific Northwest staff on automating VNIINM`s coulometric titration system. In addition, VNIINM will develop a computerized accounting system for nuclear material within VNIINM and heir storage facility. This paper describes the status of this work and anticipated progress in 1996.

Ruhter, W.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Kositsyn, V.; Rudenko, V. [Vsesoyuznyj Nauchno-Issledovatel`skij Inst. Neorganicheskikh Materialov, Moscow (Russian Federation); Siskind, B.; Bieber, A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Hoida, H.; Augustson, [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Ehinger, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Smith, B.W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1996-07-08

189

Functionalized pentamolybdodiphosphate-based inorganic-organic hybrids: synthesis, structure, and properties.  

PubMed

Three inorganic-organic hybrid compounds based on functionalized pentamolybdodiphosphonopropionate anion [(HO2CC2H4PO3)2Mo5O15](4-), [Co3(bipy)4(H2O)6{(HO2CC2H4PO3)2Mo5O15}2]·(H2bipy)2·18H2O (1), [Fe3(bipy)4(H2O)6{(HO2CC2H4PO3)2Mo5O15}2]·(H2bipy)2·18H2O (2), and [Cu(bipy)(H2O)2{(HO2CC2H4PO3)2Mo5O15}]·(H2bipy)·4H2O (3), where bipy = 4,4'-bipyridine, have been successfully synthesized at different pH values in aqueous solutions. In compound 1, [(HO2CC2H4PO3)2Mo5O15](4-) acts as a tridentate ligand and coordinates to the Co(2+) ions of trimeric complex cations [Co3(bipy)4(H2O)6](6+) forming a layer. In 3 [(HO2CC2H4PO3)2Mo5O15](4-) acts as a bidentate ligand and coordinates to the Cu(2+) ions of complex chains [Cu(bipy)(H2O)2]n(2n+), forming a different layer from that in 1. The three compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectra, and TGA. In addition, their fluorescent properties and magnetic properties have also been investigated. PMID:24020414

Li, Xiao-Min; Chen, Ya-Guang; Su, Chunnian; Zhou, Shi; Tang, Qun; Shi, Tian

2013-10-01

190

Luminescent Organic–Inorganic Hybrids of Functionalized Mesoporous Silica SBA15 by Thio-Salicylidene Schiff Base  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel organic–inorganic mesoporous luminescent hybrid material N,N?-bis(salicylidene)-thiocarbohydrazide (BSTC-SBA-15) has been obtained by co-condensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate and\\u000a the organosilane in the presence of Pluronic P123 surfactant as a template. N,N?-bis(salicylidene)-thiocarbohydrazide (BSTC) grafted to the coupling agent 3-(triethoxysilyl)-propyl isocyanate (TESPIC)\\u000a was used as the precursor for the preparation of mesoporous materials. In addition, for comparison, SBA-15 doped with organic\\u000a ligand BSTC

Ying LiBing; Bing Yan; Jin-Liang Liu

2010-01-01

191

PREFACE: Functional materials and nanotechnologies (FM&NT-2007)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Baltic Sea Region conference Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies (FM&NT-2007) was held in Riga, 2-4 April 2007 in the Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia (ISSP LU). The conference was organized in co-operation with projects ERANET 'MATERA' and EUREKA 'BIONANOCOMPOSITE'. The purpose of the conference was to bring together scientists, engineers and students from universities, research institutes and related industrial companies active in the field of advanced material science and materials technologies trends and future activities. Scientific themes covered in the conference are:

  • advanced inorganic materials for photonics, energetics and microelectronics
  • organic materials for photonics and nanoelectronics
  • advanced methods for investigation of nanostructures
  • perspective biomaterials and medicine technologies
  • development of technologies for design of nanostructured materials, nanoparticles, and thin films
  • design of functional materials and nanocomposites and development of their technologies
  • The number of registered participants from 14 countries was nearly 110. During three days of the conference 70 oral reports and 58 posters were presented, 50 papers, based on these reports, are included in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series. Additional information about FM&NT-2007 is available in its homepage http://fmnt.lu.lv and http://www.fmnt.lv . The Organizing Committee would like to thank all speakers, contributors, session chairs, referees and meeting staff for their efforts in making the FM&NT-2007 successful. The local Organization Committee would like to acknowledge and thank our sponsors - Latvian Council of Science and the Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia. Andris Sternberg Inta Muzikante Guest editors

    Sternberg, Andris; Muzikante, Inta

    2007-06-01

    192

    Polyfunctional inorganic-organic hybrid materials: an unusual kind of NLO active layered mixed metal oxalates with tunable magnetic properties and very large second harmonic generation.  

    PubMed

    Mixed M(II)/M(III) metal oxalates, as "stripes" connected through strong hydrogen bonding by para-dimethylaminobenzaldeide (DAMBA) and water, form an organic-inorganic 2D network that enables segregation in layers of the cationic organic NLO-phore trans-4-(4-dimethylaminostyryl)-1-methylpyridinium, [DAMS+]. The crystalline hybrid materials obtained have the general formula [DAMS]4[M2M'(C2O4)6].2DAMBA.2H2O (M = Rh, Fe, Cr; M' = Mn, Zn), and their overall three-dimensional packing is non-centrosymmetric and polar, therefore suitable for second harmonic generation (SHG). All the compounds investigated are characterized by an exceptional SHG activity, due both to the large molecular quadratic hyperpolarizability of [DAMS+] and to the efficiency of the crystalline network which organizes [DAMS+] into head-to-tail arranged J-type aggregates. The tunability of the pairs of metal ions allows exploiting also the magnetic functionality of the materials. Examples containing antiferro-, ferro-, and ferri-magnetic interactions (mediated by oxalato bridges) are obtained by coupling proper M(III) ions (Fe, Cr, Rh) with M(II) (Mn, Zn). This shed light on the role of weak next-nearest-neighbor interactions and main nearest-neighbor couplings along "stripes" of mixed M(II)/M(III) metal oxalates of the organic-inorganic 2D network, thus suggesting that these hybrid materials may display isotropic 1D magnetic properties along the mixed M(II)/M(III) metal oxalates "stripes". PMID:17616190

    Cariati, Elena; Macchi, Roberto; Roberto, Dominique; Ugo, Renato; Galli, Simona; Casati, Nicola; Macchi, Piero; Sironi, Angelo; Bogani, Lapo; Caneschi, Andrea; Gatteschi, Dante

    2007-08-01

    193

    Inorganic nanotubes reinforced polyvinylidene fluoride composites as low-cost electromagnetic interference shielding materials  

    PubMed Central

    Novel polymer nanocomposites comprising of MnO2 nanotubes (MNTs), functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNTs), and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) were synthesized. Homogeneous distribution of f-MWCNTs and MNTs in PVDF matrix were confirmed by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Electrical conductivity measurements were performed on these polymer composites using four probe technique. The addition of 2 wt.% of MNTs (2 wt.%, f-MWCNTs) to PVDF matrix results in an increase in the electrical conductivity from 10-16S/m to 4.5 × 10-5S/m (3.2 × 10-1S/m). Electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness (EMI SE) was measured with vector network analyzer using waveguide sample holder in X-band frequency range. EMI SE of approximately 20 dB has been obtained with the addition of 5 wt.% MNTs-1 wt.% f-MWCNTs to PVDF in comparison with EMI SE of approximately 18 dB for 7 wt.% of f-MWCNTs indicating the potential use of the present MNT/f-MWCNT/PVDF composite as low-cost EMI shielding materials in X-band region.

    2011-01-01

    194

    Vertically Aligned Nanostructured Arrays of Inorganic Materials: Synthesis, Distinctive Physical Phenomena, and Device Integration  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The manifestation of novel physical phenomena upon scaling materials to finite size has inspired new device concepts that take advantage of the distinctive electrical, mechanical, and optical, properties of nanostructures. The development of fabrication approaches for the preparation of their 1D nanostructured form, such as nanowires and nanotubes, has contributed greatly to advancing fundamental understanding of these systems, and has spurred the integration of these materials in novel electronics, photonic devices, power sources, and energy scavenging constructs. Significant progress has been achieved over the last decade in the preparation of ordered arrays of carbon nanotubes, II---VI and III---V semiconductors, and some binary oxides such as ZnO. In contrast, relatively less attention has been focused on layered materials with potential for electrochemical energy storage. Here, we describe the catalyzed vapor transport growth of vertical arrays of orthorhombic V2O 5 nanowires. In addition, near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy is used to precisely probe the alignment, uniformity in crystal growth direction, and electronic structure of single-crystalline V2O5 nanowire arrays prepared by a cobalt-catalyzed vapor transport process. The dipole selection rules operational for core-level electron spectroscopy enable angle-dependant NEXAFS spectroscopy to be used as a sensitive probe of the anisotropy of these systems and provides detailed insight into bond orientation and the symmetry of the frontier orbital states. The experimental spectra are matched to previous theoretical predictions and allow experimental verification of features such as the origin of the split-off conduction band responsible for the n-type conductivity of V2O5 and the strongly anisotropic nature of vanadyl-oxygen-derived (V=O) states thought to be involved in catalysis. We have also invested substantial effort in obtaining shape and size control of metal oxide materials to obtain a fundamental understanding of the influence of finite size and surface restructuring on electronic instabilities in the proximity of the Fermi level. We present here a novel synthetic approach that takes advantage of the intrinsic octahedral symmetry of rock-salt-structured VO to facilitate the growth of six-armed nanocrystallites of related, technologically more important binary vanadium oxide V2O5 . The prepared nanostructures exhibit clear six-fold symmetry and most notably show remarkable retention of electronic structure. The latter has been evidenced through extensive X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements. We have further designed a facile, generalizable, and entirely scalable approach for the fabrication of vertically aligned arrays of Fe2O 3/polypyrrole core---shell nanostructures and polypyrrole nanotubes. Our "all electrochemical" approach is based on the fabrication of ?-Fe 2O3 nanowire arrays by the simple heat treatment of commodity low carbon steel substrates, followed by electropolymerization of conformal polypyrrole sheaths around the nanowires. Subsequently, electrochemical etching of the nanowires yields large-area vertically aligned polypyrrole nanotube arrays on the steel substrate. The developed methodology is generalizable to functionalized pyrrole monomers and represents a significant practical advance of relevance to the technological implementation of conjugated polymer nanostructures in electrochromics, electrochemical energy storage, and sensing. As another variation of this general synthetic route, we have extended the practice of our simple oxidative process for the fabrication of large-area ZnO nanostructures, specifically highly aligned nanowire arrays integrated onto galvanized steel substrates which via a simple device design and additive piezoelectric nanopower generation were measured across the array substrates. The nanomaterial syntheses and device fabrication approaches developed here will enable facile integration of piezoelectric nanogenerators on to structural components.

    Velazquez, Jesus Manuel

    195

    TOPICAL REVIEW: Application of high magnetic fields in inorganic materials processing  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Application of high magnetic fields in materials processing has started. A high magnetic field enhances not only a Lorentz force in a weak electric current but also a magnetization force in non-magnetic materials. The main results obtained from the application of a high magnetic field to the processing of several materials is reviewed. These include the alignment of particles in

    Shigeo Asai

    2004-01-01

    196

    Continuous spray forming of functionally gradient materials.  

    National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

    Researchers at Plasma Processes Inc. have produced a Functional Gradient Material (FGM) through advanced vacuum plasma spray processing for high heat flux applications. Outlined in this paper are the manufacturing methods used to develop a four component ...

    T. N. McKechnie E. H. Richardson

    1995-01-01

    197

    Thermomechanical Behavior of Functionally Graded Materials.  

    National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

    The research involved developing theoretical formulations and finite element analyses of the thermomechanical, transient response of functionally graded cylinders and plates. Nonlinearities (geometric and material), thermomechanical coupling (between elas...

    J. N. Reddy

    1998-01-01

    198

    Functionally graded materials for biomedical applications  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Functional gradation is one characteristic feature of living tissue. Bio-inspired materials open new approaches for manufacturing implants for bone replacement. Different routes for new implant materials are presented using the principle of functional gradation. An artificial biomaterial for knee joint replacement has been developed by building a graded structure consisting of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibre reinforced high-density polyethylene

    W. Pompea; H. Worch; M. Epple; W. Friess; M. Gelinsky; P. Greil; U. Hempel; D. Scharnweber; K. Schulte

    2003-01-01

    199

    ADIABATIC SHEAR BANDS IN FUNCTIONALLY GRADED MATERIALS  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The initiation and propagation of adiabatic shear bands (ASBs) in functionally graded materials (FGMs) deformed at high strain rates in plane-strain tension have been studied. An ASB is a narrow region, usually a few micrometers wide, of intense plastic deformation that forms after softening of the material due to its being heated up and the evolution of damage in the

    R. C. Batra; B. M. Love

    2004-01-01

    200

    Micromechanical modelling of functionally graded materials  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The problems in design of functionally graded materials (FGMs) are outlined and their modelling approaches are reviewed. Due to the concentrational or structural gradients in FGMs, the “normal” approximations and models, used for traditional composites, are not directly applicable to graded materials. The goal is to show the efficiency of the simplest models to provide the most accurate estimates of

    Michael M Gasik

    1998-01-01

    201

    Fracture mechanics of functionally graded materials  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    In this paper, after a brief discussion of the elementary concepts of fracture mechanics in nonhomogeneous materials, a number of typical problem areas relating to the fracture of functionally gradient materials (FGMs) are identified. The main topics considered are the investigation of the nature of stress singularity near the tip of a crack fully embedded in a nonhomogeneous medium, the

    F. Erdogan

    1995-01-01

    202

    Thermal shock resistance of functionally graded materials  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Transient temperature field and associated thermal stresses in functionally graded materials (FGMs) are determined by a finite element\\/finite difference (FE\\/FD) method. Temperature-dependent material properties are taken into consideration. Explicit expressions for one-dimensional transient thermal conduction in some common elements, such as plate, shell and sphere, are given. These expressions are useful for material engineers and scientists to determine the thermal

    Bao-Lin Wang; Yiu-Wing Mai; Xing-Hong Zhang

    2004-01-01

    203

    Structure and dynamics of interfaces in organic and inorganic materials using atomic level simulation  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Interfaces in materials play a key role for industrial applications. The structures and dynamics at various interfaces including ferroelectric domain walls, gas-organic interface, organic-semiconductor interface and metal-gas interface are investigated with different atomic levels of simulation approaches. Ferroelectricity: Due to their unique ferroelectric and nonlinear optical properties, trigonal ferroelectrics such as LiNbO3 and LiTaO 3, are of wide interest for their potential applications in optoelectronics and nonlinear optics. The properties of these materials are heavily influenced by the shape of ferroelectric domains and domain walls. Therefore, investigation of the local structure and energetics of the ferroelectric domain walls and their interaction with defects on atomic scales, which is not clearly understood, is extremely important. The structure and energetics of ferroelectric domain walls in LiNbO 3 are examined using density functional theory (DFT) and molecular dynamics (MD) methods. The energetically favorable structures of 180° domain walls and the activation energy for domain wall motion are determined by atomic level simulations. The variation of polarization due to the presence of domain walls is also discussed. Defects can be pinned by domain walls. Various defects-domain walls interactions and the effects on domain wall motion are described using atomic level simulation methods. Although the structure of LiTaO3 is very similar with LiNbO3, it has been said experimentally that the shapes of domain walls are different with the presence of particular defects. Using both DFT and a newly developed interatomic potential for LiTaO 3, the differences in domain wall structure are understood in terms of the difference in energetics of domain walls between two materials. Polymerization: Surface polymerization by ion-assisted deposition (SPIAD) enables the control of thin film chemistry and morphology on the nanoscale during growth of conductive polymer thin films. This method allows fine tuning of optical band gaps and other optoelectronic properties of a polymer film by controlling the structure and kinetic energy of the depositing ions and neutrals. Thus, a comprehensive understanding of various mechanisms on the atomic level will contribute to optimizing growth conditions during SPIAD. SPIAD simulations are performed to study polymerization and crosslinking behavior of polythiophene molecules at the gas-organic interfaces using DFT-MD method. The growth processes for polythiophene molecules are studied by depositing thiophene molecules with 25 eV kinetic energy on terthiophene surface. The mechanism and various processes for polymerization and crosslinking of polythiophenes will be discussed. The changes in bond chemistry at the polythiophene molecules and at a PbS nanocrystalline quantum dot (organic-semiconductor interface) after a collision of C2H+ molecules with the substrate are also addressed. Surface diffusion: Surface diffusion is a key concept for understanding catalytic behavior at the surface. We develop a new code implementing adaptive kinetic Monte Carlo (AKMC) method with the dimer transition searching mechanism. The code is developed with a simple Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential. A test of dimer method is performed by using 2-dimensional testing potential. Results of surface diffusion processes of an Al adatom on Al (111) surface using AKMC method are presented.

    Lee, Donghwa

    204

    Preparation of molecular imprinted microspheres based on inorganic-organic co-functional monomer for miniaturized solid-phase extraction of fluoroquinolones in milk.  

    PubMed

    An inorganic-organic co-functional monomer, methacrylic acid-vinyltriethoxysilan (MAA-VTES) was designed for the synthesis of molecularly imprinted microspheres (MIMs). By virtue of the aqueous suspension polymerization and dummy template (pazufloxacin), the obtained MAA-VTES based MIMs exhibited good recognition and selectivity to fluoroquinolones (FQs), and were successfully applied as selective sorbents of a miniaturized home-made solid phase extraction device for the determination of ofloxacin (OFL), lomefloxacin (LOM) and ciprofloxacin (CIP) in milk samples. Under the optimum conditions of the miniaturized molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (mini-MISPE) coupled with liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detector (LC-UV), good linearities were obtained for three FQs in a range of 0.2-20.0?gmL(-1) and the average recoveries at three spiked levels were ranged from 87.2% to 106.1% with the relative standard deviation (RSD) less than 5.4%. The presented co-functional monomer based mini-MISPE-LC-UV protocol introduced the rigidity and flexibility of inorganic silicon materials, exhibited excellent extraction performance towards targets, and could be potentially applied to the determination of FQs in milk samples. PMID:24448515

    Wang, Hui; Wang, Ruiling; Han, Yehong

    2014-02-15

    205

    Synthesis and characterization of abrasion resistant coating materials prepared by the sol-gel approach: I. Coatings based on functionalized aliphatic diols and diethylenetriamine  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The synthesis of inorganic organic hybrid materials has been undertaken and used as abrasion resistant coatings for polymeric substrates by the sol-gel method. The organic components are diethylenetriamine (DETA), glycerol, and a series of aliphatic diols which are functionalized by 3-isocyanatopropyltriethoxysilane. The inorganic components are tetramethoxysilane (TMOS), aluminum tri-see-butoxide, titaniumsec-butoxide and zirconiumn-propoxide. Solutions of these materials are spin coated onto

    J. Wen; G. L. Wilkes

    1995-01-01

    206

    Regulation of responsiveness of phosphorescence toward dissolved oxygen concentration by modulating polymer contents in organic-inorganic hybrid materials.  

    PubMed

    Platinum(II) octaethylporphyrin (PtOEP)-loaded organic-inorganic hybrids were obtained via the microwave-assisted sol-gel condensation with methyltrimethoxysilane and poly(vinylpyrrolidone). From transparent and homogeneous hybrid films, the strong phosphorescence from PtOEP was observed. Next, the resulting hybrids were immersed in the aqueous buffer, and the emission intensity was monitored by changing the dissolved oxygen level in the buffer. When the hybrid with relatively-higher amount of the silica element, the strong phosphorescence was observed even under the aerobic conditions. In contrast, the emission from the hybrids with lower amounts of the silica element was quenched under the hypoxic conditions. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first example to demonstrate that the responsiveness of the phosphorescence intensity of PtOEP in hybrid films to the dissolved oxygen concentration in water can be modulated by changing the percentage of the contents in the material. PMID:24794749

    Okada, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Kazuo; Chujo, Yoshiki

    2014-06-15

    207

    Functionally graded materials: Design, processing and applications  

    SciTech Connect

    In a Functionally Graded Material (FGM), the composition and structure gradually change over volume, resulting in corresponding changes in the properties of the material. By applying the many possibilities inherent in the FGM concept, it is anticipated that materials will be improved and new functions for them created. A comprehensive description of design, modeling, processing, and evaluation of FGMs as well as their applications is covered in this book. The contents include: lessons from nature; graded microstructures; modeling and design; characterization of properties; processing and fabrication; applications; and summary and outlook.

    Miyamoto, Y. [ed.] [Osaka Univ. (JP); Kaysser, W.A.; Rabin, B.H.; Kawasaki, A.; Ford, R.G. [eds.

    1999-09-01

    208

    Continuous spray forming of functionally gradient materials  

    SciTech Connect

    Researchers at Plasma Processes Inc. have produced a Functional Gradient Material (FGM) through advanced vacuum plasma spray processing for high heat flux applications. Outlined in this paper are the manufacturing methods used to develop a four component functional gradient material of copper, tungsten, boron, and boron nitride. The FGM was formed with continuous gradients and integral cooling channels eliminating bondlines and providing direct heat transfer from the high temperature exposed surface to a cooling medium. Metallurgical and x-ray diffraction analyses of the materials formed through innovative VPS (vacuum plasma spray) processing are also presented. Applications for this functional gradient structural material range from fusion reactor plasma facing components to missile nose cones to boilers.

    McKechnie, T.N.; Richardson, E.H.

    1995-12-01

    209

    Inorganic contents of peats  

    SciTech Connect

    Peat, the precursor of coal, is composed primarily of plant components and secondarily of inorganic matter derived from a variety of sources. The elemental, mineralogic, and petrographic composition of a peat is controlled by a combination of both its botanical and depositional environment. Inorganic contents of peats can vary greatly between geographically separated peat bogs as well as vertially and horizontally within an individual bog. Predicting the form and distribution of inorganic matter in a coal deposit requires understanding the distribution and preservation of inorganic matter in peat-forming environments and diagenetic alterations affecting such material during late-stage peatification and coalification processes. 43 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

    Raymond, R. Jr.; Bish, D.L.; Cohen, A.D.

    1988-02-01

    210

    Assembly of one dimensional inorganic nanostructures into functional 2D and 3D architectures. Synthesis, arrangement and functionality.  

    PubMed

    This review will focus on the synthesis, arrangement, structural assembly, for current and future applications, of 1D nanomaterials (tubes, wires, rods) in 2D and 3D ordered arrangements. The ability to synthesize and arrange one dimensional nanomaterials into ordered 2D or 3D micro or macro sized structures is of utmost importance in developing new devices and applications of these materials. Micro and macro sized architectures based on such 1D nanomaterials (e.g. tubes, wires, rods) provide a platform to integrate nanostructures at a larger and thus manageable scale into high performance electronic devices like field effect transistors, as chemo- and biosensors, catalysts, or in energy material applications. Carbon based, metal oxide and metal based 1D arranged materials as well as hybrid or composite 1D materials of the latter provide a broad materials platform, offering a perspective for new entries into fascinating structures and future applications of such assembled architectures. These architectures allow bridging the gap between 1D nanostructures and the micro and macro world and are the basis for an assembly of 1D materials into higher hierarchy domains. This critical review is intended to provide an interesting starting point to view the current state of the art and show perspectives for future developments in this field. The emphasis is on selected nanomaterials and the possibilities for building three dimensional arrays starting from one dimensional building blocks. Carbon nanotubes, metal oxide nanotubes and nanowires (e.g. ZnO, TiO(2), V(2)O(5), Cu(2)O, NiO, Fe(2)O(3)), silicon and germanium nanowires, and group III-V or II-VI based 1D semiconductor nanostructures like GaS and GaN, pure metals as well as 1D hybrid materials and their higher organized architectures (foremost in 3D) will be focussed. These materials have been the most intensively studied within the last 5-10 years with respect to nano-micro integration aspects and their functional and application oriented properties. The critical review should be interesting for a broader scientific community (chemists, physicists, material scientists) interested in synthetic and functional material aspects of 1D materials as well as their integration into next higher organized architectures. PMID:22722888

    Joshi, Ravi K; Schneider, Jörg J

    2012-08-01

    211

    TRANSPORT OF INORGANIC COLLOIDS THROUGH NATURAL AQUIFER MATERIAL: IMPLICATIONS FOR CONTAMINANT TRANSPORT  

    EPA Science Inventory

    The stability and transport of radiolabeled Fe2O3 particles were studied using laboratory batch and column techniques. ore material collected from a shallow sand and gravel aquifer was used as the immobile column matrix material. ariables in the study included flow rate, pH, ioni...

    212

    LABORATORY STUDIES ON THE STABILITY AND TRANSPORT OF INORGANIC COLLOIDS THROUGH NATURAL AQUIFER MATERIAL  

    EPA Science Inventory

    The stability and transport of radio-labeled Fe2O3 particles were studied using laboratory batch and column techniques. Core material collected from shallow sand and gravel aquifer was used as the immobile column matrix material. Variables in the study included flow rate, pH, i...

    213

    TRANSPORT OF INORGANIC COLLOIDS THROUGH NATURAL AQUIFER MATERIAL: IMPLICATIONS FOR CONTAMINANT TRANSPORT  

    EPA Science Inventory

    The stability and transport of radiolabeled Fe2O3 particles were studied using laboratory batch and column techniques. Core material collected from a shallow sand and gravel aquifer was used as the immobile column matrix material. Variables in the study incl...

    214

    Terahertz and infrared transmission of an organic/inorganic hybrid thermoelectric material  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    We report terahertz and infrared transmission measurements of a high-performance thermoelectric material containing tellurium nanowires in a conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) matrix. The DC electrical conductivity of the hybrid material (41 S/cm) is approximately one hundred times that of pure PEDOT:PSS and more than 400 times that of a film of pure tellurium nanowires, while the terahertz-frequency (THz) conductivity of PEDOT:PSS and the hybrid material are comparable at f ˜ 2THz. A frequency-dependent conductivity model indicates that the increased DC conductivity of the hybrid material results from an increase in the DC charge mobility rather than in the free charge density. We suggest that the increased DC conductivity of the hybrid material results from an increase in linkage between PEDOT domains by the tellurium nanowires.

    Heyman, J. N.; Alebachew, B. A.; Kaminski, Z. S.; Nguyen, M. D.; Coates, N. E.; Urban, J. J.

    2014-04-01

    215

    Development of hybrid organic-inorganic surface imprinted Mn-doped ZnS QDs and their application as a sensing material for target proteins.  

    PubMed

    Applying molecular imprinting techniques to the surface of functionalized quantum dots (QDs) allows the preparation of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) with accessible, surface exposed binding sites and excellent optical properties. This paper demonstrates a new strategy for producing such hybrid organic-inorganic imprinted Mn-doped ZnS QDs for specific recognition of bovine hemoglobin. The technique provides surface grafting imprinting in aqueous solutions using amino modified Mn-doped ZnS QDs as supports, acrylamide and methacrylic acid as functional monomers, ?-methacryloxypropyl trimethoxy silane as the grafting agent, and bovine hemoglobin as a template. The amino propyl functional monomer layer directs the selective occurrence of imprinting polymerization at the QDs surface through copolymerization of grafting agents with functional monomers, but also acts as an assistive monomer to drive the template into the formed polymer shells to create effective recognition sites. Using MIP-QDs composites as a fluorescence sensing material, trace amounts of bovine hemoglobin are signaled with high selectivity by emission intensity changes of Mn-doped ZnS QDs, which is embedded into the imprinted polymers. PMID:24951920

    Tan, Lei; Huang, Cong; Peng, Rongfei; Tang, Youwen; Li, Weiming

    2014-11-15

    216

    Oxide-based inorganic/organic and nanoporous spherical particles: synthesis and functional properties  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    This paper reviews the recent progress in the preparation of oxide-based and heteroatom-doped particles. Surfactant-templated oxide particles, e.g. silica and titania, are possible candidates for various potential applications such as adsorbents, photocatalysts, and optoelectronic and biological materials. We highlight nanoporous oxides of one element, such as silicon or titanium, and those containing multiple elements, which exhibit properties that are not achieved with individual components. Although the multicomponent nanoporous oxides possess a number of attractive functions, the origin of their properties is hard to determine due to compositional/structural complexity. Particles with a well-defined size and shape are keys for a quantitative and detailed discussion on the unique complex properties of the particles. From this viewpoint, we review the synthesis techniques of the oxide particles, which are functionalized with organic molecules or doped with heteroatoms, the physicochemical properties of the particles and the possibilities for their photofunctional applications as complex systems.

    Shiba, Kota; Tagaya, Motohiro; Tilley, Richard D.; Hanagata, Nobutaka

    2013-04-01

    217

    Functionalized SBA-15 materials for bilirubin adsorption  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    To investigate the driving force for bilirubin adsorption on mesoporous materials, a comparative study was carried out between pure siliceous SBA-15 and three functionalized SBA-15 mesoporous materials: CH 3-SBA-15 (MS), NH 2-SBA-15 (AS), and CH 3/NH 2-SBA-15 (AMS) that were synthesized by one-pot method. The obtained materials exhibited large surface areas (553-810 m 2/g) and pore size (6.6-7.1 nm) demonstrated by XRD and N 2-ad/desorption analysis. The SEM images showed that the materials had similar fiberlike morphology. The functionalization extent was calculated according to 29Si MAS NMR spectra and it was close to the designed value (10%). The synthesized mesoporous materials were used as bilirubin adsorbents and showed higher bilirubin adsorption capacities than the commercial active carbon. The adsorption capacities of amine functionalized samples AMS and AS were larger than those of pure siliceous SBA-15 and MS, indicating that electrostatic interaction was the dominant driving force for bilirubin adsorption on mesoporous materials. Increasing the ionic strength of bilirubin solution by adding NaCl would decrease the bilirubin adsorption capacity of mesoporous material, which further demonstrated that the electrostatic interaction was the dominant driving force for bilirubin adsorption. In addition, the hydrophobic interaction provided by methyl groups could promote the bilirubin adsorption.

    Tang, Tao; Zhao, Yanling; Xu, Yao; Wu, Dong; Xu, Jun; Deng, Feng

    2011-05-01

    218

    CO2 adsorption by functionalized nanoporous materials: a review.  

    PubMed

    This review highlights the recent advances in the development of functionalized nanoporous adsorbents for CO2 capture. Three main classes of materials are taken into account: zeolites, mesoporous silicates, and metal organic frameworks (MOFs). Proper modification of the cation content of zeolites, as well as the introduction of functional groups such as amine groups into ordered mesoporous silicates and MOFs, greatly enhance the CO2 adsorptive properties of these substrates. Specifically, cation-exchanged zeolites can be currently considered the benchmark for ordered nanoporous CO2 adsorbents, finding application also on a plant scale. Amino-functionalized mesoporous silicates tend to show a high affinity toward CO2: while this could be an advantage when pushed purification is needed, it also implies that full regeneration of the adsorbent can be achieved only by putting its surface in contact with a completely CO2-free environment. On the contrary, similarly modified MOFs show higher CO2 adsorption working capacities: this potentially makes them even better candidates than their mesoporous inorganic homologues for a plant scale use. However, the persisting lack of reliable methods for the pelletization of both ordered mesoporous silicates and MOFs creates a care for further development efforts in the next future. PMID:24749458

    Gargiulo, Nicola; Pepe, Francesco; Caputo, Domenico

    2014-02-01

    219

    Dental implants from functionally graded materials.  

    PubMed

    Functionally graded material (FGM) is a heterogeneous composite material including a number of constituents that exhibit a compositional gradient from one surface of the material to the other subsequently, resulting in a material with continuously varying properties in the thickness direction. FGMs are gaining attention for biomedical applications, especially for implants, owing to their reported superior composition. Dental implants can be functionally graded to create an optimized mechanical behavior and achieve the intended biocompatibility and osseointegration improvement. This review presents a comprehensive summary of biomaterials and manufacturing techniques researchers employ throughout the world. Generally, FGM and FGM porous biomaterials are more difficult to fabricate than uniform or homogenous biomaterials. Therefore, our discussion is intended to give the readers about successful and obstacles fabrication of FGM and porous FGM in dental implants that will bring state-of-the-art technology to the bedside and develop quality of life and present standards of care. PMID:23754641

    Mehrali, Mehdi; Shirazi, Farid Seyed; Mehrali, Mohammad; Metselaar, Hendrik Simon Cornelis; Kadri, Nahrizul Adib Bin; Osman, Noor Azuan Abu

    2013-10-01

    220

    Conductometric immunoassay for interleukin-6 in human serum based on organic\\/inorganic hybrid membrane-functionalized interface  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Various sensor-based immunoassay methods have been extensively developed for the detection of interleukin-6 (IL6), but most\\u000a often exhibit low detection signals and low detection sensitivity, and are unsuitable for routine use. The aim of this work\\u000a is to develop a simple and sensitive conductometric immunoassay for IL6 in human serum by using an organic\\/inorganic hybrid\\u000a membrane-functionalized interface. Initially, thionine-bound 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic

    Ke-Zhong Liang; Jun-Sheng Qi; Wei-Jun Mu; Zheng-Xue Liu

    2009-01-01

    221

    Hybrid organic–inorganic nanocomposite materials for application in solid state electrochemical supercapacitors  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Integration into a conducting polymer matrix to form a hybrid material is an effective way to harness the electrochemical activity of nanosized oxide clusters. By anchoring them into polyaniline, the reversible redox chemistry of the otherwise soluble polyoxometalate clusters can be combined with that of the conducting polymer and be put to work in energy storage applications. We present here

    Pedro Gómez-Romero; Malgorzata Chojak; Karina Cuentas-Gallegos; Juan A. Asensio; Pawel J. Kulesza; Nieves Casañ-Pastor; Mónica Lira-Cantú

    2003-01-01

    222

    Hydrodynamic cavitation as a tool to control macro-, micro-, and nano-properties of inorganic materials  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hydrodynamic cavitation was shown to be a powerful tool for the synthesis of nanostructured catalysts, ceramics, and piezoelectrics in high phase purities. The macro-, micro-, and nano- properties of solid-state materials could be controlled through adjusting the cavitational regime during synthesis by simple mechanical adjustment. The synthesis of nanostructured titania, piezoelectrics, perovskites, supported and unsupported cobalt molybdates, and Pd and

    J. Find; S. C. Emerson; I. M. Krausz; W. R. Mosera

    2001-01-01

    223

    Study on the electrodeposition of organic and inorganic thermoelectric materials for composite preparation  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    We report on the cathodic synthesis of bismuth telluride. X-ray diffraction results proved successful preparation, while elementary\\u000a analysis indicated a tellurium rich compound. Cyclic voltammetric measurements outlined the kinetic pattern. The organic thermoelectric\\u000a materials (thiophene-type conducting polymers) were characterized by in situ spectral and conductance techniques.

    Emese Kriván; Gábor Bencsik; Csaba Janáky; Péter S. Tóth; Balázs Roósz; Gábor Sós; Csaba Visy

    2009-01-01

    224

    Evaluation of a novel hybrid inorganic/organic polymer type material in the arsenic removal process from drinking water.  

    PubMed

    The objective of this paper is the evaluation of a hybrid inorganic/organic polymer type material based on hydrated ferric oxide (HFO), in the adsorption process of arsenic oxyanions from contaminated waters used as drinking water. The study includes rapid small-scale column tests conducted in continuous flow operation in order to assess the arsenic removal capacity in various conditions. Thus it was evaluated the influence of some competing ions like silicate and phosphate on As(V) adsorption and the influence of feed water pH in the removal process of As(V) and As(III) species. Based on the As/pH variation in time at different feed water pH (5, 7 and 9), a possible sorption mechanism that fits the experimental data was suggested. The regeneration and re-use of the hybrid adsorbent was studied in the presence and in the absence of the contaminant ions. The novel hybrid material is very selective towards arsenic oxyanions even though the presence of silica and phosphate reduces the adsorption capacity. PMID:18778845

    Iesan, Carmen M; Capat, Constantin; Ruta, Florin; Udrea, Ion

    2008-10-01

    225

    Optical switch and luminescence properties of sol gel hybrid organic inorganic materials containing azobenzene groups and doped with neodymium ions  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    TiO2/?-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane and methyltrimethoxysilane hybrid organic inorganic material, which contains azobenzene groups and is doped with neodymium ions, was prepared by a low temperature sol gel technique. The trans-cis-trans photoisomerization cycles of the hybrid film were investigated by a photoirradiation with UV light followed by visible light. An intense room-temperature upconversion emission at 397 nm was also measured from a hybrid film heated at a low temperature of 80 °C upon excitation with a xenon lamp at a wavelength of 580 nm. The mechanism of the upconversion is proposed and indicates that the sequential two-photon absorption process originating from the long-lived 4 F 3/2 excited state should be responsible for the up-conversion process. These results indicate that the prepared hybrid materials with multifunctional photonic properties are promising candidates for integrated optics and photonic applications, which would allow directly integrating onto a single chip, the upconversion device with the pump source, and optical data storage and optical switching devices.

    Que, Wenxiu; Hu, X.

    2007-09-01

    226

    Structural characterization of the organic\\/inorganic networks in the hybrid material (TMOS–TMSM–MMA)  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Using a sol–gel process, we had previously investigated the reaction mechanisms (hydrolysis and condensation of alkoxysilan monomers, polymerization of methacrylate groups) allowing to give a specific hybrid material (tetramethylorthosilicate (TMOS)–3(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (TMSM)–methylmethacrylate (MMA)). The superimposition and the competition of the chemical reactions lead to a system where reactions are generally not fully completed. The formed networks in each of the

    Z. Sassi; J. C. Bureau; A. Bakkali

    2002-01-01

    227

    Nanocasting nanoporous inorganic and organic materials from polymeric bicontinuous microemulsion templates  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ternary blends of two homopolymers and a diblock copolymer can self-assemble into interpenetrating, three-dimensionally continuous networks with a characteristic length scale of ?100 nm. In this review, we summarize our recent work demonstrating that these equilibrium fluid phases, known as polymeric bicontinuous microemulsions (B?E), can be designed as versatile precursors to nanoporous materials having pores with uniform sizes of ?100

    Brad H Jones; Timothy P Lodge

    2012-01-01

    228

    Modelling studies applied to functionally graded materials  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    This review contains a description of modelling studies relative to functionally graded materials (FGMs). Two principal topics are covered: models for microstructure-dependent thermophysical properties, and models for the design, processing, and performance of FGMs. The former is a particularly important input to FGM modelling because of the wide variety of microstructures that can exist across the graded direction of a

    A. J. Markworth; K. S. Ramesh; W. P. Parks

    1995-01-01

    229

    Processing techniques for functionally graded materials  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    An overview of the achievements of the German priority program “Functionally Graded Materials (FGM)” in the field of processing techniques is given. Established powder processes and techniques involving metal melts are described, and recent developments in the field of graded polymer processing are considered. The importance of modeling of gradient formation, sintering and drying for the production of defect-free parts

    B. Kieback; A. Neubrand; H. Riedel

    2003-01-01

    230

    Molecular design of luminescent organic-inorganic hybrid materials activated by europium (III) ions  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luminescent hybrid materials consisting in rare-earth (Eu3+, Gd3+) organic complexes covalently attached to a silica-based network have been obtained by a sol–gel process. Four dicarboxylic acids with different aromatic subunits (dipicolinic acid, 4-phenyl-2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid, 4-(phenylethynyl)-2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid and 2,6-Bis(3-carboxy-1-pyrazolyl)pyridine) have been chosen as ligands for Ln3+ ions. They were grafted to 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) to give organically modified alkoxysilanes that were used

    Anne-Christine Franville; Rachid Mahiou; Daniel Zambon; Jean-Claude Cousseins

    2001-01-01

    231

    Structural and functional biological materials: Abalone nacre, sharp materials, and abalone foot adhesion  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A three-part study of lessons from nature is presented through the examination of various biological materials, with an emphasis on materials from the mollusk Haliotis rufescens, commonly referred to as the red abalone. The three categories presented are: structural hierarchy, self-assembly, and functionality. Ocean mollusk shells are composed of aragonite/calcite crystals interleaved with layers of a visco-elastic protein, having dense, tailored structures with excellent mechanical properties. The complex nano-laminate structure of this bio-composite material is characterized and related to its mechanical properties. Three levels of structural hierarchy are identified: macroscale mesolayers separating larger regions of tiled aragonite, microscale organization of 0.5 mum by 10 mum aragonite bricks; nanoscale mineral bridges passing through 30 nm layers of organic matrix separating individual aragonite tiles. Composition and growth mechanisms of this nanostructure were observed through close examination of laboratory-grown samples using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Glass slides and nacre pucks were implanted onto the growth surface of living abalone and removed periodically to observe trends in nacre deposition. Various deproteinization and demineralization experiments are used to explore the inorganic and organic components of the nacre's structure. The organic component of the shell is characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The functionality of various biological materials is described and investigated. Two specific types of functionality are characterized, the ability of some materials to cut and puncture through sharp designs, and the ability for some materials to be used as attachment devices. Aspects of cutting materials employed by a broad range of animals were characterized and compared. In respect to the attachment mechanisms the foot of the abalone and the tree frog were investigated. It is discovered that the foot of the abalone applies similar mechanics as that of the gecko foot to adhere to surfaces. Approximately 1011 100 nm diameter fibers found at the base of the foot pedal are found to create Van der Waals interactions along with capillary and suction mechanisms to enable attachment. This reusable adhesive is found to exhibit strength of ˜0.14 MPa. This represents an evolutionary convergence of design from two independent species (the gecko and the abalone) living in extremely dissimilar environments. The presented work provides a summary of an effort to investigate materials found in nature with the hope of inspiring novel technological advances in design.

    Lin, Albert Yu-Min

    232

    Thermal evaporation furnace with improved configuration for growing nanostructured inorganic materials.  

    PubMed

    A tubular furnace specifically designed for growing nanostructured materials is presented in this work. The configuration allows an accurate control of evaporation temperature, substrate temperature, total pressure, oxygen partial pressure, volumetric flow and source-substrate distance, with the possibility of performing both downstream and upstream depositions. In order to illustrate the versatility of the equipment, the furnace was used for growing semiconducting oxide nanostructures under different deposition conditions. Highly crystalline indium oxide nanowires with different morphologies were synthesized by evaporating mixtures of indium oxide and graphite powders with different mass ratios at temperatures between 900 °C and 1050 °C. The nanostructured layers were deposited onto oxidized silicon substrates with patterned gold catalyst in the temperature range from 600 °C to 900 °C. Gas sensors based on these nanowires exhibited enhanced sensitivity towards oxygen, with good response and recovery times. PMID:21721724

    Joanni, E; Savu, R; Valadares, L; Cilense, M; Zaghete, M A

    2011-06-01

    233

    Gigantic swelling of inorganic layered materials: a bridge to molecularly thin two-dimensional nanosheets.  

    PubMed

    Platy microcrystals of a typical layered material, protonated titanate, have been shown to undergo an enormous degree of swelling in aqueous solutions of various amines, including tertiary amines, quaternary ammonium hydroxides, and primary amines. Introducing these solutions expanded the crystal gallery height by up to ?100-fold. Through systematic analysis, we determined that ammonium ion intercalation is predominantly affected by the acid-base equilibrium and that the degree of swelling or inflow of H2O is controlled by the osmotic pressure balance between the gallery and the solution environment, both of which are relatively independent of electrolyte identity but substantially dependent on molarity. In solutions of tertiary amines and quaternary ammonium hydroxides, the uptake of ammonium ions increases nearly linearly with increasing external concentration before reaching a saturation plateau, i.e., ?40% relative to the cation-exchange capacity of the crystals used. The only exception is tetrabutylammonium ions, which yield a lower saturation value, ?30%, owing to steric effects. The swelling behaviors in some primary amine solutions differ as a result of the effect of attractive forces between amine solute molecules on the solution osmotic pressure. Although the swelling is essentially colligative in nature, the stability of the resultant swollen structure is heavily dependent on the chemical nature of the guest ions. Intercalated ions of higher polarity and smaller size help stabilize the swollen structure, whereas ions of lower polarity and larger size lead readily to exfoliation. The insight gained from this study sheds new light on both the incorporation of guest molecules into a gallery of layered structures in general and the exfoliation of materials into elementary single-layer nanosheets. PMID:24635385

    Geng, Fengxia; Ma, Renzhi; Ebina, Yasuo; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Miyamoto, Nobuyoshi; Sasaki, Takayoshi

    2014-04-01

    234

    Electron Microscopy Localization and Characterization of Functionalized Composite Organic-Inorganic SERS Nanoparticles on Leukemia Cells  

    PubMed Central

    We demonstrate the use of electron microscopy as a powerful characterization tool to identify and locate antibody-conjugated composite organic-inorganic (COINs) surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanoparticles on cells. U937 leukemia cells labeled with antibody CD54-conjugated COINs were characterized in their native, hydrated state using wet Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and in their dehydrated state using high-resolution SEM. In both cases, the backscattered electron detector (BSE) was used to detect and identify the silver constituents in COINs due to its high sensitivity to atomic number variations within a specimen. The imaging and analytical capabilities in the SEM were further complemented by higher resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) images and Scanning Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) data to give reliable and high-resolution information about nanoparticles and their binding to cell surface antigens.

    Koh, Ai Leen; Shachaf, Catherine M.; Elchuri, Sailaja; Nolan, Garry P.; Sinclair, Robert

    2008-01-01

    235

    Novel polymer and inorganic/organic hybrid composite materials for proton exchange membrane applications  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In this study, various novel proton exchange membranes (PEM) have been synthesized and investigated for high temperature PEM applications. Sulfonic acid functionalized polysilsesquioxane hybrid membranes with the empirical formula of R-Si-(O)1.5 consist of a highly cross-linked Si-O backbone and pendant organic side chain R, which is terminated in a proton conducting functional group (i.e., sulfonic acid). The membranes exhibited excellent proton conductivities (sigma) of >10-2 S/cm under low humidity conditions and a wide range of temperatures. The fuel cell (FC) performance of the membranes under low humidity conditions has been evaluated. Acid-doped linear meta-polyaniline membranes have been prepared through solution casting of m-PANI. The obtained membrane shows good proton conductivities at temperatures above 100°C, achieving 10-2.7 S/cm under 120°C and practically no humidity conditions. The effects of doping acids, doping levels and humidity on the conductivity are discussed. Polyethylenimine (PEI)/SiO2 nanocomposites membranes have been synthesized through sol-gel processes. The introduction of SiO2 clusters into high molecule weight, linear PEI greatly improved its thermal stability at high temperatures and O2 atmosphere. During the sol-gel processes, trifluoromethanesulfonimide (HTFSI) was added to dope the amine groups of PEI and form immobilized proton-conducting ionic liquids, which provide the hybrid membranes with proton-conducting behavior. The resultant membranes show good proton conductivities at high temperatures and low to zero humidity conditions. The effects of temperature, humidity and mobility of active groups on the conductivity are discussed. Various organic amine/HTFSI ionic group functionalized polysilsesquioxane hybrid membranes have been prepared. The Si-O backbone provides excellent thermal/chemical/mechanical properties and the HTFSI-doped amine end groups provide the proton conducting properties. The membranes exhibited proton conductivities of 10-3 S/cm at elevated temperature (?130°C) and anhydrous conditions, and proton conductivity of 10-2 S/cm under fully hydrated conditions. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

    Yang, Zhiwei

    236

    Functional polymers: materials for smart structures  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The preparation and properties of four classes of functional polymeric materials capable of responding to changes in the environment are reported. The microphase separated mixed (ionic and electronic) or MIEC diblock copolymers are composed of an electronic conductive and an ionic conductive block, and are nanostructured smart materials for application in MEMS devices. Processable copolymers of 3-alkyl or 3-phenylthiophene and (3- oligodimethylsiloxane)thiophene have been prepared as electrorheological fluids. Also a facile methodology for preparing highly ionic conductive and elastomeric solid electrolytes is reported. Finally, molecular composites of poly(2-vinylpyridine) and lithium perchlorate have been prepared. These composites have dielectric constants as high as 16 at 12 GHz.

    Arnold, Shannon C.; Pratt, Lawrence M.; Khan, Saeed M.; Li, Jean; Khan, Ishrat M.

    1995-05-01

    237

    Study of high resistance inorganic coatings on graphite fibers. [for graphite-epoxy composite materials  

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coatings made of boron, silicon carbide, silica, and silica-like materials were studied to determine their ability to increase resistance of graphite fibers. The most promising results were attained by chemical vapor depositing silicon carbide on graphite fiber followed by oxidation, and drawing graphite fiber through ethyl silicate followed by appropriate heat treatments. In the silicon carbide coating studies, no degradation of the graphite fibers was observed and resistance values as high as three orders of magnitude higher than that of the uncoated fiber was attained. The strength of a composite fabricated from the coated fiber had a strength which compared favorably with those of composites prepared from uncoated fiber. For the silica-like coated fiber prepared by drawing the graphite fiber through an ethyl silicate solution followed by heating, coated fiber resistances about an order of magnitude greater than that of the uncoated fiber were attained. Composites prepared using these fibers had flexural strengths comparable with those prepared using uncoated fibers, but the shear strengths were lower.

    Galasso, F. S.; Veltri, R. D.; Scola, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    238

    Formation of helix-containing rods in a hybrid inorganic-organic material  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The novel aluminum ethylenediphosphonate fluoride, [HN(CH 2CH 2NH 3) 3][Al 2(O 3PCH 2CH 2PO 3) 2F 2]·H 2O ( 1) (monoclinic, P2 1/n, a=12.145(4) Å, b=9.265(3) Å, c=20.422(6) Å, ?=104.952(4)°, Z=3, R1=0.092, wR2=0.196) has been synthesized by solvothermal methods in the presence of tris(2-aminoethyl)amine and its structure determined using single microcrystal X-ray diffraction data. Compound 1 is a one-dimensional extended chain structure composed of well-separated anionic [Al 2(O 3PCH 2CH 2PO 3) 2F 2] 4- rods containing helical chains of corner-shared cis-AlO 4F 2 octahedra at their core. The charge-compensating tris(2-aminoethyl)ammonium cations separate the anionic [Al 2(O 3PCH 2CH 2PO 3) 2F 2] 4- rods that contain either left- or right-handed helical chains. The incorporation of the organic components into this hybrid material has aided the adoption of one-dimensionality by the compound and defined the pitch of the helical AlO 4F chain.

    Yuan, Zhanhui; Clegg, William; Attfield, Martin P.

    2009-11-01

    239

    Heteronuclear X-Y double-resonance solid-state NMR: Techniques for structural characterization of inorganic materials  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Since the introduction of the Magic Angle Spinning (MAS) technique, solid state NMR has become an increasingly important tool in the characterization of inorganic materials. Solid state NMR experiments, however, can be very time consuming due to the low sensitivities and/or low natural abundances for many of the NMR active nuclei. Furthermore, under MAS conditions, interactions arising from the dipolar coupling are averaged to zero and any dipolar information lost. The goal of this research is to develop and apply double resonance NMR techniques which (1) may increase the sensitivity of many NMR active nuclei and (2) may preserve the resolution achieved by MAS while re-introducing the dipolar coupling information. Because of the dependence on the internuclear distance, r, the heteronuclear dipole coupling can be exploited to obtain information on local environments, internuclear distances, and to aid in spectral editing and phase identification. This study focuses on the double resonance techniques: Cross Polarization with Magic Angle Spinning (CPMAS), Heteronuclear Double Quantum Filtering (HDQF), Spin Echo Double Resonance (SEDOR), and Rotational Echo DOuble Resonance (REDOR). These techniques may be used to examine a wide variety of systems. The application of these techniques to the following systems will be demonstrated: (1) Semiconductor alloys in the CdSiAssb{2-x}Psb{x} system; (2) Crystalline and amorphous ternary Al-P-Se system; (3) Crystalline and amorphous borosilicates; (4) Zirconium phosphate substituted with vanadium.

    Hudalla, Christopher John

    240

    Long-term self-assembly of inorganic layered materials influenced by the local states of the interlayer cations.  

    PubMed

    A wide variety of parameters as, e.g., temperature, humidity, particle size, and cation state are known to influence the agglomeration process of two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets, called self-assembly, in inorganic layered materials. The detailed studies on which parameters are decisive and how they influence the self-assembly, however, have not been performed yet. Here, the long-term self-assembly was studied for layered stevensite and hectorite, and compared with our previous data of saponite for elucidating an influence of local states of the interlayer cations. The results were analyzed with respect to a recently established rheological model, in which 2D nanosheets migrate parallel to the layer direction aided by water molecules as lubricants [K. Sato et al., J. Phys. Chem. C, 2012, 116, 22954]. With decreasing the strength of the local electric fields facing to the interlayer spaces, cation positions split into two or three, which makes the distribution of water molecules more uniformly. These water molecules enhance the rheological motion of the 2D nanosheets parallel to the layer direction, thus accelerating the self-assembly process. PMID:24770790

    Sato, Kiminori; Numata, Kazuomi; Dai, Weili; Hunger, Michael

    2014-06-14

    241

    Adsorption behavior of Pd (II) using pyridine series ionic liquid and inorganic substrate-ionic liquid composite material  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adsorption behavior of Pd(II) chloride complexes using pyridine series ionic liquid (BPHFP) was investigated to establish a clean Pd(II) recovered process by use of ionic liquids as an adsorvent. Adsorption amount of Pd(II) to BPHFP reached a maximum under a low HCl concentration. This is a similar result using a traditional ion-exchange resin, however, no Langmuir adsorption behavior was confirmed in the case of Pd(II) concentration of 1-50 mmol?dm3. PdCl2 exists as a soluble monomeric PdCl42- species in higher HCl concentration solution. On the other hand, an insoluble polymeric Pd species is generated in the solution of low HCl concentration. These results indicaled that Pd(II) adsorption using BPHFP was controlled by chemisorption, and the direct coordination of Pd(II) onto pyridine was possibly occurred. Moreover, inorganic support-BPHFP composite material (ILISP) was also developed. The ILISP showed an availability as a Pd(II) adsorbent.

    Ikeda, Yasuyuki; Inoue, Ryo; Arai, Tsuyoshi

    242

    Constructing functional mesostructured materials from colloidal nanocrystal building blocks.  

    PubMed

    Through synthesizing colloidal nanocrystals (NCs) in the organic phase, chemists gain fine control over their composition, size, and shape. Strategies for arranging them into ordered superlattices have followed closely behind synthetic advances. Nonetheless, the same hydrophobic ligands that help their assembly also severely limit interactions between adjacent nanocrystals. As a result, examples of nanocrystal-based materials whose functionality derives from their mesoscale structure have lagged well behind advances in synthesis and assembly. In this Account, we describe how recent insights into NC surface chemistry have fueled dramatic progress in functional mesostructures. In these constructs, intimate contact between NCs as well as with heterogeneous components is key in determining macroscopic behavior. The simplest mesoscale assemblies we consider are networks of NCs constructed by in situ replacement of their bulky, insulating surface ligands with small molecules. Transistors are a test bed for understanding conductivity, setting the stage for new functionality. For instance, we demonstrated that by electrochemically charging and discharging networks of plasmonic metal oxide NCs, the transmittance of near infrared light can be strongly and reversibly modulated. When we assemble NCs with heterogeneous components, there is an even greater potential for generating complex functionality. Nanocomposites can exhibit favorable characteristics of their component materials, yet the interaction between components can also have a strong influence. Realizing such opportunities requires an intimate linking of embedded NCs to the surrounding matrix phase. We accomplish this link by coordinating inorganic anionic clusters directly to NC surfaces. By exploiting this connection, we found enhanced ionic conductivity in Ag2S-in-GeS2 nanocrystal-in-glass electrodes. In another example, we also found enhanced optical contrast when linking electrochromic niobium oxide to embedded tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) NCs. These dramatic effects emerge from reconstruction of the inorganic glass immediately adjacent to the NC interface. When co-assembling NCs with block copolymers, direct coordination of the polymer to NC surfaces again opens new opportunities for functional mesoscale constructs. We strip NCs of their native ligands and design block copolymers containing a NC tethering domain that bonds strongly, yet dynamically, to the resulting open coordination sites. This strategy enables their co-assembly at high volume fractions of NCs and leads to well-ordered mesoporous NC networks. We find these architectures to be exceptionally stable under chemical transformations driven by cation insertion, removal, and exchange. These developments offer a modular toolbox for arranging NCs deliberately with respect to heterogeneous elements and open space. We have control over metrics that define such architectures from the atomic scale (bonding and crystal structure) through the mesoscale (crystallite shapes and sizes and pore dimensions). By tuning these parameters and better understanding the interactions between components, we look forward to boundless opportunities to employ mesoscale structure, in tandem with composition, to develop functional materials. PMID:24004254

    Milliron, Delia J; Buonsanti, Raffaella; Llordes, Anna; Helms, Brett A

    2014-01-21

    243

    Aripiprazole-montmorillonite: a new organic-inorganic nanohybrid material for biomedical applications.  

    PubMed

    Poor aqueous solubility and the unpleasant taste of aripiprazole (APZ) have been recurring problems, owing to its low bioavailability and low patient tolerance, respectively. Herein, we prepared a nanohybrid system that was based on a bentonite clay material, montmorillonite (MMT), which could both mask the taste and enhance the solubility of APZ (i.e., APZ-MMT). To further improve the efficacy of this taste masking and drug solubility, APZ-MMT was also coated with a cationic polymer, polyvinylacetal diethylamino acetate (AEA). In vitro dissolution tests at neutral pH showed that the amount of drug that was released from the AEA-coated APZ-MMT was greatly suppressed (<1%) for the first 3 min, thus suggesting that AEA-coated APZ-MMT has strong potential for the taste masking of APZ. Notably, in simulated gastric juice at pH 1.2, the total percentage of APZ that was released within the first 2 h increased up to 95% for AEA-coated APZ-MMT. Furthermore, this in vitro release profile was also similar to that of Abilify®, a commercially available medication. In vivo experiments by using Sprague-Dawley rats were also performed to compare the pharmacokinetics of AEA-coated APZ-MMT and Abilify®. AEA-coated APZ-MMT exhibited about 20% higher systemic exposure of APZ and its metabolite, dehydro-APZ, compared with Abilify®. Therefore, a new MMT-based nanovehicle, which is coated with a cationic polymer, can act as a promising delivery system for both taste masking and for enhancing the bioavailability of APZ. PMID:23436433

    Oh, Yeon-Ji; Choi, Goeun; Choy, Young Bin; Park, Je Won; Park, Jung Hyun; Lee, Hwa Jeong; Yoon, Yeo Joon; Chang, Hee Chul; Choy, Jin-Ho

    2013-04-01

    244

    Responses of organic and inorganic materials to intense EUV radiation from laser-produced plasmas  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    We have investigated responses of polymers to EUV radiation from laser-produced plasmas beyond ablation thresholds and micromachining. We concentrated on fabricate precise 3D micro-structures of PDMS, PMMA, acrylic block copolymers (BCP), and silica. The micromachining technique can be applied to three-dimensional micro-fluidic and bio-medical devices. The EUV processing is a promising to realize a practical micromachining technique. In the present work, we used two EUV radiation sources; (a) Wide band EUV light in a range of 10{300 eV was generated by irradiation of Ta targets with Nd:YAG laser light at 500 mJ/pulse. (b) Narrow band EUV light at 11 and 13 nm was generated by irradiation of solid Xe and Sn targets, respectively, with pulsed TEA CO2 laser light. The generated EUV light was condensed onto the materials at high power density beyond the ablation thresholds, using ellipsoidal mirrors. We found that through-holes with a diameter of one micrometer an be fabricated in PMMA and PDMS sheets with thicknesses of 4-10 micrometers, at 250 and 230 nm/shot, respectively. The effective ablation of PMMA sheets can be applied to a LIGA-like process for fabricating micro-structures of metals for micro- and nano-molds. PDMS sheets are ablated if it is irradiated with EUV light beyond a distinct threshold power density, while PDMS surfaces were modified at lower power densities. Furthermore, BCP sheets were ablated to have 1-micrometer structures. Thus, we have developed a practical technique for micromachining of PMMA, PDMS and BCP sheets in a micrometer scale.

    Makimura, Tetsuya; Torii, Shuichi; Nakamura, Daisuke; Takahashi, Akihiko; Okada, Tatsuo; Niino, Hiroyuki; Murakami, Kouichi

    2013-05-01

    245

    Assembly of three organic-inorganic hybrid supramolecular materials based on reduced molybdenum(V) phosphates  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Three supramolecular materials based on {P4Mo6} polyoxoanions, (Hbbi)2(H2bbi)[Cu3Mo12VO24(OH)6(H2O)6(HPO4)4(H2PO4)2(PO4)2]·3H2O (1), (Hbbi)2(H2bbi)[Ni3Mo12VO24(OH)6(H2O)2(HPO4)4(H2PO4)2(PO4)2]·9H2O (2), (Hbpy)(bpy)3[Ni2(H2O)10Na(PCA)2][NiMo12VO24(OH)6(H2PO4)6(PO4)2]·6H2O (3) (bbi=1,1?-(1,4-butanediyl)bis(imidazole), bpy=4,4?-bipyridine, PCA=pyridine-4-carboxylic acid), have been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized by the elemental analysis, TG, IR, UV-vis, PXRD and the single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibit covalent 1-D chains constructed from M[P4Mo6]2 dimeric cluster and {M(H2O)n} (M=Cu, n=3 for 1 and M=Ni, n=1 for 2) linker. Compound 3 possesses an unusual POMMOF supramolecular layers based on [Ni(P4Mo6)]2 dimeric units and 1-D metal-organic strings [Ni(H2O)5Na(PCA)]n, in which an in situ ligand of PCA from 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane (bpp) precursor was observed. Furthermore, the electrochemical behavior of 1-3-CPE and magnetic properties of 1-3 have been investigated in detail.

    Zhang, He; Yu, Kai; Lv, Jing-Hua; Wang, Chun-Mei; Wang, Chun-Xiao; Zhou, Bai-Bin

    2014-09-01

    246

    Comparative studies of grafting and direct syntheses of inorganic-organic hybrid mesoporous materials  

    SciTech Connect

    Vinyl-functionalized MCM-41 samples were prepared by either a postsynthesis grafting (PSG) process or a direct co-condensation synthesis. The structures, stabilities, and reactivities of products from both methods were compared. The mesoscopic order of the hexagonal pore structure of vinyl-grafted MCM-41 (v-gr-MCM-41) resembled that of the MCM-41 host. On the basis of powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and bromination kinetics data, the vinyl groups appeared to be nonuniformly distributed in v-gr-MCM-41 prepared by the present PSG process, with a large proportion of vinyl groups on the external surface of the crystallites or inside channels but near the channel openings. The mesoscopic order of products from the direct synthesis (v-MCM-41) depended on the type of alkoxysilane precursor used and on the ratio of vinylsiloxane to alkoxysilane in the reaction mixture. The vinyl groups appeared to be more uniformly distributed in v-MCM-41. Vinyl-grafted MCM-41 exhibited greater hydrothermal stability than unmodified MCM-41 and was capable of adsorbing nonpolar solvents from aqueous mixtures or emulsions.

    Lim, M.H.; Stein, A.

    1999-11-01

    247

    Functionally graded materials produced by laser cladding  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AlSi40 functionally graded materials (FGMs) were produced by a one-step laser cladding process on cast Al-alloy substrate as a possible solution for interfacial problems often present in laser coatings. The microstructure of the FGMs consists of a large amount of silicon primary particles surrounded by ?-Al dendritic halos and by Al\\/Si eutectic. The Si particles exhibit a continuous increase in

    Y. T. Pei; J. Th. M. De Hosson

    2000-01-01

    248

    Chemo-mechanical microscale characterization of materials heterogeneity in oil/gas shales: linking organics and inorganics  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    From a materials perspective, the unconventional peculiarity of oil/gas shales resides in the intrinsic multi-scale heterogeneity in their chemical composition, organic maturity, mineralogy and microtexture. In contrast to common assumptions of maturity being driven only by the reservoir conditions (temperature and pressure), the presence of organic matter with different maturity within a few microns apart calls into question the role played by the organic and mineral heterogeneity into the chemo-mechanical properties of the material. Understanding how the upscaling of chemical diversity affects the fracturability and in general the mechanical strength of oil/gas shales is crucial. Compared to conventional oil and gas reservoirs, as well as coal, such heterogeneity requires novel and additional characterization tools from nano- to macro-scales to allow for a complete understanding of the role played by such heterogeneity in the chemo- mechanical properties of gas shales. Here we present a novel suite of chemical and mineralogical characterization tools that allow the in situ, non-destructive imaging of organic maturity and mineralogy from the microscale to the millimeter scale. This method is based on a combination of Raman, fluorescence and UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy. The upscaling is designed to provide a maturity population distribution from the nanoscale to the conventionally used macro-scale averaged parameters (such as vitrinite reflectance). Furthermore, in combination with registered micro/nano-mechanical indentation data a direct correlation of fracture mechanics and chemistry is made, allowing for the determination of high yield strain regions, relations between organic and inorganic anisotropy and interface mechanics. The underlying scientific insight at the nano and micro-scale of the potential origin of fractures in oil/gas shales, will potentially provide a connection bottom-up link to continuum fracture mechanics.

    Ferralis, N.; Abedi, S.; Grossman, J. C.; Ulm, F.

    2013-12-01

    249

    Flexible hydrogel-based functional composite materials  

    DOEpatents

    A composite having a flexible hydrogel polymer formed by mixing an organic phase with an inorganic composition, the organic phase selected from the group consisting of a hydrogel monomer, a crosslinker, a radical initiator, and/or a solvent. A polymerization mixture is formed and polymerized into a desired shape and size.

    2013-10-08

    250

    Magnetic spectroscopy and microscopy of functional materials  

    SciTech Connect

    Heusler intermetallics Mn{sub 2}Y Ga and X{sub 2}MnGa (X; Y =Fe, Co, Ni) undergo tetragonal magnetostructural transitions that can result in half metallicity, magnetic shape memory, or the magnetocaloric effect. Understanding the magnetism and magnetic behavior in functional materials is often the most direct route to being able to optimize current materials for todays applications and to design novel ones for tomorrow. Synchrotron soft x-ray magnetic spectromicroscopy techniques are well suited to explore the the competing effects from the magnetization and the lattice parameters in these materials as they provide detailed element-, valence-, and site-specifc information on the coupling of crystallographic ordering and electronic structure as well as external parameters like temperature and pressure on the bonding and exchange. Fundamental work preparing the model systems of spintronic, multiferroic, and energy-related compositions is presented for context. The methodology of synchrotron spectroscopy is presented and applied to not only magnetic characterization but also of developing a systematic screening method for future examples of materials exhibiting any of the above effects. The chapter progression is as follows: an introduction to the concepts and materials under consideration (Chapter 1); an overview of sample preparation techniques and results, and the kinds of characterization methods employed (Chapter 2); spectro- and microscopic explorations of X{sub 2}MnGa/Ge (Chapter 3); spectroscopic investigations of the composition series Mn{sub 2}Y Ga to the logical Mn{sub 3}Ga endpoint (Chapter 4); and a summary and overview of upcoming work (Chapter 5). Appendices include the results of a Think Tank for the Graduate School of Excellence MAINZ (Appendix A) and details of an imaging project now in progress on magnetic reversal and domain wall observation in the classical Heusler material Co{sub 2}FeSi (Appendix B).

    Jenkins, C.A.

    2011-01-28

    251

    Multi-functional composite materials for catalysis and chemical mechanical planarization  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Composite materials formed from two or more functionally different materials offer a versatile avenue to create a tailored material with well defined traits. Within this dissertation research, multi-functional composites were synthesized based on organic and inorganic materials. The functionally of these composites was experimentally tested and a semi-empirical model describing the sedimentation behavior of these particles was developed. This first objective involved the fabrication of microcomposites consisting of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles confined within porous, microgels of a thermo-responsive polymer for use in the photocatalytic treatment of wastewater. TiO2 has been shown to be an excellent photocatalyst with potential applications in advanced oxidative processes such as wastewater remediation. Upon UV irradiation, short-lived electron-hole pairs are generated, which produce oxidative species that degrade simple organic contaminants. The rapid sedimentation of these microcomposites provided an easy gravimetric separation after remediation. Methyl orange was used as a model organic contaminant to investigate the kinetics of photodegradation under a range of concentrations and pH conditions. Although after prolonged periods of UV irradiation (˜8-13 hrs), the titania-microgels also degrade, regeneration of the microcomposites was straightforward via the addition of polymer microgels with no loss in photocatalytic activity of the reformed microcomposites. The second objective within this dissertation involved the systematic development of abrasive microcomposite particles containing well dispersed nanoparticles of ceria in an organic/inorganic hybrid polymeric particle for use in chemical mechanical polishing/planarization (CMP). A challenge in IC fabrication involves the defect-free planarization of silicon oxide films for successful multi-layer deposition. Planarization studies conducted with the microcomposites prepared in this research, yield very smooth, planar surfaces with removal rates that rival those of inorganic oxides slurries typically used in industry. The density and size of these ceria-microgel particles could be controlled by varying the temperature or composition during synthesis, leading to softer or harder polishing when desired.

    Coutinho, Cecil A.

    252

    Influence of hybrid inorganic/organic mesoporous and nanostructured materials on the cephalosporins' efficacy on different bacterial strains.  

    PubMed

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different hybrid inorganic-organic micro- and nanomaterials (Fe(3)O(4)/PEG(600), Fe(3)O(4)/C(12), ZSM-5) on the antibacterial activity of different cephalosporins against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. The synergic effect of the studied materials was demonstrated by the increase in the growth inhibition zones diameter. All tested hybrid micro- and nanomaterials increased the activity of cefotaxime against Staphylococcus aureus. ZSM-5 increased the activity of cefotaxime and ceftriaxone and Fe(3)O(4)/C(12) that of ceftriaxone against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and S. aureus. The anti-Pseudomonas, anti-Klebsiella pneumoniae and anti-Bacillus subtilis activity of cefoperazone was increased by Fe(3)O(4)/C(12) nanoparticles, while the ZSM-5 improved its anti-Escherichia coli, K. pneumoniae, S. aureus and B. subtilis activity, whereas Fe(3)O(4)/PEG(600) against K. pneumoniae. The anti-K. pneumoniae activity of cefepime was increased by all tested nanoparticles, whereas its anti-B. subtilis and anti-E. coli activity was improved by Fe(3)O(4)/C(12) and Fe(3)O(4)/PEG(600) nanoparticles. In conclusion, both magnetic Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles, charged outside as extra-shell with the antibiotic as well as ZSM-5 microparticles carrying the antibiotic inside the pores, significantly and specifically improved cephalosporin efficacy. A probable explanation for the increase in the antibiotic efficiency is the better penetration through the cellular wall of the antibiotic charged nanoparticles. PMID:23101869

    Carmen Chifiriuc, M; Mihaiescu, D; Ilinca, E; Marutescu, L; Mihaescu, G; Mihai Grumezescu, A

    2012-12-01

    253

    Ultrathin films of inorganic materials (SiO 2 nanoparticle, montmorillonite microplate, and molybdenum oxide) prepared by alternate layer-by-layer assembly with organic polyions  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    We have been investigating alternate assembling of inorganic materials, SiO2 nanoparticles, clay microplate, and polyoxometalates with oppositely-charged polyions. In this paper, previously reported results are summarized and compared in order to establish a unified interpretation. Reproducible film growth is observed in assembly of anionic SiO2 particles and cationic poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA). The adsorption time required for successful assembly of SiO2

    Katsuhiko Ariga; Yuri Lvov; Izumi Ichinose; Toyoki Kunitake

    1999-01-01

    254

    Gen IV Materials Handbook Functionalities and Operation  

    SciTech Connect

    This document is prepared for navigation and operation of the Gen IV Materials Handbook, with architecture description and new user access initiation instructions. Development rationale and history of the Handbook is summarized. The major development aspects, architecture, and design principles of the Handbook are briefly introduced to provide an overview of its past evolution and future prospects. Detailed instructions are given with examples for navigating the constructed Handbook components and using the main functionalities. Procedures are provided in a step-by-step fashion for Data Upload Managers to upload reports and data files, as well as for new users to initiate Handbook access.

    Ren, Weiju [ORNL

    2009-12-01

    255

    In situ modification of the silica backbone leading to highly porous monolithic hybrid organic-inorganic materials via ambient pressure drying.  

    PubMed

    We report the synthesis of monolithic porous hybrid organic-inorganic materials based on tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and a bifunctional precursor synthesized from 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GLYMO) via base catalysis. To compensate for the slower hydrolysis and condensation rate of the organically modified silane in basic media, it was prehydrolysed prior to adding it to the silane solution. This process leads to a lower shrinkage and stable monoliths with densities as low as 200 kg/m(3). Analysis of the samples supports the assumption that the porous monolithic materials derived via ambient pressure drying of the gels consist of a network of homogeneous hybrid primary particles. These particles are larger than their inorganic counterparts in classical silica gels and therefore the capillary forces while drying the gels at ambient pressure are reduced. This leads to less shrinkage and thus lower densities of the materials derived via ambient pressure drying. An inorganic xerogel with the same low density can be achieved by a subsequent oxidation step that decomposes the organic moieties. PMID:24354277

    Noisser, Theresa; Reichenauer, Gudrun; Hüsing, Nicola

    2014-01-22

    256

    Inorganic separator technology program  

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Testing and failure analyses of silver zinc cells with largely inorganic separators were performed. The results showed that the wet stand and cycle life objective of the silver-zinc cell development program were essentially accomplished and led to recommendations for cell composition, design, and operation that should yield further improvement in wet and cycle life. A series of advanced inorganic materials was successfully developed and formulated into rigid and semiflexible separator samples. Suitable screening tests for evaluation of largely inorganic separators were selected and modified for application to the separator materials. The results showed that many of these formulations are potentially superior to previously used materials and permitted selection of three promising materials for further evaluation in silver-zinc cells.

    Smatko, J. S.; Weaver, R. D.; Kalhammer, F. R.

    1973-01-01

    257

    Sorption of pure N2O to biochars and other organic and inorganic materials under anhydrous conditions.  

    PubMed

    Suppression of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from soil is commonly observed after amendment with biochar. The mechanisms accounting for this suppression are not yet understood. One possible contributing mechanism is N2O sorption to biochar. The sorption of N2O and carbon dioxide (CO2) to four biochars was measured in an anhydrous system with pure N2O. The biochar data were compared to those for two activated carbons and other components potentially present in soils-uncharred pine wood and peat-and five inorganic metal oxides with variable surface areas. Langmuir maximum sorption capacities (Qmax) for N2O on the pine wood biochars (generated between 250 and 500 °C) and activated carbons were 17-73 cm(3) g(-1) at 20 °C (median 51 cm(3) g(-1)), with Langmuir affinities (b) of 2-5 atm(-1) (median 3.4 atm(-1)). Both Qmax and b of the charred materials were substantially higher than those for peat, uncharred wood, and metal oxides [Qmax 1-34 cm(3) g(-1) (median 7 cm(3) g(-1)); b 0.4-1.7 atm(-1) (median 0.7 atm(-1))]. This indicates that biochar can bind N2O more strongly than both mineral and organic soil materials. Qmax and b for CO2 were comparable to those for N2O. Modeled sorption coefficients obtained with an independent polyparameter-linear free-energy relationship matched measured data within a factor 2 for mineral surfaces but underestimated by a factor of 5-24 for biochar and carbonaceous surfaces. Isosteric enthalpies of sorption of N2O were mostly between -20 and -30 kJ mol(-1), slightly more exothermic than enthalpies of condensation (-16.1 kJ mol(-1)). Qmax of N2O on biochar (50000-130000 ?g g(-1) biochar at 20 °C) exceeded the N2O emission suppressions observed in the literature (range 0.5-960 ?g g(-1) biochar; median 16 ?g g(-1)) by several orders of magnitude. Thus, the hypothesis could not be falsified that sorption of N2O to biochar is a mechanism of N2O emission suppression. PMID:23758057

    Cornelissen, Gerard; Rutherford, David W; Arp, Hans Peter H; Dörsch, Peter; Kelly, Charlene N; Rostad, Colleen E

    2013-07-16

    258

    Experimental Fracture Measurements of Functionally Graded Materials  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The primary objective of this research was to extend established fracture toughness testing methods to a new class of engineering materials known as functionally graded materials (FGMs). Secondary goals were to compare experimental results to those predicted by finite element models and to provide fracture test results as feedback toward optimizing processing parameters for the in-house synthesis of a MoSi2/SiC FGM. Preliminary experiments were performed on commercially pure (CP) Ti and uniform axial tensile tests resulted in mechanical property data including yield strength, 268 MPa, ultimate tensile strength, 470 MPa and Young's modulus, 110 GPa. Results from 3-point bending fracture experiments on CP Ti demonstrated rising R-curve behavior and experimentally determined JQ fracture toughness values ranged between 153 N/mm and 254 N/mm. Similar experimental protocols were used for fracture experiments on a 7- layered Ti/TiB FGM material obtained from Cercom in Vista, California. A novel technique for pre-cracking in reverse 4-point bending was developed for this ductile/brittle FGM material. Fracture test results exhibited rising R-curve behavior and estimated JQ fracture toughness values ranged from 0.49 N/mm to 2.63 N/mm. A 5- layered MoSi2/SiC FGM was synthesized using spark plasma sintering (SPS). Samples of this material were fracture tested and the results again exhibited a rising R-curve with KIC fracture toughness values ranging from 2.7 MPa-m1/2 to 6.0 MPa-m1/2. Finite Element Models predicted rising R-curve behavior for both of the FGM materials tested. Model results were in close agreement for the brittle MoSi2/SiC FGM. For the relatively more ductile Ti/TiB material, results were in close agreement at short crack lengths but diverged at longer crack lengths because the models accounted for fracture toughening mechanisms at the crack tip but not those acting in the crack wake.

    Carpenter, Ray Douglas

    259

    Conductometric immunoassay for interleukin-6 in human serum based on organic/inorganic hybrid membrane-functionalized interface.  

    PubMed

    Various sensor-based immunoassay methods have been extensively developed for the detection of interleukin-6 (IL6), but most often exhibit low detection signals and low detection sensitivity, and are unsuitable for routine use. The aim of this work is to develop a simple and sensitive conductometric immunoassay for IL6 in human serum by using an organic/inorganic hybrid membrane-functionalized interface. Initially, thionine-bound 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic acid was doped into colloidal alumina, then nanogold particles were immobilized onto the thionine surface, and then horseradish peroxidase-labeled anti-IL6 antibodies were conjugated on the nanogold surface. The organic/inorganic hybrid membrane provides a good microenvironment for the immobilization of biomolecules, enhanced the surface coverage of protein, and improved the sensitivity of the immunosensor. The performance and factors influencing the performance of the immunosensor were evaluated. The detection is based on the change in local conductivity before and after the antigen-antibody interaction in 0.02 M phosphate buffer solution (pH 6.8) containing 50 microM H(2)O(2), 0.01 M KI and 0.15 M NaC1. Under optimal conditions, the proposed immunosensor exhibited a wide linear range from 25 to 400 pg/ml towards IL6 with a relatively low detection limit of 5 pg/ml (S/N = 3). The stability, reproducibility and precision of the immunosensor were acceptable. 37 serum specimens were assayed by the developed immunosensor and standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively, and the results obtained were almost consistent. More importantly, the detection methodology provides a promising approach for other proteins or biosecurity. PMID:18677516

    Liang, Ke-Zhong; Qi, Jun-Sheng; Mu, Wei-Jun; Liu, Zheng-Xue

    2009-04-01

    260

    Modelling of the poling process in functionally graded materials  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Materials, containing an one- or multidimensional gradient of structural or chemical properties, connected with a changing of the material properties, are called functionally graded materials (FGM). They have a high potential in a wide range of applications, for instance to improve the interface between two different materials. Moreover, new functions of materials can be created by them. Piezoelectric FGM can

    Ralf Steinhausen; Azamat Z. Kouvatov; Christoph Pientschke; H. T. Langhammer; Horst Beige

    2004-01-01

    261

    Determination of trace amounts of organic and inorganic mercury in biological materials by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and organic mercury speciation by chromatography  

    SciTech Connect

    A procedure for determination of both organic and inorganic mercury in biological materials by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) is described. Organic mercury is extracted as a chloride derivative by benzene and reextracted by a thiosulfate solution. Inorganic mercury is converted into a methyl chloride derivative by methanolic tetramethyltin prior to extraction. A 20-..mu..L aliquot of the thiosulfate solution is injected into the graphite furnace. The calibration is linear up to 12 ng of Hg/20 ..mu..L injected. The limit of detection of mercury is 0.04 ng of Hg/20 ..mu..L injected. The organic mercury thiosulfate extract was treated with CuCl/sub 2/, reextracted in the benzene layer, and analyzed by gas chromatography (GLC) for speciation.

    Filippelli, M.

    1987-01-01

    262

    Divergence of Structure and Function in the Haloacid Dehalogenase Enzyme Superfamily: Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron BT2127 is an Inorganic Pyrophosphatase+  

    PubMed Central

    The explosion of protein sequence information requires that current strategies for function assignment must evolve to complement experimental approaches with computationally-based function prediction. This necessitates the development of strategies based on the identification of sequence markers in the form of specificity determinants and a more informed definition of orthologues. Herein, we have undertaken the function assignment of the unknown Haloalkanoate Dehalogenase superfamily member BT2127 (Uniprot accession # Q8A5V9) from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron using an integrated bioinformatics/structure/mechanism approach. The substrate specificity profile and steady-state rate constants of BT2127 (with kcat/Km value for pyrophosphate of ?1 × 105 M?1 s?1), together with the gene context, supports the assigned in vivo function as an inorganic pyrophosphatase. The X-ray structural analysis of the wild-type BT2127 and several variants generated by site-directed mutagenesis shows that substrate discrimination is based, in part, on active site space restrictions imposed by the cap domain (specifically by residues Tyr76 and Glu47). Structure guided site directed mutagenesis coupled with kinetic analysis of the mutant enzymes identified the residues required for catalysis, substrate binding, and domain-domain association. Based on this structure-function analysis, the catalytic residues Asp11, Asp13, Thr113, and Lys147 as well the metal binding residues Asp171, Asn172 and Glu47 were used as markers to confirm BT2127 orthologues identified via sequence searches. This bioinformatic analysis demonstrated that the biological range of BT2127 orthologue is restricted to the phylum Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi. The key structural determinants in the divergence of BT2127 and its closest homologue ?-phosphoglucomutase control the leaving group size (phosphate vs. glucose-phosphate) and the position of the Asp acid/base in the open vs. closed conformations. HADSF pyrophosphatases represent a third mechanistic and fold type for bacterial pyrophosphatases.

    Huang, Hua; Yury, Patskovsky; Toro, Rafael; Farelli, Jeremiah D.; Pandya, Chetanya; Almo, Steven C.; Allen, Karen N.; Dunaway-Mariano, Debra

    2012-01-01

    263

    Keggin type inorganic-organic hybrid material containing Mn(II) monosubstituted phosphotungstate and S-(+)-sec-butyl amine: Synthesis and characterization  

    SciTech Connect

    Graphical abstract: A new organic-inorganic hybrid material containing Keggin type manganese substituted phosphotungstate and S-(+)-sec-butyl amine was synthesized and systematically characterized. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New hybrid material comprising Mn substituted phosphotungstate (PW{sub 11}Mn) and S-(+)-sec-butyl amine (SBA) was synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The spectral studies reveal the attachment of SBA to the PW{sub 11}Mn without any distortion of structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The synthesized material comprises chirality. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The synthesized hybrid material can be used as a heterogeneous catalyst for carrying out asymmetric synthesis. -- Abstract: A new inorganic-organic POM-based hybrid material comprising Keggin type mono manganese substituted phosphotungstate and enantiopure S-(+)-sec-butyl amine was synthesized in an aqueous media by simple ligand substitution method. The synthesized hybrid material was systematically characterized in solid as well as solution by various physicochemical techniques such as elemental analysis, TGA, UV-vis, FT-IR, ESR and multinuclear solution NMR ({sup 31}P, {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C). The presence of chirality in the synthesized material was confirmed by CD spectroscopy and polarimeter. The above study reveals the attachment of S-(+)-sec-butyl amine to Keggin type mono manganese substituted phosphotungstate through N {yields} Mn bond. It also indicates the retainment of Keggin unit and presence of chirality in the synthesized material. An attempt was made to use the synthesized material as a heterogeneous catalyst for carrying out aerobic asymmetric oxidation of styrene using molecular oxygen. The catalyst shows the potential of being used as a stable recyclable catalytic material after simple regeneration without significant loss in conversion.

    Patel, Ketan [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, M.S. University of Baroda, Vadodara 390 002 (India)] [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, M.S. University of Baroda, Vadodara 390 002 (India); Patel, Anjali, E-mail: aupatel_chem@yahoo.com [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, M.S. University of Baroda, Vadodara 390 002 (India)] [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, M.S. University of Baroda, Vadodara 390 002 (India)

    2012-02-15

    264

    Nanoscale hybrid protein/polymer functionalized materials  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Block copolymer-based membrane technology represents a versatile class of nanoscale materials in which biomolecules, such as membrane proteins, can be reconstituted. Our work has demonstrated the fabrication of large-area, protein- enhanced membranes that possess significant performance improvements in protein functionality. Among its many advantages over conventional lipid-based membrane systems, block copolymers can mimic natural cell biomembrane environments in a single chain, enabling large-area membrane fabrication using methods like Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) deposition, or spontaneous protein-functionalized nano-vesicle formation. The membrane protein, Bacteriorhodopsin (BR), found in Halobacterium Halobium, is a light-actuated proton pump that develops gradients towards the demonstration of coupled functionality with other membrane proteins to effect ATP production, or production of electricity through Bacteriorhodopsin activity-dependent reversal of Cytochrome C Oxidase (COX), found in Rhodobacter Sphaeroides. Using quantum dot-labeled, engineered protein constructs, we have demonstrated large-scale insertion of proteins into block copolymer Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films as well as measurable pH changes based upon light-actuated proton pumping. Light actuated-activity across the protein-functionalized membrane when fully enclosed in a sol-gel matrix has also been observed using impedance spectroscopy. Initial data has suggested a significant pH change of up to 1.75 in a volume of 100 mL and surface area of 0.317cm2, a level that is capable of powering a number of proton-gradient dependent proteins towards the buildup of a robust, hybrid protein/polymer device. Recent atomic force microscopy studies of the protein-embedded polymer film samples have revealed the formation of protein aggregate-based pattern generation with very uniform torus-shaped rings. Current work focused towards characterizing the effects that various pattern formations can have on the efficiency of protein functionality, as well as film stability in an effort to develop a robust polymer membrane will also be discussed.

    Ho, Dean; Chu, Ben; Lee, Hyeseung; Montemagno, Carlo D.

    2004-07-01

    265

    Functional organic materials for electronics industries  

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Topics closely related with organic, high molecular weight material synthesis are discussed. These are related to applications such as display, recording, sensors, semiconductors, and I.C. correlation. New materials are also discussed. General principles of individual application are not included. Materials discussed include color, electrochromic, thermal recording, organic photoconductors for electrophotography, and photochromic materials.

    Shibayama, K.; Ono, H.

    1982-01-01

    266

    Fabrication of nanoporous arrays from photosensitive organic-inorganic hybrid materials by using an UV soft nanoimprint technique.  

    PubMed

    A honeycomb-like regular nanoporous pattern built in the photosensitive organic-inorganic hybrid film was fabricated by an UV soft nanoimprint technique. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) soft mold was firstly replicated from an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template obtained by using a two-step anodization method. Scanning electron microscopy images show that the AAO template has a regular honeycomb-like nanoporous structure, while the PDMS soft mold has a relief structure of nanopillar arrays. Photosensitive TiO2-contained organic-inorganic hybrid films, which were prepared by combining a low temperature sol-gel process with a spin-coating technique, were used as the imprinted layer. Thus, a honeycomb-like regular nanoporous pattern built in the hybrid film can be easily obtained by imprinting the PDMS soft mold into the photosensitive hybrid film under an UV-irradiation. The as-fabricated organic-inorganic regular nonporous arrays have potential applications in two-dimensional photonic crystal. PMID:23646611

    Zhang, Xuehua; Que, Wenxiu; Hu, Jiaxing; Chen, Jin; Zhang, Jin; Liu, Weiguo

    2013-02-01

    267

    Simulating functional magnetic materials on supercomputers.  

    PubMed

    The recent passing of the petaflop per second landmark by the Roadrunner project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory marks a preliminary peak of an impressive world-wide development in the high-performance scientific computing sector. Also, purely academic state-of-the-art supercomputers such as the IBM Blue Gene/P at Forschungszentrum Jülich allow us nowadays to investigate large systems of the order of 10(3) spin polarized transition metal atoms by means of density functional theory. Three applications will be presented where large-scale ab initio calculations contribute to the understanding of key properties emerging from a close interrelation between structure and magnetism. The first two examples discuss the size dependent evolution of equilibrium structural motifs in elementary iron and binary Fe-Pt and Co-Pt transition metal nanoparticles, which are currently discussed as promising candidates for ultra-high-density magnetic data storage media. However, the preference for multiply twinned morphologies at smaller cluster sizes counteracts the formation of a single-crystalline L1(0) phase, which alone provides the required hard magnetic properties. The third application is concerned with the magnetic shape memory effect in the Ni-Mn-Ga Heusler alloy, which is a technologically relevant candidate for magnetomechanical actuators and sensors. In this material strains of up to 10% can be induced by external magnetic fields due to the field induced shifting of martensitic twin boundaries, requiring an extremely high mobility of the martensitic twin boundaries, but also the selection of the appropriate martensitic structure from the rich phase diagram. PMID:21828528

    Gruner, Markus Ernst; Entel, Peter

    2009-07-22

    268

    Hybrid inorganic-organic materials: Novel poly(propylene oxide)-based ceramers, abrasion-resistant sol-gel coatings for metals, and epoxy-clay nanocomposites, with an additional chapter on: Metallocene-catalyzed linear polyethylene  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The sol-gel process has been employed to generate hybrid inorganic-organic network materials. Unique ceramers were prepared based on an alkoxysilane functionalized soft organic oligomer, poly(propylene oxide (PPO), and tetramethoxysilane (TMOS). Despite the formation of covalent bonds between the inorganic and organic constituents, the resulting network materials were phase separated, composed of a silicate rich phase embedded in a matrix of the organic oligomer chains. The behavior of such materials was similar to elastomers containing a reinforcing filler. The study focused on the influence of initial oligomer molecular weight, functionality, and tetramethoxysilane, water, and acid catalyst content on the final structure, mechanical and thermal properties. The sol-gel approach has also been exploited to generate thin, transparent, abrasion resistant coatings for metal substrates. These systems were based on alkoxysilane functionalized diethylenetriamine (DETA) with TMOS, which generated hybrid networks with very high crosslink densities. These materials were applied with great success as abrasion resistant coatings to aluminum, copper, brass, and stainless steel. In another study, intercalated polymer-clay nanocomposites were prepared based on various epoxy networks montmorillonite clay. This work explored the influence of incorporated clay on the adhesive properties of the epoxies. The lap shear strength decreased with increasing day content This was due to a reduction in the toughness of the epoxy. Also, the delaminated (or exfoliated) nanocomposite structure could not be generated. Instead, all nanocomposite systems possessed an intercalated structure. The final project involved the characterization of a series of metallocene catalyzed linear polyethylenes, produced at Phillips Petroleum. Polyolefins synthesized with such new catalyst systems are becoming widely available. The influence of molecular weight and thermal treatment on the mechanical, rheological, and thermal behavior was probed. Although the behavior of this series of metallocene polyethylenes was not unlike that of traditionally catalyzed materials, this work is one of the first comprehensive studies of these new linear polyethylenes. The main distinction between the metallocene, and traditional Ziegler-Natta catalyzed polyethylenes is the narrow molecular weight distributions produced by the former (for this series of materials, 2.3 materials, 2.3 < M¯w/M¯n < 3.6).

    Jordens, Kurt

    1999-12-01

    269

    Preparation and characterization of transition metal based organo-inorganic hybrid optical materials for bioassay fluorescence sensor probe  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    High refractive index (H.R.I.) tetravalent transition metal ion coordinated with organic co-dopant to form charge transfer complexes into the optical acrylic preform. They have been fabricated with different concentrations of transition metal ions and H.R.I. organic co-dopant and characterized. The improved photo physical properties, thermal, structure, optical, and morphology of transition metal ions into the optical acrylic preform hybrid matrix were analyzed. Transition metal ions are dispersed inside the preform matrix with nanoparticles of mesophase structural organization through charge transfer complex formation. It gives a crucial role of nano-interface properties on fluorescence bright imaging and less life time. This hybrid functional optical hybrid material has high potential use in bio-assay sensor probe.

    Dikshit, Asok K.; Lukose, Jijo

    2013-01-01

    270

    Enhancing the value of commodity polymers: Part 1. Structure-property relationships in composite materials based on maleated polypropylene/inorganic phosphate glasses. Part 2. New value-added applications for polyesters  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The first part of the thesis (Chapters 2 & 3) describes a new class of organic polymer/inorganic glass composite materials with property improvements that are impossible to achieve with classical polymer blends or composites. These materials exhibit good processability, superior mechanical performance, good thermal stability, and have excellent gas barrier properties. Low glass transition temperature phosphate glasses (Pglass) are used as inorganic fillers and slightly maleated polypropylene is used as the organic polymer matrix. The Pglass, which was dispersed as spherical droplets in the unoriented composites can be elongated into high aspect ratio platelets during the biaxial stretching process. Biaxially oriented films exhibited a brick wall type microstructure with highly aligned inorganic platelets in a ductile organic matrix and the oxygen barrier properties are significantly improved due to presence of Pglass platelets as impermeable inclusions. Mechanical properties of the biaxially oriented films showed significant improvements compared to neat polymer due to uniform dispersion of the Pglass platelets. Properly dispersed and aligned platelets have proven to be very effective for increasing the composite modulus. These developed materials therefore show promise to help fulfill the ever increasing demand for new advanced materials for a wide variety of advanced packaging applications because of their gas barrier properties, flexibility, transparency, mechanical strength and performance under humid conditions. The second part of the thesis (Chapters 4 & 5) describes new value-added applications for polyesters. Chapter 4 reports a novel process for the decolorization of green and blue colored PET bottle flakes using hydrogen peroxide. The decolorized flakes were characterized for color, intrinsic viscosity values. Decolorized flakes exhibited color values similar to those of colorless recycled PET and even though IV values decreased, bleached flakes still exhibit useful molecular weight. The consumption of H2O2 during the bleaching process was quantified by titrating the residual peroxide using a standard solution of potassium permanganate. Chapter 5 reports synthesis of ductile amorphous polymers which change their color as a function of mechanical deformation. Cyano--OPV moieties were covalently incorporated into the backbone of amorphous polyester PETG. The materials exhibit a significant color change upon compression consistent with efficient breakup of the dye aggregates upon deformation and therefore can be useful for technological applications that require smart coatings with integrated scratch detectors.

    Gupta, Mohit

    271

    An organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructure-functionalized electrode for electrochemical immunoassay of biomarker by using magnetic bionanolabels.  

    PubMed

    A new electrochemical immunoassay of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) was developed on an organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructure-functionalized carbon electrode by coupling with magnetic bionanolabels. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs), single-stranded DNA, thionine and AFP were utilized for the construction of the immunosensor, while the core-shell Fe(3)O(4)-silver nanocomposites were employed for the label of horseradish peroxidase-anti-AFP conjugates (HRP-anti-AFP-AgFe). Electrochemical measurement toward AFP was carried out by using magnetic bionanolabels as traces and H(2)O(2) as enzyme substrate with a competitive-type immunoassay mode. Experimental results indicated that the immunosensors with carbon nanotubes and DNA exhibited better electrochemical responses than those of without carbon nanotubes or DNA. Under optimal conditions, the electrochemical immunosensor by using HRP-anti-AFP-AgFe as signal antibodies exhibited a linear range of 0.001-200 ng mL(-1) AFP with a low detection limit of 0.5 pg mL(-1) at 3s(B). Both intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were 7.3%, 9.4%, 8.7% and 10.2%, 7.8%, 9.4% toward 0.01, 30, 120 ng mL(-1) AFP, respectively. The specificity and stability of the electrochemical immunoassay were acceptable. In addition, the methodology was validated for 12 clinical serum specimens including 9 positive specimens and 3 normal specimens, receiving a good correlation with the results obtained from the referenced electrochemiluminescence assay. PMID:21708119

    Su, Biling; Tang, Dianping; Tang, Juan; Li, Qunfang; Chen, Guonan

    2011-10-01

    272

    Miniaturized inorganic electret layers  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silicon dioxide and nitride based materials are interesting inorganic electrets for applications in the field of micromechanics and sensor technologies since they are compatible to the silicon technology. It was the motivation for this work to find new suitable electret materials with good mechanical properties for the application in a micromachined electret condenser microphone. SiO2, Si3 N4 single and double

    C. Thielemann; H. Amjadi; J. Klemberg-Sapieha; L. Martinu; M. R. Wertheimer

    1994-01-01

    273

    Multifunctional Polymer/Inorganic Nanocomposites.  

    National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

    The nanometer dispersion of inorganic ultra-thin layered fillers in polymers have been proven a very successful route to concurrently enhance several properties of the polymer matrix, and result in multifunctional nanocomposite materials. Understanding th...

    E. Manias J. Y. Huh Z. Wang L. Wu V. Kuppa

    2003-01-01

    274

    Higher-Order Theory for Functionally Graded Materials.  

    National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

    Functionally graded materials (FGM's) are a new generation of engineered materials wherein the microstructural details are spatially varied through nonuniform distribution of the reinforcement phase(s). Engineers accomplish this by using reinforcements wi...

    J. Aboudi M. J. Pindera S. M. Arnold

    2001-01-01

    275

    Functionally graded materials for sensor and energy applications  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Principles, preparation, characterisation, and application of functional materials containing a gradient of their functional properties are surveyed, with main emphasis on thermoelectric (TE) materials for application in sensors and thermogenerators. Further examples of the implementation of functionally graded materials (FGM) presented are dielectric thin-film stacks for capacitors with low temperature coefficient, microwave-processed structural gradients in fuel cell electrodes, and zone-melted

    E Müller; ? Drašar; J Schilz; W. A Kaysser

    2003-01-01

    276

    Inorganic salts interact with oxalic acid in submicron particles to form material with low hygroscopicity and volatility  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volatility and hygroscopicity are two key properties of organic aerosol components, and both are strongly related to chemical identity. While the hygroscopicities of pure salts, di-carboxylic acids (DCA), and DCA salts are known, the hygroscopicity of internal mixtures of these components, as they are typically found in the atmosphere, has not been fully characterized. Here we show that inorganic-organic component interactions typically not considered in atmospheric models can lead to very strongly bound metal-organic complexes and greatly affect aerosol volatility and hygroscopicity; in particular, the bi-dentate binding of DCA to soluble inorganic ions. We have studied the volatility of pure, dry organic salt particles and the hygroscopicity of internal mixtures of oxalic acid (OxA, the dominant DCA in the atmosphere) and a number of salts, both mono- and di-valent. The formation of very low volatility organic salts was confirmed, with minimal evaporation of oxalate salt particles below 75 °C. Dramatic increases in the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activation diameter for particles with di-valent salts (e.g., CaCl2) and relatively small particle volume fractions of OxA indicate that standard volume additivity rules for hygroscopicity do not apply. Thus small organic compounds with high O : C ratios are capable of forming low-volatility and very low hygroscopicity particles. Given current knowledge of the formation mechanisms of OxA and M-Ox salts, surface enrichment of insoluble M-Ox salts is expected. The resulting formation of an insoluble coating of metal-oxalate salts can explain low-particle hygroscopicities. The formation of particles with a hard coating could offer an alternative explanation for observations of glass-like particles without the need for a phase transition.

    Drozd, G.; Woo, J.; Häkkinen, S. A. K.; Nenes, A.; McNeill, V. F.

    2014-05-01

    277

    Physicochemical characterization of silylated functionalized materials.  

    PubMed

    Silylation of several materials where the surface area arises from the internal pores (MCM-41 and FSM-16) or is essentially external (silica gel, and clays) was performed using three organosilanes: (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES), 4-(triethoxysilyl)aniline (TESA) and (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane (MPTS). The materials were characterized by nitrogen adsorption-desorption at -196 degrees C, powder XRD, XPS, bulk chemical analysis, FTIR and (29)Si and (13)C MAS NMR. For MCM-41 and FSM-16 the highest amounts of organosilane are obtained for APTES, while for the remaining materials the highest amounts are for MPTS; TESA always anchored with the lowest percentage. In terms of surface chemical analysis, TESA anchored with the highest contents irrespectively of the material, and the opposite is registered for MPTS. Comparison of bulk vs surface contents indicate that TESA is mainly anchored at the material external surface. Moreover, with N or S (surface and bulk) contents expressed per unit of surface area, MCM-41 and FSM-16 (internal porosity) show the lowest amounts of silane; the highest amounts of silane per unit of surface area are obtained for the clays. Grafting of the organosilanes to the surface hydroxyl groups was corroborated by FTIR and (29)Si and (13)C MAS NMR. Furthermore, NMR data suggested that TESA and APTES grafted mostly through a bidentate approach, whereas MPTS grafted by a monodentate mechanism. PMID:20129614

    Borrego, Tiago; Andrade, Marta; Pinto, Moisés L; Silva, Ana Rosa; Carvalho, Ana P; Rocha, João; Freire, Cristina; Pires, João

    2010-04-15

    278

    Enhancing the value of commodity polymers: Part 1. Structure-property relationships in composite materials based on maleated polypropylene\\/inorganic phosphate glasses. Part 2. New value-added applications for polyesters  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The first part of the thesis (Chapters 2 & 3) describes a new class of organic polymer\\/inorganic glass composite materials with property improvements that are impossible to achieve with classical polymer blends or composites. These materials exhibit good processability, superior mechanical performance, good thermal stability, and have excellent gas barrier properties. Low glass transition temperature phosphate glasses (Pglass) are used

    Mohit Gupta

    2010-01-01

    279

    PREFACE: IUMRS-ICA 2008 Symposium 'AA. Rare-Earth Related Material Processing and Functions'  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rare-earth related materials have been widely used in various advanced technologies and devices because of their novel functions such as excellent magnetic and optical properties. For the fabrication of the next generation of new rare-earth related materials with novel functions, it is necessary to design a wide range of materials from nano-scale to macro-scale and to develop novel techniques realizing such designs. Indeed, there has been great progress in the preparation, processing and characterization of new rare-earth materials covering magnetic alloys, inorganic and organic fluorescence materials. In the International Union of Materials Research Societies International Conference in Asia 2008 (IUMRS-ICA2008) (9-13 December, Nagoya, Japan), the symposium on 'AA: Rare-Earth Related Material Processing and Functions' was organized to provide an interdisciplinary forum for the discussion of recent advances in fabrication processing and applications of rare-earth related materials with various scaled and unique morphologies. Many papers were presented in the symposium, and some papers were accepted to be published in this proceeding after review. Editors: Takayuki KOMATSU (Nagaoka University of Technology, Japan) Tsugio SATO (Tohoku University, Japan) Ken-ichi MACHIDA (Osaka University, Japan) Hirotoshi FUKUNAGA (Nagasaki University, Japan) Jiro YAMASAKI (Kyushu Institute of Technology, Japan) Honjie ZHANG (Chinese Academy of Sciences, China) Chun Hua YAN (Peking University, China) Jianrong QIU (Zhejiang University, China) Jong HEO (Pohang University, Korea) Setsuhisa TANABE (Kyoto University, Japan) Hiroshi TATEWAKI (Nagoya City University, Japan) Tomokatsu HAYAKAWA (Nagoya Institute of Technology, Japan) Yasufumi FUJIWARA (Osaka University, Japan)

    Komatsu, Takayuki; Sato, Tsugio; Machida, Ken-ichi; Fukunaga, Hirotoshi

    2009-02-01

    280

    Direct determination of methylmercury and inorganic mercury in biological materials by solid sampling-electrothermal vaporization-inductively coupled plasma-isotope dilution-mass spectrometry.  

    PubMed

    This paper reports on the use of solid sampling-electrothermal vaporization-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SS-EIV-ICPMS) for the direct and simultaneous determination of methylmercury and inorganic mercury in biological materials. The main advantage of this fast and sensitive method is that no sample preparation is required. In this way, the sample throughput can be considerably increased, problems of contamination and analyte losses are kept to a minimum and, even more important, the original chemical form of the different analyte species in the solid samples is preserved. To achieve this goal, a solid sample is inserted into a graphite furnace of the boat-in-tube type and is subsequently submitted to an appropriate temperature program, leading to the separate vaporization of methylmercury and inorganic mercury, which are transported into the ICP by means of an argon carrier gas. The separation was accomplished within 75 s. For the quantification of the two peaks, species-unspecific isotope dilution was used. For this purpose, a stable flow of argon loaded with gaseous Hg isotopically enriched in 200Hg was generated using a permeation tube that was constructed in-house. Its emission rate was determined by collecting the mercury released during a given time interval on a gold-coated silica absorber, after which the amount collected was released by heating of the absorber and determined by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS) and cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CVAFS). A reference material from the Canadian National Research Council (NRC) (TORT-2) was used to assess the accuracy of the method. For the application of the method to samples with diverse mercury contents, the spike/sample ratio can be optimized by varying the emission rate of the permeation tube simply by adapting its temperature. To prove the feasibility of this approach, two reference materials (BCR 463 and DORM-2) with a methylmercury content more than 10 times higher than that of TORT-2 were also analyzed. The detection limits obtained for 1 mg of sample (2 ng g(-1) and 6 ng g(-1) for methylmercury and inorganic mercury, respectively) were found to be sufficiently low for this kind of application and are competitive when compared to other techniques. PMID:12175173

    Gelaude, I; Dams, R; Resano, M; Vanhaecke, F; Moens, L

    2002-08-01

    281

    Thermomechanical Behavior of Functionally Graded Materials (FGM).  

    National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

    This final report is to document a summary of Ph.D. Student, Mr. Steven Hudnut who was supported by this ASSERT Grant, working on design of Piezo Actuators with Functionally Graded Microstructure (FGM). Mr. Hudnut has achieved both analytical modeling of ...

    S. Hudnut M. Taya

    2001-01-01

    282

    Functionalized Materials From Elastomers to High Performance Thermoplastics  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Synthesis and incorporation of functionalized materials continues to generate significant research interest in academia and in industry. If chosen correctly, a functional group when incorporated into a polymer can deliver enhanced properties, such as adhesion, water solubility, thermal stability, etc. The utility of these new materials has been demonstrated in drug-delivery systems, coatings, membranes and compatibilizers. Two approaches exist to

    Laura Ann Salazar

    2003-01-01

    283

    Application of Functionally Graded Materials in Aircraft Strutures.  

    National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

    A Functionally Graded Material (FGM) is a material which has a continuous variation of material properties through-the-thickness. This thesis will explore analysis of FGM flat plates and shell panels, and use FGM's unique characteristics to retrofit a cra...

    W. G. Cooley

    2005-01-01

    284

    Nanocomposites of polymer and inorganic nanoparticles for optical and magnetic applications.  

    PubMed

    This article provides an up-to-date review on nanocomposites composed of inorganic nanoparticles and the polymer matrix for optical and magnetic applications. Optical or magnetic characteristics can change upon the decrease of particle sizes to very small dimensions, which are, in general, of major interest in the area of nanocomposite materials. The use of inorganic nanoparticles into the polymer matrix can provide high-performance novel materials that find applications in many industrial fields. With this respect, frequently considered features are optical properties such as light absorption (UV and color), and the extent of light scattering or, in the case of metal particles, photoluminescence, dichroism, and so on, and magnetic properties such as superparamagnetism, electromagnetic wave absorption, and electromagnetic interference shielding. A general introduction, definition, and historical development of polymer-inorganic nanocomposites as well as a comprehensive review of synthetic techniques for polymer-inorganic nanocomposites will be given. Future possibilities for the development of nanocomposites for optical and magnetic applications are also introduced. It is expected that the use of new functional inorganic nano-fillers will lead to new polymer-inorganic nanocomposites with unique combinations of material properties. By careful selection of synthetic techniques and understanding/exploiting the unique physics of the polymeric nanocomposites in such materials, novel functional polymer-inorganic nanocomposites can be designed and fabricated for new interesting applications such as optoelectronic and magneto-optic applications. PMID:22110855

    Li, Shanghua; Meng Lin, Meng; Toprak, Muhammet S; Kim, Do Kyung; Muhammed, Mamoun

    2010-01-01

    285

    Nanocomposites of polymer and inorganic nanoparticles for optical and magnetic applications  

    PubMed Central

    This article provides an up-to-date review on nanocomposites composed of inorganic nanoparticles and the polymer matrix for optical and magnetic applications. Optical or magnetic characteristics can change upon the decrease of particle sizes to very small dimensions, which are, in general, of major interest in the area of nanocomposite materials. The use of inorganic nanoparticles into the polymer matrix can provide high-performance novel materials that find applications in many industrial fields. With this respect, frequently considered features are optical properties such as light absorption (UV and color), and the extent of light scattering or, in the case of metal particles, photoluminescence, dichroism, and so on, and magnetic properties such as superparamagnetism, electromagnetic wave absorption, and electromagnetic interference shielding. A general introduction, definition, and historical development of polymer–inorganic nanocomposites as well as a comprehensive review of synthetic techniques for polymer–inorganic nanocomposites will be given. Future possibilities for the development of nanocomposites for optical and magnetic applications are also introduced. It is expected that the use of new functional inorganic nano-fillers will lead to new polymer–inorganic nanocomposites with unique combinations of material properties. By careful selection of synthetic techniques and understanding/exploiting the unique physics of the polymeric nanocomposites in such materials, novel functional polymer–inorganic nanocomposites can be designed and fabricated for new interesting applications such as optoelectronic and magneto-optic applications.

    Li, Shanghua; Meng Lin, Meng; Toprak, Muhammet S.; Kim, Do Kyung; Muhammed, Mamoun

    2010-01-01

    286

    Design and Simulation of 2×2 MMI Coupler and Thermo-optic Switch Using Sol-Gel Derived Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Material  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A new design of Multimode Interference (MMI) thermo-optic switch with improved crosstalk figure is demonstrated in this paper. The device is designed and simulated using BeamProp 3D from Rsoft and 3D BPM CAD softwares. The devices are designed based on sol-gel derived organic-inorganic hybrid material, vinyltriethoxysilane (VTES), tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and tetrabutoxytitanate (TTBu) or VTT with refractive index of 1.47 as a core and surrounded by silica with refractive index of 1.45 at 1550 nm wavelength. The switching power is 164mW and the simulation result show that the propagation loss of the MMI device is 1.8 dB and zero crosstalk.

    Samah, M. Firdaus A.; Nawabjan, Amirjan; Abdullah, Ahmad Sharmi; Ibrahim, Mohd Haniff; Kassim, Norazan Mohd; Mohamad, Abu Bakar

    2011-05-01

    287

    Sensitive detection of hydrogen peroxide in foodstuff using an organic–inorganic hybrid multilayer-functionalized graphene biosensing platform  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    We report on a new electrochemical biosensing strategy for the sensitive detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in foodstuff samples. It is based on a gold electrode modified with layer of graphene patterned with a multilayer made from\\u000a an organic–inorganic hybrid nanomaterial. Initially, a layer of thionine (Th) was assembled on the surface of the graphene\\u000a nanosheets, and these were then

    Yuling Cui; Bing Zhang; Bingqian Liu; Huafeng Chen; Guonan Chen; Dianping Tang

    2011-01-01

    288

    Functional study of fluxgate sensors with amorphous magnetic materials cores  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A functional study of the TFS-3 type fluxgate sensor with amorphous magnetic material cores is made. The magnetic material used in these sensors is Romanian amorphous material Co68.25Fe4.5Si12.25B15 thin ribbon produced at the Institute of Technical Physics, Iasi and prepared by rapid quenching from the melt on a rotating copper wheel. The sensor's functional parameters and thermostability were measured. The

    H. Chiriac; M. Macoviciuc; E. Diaconu; C. Ioan; M. Tomut

    1997-01-01

    289

    4th International Symposium on Functional Materials (ISFM2011)  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The 4th International Symposium on Functional Materials (ISFM2011) was held in Sendai, Japan, on 2–6 August 2011. This Special Issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series (JPCS) consists of partial manuscripts which were presented at ISFM2011. Advanced materials have experienced a dramatic increase in demand for research, development and applications. The aim of the International Symposium on Functional Materials (ISFM)

    Shu Yin; Tohru Sekino; Shun-ichiro Tanaka; Tsugio Sato; Li Lu; Dongfeng Xue

    2012-01-01

    290

    Contributions of C3/C4 organic materials and carbonate rock to dissolved inorganic carbon in a karst groundwater system on Miyakojima Island, southwestern Japan  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SummaryGroundwater ?13C values and chemical compositions were employed to quantitatively evaluate the controlling processes and sources of dissolved inorganic carbon in a karst aquifer system on Miyakojima Island (MI), southwestern Japan. Most MI groundwater is Ca-HCO 3 type water, but some Na-Cl, Ca-Cl, or Na-HCO 3 type groundwaters occur, formed mainly by seawater intrusion and partly by cation exchange reactions. Calculations using the WATEQ4F and PHREEQC programs revealed that all MI groundwater, not just the Ca-HCO 3 type, was strongly influenced by calcite dissolution in a karst aquifer system open with respect to soil CO 2, initially derived from organic materials with mainly around 10-50 matm as pCO 2, and that most groundwater was saturated with respect to calcite. Moreover, oxidation of ammonium sulfate (applied as fertilizer) added H + to the MI groundwater, resulting in surplus calcite dissolution. These processes sufficiently explained contents of alkalinity, DIC, and Ca 2+ in the groundwater, and were evaluated by model calculation using the PHREEQC program with measured groundwater ?13C and pH values. The results showed that the average mass fractions of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) initially from calcite dissolution and C3 and C4 organic materials in the groundwater were 46.4%, 18.5%, and 35.1%, respectively. The model results regarding the origins of DIC in the groundwater agreed fairly well with land use distributions on MI, in particular, with the spatial distribution of forest and sugarcane fields, and gave us some constrains of groundwater recharge areas and flowpaths.

    Yamanaka, Masaru

    2012-01-01

    291

    Inorganic materials for the negative electrode of lithium-ion batteries: state-of-the-art and future prospects  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The development of advanced rechargeable batteries for efficient energy storage finds one of its keys in the lithium-ion concept. The optimization of the Li-ion technology urgently needs improvement for the active material of the negative electrode, and many recent papers in the field support this tendency. Moreover, the diversity in the chemical nature of the materials studied so far requires

    José L. Tirado

    2003-01-01

    292

    Bleustein–Gulyaev waves in some functionally graded materials  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Functionally Graded Materials are inhomogeneous elastic bodies whose properties vary continuously with space. Hence consider a half-space (x2>0) occupied by a special Functionally Graded Material made of an hexagonal (6 mm) piezoelectric crystal for which the elastic stiffness c44, the piezoelectric constant e15, the dielectric constant ?11, and the mass density, all vary proportionally to the same “inhomogeneity function”f(x2), say.

    Bernard Collet; Michel Destrade; Gérard A. Maugin

    2006-01-01

    293

    PREFACE: Annual Conference on Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies - FM&NT 2011  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The International Conference Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies (FM&NT-2011) was held in Riga, 5-8 April 2011 in the Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia (ISSP LU). The conference was organized in co-operation with projects ERANET 'MATERA' and National Research programme in Materials Science and Information Technologies. The purpose of the conference was to bring together scientists, engineers and students from universities, research institutes and related industrial companies active in the field of advanced material science and materials technologies trends and future activities. Scientific themes covered in the conference are: theoretical research and modelling of processes and materials; materials for energetics, renewable energy technologies and phtovoltaics; multifunctional inorganic, organic and hybrid materials for photonic, micro and nanoelectronic applications and innovative methods for research of nanostructures; advanced technologies for synthesis and research of nanostructured materials, nanoparticles, thin films and coatings; application of innovative materials in science and economics. The number of registered participants from 17 countries was nearly 300. During three days of the conference 22 invited, 69 oral reports and 163 posters were presented. 40 papers, based on these reports, are included in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. Additional information about FM&NT-2011 is available in its homepage http://www.fmnt.lu.lv. The Organizing Committee would like to thank all speakers, contributors, session chairs, referees and meeting staff for their efforts in making the FM&NT-2011 successful. The Organizing Committee sincerely hopes that that the conference gave all participants new insights into the widespread development of functional materials and nanotechnologies and would enhance the circulation of information released at the meeting. Andris Sternberg Inta Muzikante Janis Zicans Conference photograph ERAF logo International Organizing Committee Andris Sternberg (chairperson), Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Latvia, MATERA Juras Banys, Vilnius University, Lithuania Gunnar Borstel, University of Osnabrück, Germany Niels E Christensen, University of Aarhus, Denmark Robert A Evarestov, St. Petersburg State University, Russia Claes-Goran Granqvist, Uppsala University, Sweden Dag Høvik, The Research Council of Norway, Norway, MATERA Marco Kirm, Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Estonia Vladislav Lemanov, Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, Russia Witold Lojkowski, Institute of High Pressure Physics, Poland Ergo Nommiste, University of Tartu, Estonia Helmut Schober, Institut Laue-Langevin, France Sisko Sipilä, Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation, Finland, MATERA Ingólfur Torbjörnsson, Icelandic Centre for Research, Iceland, MATERA Marcel H Van de Voorde, University of Technology Delft, The Netherlands International Program Committee Inta Muzikante (chairperson), Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Latvia, MATERA Liga Berzina-Cimdina, Institute of Biomaterials and Biomechanics, Riga Technical University, Latvia Janis Grabis, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Riga Technical University, Latvia Leonid V Maksimov, Vavilov State Optical Institute, Russia Linards Skuja, Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Latvia Maris Springis, Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Latvia Ilmars Zalite, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Riga Technical University, Latvia Janis Zicans, Institute of Polymers, Riga Technical University Local Committee: Liga Grinberga, Anatolijs Sarakovskis, Jurgis Grube, Raitis Siatkovskis, Maris Kundzins, Anna Muratova, Maris Springis, Aivars Vembris, Krisjanis Smits, Andris Fedotovs, Dmitrijs Bocarovs, Anastasija Jozepa, Andris Krumins.

    Sternberg, Andris; Muzikante, Inta; Zicans, Janis

    2011-06-01

    294

    Surface functionalized mesoporous material and method of making same  

    DOEpatents

    According to the present invention, an organized assembly of functional molecules with specific interfacial functionality (functional group(s)) is attached to available surfaces including within mesopores of a mesoporous material. The method of the present invention avoids the standard base soak that would digest the walls between the mesopores by boiling the mesoporous material in water for surface preparation then removing all but one or two layers of water molecules on the internal surface of a pore. Suitable functional molecule precursor is then applied to permeate the hydrated pores and the precursor then undergoes condensation to form the functional molecules on the interior surface(s) of the pore(s).

    Feng, Xiangdong (West Richland, WA) [West Richland, WA; Liu, Jun (West Richland, WA) [West Richland, WA; Fryxell, Glen E. (Kennewick, WA) [Kennewick, WA

    2001-12-04

    295

    Ion-Conducting Organic/Inorganic Polymers  

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ion-conducting polymers that are hybrids of organic and inorganic moieties and that are suitable for forming into solid-electrolyte membranes have been invented in an effort to improve upon the polymeric materials that have been used previously for such membranes. Examples of the prior materials include perfluorosulfonic acid-based formulations, polybenzimidazoles, sulfonated polyetherketone, sulfonated naphthalenic polyimides, and polyethylene oxide (PEO)-based formulations. Relative to the prior materials, the polymers of the present invention offer greater dimensional stability, greater ease of formation into mechanically resilient films, and acceptably high ionic conductivities over wider temperature ranges. Devices in which films made of these ion-conducting organic/inorganic polymers could be used include fuel cells, lithium batteries, chemical sensors, electrochemical capacitors, electrochromic windows and display devices, and analog memory devices. The synthesis of a polymer of this type (see Figure 1) starts with a reaction between an epoxide-functionalized alkoxysilane and a diamine. The product of this reaction is polymerized by hydrolysis and condensation of the alkoxysilane group, producing a molecular network that contains both organic and inorganic (silica) links. The silica in the network contributes to the ionic conductivity and to the desired thermal and mechanical properties. Examples of other diamines that have been used in the reaction sequence of Figure 1 are shown in Figure 2. One can use any of these diamines or any combination of them in proportions chosen to impart desired properties to the finished product. Alternatively or in addition, one could similarly vary the functionality of the alkoxysilane to obtain desired properties. The variety of available alkoxysilanes and diamines thus affords flexibility to optimize the organic/inorganic polymer for a given application.

    Kinder, James D.; Meador, Mary Ann B.

    2007-01-01

    296

    Beneficial reuse of FGD material in the construction of low permeability liners: Impacts on inorganic water quality constituents  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    In this paper, we examine the water quality impacts associated with the reuse of fixated flue gas desulfurization (FGD) material as a low permeability liner for agricultural applications. A 0.457-m-thick layer of fixated FGD material from a coal-fired power plant was utilized to create a 708 m² swine manure pond at the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center Western Branch

    Chin-Min Cheng; Wei Tu; Behrad Zand; Tarunjit Butalia; William Wolfe; Harold Walker

    2007-01-01

    297

    Novel inorganic ion exchange materials based on silicates; synthesis, structure and analytical applications of magneso-silicate and magnesium alumino-silicate sorbents.  

    PubMed

    Two novel inorganic ion exchange materials magneso-silicate and magnesium alumino-silicate have been synthesized under identical conditions. The structure of these materials was established by chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, thermogravemetric and differential thermal analyses, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence analysis. Magneso-silicate and magnesium alumino-silicate were found to have the formulas MgSi(5.59)O(12.18).5.93H(2)O and MgAl(2.32)Si(5.2)O(14.88).18.23H(2)O, respectively. The structure of both sorbents was arranged and predict according to the ChemDraw Ultra program. The ion exchange capacities of these materials for some radionuclides and heavy metals Cs(+), Co(2+), Cd(2+), Zn(2+) and Cu(2+) were investigated and the data obtained showed that magnesium alumino-silicate has a higher capacity for these cations compared to magneso-silicate. Distribution coefficients in nitric acid medium have been evaluated to explore the separation potentiality of magneso-silicate and magnesium alumino-silicate for Cs(+), Co(2+), Cd(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+) and Fe(3+) ions. Sorption isotherms for all cations were investigated and the data showed the applicability of Freundlich isotherm for all cases. PMID:17532565

    El-Naggar, Ibrahim M; Abou-Mesalam, Mamdouh M

    2007-11-19

    298

    Fatigue Crack Growth Analysis Models for Functionally Graded Materials  

    SciTech Connect

    The objective of this study is to develop crack growth analysis methods for functionally graded materials (FGMs) subjected to mode I cyclic loading. The study presents finite elements based computational procedures for both two and three dimensional problems to examine fatigue crack growth in functionally graded materials. Developed methods allow the computation of crack length and generation of crack front profile for a graded medium subjected to fluctuating stresses. The results presented for an elliptical crack embedded in a functionally graded medium, illustrate the competing effects of ellipse aspect ratio and material property gradation on the fatigue crack growth behavior.

    Dag, Serkan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06531 (Turkey); Yildirim, Bora [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hacettepe University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Sabuncuoglu, Baris

    2008-02-15

    299

    Self-Assembly Synthesis and Functionalization of Mesoporous Carbon Materials for Energy-Related Applications  

    SciTech Connect

    Self-Assembly Synthesis and Functionalization of Mesoporous Carbon Materials for Energy-Related Applications Sheng Dai Chemical Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, 37831-6201 Porous carbon materials are ubiquitous in separation, catalysis, and energy storage/conversion. Well-defined mesoporous carbon materials are essential for a number of the aforementioned applications. Ordered porous carbon materials have previously been synthesized using colloidal crystals and presynthesized mesoporous silicas as hard templates. The mesostructures of these carbon materials are connected via ultrathin carbon filaments and can readily collapse under high-temperature conditions. Furthermore, these hard-template methodologies are extremely difficult to adapt to the fabrication of large-scale ordered nanoporous films or monoliths with controlled pore orientations. More recently, my research group at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and several others around the world have developed alternative methods for synthesis of highly ordered mesoporous carbons via self-assembly. Unlike the mesoporous carbons synthesized via hard-template methods, these mesoporous carbons are highly stable and can be graphitized at high temperature (>2800?C) without significant loss of mesopores. The surface properties of these materials can be further tailored via surface functionalization. This seminar will provide an overview and perspective of the mesoporous carbon materials derived from soft-template synthesis and surface functionalization and their fascinating applications in catalysis, separation, and energy storage devices. Dr. Sheng Dai got his B.S. and M.S. degrees from Zhejiang University in 1984 and 1986, respectively. He subsequently obtained a PhD degree from the University of Tennessee, Knoxville in 1990. He is currently a Senior Staff Scientist and Group Leader of Nanomaterials Group and Center for Nanophase Materials Science of Oak Ridge National Laboratory and is also affiliated with the University of Tennessee as an adjunct professor. He is a co-author of more than 200 publications. His research interests include porous materials and their functionalization, new ionic liquids for chemical separation and materials synthesis, sol-gel synthesis and molecular imprinting of inorganic materials, and catalysis by nanomaterials especially gold nanocatalysts.

    Dai, Sheng [ORNL] [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    300

    Work function measurements of contact materials for industrial use  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The nature of the contact material is important for the characteristics of electric arcs and particularly for the electronic emission. Work functions of new industrial materials made with silver alloys and silver oxide alloys are not known at present. An experimental set-up is described which allows work function measurements from room temperature up to 700 K. The Fowler method was used for the measurement of the work function by the photoelectric effect. As a first application of the experimental device, work functions of metals (Ag, Cu, Ni, Sn and Zn) were determined. Furthermore, the influence of industrial surface treatment such as the application of electric arcs and repeated mechanical shocks on the Ag contact work surface was studied by SEM to observe their effect on electron work function. Breaking arcs in air cause a remarkable increase in the work function of the silver contact material by progressive formation of silver oxides.

    Akbi, Mohamed; Lefort, André

    1998-06-01

    301

    Inorganic salts interact with organic di-acids in sub-micron particles to form material with low hygroscopicity and volatility  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volatility and hygroscopicity are two key properties of organic aerosol components, and both are strongly related to chemical identity. Here we show that inorganic-organic component interactions typically not considered in atmospheric models may strongly affect aerosol volatility and hygroscopicity. In particular, bi-dentate binding of di-carboxylic acids (DCA) to soluble inorganic ions can lead to very strongly bound metal-organic complexes with largely undetermined hygroscopicity and volatility. These reactions profoundly impact particle hygroscopicity, transforming hygroscopic components into irreversibly non-hygroscopic material. While the hygroscopicities of pure salts, DCA, and DCA salts are known, the hygroscopicity of internal mixtures of hygroscopic salts and DCA, as they are typically found in the atmosphere, has not been fully characterized. We have studied the volatility of pure, dry organic salt particles and the hygroscopicity of internal mixtures of oxalic acid (OxA, the dominant DCA in the atmosphere) and a number of salts, both mono- and di-valent. The formation of very low volatility organic salts was confirmed, with minimal evaporation of oxalate salt particles below 75 °C. Dramatic increases in the CCN activation diameter for particles with divalent salts (e.g. CaCl2) and relatively small particle mass fractions of OxA indicate that standard volume additivity rules for hygroscopicity do not apply. Thus small organic compounds with high O:C are capable of forming low volatility and very low hygroscopicity particles. Given current knowledge of the formation mechanisms of OxA and M-Ox salts, surface enrichment of insoluble M-Ox salts is expected. The resulting formation of an insoluble coating of metal-oxalate salts can explain low particle hygroscopicities. The formation of particles with a hard coating could offer an alternative explanation for observations of glass-like particles with very low viscosity.

    Drozd, G.; Woo, J.; Häkkinen, S. A. K.; Nenes, A.; McNeill, V. F.

    2013-11-01

    302

    Material point method enhanced by modified gradient of shape function  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A numerical scheme of computing quantities involving gradients of shape functions is introduced for the material point method (MPM), so that the quantities are continuous as material points move across cell boundaries. The noise and instability caused by cell crossing of the material points are then eliminated. In this scheme, the formulas used to compute these quantities can be expressed in the same forms as in the original material point method, but with the gradient of the shape function modified. For one-dimensional cases, the gradient of the shape function used in the generalized interpolation material point (GIMP) method is a special case of the modified gradient if the characteristic function of a material point is introduced. The characteristic function of a material point is not otherwise needed in this scheme, therefore difficulties in tracking its evolution are avoided. Although the support of the modified gradient of a shape function is enlarged from the cell containing the material point to also include the immediate neighbor cells, all the non-local effects of a material point can be accounted for by two consecutive local operations. Therefore this scheme can be used in calculations with unstructured grids. This scheme is proved to satisfy mass and momentum conservations exactly. The error in energy conservation is shown to be second order on both spatial and temporal discretizations. Although the error in energy conservation is the same order as that in the original material point method, numerical examples show that this scheme has significantly better energy conservation properties than those of the original material point method.

    Zhang, Duan Z.; Ma, Xia; Giguere, Paul T.

    2011-07-01

    303

    The features of self-assembling organic bilayers important to the formation of anisotropic inorganic materials in microgravity conditions  

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Materials with directional properties are opening new horizons in a variety of applications including chemistry, electronics, and optics. Structural, optical, and electrical properties can be greatly augmented by the fabrication of composite materials with anisotropic microstructures or with anisotropic particles uniformly dispersed in an isotropic matrix. Examples include structural composites, magnetic and optical recording media, photographic film, certain metal and ceramic alloys, and display technologies including flat panel displays. The new applications and the need for model particles in scientific investigations are rapidly out-distancing the ability to synthesize anisotropic particles with specific chemistries and narrowly distributed physical characteristics (e.g. size distribution, shape, and aspect ratio).

    Talham, Daniel R.; Adair, James H.

    2005-01-01

    304

    One-dimensional magnetic inorganic-organic hybrid nanomaterials.  

    PubMed

    One-dimensional (1D) magnetic inorganic-organic hybrid nanomaterials bear both the intrinsic magnetic properties of the inorganic components and the functionality and responsiveness of their organic part. In this tutorial review, we first emphasize various synthetic strategies for this type of materials: (i) template-directed synthesis employs different preformed templates such as channels in solids, mesostructures self-assembled from block copolymers, cylindrical polymer brushes, 1D biological templates and other existing 1D templates; (ii) electrospinning, which provides a simple and efficient technique that can lead to a potential large-scale production; (iii) 1D conjugation of building blocks which combines the physical attraction of magnetic nanoparticles in a magnetic field with chemical crosslinking and stabilization. The properties, functions and the future trends of these materials are also briefly introduced. It is foreseeable that these hybrid materials will play more and more important roles in the ever-advancing miniaturization of functional devices. PMID:21206943

    Yuan, Jiayin; Xu, Youyong; Müller, Axel H E

    2011-02-01

    305

    Material selection for Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility tanks  

    SciTech Connect

    This paper briefly summarizes the history of the materials selection for the US Department of Energy`s high-level waste carbon steel storage tanks. It also provides an evaluation of the materials for the construction of new tanks at the evaluation of the materials for the construction of new tanks at the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. The evaluation included a materials matrix that summarized the critical design, fabrication, construction, and corrosion resistance requirements: assessed. each requirement: and cataloged the advantages and disadvantages of each material. This evaluation is based on the mission of the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. On the basis of the compositions of the wastes stored in Hanford waste tanks, it is recommended that tanks for the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility be constructed of ASME SA 515, Grade 70, carbon steel.

    Larrick, A.P.; Blackburn, L.D.; Brehm, W.F.; Carlos, W.C.; Hauptmann, J.P. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Danielson, M.J.; Westerman, R.E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Divine, J.R. [ChemMet Ltd., West Richland, WA (United States); Foster, G.M. [ICF Kaiser Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    306

    Comparison of inorganic ion exchange materials for removing cesium, strontium, and transuranic elements from K-basin water  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The work presented in this report was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under the Efficient Separations and Crosscutting Program (ESP), Office of Science and Technology, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The objective of this work was to investigate radionuclide uptake by several newly produced ion exchange materials under actual waste conditions, and to compare the performance of

    G. N. Brown; J. R. Bontha; K. J. Carson; R. J. Elovich; J. R. DesChane

    1997-01-01

    307

    Polycomponent Functionally Graded Materials for Thermal Barrier Systems.  

    National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

    Functionally graded materials (FGMs) offer benefits for thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems for aircraft and power generation gas turbines. Currently, deficiencies in bond coat performance directly impact and reduce the performance and life of TBC syste...

    M. R. Jackson A. M. Ritter M. F. Gigliotti J. C. Zhao

    1998-01-01

    308

    Ionic liquids coated Fe3O4 based inorganic-organic hybrid materials and their application in the simultaneous determination of DNA bases.  

    PubMed

    Ionic liquids (ILs) coated Fe3O4 based inorganic-organic hybrid materials (represented as Fe3O4/ILs) were synthesized. ILs such as methylimidazolium chloride ([Hmim][Cl]) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim][Cl]) were investigated. For comparative study, quaternary ammonium salts such as choline chloride, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide [C16H33N(CH3)3][Br], and trimethylstearylammonium chloride [C18H37N(CH3)3][Cl] were also investigated. Materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen sorption, Fourier transform infrared and scanning/transmission electron microscopy. Electrochemical sensors based on Fe3O4/ILs modified glassy carbon electrodes were fabricated for the simultaneous determination of all four DNA bases. The electrochemical behavior of DNA bases was investigated in detail. Various reaction parameters such as effect of scan rate, number of electrons involved in the rate determining step, electron transfer coefficient, surface adsorbed concentration, and the electrode reaction standard rate constant were investigated. Catalytic activity obtained at various Fe3O4/ILs modified electrodes was explained using DFT calculation. The analytical performance of the sensor was demonstrated in the simultaneous determination of guanine, adenine, thymine, and cytosine in calf thymus DNA sample. PMID:24703634

    Kaur, Balwinder; Srivastava, Rajendra

    2014-06-01

    309

    Field-verification program (aquatic disposal): comparison of field and laboratory bioaccumulation of organic and inorganic contaminants from Black Rock Harbor dredged material. Final report  

    SciTech Connect

    The utility of laboratory tests for predicting bioaccumulation of contaminants in the field was evaluated by comparing the identities, relative abundances, and quantities of organic and inorganic contaminants accumulated by organisms exposed to dredged material in both laboratory and field studies. The organisms used were Mytilus edulis (a filter-feeding bivalve) and Nephtys incisa (a benthic polychaete). These organisms were exposed in the laboratory and in the field to a contaminated dredged material from Black Rock Harbor (BRH), Connecticut. Both organisms had positive and negative attributes for these exposure studies. Mytilus edulis appeared to reach steady-state in laboratory-exposure studies. However, the determination of field-exposure concentrations was precluded due to limitations on obtaining an integrated water sample during the exposure period in the field. Nephtys incisa did not appear to reach steady-state in laboratory studies and, although field-exposure data (sediment concentrations) were obtained, the exposure zone for these organisms could not be determined. Estimates of field exposures were made using laboratory-derived exposure-residue relationships and residues from field-exposed organisms. These field-exposure estimates were compared with those estimated using exposure data from the field. A comparison of these estimates showed the same general trends in the exposure-residue relationships from the laboratory and the field and further supports the laboratory predictive approach.

    Lake, J.L.; Galloway, W.; Hoffman, G.; Nelson, W.; Scott, K.J.

    1988-05-01

    310

    Thermal Fatigue Testing of Bulk Functionally Graded Materials  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thermal fatigue resistance is one of the most important characteristics of the materials subjected to rapid temperature changes, i.e., high-pressure die casting, hot forging. Therefore the aim of the present study was to determine the suitability of using the functionally graded materials (FGM) in applications subjected to thermal fatigue. A specially designed thermal fatigue test was utilized, developed to be

    Matevž Fazarinc; Tadej Muhi?; Alenka Šalej; David Bomba?; Peter Fajfar; Milan Ter?elj; Goran Kugler

    2011-01-01

    311

    Numerical Calculation of Stress Intensity Factors in Functionally Graded Materials  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The finite element method is studied for its use in cracked and uncracked plates made of functionally graded materials. The material property variation is discretized by assigning different homogeneous elastic prop- erties to each element. Finite Element results are compared to existing analytical results and the effect of mesh size is discussed. Stress intensity factors are calculated for an edge-cracked

    G. ANLAS; M. H. SANTARE; J. LAMBROS

    2000-01-01

    312

    Numerical Calculation of Stress Intensity Factors in Functionally Graded Materials  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The finite element method is studied for its use in cracked and uncracked plates made of functionally graded materials. The material property variation is discretized by assigning different homogeneous elastic properties to each element. Finite Element results are compared to existing analytical results and the effect of mesh size is discussed. Stress intensity factors are calculated for an edge-cracked plate

    G. Anlas; M. H. Santare; J. Lambros

    2000-01-01

    313

    Surface Intensive Materials Processing for Multi-Functional Purposes  

    SciTech Connect

    We have chosen silicon carbide (SiC) as a multi-functional material to demonstrate the application of surface intensive processing for device fabrication. We will highlight two devices which are produced in house at the Center for Irradiation of materials of Alabama A and M university: (A) High temperature electronic gas sensor, (B) High temperature optical properties/sensor.

    Ila, D.; Williams, E.K.; Muntele, C.I.; George, M.A.; Poker, D.B.; Hensley, D.K.; Larkin, D.J.

    2000-03-06

    314

    Nonlinear oscillations, bifurcations and chaos of functionally graded materials plate  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    An analysis on the nonlinear dynamics of a simply supported functionally graded materials (FGMs) rectangular plate subjected to the transversal and in-plane excitations is presented in a thermal environment for the first time. Material properties are assumed to be temperature dependent. Based on Reddy's third-order plate theory, the nonlinear governing equations of motion for the FGM plates are derived using

    Y. X. Hao; L. H. Chen; W. Zhang; J. G. Lei

    2008-01-01

    315

    A model of structure optimization for a functionally graded material  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A simple model is developed for the spatial variation of composition of a metal\\/ceramic functionally graded material. The composition profile is optimized, subject to certain constraints, such that the flow of heat through the material is either maximized or minimized. Normal thermal-stress profiles are calculated and are found to exhibit unusual behavior in some cases.

    Alan J. Markworth; James H. Saunders

    1995-01-01

    316

    Time-dependent stress analysis in functionally graded materials  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    In this article, a joined cylinder with a functionally graded material (FGM) is considered. An analytical solution for the calculation of stresses in FGM is presented for the elastic and creep behavior of the materials. This analytical solution can be used to study the time and temperature dependence of the stresses in a structure with FGM.

    Y. Y. Yang

    2000-01-01

    317

    Modeling of functionally graded materials in dynamic analyses  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    In this investigation, functionally graded material is modeled in several different ways. Five models are presented, two of which simulate fiber phases and three simulate particle phases. For fibers, there is a model in which the detailed micro-structure is simulated and one in which the material is represented by layers such that the volume fraction of the fibers in each

    Leslie Banks-Sills; Rami Eliasi; Yuri Berlin

    2002-01-01

    318

    Three-dimensional thermal buckling analysis of functionally graded materials  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Three-dimensional thermal buckling analysis is performed for functionally graded materials. Material properties are assumed to be temperature dependent, and varied continuously in the thickness direction according to a simple power law distribution in terms of the volume fraction of a ceramic and metal. The finite element model is adopted by using an 18-node solid element to analyze more accurately the

    Kyung-Su Na; Ji-Hwan Kim

    2004-01-01

    319

    Production of modern functional materials based on renewable vegetable resources  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An energy-saving technology for production of variously structured carbon modifications from a renewable vegetable raw material, i.e., the waste of agricultural crops and peat moss, has been developed. Promising functional materials — refractory compounds (tungsten and titanium carbides) and oil sorbents possessing a combination of high operating characteristics — have been formed on the basis of the synthesized carbon modifications.

    Onishchenko, D. V.; Reva, V. P.

    2013-05-01

    320

    Bioinspired organic-inorganic composite materials prepared by an alternate soaking process as a tissue reconstitution matrix.  

    PubMed

    Poly(acrylic acid) (PAAc) grafted poly(ethylene) (PE) (PAAc-g-PE) film-apatite or calcium carbonate (CaCO3) composite materials were prepared by an alternate soaking process, which simply forms apatite or CaCO3 on the polymer materials by alternate soaking in Ca(2+)- and PO(3-)4- or CO(3)2- -containing solutions. X-ray diffraction analysis of the composite films indicated the presence of hydroxyapatite or CaCO3 on the film. Scanning electron microscopic observation revealed that the whole surface of the film was covered by the apatite or CaCO3. Cell compatibility tests of the apatite- or CaCO3-coated film suggested that the greater number of cells adhered on the films and that the cell proliferation properties were extremely greater on the films. PMID:14624523

    Ogomi, Daisuke; Serizawa, Takeshi; Akashi, Mitsuru

    2003-12-15

    321

    Selenium, selected inorganic elements, and organochlorine pesticides in bottom material and biota from the Colorado River delta  

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Concentrations of selenium (Se) in bottom material ranged from 0.6 to 5.0 ??g g-1, and from 0.5 to 18.3 ??g g-1 in biota; 23% of samples exceeded the toxic threshold. Concentrations of DDE in biota exceeded the toxic threshold in 30% of the samples. Greater concentrations of selenium in biota were found at sites with strongly reducing conditions, no output, alternating periods of drying and flooding or dredging activities, and at sites that received water directly from the Colorado River. The smallest Se concentrations in biota were found at sites where an outflow and exposure or physical disturbance of the bottom material were uncommon. ?? 2001 Academic Press.

    Garcia-Hernandez, J.; King, K. A.; Velasco, A. L.; Shumilin, E.; Mora, M. A.; Glenn, E. P.

    2001-01-01

    322

    Beneficial reuse of FGD material in the construction of low permeability liners: Impacts on inorganic water quality constituents  

    SciTech Connect

    In this paper, we examine the water quality impacts associated with the reuse of fixated flue gas desulfurization (FGD) material as a low permeability liner for agricultural applications. A 0.457-m-thick layer of fixated FGD material from a coal-fired power plant was utilized to create a 708 m{sup 2} swine manure pond at the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center Western Branch in South Charleston, Ohio. To assess the effects of the fixated FGD material liner, water quality samples were collected over a period of 5 years from the pond surface water and a sump collection system beneath the liner. Water samples collected from the sump and pond surface water met all Ohio nontoxic criteria, and in fact, generally met all national primary and secondary drinking water standards. Furthermore it was found that hazardous constituents (i.e., As, B, Cr, Cu, and Zn) and agricultural pollutants (i.e., phosphate and ammonia) were effectively retained by the FGD liner system. The retention of As, B, Cr, Cu, Zn, and ammonia was likely due to sorption to mineral components of the FGD liner, while Ca, Fe, and P retention were a result of both sorption and precipitation of Fe- and Ca-containing phosphate solids.

    Cheng, C.M.; Tu, W.; Zand, B.; Butalia, T.; Wolfe, W.; Walker, H. [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2007-05-15

    323

    Macroscopic analysis of axisymmetric functionally gradient material under thermal loading  

    SciTech Connect

    The axisymmetric functionally gradient materials (FGMs) subject to nonuniform temperature variations were studied with the combined use of homogenization and inhomogeneous eigenstrained media analysis. The material properties and the temperature variations were assumed to depend on the radial coordinate only. The inhomogeneous material properties of the FGM cylinder can be obtained by modulating the concentration level of spherical alumina particles in an aluminum matrix. The resulting stresses due to the temperature variation are presented for numerous distribution functions of alumina particles. It is shown that the particle distribution extensively influences the intensity and profile of the thermal stresses.

    Kwon, P.; Dharan, C.K.H.; Ferrari, M. (Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States))

    1994-06-01

    324

    Organic–inorganic nanotube hybrids: Organosilica-nanotubes containing ethane, ethylene and acetylene groups  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The synthesis and characterization of novel organic–inorganic hybrid nanotubes containing silica and ethane (EtSNT), ethylene (ESNT) and acetylene (ASNT) units are presented. The unsaturated hydrocarbon linkers can be applied for a chemical functionalization of the surface of the silica nanotubes, e.g. for the grafting of organic\\/inorganic or organometallic molecules. These new materials are synthesized via a template method using V3O7·H2O

    Christian E. Fischer; Alexander Raith; János Mink; Gabriele Raudaschl-Sieber; Mirza Cokoja; Fritz E. Kühn

    2011-01-01

    325

    Higher-order theory for functionally graded materials  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    This paper presents the full generalization of the Cartesian coordinate-based higher-order theory for functionally graded materials developed by the authors during the past several years. This theory circumvents the problematic use of the standard micromechanical approach, based on the concept of a representative volume element, commonly employed in the analysis of functionally graded composites by explicitly coupling the local (microstructural)

    J. Aboudi; M.-J. Pindera; S. M. Arnold

    1999-01-01

    326

    Antiplane fracture of a functionally graded material strip  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    This paper considers the anti-plane (or mode III) crack problem in a functionally graded material strip. The shear modulus of the strip is considered for a class of functional forms for which the equilibrium equation has an analytical solution. The problem is solved by means of singular integral equation technique. Both a single crack and a series of collinear cracks

    Bao-Lin Wang; Yiu-Wing Mai; Yu-Guo Sun

    2003-01-01

    327

    Hybrid materials from agro-waste and nanoparticles: implications on the kinetics of the adsorption of inorganic pollutants.  

    PubMed

    This study is a first-hand report of the immobilization of Nauclea diderrichii seed waste biomass (ND) (an agro-waste) with eco-friendly mesoporous silica (MS) and graphene oxide-MS (GO + MS) nanoparticles, producing two new hybrid materials namely: MND adsorbent for agro-waste modified with MS and GND adsorbent for agro-waste modified with GO + MS nanoparticles showed improved surface area, pore size and pore volume over those of the agro-waste. The abstractive potential of the new hybrid materials was explored for uptake of Cr(III) and Pb(II) ions. Analysis of experimental data from these new hybrid materials showed increased initial sorption rate of Cr(III) and Pb(II) ions uptake. The amounts of Cr(III) and Pb(II) ions adsorbed by MND and GND adsorbents were greater than those of ND. Modification of N. diderrichii seed waste significantly improved its rate of adsorption and diffusion coefficient for Cr(III) and Pb(II) more than its adsorption capacity. The rate of adsorption of the heavy metal ions was higher with GO + MS nanoparticles than for other adsorbents. Kinetic data were found to fit well the pseudo-second-order and the diffusion-chemisorption kinetic models suggesting that the adsorption of Cr(III) and Pb(II) onto these adsorbents is mainly through chemisorption mechanism. Analysis of kinetic data with the homogeneous particle diffusion kinetic model suggests that particle diffusion (diffusion of ions through the adsorbent) is the rate-limiting step for the adsorption process. PMID:24645440

    Omorogie, Martins O; Babalola, Jonathan O; Unuabonah, Emmanuel I; Gong, Jian R

    2014-01-01

    328

    Higher-Order Theory for Functionally Graded Materials  

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Functionally graded materials (FGM's) are a new generation of engineered materials wherein the microstructural details are spatially varied through nonuniform distribution of the reinforcement phase(s). Engineers accomplish this by using reinforcements with different properties, sizes, and shapes, as well as by interchanging the roles of the reinforcement and matrix phases in a continuous manner (ref. 1). The result is a microstructure that produces continuously or discretely changing thermal and mechanical properties at the macroscopic or continuum scale. This new concept of engineering the material's microstructure marks the beginning of a revolution both in the materials science and mechanics of materials areas since it allows one, for the first time, to fully integrate the material and structural considerations into the final design of structural components. Functionally graded materials are ideal candidates for applications involving severe thermal gradients, ranging from thermal structures in advanced aircraft and aerospace engines to computer circuit boards. Owing to the many variables that control the design of functionally graded microstructures, full exploitation of the FGM's potential requires the development of appropriate modeling strategies for their response to combined thermomechanical loads. Previously, most computational strategies for the response of FGM's did not explicitly couple the material's heterogeneous microstructure with the structural global analysis. Rather, local effective or macroscopic properties at a given point within the FGM were first obtained through homogenization based on a chosen micromechanics scheme and then subsequently used in a global thermomechanical analysis.

    Aboudi, J.; Pindera, M. J.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2001-01-01

    329

    The role of physical and chemical properties of Pd nanostructured materials immobilized on inorganic carriers on ion formation in atmospheric pressure laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.  

    PubMed

    Fundamental parameters influencing the ion-producing efficiency of palladium nanostructures (nanoparticles [Pd-NP], nanoflowers, nanofilms) during laser irradiation were studied in this paper. The nanostructures were immobilized on the surface of different solid inorganic carrier materials (porous and mono-crystalline silicon, anodic porous aluminum oxide, glass and polished steel) by using classical galvanic deposition, electroless local deposition and sputtering. It was the goal of this study to investigate the influence of both the nanoparticular layer as well as the carrier material on ion production for selected analyte molecules. Our experiments demonstrated that the dimensions of the synthesized nanostructures, the thickness of the active layers, surface disorders, thermal conductivity and physically or chemically adsorbed water influenced signal intensities of analyte ions during surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization (SALDI) while no effects such as plasmon resonance, photoelectric effect or catalytic activity were expected to occur. Excellent LDI abilities were seen for Pd-NPs immobilized on steel, while Pd nanoflowers on porous silicon exhibited several disadvantages; viz, strong memory effects, dependency of the analytical signal on amount of physically and chemically adsorbed water inside porous carrier, reduced SALDI activity from unstable connections between Pd and semiconductor material, decrease of the melting point of pure silicon after Pd immobilization and resulting strong laser ablation of metal/semiconductor complex, as well as significantly changed surface morphology after laser irradiation. The analytical performance of Pd-NP/steel was further improved by applying a hydrophobic coating to the steel surface before galvanic deposition. This procedure increased the distance between Pd-NPs, thus reducing thermal stress upon LDI; it simultaneously decreased spot sizes of deposited sample solutions. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24913399

    Silina, Yuliya E; Koch, Marcus; Volmer, Dietrich A

    2014-06-01

    330

    Some functional properties of composite material based on scrap tires  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The utilization of scrap tires still obtains a remarkable importance from the aspect of unloading the environment from non-degradable waste [1]. One of the most prospective ways for scrap tires reuse is a production of composite materials [2] This research must be considered as a continuation of previous investigations [3, 4]. It is devoted to the clarification of some functional properties, which are considered important for the view of practical applications, of the composite material. Some functional properties of the material were investigated, for instance, the compressive stress at different extent of deformation of sample (till 67% of initial thickness) (LVS EN 826) [5] and the resistance to UV radiation (modified method based on LVS EN 14836) [6]. Experiments were realized on the purposefully selected samples. The results were evaluated in the correlation with potential changes of Shore C hardness (Shore scale, ISO 7619-1, ISO 868) [7, 8]. The results showed noticeable resistance of the composite material against the mechanical influence and ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The correlation with the composition of the material, activity of binder, definite technological parameters, and the conditions supported during the production, were determined. It was estimated that selected properties and characteristics of the material are strongly dependent from the composition and technological parameters used in production of the composite material, and from the size of rubber crumb. Obtained results show possibility to attain desirable changes in the composite material properties by changing both the composition and technological parameters of examined material.

    Plesuma, Renate; Malers, Laimonis

    2013-09-01

    331

    Functionalized Materials From Elastomers to High Performance Thermoplastics  

    SciTech Connect

    Synthesis and incorporation of functionalized materials continues to generate significant research interest in academia and in industry. If chosen correctly, a functional group when incorporated into a polymer can deliver enhanced properties, such as adhesion, water solubility, thermal stability, etc. The utility of these new materials has been demonstrated in drug-delivery systems, coatings, membranes and compatibilizers. Two approaches exist to functionalize a material. The desired moiety can be added to the monomer either before or after polymerization. The polymers used range from low glass transition temperature elastomers to high glass transition temperature, high performance materials. One industrial example of the first approach is the synthesis of Teflon(reg. sign). Poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE or Teflon(reg. sign)) is synthesized from tetrafluoroethylene, a functionalized monomer. The resulting material has significant property differences from the parent, poly(ethylene). Due to the fluorine in the polymer, PTFE has excellent solvent and heat resistance, a low surface energy and a low coefficient of friction. This allows the material to be used in high temperature applications where the surface needs to be nonabrasive and nonstick. This material has a wide spread use in the cooking industry because it allows for ease of cooking and cleaning as a nonstick coating on cookware. One of the best examples of the second approach, functionalization after polymerization, is the vulcanization process used to make tires. Natural rubber (from the Hevea brasiliensis) has a very low glass transition temperature, is very tacky and would not be useful to make tires without synthetic alteration. Goodyear's invention was the vulcanization of polyisoprene by crosslinking the material with sulfur to create a rubber that was tough enough to withstand the elements of weather and road conditions. Due to the development of polymerization techniques to make cis-polyisoprene, natural rubber is no longer needed for the manufacturing of tires, but vulcanization is still utilized.

    Laura Ann Salazar

    2003-05-31

    332

    Inorganic Electrolytes.  

    National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

    The report contains six parts as follows: Part I. Analyses of the Hazard Potentials of Various Reaction Modes and Materials Incidental to the Operation of Li/SOCl2 Cells; Part II. Preliminary Survey of Alternative Anode Materials Compatible with Oxychlori...

    M. Domeniconi K. Klinedinst N. Marincic C. Schlaikjer R. Staniewicz

    1977-01-01

    333

    Inorganic-organic hybrid framework materials: Synthesis and characterization of [{Co(H 2O)(L)} 2V 4O 12] (L = pyridine, 4-methlypyridine)  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inorganic-organic hybrid materials - [{Co(H 2O)(py)} 2V 4O 12] ( 1) and [{Co(H 2O)(pic)} 2V 4O 12] (pic = 4-methylpyridine) ( 2) have been synthesized and characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, elemental analysis, manganometric titration, temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility measurement, bond valence sum calculations, and single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Crystals of 1- 2 have very similar structures. The two-dimensional framework structures consist of bimetallic oxide layers, composed of {VO 4} tetrahedra and {CoO 5N} octahedra bridged by oxygen atoms, with pyridine rings projecting outward on both sides of the layers. The 12 membered metallocycles - {Co 2V 4O 6} - in the layers generate cavities. The hydrophobic pyridine rings engage in ?-stacking with the aromatic rings from adjacent layers. Crystal data for 1; C 10H 14Co 2N 2O 14V 4, triclinic space group P1¯, a = 7.7952(8), b = 10.9620(11), c = 12.8778(13) ?, ? = 65.940(2), ? = 89.318(2), ? = 88.762(2), Z = 2; crystal data for 2: C 12H 18N 2Co 2O 14V 4, monoclinic space group P2 1/ m, a = 10.9361(15), b = 7.8201(11), c = 14.0224(19) ?, ? = 90.0, ? = 112.314(2), ? = 90.0, Z = 2.

    Khan, M. Ishaque; Yohannes, Elizabeth; Doedens, Robert J.; Golub, Vladimir O.; O'Connor, Charles J.

    2008-10-01

    334

    Using flowerlike polymer-copper nanostructure composite and novel organic-inorganic hybrid material to construct an amperometric biosensor for hydrogen peroxide.  

    PubMed

    A new type of amperometric hydrogen peroxide biosensor was fabricated by entrapping horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in the organic-inorganic hybrid material composed of zirconia-chitosan sol-gel and Au nanoparticles (ZrO2-CS-AuNPs). The sensitivity of the biosensor was enhanced by a flowerlike polymer-copper nanostructure composite (pPA-FCu) which was prepared from co-electrodeposition of CuSO4 solution and 2,6-pyridinediamine solution. Several techniques, including UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were employed to characterize the assembly process and performance of the biosensor. The results showed that this pPA-FCu nanostructure not only had excellent redox electrochemical activity, but also had good catalytic efficiency for hydrogen peroxide. Also the ZrO2-CS-AuNPs had good film forming ability, high stability and good retention of bioactivity of the immobilized enzyme. The resulting biosensors showed a linear range from 7.80 x 10(-7) to 3.7 x 10(-3) mol L(-1), with a detection limit of 3.2 x 10(-7) mol L(-1) (S/N=3) under optimized experimental conditions. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant was determined to be 0.32 mM, showing good affinity. In addition, the biosensor which exhibits good analytical performance, acceptable stability and good selectivity, has potential for practical applications. PMID:19836213

    Wang, Jinfen; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Yaqin; Li, Wenjuan; Fu, Ping; Min, Ligen

    2010-02-01

    335

    Smart and functional polymer materials for smart and functional microfluidic instruments  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    As microfluidic systems evolve from "chip-in-the-lab" to true portable lab-on-a-chip (LoC) or lab-in-a-package (LiP) microinstrumentation, there is a need for increasingly miniaturized sensors, actuators, and integration/interconnect technologies with high levels of functionality and self-direction. Furthermore, as microfluidic instruments are increasingly realized in polymer-based rather than glass- or silicon- based platforms, there is a need to realize these highly functional components in materials that are polymer-compatible. Polymers that are altered to possess basic functionality, and even higher-functioning "smart" polymer materials, may help to realize high-functioning and selfdirecting portable microinstrumentation. Stimuli-responsive hydrogels have been recognized for over a decade as beneficial to the development of smart microfluidics systems and instrumentation. In addition, functional materials such as conductive and magnetic composite polymers are being increasingly employed to push microfluidics systems to greater degrees of functionality, portability, and/or flexibility for wearable/implantable systems. Functional and smart polymer materials can be employed to realize electrodes, electronic routing, heaters, mixers, valves, pumps, sensors, and interconnect structures in polymer-based microfluidic systems. Stimuli for such materials can be located on-chip or in a small package, thus greatly increasing the degree of portability and the potential for mechanical flexibility of such systems. This paper will examine the application of functional polymer materials to the development of high-functioning microfluidics instruments with a goal towards self-direction.

    Gray, Bonnie L.

    2014-04-01

    336

    PREFACE: International Conference on Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies (FM&NT2012)  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The International Conference Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies (FM&NT - 2012) was held in Riga, 17-20 April 2012 at the Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia (ISSP UL). The conference was organised by ISSP UL in co-operation with National Research programme in Materials Science and Information Technologies of Latvia. The purpose of this series of conferences is to bring together scientists, researchers, engineers and students from universities, research institutes and related industrial companies working in the field of advanced material science, energy and materials technologies. The contributions of the participants were grouped according to three main topics of the conference: 1. Multifunctional Materials including advanced inorganic, organic and hybrid materials; ferroics; multiscale and multiphenomenal material modeling and simulation 2. Nanotechnologies including progressive methods, technologies and design for investigation of nanoparticles, nanostructures, nanocomposites, thin films and coatings; 3. Energy including perspective materials and technologies for renewable and hydrogen energy, fuel cells, photovoltaics and developing diverse energy systems. A special section devoted to Organic Materials was organized to commemorate a long-time organizer of the FM&NT conference series, Dr. habil. phys, academician Inta Muzikante who passed away on 15 February 2012. The number of registered participants from 21 countries was nearly 300. During the three days of the conference 2 plenary, 16 invited, 54 oral reports and 184 posters were presented. 64 papers, based on these reports, are included in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. Additional information about FM&NT-2012 is available at its homepage http://www.fmnt.lu.lv. The Organizing Committee would like to thank all the speakers, contributors, session chairs, referees and other involved staff for their efforts in making the FM&NT-2012 successful. The Organizing Committee sincerely hopes that the Conference gave all the participants new insights into the widespread development of functional materials and nanotechnologies and would enhance the circulation of the information released at the meeting. Inta Muzikante Andris Sternberg Liga Grinberga Anatolijs Sarakovskis Conference photograph The manuscripts are published thanks to the financial support from ERAF project 'Atbalsts starptautiskas sadarbibas projektiem zinatne un tehnologijas LU Cietvielu fizikas instituta' Nr.2010/0204/2DP/2.1.1.2.0./10/APIA/VIAA/010 Sponsors Sponsors flag Sponsors logo International Organizing Committee 1. Andris Sternberg (chairperson), Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Latvia 2. Juras Banys, Vilnius University, Lithuania 3. Gunnar Borstel, University of Osnabrück, Germany 4. Niels E Christensen, University of Aarhus, Denmark 5. Robert A Evarestov, St. Petersburg State University, Russia 6. Claes-Goran Granqvist, Uppsala University, Sweden 7. Dag Høvik, The Research Council of Norway, Norway 8. Marco Kirm, Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Estonia 9. Jiri Kulda, Institut Laue-Langevin, France 10. Witold Lojkowski, Institute of High Pressure Physics, Poland 11. Ergo Nommiste, University of Tartu, Estonia 12. Ingólfur Torbjörnsson, Icelandic Centre for Research, Iceland 13. Marcel H. Van de Voorde, University of Technology Delft, The Netherlands International Program Committee 1. Liga Grinberga (chairperson), Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Latvia 2. Eugene Kotomin, Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Germany 3. Martins Rutkis, Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Latvia 4. Inta Muzikante, Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Latvia 5. Liga Berzina-Cimdina, Institute of Biomaterials and Biomechanics, Riga Technical University, Latvia 6. Janis Grabis, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Riga Technical University, Latvia 7. Linards Skuja, Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Latvia 8. Maris Spr

    Sternberg, Andris; Muzikante, Inta; Sarakovskis, Anatolijs; Grinberga, Liga

    2012-08-01

    337

    Nanostructured functional materials prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) is the most extensively studied controlled\\/living radical polymerization (CRP) method, with the interest originating primarily in its simplicity and broad applicability, and in the ability to prepare previously inaccessible well-defined nanostructured polymeric materials. This review illustrates the range of well-defined advanced functional materials that can be prepared by ATRP. We detail the precise synthesis of

    Krzysztof Matyjaszewski; Nicolay V. Tsarevsky

    2009-01-01

    338

    Evaluation of Thermophysical Properties of Functionally Graded Materials  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    In this work, by considering four-layered functionally graded material (FGM) specimens of Cu\\/Ni and PSZ\\/NiCrAlY, the transient characteristics and homogeneity of heat conduction media have been studied. The thermal diffusivities of the considered specimens have been measured by the laser flash method. As the temperature response curve of a FGM is very similar to that of a homogeneous material, it

    N. Araki; D. W. Tang; A. Ohtani

    2006-01-01

    339

    Some basic fracture mechanics concepts in functionally graded materials  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    In this paper, the crack-tip fields in a general nonhomogeneous material are summarized. The fracture toughness and R-curve of functionally graded materials (FGMs) are studied based on the crack-bridging concept and a rule of mixtures. It is shown that the fracture toughness is significantly increased when a crack grows from the ceramic-rich region into the metal-rich region in an alumina-nickel

    Z.-H. Jin; R. C. Batra

    1996-01-01

    340

    A micromechanical study of residual stresses in functionally graded materials  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A physically based computational micromechanics model is developed to study random and discrete microstructures in functionally graded materials (FGMs). The influences of discrete microstructure on residual stress distributions at grain size level are examined with respect to material gradient and FGM volume percentage (within a ceramic-FGM-metal three-layer structure). Both thermoelastic and thermoplastic deformation are considered, and the plastic behavior of

    Ming Dao; Pei Gu; Akhilesh Maewal; R. J. Asaro

    1997-01-01

    341

    Boundary element analysis of crack problems in functionally graded materials  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The present study examines the crack problems in a functionally graded material (FGM) whose upper and bottom surfaces are fully bonded with dissimilar homogeneous materials. A so-called generalized Kelvin solution based boundary element method is used in the numerical examination. The multi-region method and the eight-node traction-singular boundary elements are used for the crack evaluation. The layer discretization technique is

    Z. Q. Yue; H. T. Xiao; L. G. Tham

    2003-01-01

    342

    Multi Functional Uptake Behaviour of Materials Prepared by Calcining Waste Paper Sludge  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    This study concerns with the utilization of waste paper sludge, which contains mainly cellulose fibers and inorganic fillers together with coating materials such as calcite, kaolinite and talc. Paper sludge was fired at 500–900°C for 6 h. The crystalline phases originally present decomposed at increasing temperatures (up to 800°C) in the order kaolinite < calcite < talc. Gehlenite was formed

    VINAY KUMAR JHA; YOSHIKAZU KAMESHIMA; AKIRA NAKAJIMA; KIYOSHI OKADA; KENNETH J. D. MACKENZIE

    2006-01-01

    343

    Analytical Model for Thermal Elastoplastic Stresses of Functionally Graded Materials  

    SciTech Connect

    A modification analytical model is presented for the thermal elastoplastic stresses of functionally graded materials subjected to thermal loading. The presented model follows the analytical scheme presented by Y. L. Shen and S. Suresh [6]. In the present model, the functionally graded materials are considered as multilayered materials. Each layer consists of metal and ceramic with different volume fraction. The ceramic layer and the FGM interlayers are considered as elastic brittle materials. The metal layer is considered as elastic-perfectly plastic ductile materials. Closed-form solutions for different characteristic temperature for thermal loading are presented as a function of the structure geometries and the thermomechanical properties of the materials. A main advance of the present model is that the possibility of the initial and spread of plasticity from the two sides of the ductile layers taken into account. Comparing the analytical results with the results from the finite element analysis, the thermal stresses and deformation from the present model are in good agreement with the numerical ones.

    Zhai, P. C.; Chen, G.; Liu, L. S.; Fang, C.; Zhang, Q. J. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2008-02-15

    344

    Functionalized apertures for the detection of chemical and biological materials  

    DOEpatents

    Disclosed are nanometer to micron scale functionalized apertures constructed on a substrate made of glass, carbon, semiconductors or polymeric materials that allow for the real time detection of biological materials or chemical moieties. Many apertures can exist on one substrate allowing for the simultaneous detection of numerous chemical and biological molecules. One embodiment features a macrocyclic ring attached to cross-linkers, wherein the macrocyclic ring has a biological or chemical probe extending through the aperture. Another embodiment achieves functionalization by attaching chemical or biological anchors directly to the walls of the apertures via cross-linkers.

    Letant, Sonia E. (Livermore, CA); van Buuren, Anthony W. (Livermore, CA); Terminello, Louis J. (Danville, CA); Thelen, Michael P. (Danville, CA); Hope-Weeks, Louisa J. (Brentwood, CA); Hart, Bradley R. (Brentwood, CA)

    2010-12-14

    345

    PREFACE: 4th International Symposium on Functional Materials (ISFM2011)  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The 4th International Symposium on Functional Materials (ISFM2011) was held in Sendai, Japan, on 2-6 August 2011. This Special Issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series (JPCS) consists of partial manuscripts which were presented at ISFM2011. Advanced materials have experienced a dramatic increase in demand for research, development and applications. The aim of the International Symposium on Functional Materials (ISFM) was to provide an overview of the present status with historical background and to foresee future trends in the field of functional materials. The 4th symposium, ISFM 2011, covered a wide variety of topics within state-of-the-art advanced materials science and technology, and focused especially on four major categories including: Environmental Materials, Electronic Materials, Energy Materials and Biomedical Materials. As you know, a massive earthquake and the Tsunami that followed occurred near the Tohoku region on 11 March 2011. After the earthquake, although there were many difficulties in continuing to organize the symposium, we received warm encouragement from many researchers and societies, especially from the members of the International Advisory Committee and Organizing Committee, so that ISFM2011 could be held on schedule. We are honored that ISFM2011 was the first formal international academic conference held in the Tohoku area of Japan after the 11 March earthquake. About 140 participants from 14 countries took part in the ISFM2011 symposium, which included five plenary talks by world-leading scientists, 32 invited talks, and many oral and poster presentations. We are delighted to see that many researchers are interested in the synthesis and the properties as well as the applications of functional materials. Many fruitful and exciting research achievements were presented in the symposium. We believe that this symposium provided a good chance for scientists to communicate and exchange opinions with each other. We would also like to express our sincere appreciation to all the members of the International Advisory Committee, the Organizing Committee, and all the authors and participants. It is expected that the published output of this special issue will be accepted as an original and valuable contribution to the literature in the functional materials field. Guest Editors Dr Shu Yin Tohoku University, Japan Dr Tohru Sekino Tohoku University, Japan Professor Shun-ichiro Tanaka, IMRAM, Tohoku University, Japan Professor Tsugio Sato IMRAM, Tohoku University, Japan Professor Li Lu National University of Singapore, Singapore Professor Dongfeng Xue Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China Conference photograph Group photograph of the participants of ISFM2011 held in Sendai, 4 August 2011

    Yin, Shu; Sekino, Tohru; Tanaka, Shun-ichiro; Sato, Tsugio; Lu, Li; Xue, Dongfeng

    2012-01-01

    346

    Thermal Characterization of Functionally Graded Materials: Design of Optimum Experiments  

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    This paper is a study of optimal experiment design applied to the measure of thermal properties in functionally graded materials. As a first step, a material with linearly-varying thermal properties is analyzed, and several different tran- sient experimental designs are discussed. An optimality criterion, based on sen- sitivity coefficients, is used to identify the best experimental design. Simulated experimental results are analyzed to verify that the identified best experiment design has the smallest errors in the estimated parameters. This procedure is general and can be applied to design of experiments for a variety of materials.

    Cole, Kevin D.

    2003-01-01

    347

    IFMIF suitability for evaluation of fusion functional materials  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is a future neutron source based on the D-Li stripping reaction, planned to test candidate fusion materials at relevant fusion irradiation conditions. During the design of IFMIF special attention was paid to the structural materials for the blanket and first wall, because they will be exposed to the most severe irradiation conditions in a fusion reactor. Also the irradiation of candidate materials for solid breeder blankets is planned in the IFMIF reference design. This paper focuses on the assessment of the suitability of IFMIF irradiation conditions for testing functional materials to be used in liquid blankets and diagnostics systems, since they are been also considered within IFMIF objectives. The study has been based on the analysis and comparison of the main expected irradiation parameters in IFMIF and DEMO reactor.

    Casal, N.; Sordo, F.; Mota, F.; Jordanova, J.; García, A.; Ibarra, A.; Vila, R.; Rapisarda, D.; Queral, V.; Perlado, M.

    2011-10-01

    348

    Functionalized mesoporous silica materials for molsidomine adsorption: Thermodynamic study  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A series of unmodified and organically modified mesoporous silica materials was prepared. The unmodified mesoporous silica was synthesized via sol-gel synthesis in the presence of D-glucose as pore-forming agent. The functionalized by phenyl, aminopropyl and mercaptopropyl groups silica materials were prepared via grafting. The fabricated adsorbent materials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis, N2 adsorption/desorption and elemental analysis methods. Then their adsorption properties for mesoionic dug molsidomine were investigated at 290-313 K and physiological pH value. Thermodynamic parameters of molsidomine adsorption on the synthesized materials have been calculated. The obtained results showed that the adsorption process of molsidomine on the phenyl modified silica is the most quantitatively and energetically favorable. The unmodified and mercaptopropyl modified silica materials exhibit significantly higher adsorption capacities and energies for molsidomine than the aminopropyl modified sample. The effects are discussed from the viewpoint of nature of specific interactions responsible for the adsorption.

    Alyoshina, Nonna A.; Parfenyuk, Elena V.

    2013-09-01

    349

    Aeroelastic Tailoring of a Plate Wing with Functionally Graded Materials  

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    This work explores the use of functionally graded materials for the aeroelastic tailoring of a metallic cantilevered plate-like wing. Pareto trade-off curves between dynamic stability (flutter) and static aeroelastic stresses are obtained for a variety of grading strategies. A key comparison is between the effectiveness of material grading, geometric grading (i.e., plate thickness variations), and using both simultaneously. The introduction of material grading does, in some cases, improve the aeroelastic performance. This improvement, and the physical mechanism upon which it is based, depends on numerous factors: the two sets of metallic material parameters used for grading, the sweep of the plate, the aspect ratio of the plate, and whether the material is graded continuously or discretely.

    Dunning, Peter D.; Stanford, Bret K.; Kim, H. Alicia; Jutte, Christine V.

    2014-01-01

    350

    Preparation, characterization, and properties of novolac-type phenolic\\/SiO2 hybrid organic-inorganic nanocomposite materials by sol-gel method  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    This article describes the preparation of novolac-type phenolic resin\\/silica hybrid organic-inorganic nanocomposite, with a sol- gel process. The coupling agent was used to improve the interface between the organic and inorganic phases. The effect of the structure of the nanocomposite on its physical and chemical properties is dis- cussed. The coupling agent reacts with the resin to form covalent bonds.

    Chin-Lung Chiang; Chen-Chi M. Ma; Dai-Lin Wu; Hsu-Chiang Kuan

    2003-01-01

    351

    Thermal fracture behavior of metal\\/ceramic functionally graded materials  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thermal fracture behavior of metal\\/ceramic functionally graded materials (FGMs) was evaluated by a well controlled burner heating method using a H2\\/O2 combustion flame, which simulated real environment.Partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ)\\/IN100 FGMs having finely mixed microstructures and PSZ\\/Inco718 FGMs having rather coarse microstructures were prepared by a slurry dipping and HIP sintering process. Also, three types of functionally graded thermal barrier

    A Kawasaki; R Watanabe

    2002-01-01

    352

    Thermal residual stresses in a functionally graded material system  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A one-dimensional calculation of thermal residual stresses, arising from the fabrication of a Functionally Graded Material (FGM) system, is presented. As a first step, calculations have been limited to the linear elastic case. The FGM system consists of ceramic (Al2O3) and metal (Ni) phases varying with distance in one direction. Several functional forms of gradation of constituents were examined to

    K. S. Ravichandran

    1995-01-01

    353

    Consistent shakedown theorems for materials with temperature dependent yield functions  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The (elastic) shakedown problem for structures subjected to loads and temperature variations is addressed in the hypothesis of elastic–plastic rate-independent associative material models with temperature-dependent yield functions. Assuming the yield functions convex in the stress\\/temperature space, a thermodynamically consistent small-deformation thermo-plasticity theory is provided, in which the set of state and evolutive variables includes the temperature and the plastic entropy

    Guido Borino

    2000-01-01

    354

    Photosensitive polyimide (PSPI) materials containing inorganic nano particles (I)PSPI\\/TiO 2 hybrid materials by sol–gel process  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A photosensitive polyimide (PSPI) containing TiO2 nano particles was prepared by the sol–gel method. The PSPI is based on benzophenone-3,3?,4,4?-tetracarboxylic dianhydride (BTDA) and 4,4?-diamino-3,3?-dimethyldiphenylmethane (MMDA) and is intrinsically photosensitive. The chemical and morphological structure of the hybrid materials was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The TiO2 particles are well dispersed in the PI

    Liu Li; Lu Qinghua; Yin Jie; Qian Xuefeng; Wang Wenkai; Zhu Zikang; Wang Zongguang

    2002-01-01

    355

    Hydrogen Separation Using ORNL's Inorganic Membranes  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been engaged in separations science and engineering technologies for many years. These technologies include novel nanoporous inorganic membranes developed by the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant and its successor organizations. Funding for the development of these nanoporous inorganic membranes for hydrogen separation has been provided by the DOE Fossil Energy Advanced Research Materials Program. For

    Roddie R. Judkins; Brian L. Bischoff

    356

    DERIVATION OF DAMAGE FUNCTIONS FOR ATMOSPHERIC DEGRADATION OF MATERIALS  

    EPA Science Inventory

    The information in the pape is directed to those who develop and use damage functions which relate atmospheric degradation of materials to various causal agents in the atmosphere. Such relationships must be quantified mathematically as part of the overall cost-benefit considerati...

    357

    Modeling the solidification of functionally graded materials by centrifugal casting  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A numerical investigation of the solidification process during centrifugal casting of functionally graded materials (FGMs) is conducted. Focus is placed on the interplay between the freezing front propagation and particle migration. A one-dimensional solidification model, with particle transport taken into account, was developed based on the general multiphase model by Wang (1994). The model equations were solved numerically using a

    J. W. Gao; C. Y. Wang

    2000-01-01

    358

    Functionally graded materials for impedance matching in elastic media  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    When functionally graded material layers are inserted between two impedance mismatching media, passbands with extremely large bandwidths can appear in these layered systems. An accurate and effective iterative method is developed to deal with these layered systems with extremely large layer number.

    Chen, Shi; Zhang, Yinhong; Hao, Changchun; Lin, Shuyu; Fu, Zhiqiang

    2014-01-01

    359

    A photometric function for diffuse reflection by particulate materials  

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    A photometric function is proposed to describe the diffuse reflection of radiation by particulate materials. Both multiple scattering and the dominant effects of particle shadowing are included and the function is verified by comparisons with the photometries of laboratory surfaces. Brightness measurements of planetary and other diffusely scattering surfaces can be used to calculate the brightness for geometries other than those used in the measurements and for which the Minnaert function does not apply. The measurements also can be directly related to such surface characteristics as particle size, single-particle albedo, and compactness.

    Meador, W. E.; Weaver, W. R.

    1975-01-01

    360

    Functional Molecular Materials: Modelling Structure, Optical Properties, Intermolecular Interactions.  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In the past few years we have investigated structural, electric and photo-physical properties of several molecular systems forming the building blocks of functional molecular materials, and we paid increasing attention to the effects that condensed phase and structured environments can have on the properties of the material. Here we present an overview of our most recent achievements concerning the modelling of properties of several classes of organic functional molecules. The results presented comprise the prediction of optical properties of 2D and 3D carbon rich materials (models for defected graphite, hetero-fullerenes), studies on reactivity, dynamics and aggregation of polyphenylene dendrimers including their ability to encapsulate gas molecules, predictions of photo-physical properties of molecular switches, linear, non-linear electric responses and optical properties of polar chromophores and dyes for organic electric memory devices.

    Negri, Fabrizia

    2007-12-01

    361

    Love wave propagation in functionally graded piezoelectric material layer.  

    PubMed

    An exact approach is used to investigate Love waves in functionally graded piezoelectric material (FGPM) layer bonded to a semi-infinite homogeneous solid. The piezoelectric material is polarized in z-axis direction and the material properties change gradually with the thickness of the layer. We here assume that all material properties of the piezoelectric layer have the same exponential function distribution along the x-axis direction. The analytical solutions of dispersion relations are obtained for electrically open or short circuit conditions. The effects of the gradient variation of material constants on the phase velocity, the group velocity, and the coupled electromechanical factor are discussed in detail. The displacement, electric potential, and stress distributions along thickness of the graded layer are calculated and plotted. Numerical examples indicate that appropriate gradient distributing of the material properties make Love waves to propagate along the surface of the piezoelectric layer, or a bigger electromechanical coupling factor can be obtained, which is in favor of acquiring a better performance in surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices. PMID:17107699

    Du, Jianke; Jin, Xiaoying; Wang, Ji; Xian, Kai

    2007-03-01

    362

    Inorganic membranes and solid state sciences  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The latest developments in inorganic membranes are closely related to recent advances in solid state science. Sol-gel processing, plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition and hydrothermal synthesis are methods that can be used for inorganic membrane preparation. Innovative concepts from material science (templating effect, nanophase materials, growing of continuous zeolite layers, hybrid organic-inorganic materials) have been applied by our group to the preparation of inorganic membrane materials. Sol-gel-derived nanophase ceramic membranes are presented with current applications in nanofiltration and catalytic membrane reactors. Silica membranes with an ordered porosity, due to liquid crystal phase templating effect, are described with potential application in pervaporation. Defect-free and thermally stable zeolite membranes can be obtained through an original synthesis method, in which zeolite crystals are grown inside the pores of a support. Hybrid organic-inorganic materials with permselective properties for gas separation and facilitated transport of solutes in liquid media, have been successfully adapted to membrane applications. Potential membrane developments offered by CVD deposition techniques are also illustrated through several examples related to the preparation of purely inorganic and hybrid organic-inorganic membrane materials.

    Cot, Louis; Ayral, André; Durand, Jean; Guizard, Christian; Hovnanian, Nadine; Julbe, Anne; Larbot, André

    2000-05-01

    363

    Hollow-structured mesoporous materials: chemical synthesis, functionalization and applications.  

    PubMed

    Hollow-structured mesoporous materials (HMMs), as a kind of mesoporous material with unique morphology, have been of great interest in the past decade because of the subtle combination of the hollow architecture with the mesoporous nanostructure. Benefitting from the merits of low density, large void space, large specific surface area, and, especially, the good biocompatibility, HMMs present promising application prospects in various fields, such as adsorption and storage, confined catalysis when catalytically active species are incorporated in the core and/or shell, controlled drug release, targeted drug delivery, and simultaneous diagnosis and therapy of cancers when the surface and/or core of the HMMs are functionalized with functional ligands and/or nanoparticles, and so on. In this review, recent progress in the design, synthesis, functionalization, and applications of hollow mesoporous materials are discussed. Two main synthetic strategies, soft-templating and hard-templating routes, are broadly sorted and described in detail. Progress in the main application aspects of HMMs, such as adsorption and storage, catalysis, and biomedicine, are also discussed in detail in this article, in terms of the unique features of the combined large void space in the core and the mesoporous network in the shell. Functionalization of the core and pore/outer surfaces with functional organic groups and/or nanoparticles, and their performance, are summarized in this article. Finally, an outlook of their prospects and challenges in terms of their controlled synthesis and scaled application is presented. PMID:24687906

    Li, Yongsheng; Shi, Jianlin

    2014-05-28

    364

    Inorganic Fullerenes, Onions, and Tubes  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckminsterfullerene, which is in the shape of a soccer-ball was first discovered in 1985, has many applications as a good lubricant, or as a new superconductor. The synthesis of these inorganic fullerenes involves a great deal of interdisciplinary research between physicists, material scientists, engineers and chemists from various fields.

    York, Andrew P. E.

    2004-01-01

    365

    Inorganic Reaction Mechanisms. Part I  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Provides a collection of data on the mechanistic aspects of inorganic chemical reactions. Wherever possible includes procedures for classroom demonstration or student project work. The material covered includes gas phase reactions, reactions in solution, mechanisms of electron transfer, the reaction between iron III and iodine, and hydrolysis. (GS)

    Cooke, D. O.

    1976-01-01

    366

    Functional and Multifunctional Polymers: Materials for Smart Structures  

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    The ultimate goal of the research in smart structures and smart materials is the development of a new generation of products/devices which will perform better than products/devices built from passive materials. There are a few examples of multilayer polymer systems which function as smart structures, e.g. a synthetic muscle which is a multilayer assembly of a poly(ethylene) layer, a gold layer, and a poly(pyrrole) layer immersed in a liquid electrolyte. Oxidation and reductions of the active pyrrole layer causes the assembly to reversibly deflect and mimic biological muscles. The drawback of such a setup is slow response times and the use of a liquid electrolyte. We have developed multifunctional polymers which will eliminate the use of a liquid electrolyte, and also because the functionalities of the polymers are within a few hundred angstroms, an improved response time to changes in the external field should be possible. Such multifunctional polymers may be classified as the futuristic 'smart materials.' These materials are composed of a number of different functionalities which work in a synergistic fashion to function as a device. The device performs on the application of an external field and such multifunctional polymers may be scientifically labeled as 'field responsive polymers.' Our group has undertaken a systematic approach to develop functional and multifunctional polymers capable of functioning as field responsive polymers. Our approach utilizes multicomponent polymer systems (block copolymers and graft copolymers), the strategy involves the preparation of block or graft copolymers where the functionalities are limited to different phases in a microphase separated system. Depending on the weight (or volume) fractions of each of the components, different microstructures are possible. And, because of the intimate contact between the functional components, an increase in the synergism between the functionalities may be observed. In this presentation, three examples of multifunctional polymers developed in our labs will be reported. The first class of multifunctional polymers are the microphase separated mixed (ionic and electronic) conducting or MIEC block copolymers. The second class being developed in our labs are the biocompatible conductive materials and the conductive fluids. The final class may be considered microwave active smart polymers.

    Arnold, S.; Pratt, L. M.; Li, J.; Wuagaman, M.; Khan, I. M.

    1996-01-01

    367

    Local structure studies of materials using pair distribution function analysis  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A collection of pair distribution function studies on various materials is presented in this dissertation. In each case, local structure information of interest pushes the current limits of what these studies can accomplish. The goal is to provide insight into the individual material behaviors as well as to investigate ways to expand the current limits of PDF analysis. Where possible, I provide a framework for how PDF analysis might be applied to a wider set of material phenomena. Throughout the dissertation, I discuss 0 the capabilities of the PDF method to provide information pertaining to a material's structure and properties, ii) current limitations in the conventional approach to PDF analysis, iii) possible solutions to overcome certain limitations in PDF analysis, and iv) suggestions for future work to expand and improve the capabilities PDF analysis.

    Peterson, Joseph W.

    368

    Higher-Order Theory for Functionally Graded Materials  

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    This paper presents the full generalization of the Cartesian coordinate-based higher-order theory for functionally graded materials developed by the authors during the past several years. This theory circumvents the problematic use of the standard micromechanical approach, based on the concept of a representative volume element, commonly employed in the analysis of functionally graded composites by explicitly coupling the local (microstructural) and global (macrostructural) responses. The theoretical framework is based on volumetric averaging of the various field quantities, together with imposition of boundary and interfacial conditions in an average sense between the subvolumes used to characterize the composite's functionally graded microstructure. The generalization outlined herein involves extension of the theoretical framework to enable the analysis of materials characterized by spatially variable microstructures in three directions. Specialization of the generalized theoretical framework to previously published versions of the higher-order theory for materials functionally graded in one and two directions is demonstrated. In the applications part of the paper we summarize the major findings obtained with the one-directional and two-directional versions of the higher-order theory. The results illustrate both the fundamental issues related to the influence of microstructure on microscopic and macroscopic quantities governing the response of composites and the technologically important applications. A major issue addressed herein is the applicability of the classical homogenization schemes in the analysis of functionally graded materials. The technologically important applications illustrate the utility of functionally graded microstructures in tailoring the response of structural components in a variety of applications involving uniform and gradient thermomechanical loading.

    Aboudi, Jacob; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Arnold, Steven M.

    1999-01-01

    369

    Speciation of dissolved inorganic arsenic by diffusive gradients in thin films: selective binding of AsIII by 3-mercaptopropyl-functionalized silica gel.  

    PubMed

    A diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique for selectively measuring As(III) utilizes commercially available 3-mercaptopropyl-functionalized silica gel. Deployment of the new technique alongside the Metsorb-DGT for total inorganic arsenic allows the calculation of As(III) directly and As(V) by difference. Uptake of As(III) by mercapto-silica was quantitative and elution with a mixture of 1 mol L(-1) HNO(3) and 0.01 mol L(-1) KIO(3) gave a recovery of 85.6 ± 1.7%. DGT validation experiments showed linear accumulation of As(III) over time (R(2) > 0.998). Accumulation was unaffected by varying ionic strength (0.0001-0.75 mol L(-1) NaNO(3)) and pH (3.5-8.5). Deployment of mercapto-silica DGT and Metsorb DGT in seawater spiked with As(III) and As(V) demonstrated the ability of the combined approach to accurately quantify both species in the presence of potential competing ions. Ferrihydrite DGT, which has been previously reported for the measurement of total inorganic arsenic, was evaluated in seawater and shown to underestimate both As(III) and As(V) at longer deployment times (72 h). Reproducibility of the new mercapto-silica DGT technique was good (relative standard deviations < 9%), and the average method detection limit was sufficiently low to allow quantification of ultratrace concentrations of As(III) (0.03 ?g L(-1); 72 h deployment). PMID:21967720

    Bennett, William W; Teasdale, Peter R; Panther, Jared G; Welsh, David T; Jolley, Dianne F

    2011-11-01

    370

    Incorporating microorganisms into polymer layers provides bioinspired functional living materials.  

    PubMed

    Artificial two-dimensional biological habitats were prepared from porous polymer layers and inoculated with the fungus Penicillium roqueforti to provide a living material. Such composites of classical industrial ingredients and living microorganisms can provide a novel form of functional or smart materials with capability for evolutionary adaptation. This allows realization of most complex responses to environmental stimuli. As a conceptual design, we prepared a material surface with self-cleaning capability when subjected to standardized food spill. Fungal growth and reproduction were observed in between two specifically adapted polymer layers. Gas exchange for breathing and transport of nutrient through a nano-porous top layer allowed selective intake of food whilst limiting the microorganism to dwell exclusively in between a confined, well-enclosed area of the material. We demonstrated a design of such living materials and showed both active (eating) and waiting (dormant, hibernation) states with additional recovery for reinitiation of a new active state by observing the metabolic activity over two full nutrition cycles of the living material (active, hibernation, reactivation). This novel class of living materials can be expected to provide nonclassical solutions in consumer goods such as packaging, indoor surfaces, and in biotechnology. PMID:22198770

    Gerber, Lukas C; Koehler, Fabian M; Grass, Robert N; Stark, Wendelin J

    2012-01-01

    371

    Incorporating microorganisms into polymer layers provides bioinspired functional living materials  

    PubMed Central

    Artificial two-dimensional biological habitats were prepared from porous polymer layers and inoculated with the fungus Penicillium roqueforti to provide a living material. Such composites of classical industrial ingredients and living microorganisms can provide a novel form of functional or smart materials with capability for evolutionary adaptation. This allows realization of most complex responses to environmental stimuli. As a conceptual design, we prepared a material surface with self-cleaning capability when subjected to standardized food spill. Fungal growth and reproduction were observed in between two specifically adapted polymer layers. Gas exchange for breathing and transport of nutrient through a nano-porous top layer allowed selective intake of food whilst limiting the microorganism to dwell exclusively in between a confined, well-enclosed area of the material. We demonstrated a design of such living materials and showed both active (eating) and waiting (dormant, hibernation) states with additional recovery for reinitiation of a new active state by observing the metabolic activity over two full nutrition cycles of the living material (active, hibernation, reactivation). This novel class of living materials can be expected to provide nonclassical solutions in consumer goods such as packaging, indoor surfaces, and in biotechnology.

    Gerber, Lukas C.; Koehler, Fabian M.; Grass, Robert N.; Stark, Wendelin J.

    2012-01-01

    372

    Anomalous dielectric behaviour in centrosymmetric organic–inorganic hybrid chlorobismuthate(III) containing functional N,N-dimethylethylammonium ligand. Crystal structure and properties  

    SciTech Connect

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Novel organic–inorganic hybrid chlorobismuthate(III). ? Unprecedented dielectric response in non-polar material. ? Dielectric relaxation characterized by an exceptionally large dielectric increment. ? The NMR measurements confirmed dynamic disorder of cations. -- Abstract: The structure of [C{sub 2}H{sub 5}NH(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}{sup +}]{sub 3}[BiCl{sub 6}{sup ?}] (abbreviated as DCB) was determined by a single-crystal X-ray diffraction at 115 K. The compound adopts tetragonal symmetry with the space group I4{sub 1}/acd; a = 23.35 ?, c = 17.60 ?, V = 9598 ?{sup 3} and Z = 16. The crystal structure of DCB is built up of isolated [BiCl{sub 6}]{sup 3?} units and N,N-dimethylethylammonium counterions that are accommodated in the large voids. At ambient temperature two-thirds of the counterions appear to be dynamically disordered. Dynamics of this type of cations contributes to the enhanced dielectric permittivity of DCB. A low frequency dielectric relaxation process that takes place between 200 and 300 K is characterized by an exceptionally large dielectric increment, ?? > 100, which is unprecedented in nonferroelectric materials. The molecular motions of the N,N-dimethylethylammonium cations were studied by means of {sup 1}H NMR spin-lattice relaxation time measurements.

    Piecha, A., E-mail: anna.piecha@chem.uni.wroc.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Wroc?aw, Joliot–Curie 14, 50–383 Wroc?aw (Poland); G?gor, A. [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, PAS, Okólna 2, 50–950 Wroc?aw (Poland)] [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, PAS, Okólna 2, 50–950 Wroc?aw (Poland); W?c?awik, M.; Jakubas, R. [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Wroc?aw, Joliot–Curie 14, 50–383 Wroc?aw (Poland)] [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Wroc?aw, Joliot–Curie 14, 50–383 Wroc?aw (Poland); Medycki, W. [Institute of Molecular Physics, PAS, M. Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Pozna? (Poland)] [Institute of Molecular Physics, PAS, M. Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Pozna? (Poland)

    2013-01-15

    373

    Wave propagation of functionally graded material plates in thermal environments.  

    PubMed

    The wave propagation of an infinite functionally graded plate in thermal environments is studied using the higher-order shear deformation plate theory. The thermal effects and temperature-dependent material properties are both taken into account. The temperature field considered is assumed to be a uniform distribution over the plate surface and varied in the thickness direction only. Material properties are assumed to be temperature-dependent, and graded in the thickness direction according to a simple power law distribution in terms of the volume fractions of the constituents. Considering the effects of transverse shear deformation and rotary inertia, the governing equations of the wave propagation in the functionally graded plate are derived by using the Hamilton's principle. The analytic dispersion relation of the functionally graded plate is obtained by solving an eigenvalue problem. Numerical examples show that the characteristics of wave propagation in the functionally graded plate are relates to the volume fraction index and thermal environment of the functionally graded plate. The influences of the volume fraction distributions and temperature on wave propagation of functionally graded plate are discussed in detail. The results carried out can be used in the ultrasonic inspection techniques and structural health monitoring. PMID:21663930

    Sun, Dan; Luo, Song-Nan

    2011-12-01

    374

    Random-graft polymer-directed synthesis of inorganic mesostructures with ultrathin frameworks.  

    PubMed

    A widely employed route for synthesizing mesostructured materials is the use of surfactant micelles or amphiphilic block copolymers as structure-directing agents. A versatile synthesis method is described for mesostructured materials composed of ultrathin inorganic frameworks using amorphous linear-chain polymers functionalized with a random distribution of side groups that can participate in inorganic crystallization. Tight binding of the side groups with inorganic species enforces strain in the polymer backbones, limiting the crystallization to the ultrathin micellar scale. This method is demonstrated for a variety of materials, such as hierarchically nanoporous zeolites, their aluminophosphate analogue, TiO2 nanosheets of sub-nanometer thickness, and mesoporous TiO2, SnO2, and ZrO2. This polymer-directed synthesis is expected to widen our accessibility to unexplored mesostructured materials in a simple and mass-producible manner. PMID:24692040

    Jo, Changbum; Seo, Yongbeom; Cho, Kanghee; Kim, Jaeheon; Shin, Hye Sun; Lee, Munhee; Kim, Jeong-Chul; Kim, Sang Ouk; Lee, Jeong Yong; Ihee, Hyotcherl; Ryoo, Ryong

    2014-05-12

    375

    Versatile nanostructured materials via direct reaction of functionalized catechols.  

    PubMed

    A facile one-step polymerization strategy is explored to achieve novel catechol-based materials. Depending on the functionality of the catechol, the as-prepared product can be used to modify at will the surface tension of nano and bulk structures, from oleo-/hydrophobic to highly hydrophilic. A hydrophobic catechol prepared thus polymerized shows the ability to self-assemble as solid nanoparticles with sticky properties in polar solvent media. Such a versatile concept is ideal for the development of catechol-based multifunctional materials. PMID:23418006

    Saiz-Poseu, Javier; Sedó, Josep; García, Beatriz; Benaiges, Cristina; Parella, Teo; Alibés, Ramon; Hernando, Jordi; Busqué, Felix; Ruiz-Molina, Daniel

    2013-04-11

    376

    Acid Functionalized Mesoporous Ordered Materials for the Production of 5-Hydroxymethyfurfural from Carbohydrates  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solid acid catalysts were designed for the conversion of fructose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). Some of the catalysts incorporate thioether groups to promote the tautomerization of fructose to its furanose form, as well as sulfonic acid groups to catalyze its dehydration. A bifunctional silane, 3-((3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl)thio)propane-1-sulfonic acid (TESAS), was designed for incorporation into SBA-15-type silica by co-condensation. To achieve mesopore ordering in the functionalized silica, the standard SBA-15 synthetic protocol was modified, resulting in well-formed hexagonal particles. Functional groups incorporated into mesoporous silica by co-condensation are more robust under the reaction conditions than those grafted onto a non-porous silica. In a variation, the thioether group of TESAS was oxidized by H2O 2 to the sulfone during the synthesis of the modified SBA-15. The materials were tested in batch reactors and compared in the selective dehydration of fructose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). Compared to benchmark catalysts, the thioether-containing TESAS-SBA-15 showed the highest activity in the dehydration of aqueous fructose, as well as the highest selectivity towards HMF (71 % at 84 % conversion). In addition, the stability of several supported acid catalysts was evaluated in tubular reactors designed to produce 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) continuously. The reactors, packed with the solid catalysts, were operated at 403 K for extended periods, up to 180 h. The behaviors of three propylsulfonic acid-functionalized, ordered porous silicas (one inorganic SBA-15-type silica, and two ethane-bridged SBA-15-type organosilicas) were compared with that of a propylsulfonic acid-modified, non-ordered porous silica. The HMF selectivity of the catalysts with ordered pore structures ranged from 60 to 75 %, while the selectivity of the non-ordered catalyst peaked at 20 %. The latter was also the least stable, deactivating with a first-order rate constant of 0.152 h-1. The organosilicas are more hydrothermally stable and maintained a steady catalytic activity longer than inorganic SBA-15-type silica. The organosilica with an intermediate framework ethane content of 45 mol % was the most stable, with a first-order deactivation rate constant of only 0.012 h-1. Deactivation under flow conditions is caused primarily by hydrolytic cleavage of acid sites, which can be (to some extent) recaptured by the free surface hydroxyl groups of the silica surface.

    Crisci, Anthony J.

    377

    Green's function approach to unsteady thermal stresses in an infinite hollow cylinder of functionally graded material  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Summary A Green's function approach based on the laminate theory is adopted for solving the two-dimensional unsteady temperature field (r, z) and the associated thermal stresses in an infinite hollow circular cylinder made of a functionally graded material (FGM) with radial-directionally dependent properties. The unsteady heat conduction equation is formulated as an eigenvalue problem by making use of the eigenfunction

    K.-S. Kim; N. Noda

    2002-01-01

    378

    Remote Monitoring, Inorganic Monitoring  

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter provides an overview of applicability, amenability, and operating parameter ranges for various inorganic parameters:this chapter will also provide a compilation of existing and new online technologies for determining inorganic compounds in water samples. A wide vari...

    379

    Organic\\/inorganic nanocomposites, methods of making, and uses as a permeable reactive barrier  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nanocomposite materials having a composition including an inorganic constituent, a preformed organic polymer constituent, and a metal ion sequestration constituent are disclosed. The nanocomposites are characterized by being single phase, substantially homogeneous materials wherein the preformed polymer constituent and the inorganic constituent form an interpenetrating network with each other. The inorganic constituent may be an inorganic oxide, such as silicon

    Mason K. Harrup; Frederick F. Stewart

    2007-01-01

    380

    Inorganic spark chamber frame and method of making the same  

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    A spark chamber frame, manufactured using only inorganic materials is described. The spark chamber frame includes a plurality of beams formed from inorganic material, such as ceramic or glass, and are connected together at ends with inorganic bonding material having substantially the same thermal expansion as the beam material. A plurality of wires formed from an inorganic composition are positioned between opposed beams so that the wires are uniformly spaced and form a grid. A plurality of hold down straps are formed of inorganic material such as ceramic or glass having substantially the same chemical and thermal properties as the beam material. Hold down straps overlie wires extending over the beams and are bonded thereto with inorganic bonding material.

    Heslin, T. M. (inventor)

    1982-01-01

    381

    Organic/Inorganic Composite Latexes: The Marriage of Emulsion Polymerization and Inorganic Chemistry  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    This review article describes recent advances in the synthesis and properties of waterborne organic/inorganic colloids elaborated through conventional emulsion polymerization, a well-established technology. These materials can be defined as aqueous suspensions of composite latex particles made up of organic and inorganic domains organized into well-defined core-shell, multinuclear, raspberry-like, multipod-like, or armored morphologies. Particular emphasis is placed on the synthetic strategies for fabrication of these colloidal materials. Two main approaches are described: the polymerization of organic monomers in the presence of preformed inorganic particles, and the reverse approach by which inorganic materials are synthesized in the presence of preformed polymer latexes. The list of examples provided in this review is by no means exhaustive but rather intends to give an overview of synthetic methods for selected inorganic compounds (e.g., silica, iron oxide, pigments, clays, quantum dots, and metals), and briefly reports on potential applications of the resulting materials.

    Bourgeat-Lami, Elodie; Lansalot, Muriel

    382

    Synthesis, crystal structure, vibrational spectroscopy, optical properties and theoretical studies of a new organic-inorganic hybrid material: [((CH3)2NH2)(+)]6·[(BiBr6)(3-)]2.  

    PubMed

    A new organic-inorganic hybrid material, [((CH3)2NH2)(+)]6·[(BiBr6)(3-)]2, has been synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction, FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy and UV-Visible absorption. The studied compound crystallizes in the triclinic system, space group P1¯ with the following parameters: a=8.4749(6)(?), b=17.1392(12)(?), c=17.1392(12)(?), ?=117.339(0)°, ?=99.487(0)°, ?=99.487(0)° and Z=2. The crystal lattice is composed of a two discrete (BiBr6)(3-) anions surrounded by six ((CH3)2NH2)(+) cations. Complex hydrogen bonding interactions between (BiBr6)(3-) and organic cations from a three-dimensional network. Theoretical calculations were performed using density functional theory (DFT) for studying the molecular structure, vibrational spectra and optical properties of the investigated molecule in the ground state. The full geometry optimization of designed system is performed using DFT method at B3LYP/LanL2DZ level of theory using the Gaussian03. The optimized geometrical parameters obtained by DFT calculations are in good agreement with single crystal XRD data. The vibrational spectral data obtained from FT-IR and Raman spectra are assigned based on the results of the theoretical calculations. The energy and oscillator strength calculated by Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT) results complements with the experimental findings. The simulated spectra satisfactorily coincide with the experimental UV-Visible spectrum. The results show good consistent with the experiment and confirm the contribution of metal orbital to the HOMO-LUMO boundary. PMID:24967541

    Ben Ahmed, A; Feki, H; Abid, Y

    2014-12-10

    383

    Organic--Inorganic Layer Compounds: Physical Properties and Chemical Reactions  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    In contrast with intercalation compounds, which can exist both with and without organic molecules between the planes of inorganic material, `molecular composite' compounds have organic groups covalently or ionically bound to inorganic layers. In such crystals the aim is to combine magnetic or optical properties characteristic of the inorganic solid state, like magnetism and luminescence, with properties found in the

    P. Day

    1985-01-01

    384

    Nanoindentation on hybrid organic\\/inorganic silica aerogels  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The hybrid organic\\/inorganic silica aerogels experiment a drastic mechanical change into rubber behaviour in relation with the pure inorganic silica aerogel as a brittle material. Aerogels were prepared by sol–gel process and drying by venting off the supercritical ethanol, no degradation of the organic polymer was detected. TEOS (tetraethoxysiloxane) and PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) were used as inorganic and organic precursors, respectively.

    N. de la Rosa-Fox; V. Morales-Flórez; J. A. Toledo-Fernández; M. Piñero; R. Mendoza-Serna; L. Esquivias

    2007-01-01

    385

    Assembly of surface engineered nanoparticles for functional materials  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanoparticles are regarded as exciting new building blocks for functional materials due to their fascinating physical properties because of the nano-confinement. Organizing nanoparticles into ordered hierarchical structures are highly desired for constructing novel optical and electrical artificial materials that are different from their isolated state or thermodynamics random ensembles. My research integrates the surface chemistry of nanoparticles, interfacial assembly and lithography techniques to construct nanoparticle based functional structures. We designed and synthesized tailor-made ligands for gold, semiconductor and magnetic nanoparticle, to modulate the assembly process and collective properties of the assembled structures, by controlling the key parameters such as particle-interface interaction, dielectric environments and inter-particle coupling etc. Top-down technologies such as micro contact printing, photolithography and nanoimprint lithography are used to guide the assembly into arbitrarily predesigned structures for potential device applications.

    Yu, Xi

    386

    Anomalous x-ray scattering studies of functional disordered materials  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    We have developed anomalous x-ray scattering (AXS) spectrometers, that employ intrinsic Ge detectors and crystal analyzers, at SPring-8. The use of LiF analyzer crystal provides us with an energy resolution of ~ 12 eV. Furthermore, it has been established that the use of AXS technique is essential to reveal the relationship between the atomic structure and its function of a fast phase-change material, Ge2Sb2Te5. We were able to address the issue of why the amorphous phase of fast phase change materials is stable at room temperature for a long time despite the fact that it can rapidly transform to the crystalline phase by using a combination of AXS and large scale density functional theory-based molecular dynamics simulations.

    Kohara, S.; Tajiri, H.; Song, C. H.; Ohara, K.; Temleitner, L.; Sugimito, K.; Fujiwara, A.; Pusztai, L.; Usuki, T.; Hosokawa, S.; Benino, Y.; Kitamura, N.; Fukumi, K.

    2014-04-01

    387

    A model for designing functionally gradient material joints  

    SciTech Connect

    An analytical, thin-plate layer model was developed to assist research and development engineers in the design of functionally gradient material (FGM) joints consisting of discrete steps between end elements of dissimilar materials. Such joints have long been produced by diffusion bonding using intermediates or multiple interlayers; welding, brazing or soldering using multiple transition pieces; and glass-to-glass or glass-to-metal bonding using multiple layers to produce matched seals. More recently, FGM joints produced by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) are attracting the attention of researchers. The model calculates temperature distributions and associated thermally induced stresses, assuming elastic behavior, for any number of layers of any thickness or composition, accounting for critically important thermophysical properties in each layer as functions of temperature. It is useful for assuring that cured-in fabrication stresses from thermal expansion mismatches will not prevent quality joint production. The model`s utility is demonstrated with general design cases.

    Messler, R.W. Jr.; Jou, M.; Orling, T.T. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    1995-05-01

    388

    Surface acoustic wave depth profiling of a functionally graded material  

    SciTech Connect

    The potential and limitations of Rayleigh wave spectroscopy to characterize the elastic depth profile of heterogeneous functional gradient materials are investigated by comparing simulations of the surface acoustic wave dispersion curves of different profile-spectrum pairs. This inverse problem is shown to be quite ill posed. The method is then applied to extract information on the depth structure of a glass-ceramic (alumina) functionally graded material from experimental data. The surface acoustic wave analysis suggests the presence of a uniform coating region consisting of a mixture of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and glass, with a sharp transition between the coating and the substrate. This is confirmed by scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive x-ray analysis.

    Goossens, Jozefien; Leclaire, Philippe; Xu Xiaodong; Glorieux, Christ; Martinez, Loic; Sola, Antonella; Siligardi, Cristina; Cannillo, Valeria; Van der Donck, Tom; Celis, Jean-Pierre [Laboratorium voor Akoestiek en Thermische Fysica, Departement Natuurkunde en Sterrenkunde, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, PO 2416, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Equipe Circuit Instrumentation et Modelisation en Electronique (ECIME) IUP GE, Universite de Cergy, Rue de Eragny, Neuville sur Oise, 95031 Cergy Pontoise Cedex (France); Dipartimento di Ingegneria dei Materiali e dell' Ambiente, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via Vignolese 905, 41100 Modena (Italy); Departement Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering (MTM), Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, PO 2450, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium)

    2007-09-01

    389

    Approximate Green's function methods for HZE transport in multilayered materials  

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    A nonperturbative analytic solution of the high charge and energy (HZE) Green's function is used to implement a computer code for laboratory ion beam transport in multilayered materials. The code is established to operate on the Langley nuclear fragmentation model used in engineering applications. Computational procedures are established to generate linear energy transfer (LET) distributions for a specified ion beam and target for comparison with experimental measurements. The code was found to be highly efficient and compared well with the perturbation approximation.

    Wilson, John W.; Badavi, Francis F.; Shinn, Judy L.; Costen, Robert C.

    1993-01-01

    390

    Carbon nanotubes based functional materials for MSL and biosensor applications  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    In this thesis, several carbon nanotubes (CNTs) based functional materials have been successfully synthesized and systematically characterized. Their applications for MicroStereoLithography (MSL) and biosensor were further explored. A new mild oxidization method for oxidizing multi-walled CNTs was developed using potassium permanganate as the oxidant and assisted with phase transfer catalyst. The novel oxidization procedure gives significantly higher yield and high

    Nanyan Zhang

    2005-01-01

    391

    Two-dimensional sliding frictional contact of functionally graded materials  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A multi-layered model for sliding frictional contact analysis of functionally graded materials (FGMs) with arbitrarily varying shear modulus under plane strain-state deformation has been developed. Based on the fact that an arbitrary curve can be approached by a series of continuous but piecewise linear curves, the FGM is divided into several sub-layers and in each sub-layers the shear modulus is

    Liao-Liang Ke; Yue-Sheng Wang

    2007-01-01

    392

    Surface functionalization of inorganic nano-crystals with fibronectin and E-cadherin chimera synergistically accelerates trans-gene delivery into embryonic stem cells  

    SciTech Connect

    Stem cells holding great promises in regenerative medicine have the potential to be differentiated to a specific cell type through genetic manipulation. However, conventional ways of gene transfer to such progenitor cells suffer from a number of disadvantages particularly involving safety and efficacy issues. Here, we report on the development of a bio-functionalized inorganic nano-carrier of DNA by embedding fibronectin and E-cadherin chimera on the carrier, leading to its high affinity interactions with embryonic stem cell surface and accelerated trans-gene delivery for subsequent expression. While only apatite nano-particles were very inefficient in transfecting embryonic stem cells, fibronectin-anchored particles and to a more significant extent, fibronectin and E-cadherin-Fc-associated particles dramatically enhanced trans-gene delivery with a value notably higher than that of commercially available lipofection system. The involvement of both cell surface integrin and E-cadherin in mediating intracellular localization of the hybrid carrier was verified by blocking integrin binding site with excess free fibronectin and up-regulating both integrin and E-cadherin through PKC activation. Thus, the new establishment of a bio-functional hybrid gene-carrier would promote and facilitate development of stem cell-based therapy in regenerative medicine.

    Kutsuzawa, K. [Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8501 (Japan); Shizuoka Cancer Center Research Institute, 1007 Shimonagakubo, Nagaizumi-cho, Sunto-gun, Shizuoka 411-8777 (Japan); Chowdhury, E.H. [Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8501 (Japan); Shizuoka Cancer Center Research Institute, 1007 Shimonagakubo, Nagaizumi-cho, Sunto-gun, Shizuoka 411-8777 (Japan); Nagaoka, M. [Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8501 (Japan); Maruyama, K. [Shizuoka Cancer Center Research Institute, 1007 Shimonagakubo, Nagaizumi-cho, Sunto-gun, Shizuoka 411-8777 (Japan); Akiyama, Y. [Shizuoka Cancer Center Research Institute, 1007 Shimonagakubo, Nagaizumi-cho, Sunto-gun, Shizuoka 411-8777 (Japan); Akaike, T. [Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8501 (Japan) and Shizuoka Cancer Center Research Institute, 1007 Shimonagakubo, Nagaizumi-cho, Sunto-gun, Shizuoka 411-8777 (Japan)]. E-mail: takaike@bio.titech.ac.jp

    2006-11-24

    393

    How Much Inorganic Spectroscopy and Photochemistry?  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Describes three levels of courses to treat adequately the ground state electronic structures, the spectroscopy, and the photochemistry of inorganic molecules. Suggests sequences for the courses without repeating material taught in previous courses. (Author/JN)

    Gray, Harry B.

    1980-01-01

    394

    Material-specific transfer function model and SNR in CT  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    This study presents an analytical model for the edge spread function (ESF) of a clinical CT system that allows reliable fits of noisy ESF data. The model was used for the calculation of the material-specific transfer function TF and an estimation of the signal transfer and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in 2D. Images of the Catphan phantom were acquired with a clinical Siemens Somatom Sensation Cardiac 64 CT scanner combining four different x-ray tube outputs (40, 150, 250 and 350 mAs) with four different reconstruction filters, which covered the range from very smooth (B10s) to very sharp (B70s). The images of the high- and mid-contrast cylinders of the phantom’s ‘Geometry and Sensitometry’ module (air, Teflon, Delrin and PMP) were used to sample material-specific ESF curves. The ESF curves were fitted with the analytical model we developed based on a linear combination of Boltzmann and Gaussian functions. The analytical model of the ESF was used to obtain the Fourier-based material-specific transfer function TF, as well as the spatial-domain point spread function (PSF). TF was subsequently used to estimate the signal transfer, which was compared to the actual reconstructed image of a 3.0 mm diameter Teflon pin. The noise power spectrum (NPS) was calculated from images of a uniform water phantom under the same technique parameters. The task-specific SNR was calculated for all technique parameters from the model-based TF, the measured NPS and simulated 3 mm diameter disc signals modeling the aforementioned materials. Bootstrapping was performed to estimate the standard deviation of the TF and the SNR. The analytical model we developed accurately captured the features of the CT ESF data. The coefficient of determination R2, a metric that describes the goodness of the fit, had a median value of 0.9995, and decreased for low tube output, low contrast and the sharp reconstruction filter. Our analysis showed that ESF, PSF and TF depended not only on the reconstruction filter, but also on the tube output and the material of the cylinders. For B40s and B70s, the TF of Delrin was significantly higher than the TF of other materials in the frequency range of 0.4-0.9 mm-1. The estimated signal transfer agreed well with the actual reconstructed image of the Teflon pin. For the technique parameters we used the SNR values ranged between [64, 320], [64, 281], [37, 137] and [33, 117] for air, Teflon, Delrin and PMP respectively. While for high-contrast materials the smoothest reconstruction filter resulted in the highest SNR, for mid-contrast materials the standard filter gave the best results. The presented approach provides an accurate, analytical description of the material-specific ESF, PSF and TF as well as an estimate of the signal transfer. The transfer function TF together with the NPS and simulated signals allow the calculation of a task-specific SNR.

    Brunner, Claudia C.; Kyprianou, Iacovos S.

    2013-10-01

    395

    Inorganic–organic hybrid polymers with pendent sulfonated cyclic phosphazene side groups as potential proton conductive materials for direct methanol fuel cells  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A synthetic method is described to produce a proton conductive polymer membrane with a polynorbornane backbone and inorganic–organic cyclic phosphazene pendent groups that bear sulfonic acid units. This hybrid polymer combines the inherent hydrophobicity and flexibility of the organic polymer with the tuning advantages of the cyclic phosphazene to produce a membrane with high proton conductivity and low methanol crossover

    Shih-To Fei; Richard M. Wood; David K. Lee; David A. Stone; Hwei-Liang Chang; Harry R. Allcock

    2008-01-01

    396

    Student use of a material anchor for quantum wave functions  

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    We explain the appropriate use of pipe cleaners to represent quantum wave functions in terms of material anchors. We then analyze the actions of one undergraduate quantum mechanics student in an oral exam situation with two related tasks, both involving the visualization of a 3-d structure to represent the real and imaginary parts of the wave function on one spatial coordinate. Instruction before the exam included several in-class activities involving building 3-d representations of wave functions for several potentials using pipe cleaners. Though the oral exam did not specify that students should or should not use pipe cleaners, the student in this analysis brought and used them successfully during the exam. Analysis of the studentsâ use of this tool shows promise of benefit to future students in a more highly structured environment of instruction and assessment.

    Schiber, Catherine C.; Close, Hunter G.; Close, Eleanor W.; Donnelly, David

    2014-02-01

    397

    Inorganic semiconductors for flexible electronics.  

    SciTech Connect

    This article reviews several classes of inorganic semiconductor materials that can be used to form high-performance thin-film transistors (TFTs) for large area, flexible electronics. Examples ranging from thin films of various forms of silicon to nanoparticles and nanowires of compound semiconductors are presented, with an emphasis on methods of depositing and integrating thin films of these materials into devices. Performance characteristics, including both electrical and mechanical behavior, for isolated transistors as well as circuits with various levels of complexity are reviewed. Collectively, the results suggest that flexible or printable inorganic materials may be attractive for a range of applications not only in flexible but also in large-area electronics, from existing devices such as flat-panel displays to more challenging (in terms of both cost and performance requirements) systems such as large area radiofrequency communication devices, structural health monitors, and conformal X-ray imagers.

    Sun, Y.; Rogers, J. A.; Center for Nanoscale Materials; Univ. of Illinois

    2007-08-03

    398

    Preparation of novel nano-adsorbent based on organic–inorganic hybrid and their adsorption for heavy metals and organic pollutants presented in water environment  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The nanocomposites based on organic–inorganic hybrid have been attracting much attention due to their potential applications used as new type of functional materials, such as colloidal stabilizers, electro-optical devices, and nanocomposites materials. The organic–inorganic hybrid of poly(acrylic acid-acrylonitrile)\\/attapulgite, P(A-N)\\/AT nanocomposites, were prepared by using in situ polymerization and composition of acrylic acid (AA) and acrylonitrile (AN) onto modified attapulgite (AT)

    Xinliang Jin; Cui Yu; Yanfeng Li; Yongxin Qi; Liuqing Yang; Guanghui Zhao; Huaiyuan Hu

    2011-01-01

    399

    Interfacial Properties and Design of Functional Energy Materials  

    SciTech Connect

    The vital importance of energy to society continues to demand a relentless pursuit of energy responsive materials that can bridge fundamental chemical structures at the molecular level and achieve improved functionality, such as efficient energy conversion/storage/transmission, over multiple length scales. This demand can potentially be realized by harnessing the power of self-assembly a spontaneous process where molecules or much larger entities form ordered aggregates as a consequence of predominately non-covalent (weak) interactions. Self-assembly is the key to bottom-up design of molecular devices, because the nearly atomic-level control is very difficult to realize in a top-down, e.g., lithographic approach. However, while function (e.g., charge mobility) in simple systems such as single crystals can often be predicted, predicting the function of the great variety of self-assembled molecular architectures is complicated by the lack of understanding and control over nanoscale interactions, mesoscale architectures, and macroscale (long-range) order. To establish a foundation toward delivering practical solutions, it is critical to develop an understanding of the chemical and physical mechanisms responsible for the self-assembly of molecular and hybrid materials on various substrates. Typically molecular self-assembly involves poorly understood non-covalent intermolecular and substrate-molecule interactions compounded by local and/or collective influences from the substrate atomic lattice (symmetry and/or topological features) and electronic structure. Thus, progress towards unraveling the underlying physicochemical processes that control the structure and macroscopic physical, mechanical, electrical, and transport properties of materials increasingly requires tight integration of theory, modeling and simulation with precision synthesis, advanced experimental characterization, and device measurements. In this mode, theory and simulation can greatly accelerate the process of materials discovery by providing atomic level understanding of physicochemical phenomena and for making predictions of trends. In particular, this approach can provide understanding, prediction and exploration of new materials and conditions before they are realized in the lab, to illuminate connections between experimental observations, and help identify new materials for targeted synthesis. Toward this end, Density Functional Theory (DFT) can provide a suitable computational framework for investigating the inter- and intramolecular bonding, molecular conformation, charge and spin configurations that are intrinsic to self-assembly of molecules on substrates. This Account highlights recent advances in using an integrated approach based on DFT and scanning probe microscopy [STM(s), AFM] to study/develop electronic materials formed from the self-assembly of molecules into supramolecular or polymeric architectures on substrates. Here it is the interplay between molecular interactions and surface electrons that is used to control the final architecture and subsequent bulk properties of the two-dimensional patterns/assemblies. Indeed a rich variety of functional energy materials become possible.

    Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL] [ORNL; Liang, Liangbo [ORNL] [ORNL; Nicolai, Adrien [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI)] [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI); Meunier, V. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI)] [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI)

    2014-01-01

    400

    Inorganic polymers: morphogenic inorganic biopolymers for rapid prototyping chain.  

    PubMed

    In recent years, considerable progress has been achieved towards the development of customized scaffold materials, in particular for bone tissue engineering and repair, by the introduction of rapid prototyping or s