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Sample records for functional nanostructured materials

  1. Functional Properties of Nanostructured Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassing, Rainer; Petkov, Plamen; Kulisch, Wilhelm; Popov, Cyril

    This book, based on the lectures and contributions of the NATO ASI on "Functional Properties of Nanostructured Materials", gives a broad overview on this topic, as it combines basic theoretical articles, papers dealing with experimental techniques, and contributions on advanced and up-to-date applications in fields such as microelectronics, optoelectronics, electrochemistry, sensorics, and biotechnology. In addition, it presents an interdisciplinary approach since the authors came from such different fields as physics, chemistry, engineering, materials science and biology.

  2. Self-assembled peptide nanostructures for functional materials.

    PubMed

    Ekiz, Melis Sardan; Cinar, Goksu; Khalily, Mohammad Aref; Guler, Mustafa O

    2016-10-01

    Nature is an important inspirational source for scientists, and presents complex and elegant examples of adaptive and intelligent systems created by self-assembly. Significant effort has been devoted to understanding these sophisticated systems. The self-assembly process enables us to create supramolecular nanostructures with high order and complexity, and peptide-based self-assembling building blocks can serve as suitable platforms to construct nanostructures showing diverse features and applications. In this review, peptide-based supramolecular assemblies will be discussed in terms of their synthesis, design, characterization and application. Peptide nanostructures are categorized based on their chemical and physical properties and will be examined by rationalizing the influence of peptide design on the resulting morphology and the methods employed to characterize these high order complex systems. Moreover, the application of self-assembled peptide nanomaterials as functional materials in information technologies and environmental sciences will be reviewed by providing examples from recently published high-impact studies. PMID:27578525

  3. Engineering functional nanostructures for materials and biological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramani, Chandramouleeswaran

    Engineering nanostructures with complete control over the shape, composition, organization of the surface structures, and function remains a major challenge. In my work, I have fabricated nanostructures using functional polymer motifs and nanoparticles (NPs) via supramolecular and non-supramolecular interactions. In one of the approaches to generate nanostructures, I have integrated top-down approaches such as nanoimprint lithography, electron-beam lithography, and photolithography with the self-assembly (bottom-up) of NPs to provide nanostructures with tailored shape and function. In this strategy, I have developed a geometrically assisted orthogonal assembly of nanoparticles onto polymer features at precisely defined locations. This versatile NP functionalization method can be used to fabricate protein resistant patterned surfaces to provide essentially complete control over cellular alignment, making them promising biofunctional structures for cell patterning. In another approach, I have utilized self-assembly of dendrimers and NPs without preformed templates to generate nanostructures that can be used as chemoselective membranes for the separation of small and biomacromolecules.

  4. Ionic self-assembly for functional hierarchical nanostructured materials.

    PubMed

    Faul, Charl F J

    2014-12-16

    CONSPECTUS: The challenge of constructing soft functional materials over multiple length scales can be addressed by a number of different routes based on the principles of self-assembly, with the judicious use of various noncovalent interactions providing the tools to control such self-assembly processes. It is within the context of this challenge that we have extensively explored the use of an important approach for materials construction over the past decade: exploiting electrostatic interactions in our ionic self-assembly (ISA) method. In this approach, cooperative assembly of carefully chosen charged surfactants and oppositely charged building blocks (or tectons) provides a facile noncovalent route for the rational design and production of functional nanostructured materials. Generally, our research efforts have developed with an initial focus on establishing rules for the construction of novel noncovalent liquid-crystalline (LC) materials. We found that the use of double-tailed surfactant species (especially branched double-tailed surfactants) led to the facile formation of thermotropic (and, in certain cases, lyotropic) phases, as demonstrated by extensive temperature-dependent X-ray and light microscopy investigations. From this core area of activity, research expanded to cover issues beyond simple construction of anisotropic materials, turning to the challenge of inclusion and exploitation of switchable functionality. The use of photoactive azobenzene-containing ISA materials afforded opportunities to exploit both photo-orientation and surface relief grating formation. The preparation of these anisotropic LC materials was of interest, as the aim was the facile production of disposable and low-cost optical components for display applications and data storage. However, the prohibitive cost of the photo-orientation processes hampered further exploitation of these materials. We also expanded our activities to explore ISA of biologically relevant tectons

  5. Melt infiltration: an emerging technique for the preparation of novel functional nanostructured materials.

    PubMed

    de Jongh, Petra E; Eggenhuisen, Tamara M

    2013-12-10

    The rapidly expanding toolbox for design and preparation is a major driving force for the advances in nanomaterials science and technology. Melt infiltration originates from the field of ceramic nanomaterials and is based on the infiltration of porous matrices with the melt of an active phase or precursor. In recent years, it has become a technique for the preparation of advanced materials: nanocomposites, pore-confined nanoparticles, ordered mesoporous and nanostructured materials. Although certain restrictions apply, mostly related to the melting behavior of the infiltrate and its interaction with the matrix, this review illustrates that it is applicable to a wide range of materials, including metals, polymers, ceramics, and metal hydrides and oxides. Melt infiltration provides an alternative to classical gas-phase and solution-based preparation methods, facilitating in several cases extended control over the nanostructure of the materials. This review starts with a concise discussion on the physical and chemical principles for melt infiltration, and the practical aspects. In the second part of this contribution, specific examples are discussed of nanostructured functional materials with applications in energy storage and conversion, catalysis, and as optical and structural materials and emerging materials with interesting new physical and chemical properties. Melt infiltration is a useful preparation route for material scientists from different fields, and we hope this review may inspire the search and discovery of novel nanostructured materials. PMID:24014262

  6. Nanostructured composite reinforced material

    DOEpatents

    Seals, Roland D.; Ripley, Edward B.; Ludtka, Gerard M.

    2012-07-31

    A family of materials wherein nanostructures and/or nanotubes are incorporated into a multi-component material arrangement, such as a metallic or ceramic alloy or composite/aggregate, producing a new material or metallic/ceramic alloy. The new material has significantly increased strength, up to several thousands of times normal and perhaps substantially more, as well as significantly decreased weight. The new materials may be manufactured into a component where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the bulk and/or matrix material, or as a coating where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the coating or surface of a "normal" substrate material. The nanostructures are incorporated into the material structure either randomly or aligned, within grains, or along or across grain boundaries.

  7. Immobilization of lipase and keratinase on functionalized SBA-15 nanostructured materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Hy G.; Vu, Tuan A.; Tran, Hoa T. K.; Dang, Phuong T.

    2013-12-01

    SBA-15 nanostructured materials were synthesized via hydrothermal treatment and were functionalized with 3- aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES). The obtained samples were characterized by different techniques such as XRD, BET, TEM, IR and DTA. After functionalization, it showed that these nanostrucrured materials still maintained the hexagonal pore structure of the parent SBA-15. The model enzyms chosen in this study were lipase and keratinase. Lipase was a biocatalyst for hydrolyzation of long chain triglycerides or methyl esters of long chain alcohols and fatty acids; keratinase is a proteolytic enzyme that catalyzes the cleavage of keratin. The functionalized SBA-15 materials were used to immobilize lipase and keratinase, exhibiting higher activity than that of the unfunctionalized pure silica SBA-15 ones. This might be due to the enhancing of surface hydrophobicity upon functionalization. The surface functionalization of the nanostructured silicas with organic groups can favor the interaction between enzyme and the supports and consequently increasing the operational stability of the immobilized enzymes. The loading of lipase on functionalized SBA-15 materials was higher than that of keratinase. This might be rationalized by the difference in size of enzyms.

  8. Self-assembly strategies for the synthesis of functional nanostructured materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perego, M.; Seguini, G.

    2016-06-01

    Self-assembly is the autonomous organization of components into patterns or structures without human intervention. This is the approach followed by nature to generate living cells and represents one of the practical strategies to fabricate ensembles of nanostructures. In static self-assembly the formation of ordered structures could require energy but once formed the structures are stable. The introduction of additional regular features in the environment could be used to template the self-assembly guiding the organization of the components and determining the final structure they form. In this regard self-assembly of block copolymers represents a potent platform for fundamental studies at the nanoscale and for application-driven investigation as a tool to fabricate functional nanostructured materials. Block copolymers can hierarchically assemble into chemically distinct domains with size and periodicity on the order of 10nm or below, offering a potentially inexpensive route to generate large-area nanostructured materials. The final structure characteristics of these materials are dictated by the properties of the elementary block copolymers, like chain length, volume fraction or degree of block incompatibility. Modern synthetic chemistry offers the possibility to design these macromolecules with very specific length scales and geometries, directly embodying in the block copolymers the code that drives their self- assembling process. The understanding of the kinetics and thermodynamics of the block copolymer self-assembly process in the bulk phase as well as in thin films represents a fundamental prerequisite toward the exploitation of these materials. Incorporating block copolymer into device fabrication procedures or directly into devices, as active elements, will lead to the development of a new generation of devices fabricated using the fundamental law of nature to our advantage in order to minimize cost and power consumption in the fabrication process

  9. Method of making nanopatterns and nanostructures and nanopatterned functional oxide materials

    DOEpatents

    Dravid, Vinayak P; Donthu, Suresh K; Pan, Zixiao

    2014-02-11

    Method for nanopatterning of inorganic materials, such as ceramic (e.g. metal oxide) materials, and organic materials, such as polymer materials, on a variety of substrates to form nanopatterns and/or nanostructures with control of dimensions and location, all without the need for etching the materials and without the need for re-alignment between multiple patterning steps in forming nanostructures, such as heterostructures comprising multiple materials. The method involves patterning a resist-coated substrate using electron beam lithography, removing a portion of the resist to provide a patterned resist-coated substrate, and spin coating the patterned resist-coated substrate with a liquid precursor, such as a sol precursor, of the inorganic or organic material. The remaining resist is removed and the spin coated substrate is heated at an elevated temperature to crystallize the deposited precursor material.

  10. Nanostructured materials for hydrogen storage

    DOEpatents

    Williamson, Andrew J.; Reboredo, Fernando A.

    2007-12-04

    A system for hydrogen storage comprising a porous nano-structured material with hydrogen absorbed on the surfaces of the porous nano-structured material. The system of hydrogen storage comprises absorbing hydrogen on the surfaces of a porous nano-structured semiconductor material.

  11. Nanostructured, electroactive and bioapplicable materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Shan

    Novel nanostructured porous sol-gel materials, nanocomposites, electroactive and bioapplicable materials have been successfully developed for a wide range of perceivable applications. Several versatile nonsurfactant templated sol-gel pathways have been developed to prepare nanostructured porous materials and composites with different morphologies (e.g., monoliths, nanospheres, nanoparticles, and thin films), structures, compositions and properties. The synthetic conditions were systematically studied and optimized. The template effects on pore structure as well as synthetic process, especially template removal steps, have been investigated. The composition and pore structures were thoroughly studied with various spectroscopic and microscopic methods such as IR, TGA, SEM, TEM, BET and XRD. The obtained mesoporous materials usually exhibit high surface area, large pore volume and narrowly distributed pore diameter. The porosity can be fine tuned simply by adjusting the template concentration. The convenient synthesis as well as the distinctive structure and physical-chemical properties render these sol-gel materials great suitability for a wide range of potential applications, such as chemical and biological sensors, catalysts, drug delivery and functional coatings. Biocompatible and electroactive nanocomposites have been prepared through a biological agent (i.e., collagen) templated chemical polymerization of aniline monomers. The resultant polyaniline-collagen complexes exhibit well controlled doping-dedoping electroactivity and much enhanced solubility. Demonstrated with cell growth studies, the polyaniline-collagen complexes show improved biocompatibility in comparison to polyaniline. The new materials can be used to fabricate scaffolds, with which the effect of electrical stimuli on cell growth and differentiation can be evaluated with the hope of ultimately using electrical signal to stimulate controllable cell and tissue regeneration. Aniline derivative

  12. Hierarchically nanostructured materials for sustainable environmental applications

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Zheng; Guo, Yanbing; Liu, Cai-Hong; Gao, Pu-Xian

    2013-01-01

    This review presents a comprehensive overview of the hierarchical nanostructured materials with either geometry or composition complexity in environmental applications. The hierarchical nanostructures offer advantages of high surface area, synergistic interactions, and multiple functionalities toward water remediation, biosensing, environmental gas sensing and monitoring as well as catalytic gas treatment. Recent advances in synthetic strategies for various hierarchical morphologies such as hollow spheres and urchin-shaped architectures have been reviewed. In addition to the chemical synthesis, the physical mechanisms associated with the materials design and device fabrication have been discussed for each specific application. The development and application of hierarchical complex perovskite oxide nanostructures have also been introduced in photocatalytic water remediation, gas sensing, and catalytic converter. Hierarchical nanostructures will open up many possibilities for materials design and device fabrication in environmental chemistry and technology. PMID:24790946

  13. Hierarchically Nanostructured Materials for Sustainable Environmental Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Zheng; Guo, Yanbing; Liu, Cai-Hong; Gao, Pu-Xian

    2013-11-01

    This article presents a comprehensive overview of the hierarchical nanostructured materials with either geometry or composition complexity in environmental applications. The hierarchical nanostructures offer advantages of high surface area, synergistic interactions and multiple functionalities towards water remediation, environmental gas sensing and monitoring as well as catalytic gas treatment. Recent advances in synthetic strategies for various hierarchical morphologies such as hollow spheres and urchin-shaped architectures have been reviewed. In addition to the chemical synthesis, the physical mechanisms associated with the materials design and device fabrication have been discussed for each specific application. The development and application of hierarchical complex perovskite oxide nanostructures have also been introduced in photocatalytic water remediation, gas sensing and catalytic converter. Hierarchical nanostructures will open up many possibilities for materials design and device fabrication in environmental chemistry and technology.

  14. Hierarchically nanostructured materials for sustainable environmental applications.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zheng; Guo, Yanbing; Liu, Cai-Hong; Gao, Pu-Xian

    2013-01-01

    This review presents a comprehensive overview of the hierarchical nanostructured materials with either geometry or composition complexity in environmental applications. The hierarchical nanostructures offer advantages of high surface area, synergistic interactions, and multiple functionalities toward water remediation, biosensing, environmental gas sensing and monitoring as well as catalytic gas treatment. Recent advances in synthetic strategies for various hierarchical morphologies such as hollow spheres and urchin-shaped architectures have been reviewed. In addition to the chemical synthesis, the physical mechanisms associated with the materials design and device fabrication have been discussed for each specific application. The development and application of hierarchical complex perovskite oxide nanostructures have also been introduced in photocatalytic water remediation, gas sensing, and catalytic converter. Hierarchical nanostructures will open up many possibilities for materials design and device fabrication in environmental chemistry and technology. PMID:24790946

  15. Structure-function Investigation of Operando Nanostructured Materials Using Coherent X-ray Diffractive Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulvestad, Andrew

    Nanostructured devices promise to help solve grand challenges of our time, including renewable energy generation, storage, and mitigating climate change. Their power lies in the particular influence of the surface on the total free energy when dimensions approach the nanoscale and it is well known that different sizes, shapes, and defects can drastically alter material properties. However, this strength represents a considerable challenge for imaging techniques that can be limited in terms of sample environments, average over large ensembles of particles, and/or lack adequate spatiotemporal resolution for studying the relevant physical processes. The focus of this thesis is the development of in situ coherent X-ray diffractive imaging (CXDI) and its application in imaging strain evolution in battery cathode nanoparticles. Using in situ CXDI, the compressive/tensile strain field in the pristine state is revealed, and found to be linked to a particular concentration of strain inducing Jahn-Teller ions. The evolution of strain during the first charge/discharge cycle shows that the cathode nanoparticle exhibits phase separation. Using the 3D strain field, the strain field energy is calculated and shows interesting hysteresis between charge and discharge. Strain evolution during a disconnection event, in which the cathode nanoparticle is no longer able to exchange electrons and ions with its environment, reveals the formation of a poorly conducting interphase layer. Finally, strain fields were used to study dislocation dynamics in battery nanoparticles. Using the full 3D information, the dislocation line structure is mapped and shown to move in response to charge transfer. The dislocation is used as a way to probe the local material properties and it is discovered that the material enters an ``auxetic", or negative Poisson's ratio, regime.

  16. Functional Materials from Nanostructured Block Polymers Prepared via Ring-opening Metathesis Polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitet, Louis Marcel

    The structural and molecular versatility afforded to polymeric materials by ruthenium catalysts during ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) cannot be exaggerated. This dissertation describes the synthesis of functionalized polyolefins via ROMP with particular emphasis on designing straightforward approaches to materials in which the molecular structure is meticulously controlled. Moreover, large portions of the body are dedicated to describing functionalized polyolefins as precursors to more complex multicomponent block copolymers. Block copolymers having various components derived from mechanistically incompatible feedstocks were designed with translational targets in mind, including toughening agents for brittle plastics, and free-standing nanoporous membranes. Several fundamental structure-property relationships were also explored for the newly synthesized materials.

  17. Nanostructured materials for photonics

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, N.D.; Ruland, G.; Yoshida, M.; Lal, M.; Bhawalkar, J.; He, G.S.; Prasad, P.N.

    1996-12-31

    Nanocomposite materials for application in photonics were developed by sol-gel processing and reverse micellar microemulsion techniques. The capability of incorporating many materials with different functional properties in sol-gel processed glass matrices has been explored in making these materials. The large pore volume fraction and the enormous surface area of the sol-gel glasses enables one to introduce many materials in a phase separated fashion, where the phase separation is in the nanometer range. It is possible to introduce an active material on to the pore surface by solution infiltration and subsequent removal of the solvent, then filling the pores with a monomer containing another active material, and polymerizing inside the pores. Using this approach the authors have developed composite materials for optical power limiting applications at different wavelengths and a tunable solid state dye lasing medium. Optically transparent polyimide:TiO{sub 2} composite waveguide materials were prepared by the dispersion of nano-sized TiO{sub 2} particles into a polyimide matrix. The particles were produced through reverse micelles using the sol-gel method, and were incorporated into the fluorinated polyimide solution. A polyimide:TiO{sub 2} (4 wt%) composite waveguide was produced from the solution. Since the particle size is so small, no noticeable scattering loss was observed. The measured optical propagation loss at 633 nm was 1.4 dB/cm, which is equivalent to that of the pure polyimide. The refractive index was increased from 1.550 to 1.560 by the incorporation of TiO{sub 2}.

  18. Superhydrophobicity on nanostructured porous hydrophilic material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Hong-Ren; Chan, Deng-Chi

    2016-04-01

    By applying laser oxidation, ablation, and plasma treatment to modify a surface of polydimethylsiloxane, we show that creating hydrophobic sites on an originally superhydrophilic nanostructured porous surface greatly changes the wetting properties of the surface. The modified surface may even become superhydrophobic while the ratio of added hydrophobic site to the surface is relatively low. The relation between the contact angles and the effect of hydrophobic sites is further tested in blade scraping method and a similar result is also obtained. This method to achieve superhydrophobicity on the hydrophilic nanostructured porous material may open possibilities for achieving superhydrophobicity and enable functional superhydrophobic surfaces with heterogeneous components.

  19. Nanostructured materials for water desalination.

    PubMed

    Humplik, T; Lee, J; O'Hern, S C; Fellman, B A; Baig, M A; Hassan, S F; Atieh, M A; Rahman, F; Laoui, T; Karnik, R; Wang, E N

    2011-07-22

    Desalination of seawater and brackish water is becoming an increasingly important means to address the scarcity of fresh water resources in the world. Decreasing the energy requirements and infrastructure costs of existing desalination technologies remains a challenge. By enabling the manipulation of matter and control of transport at nanometer length scales, the emergence of nanotechnology offers new opportunities to advance water desalination technologies. This review focuses on nanostructured materials that are directly involved in the separation of water from salt as opposed to mitigating issues such as fouling. We discuss separation mechanisms and novel transport phenomena in materials including zeolites, carbon nanotubes, and graphene with potential applications to reverse osmosis, capacitive deionization, and multi-stage flash, among others. Such nanostructured materials can potentially enable the development of next-generation desalination systems with increased efficiency and capacity. PMID:21680966

  20. Method of fabrication of anchored nanostructure materials

    DOEpatents

    Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2013-11-26

    Methods for fabricating anchored nanostructure materials are described. The methods include heating a nano-catalyst under a protective atmosphere to a temperature ranging from about 450.degree. C. to about 1500.degree. C. and contacting the heated nano-catalysts with an organic vapor to affix carbon nanostructures to the nano-catalysts and form the anchored nanostructure material.

  1. Composite materials formed with anchored nanostructures

    DOEpatents

    Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2015-03-10

    A method of forming nano-structure composite materials that have a binder material and a nanostructure fiber material is described. A precursor material may be formed using a mixture of at least one metal powder and anchored nanostructure materials. The metal powder mixture may be (a) Ni powder and (b) NiAl powder. The anchored nanostructure materials may comprise (i) NiAl powder as a support material and (ii) carbon nanotubes attached to nanoparticles adjacent to a surface of the support material. The process of forming nano-structure composite materials typically involves sintering the mixture under vacuum in a die. When Ni and NiAl are used in the metal powder mixture Ni.sub.3Al may form as the binder material after sintering. The mixture is sintered until it consolidates to form the nano-structure composite material.

  2. Nanostructured Diclofenac Sodium Releasing Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikkola, L.; Vapalahti, K.; Harlin, A.; Seppälä, J.; Ashammakhi, N.

    2008-02-01

    Various techniques have been developed to produce second generation biomaterials for tissue repair. These include extrusion, molding, salt leaching, spinning etc, but success in regenerating tissues has been limited. It is important to develop porous material, yet with a fibrous structure for it to be biomimetic. To mimic biological tissues, the extra-cellular matrix usually contains fibers in nano scale. To produce nanostructures, self-assembly or electrospinning can be used. Adding a drug release function to such a material may advance applications further for use in controlled tissue repair. This turns the resulting device into a multifunctional porous, fibrous structure to support cells and drug releasing properties in order to control tissue reactions. A bioabsorbable poly(ɛ-caprolactone-co-D,L lactide) 95/5 (PCL) was made into diluted solution using a solvent, to which was added 2w-% of diclofenac sodium (DS). Nano-fibers were made by electrospinning onto substrate. Microstructure of the resulting nanomat was studied using SEM and drug release profiles with UV/VIS spectroscopy. Thickness of the electrospun nanomat was about 2 mm. SEM analysis showed that polymeric nano-fibers containing drug particles form a highly interconnected porous nano structure. Average diameter of the nano-fibers was 130 nm. There was a high burst peak in drug release, which decreased to low levels after one day. The used polymer has slow a degradation rate and though the nanomat was highly porous with a large surface area, drug release rate is slow. It is feasible to develop a nano-fibrous porous structure of bioabsorbable polymer, which is loaded with test drug. Drug release is targeted at improving the properties of biomaterial for use in controlled tissue repair and regeneration.

  3. Nanostructured conductive polymeric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Saleh, Mohammed H.

    Conductive polymer composites (CPCs) are a suitable alternative to metals in many applications due to their light-weight, corrosion resistance, low cost, ease of processing and design flexibility. CPCs have been formulated using different types of conductive fillers. In this PhD thesis, the focus is on CPCs for electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection and electromagnetic interference (EMI) attenuation. Despite the versatility of conductive fillers, carbon black (CB) has been the dominant filler to make CPCs for ESD protection applications because CB/polymer composites have a cost advantage over all other CPCs. For EMI shielding, stainless steel fibres and metal coated fibers are the preferred fillers, however CPCs made of those fibers are not the dominant EMI shielding materials. Metal coated and polymer plated polymers are the most widely used EMI shielding options. The limited use of CPCs in the EMI shielding market is because the high filler loading required to formulate a composite with an adequate level of shielding remarkably increases the composite price. In order to increase the competitiveness of CPCs, percolation threshold should be minimized as much as possible and composites with high EMI shielding capabilities at low filler loading should be formulated because all conductive fillers are expensive compared to polymers. In this thesis, two different methodologies to reduce percolation threshold in CPCs have been successfully developed and a CPC with exceptional EMI shielding capability has been formulated using copper nanowires as conductive filler. The first percolation threshold reduction technique is based on the selective localization of CB at the interface of immiscible polymer blend. The technique requires adding a copolymer that prefers the blend's interface and for which CB nanoparticles has the highest affinity. The second method is based on producing a CPC powder and then using this powder as a conductive filler to produce composite by dry

  4. Anchored nanostructure materials and method of fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2012-11-27

    Anchored nanostructure materials and methods for their fabrication are described. The anchored nanostructure materials may utilize nano-catalysts that include powder-based or solid-based support materials. The support material may comprise metal, such as NiAl, ceramic, a cermet, or silicon or other metalloid. Typically, nanoparticles are disposed adjacent a surface of the support material. Nanostructures may be formed as anchored to nanoparticles that are adjacent the surface of the support material by heating the nano-catalysts and then exposing the nano-catalysts to an organic vapor. The nanostructures are typically single wall or multi-wall carbon nanotubes.

  5. Energy transfer in nanostructured materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haughn, Chelsea

    Energy transport and loss are critical to the performance of optoelectronic devices such as photovoltaics and terahertz imaging devices. Nanostructured materials provide many opportunities to tailor transport and loss parameters for specific device applications. However, it has been very difficult to correlate specific nanoscale structural parameters with changes in these performance metrics. I report the development of new ways of using time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) to probe charge and energy transport and loss dynamics. These techniques are applied to several types of nanostructured materials, including bulk semiconductors with defects, self-assembled quantum dots and colloidal quantum dots. First, GaAs/InP double heterostructures grown via metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) were characterized with TRPL. TRPL is typically used to extract minority carrier lifetimes, but we discovered that the measured lifetime depended critically on the intensity of the exciting laser. We developed a Shockley-Read-Hall model to extract trap state densities from intensity-dependent TRPL measurements. Second, we characterized energy and charge transfer between InAs quantum dots and ErAs nanoinclusions within III-V heterostructures. Using intensity- and temperature-dependent TRPL, we confirmed tunneling as the dominant mechanism of charge transport and characterized the electronic structure of the ErAs nanoparticles. Finally, we characterized energy transport in colloidal quantum dot cascade structures. These cascade structures utilize Forster Resonance Energy Transfer and trap state recycling to funnel excitons from donor layers to acceptor layers and suggest a promising method for avoiding losses associated with surface trap states. Collectively, the analysis of these disparate material types advances our understanding of energy dynamics in nanostructured materials and improves our ability to design the next generation of photovoltaic and optoelectronic

  6. Quantitative Characterization of Nanostructured Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Frank Bridges, University of California-Santa Cruz

    2010-08-05

    The two-and-a-half day symposium on the "Quantitative Characterization of Nanostructured Materials" will be the first comprehensive meeting on this topic held under the auspices of a major U.S. professional society. Spring MRS Meetings provide a natural venue for this symposium as they attract a broad audience of researchers that represents a cross-section of the state-of-the-art regarding synthesis, structure-property relations, and applications of nanostructured materials. Close interactions among the experts in local structure measurements and materials researchers will help both to identify measurement needs pertinent to real-world materials problems and to familiarize the materials research community with the state-of-the-art local structure measurement techniques. We have chosen invited speakers that reflect the multidisciplinary and international nature of this topic and the need to continually nurture productive interfaces among university, government and industrial laboratories. The intent of the symposium is to provide an interdisciplinary forum for discussion and exchange of ideas on the recent progress in quantitative characterization of structural order in nanomaterials using different experimental techniques and theory. The symposium is expected to facilitate discussions on optimal approaches for determining atomic structure at the nanoscale using combined inputs from multiple measurement techniques.

  7. Nanostructured Materials for Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila; Raffaelle, Ryne; Castro, Stephanie; Fahey, S.; Gennett, T.; Tin, P.

    2003-01-01

    The use of both inorganic and organic nanostructured materials in producing high efficiency photovoltaics is discussed in this paper. Recent theoretical results indicate that dramatic improvements in device efficiency may be attainable through the use of semiconductor quantum dots in an ordinary p-i-n solar cell. In addition, it has also recently been demonstrated that quantum dots can also be used to improve conversion efficiencies in polymeric thin film solar cells. A similar improvement in these types of cells has also been observed by employing single wall carbon nanotubes. This relatively new carbon allotrope may assist both in the disassociation of excitons as well as carrier transport through the composite material. This paper reviews the efforts that are currently underway to produce and characterize these nanoscale materials and to exploit their unique properties.

  8. Vicinal surfaces for functional nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Tegenkamp, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    Vicinal surfaces are currently the focus of research. The regular arrangements of atomic steps on a mesoscopic scale reveal the possibility to functionalize these surfaces for technical applications, e.g. nanowires, catalysts, etc. The steps of the vicinal surface are well-defined defect structures of atomic size for nucleation of low-dimensional nanostructures. The concentration and therefore the coupling between the nanostructures can be tuned over a wide range by simply changing the inclination angle of the substrate. However, the coupling of these nano-objects to the substrate is just as important in controlling their electronic or chemical properties and making a functionality useable. On the basis of stepped insulating films, these aspects are fulfilled and will be considered in the first part of this review. Recent results for the epitaxial growth of wide bandgap insulating films (CaF(2), MgO, NaCl, BaSrO) on metallic and semiconducting vicinal substrates (Si(100), Ge(100), Ag(100)) will be presented. The change of the electronic structure, the adsorption behavior as well as the kinetics and energetics of color centers in the presence of steps is discussed. The successful bridging of the gap between the atomic and mesoscopic world, i.e. the functionalization of vicinal surfaces by nanostructures, is demonstrated in the second part by metal adsorption on semiconducting surfaces. For (sub)monolayer coverage these systems have in common that the surface states do not hybridize with the support, i.e. the semiconducting surfaces are insulating. Here I will focus on the latest results of macroscopic transport measurements on Pb quantum wires grown on vicinal Si(111) showing indeed a one-dimensional transport behavior. PMID:21817211

  9. Nanostructured Materials for Renewable Energy

    SciTech Connect

    2009-11-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose overall objective is to advance the fundamental understanding of novel photoelectronic organic device structures integrated with inorganic nanostructures, while also expanding the general field of nanomaterials for renewable energy devices and systems.

  10. Nanoprobes, nanostructured materials and solid state materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Houping

    2005-07-01

    Novel templates have been developed to prepare nanostructured porous materials through nonsurfactant templated pathway. And new applications of these materials, such as drug delivery and molecular imprinting, have been explored. The relationship between template content and pore structure has been investigated. The composition and pore structures were studied in detail using IR, TGA, SEM, TEM, BET and XRD. The obtained mesoporous materials have tunable diameters in the range of 2--12 nm. Due to the many advantages of this nonsurfactant templated pathway, such as environment friendly and biocompatibility, controlled release of antibiotics in the nanoporous materials were studied. The in vitro release properties were found to depend on the silica structures which were well tuned by varying the template content. A controlled long-term release pattern of vancomycin was achieved when the template content was 30 wt% or lower. Nanoscale electrochemical probes with dimensions as small as 50 nm in diameter and 1--2 mum in length were fabricated using electron beam deposition on the apex of conventional micron size electrodes. The electroactive region was limited to the extreme tip of the nanoprobe by coating with an insulating polymer and re-opening of the coating at the extreme tip. The novel nanoelectrodes thus prepared were employed to probe neurons in mouse brain slice and the results suggest that the nanoprobes were capable of recording neuronal excitatory postsynaptic potential signals. Interesting solid state chemistry was found in oxygenated iron phthalocyanine. Their Mossbauer spectra show the formation of four oxygenated species apart from the unoxygenated parent compound. The oxygen-bridged compounds formed in the solid matrix bear no resemblance to the one formed by solution chemistry. Tentative assignment of species has been made with the help of Mossbauer and IR spectroscopy. An effort to modify aniline trimer for potential nanoelectronics applications and to

  11. Shockwave Consolidation of Nanostructured Thermoelectric Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Taylor, Patrick; Nemir, David

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology based thermoelectric materials are considered attractive for developing highly efficient thermoelectric devices. Nano-structured thermoelectric materials are predicted to offer higher ZT over bulk materials by reducing thermal conductivity and increasing electrical conductivity. Consolidation of nano-structured powders into dense materials without losing nanostructure is essential towards practical device development. Using the gas atomization process, amorphous nano-structured powders were produced. Shockwave consolidation is accomplished by surrounding the nanopowder-containing tube with explosives and then detonating. The resulting shock wave causes rapid fusing of the powders without the melt and subsequent grain growth. We have been successful in generating consolidated nano-structured bismuth telluride alloy powders by using the shockwave technique. Using these consolidated materials, several types of thermoelectric power generating devices have been developed. Shockwave consolidation is anticipated to generate large quantities of nanostructred materials expeditiously and cost effectively. In this paper, the technique of shockwave consolidation will be presented followed by Seebeck Coefficient and thermal conductivity measurements of consolidated materials. Preliminary results indicate a substantial increase in electrical conductivity due to shockwave consolidation technique.

  12. Silk fibroin nanostructured materials for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitropoulos, Alexander N.

    Nanostructured biopolymers have proven to be promising to develop novel biomedical applications where forming structures at the nanoscale normally occurs by self-assembly. However, synthesizing these structures can also occur by inducing materials to transition into other forms by adding chemical cross-linkers, changing pH, or changing ionic composition. Understanding the generation of nanostructures in fluid environments, such as liquid organic solvents or supercritical fluids, has not been thoroughly examined, particularly those that are based on protein-based block-copolymers. Here, we examine the transformation of reconstituted silk fibroin, which has emerged as a promising biopolymer due to its biocompatibility, biodegradability, and ease of functionalization, into submicron spheres and gel networks which offer applications in tissue engineering and advanced sensors. Two types of gel networks, hydrogels and aerogels, have small pores and large surface areas that are defined by their structure. We design and analyze silk nanoparticle formation using a microfluidic device while offering an application for drug delivery. Additionally, we provide a model and characterize hydrogel formation from micelles to nanoparticles, while investigating cellular response to the hydrogel in an in vitro cell culture model. Lastly, we provide a second model of nanofiber formation during near-critical and supercritical drying and characterize the silk fibroin properties at different drying pressures which, when acting as a stabilizing matrix, shows to improve the activity of entrapped enzymes dried at different pressures. This work has created new nanostructured silk fibroin forms to benefit biomedical applications that could be applied to other fibrous proteins.

  13. Chemistry and Processing of Nanostructured Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, G A; Baumann, T F; Hope-Weeks, L J; Vance, A L

    2002-01-18

    Nanostructured materials can be formed through the sol-gel polymerization of inorganic or organic monomer systems. For example, a two step polymerization of tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) was developed such that silica aerogels with densities as low as 3 kg/m{sup 3} ({approx} two times the density of air) could be achieved. Organic aerogels based upon resorcinol-formaldehyde and melamine-formaldehyde can also be prepared using the sol-gel process. Materials of this type have received significant attention at LLNL due to their ultrafine cell sizes, continuous porosity, high surface area and low mass density. For both types of aerogels, sol-gel polymerization depends upon the transformation of these monomers into nanometer-sized clusters followed by cross-linking into a 3-dimensional gel network. While sol-gel chemistry provides the opportunity to synthesize new material compositions, it suffers from the inability to separate the process of cluster formation from gelation. This limitation results in structural deficiencies in the gel that impact the physical properties of the aerogel, xerogel or nanocomposite. In order to control the properties of the resultant gel, one should be able to regulate the formation of the clusters and their subsequent cross-linking. Towards this goal, we are utilizing dendrimer chemistry to separate the cluster formation from the gelation so that new nanostructured materials can be produced. Dendrimers are three-dimensional, highly branched macromolecules that are prepared in such a way that their size, shape and surface functionality are readily controlled. The dendrimers will be used as pre-formed clusters of known size that can be cross-linked to form an ordered gel network.

  14. Bioinspired Functional Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Yongmei; Wang, Jingxia; Hou, Yongping; Bai, Hao; Hu, Michael Z.

    2014-11-25

    This special issue is focused on the nanoscale or micro-/nanoscale structures similar to the biological features in multilevels or hierarchy and so on. Research by mimicking biological systems has shown more impact on many applications due to the well-designed micro-/nanostructures inspired from the biological surfaces or interfaces; therefore, the materials may achieve the fascinating functionality. In conclusion, the bioinspired functional materials may be fabricated by developing novel technology or methods such as synthesis, self-assembly, and soft lithography at micro- or nanolevel or multilevels and, in addition, the multidisciplinary procedures of physical or chemical methods and nanotechnology to mimic the biological multiscale micro-/nanostructures onto one-/two-dimensional surface materials.

  15. Bioinspired Functional Materials

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zheng, Yongmei; Wang, Jingxia; Hou, Yongping; Bai, Hao; Hu, Michael Z.

    2014-11-25

    This special issue is focused on the nanoscale or micro-/nanoscale structures similar to the biological features in multilevels or hierarchy and so on. Research by mimicking biological systems has shown more impact on many applications due to the well-designed micro-/nanostructures inspired from the biological surfaces or interfaces; therefore, the materials may achieve the fascinating functionality. In conclusion, the bioinspired functional materials may be fabricated by developing novel technology or methods such as synthesis, self-assembly, and soft lithography at micro- or nanolevel or multilevels and, in addition, the multidisciplinary procedures of physical or chemical methods and nanotechnology to mimic the biologicalmore » multiscale micro-/nanostructures onto one-/two-dimensional surface materials.« less

  16. Nanostructured photovoltaic materials using block polymer assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastroianni, Sarah Elizabeth

    (MMA-co-HEMA)] blocks onto which fullerenes were grafted using post-polymerization coupling reactions. P3AT BP synthetic techniques also were explored but largely were limited by P3AT purity and end-functionalization. Nevertheless, reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization offered a viable method to incorporate all three of the examined electroactive materials into BPs. The approaches presented in this dissertation provide the tools to design, synthesize, and characterize new BPs for OPVs that can reproducibly self-assemble into well-defined nanostructures.

  17. Boron Nitride Nanostructures: Fabrication, Functionalization and Applications.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jun; Li, Jidong; Hang, Yang; Yu, Jin; Tai, Guoan; Li, Xuemei; Zhang, Zhuhua; Guo, Wanlin

    2016-06-01

    Boron nitride (BN) structures are featured by their excellent thermal and chemical stability and unique electronic and optical properties. However, the lack of controlled synthesis of quality samples and the electrically insulating property largely prevent realizing the full potential of BN nanostructures. A comprehensive overview of the current status of the synthesis of two-dimensional hexagonal BN sheets, three dimensional porous hexagonal BN materials and BN-involved heterostructures is provided, highlighting the advantages of different synthetic methods. In addition, structural characterization, functionalizations and prospective applications of hexagonal BN sheets are intensively discussed. One-dimensional BN nanoribbons and nanotubes are then discussed in terms of structure, fabrication and functionality. In particular, the existing routes in pursuit of tunable electronic and magnetic properties in various BN structures are surveyed, calling upon synergetic experimental and theoretical efforts to address the challenges for pioneering the applications of BN into functional devices. Finally, the progress in BN superstructures and novel B/N nanostructures is also briefly introduced. PMID:27073174

  18. What can chemists do for nanostructured materials?

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, R.W. |

    1995-04-01

    Nanostructured materials have now been investigated for more than a decade using a rather wide range of experimental methods. The structures and properties of these new materials, which are artificially synthesized from nanometer-sized ``building blocks``, such as clusters, grains or layers, have been elucidated in a number of important areas and the relationships among these areas are beginning to be understood. Various investigations of their mechanical, chemical, electrical, magnetic, and optical behavior have demonstrated the possibilities to engineer the properties of nanostructured materials through control of the sizes of their constituent clusters, grains or layers and the manner in which these constituents are assembled. There are, however, tremendous opportunities remaining for creative new tailored chemical synthesis and processing methods and for developing an understanding of the important role of surface and interface chemistry in the assembly and resulting properties of these materials. Some aspects of the present understanding of nanostructured materials and their properties are briefly presented here, along with some thoughts regarding a few critical future research needs in various areas of chemistry that would add greatly to the field of nanostructured materials.

  19. Synthesis of nanostructured materials in inverse miniemulsions and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Zhihai; Ziener, Ulrich

    2013-10-01

    Polymeric nanogels, inorganic nanoparticles, and organic-inorganic hybrid nanoparticles can be prepared via the inverse miniemulsion technique. Hydrophilic functional cargos, such as proteins, DNA, and macromolecular fluoresceins, may be conveniently encapsulated in these nanostructured materials. In this review, the progress of inverse miniemulsions since 2000 is summarized on the basis of the types of reactions carried out in inverse miniemulsions, including conventional free radical polymerization, controlled/living radical polymerization, polycondensation, polyaddition, anionic polymerization, catalytic oxidation reaction, sol-gel process, and precipitation reaction of inorganic precursors. In addition, the applications of the nanostructured materials synthesized in inverse miniemulsions are also reviewed.

  20. Nanostructured cathode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myung, Seung-Taek; Amine, Khalil; Sun, Yang-Kook

    2015-06-01

    The prospect of drastic climate change and the ceaseless fluctuation of fossil fuel prices provide motivation to reduce the use of fossil fuels and to find new energy conversion and storage systems that are able to limit carbon dioxide generation. Among known systems, lithium-ion batteries are recognized as the most appropriate energy storage system because of their high energy density and thus space saving in applications. Introduction of nanotechnology to electrode material is beneficial to improve the resulting electrode performances such as capacity, its retention, and rate capability. The nanostructure is highly available not only when used alone but also is more highlighted when harmonized in forms of core-shell structure and composites with carbon nanotubes, graphene or reduced graphene oxides. This review covers syntheses and electrochemical properties of nanoscale, nanosized, and nanostructured cathode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries.

  1. Surface analysis of nanostructured carbonaceous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wepasnick, Kevin Andrew

    The characterization of surfaces is central to understanding its interaction with other materials. Current ground-breaking research in interfacial science is focusing on surfaces which have a nanoscopic-size to their structuring. In particular, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been explored extensively. However, to utilize these materials in commercial and scientific applications, the surfaces are often modified to tailor specific properties, such as dispersion, sorption, and reactivity. The focus of this thesis is to apply surface analytical techniques to explore the chemical and structural characteristics of modified nanostructured surfaces. Specifically studied are the covalent surface modifications of CNTs by strategies that involve the direct incorporation of specific elements into the graphene sidewalls by commonly used wet chemical oxidants. These resulting CNTs are then evaluated in terms of their change in surface chemistry and structure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to characterize the surface oxidation, while chemical derivatization techniques in conjunction with XPS afforded the concentration of carboxyl, carbonyl, and hydroxyl groups on the CNT surface. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was able to provide detailed structural information on the modified CNT, including the extent of sidewall damage. Results indicate that the distribution of oxygen-containing functional groups was insensitive to the reaction conditions, but was dependent upon the identity of the oxidant. These trends in functional group concentration were then applied to determining environmental properties, specifically divalent metal cation sorption. Consistently, the increases in COOH functional groups result in an increase in sorption capacity of divalent metal cations, such as Zn2+ and Cd2+. Furthermore, the interactions of size-selected metal and metal-oxide nanoclusters with graphite surfaces were studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning tunneling

  2. Aerogel Derived Nanostructured Thermoelectric Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wendell E Rhine, PI; Dong, Wenting; Greg Caggiano, PM

    2010-10-08

    America’s dependence on foreign sources for fuel represents a economic and security threat for the country. These non renewable resources are depleting, and the effects of pollutants from fuels such as oil are reaching a problematic that affects the global community. Solar concentration power (SCP) production systems offer the opportunity to harness one of the United States’ most under utilized natural resources; sunlight. While commercialization of this technology is increasing, in order to become a significant source of electricity production in the United States the costs of deploying and operating SCP plants must be further reduced. Parabolic Trough SCP technologies are close to meeting energy production cost levels that would raise interest in the technology and help accelerate its adoption as a method to produce a significant portion of the Country’s electric power needs. During this program, Aspen Aerogels will develop a transparent aerogel insulation that can replace the costly vacuum insulation systems that are currently used in parabolic trough designs. During the Phase I program, Aspen Aerogels will optimize the optical and thermal properties of aerogel to meet the needs of this application. These properties will be tested, and the results will be used to model the performance of a parabolic trough HCE system which uses this novel material in place of vacuum. During the Phase II program, Aspen Aerogels will scale up this technology. Together with industry partners, Aspen Aerogels will build and test a prototype Heat Collection Element that is insulated with the novel transparent aerogel material. This new device will find use in parabolic trough SCP applications.

  3. Electrochemical characterization of organosilane-functionalized nanostructured ITO surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pruna, R.; Palacio, F.; López, M.; Pérez, J.; Mir, M.; Blázquez, O.; Hernández, S.; Garrido, B.

    2016-08-01

    The electroactivity of nanostructured indium tin oxide (ITO) has been investigated for its further use in applications such as sensing biological compounds by the analysis of redox active molecules. ITO films were fabricated by using electron beam evaporation at different substrate temperatures and subsequently annealed for promoting their crystallization. The morphology of the deposited material was monitored by scanning electron microscopy, confirming the deposition of either thin films or nanowires, depending on the substrate temperature. Electrochemical surface characterization revealed a 45 % increase in the electroactive surface area of nanostructured ITO with respect to thin films, one third lower than the geometrical surface area variation determined by atomic force microscopy. ITO surfaces were functionalized with a model organic molecule known as 6-(ferrocenyl)hexanethiol. The chemical attachment was done by means of a glycidoxy compound containing a reactive epoxy group, the so-called 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxy-silane. ITO functionalization was useful for determining the benefits of nanostructuration on the surface coverage of active molecules. Compared to ITO thin films, an increase in the total peak height of 140 % was observed for as-deposited nanostructured electrodes, whereas the same measurement for annealed electrodes resulted in an increase of more than 400 %. These preliminary results demonstrate the ability of nanostructured ITO to increase the surface-to-volume ratio, conductivity and surface area functionalization, features that highly benefit the performance of biosensors.

  4. Mechanical Properties of Nanostructured Materials Determined Through Molecular Modeling Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancy, Thomas C.; Gates, Thomas S.

    2005-01-01

    The potential for gains in material properties over conventional materials has motivated an effort to develop novel nanostructured materials for aerospace applications. These novel materials typically consist of a polymer matrix reinforced with particles on the nanometer length scale. In this study, molecular modeling is used to construct fully atomistic models of a carbon nanotube embedded in an epoxy polymer matrix. Functionalization of the nanotube which consists of the introduction of direct chemical bonding between the polymer matrix and the nanotube, hence providing a load transfer mechanism, is systematically varied. The relative effectiveness of functionalization in a nanostructured material may depend on a variety of factors related to the details of the chemical bonding and the polymer structure at the nanotube-polymer interface. The objective of this modeling is to determine what influence the details of functionalization of the carbon nanotube with the polymer matrix has on the resulting mechanical properties. By considering a range of degree of functionalization, the structure-property relationships of these materials is examined and mechanical properties of these models are calculated using standard techniques.

  5. Nanostructured Materials Development for Space Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Landi, B. J.; Elich, J. B.; Gennett, T.; Castro, S. L.; Bailey, Sheila G.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    2003-01-01

    There have been many recent advances in the use of nanostructured materials for space power applications. In particular, the use of high purity single wall nanotubes holds promise for a variety of generation and storage devices including: thin film lithium ion batteries, microelectronic proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, polymeric thin film solar cells, and thermionic power supplies is presented. Semiconducting quantum dots alone and in conjunction with carbon nanotubes are also being investigated for possible use in high efficiency photovoltaic solar cells. This paper will review some of the work being done at RIT in conjunction with the NASA Glenn Research Center to utilize nanomaterials in space power devices.

  6. Large-scale atomistic simulations of nanostructured materials based on divide-and-conquer density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimojo, F.; Ohmura, S.; Nakano, A.; Kalia, R. K.; Vashishta, P.

    2011-05-01

    A linear-scaling algorithm based on a divide-and-conquer (DC) scheme is designed to perform large-scale molecular-dynamics simulations, in which interatomic forces are computed quantum mechanically in the framework of the density functional theory (DFT). This scheme is applied to the thermite reaction at an Al/Fe2O3 interface. It is found that mass diffusion and reaction rate at the interface are enhanced by a concerted metal-oxygen flip mechanism. Preliminary simulations are carried out for an aluminum particle in water based on the conventional DFT, as a target system for large-scale DC-DFT simulations. A pair of Lewis acid and base sites on the aluminum surface preferentially catalyzes hydrogen production in a low activation-barrier mechanism found in the simulations.

  7. Large-scale atomistic simulations of nanostructured materials based on divide-and-conquer density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimojo, F.; Ohmura, S.; Nakano, A.; Kalia, R. K.; Vashishta, P.

    2011-05-01

    A linear-scaling algorithm based on a divide-and-conquer (DC) scheme is designed to perform large-scale molecular-dynamics simulations, in which interatomic forces are computed quantum mechanically in the framework of the density functional theory (DFT). This scheme is applied to the thermite reaction at an Al/Fe2O3 interface. It is found that mass diffusion and reaction rate at the interface are enhanced by a concerted metal-oxygen flip mechanism. Preliminary simulations are carried out for an aluminum particle in water based on the conventional DFT, as a target system for large-scale DC-DFT simulations. A pair of Lewis acid and base sites on the aluminum surface preferentially catalyzes hydrogen production in a low activation-barrier mechanism found in the simulations

  8. Synthesis and Functions of Ag2S Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Cui, Chunyan; Li, Xiaoru; Liu, Jixian; Hou, Yongchao; Zhao, Yuqing; Zhong, Guocheng

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents a review about synthesis and applications of Ag2S nanostructures. As the modern photoelectric and biological materials, Ag2S nanomaterials are potentially useful for both structure and function purposes. Ag2S is a direction narrow band gap semiconductor with special properties. Ag2S nanostructures have been widely researched in chemistry and biochemistry fields because of their unusual optical, electrical, and mechanical properties. It can also be used in many fields, such as photovoltaic cells and infrared detector. In the past few years, Ag2S nanostructures have been synthesized by various methods. The article mainly discusses the four types of preparation methods. Moreover, this article shows a detailed review on the new properties, fabrication, and applications of Ag2S nanocrystals. PMID:26525702

  9. Synthesis and Functions of Ag2S Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Chunyan; Li, Xiaoru; Liu, Jixian; Hou, Yongchao; Zhao, Yuqing; Zhong, Guocheng

    2015-11-01

    The paper presents a review about synthesis and applications of Ag2S nanostructures. As the modern photoelectric and biological materials, Ag2S nanomaterials are potentially useful for both structure and function purposes. Ag2S is a direction narrow band gap semiconductor with special properties. Ag2S nanostructures have been widely researched in chemistry and biochemistry fields because of their unusual optical, electrical, and mechanical properties. It can also be used in many fields, such as photovoltaic cells and infrared detector. In the past few years, Ag2S nanostructures have been synthesized by various methods. The article mainly discusses the four types of preparation methods. Moreover, this article shows a detailed review on the new properties, fabrication, and applications of Ag2S nanocrystals.

  10. Supramolecular materials: Self-organized nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Stupp, S.I.; LeBonheur, V.; Walker, K.

    1997-04-18

    Miniaturized triblock copolymers have been found to self-assemble into nanostructures that are highly regular in size and shape. Mushroom-shaped supramolecular structures of about 200 kilodaltons form by crystallization of the chemically identical blocks and self-organize into films containing 100 or more layers stacked in a polar arrangement. The polar supramolecular material exhibits spontaneous second-harmonic generation from infrared to green photons and has an adhesive tape-like character with nonadhesive-hydrophobic and hydrophilic-sticky opposite surfaces. The films also have reasonable shear strength and adhere tenaciously to glass surfaces on one side only. The regular and finite size of the supramolecular units is believed to be mediated by repulsive forces among some of the segments in the triblock molecules. A large diversity of multifunctional materials could be formed from regular supramolecular units weighing hundreds of kilodaltons. 21 refs., 10 figs.

  11. Final Technical Progress Report NANOSTRUCTURED MAGNETIC MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Charles M. Falco

    2012-09-13

    This report describes progress made during the final phase of our DOE-funded program on Nanostructured Magnetic Materials. This period was quite productive, resulting in the submission of three papers and presentation of three talks at international conferences and three seminars at research institutions. Our DOE-funded research efforts were directed toward studies of magnetism at surfaces and interfaces in high-quality, well-characterized materials prepared by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) and sputtering. We have an exceptionally well-equipped laboratory for these studies, with: Thin film preparation equipment; Characterization equipment; Equipment to study magnetic properties of surfaces and ultra-thin magnetic films and interfaces in multi-layers and superlattices.

  12. Combination of lightweight elements and nanostructured materials for batteries.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Cheng, Fangyi

    2009-06-16

    ), Co(3)O(4), TiS(2), and Ni(OH)(2) in battery applications. Electrochemical investigations reveal that we generally attain larger capacities and improved kinetics for electrode materials as their average particle size decreases. Novel nanostructures such as nanowires, nanotubes, nanourchins, and porous nanospheres show lower activation energy, enhanced reactivity, improved high-rate charge/discharge capability, and more controlled structural flexibility than their bulk counterparts. In particular, anode materials such as Si nanospheres and Fe(2)O(3) nanotubes can deliver reversible capacity exceeding 500 mA.h/g. (Graphite used commercially has a theoretical capacity of 372 mA x h/g.) Nanocomposite cathode materials such as NiP-doped LiFePO(4) and metal hydroxide-coated Ni(OH)(2) nanotubes allow us to integrate functional components, which enhance electrical conductivity and suppress volume expansion. Therefore, shifting from bulk to nanostructured electrode materials could offer a revolutionary opportunity to develop advanced green batteries with large capacity, high energy and power density, and long cycle life. PMID:19354236

  13. Fabrication and characterization of carbon and boron carbide nanostructured materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynaud, Sara

    Carbon is present in nature in a variety of allotropes and chemical compounds. Due to reduced dimensionality, nanostructured carbon materials, i.e. single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), are characterized by unique physical and chemical properties. There is a potential for SWNTs use as biological probes and assists for tunable tissue growth in biomedical applications. However, the presumed cytotoxicity of SWNTs requires investigation of the risks of their incorporation into living systems. Boron is not found in nature in elementary form. Boron based materials are chemically complex and exist in various polymorphic forms, i.e. boron carbide (BC). Because BC is a lightweight material with exceptional mechanical and elastic properties, it is the ideal candidate for armor and ballistic applications. However, practical use of BC as armor material is limited because of its anomalous glass-like behaviour at high velocity impacts, which has been linked to stress-induced structural instability in one of BC polymorphs, B12(CCC). Theoretical calculations suggest that formation of B12(CCC) in BC could be suppressed by silicon doping. In the first part of this thesis, biocompatibility of SWNTs is investigated. It is shown that under normal cell implantation conditions, the electrical conductivity of the SWNTs decreases due to an increase in structural disorder. This research suggests that SWNTs can be functionalized by protein and biological cells reducing the risk of cytotoxicity. In the second part of this thesis, boron carbide nanostructured materials are synthesized and investigated. Radio frequency sputtering deposition technique is employed for fabrication of BC (Si free) and BC:Si thin films. Variation of plasma conditions and temperature are found to affect chemical composition, adhesion to the substrate and morphology of the films. It is shown that BC films are predominantly amorphous and a small addition of Si largely improves their mechanical properties. In addition

  14. Nanostructured hybrid materials from aqueous polymer dispersions.

    PubMed

    Castelvetro, Valter; De Vita, Cinzia

    2004-05-20

    Organic-inorganic (O-I) hybrids with well-defined morphology and structure controlled at the nanometric scale represent a very interesting class of materials both for their use as biomimetic composites and because of their potential use in a wide range of technologically advanced as well as more conventional application fields. Their unique features can be exploited or their role envisaged as components of electronic and optoelectronic devices, in controlled release and bioencapsulation, as active substrates for chromatographic separation and catalysis, as nanofillers for composite films in packaging and coating, in nanowriting and nanolithography, etc. A synergistic combination or totally new properties with respect to the two components of the hybrid can arise from nanostructuration, achieved by surface modification of nanostructures, self-assembling or simply heterophase dispersion. In fact, owing to the extremely large total surface area associated with the resulting morphologies, the interfacial interactions can deeply modify the bulk properties of each component. A wide range of starting materials and of production processes have been studied in recent years for the controlled synthesis and characterization of hybrid nanostructures, from nanoparticle or lamellar dispersions to mesoporous materials obtained from templating nanoparticle dispersions in a continuous, e.g. ceramic precursor, matrix. This review is aimed at giving some basic definitions of what is intended as a hybrid (O-I) material and what are the main synthetic routes available. The various methods for preparing hybrid nanostructures and, among them, inorganic-organic or O-I core-shell nanoparticles, are critically analyzed and classified based on the reaction medium (aqueous, non-aqueous), and on the role it plays in directing the final morphology. Particular attention is devoted to aqueous systems and water-borne dispersions which, in addition to being environmentally more acceptable or even a

  15. Computational Materials: Modeling and Simulation of Nanostructured Materials and Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, Thomas S.; Hinkley, Jeffrey A.

    2003-01-01

    The paper provides details on the structure and implementation of the Computational Materials program at the NASA Langley Research Center. Examples are given that illustrate the suggested approaches to predicting the behavior and influencing the design of nanostructured materials such as high-performance polymers, composites, and nanotube-reinforced polymers. Primary simulation and measurement methods applicable to multi-scale modeling are outlined. Key challenges including verification and validation of models are highlighted and discussed within the context of NASA's broad mission objectives.

  16. Nanostructured magnetic networks: a materials comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weston, James L.; Butera, Alejandro; Otte, Dietmar; Barnard, John A.

    1999-03-01

    One method to achieve the enhanced coercivity necessary for the next generation of ultra high density recording media is to use a patterned substrate to nanostructure the magnetic material. By sputter-depositing a magnetic film onto the surface of a nanoporous substrate, unique magnetic properties result from the reduced dimension and topography of the film. The resultant "network" film has a coercivity nearly two orders of magnitude higher than a continuous thin film of the same thickness. This increase in coercivity has been attributed primarily to shape anisotropy due to the proportional relationship observed between the coercivity and the moment of the deposited network. To better understand the effect of the shape anisotropy, a number of different classes of magnetic materials of varying moment and magnetocrystalline anisotropy were deposited onto porous templates and compared. In general, these materials show a peak coercivity in the thickness range of 15-20 nm. In this thickness the range a linear relationship between the coercivity and moment is observed confirming the influence of shape anisotropy. A simple model assuming coherent reversal of a magnetized ellipsoid gives a ratio of 1.1 between the short and long axes. This value is significantly smaller than what it is observed by direct imaging. However, if a more realistic model of magnetization reversal is employed (such as fanning) the ratio obtained is in close agreement with the experiments.

  17. Thin film thermocouples for thermoelectric characterization of nanostructured materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grayson, Matthew; Zhou, Chuanle; Varrenti, Andrew; Chyung, Seung Hye; Long, Jieyi; Memik, Seda

    2011-03-01

    The increased use of nanostructured materials as thermoelectrics requires reliable and accurate characterization of the anisotropic thermal coefficients of small structures, such as superlattices and quantum wire networks. Thin evaporated metal films can be used to create thermocouples with a very small thermal mass and low thermal conductivity, in order to measure thermal gradients on nanostructures and thereby measure the thermal conductivity and the Seebeck coefficient of the nanostructure. In this work we confirm the known result that thin metal films have lower Seebeck coefficients than bulk metals, and we also calibrate the Seebeck coefficient of a thin-film Ni/Cr thermocouple with 50 nm thickness, showing it to have about 1/4 the bulk value. We demonstrate reproducibility of this thin-filmSeebeck coefficient on multiple substrates, and we show that this coefficient does, in fact, change as a function of film thickness. We will discuss prototype measurement designs and preliminary work as to how these thin films can be used to study both Seebeck coefficients and thermal conductivities of superlattices in various geometries. The same technology can in principle be used on integrated circuits for thermal mapping, under the name ``Integrated On-Chip Thermocouple Array'' (IOTA).

  18. Computational design of surfaces, nanostructures and optoelectronic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, Kamal

    Properties of engineering materials are generally influenced by defects such as point defects (vacancies, interstitials, substitutional defects), line defects (dislocations), planar defects (grain boundaries, free surfaces/nanostructures, interfaces, stacking faults) and volume defects (voids). Classical physics based molecular dynamics and quantum physics based density functional theory can be useful in designing materials with controlled defect properties. In this thesis, empirical potential based molecular dynamics was used to study the surface modification of polymers due to energetic polyatomic ion, thermodynamics and mechanics of metal-ceramic interfaces and nanostructures, while density functional theory was used to screen substituents in optoelectronic materials. Firstly, polyatomic ion-beams were deposited on polymer surfaces and the resulting chemical modifications of the surface were examined. In particular, S, SC and SH were deposited on amorphous polystyrene (PS), and C2H, CH3, and C3H5 were deposited on amorphous poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) using molecular dynamics simulations with classical reactive empirical many-body (REBO) potentials. The objective of this work was to elucidate the mechanisms by which the polymer surface modification took place. The results of the work could be used in tailoring the incident energy and/or constituents of ion beam for obtaining a particular chemistry inside the polymer surface. Secondly, a new Al-O-N empirical potential was developed within the charge optimized many body (COMB) formalism. This potential was then used to examine the thermodynamic stability of interfaces and mechanical properties of nanostructures composed of aluminum, its oxide and its nitride. The potentials were tested for these materials based on surface energies, defect energies, bulk phase stability, the mechanical properties of the most stable bulk phase, its phonon properties as well as with a genetic algorithm based evolution theory of

  19. Inorganic nanostructured materials for high performance electrochemical supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Sheng; Sun, Shouheng; You, Xiao-Zeng

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical supercapacitors (ES) are a well-known energy storage system that has high power density, long life-cycle and fast charge-discharge kinetics. Nanostructured materials are a new generation of electrode materials with large surface area and short transport/diffusion path for ions and electrons to achieve high specific capacitance in ES. This mini review highlights recent developments of inorganic nanostructure materials, including carbon nanomaterials, metal oxide nanoparticles, and metal oxide nanowires/nanotubes, for high performance ES applications.

  20. Nanostructured materials for rechargeable batteries: synthesis, fundamental understanding and limitations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhan, Hui; Xiao, Jie; Nie, Zimin; Li, Xiaolin; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun

    2013-05-30

    Nanostructured materials have emerged as very attrcative electrode materials for energy storage due to their small sizes and structure/morphology related properties. The purpose of this article to discuss the opportunities and challenges of nanostructured materials for advanced energy storage devices. Nanostructured silicon (Si) anodes together with other cathode and anode materials are used as examples to illustrate the different methods available for synthesis and the range of materials that can be produced to improve the storage capacity and stability. Recent progresses in using well-defined nanostructures to gain new fundamental understanding of the complex electrochemical reactions and charge-discharge processes are also discussed. Finally, the paper addresses some key problems that are yet to be solved and the need to optimize the microstructures and control the high level architectures beyond nanoscale.

  1. PROPERTIES AND NANOSTRUCTURES OF MATERIALS PROCESSED BY SPD TECHNIQUES

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Xiaoshan; Huang, J.; Zhu, Y. T.

    2001-01-01

    Metallic materials usually exhibit higher strength but lower ductility after being plastically deformed by conventional techniques such as rolling, drawing and extrusion. In contrast, nanostructured metals and alloys processed by severe plastic deformation (SPD) have demonstrated both high strength and high ductility. This extraordinary mechanical behavior is attributed to the unique nanostructures generated by SPD processing. It demonstrates the possibility of tailoring the microstructures of metals and alloys by SPD to obtain superior mechanical properties. The SPD-generated nanostructures have many features related to deformation, including high dislocation densities, and high- and low-angle grain boundaries in equilibrium or non-equilibrium states. This paper reviews the mechanical properties and the defect structures of SPD-processed nanostructured materials. Keywords: strength, ductility, nanostructures, SPD, non-equilibrium grain boundary

  2. Design of nanostructured materials from block copolymer self-assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leolukman, Melvina

    We present two classes of nanostructured materials by combining the self assembly of block copolymer (BCP) with suitable small molecule chemistry, which are applicable to organic electro-optics (EO) and as etch-resistant masks for nanofabrication. The underlying principles of designing the specific interactions between BCP host and guest molecules, driving the self-assembly in bulk and thin film, and dictating domain orientation are concepts common to both of these areas. Nanostructured EO materials were created by selectively encapsulating EO chromophores by hydrogen-bonding to the pyridine groups of a linear-diblock copolymer (linear-diBCP) namely polystyrene-block-poly(4-vinyl pyridine) [PS-b-P4VP], or a linear-dendritic-BCP. With the linear-diBCP host, we discovered that poled order in confined domains depends on domain shape, chromophore concentration within the domain, and thermal history. The linear-dendritic-BCP is an excellent host as it efficiently disperses the chromophores into small domains (5-10nm), and keeps the chromophores apart within the domains due to the dendritic architecture. These morphological effects translated into excellent film processability, increased chromophore loading, and two-fold enhancements in the EO coefficient (r 33) when compared to a corresponding homopolymer system. A new class of organic-inorganic nanostructured materials based on polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) was synthesized as a passive template for pattern transfer. We developed a living anionic polymerization route for methacrylate-functionalized POSS and synthesized two kinds of BCPs, namely PS-b-PMAPOSS and PMMA-b-PMAPOSS. The anionic route allows high degree of polymerization, narrow polydispersity, and tunable POSS block length. These lead to well defined spherical, cylindrical, and lamellar morphologies, as well as formation of hierarchical structures upon thermal annealing. Both POSS-containing BCPs were assembled in thin film and converted to hard

  3. Multifunctional Upconversion-Magnetic Hybrid Nanostructured Materials: Synthesis and Bioapplications

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaomin; Zhao, Dongyuan; Zhang, Fan

    2013-01-01

    The combination of nanotechnology and biology has developed into an emerging research area: nano-biotechnology. Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) have attracted a great deal of attention in bioapplications due to their high chemical stability, low toxicity, and high signal-to-noise ratio. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are also well-established nanomaterials that offer controlled size, ability to be manipulated externally, and enhancement of contrast in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). As a result, these nanoparticles could have many applications in biology and medicine, including protein purification, drug delivery, and medical imaging. Because of the potential benefits of multimodal functionality in biomedical applications, researchers would like to design and fabricate multifunctional upconversion-magnetic hybrid nanostructured materials. The hybrid nanostructures, which combine UCNPs with MNPs, exhibit upconversion fluorescence alongside superparamagnetism property. Such structures could provide a platform for enhanced bioimaging and controlled drug delivery. We expect that the combination of unique structural characteristics and integrated functions of multifunctional upconversion-magnetic nanoparticles will attract increasing research interest and could lead to new opportunities in nano-bioapplications. PMID:23650477

  4. Nanostructured Energetic Materials with Sol-Gel Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Gash, A; Satcher, J; Simpson, R; Clapsaddle, B

    2003-11-25

    The utilization of sol-gel chemical methodology to prepare nanostructured energetic materials as well as the concepts of nanoenergetics is described. The preparation and characterization of two totally different compositions is detailed. In one example, nanostructured aerogel and xerogel composites of sol-gel iron (III) oxide and ultra fine grained aluminum (UFG Al) are prepared, characterized, and compared to a conventional micron-sized Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al thermite. The exquisite degree of mixing and intimate nanostructuring of this material is illustrated using transmission and scanning electron microscopies (TEM and SEM). The nanocomposite material has markedly different energy release (burn rate) and thermal properties compared to the conventional composite, results of which will be discussed. Small-scale safety characterization was performed aerogels and xerogels of the nanostructured thermite. The second nanostructured energetic material consists of a nanostructured hydrocarbon resin fuel network with fine ammonium perchlorate (NH{sub 4}ClO{sub 4}) oxidizer present.

  5. Review on the application of nanostructure materials in solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afshar, Elham N.; Xosrovashvili, Georgi; Rouhi, Rasoul; Gorji, Nima E.

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, nanostructure materials have opened a promising route to future of the renewable sources, especially in the solar cells. This paper considers the advantages of nanostructure materials in improving the performance and stability of the solar cell structures. These structures have been employed for various performance/energy conversion enhancement strategies. Here, we have investigated four types of nanostructures applied in solar cells, where all of them are named as quantum solar cells. We have also discussed recent development of quantum dot nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes enabling quantum solar cells to be competitive with the conventional solar cells. Furthermore, the advantages, disadvantages and industrializing challenges of nanostructured solar cells have been investigated.

  6. Inorganic nanostructured materials for high performance electrochemical supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sheng; Sun, Shouheng; You, Xiao-Zeng

    2014-02-21

    Electrochemical supercapacitors (ES) are a well-known energy storage system that has high power density, long life-cycle and fast charge-discharge kinetics. Nanostructured materials are a new generation of electrode materials with large surface area and short transport/diffusion path for ions and electrons to achieve high specific capacitance in ES. This mini review highlights recent developments of inorganic nanostructure materials, including carbon nanomaterials, metal oxide nanoparticles, and metal oxide nanowires/nanotubes, for high performance ES applications. PMID:24384725

  7. Multifunctional, flexible electronic systems based on engineered nanostructured materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Hyunhyub; Kapadia, Rehan; Takei, Kuniharu; Takahashi, Toshitake; Zhang, Xiaobo; Javey, Ali

    2012-08-01

    The development of flexible electronic systems has been extensively researched in recent years, with the goal of expanding the potential scope and market of modern electronic devices in the areas of computation, communications, displays, sensing and energy. Uniquely, the use of soft polymeric substrates enables the incorporation of advanced features beyond mechanical bendability and stretchability. In this paper, we describe several functionalities which can be achieved using engineered nanostructured materials. In particular, reversible binding, self-cleaning, antireflective and shape-reconfigurable properties are introduced for the realization of multifunctional, flexible electronic devices. Examples of flexible systems capable of spatial mapping and/or responding to external stimuli are also presented as a new class of user-interactive devices.

  8. Nanostructure materials for biosensing and bioimaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Wing Cheung

    not fully understand, three possible factors are concluded after systematic researches: (i) an increase of the absolute mass in each binding event, (ii) an increase in the bulk refractive index of the analyte, and (iii) coupling between the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of metallic nanoparticles and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the sensing film. Indeed, the role of plasmonic coupling in sensitivity enhancement is still an open question. In order to obtain a better understanding of this phenomenon, at the end of part I, extended studies were performed to investigate how the LSPR properties of metallic nanoparticle labels correlate with the enhancement factor. For this purpose, gold nanorods (Au-NRs) were chosen as the amplification labels because of the easy tunability of LSPR peak of Au-NR. After reading the "Result and Discussion" section, the readers will have better understanding of "plasmonic coupling" between the sensing film and the metallic labels with suitable operating laser source. In the second part of the thesis, the bioimaging part, the application of nanostructure materials in live cancer cell imaging and small animal imaging were demonstrated. There are different types of imaging technique available in laboratories and clinics: optical imaging, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), thermography and ultrasound imaging. Although such imaging techniques have been well developed and used over a decade, improving the sensitivity, enhancing the contrast, decreasing the acquisition time and reducing the toxicity of the contrast agent are highly desirable. For optical imaging, the scientists discovered that the use of near infrared fluorescence materials can assist the surgeon to locate the tumor, the nerve and the lymph node more accurately. For CT scan, the use of Au-NR as the contrast agent can improve the sensitivity. Iron oxide nanoparticle or gadolinium ion containing

  9. Preparation of nanostructured materials having improved ductility

    DOEpatents

    Zhao, Yonghao; Zhu, Yuntian T.

    2010-04-20

    A method for preparing a nanostructured aluminum alloy involves heating an aluminum alloy workpiece at temperature sufficient to produce a single phase coarse grained aluminum alloy, then refining the grain size of the workpiece at a temperature at or below room temperature, and then aging the workpiece to precipitate second phase particles in the nanosized grains of the workpiece that increase the ductility without decreasing the strength of the workpiece.

  10. Bioinspired, functional nanoscale materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, In-Kook

    Functional nanomaterials in nature exhibit many unique functions and optical and mechanical properties. Examples of this include the dry adhesion of a gecko's foot, the reduced drag on a shark's skin, the high strength and toughness of nacre, and the superhydrophobic self-cleaning of a lotus leaf. This dissertation is devoted to creating unique and enhanced properties by mimicking such functional materials. We have developed a novel self-pumping membrane, which does not require an applied voltage. The self-pumping membrane harvests chemical energy from a surrounding fluid and uses it for accelerated mass transport across the membrane. A device such as this has promising applications in implantable or remotely operating autonomous devices and membrane-based purification systems. Reproducible and highly active surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates were developed using a bottom-up self-assembly technology. With their high sensitivity and good reproducibility, the developed nanostructures (gold nanoparticle and nanohole arrays) as SERS substrates are very promising for applications such as ultra-sensitive detectors for chemicals and reproducible sensors for chemical and biological molecules. Binary colloidal crystals were created using a simple, fast, and scalable spin-coating technology. Although further investigation of the procedure is needed to improve the ordering of particles in the individual layers, the developed assembly technology has a promising outlook in applications such as optical integrated circuits and high-speed optical computing. Inorganic-organic nanocomposites were realized by assembling synthesized gibbsite nanoplatelets using the electrophoretic deposition and infiltration of a monomer followed by polymerization. Via surface modifications of gibbsite nanoplatelets, nanocomposites were further reinforced with covalent linkages between the inorganic platelets and organic matrix.

  11. Covalently functionalized carbon nanostructures and methods for their separation

    DOEpatents

    Wang, YuHuang; Brozena, Alexandra H; Deng, Shunliu; Zhang, Yin

    2015-03-17

    The present invention is directed to carbon nanostructures, e.g., carbon nanotubes, methods of covalently functionalizing carbon nanostructures, and methods of separating and isolating covalently functionalized carbon. In some embodiments, carbon nanotubes are reacted with alkylating agents to provide water soluble covalently functionalized carbon nanotubes. In other embodiments, carbon nanotubes are reacted with a thermally-responsive agent and exposed to light in order to separate carbon nanotubes of a specific chirality from a mixture of carbon nanotubes.

  12. Modeling of space environment impact on nanostructured materials. General principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronina, Ekaterina; Novikov, Lev

    2016-07-01

    In accordance with the resolution of ISO TC20/SC14 WG4/WG6 joint meeting, Technical Specification (TS) 'Modeling of space environment impact on nanostructured materials. General principles' which describes computer simulation methods of space environment impact on nanostructured materials is being prepared. Nanomaterials surpass traditional materials for space applications in many aspects due to their unique properties associated with nanoscale size of their constituents. This superiority in mechanical, thermal, electrical and optical properties will evidently inspire a wide range of applications in the next generation spacecraft intended for the long-term (~15-20 years) operation in near-Earth orbits and the automatic and manned interplanetary missions. Currently, ISO activity on developing standards concerning different issues of nanomaterials manufacturing and applications is high enough. Most such standards are related to production and characterization of nanostructures, however there is no ISO documents concerning nanomaterials behavior in different environmental conditions, including the space environment. The given TS deals with the peculiarities of the space environment impact on nanostructured materials (i.e. materials with structured objects which size in at least one dimension lies within 1-100 nm). The basic purpose of the document is the general description of the methodology of applying computer simulation methods which relate to different space and time scale to modeling processes occurring in nanostructured materials under the space environment impact. This document will emphasize the necessity of applying multiscale simulation approach and present the recommendations for the choice of the most appropriate methods (or a group of methods) for computer modeling of various processes that can occur in nanostructured materials under the influence of different space environment components. In addition, TS includes the description of possible

  13. Functionalized nanostructures for enhanced photocatalytic performance under solar light

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Maochang; Chen, Yubin; Shen, Shaohua; Shi, Jinwen; Zhang, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Summary Photocatalytic hydrogen production from water has been considered to be one of the most promising solar-to-hydrogen conversion technologies. In the last decade, various functionalized nanostructures were designed to address the primary requirements for an efficient photocatalytic generation of hydrogen by using solar energy: visible-light activity, chemical stability, appropriate band-edge characteristics, and potential for low-cost fabrication. Our aim is to present a short review of our recent attempts that center on the above requirements. We begin with a brief introduction of photocatalysts coupling two or more semiconductors, followed by a further discussion of the heterostructures with improved matching of both band structures and crystal lattices. We then elaborate on the heterostructure design of the targeted materials from macroscopic regulation of compositions and phases, to the more precise control at the nanoscale, i.e., materials with the same compositions but different phases with certain band alignment. We conclude this review with perspectives on nanostructure design that might direct future research of this technology. PMID:25161835

  14. Functionalized nanostructures for enhanced photocatalytic performance under solar light.

    PubMed

    Guo, Liejin; Jing, Dengwei; Liu, Maochang; Chen, Yubin; Shen, Shaohua; Shi, Jinwen; Zhang, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Photocatalytic hydrogen production from water has been considered to be one of the most promising solar-to-hydrogen conversion technologies. In the last decade, various functionalized nanostructures were designed to address the primary requirements for an efficient photocatalytic generation of hydrogen by using solar energy: visible-light activity, chemical stability, appropriate band-edge characteristics, and potential for low-cost fabrication. Our aim is to present a short review of our recent attempts that center on the above requirements. We begin with a brief introduction of photocatalysts coupling two or more semiconductors, followed by a further discussion of the heterostructures with improved matching of both band structures and crystal lattices. We then elaborate on the heterostructure design of the targeted materials from macroscopic regulation of compositions and phases, to the more precise control at the nanoscale, i.e., materials with the same compositions but different phases with certain band alignment. We conclude this review with perspectives on nanostructure design that might direct future research of this technology. PMID:25161835

  15. Refractive index of nanostructured optical materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flory, Francois; Escoubas, Ludovic; Drouard, Emmanuel; Lazarides, Basile

    2002-06-01

    Thanks to progresses in photolithography techniques optical materials can now be structured to a scale of a few tens of a nanometer. This has opened a wide field of new applications. When concerned with a scale of some tens of a micron down to a few microns, microlens and integrated optic components can be made. When the material is structured with a scale in the order of the wavelength of light, different filtering functions can be made. This concerns Bragg mirrors or more generally Photonic Crystals. A structuration in a scale small in front of the wavelength is also of a great interest. In this case the material does not diffract the light anymore an dit behaves like a homogeneous one. The calculated transmittance of a laser mirror is used to determine the effective index of the single layer equivalent to the multilayer stack. The artificial anisotropy of thin films structured with a one-dimension sub wavelength grating made by holography is measured. The limitation of the first order homogenization theory is given for two different grating steps. Polarizing coatings or polarization rotators are designed to work in normal incidence by inserting anisotropic films in simple multilayer structures.

  16. Synthesis, characterization, and properties of low-dimensional nanostructured materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xianluo

    2007-05-01

    Nanometer scale structures represent an exciting and rapidly expanding area of research. Studies on new physical/chemical properties and applications of nanomaterials and nanostructures are possible only when nanostructured materials are made available with desired size, morphology, crystal and microstructure, and composition. Thus, controlled synthesis of nanomaterials is the essential aspect of nanotechnology. This thesis describes the development of simple and versatile solution-based approaches to synthesize low-dimensional nanostructures. The first major goal of this research is to design and fabricate morphology-controlled alpha-Fe 2O3 nanoarchitectures in aqueous solution through a programmed microwave-assisted hydrothermal route, taking advantage of microwave irradiation and hydrothermal effects. Free-standing alpha-Fe2O3 nanorings are prepared by hydrolysis of FeCl3 in the presence of phosphate ions. The as-formed architecture of alpha-Fe2O 3 nanorings is an exciting new member in the family of iron oxide nanostructures. Our preliminary results demonstrate that sensors made of the alpha-Fe 2O3 nanorings exhibit high sensitivity not only for bio-sensing of hydrogen peroxide in a physiological solution but also for gas-sensing of alcohol vapor at room temperature. Moreover, monodisperse alpha-Fe 2O3 nanocrystals with continuous aspect-ratio tuning and fine shape control are achieved by controlling the experimental conditions. The as-formed alpha-Fe2O3 exhibits shape-dependent infrared optical properties. The growth process of colloidal alpha-Fe 2O3 crystals in the presence of phosphate ions is discussed. In addition, through an efficient microwave-assisted hydrothermal process, self-assembled hierarchical alpha-Fe2O3 nanoarchitectures are synthesized on a large scale. The second major goal of this research is to develop convenient microwave-hydrothermal approaches for the fabrication of carbon-based nanocomposites: (1) A one-pot solution-phase route, namely

  17. Potential applications of nanostructured materials in nuclear waste management.

    SciTech Connect

    Braterman, Paul S. (The University of North Texas, Denton, TX); Phol, Phillip Isabio; Xu, Zhi-Ping (The University of North Texas, Denton, TX); Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Yang, Yi; Bryan, Charles R.; Yu, Kui; Xu, Huifang (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Wang, Yifeng; Gao, Huizhen

    2003-09-01

    This report summarizes the results obtained from a Laboratory Directed Research & Development (LDRD) project entitled 'Investigation of Potential Applications of Self-Assembled Nanostructured Materials in Nuclear Waste Management'. The objectives of this project are to (1) provide a mechanistic understanding of the control of nanometer-scale structures on the ion sorption capability of materials and (2) develop appropriate engineering approaches to improving material properties based on such an understanding.

  18. [The application of the nanostructured bioplastic material for the plastic reconstruction of perforations in the nasal septum].

    PubMed

    Grigor'eva, M V; Akimov, A V; Bagautdinov, A A

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to estimate the effectiveness of the application of the nanostructured bioplastic material for the plastic reconstruction of perforations in the nasal septum. A total of 80 patients were recruited for the study. Half of them underwent plastic reconstruction of perforations in the nasal septum with the application of the nanostructured bioplastic material. Forty patients were treated using no biotransplants. The functional state of nasal cavity mucosa was evaluated before and after surgery. It is concluded that the nanostructured bioplastic material used in the present study ensures efficacious reconstruction of nasal septum integrity after plastic correction of septal perforations. PMID:25588475

  19. Nanostructured Materials Developed for Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Castro, Stephanie L.; Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Fahey, Stephen D.; Gennett, Thomas; Tin, Padetha

    2004-01-01

    There has been considerable investigation recently regarding the potential for the use of nanomaterials and nanostructures to increase the efficiency of photovoltaic devices. Efforts at the NASA Glenn Research Center have involved the development and use of quantum dots and carbon nanotubes to enhance inorganic and organic cell efficiencies. Theoretical results have shown that a photovoltaic device with a single intermediate band of states resulting from the introduction of quantum dots offers a potential efficiency of 63.2 percent. A recent publication extended the intermediate band theory to two intermediate bands and calculated a limiting efficiency of 71.7 percent. The enhanced efficiency results from converting photons of energy less than the band gap of the cell by an intermediate band. The intermediate band provides a mechanism for low-energy photons to excite carriers across the energy gap by a two-step process.

  20. Functionalization of DNA Nanostructures for Cell Signaling Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, Ronnie O.

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) is an important cytokine responsible for a wide range of different cellular functions including extracellular matrix formation, angiogenesis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. We have sought to use self-assembling DNA nanostructures to influence TGF-beta signaling. The predictable Watson Crick base pairing allows for designing self-assembling nanoscale structures using oligonucleotides. We have used the method of DNA origami to assemble structures functionalized with multiple peptides that bind TGF-beta receptors outside the ligand binding domain. This allows the nanostructures to cluster TGF-beta receptors and lower the energy barrier of ligand binding thus sensitizing the cells to TGF-beta stimulation. To prove efficacy of our nanostructures we have utilized immunofluorescent staining of Smad2/4 in order to monitor TGF-beta mediated translocation of Smad2/4 to the cell nucleus. We have also utilized Smad2/4 responsive luminescence constructs that allows us to quantify TGF-beta stimulation with and without nanostructures. To functionalize our nanostructures we relied on biotin-streptavidin linkages. This introduces a multivalency that is not necessarily desirable in all designs. Therefore we have investigated alternative means of functionalization. The first approach is based on targeting DNA nanostructure by using zinc finger binding proteins. Efficacy of zinc finger binding proteins was assayed by the use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) assay and atomic force microscopy (AFM). While ELISA indicated a relative specificity of zinc finger proteins for target DNA sequences AFM showed a high degree of non-specific binding and insufficient affinity. The second approach is based on using peptide nucleic acid (PNA) incorporated in the nanostructure through base pairing. PNA is a synthetic DNA analog consisting of a backbone of repeating N-(2-aminoethyl)-glycine units to which purine and pyrimidine bases are linked by

  1. Nanostructured magnesium has fewer detrimental effects on osteoblast function

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Lucy; Webster, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    Efforts have been made recently to implement nanoscale surface features on magnesium, a biodegradable metal, to increase bone formation. Compared with normal magnesium, nanostructured magnesium has unique characteristics, including increased grain boundary properties, surface to volume ratio, surface roughness, and surface energy, which may influence the initial adsorption of proteins known to promote the function of osteoblasts (bone-forming cells). Previous studies have shown that one way to increase nanosurface roughness on magnesium is to soak the metal in NaOH. However, it has not been determined if degradation of magnesium is altered by creating nanoscale features on its surface to influence osteoblast density. The aim of the present in vitro study was to determine the influence of degradation of nanostructured magnesium, created by soaking in NaOH, on osteoblast density. Our results showed a less detrimental effect of magnesium degradation on osteoblast density when magnesium was treated with NaOH to create nanoscale surface features. The detrimental degradation products of magnesium are of significant concern when considering use of magnesium as an orthopedic implant material, and this study identified a surface treatment, ie, soaking in NaOH to create nanoscale features for magnesium that can improve its use in numerous orthopedic applications. PMID:23674891

  2. Current status of nanostructured tungsten-based materials development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurishita, H.; Matsuo, S.; Arakawa, H.; Sakamoto, T.; Kobayashi, S.; Nakai, K.; Okano, H.; Watanabe, H.; Yoshida, N.; Torikai, Y.; Hatano, Y.; Takida, T.; Kato, M.; Ikegaya, A.; Ueda, Y.; Hatakeyama, M.; Shikama, T.

    2014-04-01

    Nanostructured tungsten (W)-based materials offer many advantages for use as plasma facing materials and components exposed to heavy thermal loads combined with irradiation with high-energy neutron and low-energy ion. This paper first presents the recent progress in nanostructured toughened, fine grained, recrystallized W materials. Thermal desorption spectrometry apparatus equipped with an ion gun has been installed in the radiation controlled area in our Center at Tohoku University to systematically investigate the effects of displacement damage due to high-energy neutron irradiation on hydrogen isotope retention in connection with the nano- or micro-structures in W-based materials. In this paper, the effects of high-energy heavy ion irradiation on deuterium retention in W with different microstructures are described as a preliminary work with the prospective view of neutron irradiation effects.

  3. Nanostructured materials with biomimetic recognition abilities for chemical sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajwa, Sadia Zafar; Mustafa, Ghulam; Samardzic, Renata; Wangchareansak, Thipvaree; Lieberzeit, Peter A.

    2012-06-01

    Binding features found in biological systems can be implemented into man-made materials to design nanostructured artificial receptor matrices which are suitable, e.g., for chemical sensing applications. A range of different non-covalent interactions can be utilized based on the chemical properties of the respective analyte. One example is the formation of coordinative bonds between a polymerizable ligand (e.g., N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) and a metal ion (e.g., Cu(II)). Optimized molecularly imprinted sensor layers lead to selectivity factors of at least 2 compared to other bivalent ions. In the same way, H-bonds can be utilized for such sensing purposes, as shown in the case of Escherichia coli. The respective molecularly imprinted polymer leads to the selectivity factor of more than 5 between the W and B strains, respectively. Furthermore, nanoparticles with optimized Pearson hardness allow for designing sensors to detect organic thiols in air. The `harder' MoS2 yields only about 40% of the signals towards octane thiol as compared to the `softer' Cu2S. However, both materials strongly prefer molecules with -SH functionality over others, such as hydrocarbon chains. Finally, selectivity studies with wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) reveal that artificial receptors yield selectivities between WGA and bovine serum albumin that are only about a factor of 2 which is smaller than natural ligands.

  4. Rapid prototyping of patterned functional nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    FAN,HONGYOU; LU,YUNFENG; STUMP,AARON; REED,SCOTT T.; BAER,THOMAS A.; SCHUNK,P. RANDALL; PEREZ-LUNA,VICTOR; LOPEZ,GABRIEL P.; BRINKER,C. JEFFREY

    2000-02-09

    Living systems exhibit form and function on multiple length scales, and the prospect of imparting life-like qualities to man-made materials has inspired many recent efforts to devise hierarchical materials assembly strategies. For example, Yang et al. grew surfactant-templated mesoporous silica on hydrophobic patterns prepared by micro-contact printing {micro}CP{sup 3}. Trau et al. formed oriented mesoporous silica patterns, using a micro-molding in capillaries MIMIC technique, and Yang et al. combined MIMIC, polystyrene sphere templating, and surfactant-templating to create oxides with three levels of structural order. Overall, great progress has been made to date in controlling structure on scales ranging from several nanometers to several micrometers. However, materials prepared have been limited to oxides with no specific functionality, whereas for many of the envisioned applications of hierarchical materials in micro-systems, sensors, waveguides, photonics, and electronics, it is necessary to define both form and function on several length scales. In addition, the patterning strategies employed thus far require hours or even days for completion. Such slow processes are inherently difficult to implement in commercial environments. The authors have combined evaporation-induced (silica/surfactant) self-assembly EISA with rapid prototyping techniques like pen lithography, ink-jet printing, and dip-coating on micro-contact printed substrates to form hierarchically organized structures in seconds. In addition, by co-condensation of tetrafunctional silanes (Si(OR){sub 4}) with tri-functional organosilanes ((RO){sub 3}SiR{prime}){sup 12--14} or by inclusion of organic additives, the authors have selectively derivatized the silica framework with functional R{prime} ligands or molecules. The resulting materials exhibit form and function on multiple length scales: on the molecular scale, functional organic moieties are positioned on pore surfaces, on the mesoscale

  5. Novel thermal properties of nanostructured materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Eastman, J. A.

    1999-01-13

    A new class of heat transfer fluids, termed nanofluids, has been developed by suspending nanocrystalline particles in liquids. Due to the orders-of-magnitude larger thermal conductivities of solids compared to those of liquids such as water, significantly enhanced thermal properties are obtained with nanofluids. For example, an approximately 20% improvement in effective thermal conductivity is observed when 5 vol.% CuO nanoparticles are added to water. Even more importantly, the heat transfer coefficient of water under dynamic flow conditions is increased more than 15% with the addition of less than 1 vol.% CuO particles. The use of nanofluids could impact many industrial sectors, including transportation, energy supply and production, electronics, textiles, and paper production by, for example, decreasing pumping power needs or reducing heat exchanger sizes. In contrast to the enhancement in effective thermal transport rates that is obtained when nanoparticles are suspended in fluids, nanocrystalline coatings are expected to exhibit reduced thermal conductivities compared to coarse-grained coatings. Reduced thermal conductivities are predicted to arise because of a reduction in the mean free path of phonons due to presence of grain boundaries. This behavior, combined with improved mechanical properties, makes nanostructured zirconia coatings excellent candidates for future applications as thermal barriers. Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thin films are being produced by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition techniques. Preliminary results have indicated that the thermal conductivity is reduced by approximately a factor-of-two at room temperature in 10 nm grain-sized YSZ compared to coarse-grained or single crystal YSZ.

  6. Molecular Motions in Functional Self-Assembled Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Dhotel, Alexandre; Chen, Ziguang; Delbreilh, Laurent; Youssef, Boulos; Saiter, Jean-Marc; Tan, Li

    2013-01-01

    The construction of “smart” materials able to perform specific functions at the molecular scale through the application of various stimuli is highly attractive but still challenging. The most recent applications indicate that the outstanding flexibility of self-assembled architectures can be employed as a powerful tool for the development of innovative molecular devices, functional surfaces and smart nanomaterials. Structural flexibility of these materials is known to be conferred by weak intermolecular forces involved in self-assembly strategies. However, some fundamental mechanisms responsible for conformational lability remain unexplored. Furthermore, the role played by stronger bonds, such as coordination, ionic and covalent bonding, is sometimes neglected while they can be employed readily to produce mechanically robust but also chemically reversible structures. In this review, recent applications of structural flexibility and molecular motions in self-assembled nanostructures are discussed. Special focus is given to advanced materials exhibiting significant performance changes after an external stimulus is applied, such as light exposure, pH variation, heat treatment or electromagnetic field. The crucial role played by strong intra- and weak intermolecular interactions on structural lability and responsiveness is highlighted. PMID:23348927

  7. Novel organic-inorganic hybrid and nano-structured materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Danliang

    Organic polymers, i.e. polymethacrylates and polystyrene, and inorganic silica were successfully integrated covalently into one body, i.e. hybrid materials, at molecular level in a continuum ranging from pure polymer to pure silica via the sol-gel process. The synthetic conditions have been systematically studied and optimized. A fast and convenient method for the synthesis of polymethacrylate-silica hybrids with significantly low volume-shrinkages has been developed to address the intrinsic problems of the sol-gel process, i.e. large volume shrinkage and long drying times. The relationship of properties of the hybrids with the structures and organic-inorganic compositions have been established. The density, hardness and thermal stability increase with the silica content. Atomic force microscopy study of the morphology shows that the transparent hybrid materials, in which the polymer chains have a strong and intimate interaction with the silica matrix, have significantly different surface features from a translucent control sample. The compressive behavior of the hybrid materials is completely different from that of traditional composites. Toughness of the hybrid materials can be maximized and the strength can be dramatically increased by varying the silica content. Possible mechanisms for the formation of hybrid materials are proposed. Potential applications of the hybrid materials as dental fillers and cation exchangers were investigated. Amorphous silica was functionalized by doping with optically active compounds such as scD-glucose, diphenyl tartaric acid and maltose. The resultant nano-structured materials show excellent optical transparency to visible light. Optical rotation of the materials in the solid state was demonstrated quantitatively to be the same as that in solution. The specific rotation can be calculated directly according to Biot's equation. A non-surfactant templating approach has been developed for the preparation of mesoporous silica by

  8. Nanostructured mesoporous materials for lithium-ion battery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaya, P.; Saravanan, K.; Hariharan, S.; Ramar, V.; Lee, H. S.; Kuezma, M.; Devaraj, S.; Nagaraju, D. H.; Ananthanarayanan, K.; Mason, C. W.

    2011-06-01

    The Energy crisis happens to be one of the greatest challenges we are facing today. In this view, much effort has been made in developing new, cost effective, environmentally friendly energy conversion and storage devices. The performance of such devices is fundamentally related to material properties. Hence, innovative materials engineering is important in solving the energy crisis problem. One such innovation in materials engineering is porous materials for energy storage. Porous electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) offer a high degree of electrolyte-electrode wettability, thus enhancing the electrochemical activity within the material. Among the porous materials, mesoporous materials draw special attention, owing to shorter diffusion lengths for Li+ and electronic movement. Nanostructured mesoporous materials also offer better packing density compared to their nanostructured counterparts such as nanopowders, nanowires, nanotubes etc., thus opening a window for developing electrode materials with high volumetric energy densities. This would directly translate into a scenario of building batteries which are much lighter than today's commercial LIBs. In this article, the authors present a simple, soft template approach for preparing both cathode and anode materials with high packing density for LIBs. The impact of porosity on the electrochemical storage performance is highlighted.

  9. Composite, nanostructured, super-hydrophobic material

    DOEpatents

    D'Urso, Brian R.; Simpson, John T.

    2007-08-21

    A hydrophobic disordered composite material having a protrusive surface feature includes a recessive phase and a protrusive phase, the recessive phase having a higher susceptibility to a preselected etchant than the protrusive phase, the composite material having an etched surface wherein the protrusive phase protrudes from the surface to form a protrusive surface feature, the protrusive feature being hydrophobic.

  10. Anodic aluminum oxide and carbon nanotube-based nanostructured materials for hydrogen sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumiche, Francisco

    Hydrogen is envisioned as one of the most attractive and sustainable energy systems to power future generations. Because of their particular surface characteristics and distinctive physical properties nanoscale materials are promising candidates for the development of high performance hydrogen sensors, essential components to ensure the safe operation of the infrastructure and to facilitate the public acceptance of hydrogen technologies. This investigation is dedicated to the development of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) and double wall carbon nanotube (DWNT)-based nanostructured materials for high performance hydrogen sensors. It addresses the controlled synthesis of nanostructures with defined geometries and sizes, study of physical and electronic properties, and the integration into functional hydrogen sensing devices. Compared to current palladium thin film sensors and nanostructured devices the AAO-based nanostructure exhibits faster response times without compromising sensitivity and selectivity. Performance of developed DWNT-based nanostructures is comparable to that for high performance hydrogen sensors fabricated with SWNTs, but with potential improvement in mechanical and thermal resistance associated to the double layer structure.

  11. Hybride magnetic nanostructure based on amino acids functionalized polypyrrole

    SciTech Connect

    Nan, Alexandrina Bunge, Alexander; Turcu, Rodica

    2015-12-23

    Conducting polypyrrole is especially promising for many commercial applications because of its unique optical, electric, thermal and mechanical properties. We report the synthesis and characterization of novel pyrrole functionalized monomers and core-shell hybrid nanostructures, consisting of a conjugated polymer layer (amino acids functionalized pyrrole copolymers) and a magnetic nanoparticle core. For functionalization of the pyrrole monomer we used several amino acids: tryptophan, leucine, phenylalanine, serine and tyrosine. These amino acids were linked via different types of hydrophobic linkers to the nitrogen atom of the pyrrole monomer. The magnetic core-shell hybrid nanostructures are characterized by various methods such as FTIR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and magnetic measurements.

  12. Hybride magnetic nanostructure based on amino acids functionalized polypyrrole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, Alexandrina; Bunge, Alexander; Turcu, Rodica

    2015-12-01

    Conducting polypyrrole is especially promising for many commercial applications because of its unique optical, electric, thermal and mechanical properties. We report the synthesis and characterization of novel pyrrole functionalized monomers and core-shell hybrid nanostructures, consisting of a conjugated polymer layer (amino acids functionalized pyrrole copolymers) and a magnetic nanoparticle core. For functionalization of the pyrrole monomer we used several amino acids: tryptophan, leucine, phenylalanine, serine and tyrosine. These amino acids were linked via different types of hydrophobic linkers to the nitrogen atom of the pyrrole monomer. The magnetic core-shell hybrid nanostructures are characterized by various methods such as FTIR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and magnetic measurements.

  13. Self-assembly of functional molecules into 1D crystalline nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yanbing; Xu, Liang; Liu, Huibiao; Li, Yongjun; Che, Chi-Ming; Li, Yuliang

    2015-02-01

    Self-assembled functional nanoarchitectures are employed as important nanoscale building blocks for advanced materials and smart miniature devices to fulfill the increasing needs of high materials usage efficiency, low energy consumption, and high-performance devices. One-dimensional (1D) crystalline nanostructures, especially molecule-composed crystalline nanostructures, attract significant attention due to their fascinating infusion structure and functionality which enables the easy tailoring of organic molecules with excellent carrier mobility and crystal stability. In this review, we discuss the recent progress of 1D crystalline self-assembled nanostructures of functional molecules, which include both a small molecule-derived and a polymer-based crystalline nanostructure. The basic principles of the molecular structure design and the process engineering of 1D crystalline nanostructures are also discussed. The molecular building blocks, self-assembly structures, and their applications in optical, electrical, and photoelectrical devices are overviewed and we give a brief outlook on crucial issues that need to be addressed in future research endeavors. PMID:25523368

  14. Applications of ultrasound to the synthesis of nanostructured materials.

    PubMed

    Bang, Jin Ho; Suslick, Kenneth S

    2010-03-12

    Recent advances in nanostructured materials have been led by the development of new synthetic methods that provide control over size, morphology, and nano/microstructure. The utilization of high intensity ultrasound offers a facile, versatile synthetic tool for nanostructured materials that are often unavailable by conventional methods. The primary physical phenomena associated with ultrasound that are relevant to materials synthesis are cavitation and nebulization. Acoustic cavitation (the formation, growth, and implosive collapse of bubbles in a liquid) creates extreme conditions inside the collapsing bubble and serves as the origin of most sonochemical phenomena in liquids or liquid-solid slurries. Nebulization (the creation of mist from ultrasound passing through a liquid and impinging on a liquid-gas interface) is the basis for ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) with subsequent reactions occurring in the heated droplets of the mist. In both cases, we have examples of phase-separated attoliter microreactors: for sonochemistry, it is a hot gas inside bubbles isolated from one another in a liquid, while for USP it is hot droplets isolated from one another in a gas. Cavitation-induced sonochemistry provides a unique interaction between energy and matter, with hot spots inside the bubbles of approximately 5000 K, pressures of approximately 1000 bar, heating and cooling rates of >10(10) K s(-1); these extraordinary conditions permit access to a range of chemical reaction space normally not accessible, which allows for the synthesis of a wide variety of unusual nanostructured materials. Complementary to cavitational chemistry, the microdroplet reactors created by USP facilitate the formation of a wide range of nanocomposites. In this review, we summarize the fundamental principles of both synthetic methods and recent development in the applications of ultrasound in nanostructured materials synthesis. PMID:20401929

  15. Functionalized Nanostructures with Application in Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Perán, Macarena; García, María A.; López-Ruiz, Elena; Bustamante, Milán; Jiménez, Gema; Madeddu, Roberto; Marchal, Juan A.

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, both regenerative medicine and nanotechnology have been broadly developed leading important advances in biomedical research as well as in clinical practice. The manipulation on the molecular level and the use of several functionalized nanoscaled materials has application in various fields of regenerative medicine including tissue engineering, cell therapy, diagnosis and drug and gene delivery. The themes covered in this review include nanoparticle systems for tracking transplanted stem cells, self-assembling peptides, nanoparticles for gene delivery into stem cells and biomimetic scaffolds useful for 2D and 3D tissue cell cultures, transplantation and clinical application. PMID:22489186

  16. Equivalent-Continuum Modeling of Nano-Structured Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odegard, Gregory M.; Gates, Thomas S.; Nicholson, Lee M.; Wise, Kristopher E.

    2001-01-01

    A method has been developed for modeling structure-property relationships of nano-structured materials. This method serves as a link between computational chemistry and solid mechanics by substituting discrete molecular structures with an equivalent-continuum model. It has been shown that this substitution may be accomplished by equating the vibrational potential energy of a nano-structured material with the strain energy of representative truss and continuum models. As an important example with direct application to the development and characterization of single-walled carbon nanotubes, the model has been applied to determine the effective continuum geometry of a graphene sheet. A representative volume element of the equivalent-continuum model has been developed with an effective thickness. This effective thickness has been shown to be similar to, but slightly smaller than, the interatomic spacing of graphite.

  17. Functional zinc oxide nanostructures for electronic and energy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Abhishek

    ZnO has proven to be a multifunctional material with important nanotechnological applications. ZnO nanostructures can be grown in various forms such as nanowires, nanorods, nanobelts, nanocombs etc. In this work, ZnO nanostructures are grown in a double quartz tube configuration thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) system. We focus on functionalized ZnO Nanostructures by controlling their structures and tuning their properties for various applications. The following topics have been investigated: (1) We have fabricated various ZnO nanostructures using a thermal CVD technique. The growth parameters were optimized and studied for different nanostructures. (2) We have studied the application of ZnO nanowires (ZnONWs) for field effect transistors (FETs). Unintentional n-type conductivity was observed in our FETs based on as-grown ZnO NWs. We have then shown for the first time that controlled incorporation of hydrogen into ZnO NWs can introduce p-type characters to the nanowires. We further found that the n-type behaviors remained, leading to the ambipolar behaviors of hydrogen incorporated ZnO NWs. Importantly, the detected p- and n- type behaviors are stable for longer than two years when devices were kept in ambient conditions. All these can be explained by an ab initio model of Zn vacancy-Hydrogen complexes, which can serve as the donor, acceptors, or green photoluminescence quencher, depend on the number of hydrogen atoms involved. (3) Next ZnONWs were tested for electron field emission. We focus on reducing the threshold field (Eth) of field emission from non-aligned ZnO NWs. As encouraged by our results on enhancing the conductivity of ZnO NWs by hydrogen annealing described in Chapter 3, we have studied the effect of hydrogen annealing for improving field emission behavior of our ZnO NWs. We found that optimally annealed ZnO NWs offered much lower threshold electric field and improved emission stability. We also studied field emission from ZnO NWs at moderate

  18. Magnetic Cluster States in Nanostructured Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Diandra Leslie-Pelecky

    2008-06-13

    The goal of this work is to fabricate model nanomaterials with different types of disorder and use atomic-scale characterization and macroscopic magnetization measurements to understand better how specific types of disorder affects macroscopic magnetic behavior. This information can be used to produce magnetic nanomaterials with specific properties for applications such as permanent magnets, soft magnetic material for motors and biomedical applications.

  19. Complex nanostructured materials from segmented copolymers prepared by ATRP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalewski, T.; McCullough, R. D.; Matyjaszewski, K.

    2003-01-01

    The development of new controlled/living radical polymerization processes, such as Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP) and other techniques such as nitroxide mediated polymerization and degenerative transfer processes, including RAFT, opened the way to the use of radical polymerization for the synthesis of well-defined, complex functional nanostructures. The development of such nanostructures is primarily dependent on self-assembly of well-defined segmented copolymers. This article describes the fundamentals of ATRP, relevant to the synthesis of such systems. The self-assembly of block copolymers prepared by ATRP is illustrated by three examples. In the first, block copolymers of poly(butyl acrylate) with polyacrylonitrile phase separate, leading to spherical, cylindrical or lamellar morphologies, depending on the block copolymer composition. At a higher temperature, polyacrylonitrile block converts to nanostructured carbon clusters, whereas poly(butyl acrylate) block serves as a sacrificial block, aiding the development of designed nanostructures. In the second example, conductive nanoribbons of poly(n-hexylthiophene) surrounded by a matrix of organic polymers are formed from block copolymers prepared by ATRP. The third example describes an inorganic-organic hybrid system consisting of hard nanocolloidal silica particles (sim 20 nm) grafted by ATRP with well-defined polystyrene-poly(benzyl acrylate) block copolymer chains (sim 1000 chains per particle). Silica cores in this system are surrounded by a rigid polystyrene inner shell and softer polyacrylate outer shell.

  20. Complex nanostructured materials from segmented copolymers prepared by ATRP.

    PubMed

    Kowalewski, T; McCullough, R D; Matyjaszewski, K

    2003-01-01

    The development of new controlled/living radical polymerization processes, such as Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP) and other techniques such as nitroxide mediated polymerization and degenerative transfer processes, including RAFT, opened the way to the use of radical polymerization for the synthesis of well-defined, complex functional nanostructures. The development of such nanostructures is primarily dependent on self-assembly of well-defined segmented copolymers. This article describes the fundamentals of ATRP, relevant to the synthesis of such systems. The self-assembly of block copolymers prepared by ATRP is illustrated by three examples. In the first, block copolymers of poly(butyl acrylate) with polyacrylonitrile phase separate, leading to spherical, cylindrical or lamellar morphologies, depending on the block copolymer composition. At a higher temperature, polyacrylonitrile block converts to nanostructured carbon clusters, whereas poly(butyl acrylate) block serves as a sacrificial block, aiding the development of designed nanostructures. In the second example, conductive nanoribbons of poly(n-hexylthiophene) surrounded by a matrix of organic polymers are formed from block copolymers prepared by ATRP. The third example describes an inorganic-organic hybrid system consisting of hard nanocolloidal silica particles (approximately 20 nm) grafted by ATRP with well-defined polystyrene-poly(benzyl acrylate) block copolymer chains (approximately 1000 chains per particle). Silica cores in this system are surrounded by a rigid polystyrene inner shell and softer polyacrylate outer shell. PMID:15011074

  1. Heat transport by phonons in crystalline materials and nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, Yee Kan

    This dissertation presents experimental studies of heat transport by phonons in crystalline materials and nanostructures, and across solid-solid interfaces. Particularly, this dissertation emphasizes advancing understanding of the mean-free-paths (i.e., the distance phonons propagate without being scattered) of acoustic phonons, which are the dominant heat carriers in most crystalline semiconductor nanostructures. Two primary tools for the studies presented in this dissertation are time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR) for measurements of thermal conductivity of nanostructures and thermal conductance of interfaces; and frequency-domain thermoreflectance (FDTR), which I developed as a direct probe of the mean-free-paths of dominant heat-carrying phonons in crystalline solids. The foundation of FDTR is the dependence of the apparent thermal conductivity on the frequency of periodic heat sources. I find that the thermal conductivity of semiconductor alloys (InGaP, InGaAs, and SiGe) measured by TDTR depends on the modulation frequency, 0.1 ≤ f ≤ 10 MHz, used in TDTR measurements. Reduction in the thermal conductivity of the semiconductor alloys at high f compares well to the reduction in the thermal conductivity of epitaxial thin films, indicating that frequency dependence and thickness dependence of thermal conductivity are fundamentally equivalent. I developed the frequency dependence of thermal conductivity into a convenient probe of phonon mean-free-paths, a technique which I call frequency-domain thermoreflectance (FDTR). In FDTR, I monitor the changes in the intensity of the reflected probe beam as a function of the modulation frequency. To facilitate the analysis of FDTR measurements, I developed a nonlocal theory for heat conduction by phonons at high heating frequencies. Calculations of the nonlocal theory confirm my experimental findings that phonons with mean-free-paths longer than two times the penetration depth do not contribute to the apparent thermal

  2. Arc Plasma Synthesis of Nanostructured Materials: Techniques and Innovations

    SciTech Connect

    Das, A. K.; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Kakati, M.; Karmakar, Soumen

    2008-10-23

    Arc plasma aided synthesis of nanostructured materials has the potential of producing complex nano phase structures in bulk quantities. Successful implementation of this potential capability to industrial scale nano generation needs establishment of a plasma parameter control regime in terms of plasma gas, flow pattern, pressure, local temperature and the plasma fields to obtain the desired nano phase structures. However, there is a need to design innovative in situ experiments for generation of an extensive database and subsequently to correlate plasma parameters to the size, shape and phase of the generated nanostructures. The present paper reviews the various approaches utilized in the field of arc plasma nanosynthesis in general and in the authors' laboratories in particular. Simple plasma diagnostics and monitoring schemes have been used in conjunction with nano materials characterization tools to explore the possibility of controlling the size, shape, yield and phase composition of the arc generated nanostructures through plasma control. Case studies related to synthesis of AlN, Al2O3, TiO2, ZrO2, ZnO), magnetic (e.g. {gamma}-Fe2O3, Fe3O4) and single elemental materials (e.g. carbon nanotubes) are presented.

  3. Elastic properties of nanostructured materials with layered grain boundary structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakasidis, T. E.; Charitidis, C. A.; Skarakis, D.; Chouliaras, F.

    2007-08-01

    Atomistic calculations of the elastic constants for a bulk nanostructured material that consists of a layered structure where alternating layers meet along high angle grain boundaries and where atoms interact via a Lennard-Jones potential are presented. The calculations of the elastic constants were performed in the frame of homogeneous deformations for a wide range of layer widths ranging from 2.24 up to 74.62 nm. The results showed that the relaxation of the atomic structure affects the elastic constants for the cases where more than 5% of atoms are located in the GB region. Also it was found that the way that external stresses are applied on the system affects the values of the obtained elastic properties, with the elastic constants related to the characteristic directions of the grain boundary being the most affected ones. The findings of this work are of interest for the fabrication methods of nanostructured materials, the measurement methods of their elastic properties as well as multiscale modeling schemes of nanostructured materials.

  4. Intracavity fabrication of nanostructures on bulk materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipov, Vladimir P.; Valyavko, Vasily V.

    2002-05-01

    The analytical and experimental investigations describing the intracavity processing of different solid-sate materials (Al, Cr, Ge, Si) are presented. New designs of the laser cavity were explored to facilitate the fabrication of structures composed of a system of equidistant parallel 250 nm-sized grooves and periodic micro-dots on massive samples of metals and semiconductors, as well as micro-holes in thin film metallic samples.

  5. Nanostructuring graphene for controlled and reproducible functionalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mali, Kunal S.; Greenwood, John; Adisoejoso, Jinne; Phillipson, Roald; de Feyter, Steven

    2015-01-01

    The `graphene rush' that started almost a decade ago is far from over. The dazzling properties of graphene have long warranted a number of applications in various domains of science and technology. Harnessing the exceptional properties of graphene for practical applications however has proved to be a massive task. Apart from the challenges associated with the large-scale production of the material, the intrinsic zero band gap, the inherently low reactivity and solubility of pristine graphene preclude its use in several high- as well as low-end applications. One of the potential solutions to these problems is the surface functionalization of graphene using organic building blocks. The `surface-only' nature of graphene allows the manipulation of its properties not only by covalent chemical modification but also via non-covalent interactions with organic molecules. Significant amount of research efforts have been directed towards the development of functionalization protocols for modifying the structural, electronic, and chemical properties of graphene. This feature article provides a glimpse of recent progress in the molecular functionalization of surface supported graphene using non-covalent as well as covalent chemistry.

  6. High volume production of nanostructured materials

    DOEpatents

    Ripley, Edward B.; Morrell, Jonathan S.; Seals, Roland D.; Ludtka, Gerard M.

    2009-10-13

    A system and method for high volume production of nanoparticles, nanotubes, and items incorporating nanoparticles and nanotubes. Microwave, radio frequency, or infrared energy vaporizes a metal catalyst which, as it condenses, is contacted by carbon or other elements such as silicon, germanium, or boron to form agglomerates. The agglomerates may be annealed to accelerate the production of nanotubes. Magnetic or electric fields may be used to align the nanotubes during their production. The nanotubes may be separated from the production byproducts in aligned or non-aligned configurations. The agglomerates may be formed directly into tools, optionally in compositions that incorporate other materials such as abrasives, binders, carbon-carbon composites, and cermets.

  7. Synthesis and chemical modification of carbon nanostructures for materials applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higginbotham, Amanda Lynn

    This dissertation explores the structure, chemical reactivities, electromagnetic response, and materials properties of various carbon nanostructures, including single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), graphite, and graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). Efficient production and modification of these unique structures, each with their own distinct properties, will make them more accessible for applications in electronics, materials, and biology. A method is reported for controlling the permittivity from 1--1000 MHz of SWCNT-polymer composites (0.5 wt%) for radio frequency applications including passive RF antenna structures and EMI shielding. The magnitude of the real permittivity varied between 20 and 3.3, decreasing as higher fractions of functionalized-SWCNTs were added. The microwave absorbing properties and subsequent heating of carbon nanotubes were used to rapidly cure ceramic composites. With less than 1 wt% carbon nanotube additives and 30--40 W of directed microwave power (2.45 GHz), bulk composite samples reached temperatures above 500°C within 1 min. Graphite oxide (GO) polymer nanocomposites were developed at 1, 5, and 10 wt% for the purpose of evaluating the flammability reduction and materials properties of the resulting systems. Microscale oxygen consumption calorimetry revealed that addition of GO reduced the total heat release in all systems, and GO-polycarbonate composites demonstrated very fast self-extinguishing times in vertical open flame tests. A simple solution-based oxidative process using potassium permanganate in sulfuric acid was developed for producing nearly 100% yield of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) by lengthwise cutting and unraveling of MWCNT sidewalls. Subsequent chemical reduction of the GNRs resulted in restoration of electrical conductivity. The GNR synthetic conditions were investigated in further depth, and an improved method which utilized a two-acid reaction medium was found to produce GNRs with

  8. Nanostructured functional films from engineered repeat proteins

    PubMed Central

    Grove, Tijana Z.; Regan, Lynne; Cortajarena, Aitziber L.

    2013-01-01

    Fundamental advances in biotechnology, medicine, environment, electronics and energy require methods for precise control of spatial organization at the nanoscale. Assemblies that rely on highly specific biomolecular interactions are an attractive approach to form materials that display novel and useful properties. Here, we report on assembly of films from the designed, rod-shaped, superhelical, consensus tetratricopeptide repeat protein (CTPR). We have designed three peptide-binding sites into the 18 repeat CTPR to allow for further specific and non-covalent functionalization of films through binding of fluorescein labelled peptides. The fluorescence signal from the peptide ligand bound to the protein in the solid film is anisotropic, demonstrating that CTPR films can impose order on otherwise isotropic moieties. Circular dichroism measurements show that the individual protein molecules retain their secondary structure in the film, and X-ray scattering, birefringence and atomic force microscopy experiments confirm macroscopic alignment of CTPR molecules within the film. This work opens the door to the generation of innovative biomaterials with tailored structure and function. PMID:23594813

  9. Nanostructured Materials for Room-Temperature Gas Sensors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Liu, Xianghong; Neri, Giovanni; Pinna, Nicola

    2016-02-01

    Sensor technology has an important effect on many aspects in our society, and has gained much progress, propelled by the development of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Current research efforts are directed toward developing high-performance gas sensors with low operating temperature at low fabrication costs. A gas sensor working at room temperature is very appealing as it provides very low power consumption and does not require a heater for high-temperature operation, and hence simplifies the fabrication of sensor devices and reduces the operating cost. Nanostructured materials are at the core of the development of any room-temperature sensing platform. The most important advances with regard to fundamental research, sensing mechanisms, and application of nanostructured materials for room-temperature conductometric sensor devices are reviewed here. Particular emphasis is given to the relation between the nanostructure and sensor properties in an attempt to address structure-property correlations. Finally, some future research perspectives and new challenges that the field of room-temperature sensors will have to address are also discussed. PMID:26662346

  10. Nanostructured energetic materials derived from sol-gel chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, R L; Tillotson, T M; Hrubesh, L W; Gash, A E

    2000-03-15

    Initiation and detonation properties are dramatically affected by an energetic material's microstructural properties. Sol-gel chemistry allows intimacy of mixing to be controlled and dramatically improved over existing methodologies. One material goal is to create very high power energetic materials which also have high energy densities. Using sol-gel chemistry we have made a nanostructured composite energetic material. Here a solid skeleton of fuel, based on resorcinol-formaldehyde, has nanocrystalline ammonium perchlorate, the oxidizer, trapped within its pores. At optimum stoichiometry it has approximately the energy density of HMX. Transmission electron microscopy indicated no ammonium perchlorate crystallites larger than 20 nm while near-edge soft x-ray absorption microscopy showed that nitrogen was uniformly distributed, at least on the scale of less than 80 nm. Small-angle neutron scattering studies were conducted on the material. Those results were consistent with historical ones for this class of nanostructured materials. The average skeletal primary particle size was on the order of 2.7 nm, while the nanocomposite showed the growth of small 1 nm size crystals of ammonium perchlorate with some clustering to form particles greater than 10 nm.

  11. High-strength, thermally-stable nanostructured materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shankar, Ravi

    The properties of two technologically important precipitation-treatable alloys - Al 6061 and Inconel 718, that are deformed to large plastic strains at room temperature by machining, are presented. The strong effect of prior density of precipitates on the consequent microstructure refinement during chip formation was determined by deforming Al 6061 of different tempers to varying levels of strain, by varying the tool rake angle. Chips cut from peak-aged 6061, consisting of a fine dispersion of precipitates, produced the finest microstructure and are composed of sub-100 nm grains. On the other hand, coarser precipitate distributions in over-aged 6061 and an absence of precipitates in solution-treated 6061 resulted in much coarser microstructures. Thermal stability of such nanostructured chips with different levels of strain and precipitate distributions is analyzed by studying evolution of Vickers micro-hardness and microstructure after different heat treatments. Chips produced from the peak-aged temper and over-aged temper soften following heat treatment while those from the solution-treated state first, gain strength before softening. The results are rationalized based on prior studies of the characteristics and kinetics of precipitation and coarsening in Al-Mg-Si systems. It is then demonstrated that precipitate-stabilized nanostructured materials synthesized from a prototypical alloy system - Inconel 718, are extremely stable even after prolonged heat treatment for 240 hours at temperatures as high as one-half of the melting point. This extraordinary thermal stability is traced to the retention of a fine dispersion of precipitates in a nanostructured matrix even after extended heat treatment. It is anticipated that general design principles garnered from understanding of the causal phenomena determining strengthening and thermal stability, can lead to the development of alloy systems for the manufacture of high-strength, thermally-stable nanostructured materials.

  12. Novel Nanostructured Materials for Hydrogen Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillon, Anne

    2005-03-01

    The United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and the Office of Basic Sciences have concluded that hydrogen storage is a cornerstone technology for implementing a hydrogen energy economy. However, significant scientific advancement is still required if a viable on-board storage technology is to be developed. For example, an adsorption process for on-board vehicular storage will require a hydrogen binding energy between ˜20-60 kJ/mol to allow for near-room temperature operation at reasonable pressures. Typically, non-dissociative physisorption due purely to van der Waals forces involves a binding energy of only ˜ 4 kJ/mol, whereas a chemical bond is ˜ 400 kJ/mol. The desired binding energy range for vehicular hydrogen storage therefore dictates that molecular H2 be stabilized in an unusual manor. Hydrogen adsorption has been observed with a binding energy of ˜ 50 kJ /mol on carbon multi-wall nanotubes (MWNTs) containing iron nanoparticles at their tips. However, hydrogen adsorption at near ambient conditions is neither anticipated nor observed on either purified MWNTs or iron nanoparticles by themselves. Recent theoretical studies have shown that an iron adatom forms a complex with a C36 fullerene and shares charge with four carbon atoms of a bent five-membered ring in the C36 molecule. Three H2 ligands then also coordinate with the iron forming a stable 18-electron organo-metallic complex. Here the binding energy of the molecular hydrogen ligands is ˜ 43 kJ /mol. It is believed that a similar interaction may be occurring for MWNTs containing iron nanoparticles. However, a more optimized material must be produced in order to increase the hydrogen capacity. Iron has also been predicted to complex with all twelve of the five-membered rings in C60 with a binding energy of ˜42 kJ/mol and an H2 capacity of 4.9 wt.%. Further, Scandium has been shown to complex with the twelve five-membered rings in C60 with a

  13. Novel H2 Sorption Measurements of Nanostructured Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Lin; Parilla, Phillip; Blackburn, Jeff; O'Neill, Kevin; Sanders, Michael; Dillon, Anne; Whitney, Erin; Heben, Michael; Gennett, Thomas

    2007-03-01

    To expeditiously develop nanostructured materials with high hydrogen sorption capacities, a novel volumetric measurement apparatus was designed and constructed that is suitable for rapid analysis of the small samples (milligram) typically available in the laboratory. The instrument enables both low temperature (down to ˜12K) volumetric measurements and high temperature (up to 1300K) sample processing without the need for sample transfers. The instrument has been used to study the hydrogen sorption behavior of chemically and thermally processed raw and purified nanostructured materials (e.g. nanotubes, activated carbons, polymers, aerogels). Hydrogen sorption, specific surface area, and binding energy results for different samples will be reported. The goal of these activities is to engineer hydrogen sorption materials that can ultimately meet the DOE's targets for vehicular fuel cell applications. Funding for this effort provided by the DOE's EERE Hydrogen Program within the Center of Excellence on Carbon-based Hydrogen Storage Materials, and by the Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Science and Engineering under subcontract DE-AC36-99GO10337 to NREL.

  14. Engineering living functional materials.

    PubMed

    Chen, Allen Y; Zhong, Chao; Lu, Timothy K

    2015-01-16

    Natural materials, such as bone, integrate living cells composed of organic molecules together with inorganic components. This enables combinations of functionalities, such as mechanical strength and the ability to regenerate and remodel, which are not present in existing synthetic materials. Taking a cue from nature, we propose that engineered 'living functional materials' and 'living materials synthesis platforms' that incorporate both living systems and inorganic components could transform the performance and the manufacturing of materials. As a proof-of-concept, we recently demonstrated that synthetic gene circuits in Escherichia coli enabled biofilms to be both a functional material in its own right and a materials-synthesis platform. To demonstrate the former, we engineered E. coli biofilms into a chemical-inducer-responsive electrical switch. To demonstrate the latter, we engineered E. coli biofilms to dynamically organize biotic-abiotic materials across multiple length scales, template gold nanorods, gold nanowires, and metal/semiconductor heterostructures, and synthesize semiconductor nanoparticles (Chen, A. Y. et al. (2014) Synthesis and patterning of tunable multiscale materials with engineered cells. Nat. Mater. 13, 515-523.). Thus, tools from synthetic biology, such as those for artificial gene regulation, can be used to engineer the spatiotemporal characteristics of living systems and to interface living systems with inorganic materials. Such hybrids can possess novel properties enabled by living cells while retaining desirable functionalities of inorganic systems. These systems, as living functional materials and as living materials foundries, would provide a radically different paradigm of materials performance and synthesis-materials possessing multifunctional, self-healing, adaptable, and evolvable properties that are created and organized in a distributed, bottom-up, autonomously assembled, and environmentally sustainable manner. PMID:25592034

  15. Vanadium-based nanostructure materials for secondary lithium battery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Hui Teng; Rui, Xianhong; Sun, Wenping; Yan, Qingyu; Lim, Tuti Mariana

    2015-08-01

    Vanadium-based materials, such as V2O5, LiV3O8, VO2(B) and Li3V2(PO4)3 are compounds that share the characteristic of intercalation chemistry. Their layered or open frameworks allow facile ion movement through the interspaces, making them promising cathodes for LIB applications. To bypass bottlenecks occurring in the electrochemical performances of vanadium-based cathodes that derive from their intrinsic low electrical conductivity and ion diffusion coefficients, nano-engineering strategies have been implemented to ``create'' newly emerging properties that are unattainable at the bulk solid level. Integrating this concept into vanadium-based cathodes represents a promising way to circumvent the aforementioned problems as nanostructuring offers potential improvements in electrochemical performances by providing shorter mass transport distances, higher electrode/electrolyte contact interfaces, and better accommodation of strain upon lithium uptake/release. The significance of nanoscopic architectures has been exemplified in the literature, showing that the idea of developing vanadium-based nanostructures is an exciting prospect to be explored. In this review, we will be casting light on the recent advances in the synthesis of nanostructured vanadium-based cathodes. Furthermore, efficient strategies such as hybridization with foreign matrices and elemental doping are introduced as a possible way to boost their electrochemical performances (e.g., rate capability, cycling stability) to a higher level. Finally, some suggestions relating to the perspectives for the future developments of vanadium-based cathodes are made to provide insight into their commercialization.

  16. Engineering Living Functional Materials

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Natural materials, such as bone, integrate living cells composed of organic molecules together with inorganic components. This enables combinations of functionalities, such as mechanical strength and the ability to regenerate and remodel, which are not present in existing synthetic materials. Taking a cue from nature, we propose that engineered ‘living functional materials’ and ‘living materials synthesis platforms’ that incorporate both living systems and inorganic components could transform the performance and the manufacturing of materials. As a proof-of-concept, we recently demonstrated that synthetic gene circuits in Escherichia coli enabled biofilms to be both a functional material in its own right and a materials-synthesis platform. To demonstrate the former, we engineered E. coli biofilms into a chemical-inducer-responsive electrical switch. To demonstrate the latter, we engineered E. coli biofilms to dynamically organize biotic-abiotic materials across multiple length scales, template gold nanorods, gold nanowires, and metal/semiconductor heterostructures, and synthesize semiconductor nanoparticles (Chen, A. Y. et al. (2014) Synthesis and patterning of tunable multiscale materials with engineered cells. Nat. Mater.13, 515–523.). Thus, tools from synthetic biology, such as those for artificial gene regulation, can be used to engineer the spatiotemporal characteristics of living systems and to interface living systems with inorganic materials. Such hybrids can possess novel properties enabled by living cells while retaining desirable functionalities of inorganic systems. These systems, as living functional materials and as living materials foundries, would provide a radically different paradigm of materials performance and synthesis–materials possessing multifunctional, self-healing, adaptable, and evolvable properties that are created and organized in a distributed, bottom-up, autonomously assembled, and environmentally sustainable manner. PMID

  17. Functional Hybrid Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Romero, Pedro; Sanchez, Clément

    2004-04-01

    Functional Hybrid Materials consist of both organic and inorganic components, assembled for the purpose of generating desirable properties and functionalities. The aim is twofold: to bring out or enhance advantageous chemical, electrochemical, magnetic or electronic characteristics and at the same time to reduce or wholly suppress undesirable properties or effects. Another target is the creation of entirely new material behavior. The vast number of hybrid material components available has opened up a wide and diversified field of fascinating research. In this book, a team of highly renowned experts gives an in-depth overview, illustrating the superiority of well-designed hybrid materials and their potential applications.

  18. Nanostructured materials: A novel approach to enhanced performance. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Korth, G.E.; Froes, F.H.; Suryanarayana, C.

    1996-05-01

    Nanostuctured materials are an emerging class of materials that can exhibit physical and mechanical characteristics often exceeding those exhibited by conventional course grained materials. A number of different techniques can be employed to produce these materials. In this program, the synthesis methods were (a) mechanical alloying , (b) physical vapor deposition, and (c) plasma processing. The physical vapor deposition and plasma processing were discontinued after initial testing with subsequent efforts focused on mechanical alloying. The major emphasis of the program was on the synthesis, consolidation, and characterization of nanostructured Al-Fe, Ti-Al, Ti-Al-Nb, and Fe-Al by alloying intermetallics with a view to increase their ductilities. The major findings of this project are reported.

  19. RNA as a stable polymer to build controllable and defined nanostructures for material and biomedical applications

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Lee, Taek; Dziubla, Thomas; Pi, Fengmei; Guo, Sijin; Xu, Jing; Li, Chan; Haque, Farzin; Liang, Xing-Jie; Guo, Peixuan

    2015-01-01

    Summary The value of polymers is manifested in their vital use as building blocks in material and life sciences. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polynucleic acid, but its polymeric nature in materials and technological applications is often overlooked due to an impression that RNA is seemingly unstable. Recent findings that certain modifications can make RNA resistant to RNase degradation while retaining its authentic folding property and biological function, and the discovery of ultra-thermostable RNA motifs have adequately addressed the concerns of RNA unstability. RNA can serve as a unique polymeric material to build varieties of nanostructures including nanoparticles, polygons, arrays, bundles, membrane, and microsponges that have potential applications in biomedical and material sciences. Since 2005, more than a thousand publications on RNA nanostructures have been published in diverse fields, indicating a remarkable increase of interest in the emerging field of RNA nanotechnology. In this review, we aim to: delineate the physical and chemical properties of polymers that can be applied to RNA; introduce the unique properties of RNA as a polymer; review the current methods for the construction of RNA nanostructures; describe its applications in material, biomedical and computer sciences; and, discuss the challenges and future prospects in this field. PMID:26770259

  20. Nanostructured materials for applications in drug delivery and tissue engineering*

    PubMed Central

    GOLDBERG, MICHAEL; LANGER, ROBERT; JIA, XINQIAO

    2010-01-01

    point of view, both the drug-delivery vehicles and tissue-engineering scaffolds need to be biocompatible and biodegradable. The biological functions of encapsulated drugs and cells can be dramatically enhanced by designing biomaterials with controlled organizations at the nanometer scale. This review summarizes the most recent development in utilizing nanostructured materials for applications in drug delivery and tissue engineering. PMID:17471764

  1. Surface functionalized nanostructured ceramic sorbents for the effective collection and recovery of uranium from seawater.

    PubMed

    Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Pittman, Jonathan W; Warner, Marvin G; Nell, Kara M; Clubb, Donald C; Gill, Gary A; Addleman, R Shane

    2016-07-28

    The ability to collect uranium from seawater offers the potential for a nearly limitless fuel supply for nuclear energy. We evaluated the use of functionalized nanostructured sorbents for the collection and recovery of uranium from seawater. Extraction of trace minerals from seawater and brines is challenging due to the high ionic strength of seawater, low mineral concentrations, and fouling of surfaces over time. We demonstrate that rationally assembled sorbent materials that integrate high affinity surface chemistry and high surface area nanostructures into an application relevant micro/macro structure enables collection performance that far exceeds typical sorbent materials. High surface area nanostructured silica with surface chemistries composed of phosphonic acid, phosphonates, 3,4 hydroxypyridinone, and EDTA showed superior performance for uranium collection. A few phosphorous-based commercial resins, specifically Diphonix and Ln Resin, also performed well. We demonstrate an effective and environmentally benign method of stripping the uranium from the high affinity sorbents using inexpensive nontoxic carbonate solutions. The cyclic use of preferred sorbents and acidic reconditioning of materials was shown to improve performance. Composite thin films composed of the nanostructured sorbents and a porous polymer binder are shown to have excellent kinetics and good capacity while providing an effective processing configuration for trace mineral recovery from solutions. Initial work using the composite thin films shows significant improvements in processing capacity over the previously reported sorbent materials. PMID:27184739

  2. Functional surface chemistry of carbon-based nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdula, Daner

    The recently discovered abilities to synthesize single-walled carbon nanotubes and prepare single layer graphene have spurred interest in these sp2-bonded carbon nanostructures. In particular, studies of their potential use in electronic devices are many as silicon integrated circuits are encountering processing limitations, quantum effects, and thermal management issues due to rapid device scaling. Nanotube and graphene implementation in devices does come with significant hurdles itself. Among these issues are the ability to dope these materials and understanding what influences defects have on expected properties. Because these nanostructures are entirely all-surface, with every atom exposed to ambient, introduction of defects and doping by chemical means is expected to be an effective route for addressing these issues. Raman spectroscopy has been a proven characterization method for understanding vibrational and even electronic structure of graphene, nanotubes, and graphite, especially when combined with electrical measurements, due to a wealth of information contained in each spectrum. In Chapter 1, a discussion of the electronic structure of graphene is presented. This outlines the foundation for all sp2-bonded carbon electronic properties and is easily extended to carbon nanotubes. Motivation for why these materials are of interest is readily gained. Chapter 2 presents various synthesis/preparation methods for both nanotubes and graphene, discusses fabrication techniques for making devices, and describes characterization methods such as electrical measurements as well as static and time-resolved Raman spectroscopy. Chapter 3 outlines changes in the Raman spectra of individual metallic single-walled carbon nantoubes (SWNTs) upon sidewall covalent bond formation. It is observed that the initial degree of disorder has a strong influence on covalent sidewall functionalization which has implications on developing electronically selective covalent chemistries and

  3. Assembling and properties of the polymer-particle nanostructured materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheparovych, Roman

    Complementary properties of the soft and hard matter explain its common encounter in many natural and manmade applications. A combination of flexible organic macromolecules and hard mineral clusters results in new materials far advantageous than its constituents alone. In this work we study assembling of colloidal nanocrystals and polymers into complex nanostructures. Magnetism, surface wettability and adhesion comprise properties of interest for the obtained nanocomposites. Applying a magnetic field induces a reversible 1D ordering of the magnetically susceptible particles. This property was employed in the fabrication of the permanent chains of magnetite nanocrystals (d=15nm). In the assembling process the aligned particles were bound together using polyelectrolyte macromolecules. The basics of the binding process involved an electrostatic interaction between the positively charged polyelectrolyte and the negative surface of the particles (aqueous environment). Adsorption of the polymer molecules onto several adjacent particles in the aligned 1D aggregate results in the formation of the permanent particulate chains. Positive charges of the adsorbed polyelectrolyte molecules stabilize the dispersion of the obtained nanostructures in water. Magnetization measurements revealed that superparamagnetic nanoparticles, being assembled into 1D ordered structures, attain magnetic coercivity. This effect originates from the magnetostatic interaction between the neighboring magnetite nanocrystals. The preferable dipole alignment of the assembled nanoparticles is directed along the chain axis. Another system studied in this project includes polymer-particle responsive surface coatings. Tethered polymer chains and particles bearing different functionalities change surface properties upon restructuring of the composite layer. When the environment favors polymer swelling (good solvent), the polymer chains segregate to the surface and cover the particles. In the opposite case

  4. Nanomanufacturing : nano-structured materials made layer-by-layer.

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, James V.; Cheng, Shengfeng; Grest, Gary Stephen; Tjiptowidjojo, Kristianto; Reedy, Earl David, Jr.; Fan, Hongyou; Schunk, Peter Randall; Chandross, Michael Evan; Roberts, Scott A.

    2011-10-01

    Large-scale, high-throughput production of nano-structured materials (i.e. nanomanufacturing) is a strategic area in manufacturing, with markets projected to exceed $1T by 2015. Nanomanufacturing is still in its infancy; process/product developments are costly and only touch on potential opportunities enabled by growing nanoscience discoveries. The greatest promise for high-volume manufacturing lies in age-old coating and imprinting operations. For materials with tailored nm-scale structure, imprinting/embossing must be achieved at high speeds (roll-to-roll) and/or over large areas (batch operation) with feature sizes less than 100 nm. Dispersion coatings with nanoparticles can also tailor structure through self- or directed-assembly. Layering films structured with these processes have tremendous potential for efficient manufacturing of microelectronics, photovoltaics and other topical nano-structured devices. This project is designed to perform the requisite R and D to bring Sandia's technology base in computational mechanics to bear on this scale-up problem. Project focus is enforced by addressing a promising imprinting process currently being commercialized.

  5. Novel hybrid nanostructured materials of magnetite nanoparticles and pectin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Saurabh; Dutta, Raj Kumar

    2011-04-01

    A novel hybrid nanostructured material comprising superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) and pectin was synthesized by crosslinking with Ca2+ ions to form spherical calcium pectinate nanostructures, referred as MCPs, which were typically found to be 100-150 nm in size in dried condition, confirmed from transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The uniform size distribution was revealed from dynamic light scattering measurement. In aqueous medium the MCPs showed swelling behavior with an average size of 400 nm. A mechanism of formation of spherical MCPs is outlined constituting a MNP-pectin interface encapsulated by calcium pectinate at the periphery, by using an array of characterization techniques like zeta potential, thermogravimetry, Fourier transformed infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The MCPs were stable in simulated gastrointestinal fluid and ensured minimal loss of magnetic material. They exhibited superparamagnetic behavior, confirmed from zero field cooled and field cooled profiles and showed high saturation magnetization (Ms) of 46.21 emu/g at 2.5 T and 300 K. Ms decreased with increasing precursor pectin concentrations, attributed to quenching of magnetic moments by formation of a magnetic dead layer on the MNPs.

  6. Growth of Carbon Nanostructure Materials Using Laser Vaporization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Shen; Su, Ching-Hua; Lehozeky, S.

    2000-01-01

    Since the potential applications of carbon nanotubes (CNT) was discovered in many fields, such as non-structure electronics, lightweight composite structure, and drug delivery, CNT has been grown by many techniques in which high yield single wall CNT has been produced by physical processes including arc vaporization and laser vaporization. In this presentation, the growth mechanism of the carbon nanostructure materials by laser vaporization is to be discussed. Carbon nanoparticles and nanotubes have been synthesized using pulsed laser vaporization on Si substrates in various temperatures and pressures. Two kinds of targets were used to grow the nanostructure materials. One was a pure graphite target and the other one contained Ni and Co catalysts. The growth temperatures were 600-1000 C and the pressures varied from several torr to 500 torr. Carbon nanoparticles were observed when a graphite target was used, although catalysts were deposited on substrates before growing carbon films. When the target contains catalysts, carbon nanotubes (CNT) are obtained. The CNT were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, optical absorption and transmission, and Raman spectroscopy. The temperature-and pressure-dependencies of carbon nanotubes' growth rate and size were investigated.

  7. Functionalized carbon nanostructures for hydrogen catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Lung-Hao

    Sodium borohydride, NaBH4, is widely used as a source of pure hydrogen. Hydrogen is of interest because it is a source of clean energy. It can be converted directly into electrical energy by means of fuel cells. One of the objectives of this thesis was to develop a new catalytic process to (i) enhance the rate of hydrogen generation, and (ii) to achieve hydrogen generation equal to 100% of the theoretically expected value. The catalyst investigated in this research is constructed by starting from single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT). This material has a very high specific surface area and good conductivity. The SWNT were formed into a paper by a special filtration process. Polysilazane, a polymeric precursor (Ceraset(TM)-SN from KiON Corp., Wiesbaden, Germany) was diluted by acetone and then layered onto SWNT paper. The Ceraset coated SWNT was then pyrolyzed at 1100°C for three hours to form a silicon carbonitride (SiCN), polymer derived ceramic (PDC), layer on the surface of SWNT filtered paper. This functionalized SiCN carbon nanotube paper (SiCN/CNT) was used as the substrate for catalyst dispersions. The catalyst consisted of transition metals, Pt/Pd/Ru. Suspension solutions of Pt, Pd and Ru were impregnated onto the SiCN/CNT paper with the expectation of creating a monolayer of these transition metals on surface of the SiCN/CNT substrate. It is likely that an interaction could occur between the transition metals and the silicon atoms present in the SiCN layer on the surface of the carbon nanotubes. It is known that transition metals and silicon react to form silicides, suggesting the formation of a strong Si-transition metal bond. Therefore, it is possible that this bond could provide good wetting of metal atoms on SiCN functionalized carbon nanotube substrate. In the limit a monolayer of the transition metals may be achieved, which would correspond to a near zero dihedral angle between the substrate and the cluster of transition metals. In such a scenario a

  8. Ultrafast laser functionalized rare phased gold-silicon/silicon oxide nanostructured hybrid biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Premnath, P; Tan, B; Venkatakrishnan, K

    2015-12-01

    We introduce a hybrid nanostructured biomaterial that is a combination of rare phases of immiscible gold and silicon oxide, functionalized via ultrafast laser synthesis. For the first time, we show cancer controlling properties of rare phases of gold silicides, which include Au7Si, Au5Si, Au0.7Si2.3 and Au8Si2. Conventionally, pure forms of gold and silicon/silicon oxide are extensively employed in targeted therapy and drug delivery systems due to their unique properties. While silicon and silicon oxide nanoparticles have shown biocompatibility, gold nanoparticles show conflicting results based on their size and material properties. Several studies have shown that gold and silicon combinations produce cell controlling properties, however, these studies were not able to produce a homogenous combination of gold and silicon, owing to its immiscibility. A homogenous combination of gold and silicon may potentially enable properties that have not previously been reported. We describe rare phased gold-silicon oxide nanostructured hybrid biomaterials and its unique cancer controlling properties, owing to material properties, concentration, size and density. The gold-silicon oxide nanostructured hybrid is composed of individual gold-silicon oxide nanoparticles in various concentrations of gold and silicon, some nanoparticles possess a gold-core and silicon-shell like structure. The individual nanoparticles are bonded together forming a three dimensional nanostructured hybrid. The interaction of the nanostructured hybrids with cervical cancer cells showed a 96% reduction in 24h. This engineered nanostructured hybrid biomaterial presents significant potential due to the combination of immiscible gold and silicon oxide in varying phases and can potentially satiate the current vacuum in cancer therapy. PMID:26539809

  9. Characterization of self-assembled functional polymeric nanostructures: I. magnetic nanostructures from metallopolymers II. Zwitterionic polymer vesicles in ionic liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddikeri, Raghavendra Raj

    Two diverse projects illustrate the application of various materials characterization techniques to investigate the structure and properties of nanostructured functional materials formed in both bulk as well as in solutions. In the first project, ordered magnetic nanostructures were formed within polymer matrix by novel metallopolymers. The novel metal-functionalized block copolymers (BCPs) enabled the confinement of cobalt metal ions within nanostructured BCP domains, which upon simple heat treatment resulted in room temperature ferromagnetic (RTFM) materials. On the contrary, cobalt functionalized homopolymer having similar chemical structure and higher loading of metal-ion are unstructured and exhibited superparamagnetic (SPM) behavior at room temperature. Based on a series of detailed investigations, using various materials characterization techniques, it was hypothesized that the SPM cobalt particles within BCP microdomains exhibited a collective behavior due to increased dipolar interactions between them under the nanoconfinement of cylindrical domains in BCP, resulting in RTFM behavior. On contrary, the same SPM cobalt particles formed within homopolymer, without any confinement exhibited SPM behavior either due to lack of interactions or random interactions between them. To further support this hypothesis, a series of BCPs were prepared in which the BCP morphology was varied between the cylindrical, lamellar, and inverted cylindrical phases and their magnetic properties were compared. All these BCPs, which are nanostructured, exhibited RTFM behavior, further supporting the proposed hypothesis. Different dimensionality or degree of nanoconfinement in BCP morphologies affected the magnetization reversal processes in these BCPs, yielding different macroscopic magnetic properties. Most strongly constrained cylindrical morphology has shown best magnetic properties (highest coercivity) among other BCP morphologies. Inverted cylindrical morphology, in which a 3-D

  10. Thermal Characterization of Nanostructures and Advanced Engineered Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyal, Vivek Kumar

    Continuous downscaling of Si complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology and progress in high-power electronics demand more efficient heat removal techniques to handle the increasing power density and rising temperature of hot spots. For this reason, it is important to investigate thermal properties of materials at nanometer scale and identify materials with the extremely large or extremely low thermal conductivity for applications as heat spreaders or heat insulators in the next generation of integrated circuits. The thin films used in microelectronic and photonic devices need to have high thermal conductivity in order to transfer the dissipated power to heat sinks more effectively. On the other hand, thermoelectric devices call for materials or structures with low thermal conductivity because the performance of thermoelectric devices is determined by the figure of merit Z=S2sigma/K, where S is the Seebeck coefficient, K and sigma are the thermal and electrical conductivity, respectively. Nanostructured superlattices can have drastically reduced thermal conductivity as compared to their bulk counterparts making them promising candidates for high-efficiency thermoelectric materials. Other applications calling for thin films with low thermal conductivity value are high-temperature coatings for engines. Thus, materials with both high thermal conductivity and low thermal conductivity are technologically important. The increasing temperature of the hot spots in state-of-the-art chips stimulates the search for innovative methods for heat removal. One promising approach is to incorporate materials, which have high thermal conductivity into the chip design. Two suitable candidates for such applications are diamond and graphene. Another approach is to integrate the high-efficiency thermoelectric elements for on-spot cooling. In addition, there is strong motivation for improved thermal interface materials (TIMs) for heat transfer from the heat-generating chip

  11. High performance capacitors using nano-structure multilayer materials fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Johnson, G.W.; O`Brien, D.W.

    1995-05-09

    A high performance capacitor is fabricated from nano-structure multilayer materials, such as by controlled, reactive sputtering, and having very high energy-density, high specific energy and high voltage breakdown. The multilayer capacitors, for example, may be fabricated in a ``notepad`` configuration composed of 200-300 alternating layers of conductive and dielectric materials so as to have a thickness of 1 mm, width of 200 mm, and length of 300 mm, with terminals at each end of the layers suitable for brazing, thereby guaranteeing low contact resistance and high durability. The notepad capacitors may be stacked in single or multiple rows (series-parallel banks) to increase the voltage and energy density. 5 figs.

  12. High performance capacitors using nano-structure multilayer materials fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Johnson, G.W.; O`Brien, D.W.

    1996-01-23

    A high performance capacitor is described which is fabricated from nano-structure multilayer materials, such as by controlled, reactive sputtering, and having very high energy-density, high specific energy and high voltage breakdown. The multilayer capacitors, for example, may be fabricated in a ``notepad`` configuration composed of 200--300 alternating layers of conductive and dielectric materials so as to have a thickness of 1 mm, width of 200 mm, and length of 300 mm, with terminals at each end of the layers suitable for brazing, thereby guaranteeing low contact resistance and high durability. The ``notepad`` capacitors may be stacked in single or multiple rows (series-parallel banks) to increase the voltage and energy density. 5 figs.

  13. High performance capacitors using nano-structure multilayer materials fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Barbee, Jr., Troy W.; Johnson, Gary W.; O'Brien, Dennis W.

    1995-01-01

    A high performance capacitor fabricated from nano-structure multilayer materials, such as by controlled, reactive sputtering, and having very high energy-density, high specific energy and high voltage breakdown. The multilayer capacitors, for example, may be fabricated in a "notepad" configuration composed of 200-300 alternating layers of conductive and dielectric materials so as to have a thickness of 1 mm, width of 200 mm, and length of 300 mm, with terminals at each end of the layers suitable for brazing, thereby guaranteeing low contact resistance and high durability. The "notepad" capacitors may be stacked in single or multiple rows (series-parallel banks) to increase the voltage and energy density.

  14. High performance capacitors using nano-structure multilayer materials fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Barbee, Jr., Troy W.; Johnson, Gary W.; O'Brien, Dennis W.

    1996-01-01

    A high performance capacitor fabricated from nano-structure multilayer materials, such as by controlled, reactive sputtering, and having very high energy-density, high specific energy and high voltage breakdown. The multilayer capacitors, for example, may be fabricated in a "notepad" configuration composed of 200-300 alternating layers of conductive and dielectric materials so as to have a thickness of 1 mm, width of 200 mm, and length of 300 mm, with terminals at each end of the layers suitable for brazing, thereby guaranteeing low contact resistance and high durability. The "notepad" capacitors may be stacked in single or multiple rows (series-parallel banks) to increase the voltage and energy density.

  15. Functionalized surfaces and nanostructures for nanotechnological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-01-01

    CMOS roadmap in sight at around 10 nm, combined with the uncertainly principal's limit of Von Neuman electronics at 2 nm, that merely making things smaller will not help us. Replacing CMOS transistors on a one for one basis with some type of nano device would have the effect of drastically increasing fabrication costs, while offering only a marginal improvement over current technologies. However, nanotechnology offers us a way out of this technological and financial cul-de-sac by building devices from the bottom up. Techniques such as self assembly, perhaps assisted by templates created by nano imprint lithography, a notable European success, combined with our understanding of the workings of polymers and molecules such as Rotoxane at the nanoscale open up a whole new host of possibilities. Whether it is avoiding Moore's second law by switching to plastic electronics, or using molecular electronics, our understanding of the behaviour of materials on the scale of small molecules allows a variety of alternative approaches, to produce smarter, cheaper devices. The new understandings will also allow us to design new architectures, with the end result that functionality will become a more valid measure of performance than transistor density or operations per second. 8. Nanotechnology is new It often comes as a surprise to learn that the Romans and Chinese were using nanoparticles thousands of years ago. Similarly, every time you light a match, fullerenes are produced. Degusssa have been producing carbon black, the substance that makes car tyres black and improves the wear resistance of the rubber, since the 1920s. Of course they were not aware that they were using nanotechnology, and as they had no control over particle size, or even any knowledge of the nanoscale they were not using nanotechnology as currently defined. What is new about nanotechnology is our ability to not only see, and manipulate matter on the nanoscale, but our understanding of atomic scale interactions

  16. Understanding and tuning nanostructured materials for chemical energy conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Guoqiang

    The conversion of energy that employs chemical reaction is termed chemical energy conversion. In my dissertation, I have focused on chemical energy conversion systems involving energetic materials and lithium ion batteries, where performance is strongly dependent on the properties of materials and their architecture. The objective of this study is to enhance our understanding and tuning of nanostructured materials that might find application toward energetic materials and electrode materials in lithium ion batteries. Rapid heating diagnostics tools, i.e. temperature-jump techniques, have been used to study the ignition of aluminum nanoparticles, nanothermite reaction mechanism and metal oxides nanoparticles decomposition under rapid heating conditions (˜105-106 K/s). Time-resolved mass spectra results support the hypothesis that Al containing species diffuse outwards through the oxide shell. Low effective activation energies were found for metal oxides nanoparticles decomposition at high heating rates, implying the mass transfer control at high heating rates. The role of oxygen release from oxidizer in nanothermite reactions have been examined for several different systems, including some using microsized oxidizer (i.e., nano-Al/micro-I 2O5). In particular, for periodate based nanothermites, direct evidence from high heating rate SEM and mass spectrometry results support that direct gas phase oxygen release from oxidizer decomposition is critical in its ignition and combustion. Efforts have also been made to synthesize nanostructured materials for nanoenergetic materials and lithium ion batteries applications. Hollow CuO spheres were synthesized by aerosol spray pyrolysis, employing a gas blowing mechanism for the formation of hollow structure during aerosol synthesis. The materials synthesized as oxidizers in nanothermite demonstrated superior performance, and of particular note, periodate salts based nanothermite demonstrated the best gas generating performance

  17. Advanced nanostructured materials for energy storage and conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchings, Gregory S.

    Due to a global effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to utilize renewable sources of energy, much effort has been directed towards creating new alternatives to fossil fuels. Identifying novel materials for energy storage and conversion can enable radical changes to the current fuel production infrastructure and energy utilization. The use of engineered nanostructured materials in these systems unlocks unique catalytic activity in practical configurations. In this work, research efforts have been focused on the development of nanostructured materials to address the need for both better energy conversion and storage, with applications toward Li-O2 battery electrocatalysts, electrocatalytic generation of H2, conversion of furfural to useful chemicals and fuels, and Li battery anode materials. Highly-active alpha-MnO2 materials were synthesized for use as bifunctional oxygen reduction (ORR) and evolution (OER) catalysts in Li-O2 batteries, and were evaluated under operating conditions with a novel in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy configuration. Through detailed analysis of local coordination and oxidation states of Mn atoms at key points in the electrochemical cycle, a self-switching behavior affecting the bifunctional activity was identified and found to be critical. In an additional study of materials for lithium batteries, nanostructured TiO2 anode materials doped with first-row transition metals were synthesized and evaluated for improving battery discharge capacity and rate performance, with Ni and Co doping at low levels found to cause the greatest enhancement. In addition to battery technology research, I have also sought to find inexpensive and earth-abundant electrocatalysts to replace state-of-the-art Pt/C in the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), a systematic computational study of Cu-based bimetallic electrocatalysts was performed. During the screening of dilute surface alloys of Cu mixed with other first-row transition metals, materials with

  18. The Process of Nanostructuring of Metal (Iron) Matrix in Composite Materials for Directional Control of the Mechanical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Zemtsova, Elena

    2014-01-01

    We justified theoretical and experimental bases of synthesis of new class of highly nanostructured composite nanomaterials based on metal matrix with titanium carbide nanowires as dispersed phase. A new combined method for obtaining of metal iron-based composite materials comprising the powder metallurgy processes and the surface design of the dispersed phase is considered. The following stages of material synthesis are investigated: (1) preparation of porous metal matrix; (2) surface structuring of the porous metal matrix by TiC nanowires; (3) pressing and sintering to give solid metal composite nanostructured materials based on iron with TiC nanostructures with size 1–50 nm. This material can be represented as the material type “frame in the frame” that represents iron metal frame reinforcing the frame of different chemical compositions based on TiC. Study of material functional properties showed that the mechanical properties of composite materials based on iron with TiC dispersed phase despite the presence of residual porosity are comparable to the properties of the best grades of steel containing expensive dopants and obtained by molding. This will solve the problem of developing a new generation of nanostructured metal (iron-based) materials with improved mechanical properties for the different areas of technology. PMID:24695459

  19. Nano-structured electron transporting materials for perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hefei; Huang, Ziru; Wei, Shiyuan; Zheng, Lingling; Xiao, Lixin; Gong, Qihuang

    2016-03-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells have been developing rapidly in the past several years, and their power conversion efficiency has reached over 20%, nearing that of polycrystalline silicon solar cells. Because the diffusion length of the hole in perovskites is longer than that of the electron, the performance of the device can be improved by using an electron transporting layer, e.g., TiO2, ZnO and TiO2/Al2O3. Nano-structured electron transporting materials facilitate not only electron collection but also morphology control of the perovskites. The properties, morphology and preparation methods of perovskites are reviewed in the present article. A comprehensive understanding of the relationship between the structure and property will benefit the precise control of the electron transporting process and thus further improve the performance of perovskite solar cells.

  20. Nano-structured electron transporting materials for perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hefei; Huang, Ziru; Wei, Shiyuan; Zheng, Lingling; Xiao, Lixin; Gong, Qihuang

    2016-03-17

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells have been developing rapidly in the past several years, and their power conversion efficiency has reached over 20%, nearing that of polycrystalline silicon solar cells. Because the diffusion length of the hole in perovskites is longer than that of the electron, the performance of the device can be improved by using an electron transporting layer, e.g., TiO2, ZnO and TiO2/Al2O3. Nano-structured electron transporting materials facilitate not only electron collection but also morphology control of the perovskites. The properties, morphology and preparation methods of perovskites are reviewed in the present article. A comprehensive understanding of the relationship between the structure and property will benefit the precise control of the electron transporting process and thus further improve the performance of perovskite solar cells. PMID:26457406

  1. Nanostructured Materials Utilized in Biopolymer-based Plastics for Food Packaging Applications.

    PubMed

    Ghanbarzadeh, Babak; Oleyaei, Seyed Amir; Almasi, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Most materials currently used for food packaging are nondegradable, generating environmental problems. Several biopolymers have been exploited to develop materials for ecofriendly food packaging. However, the use of biopolymers has been limited because of their usually poor mechanical and barrier properties, which may be improved by adding reinforcing compounds (fillers), forming composites. Most reinforced materials present poor matrix-filler interactions, which tend to improve with decreasing filler dimensions. The use of fillers with at least one nanoscale dimension (nanoparticles) produces nanocomposites. Nanoparticles have proportionally larger surface area than their microscale counterparts, which favors the filler-matrix interactions and the performance of the resulting material. Besides nanoreinforcements, nanoparticles can have other functions when added to a polymer, such as antimicrobial activity, etc. in this review paper, the structure and properties of main kinds of nanostructured materials which have been studied to use as nanofiller in biopolymer matrices are overviewed, as well as their effects and applications. PMID:24798951

  2. Nanostructured lithium sulfide materials for lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Kyu; Lee, Yun Jung; Sun, Yang-Kook

    2016-08-01

    Upon the maturation and saturation of Li-ion battery technologies, the demand for the development of energy storage systems with higher energy densities has surged to meet the needs of key markets such as electric vehicles. Among the many next generation high-energy storage options, the Lisbnd S battery system is considered particularly close to mass commercialization because of its low cost and the natural abundance of sulfur. In this review, we focus on nanostructured Li2S materials for Lisbnd S batteries. Due to a lithium source in its molecular structure, Li2S can be coupled with various Li-free anode materials, thereby giving it the potential to surmount many of the problems related with a Li-metal anode. The hurdles that impede the full utilization of Li2S materials include its high activation barrier and the low electrical conductivity of bulk Li2S particles. Various strategies that can be used to assist the activation process and facilitate electrical transport are analyzed. To provide insight into the opportunities specific to Li2S materials, we highlight some major advances and results that have been achieved in the development of metal Li-free full cells and all-solid-state cells based on Li2S cathodes.

  3. Preparation and properties on hollow nano-structured smoke material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiang-cui; Dai, Meng-yan; Fang, Guo-feng; Shi, Wei-dong; Cheng, Xiang; Liu, Hai-feng; Zhang, Tong

    2013-09-01

    In recent years, the weapon systems of laser guidance and infrared (IR) imaging guidance have been widely used in modern warfare because of their high precision and strong anti-interference. Notwithstanding, military smoke, as a rapid and effective passive jamming means, can effectively counteract the attack of enemy precision-guided weapons by scattering and absorbability. Conventional smoke has good attenuation capability only to visible light (0.4-0.76 μm), but hardly any effect to other electromagnetic wave band. The weapon systems of laser guidance and IR imaging guidance usually work in broad band, including near IR (1-3 μm), middle IR (3-5 μm), far IR (8-14 μm), and so on. Accordingly, exploiting and using new efficient obscurant materials, which is one of the important factors that develop smoke technology, have become a focus and attracted more interests around the world. Then nano-structured materials that are developing very quickly have turned into our new choice. Hollow nano-structured materials (HNSM) have many special properties because of their nano-size wall-thickness and sub-micron grain-size. After a lot of HNSM were synthesized in this paper, their physical and chemical properties, including grain size, phase composition, microstructure, optical properties and resistivity were tested and analysed. Then the experimental results of the optical properties showed that HNSM exhibit excellent wave-absorbing ability in ultraviolet, visible and infrared regions. On the basis of the physicochemmical properties, HNSM are firstly applied in smoke technology field. And the obscuration performance of HNSM smoke was tested in smoke chamber. The testing waveband included 1.06μm and 10.6μm laser, 3-5μm and 8-14μm IR radiation. Then the main parameters were obtained, including the attenuation rate, the transmission rate, the mass extinction coefficient, the efficiency obscuring time, and the sedimentation rate, etc. The main parameters of HNSM smoke were

  4. Nanostructured Materials for Advanced Electrochemical Energy Storage Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Benjamin E.

    This dissertation discusses work aimed at developing and improving nanostructured materials for electrochemical energy storage, specifically electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLCs) and lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). This was achieved through a combination of templating, precursor selection, and heteroatom doping to control the morphology and composition of the materials for improved performance in both types of energy storage. The first part of the thesis discusses EDLCs. First, a new method to produce soft-templated carbon materials is described. This process allows for improved production of mesoporous carbon made through soft templating. The work continues with using ionic liquids to dope nitrogen into hard templated mesoporous carbon. This led to a 40% improvement in specific capacitance due to improved conductivity. The section concludes with an investigation of physical and electrochemical properties of twelve ionic liquid electrolytes to determine which parameters are most important to achieve a high energy density. The second part discusses my work on LIBs, starting with a design of a low-cost electrochemical cell for in-situ X-ray diffraction monitoring during galvanostatic cycling. It continues with the development of a novel cathode material, Li8ZrO6, with a high lithium content. In this material, the redox activity is localized on oxygen atoms. Li8ZrO6 displays initial capacities higher than those of commercial materials but has large polarization. The capacity is further improved with transition metal doping, leading to a final specific capacity of over 175 mAh/g after 140 cycles at a rate of C/5.

  5. Nanoporous and Nanostructured Materials for Energy Storage and Sensor Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vu, Anh D.

    The major objective of this work is to design nanostructured and nanoporous materials targeting the special needs of the energy storage and sensing fields. Nanostructured and nanoporous materials are increasingly finding applications in many fields, including electrical energy storage and explosive sensing. The advancement of energy storage devices is important to the development of three fields that have strong effects on human society: renewable energy, transportation, and portable devices. More sensitive explosive sensors will help to prevent terrorism activities and boost national security. Hierarchically porous LiFePO4 (LFP)/C composites were prepared using a surfactant and colloidal crystals as dual templates. The surfactant serves as the template for mesopores and polymeric colloidal spheres serve as the template for macropores. The confinement of the surfactant-LFP-carbon precursor in the colloidal templates is crucial to suppress the fast crystallization of LFP and helps to maintain the ordered structure. The obtained composites with high surface areas and ordered porous structure showed excellent rate performance when used as cathode materials for LIBs, which will allow them to be used as a power source for EVs and HEVs. The synthesis of LiFePO 4 in three dimensionally confined spaces within the colloidal template resulted in the formation of spherical particles. Densely packed LiFePO 4 spheres in a carbon matrix were obtained by spin-casting the LFP-carbon precursor on a quartz substrate and then pyrolyzing it. The product showed high capacity and could be charged /discharged with very little capacity fading over many cycles. Three-dimensionally ordered mesoporous carbons were prepared from nano-sized silica sphere colloidal crystal templates. These materials with very high surface areas and ordered porous structure showed high capacitance and excellent rate capability when used as electrodes for supercapacitors. Mesoporous silica thin films of different

  6. Boron-based nanostructures: Synthesis, functionalization, and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedasso, Eyrusalam Kifyalew

    Boron-based nanostructures have not been explored in detail; however, these structures have the potential to revolutionize many fields including electronics and biomedicine. The research discussed in this dissertation focuses on synthesis, functionalization, and characterization of boron-based zero-dimensional nanostructures (core/shell and nanoparticles) and one-dimensional nanostructures (nanorods). The first project investigates the synthesis and functionalization of boron-based core/shell nanoparticles. Two boron-containing core/shell nanoparticles, namely boron/iron oxide and boron/silica, were synthesized. Initially, boron nanoparticles with a diameter between 10-100 nm were prepared by decomposition of nido-decaborane (B10H14) followed by formation of a core/shell structure. The core/shell structures were prepared using the appropriate precursor, iron source and silica source, for the shell in the presence of boron nanoparticles. The formation of core/shell nanostructures was confirmed using high resolution TEM. Then, the core/shell nanoparticles underwent a surface modification. Boron/iron oxide core/shell nanoparticles were functionalized with oleic acid, citric acid, amine-terminated polyethylene glycol, folic acid, and dopamine, and boron/silica core/shell nanoparticles were modified with 3-(amino propyl) triethoxy silane, 3-(2-aminoethyleamino)propyltrimethoxysilane), citric acid, folic acid, amine-terminated polyethylene glycol, and O-(2-Carboxyethyl)polyethylene glycol. A UV-Vis and ATR-FTIR analysis established the success of surface modification. The cytotoxicity of water-soluble core/shell nanoparticles was studied in triple negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 and the result showed the compounds are not toxic. The second project highlights optimization of reaction conditions for the synthesis of boron nanorods. This synthesis, done via reduction of boron oxide with molten lithium, was studied to produce boron nanorods without any

  7. Radial distribution function imaging by STEM diffraction: Phase mapping and analysis of heterogeneous nanostructured glasses.

    PubMed

    Mu, Xiaoke; Wang, Di; Feng, Tao; Kübel, Christian

    2016-09-01

    Characterizing heterogeneous nanostructured amorphous materials is a challenging topic, because of difficulty to solve disordered atomic arrangement in nanometer scale. We developed a new transmission electron microscopy (TEM) method to enable phase analysis and mapping of heterogeneous amorphous structures. That is to combine scanning TEM (STEM) diffraction mapping, radial distribution function (RDF) analysis, and hyperspectral analysis. This method was applied to an amorphous zirconium oxide and zirconium iron multilayer system, and showed extreme sensitivity to small atomic packing variations. This approach helps to understand local structure variations in glassy composite materials and provides new insights to correlate structure and properties of glasses. PMID:27236215

  8. The equipment for controlling the structure and functional properties of nanostructured composite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burov, V. G.; Plotnikova, N. V.; Prokhorenko, E. V.; Smirnov, A. I.

    2016-04-01

    The article is devoted to the creation of an instrumental system allowing evaluating the functional properties and current-voltage characteristics of nanostructured composite films at different temperatures and other environmental parameters. The system is based on an assessment of current-voltage characteristics of a nanostructured film material. The main components of the system are a chamber and a unit for current-voltage characteristics measuring. The stage with the test material and the contact system are provided with a heating element and a cooling system thus allowing warming to 150 °C and fast cooling to negative temperatures by liquid nitrogen circulating. The chamber body leak proofness against the external environment allows forming a composition of the atmosphere at a predetermined humidity level, which is essential for the measurement of current-voltage characteristics of polymer materials. The article describes the design features of the instrumental system and results of its application used for determining the properties of polymer nanostructured composite films.

  9. Nanostructured electrode materials for Li-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaya, Palani; Saravanan, Kuppan; Hariharan, Srirama

    2010-04-01

    Nanostructured materials have triggered a great excitement in recent times due to both fundamental interest as well as technological impact relevant for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Size reduction in nanocrystals leads to a variety of unexpected exciting phenomena due to enhanced surface-to-volume ratio and reduced transport length. We will consider a few examples of nanostructured electrode materials in the context of lithium batteries for achieving high storage and high rate performances: 1) LiFePO4 nanoplates synthesized using solvothermal method could store Li-ions comparable to its theoretical capacity at C/10, while at 30C, they exhibit storage capacity up to 45 mAh/g. Size reduction (~30 nm) at the b-axis favors the fast Li-ion diffusion. In addition to this, uniform ~5 nm carbon coating throughout the plates provides excellent electronically conducting path for electrons. This nano architecture enables fast insertion/extraction of both Li-ions as well as electrons; 2) Mesporous-TiO2 with high surface area (135m2/g) synthesized using soft-template method exhibits high volumetric density compared to commercial nanopowder (P25), with excellent Li-storage behavior. C16 meso-TiO2 synthesized from CTAB exhibits reversible storage capacity of 288mAh/g at 0.2C and 109 mAh/g at 30C; 3) Zero strain Li4Ti5O12 anode material has been synthesized using several wet chemical routes. The best condition has been optimized to achieve storage capability close to theoretical limit of 175mAh/g at C/10. At 10C, we could retain lithium storage up to 88 mAh/g; 4) We report our recent results on α-Fe2O3 and γ-Fe2O3 using conversion reaction, providing insight for a better storage capability in γ-phase than the α-phase at 2C resulting solely from the nanocrystallinity.

  10. Method of producing catalytic materials for fabricating nanostructures

    DOEpatents

    Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2013-02-19

    Methods of fabricating nano-catalysts are described. In some embodiments the nano-catalyst is formed from a powder-based substrate material and is some embodiments the nano-catalyst is formed from a solid-based substrate material. In some embodiments the substrate material may include metal, ceramic, or silicon or another metalloid. The nano-catalysts typically have metal nanoparticles disposed adjacent the surface of the substrate material. The methods typically include functionalizing the surface of the substrate material with a chelating agent, such as a chemical having dissociated carboxyl functional groups (--COO), that provides an enhanced affinity for metal ions. The functionalized substrate surface may then be exposed to a chemical solution that contains metal ions. The metal ions are then bound to the substrate material and may then be reduced, such as by a stream of gas that includes hydrogen, to form metal nanoparticles adjacent the surface of the substrate.

  11. Neutron and X-ray Characterization of Nanostructured Polymeric Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Thomas

    2008-03-01

    Controlling the orientation and lateral ordering of the block copolymer microdomains is key to their use as templates and scaffolds for the fabrication of nanostructured materials. Processes must be robust, rapid and simple to implement and should not introduce disruptive processing steps that would impede their use. Grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS) and neutron neutron scattering have proven to be critical for the characterization of the static and real time development of structure in thin films of block copolymers. Here, studies on poly(styrene-b-4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) diblock copolymers prepared from mixed solvents will be discussed that show highly oriented, cylindrical microdomains with a high degree of lateral order on a wide range of substrates, including silicon oxide, polystyrene, germanium, polyimide, and poly(butylene terephthalate). The preferential solvation of the P4VP block with an alcohol was used to induce a reconstruction that left a nanoporous film upon drying. The evaporation of gold onto the reconstructed films produced thermally stable films that are resistant to reactive ion etching. GISAXS was used to quantitatively examine the structure of these composite films and the transfer of the patterns to the underlying substrate. (research done in collaboration with Soojin Park, Jia-Yu Wang, Bokyung Kim University of Massachusetts), Benjamin Ocko (Brookhaven National Laboratory) and Jin Wang (Argonne National Laboratory).

  12. Large scale atomistic approaches to thermal transport and phonon scattering in nanostructured materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savic, Ivana

    2012-02-01

    Decreasing the thermal conductivity of bulk materials by nanostructuring and dimensionality reduction, or by introducing some amount of disorder represents a promising strategy in the search for efficient thermoelectric materials [1]. For example, considerable improvements of the thermoelectric efficiency in nanowires with surface roughness [2], superlattices [3] and nanocomposites [4] have been attributed to a significantly reduced thermal conductivity. In order to accurately describe thermal transport processes in complex nanostructured materials and directly compare with experiments, the development of theoretical and computational approaches that can account for both anharmonic and disorder effects in large samples is highly desirable. We will first summarize the strengths and weaknesses of the standard atomistic approaches to thermal transport (molecular dynamics [5], Boltzmann transport equation [6] and Green's function approach [7]) . We will then focus on the methods based on the solution of the Boltzmann transport equation, that are computationally too demanding, at present, to treat large scale systems and thus to investigate realistic materials. We will present a Monte Carlo method [8] to solve the Boltzmann transport equation in the relaxation time approximation [9], that enables computation of the thermal conductivity of ordered and disordered systems with a number of atoms up to an order of magnitude larger than feasible with straightforward integration. We will present a comparison between exact and Monte Carlo Boltzmann transport results for small SiGe nanostructures and then use the Monte Carlo method to analyze the thermal properties of realistic SiGe nanostructured materials. This work is done in collaboration with Davide Donadio, Francois Gygi, and Giulia Galli from UC Davis.[4pt] [1] See e.g. A. J. Minnich, M. S. Dresselhaus, Z. F. Ren, and G. Chen, Energy Environ. Sci. 2, 466 (2009).[0pt] [2] A. I. Hochbaum et al, Nature 451, 163 (2008).[0pt

  13. Novel biomaterials: plasma-enabled nanostructures and functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levchenko, Igor; Keidar, Michael; Cvelbar, Uroš; Mariotti, Davide; Mai-Prochnow, Anne; Fang, Jinghua; (Ken Ostrikov, Kostya

    2016-07-01

    Material processing techniques utilizing low-temperature plasmas as the main process tool feature many unique capabilities for the fabrication of various nanostructured materials. As compared with the neutral-gas based techniques and methods, the plasma-based approaches offer higher levels of energy and flux controllability, often leading to higher quality of the fabricated nanomaterials and sometimes to the synthesis of the hierarchical materials with interesting properties. Among others, nanoscale biomaterials attract significant attention due to their special properties towards the biological materials (proteins, enzymes), living cells and tissues. This review briefly examines various approaches based on the use of low-temperature plasma environments to fabricate nanoscale biomaterials exhibiting high biological activity, biological inertness for drug delivery system, and other features of the biomaterials make them highly attractive. In particular, we briefly discuss the plasma-assisted fabrication of gold and silicon nanoparticles for bio-applications; carbon nanoparticles for bioimaging and cancer therapy; carbon nanotube-based platforms for enzyme production and bacteria growth control, and other applications of low-temperature plasmas in the production of biologically-active materials.

  14. Nanostructured carbon materials based electrothermal air pump actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qing; Liu, Luqi; Kuang, Jun; Dai, Zhaohe; Han, Jinhua; Zhang, Zhong

    2014-05-01

    Actuator materials can directly convert different types of energy into mechanical energy. In this work, we designed and fabricated electrothermal air pump-type actuators by utilization of various nanostructured carbon materials, including single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), reduced graphene oxide (r-GO), and graphene oxide (GO)/SWCNT hybrid films as heating elements to transfer electrical stimulus into thermal energy, and finally convert it into mechanical energy. Both the actuation displacement and working temperature of the actuator films show the monotonically increasing trend with increasing driving voltage within the actuation process. Compared with common polymer nanocomposites based electrothermal actuators, our actuators exhibited better actuation performances with a low driving voltage (<10 V), large generated stress (tens of MPa), high gravimetric density (tens of J kg-1), and short response time (few hundreds of milliseconds). Besides that, the pump actuators exhibited excellent stability under cyclic actuation tests. Among these actuators, a relatively larger actuation strain was obtained for the r-GO film actuator due to the intrinsic gas-impermeability nature of graphene platelets. In addition, the high modulus of the r-GO and GO/SWCNT films also guaranteed the large generated stress and high work density. Specifically, the generated stress and gravimetric work density of the GO/SWCNT hybrid film actuator could reach up to more than 50 MPa and 30 J kg-1, respectively, under a driving voltage of 10 V. The resulting stress value is at least two orders of magnitude higher than that of natural muscles (~0.4 MPa).Actuator materials can directly convert different types of energy into mechanical energy. In this work, we designed and fabricated electrothermal air pump-type actuators by utilization of various nanostructured carbon materials, including single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), reduced graphene oxide (r-GO), and graphene oxide (GO)/SWCNT hybrid

  15. Tetrazoles: Unique Capping Ligands and Precursors for Nanostructured Materials.

    PubMed

    Voitekhovich, Sergei V; Lesnyak, Vladimir; Gaponik, Nikolai; Eychmüller, Alexander

    2015-11-18

    Capping agents play an important role in the colloidal synthesis of nanomaterials because they control the nucleation and growth of particles, as well as their chemical and colloidal stability. During recent years tetrazole derivatives have proven to be advanced capping ligands for the stabilization of semiconductor and metal nanoparticles. Tetrazole-capped nanoparticles can be prepared by solution-phase or solventless single precursor approaches using metal derivatives of tetrazoles. The solventless thermolysis of metal tetrazolates can produce both individual semiconductor nanocrystals and nanostructured metal monolithic foams displaying low densities and high surface areas. Alternatively, highly porous nanoparticle 3D assemblies are achieved through the controllable aggregation of tetrazole-capped particles in solutions. This approach allows for the preparation of non-ordered hybrid structures consisting of different building blocks, such as mixed semiconductor and metal nanoparticle-based (aero)gels with tunable compositions. Another unique property of tetrazoles is their complete thermal decomposition, forming only gaseous products, which is employed in the fabrication of organic-free semiconductor films from tetrazole-capped nanoparticles. After deposition and subsequent thermal treatment these films exhibit significantly improved electrical transport. The synthetic availability and advances in the functionalization of tetrazoles necessitate further design and study of tetrazole-capped nanoparticles for various applications. PMID:26395565

  16. Methods of electrophoretic deposition for functionally graded porous nanostructures and systems thereof

    DOEpatents

    Worsley, Marcus A; Baumann, Theodore F; Satcher, Joe H; Olson, Tammy Y; Kuntz, Joshua D; Rose, Klint A

    2015-03-03

    In one embodiment, an aerogel includes a layer of shaped particles having a particle packing density gradient in a thickness direction of the layer, wherein the shaped particles are characterized by being formed in an electrophoretic deposition (EPD) process using an impurity. In another embodiment, a method for forming a functionally graded porous nanostructure includes adding particles of an impurity and a solution to an EPD chamber, applying a voltage difference across the two electrodes of the EPD chamber to create an electric field in the EPD chamber, and depositing the material onto surfaces of the particles of the impurity to form shaped particles of the material. Other functionally graded materials and methods are described according to more embodiments.

  17. Synthesis and applications of bioinspired inorganic nanostructured materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassett, David C.

    2011-12-01

    Although the study of biominerals may be traced back many centuries, it is only recently that biological principles have been applied to synthetic systems in processes termed "biomimetic" and "bioinspired" to yield materials syntheses that are otherwise not possible and may also reduce the expenditure of energy and/or eliminate toxic byproducts. Many investigators have taken inspiration from interesting and unusual minerals formed by organisms, in a process termed biomineralisation, to tailor the nanostructure of inorganic materials not necessarily found biogenically. However, the fields of nanoparticle synthesis and biomineralisation remain largely separate, and this thesis is an attempt to apply new studies on biomineralisation to nanomaterials science. Principally among the proteins that influence biomineralisation is a group comprised largely of negatively charged aspartic acid residues present in serum. This study is an investigation determining the ability of these serum proteins and other anolagous biomolecules to stabilise biologically relevant amorphous minerals and influence the formation of a variety of materials at the nanoscale. Three different materials were chosen to demonstrate this effect; gold was templated into nanosized single crystals by the action of bioorganic molecules, and the utility of these nanoparticles as a biosensor was explored. The influence of bioorganic molecules on the phase selection and crystal size restriction of titanium dioxide, an important semiconductor with many applications, was explored. The use of bioorganically derived nanoparticles of titanium dioxide was then demonstrated as a highly efficient photocatalyst. Finally, calcium carbonate, a prevalent biomineral was shown to form highly ordered structures over a variety of length scales and different crystalline polymorphs under the influence of a templating protein. In addition, an alternative route to producing calcium phosphate nanoparticle dispersions by mechanical

  18. Synthesis of 3D nanostructured metal alloy of immiscible materials induced by megahertz-repetition femtosecond laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Amirkianoosh; Waraich, Palneet Singh; Venkatakrishnan, Krishnan; Tan, Bo

    2012-01-01

    : In this work, we have proposed a concept for the generation of three-dimensional (3D) nanostructured metal alloys of immiscible materials induced by megahertz-frequency ultrafast laser pulses. A mixture of two microparticle materials (aluminum and nickel oxide) and nickel oxide microparticles coated onto an aluminum foil have been used in this study. After laser irradiation, three different types of nanostructure composites have been observed: aluminum embedded in nickel nuclei, agglomerated chain of aluminum and nickel nanoparticles, and finally, aluminum nanoparticles grown on nickel microparticles. In comparison with current nanofabrication methods which are used only for one-dimensional nanofabrication, this technique enables us to fabricate 3D nanostructured metal alloys of two or more nanoparticle materials with varied composite concentrations under various predetermined conditions. This technique can lead to promising solutions for the fabrication of 3D nanostructured metal alloys in applications such as fuel-cell energy generation and development of custom-designed, functionally graded biomaterials and biocomposites. PMID:22999219

  19. Shape-tailoring and catalytic function of anisotropic gold nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We report a facile, one-pot, shape-selective synthesis of gold nanoparticles in high yield by the reaction of an aqueous potassium tetrachloroaurate(III) solution with a commercially available detergent. We prove that a commercial detergent can act as a reducing as well as stabilizing agent for the synthesis of differently shaped gold nanoparticles in an aqueous solution at an ambient condition. It is noteworthy that the gold nanoparticles with different shapes can be prepared by simply changing the reaction conditions. It is considered that a slow reduction of the gold ions along with shape-directed effects of the components of the detergent plays a vital function in the formation of the gold nanostructures. Further, the as-prepared gold nanoparticles showed the catalytic activity for the reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol in the presence of sodium borohydride at room temperature. PMID:21974964

  20. Nanostructured materials for ocular delivery: nanodesign for enhanced bioadhesion, transepithelial permeability and sustained delivery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jean; Schlesinger, Erica B; Desai, Tejal A

    2016-01-01

    Effective drug delivery to the eye is an ongoing challenge due to poor patient compliance coupled with numerous physiological barriers. Eye drops for the front of the eye and ocular injections for the back of the eye are the most prevalent delivery methods, both of which require relatively frequent administration and are burdensome to the patient. Novel drug delivery techniques stand to drastically improve safety, efficacy and patient compliance for ocular therapeutics. Remarkable advances in nanofabrication technologies make the application of nanostructured materials to ocular drug delivery possible. This article focuses on the use of nanostructured materials with nanoporosity or nanotopography for ocular delivery. Specifically, we discuss nanotopography for enhanced bioadhesion and permeation and nanoporous materials for controlled release drug delivery. As examples, application of polymeric nanostructures for greater transepithelial permeability, nanostructured microparticles for enhanced preocular retention time and nanoporous membranes for tuning drug release profile are covered. PMID:26652282

  1. Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy as a Probe of the Surface Chemistry of Nanostructured Materials.

    PubMed

    Dick, Susan; Konrad, Magdalena P; Lee, Wendy W Y; McCabe, Hannah; McCracken, John N; Rahman, Taifur M D; Stewart, Alan; Xu, Yikai; Bell, Steven E J

    2016-07-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is now widely used as a rapid and inexpensive tool for chemical/biochemical analysis. The method can give enormous increases in the intensities of the Raman signals of low-concentration molecular targets if they are adsorbed on suitable enhancing substrates, which are typically composed of nanostructured Ag or Au. However, the features of SERS that allow it to be used as a chemical sensor also mean that it can be used as a powerful probe of the surface chemistry of any nanostructured material that can provide SERS enhancement. This is important because it is the surface chemistry that controls how these materials interact with their local environment and, in real applications, this interaction can be more important than more commonly measured properties such as morphology or plasmonic absorption. Here, the opportunity that this approach to SERS provides is illustrated with examples where the surface chemistry is both characterized and controlled in order to create functional nanomaterials. PMID:26822589

  2. Functional and Regulatory Biomolecular Networks Organized by DNA Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Minghui

    DNA has recently emerged as an extremely promising material to organize molecules on nanoscale. The reliability of base recognition, self-assembling behavior, and attractive structural properties of DNA are of unparalleled value in systems of this size. DNA scaffolds have already been used to organize a variety of molecules including nanoparticles and proteins. New protein-DNA bio-conjugation chemistries make it possible to precisely position proteins and other biomolecules on underlying DNA scaffolds, generating multi-biomolecule pathways with the ability to modulate intermolecular interactions and the local environment. This dissertation focuses on studying the application of using DNA nanostructure to direct the self-assembly of other biomolecular networks to translate biochemical pathways to non-cellular environments. Presented here are a series of studies toward this application. First, a novel strategy utilized DNA origami as a scaffold to arrange spherical virus capsids into one-dimensional arrays with precise nanoscale positioning. This hierarchical self-assembly allows us to position the virus particles with unprecedented control and allows the future construction of integrated multi-component systems from biological scaffolds using the power of rationally engineered DNA nanostructures. Next, discrete glucose oxidase (GOx)/ horseradish peroxidase (HRP) enzyme pairs were organized on DNA origami tiles with controlled interenzyme spacing and position. This study revealed two different distance-dependent kinetic processes associated with the assembled enzyme pairs. Finally, a tweezer-like DNA nanodevice was designed and constructed to actuate the activity of an enzyme/cofactor pair. Using this approach, several cycles of externally controlled enzyme inhibition and activation were successfully demonstrated. This principle of responsive enzyme nanodevices may be used to regulate other types of enzymes and to introduce feedback or feed-forward control loops.

  3. Vertically Aligned Nanostructured Arrays of Inorganic Materials: Synthesis, Distinctive Physical Phenomena, and Device Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velazquez, Jesus Manuel

    materials to obtain a fundamental understanding of the influence of finite size and surface restructuring on electronic instabilities in the proximity of the Fermi level. We present here a novel synthetic approach that takes advantage of the intrinsic octahedral symmetry of rock-salt-structured VO to facilitate the growth of six-armed nanocrystallites of related, technologically more important binary vanadium oxide V2O5 . The prepared nanostructures exhibit clear six-fold symmetry and most notably show remarkable retention of electronic structure. The latter has been evidenced through extensive X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements. We have further designed a facile, generalizable, and entirely scalable approach for the fabrication of vertically aligned arrays of Fe2O 3/polypyrrole core---shell nanostructures and polypyrrole nanotubes. Our "all electrochemical" approach is based on the fabrication of α-Fe 2O3 nanowire arrays by the simple heat treatment of commodity low carbon steel substrates, followed by electropolymerization of conformal polypyrrole sheaths around the nanowires. Subsequently, electrochemical etching of the nanowires yields large-area vertically aligned polypyrrole nanotube arrays on the steel substrate. The developed methodology is generalizable to functionalized pyrrole monomers and represents a significant practical advance of relevance to the technological implementation of conjugated polymer nanostructures in electrochromics, electrochemical energy storage, and sensing. As another variation of this general synthetic route, we have extended the practice of our simple oxidative process for the fabrication of large-area ZnO nanostructures, specifically highly aligned nanowire arrays integrated onto galvanized steel substrates which via a simple device design and additive piezoelectric nanopower generation were measured across the array substrates. The nanomaterial syntheses and device fabrication approaches developed here will enable facile

  4. Assembly of one dimensional inorganic nanostructures into functional 2D and 3D architectures. Synthesis, arrangement and functionality.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Ravi K; Schneider, Jörg J

    2012-08-01

    This review will focus on the synthesis, arrangement, structural assembly, for current and future applications, of 1D nanomaterials (tubes, wires, rods) in 2D and 3D ordered arrangements. The ability to synthesize and arrange one dimensional nanomaterials into ordered 2D or 3D micro or macro sized structures is of utmost importance in developing new devices and applications of these materials. Micro and macro sized architectures based on such 1D nanomaterials (e.g. tubes, wires, rods) provide a platform to integrate nanostructures at a larger and thus manageable scale into high performance electronic devices like field effect transistors, as chemo- and biosensors, catalysts, or in energy material applications. Carbon based, metal oxide and metal based 1D arranged materials as well as hybrid or composite 1D materials of the latter provide a broad materials platform, offering a perspective for new entries into fascinating structures and future applications of such assembled architectures. These architectures allow bridging the gap between 1D nanostructures and the micro and macro world and are the basis for an assembly of 1D materials into higher hierarchy domains. This critical review is intended to provide an interesting starting point to view the current state of the art and show perspectives for future developments in this field. The emphasis is on selected nanomaterials and the possibilities for building three dimensional arrays starting from one dimensional building blocks. Carbon nanotubes, metal oxide nanotubes and nanowires (e.g. ZnO, TiO(2), V(2)O(5), Cu(2)O, NiO, Fe(2)O(3)), silicon and germanium nanowires, and group III-V or II-VI based 1D semiconductor nanostructures like GaS and GaN, pure metals as well as 1D hybrid materials and their higher organized architectures (foremost in 3D) will be focussed. These materials have been the most intensively studied within the last 5-10 years with respect to nano-micro integration aspects and their functional and

  5. Protocol for sortase-mediated construction of DNA-protein hybrids and functional nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Koussa, Mounir A.; Sotomayor, Marcos; Wong, Wesley P.

    2014-01-01

    Recent methods in DNA nanotechnology are enabling the creation of intricate nanostructures through the use of programmable, bottom-up self-assembly. However, structures consisting only of DNA are limited in their ability to act on other biomolecules. Proteins, on the other hand, perform a variety of functions on biological materials, but directed control of the self-assembly process remains a challenge. While DNA-protein hybrids have the potential to provide the best-of-both-worlds, they can be difficult to create as many of the conventional techniques for linking proteins to DNA render proteins dysfunctional. We present here a sortase-based protocol for covalently coupling proteins to DNA with minimal disturbance to protein function. To accomplish this we have developed a two-step process. First, a small synthetic peptide is bioorthogonally and covalently coupled to a DNA oligo using click chemistry. Next, the DNA-peptide chimera is covalently linked to a protein of interest under protein-compatible conditions using the enzyme sortase. Our protocol allows for the simple coupling and purification of a functional DNA-protein hybrid. We use this technique to form oligos bearing cadherin-23 and protocadherin-15 protein fragments. Upon incorporation into a linear M13 scaffold, these protein-DNA hybrids serve as the gate to a binary nanoswitch. The outlined protocol is reliable and modular, facilitating the construction of libraries of oligos and proteins that can be combined to form functional DNA-protein nanostructures. These structures will enable a new class of functional nanostructures, which could be used for therapeutic and industrial processes. PMID:24568941

  6. Evaluation of the electronic properties of perfluorophenyl functionalized quinolines and their hybrids with carbon nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Sygellou, Lambrini; Kakogianni, Sofia; Andreopoulou, Aikaterini K; Theodosiou, Krystallia; Leftheriotis, George; Kallitsis, Joannis K; Siokou, Angeliki

    2016-02-01

    Hybrid materials based on perfluorophenyl functionalized quinolines directly attached onto the sp(2) hybridized surface of carbon nanostructures have been prepared and studied herein along with their precursor semiconducting small molecules. Tails of different polarities have been used so that the molecules would present improved solubility and controllable affinity for the selected substrates. These materials were evaluated for their electronic and electrochemical properties for potential application in organic photovoltaic solar cells (OPVs), using UPS, XPS and CV measurements after deposition onto oxygen plasma cleaned Si wafers or solvent treated ITO coated glass. A weak interaction between the fluorine atoms and both the Si and the ITO substrates was observed by XPS. The extent of this interfacial interaction was found to be related to the orientation of the quinoline moieties on the organic layer. Moreover, the combination of XPS and UPS analyses showed that the absolute energy value of the HOMO level increased as the amount of surface fluorine atoms increased. CV measurements revealed that hybridisation of the small molecules with carbon nanostructures decreases the materials' energy gap and increases the absolute energy value of the LUMO level. These features prove the efficiency of the proposed method to produce materials with controlled energy levels for solar cell devices. PMID:26781962

  7. Fabrication of bioinspired nanostructured materials via colloidal self-assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei-Han

    ultimate strains than nacre and pure GO paper (also synthesized by filtration). Specifically, it exhibits ˜30 times higher fracture energy than filtrated graphene paper and nacre, ˜100 times tougher than filtrated GO paper. Besides reinforced nanocomposites, we further explored the self-assembly of spherical colloids and the templating nanofabrication of moth-eye-inspired broadband antireflection coatings. Binary crystalline structures can be easily accomplished by spin-coating double-layer nonclose-packed colloidal crystals as templates, followed by colloidal templating. The polymer matrix between self-assembled colloidal crystal has been used as a sacrificial template to define the resulting periodic binary nanostructures, including intercalated arrays of silica spheres and polymer posts, gold nanohole arrays with binary sizes, and dimple-nipple antireflection coatings. The binary-structured antireflection coatings exhibit better antireflective properties than unitary coatings. Natural optical structures and nanocomposites teach us a great deal on how to create high performance artificial materials. The bottom-up technologies developed in this thesis are scalable and compatible with standard industrial processes, promising for manufacturing high-performance materials for the benefits of human beings.

  8. Quantitative Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy of Electronic and Nanostructured Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yankovich, Andrew B.

    Electronic and nanostructured materials have been investigated using advanced scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) techniques. The first topic is the microstructure of Ga and Sb-doped ZnO. Ga-doped ZnO is a candidate transparent conducting oxide material. The microstructure of GZO thin films grown by MBE under different growth conditions and different substrates were examined using various electron microscopy (EM) techniques. The microstructure, prevalent defects, and polarity in these films strongly depend on the growth conditions and substrate. Sb-doped ZnO nanowires have been shown to be the first route to stable p-type ZnO. Using Z-contrast STEM, I have showed that an unusual microstructure of Sb-decorated head-to-head inversion domain boundaries and internal voids contain all the Sb in the nanowires and cause the p-type conduction. InGaN thin films and InGaN / GaN quantum wells (QW) for light emitting diodes are the second topic. Low-dose Z-contrast STEM, PACBED, and EDS on InGaN QW LED structures grown by MOCVD show no evidence for nanoscale composition variations, contradicting previous reports. In addition, a new extended defect in GaN and InGaN was discovered. The defect consists of a faceted pyramid-shaped void that produces a threading dislocation along the [0001] growth direction, and is likely caused by carbon contamination during growth. Non-rigid registration (NRR) and high-precision STEM of nanoparticles is the final topic. NRR is a new image processing technique that corrects distortions arising from the serial nature of STEM acquisition that previously limited the precision of locating atomic columns and counting the number of atoms in images. NRR was used to demonstrate sub-picometer precision in STEM images of single crystal Si and GaN, the best achieved in EM. NRR was used to measure the atomic surface structure of Pt nanoacatalysts and Au nanoparticles, which revealed new bond length variation phenomenon of surface atoms. In

  9. Advanced nanostructured carbon materials for electrical double layer capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jänes, A.; Kurig, H.; Thomberg, T.; Lust, E.

    2007-12-01

    Thermodynamical and electrochemical characteristics for the non-aqueous electrolyte mid nanostructured carbide-derived carbon (CDC), activated carbon cloth (ACC) or commercial activated nanoporous carbon RP-20 (from Kuraray Chemical Co.) interface have been established by XRD, Raman spectroscopy, BET, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The gas adsorption measurement data have been used for the obtaining the specific surface area, pore size distribution, nanopore volume and other characteristics, dependent on the nanostructured carbon used (nanopores are pores in the range of 2 nm and below — i.e. micropores according to IUPAC classification).

  10. Reliable contact fabrication on nanostructured Bi2Te3-based thermoelectric materials.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shien-Ping; Chang, Ya-Huei; Yang, Jian; Poudel, Bed; Yu, Bo; Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Gang

    2013-05-14

    A cost-effective and reliable Ni-Au contact on nanostructured Bi2Te3-based alloys for a solar thermoelectric generator (STEG) is reported. The use of MPS SAMs creates a strong covalent binding and more nucleation sites with even distribution for electroplating contact electrodes on nanostructured thermoelectric materials. A reliable high-performance flat-panel STEG can be obtained by using this new method. PMID:23531997

  11. Recent Advances in the Synthesis and Functions of Reconfigurable Interlocked DNA Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chun-Hua; Cecconello, Alessandro; Willner, Itamar

    2016-04-27

    Interlocked circular DNA nanostructures, e.g., catenanes or rotaxanes, provide functional materials within the area of DNA nanotechnology. Specifically, the triggered reversible reconfiguration of the catenane or rotaxane structures provides a means to yield new DNA switches and to use them as dynamic scaffolds for controlling chemical functions and positioning functional cargoes. The synthesis of two-ring catenanes and their switchable reconfiguration by pH, metal ions, or fuel/anti-fuel stimuli are presented, and the functions of these systems, as pendulum or rotor devices or as switchable catalysts, are described. Also, the synthesis of three-, five-, and seven-ring catenanes is presented, and their switchable reconfiguration using fuel/anti-fuel strands is addressed. Implementation of the dynamically reconfigured catenane structures for the programmed organization of Au nanoparticle (NP) assemblies, which allows the plasmonic control of the fluorescence properties of Au NP/fluorophore loads associated with the scaffold, and for the operation of logic gates is discussed. Interlocked DNA rotaxanes and their different synthetic approaches are presented, and their switchable reconfiguration by means of fuel/anti-fuel strands or photonic stimuli is described. Specifically, the use of the rotaxane as a scaffold to organize Au NP assemblies, and the control of the fluorescence properties with Au NP/fluorophore hybrids loaded on the rotaxane scaffold, are introduced. The future prospectives and challenges in the field of interlocked DNA nanostructures and the possible applications are discussed. PMID:27019201

  12. Nanostructural Units in Disordered Network-Forming Materials and the Origin of Intermediate Range Order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massobrio, C.

    Disordered network-forming materials are characterized by structural order extending well beyond the first shell of neighbors. For these reasons, reliable atomic-scale modeling is ideally suited to complement experiments in the search of the microscopic origins of this behavior. A key to understand why these systems have specific structural properties is to focus on the nanostructural units by which they are composed. By analyzing the role played by these units, one is able to put forth a valuable rationale accounting for the occurrence of intermediate range order. In this review, we present recent results obtained via first-principles molecular dynamics on a set of disordered network-forming materials, with special emphasis on the prototypical system GeSe2. In a short introduction we begin with explicit examples of differences, at the structure factor and pair correlation level, between networks exhibiting intermediate range order and those purely disordered at any length scale. Concerning our theoretical approach, we rely on density functional theory and first-principles molecular dynamics to follow the time trajectories at finite temperature of these networks and obtain statistical averages to be compared with the experimental quantities. Specific methodological issues pertaining to the simulation of disordered materials are analyzed in detail (size of the computational cell, role of exchange-correlation functional, and production of an amorphous phase). Then, three specific points are addressed by considering both experimental and simulation results: first, the atomic-scale signature of intermediate range order as it manifests itself via the appearance of the first sharp diffraction peak in the total neutron structure factor; second, the correlation existing between fluctuations of concentration on the intermediate distances scale and the shape taken by the partial structure factors; and third, the establishment of the nanostructural units responsible for the

  13. Functional Metal Oxide Nanostructures: Their Synthesis, Characterization, and Energy Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, Aparna

    in oxidation reactions and adsorption of heavy metal. Spontaneous formation of OMS-2 nanospheres was possible by tuning reaction parameters in the ultrasonic atomization process. In the second part, a microwave-hydrothermal route has been developed for the synthesis of 1D cobalt compounds (Chapter 5). These compounds are transformed to spinel type Co3O4 nanorods. The effects of solvents, cobalt sources, and microwave radiation time in the formation of 1D cobalt oxide nanostructures were studied in detail. These materials are catalytically active for CO oxidation and styrene oxidation reactions. Magnesia-yttria nanocomposites with controlled nanoscale grain sizes and homogenous microstructures are useful as IR transparent materials. A simple cost-effective sucrose based sol-gel route was devised for making MgO-Y 2O3 nanocomposites. Grain growth in these nanocomposites was systematically evaluated using transmission electron microscopy studies.

  14. Use of facile mechanochemical method to functionalize carbon nanofibers with nanostructured polyaniline and their electrochemical capacitance

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A facile approach to functionalize carbon nanofibers [CNFs] with nanostructured polyaniline was developed via in situ mechanochemical polymerization of polyaniline in the presence of chemically treated CNFs. The nanostructured polyaniline grafting on the CNF was mainly in a form of branched nanofibers as well as rough nanolayers. The good dispersibility and processability of the hybrid nanocomposite could be attributed to its overall nanostructure which enhanced its accessibility to the electrolyte. The mechanochemical oxidation polymerization was believed to be related to the strong Lewis acid characteristic of FeCl3 and the Lewis base characteristic of aniline. The growth mechanism of the hierarchical structured nanofibers was also discussed. After functionalization with the nanostructured polyaniline, the hybrid polyaniline/CNF composite showed an enhanced specific capacitance, which might be related to its hierarchical nanostructure and the interaction between the aromatic polyaniline molecules and the CNFs. PMID:22315992

  15. Use of facile mechanochemical method to functionalize carbon nanofibers with nanostructured polyaniline and their electrochemical capacitance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Xusheng; Liu, Hong-Yuan; Cai, Guipeng; Mai, Yiu-Wing; Baji, Avinash

    2012-02-01

    A facile approach to functionalize carbon nanofibers [CNFs] with nanostructured polyaniline was developed via in situ mechanochemical polymerization of polyaniline in the presence of chemically treated CNFs. The nanostructured polyaniline grafting on the CNF was mainly in a form of branched nanofibers as well as rough nanolayers. The good dispersibility and processability of the hybrid nanocomposite could be attributed to its overall nanostructure which enhanced its accessibility to the electrolyte. The mechanochemical oxidation polymerization was believed to be related to the strong Lewis acid characteristic of FeCl3 and the Lewis base characteristic of aniline. The growth mechanism of the hierarchical structured nanofibers was also discussed. After functionalization with the nanostructured polyaniline, the hybrid polyaniline/CNF composite showed an enhanced specific capacitance, which might be related to its hierarchical nanostructure and the interaction between the aromatic polyaniline molecules and the CNFs.

  16. Magnesium ion implantation on a micro/nanostructured titanium surface promotes its bioactivity and osteogenic differentiation function

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guifang; Li, Jinhua; Zhang, Wenjie; Xu, Lianyi; Pan, Hongya; Wen, Jin; Wu, Qianju; She, Wenjun; Jiao, Ting; Liu, Xuanyong; Jiang, Xinquan

    2014-01-01

    As one of the important ions associated with bone osseointegration, magnesium was incorporated into a micro/nanostructured titanium surface using a magnesium plasma immersion ion-implantation method. Hierarchical hybrid micro/nanostructured titanium surfaces followed by magnesium ion implantation for 30 minutes (Mg30) and hierarchical hybrid micro/nanostructured titanium surfaces followed by magnesium ion implantation for 60 minutes (Mg60) were used as test groups. The surface morphology, chemical properties, and amount of magnesium ions released were evaluated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, field-emission transmission electron microscopy, and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. Rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rBMMSCs) were used to evaluate cell responses, including proliferation, spreading, and osteogenic differentiation on the surface of the material or in their medium extraction. Greater increases in the spreading and proliferation ability of rBMMSCs were observed on the surfaces of magnesium-implanted micro/nanostructures compared with the control plates. Furthermore, the osteocalcin (OCN), osteopontin (OPN), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) genes were upregulated on both surfaces and in their medium extractions. The enhanced cell responses were correlated with increasing concentrations of magnesium ions, indicating that the osteoblastic differentiation of rBMMSCs was stimulated through the magnesium ion function. The magnesium ion-implanted micro/nanostructured titanium surfaces could enhance the proliferation, spreading, and osteogenic differentiation activity of rBMMSCs, suggesting they have potential application in improving bone-titanium integration. PMID:24940056

  17. Quantum Simulations of Materials and Nanostructures (Q-SIMAN). Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Galli, Giulia; Bai, Zhaojun; Ceperley, David; Cai, Wei; Gygi, Francois; Marzari, Nicola; Pickett, Warren; Spaldin, Nicola; Fattebert, Jean-Luc; Schwegler, Eric

    2015-09-16

    The focus of this SciDAC SAP (Scientific Application) is the development and use of quantum simulations techniques to understand materials and nanostructures at the microscopic level, predict their physical and chemical properties, and eventually design integrated materials with targeted properties. (Here the word ‘materials’ is used in a broad sense and it encompasses different thermodynamic states of matter, including solid, liquids and nanostructures.) Therefore our overarching goal is to enable scientific discoveries in the field of condensed matter and advanced materials through high performance computing.

  18. Ultra-sensitive immunoassay biosensors using hybrid plasmonic-biosilica nanostructured materials.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing; Zhen, Le; Ren, Fanghui; Campbell, Jeremy; Rorrer, Gregory L; Wang, Alan X

    2015-08-01

    We experimentally demonstrate an ultra-sensitive immunoassay biosensor using diatom biosilica with self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticles. As the nature-created photonic crystal structures, diatoms have been adopted to enhance surface plasmon resonances of metal nanoparticles on the surfaces of diatom frustules and to increase the sensitivity of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). In this study, a sandwich SERS immunoassay is developed based on the hybrid plasmonic-biosilica nanostructured materials that are functionalized with goat anti-mouse IgG. Our experimental results show that diatom frustules improve the detection limit of mouse IgG to 10 pg/mL, which is ˜100× better than conventional colloidal SERS sensors on flat glass. Ultra-sensitive immunoassay biosensor using diatom biosilica with self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticles. PMID:25256544

  19. PROPERTIES AND NANOSTRUCTURES OF NANO-MATERIALS PROCESSED BY SEVERE PLASTIC DEFORMATION (SPD)

    SciTech Connect

    Y. T. ZHU

    2001-03-01

    Metallic materials usually exhibit higher strength but lower ductility after being plastically deformed by conventional techniques such as rolling, drawing and extrusion. In contrast, nanostructured metals and alloys processed by severe plastic deformation (SPD) have demonstrated both high strength and high ductility. This extraordinary mechanical behavior is attributed to the unique nanostructures generated by SPD processing. The combination of ultrafine grain size and high-density dislocations appears to enable deformation by new mechanisms not active in coarse-grained metals and alloys. These results demonstrate the possibility of tailoring the microstructures of metals and alloys by SPD to obtain superior mechanical properties. Nanostructured metals and alloys processed by SPD techniques have unique nanostructures not observed in nano-materials synthesized by other techniques such as the consolidation of nanopowders. The SPD-generated nanostructures have many features related to deformation, including high dislocation densities, and high- and low-angle grain boundaries in equilibrium or non-equilibrium states. Future studies are needed to investigate the deformation mechanisms that relate the unique nanostructures with the superior mechanical properties exhibited by SPD-processed metals and alloys.

  20. Dispersive transport of charge carriers in disordered nanostructured materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibatov, R. T.; Uchaikin, V. V.

    2015-07-01

    Dispersive transport of charge carriers in disordered nanostructured semiconductors is described in terms of integral diffusion equations nonlocal in time. Transient photocurrent kinetics is analyzed for different situations. Relation to the fractional differential approach is demonstrated. Using this relation provides specifications in interpretation of the time-of-flight data. Joint influence of morphology and energy distribution of localized states is described in frames of the trap-limited advection-diffusion on a comb structure modeling a percolation cluster.

  1. Covalent functionalization of metal oxide and carbon nanostructures with polyoctasilsesquioxane (POSS) and their incorporation in polymer composites

    SciTech Connect

    Gomathi, A.; Gopalakrishnan, K.; Rao, C.N.R.

    2010-12-15

    Polyoctasilsesquioxane (POSS) has been employed to covalently functionalize nanostructures of TiO{sub 2}, ZnO and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} as well as carbon nanotubes, nanodiamond and graphene to enable their dispersion in polar solvents. Covalent functionalization of these nanostructures with POSS has been established by electron microscopy, EDAX analysis and infrared spectroscopy. On heating the POSS-functionalized nanostructures, silica-coated nanostructures are obtained. POSS-functionalized nanoparticles of TiO{sub 2}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and graphite were utilized to prepare polymer-nanostructure composites based on PVA and nylon-6,6.

  2. Simulation of electromagnetic radiation passing through liquid-containing nanostructured materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolbun, Natallia V.; Borbotko, Timophey V.; Kazeka, Alexandr A.; Proudnik, Alexander M.; Lynkou, Leanid M.

    2008-07-01

    A process of electromagnetic radiation traveling through liquid-containing nanostructured heterogeneous materials was simulated. Mobile phone antenna pattern is calculated and its change when applying protective shield made of said materials is studied. Transmission/reflection characteristics of antenna are calculated.

  3. Transformational, Large Area Fabrication of Nanostructured Materials Using Plasma Arc Lamps

    SciTech Connect

    2009-03-01

    This factsheet describes a study that will address critical additional steps over large areas of as-synthesized nanostructured materials, such as annealing, phase transformation, or activation of dopants, dramatically reducing the processing costs of the solid-state lighting and photovoltaic materials.

  4. First Principles Investigations of Technologically and Environmentally Important Nano-structured Materials and Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Sujata

    In the course of my PhD I have worked on a broad range of problems using simulations from first principles: from catalysis and chemical reactions at surfaces and on nanostructures, characterization of carbon-based systems and devices, and surface and interface physics. My research activities focused on the application of ab-initio electronic structure techniques to the theoretical study of important aspects of the physics and chemistry of materials for energy and environmental applications and nano-electronic devices. A common theme of my research is the computational study of chemical reactions of environmentally important molecules (CO, CO2) using high performance simulations. In particular, my principal aim was to design novel nano-structured functional catalytic surfaces and interfaces for environmentally relevant remediation and recycling reactions, with particular attention to the management of carbon dioxide. We have studied the carbon-mediated partial sequestration and selective oxidation of carbon monoxide (CO), both in the presence and absence of hydrogen, on graphitic edges. Using first-principles calculations we have studied several reactions of CO with carbon nanostructures, where the active sites can be regenerated by the deposition of carbon decomposed from the reactant (CO) to make the reactions self-sustained. Using statistical mechanics, we have also studied the conditions under which the conversion of CO to graphene and carbon dioxide is thermodynamically favorable, both in the presence and in the absence of hydrogen. These results are a first step toward the development of processes for the carbon-mediated partial sequestration and selective oxidation of CO in a hydrogen atmosphere. We have elucidated the atomic scale mechanisms of activation and reduction of carbon dioxide on specifically designed catalytic surfaces via the rational manipulation of the surface properties that can be achieved by combining transition metal thin films on oxide

  5. Processing and nanostructure influences on mechanical properties of thermoelectric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Robert David

    Thermoelectric (TE) materials are materials that can generate an electric current from a thermal gradient, with possible service in recovery of waste heat such as engine exhaust. Significant progress has been made in improving TE conversion efficiency, typically reported according to the figure of merit, ZT, with several recent papers publishing ZT values above 2. Furthermore, cost reductions may be made by the use of lower cost elements such as Mg, Si, Sn, Pb, Se and S in TE materials, while achieving ZT values between 1.3 and 1.8. To be used in a device, the thermoelectric material must be able to withstand the applied thermal and mechanical forces without failure. However, these materials are brittle, with low fracture toughness typically less than 1.5 MPa-m1/2, and often less than 0.5 MPa-m1/2. For comparison, window glass is approximately 0.75 MPa-m1/2. They have been optimized with nanoprecipitates, nanoparticles, doping, alterations in stoichiometry, powder processing and other techniques, all of which may alter the mechanical properties. In this study, the effect of SiC nanoparticle additions in Mg2Si, SnTe and Ag nanoparticle additions in the skutterudite Ba0.3Co 4Sb12 on the elastic moduli, hardness and fracture toughness are measured. Large changes (˜20%) in the elastic moduli in SnTe 1+x as a function of x at 0 and 0.016 are shown. The effect on mechanical properties of doping and precipitates of CdS or ZnS in a PbS or PbSe matrix have been reported. Changes in sintering behavior of the skutterudite with the Ag nanoparticle additions were explored. Possible liquid phase sintering, with associated benefits in lower processing temperature, faster densification and lower cost, has been shown. A technique has been proposed for determining additional liquid phase sintering aids in other TE materials. The effects of porosity, grain size, powder processing method, and sintering method were explored with YbAl3 and Ba0.3Co4Sb 12, with the porosity dependence of

  6. Lithium and sodium battery cathode materials: computational insights into voltage, diffusion and nanostructural properties.

    PubMed

    Islam, M Saiful; Fisher, Craig A J

    2014-01-01

    Energy storage technologies are critical in addressing the global challenge of clean sustainable energy. Major advances in rechargeable batteries for portable electronics, electric vehicles and large-scale grid storage will depend on the discovery and exploitation of new high performance materials, which requires a greater fundamental understanding of their properties on the atomic and nanoscopic scales. This review describes some of the exciting progress being made in this area through use of computer simulation techniques, focusing primarily on positive electrode (cathode) materials for lithium-ion batteries, but also including a timely overview of the growing area of new cathode materials for sodium-ion batteries. In general, two main types of technique have been employed, namely electronic structure methods based on density functional theory, and atomistic potentials-based methods. A major theme of much computational work has been the significant synergy with experimental studies. The scope of contemporary work is highlighted by studies of a broad range of topical materials encompassing layered, spinel and polyanionic framework compounds such as LiCoO2, LiMn2O4 and LiFePO4 respectively. Fundamental features important to cathode performance are examined, including voltage trends, ion diffusion paths and dimensionalities, intrinsic defect chemistry, and surface properties of nanostructures. PMID:24202440

  7. Nanostructured materials detect epidermal growth factor receptor, neuron specific enolase and carcinoembryonic antigen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefan-van Staden, Raluca-Ioana; Comnea-Stancu, Ionela Raluca; Surdu-Bob, Carmen Cristina; Badulescu, Marius

    2015-09-01

    New nanostructured materials based on thin films of Cu and Ni deposited on textile material (veil), as well as gold nanostructured microspheres were used for the design of new stochastic sensors. The stochastic sensors were able to detect simultaneously a panel of biomarkers comprising epidermal growth factor receptor, neuron specific enolase, and carcinoembryonic antigen from whole blood samples with high reliabilities - recovery tests higher than 97.00%, with a RSD (%) lower than 0.1%. The stochastic sensors had shown high sensitivities and low determination levels for the detection of the proposed panel of biomarkers making early detection of lung cancer possible by fast screening of whole blood.

  8. PROPERTIES AND NANOSTRUCTURES OF NANO-MATERIALS PROCESSED BY SEVERE PLASTIC DEFORMATION (SPD).

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Y. T.

    2001-01-01

    Metallic materials usually exhibit higher strength but lower ductility after being plastically deformed by conventional techniques such as rolling, drawing and extrusion. In contrast, nanostructured metals and alloys processed by severe plastic deformation (SPD) have demonstrated both high strength and high ductility. This extraordinary mechanical behavior is attributed to the unique nanostructures generated by SPD processing. The combination of ultrafine grain size and high-density dislocations appears to enable deformation by new mechanisms not active in coarse-grained metals and alloys. These results demonstrate the possibility of tailoring the microstructures of metals and alloys by SPD to obtain superior mechanical properties. Nanostructured metals and alloys processed by SPD techniques have unique nanostructures not observed in nanomaterials synthesized by other techniques such as the consolidation of nanopowders. The SPD-generated nanostructures have many features related to deformation, including high dislocation densities, and high- and low-angle grain boundaries in equilibrium or nonequilibrium states. Future studies are needed to investigate the deformation mechanisms that relate the unique nanostructures with the superior mechanical properties exhibited by SPD-processed metals and alloys.

  9. Thermoelectric and thermospintronic transport in Dirac material-based nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Po-Hao

    The growing need for power due to the rapid developments of the technologies has urged both engineers and scientists to study more sustainable types of energy. On the other hand, the improvement of our abilities although enable us, for example, to double the number of transistors in a dense integrated circuit approximately every two years (Moore's law), comes with side effect due to overheating. Taking advantage of thermoelectric effect has thus become one of the obvious solutions for the problems. But due to the poor efficiency of electricity-heat conversion, there are still challenges to be overcome in order to fully utilize the idea. In the past few years, the realization of graphene along with the discoveries of topological insulators (TI) which are both considered as Dirac material (DM) have offer alternative routs for improving the energy conversion efficiency through different approaches as well as novel quantum effects of materials themselves for investigation. The aim of this thesis is to present contributions to improving the efficiency of thermoelectric conversion as well as analyzing spin transport phenomena that occur in nano-devices. This thesis spans the areas of thermoelectric (TE) effect, spin-Seebeck effect (SSE) and the spin transport on the 3D topological insulator (TI). The different methods have been applied ranging from tight-binding (TB) approximation to density function theory (DFT) combined with non-equilibrium function (NEGF) techniques.

  10. Nano-structured carbon materials for improved biosensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razumiene, J.; Sakinyte, I.; Barkauskas, J.; Baronas, R.

    2015-04-01

    A set of oxidized graphite samples have been newly synthesized using different protocols. Atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis revealed the changes in structure and functionalities of obtained graphite oxidation products (GOPs) compared to pristine graphite. The substances have been tested as electrode materials applicable for bioelectrocatalytic systems using pyrroloquinoline quinone-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (PQQ-GDH). The application of GOPs allowed achieving the direct electron transfer (DET) from active site of PQQ-GDH to the electrode surface. Needless of additional electron transfer (ET) mediating compounds highly improved features of the biosensors. The efficiency of the biosensors has been evaluated for all types of biosensors varied from 32 μA/cm2 to 64 μA/cm2 using as electrode materials GOP1 and thermally reduced graphite oxide (TRGO), respectively. TRGO containing function groups (according TGA, ∼6% of the weight loss) and smallest particles (average diameter was ∼11 nm and the average height was ∼0.5 nm) exhibited the higher efficiency for ET acceleration in the biosensor acting on principle of DET.

  11. Micro- and Nanostructured Materials for Active Devices and Molecular Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Peter M.; Graff, Gordon L.; Gross, Mark E.; Burrows, Paul E.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Mast, Eric S.; Hall, Michael G.; Bonham, Charles C.; Zumhoff, Mac R.; Williford, Rick E.

    2003-10-01

    Traditional single layer barrier coatings are not adequate in preventing degradation of the performance of organic molecular electronic and other active devices. Most advanced devices used in display technology now consist of micro and nanostructured small molecule, polymer and inorganic coatings with thin high reactive group 1A metals. This includes organic electronics such as organic light emitting devices (OLED). The lifetimes of these devices rapidly degrades when they are exposed to atmospheric oxygen and water vapor. Thin film photovoltaics and batteries are also susceptible to degradation by moisture and oxygen. Using in-line coating techniques we apply a composite nanostructured inorganic/polymer thin film barrier that restricts moisture and oxygen permeation to undetectable levels using conventional permeation test equipment. We describe permeation mechanisms for this encapsulation coating and flat panel display and other device applications. Permeation through the multilayer barrier coating is defect and pore limited and can be described by Knudsen diffusion involving a long and tortuous path. Device lifetime is also enhanced by the long lag times required to reach the steady state flux regime. Permeation rates in the range of 10-6 cc,g/m2/d have been achieved and OLED device lifetimes. The structure is robust, yet flexible. The resulting device performance and lifetimes will also be described. The barrier film can be capped with a thin film of transparent conductive oxide yielding an engineered nanostructured device for next generation, rugged, lightweight or flexible displays. This enables, for the first time, thin film encapsulation of emissive organic displays.

  12. Zinc-oxide-based nanostructured materials for heterostructure solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bobkov, A. A.; Maximov, A. I.; Moshnikov, V. A. Somov, P. A.; Terukov, E. I.

    2015-10-15

    Results obtained in the deposition of nanostructured zinc-oxide layers by hydrothermal synthesis as the basic method are presented. The possibility of controlling the structure and morphology of the layers is demonstrated. The important role of the procedure employed to form the nucleating layer is noted. The faceted hexagonal nanoprisms obtained are promising for the fabrication of solar cells based on oxide heterostructures, and aluminum-doped zinc-oxide layers with petal morphology, for the deposition of an antireflection layer. The results are compatible and promising for application in flexible electronics.

  13. Functional nanostructures: Applications in nanobarcoding, autonomous motion, and biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirok, Ugur Korcan

    Recent advances in nanotechnology have resulted in development of a wide array of novel nanomaterials for various applications. Nano-particles, rods, wires, tubes and other geometrical forms have attracted great interest due to their unique shape and size-dependent properties at the nanometer scale. In addition to their applications in electronics and catalysis, such nanomaterials have also been employed as barcodes in various biological and non-biological systems, as engines for autonomous locomotion, and in novel or existing sensing platforms. Despite the encouraging progress during the recent years, there are significant challenges in fabrication and in meeting the demands for higher performance materials. In this dissertation, advances in the fabrication, use and performance of various nanostructures in barcoding, locomotion and biosensing, applications and their implications were discussed. A rapid, single-step alloy electrodeposition scheme was developed to fabricate compositionally encoded nanowire barcodes. It was shown that multiple readout techniques can be used to decode the barcode patterns in an orthogonal manner as most nanobarcodes to present day have relied on segmented growth approaches and a single level of identification. On another front, the speed of autonomous gold/platinum (Au/Pt) catalytic nanomotors was enhanced by an order of magnitude and the power output was increased by two orders of magnitude by using a cathodic silver/gold (Ag/Au) alloy instead of a pure Au segment. Nanomotor speeds were found to correlate with the Ag content in the alloy, and possible mechanisms behind this enhancement were discussed. A novel use of nanoparticles for biosensing applications was also demonstrated. It was shown that electrochemical impedance responses of biomarkers can be tuned by gold nanoparticles (AuNP) for frequency-based detection. The system's impedance behavior was characterized by physical, electrical and mathematical models, and the theory and

  14. Could Nano-Structured Materials Enable the Improved Pressure Vessels for Deep Atmospheric Probes?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, D.; Fuentes, A.; Bienstock, B.; Arnold, J. O.

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the use of Nano-Structured Materials to enable pressure vessel structures for deep atmospheric probes is shown. The topics include: 1) High Temperature/Pressure in Key X-Environments; 2) The Case for Use of Nano-Structured Materials Pressure Vessel Design; 3) Carbon based Nanomaterials; 4) Nanotube production & purification; 5) Nanomechanics of Carbon Nanotubes; 6) CNT-composites: Example (Polymer); 7) Effect of Loading sequence on Composite with 8% by volume; 8) Models for Particulate Reinforced Composites; 9) Fullerene/Ti Composite for High Strength-Insulating Layer; 10) Fullerene/Epoxy Composite for High Strength-Insulating Layer; 11) Models for Continuous Fiber Reinforced Composites; 12) Tensile Strength for Discontinuous Fiber Composite; 13) Ti + SWNT Composites: Thermal/Mechanical; 14) Ti + SWNT Composites: Tensile Strength; and 15) Nano-structured Shell for Pressure Vessels.

  15. Green energy storage materials: advanced nanostructured materials for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Alok Mani; Chandrasekar, M. S.; Mitra, Sagar

    2011-06-01

    The projected doubling of world energy consumption in the next fifty years requires certain measures to meet this demand. The ideal energy provider is reliable, efficient, with low emissions source - wind, solar, etc. The low carbon footprint of renewables is an added benefit, which makes them especially attractive during this era of environmental consciousness. Unfortunately, the intermittent nature of energy from these renewables is not suitable for the commercial and residential grid application, unless the power delivery is 24/7, with minimum fluctuation. This requires intervention of efficient electrical energy storage technology to make power generation from renewable practical. The progress to higher energy and power density especially for battery technology will push material to the edge of stability and yet these materials must be rendered safe, stable and with reliable operation throughout their long life. A major challenge for chemical energy storage is developing the ability to store more energy while maintaining stable electrode-electrolyte interface. A structural transformation occurs during charge-discharge cycle, accompanied by a volume change, degrading the microstructure over-time. The need to mitigate this volume and structural change accompanying charge-discharge cycle necessitates going to nanostructured and multifunctional materials that have the potential of dramatically enhancing the energy density and power density.

  16. Nanostructure multilayer dielectric materials for capacitors and insulators

    DOEpatents

    Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Johnson, G.W.

    1998-04-21

    A capacitor is formed of at least two metal conductors having a multilayer dielectric and opposite dielectric-conductor interface layers in between. The multilayer dielectric includes many alternating layers of amorphous zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) and alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}). The dielectric-conductor interface layers are engineered for increased voltage breakdown and extended service life. The local interfacial work function is increased to reduce charge injection and thus increase breakdown voltage. Proper material choices can prevent electrochemical reactions and diffusion between the conductor and dielectric. Physical vapor deposition is used to deposit the zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) and alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) in alternating layers to form a nano-laminate. 1 fig.

  17. Nanostructure multilayer dielectric materials for capacitors and insulators

    DOEpatents

    Barbee, Jr., Troy W.; Johnson, Gary W.

    1998-04-21

    A capacitor is formed of at least two metal conductors having a multilayer dielectric and opposite dielectric-conductor interface layers in between. The multilayer dielectric includes many alternating layers of amorphous zirconium oxide (ZrO.sub.2) and alumina (Al.sub.2 O.sub.3). The dielectric-conductor interface layers are engineered for increased voltage breakdown and extended service life. The local interfacial work function is increased to reduce charge injection and thus increase breakdown voltage. Proper material choices can prevent electrochemical reactions and diffusion between the conductor and dielectric. Physical vapor deposition is used to deposit the zirconium oxide (ZrO.sub.2) and alumina (Al.sub.2 O.sub.3) in alternating layers to form a nano-laminate.

  18. Rational Design of Molecular Ferroelectric Materials and Nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Ducharme, Stephen

    2012-09-25

    The purpose of this project was to gain insight into the properties of molecular ferroelectrics through the detailed study of oligomer analogs of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF). By focusing on interactions at both the molecular level and the nanoscale level, we expect to gain improved understanding about the fundamental mechanism of ferroelectricity and its key properties. The research consisted of three complementary components: 1) Rational synthesis of VDF oligomers by Prof. Takacs' group; 2) Detailed structural and electrical studies of thin by Prof. Ducharme's Group; and 3) First-principles computational studies by DOE Lab Partner Dr. Serge Nakhman-son at Argonne National Laboratory. The main results of the work was a detailed understanding of the relationships between the molecular interactions and macroscopic phenomenology of fer-roelectricity VDF oligomers. This is valuable information supporting the development of im-proved electromechanical materials for, e.g., sonar, ultrasonic imaging, artificial muscles, and compliant actuators. Other potential applications include nonvolatile ferroelectric memories, heat-sensing imaging arrays, photovoltaic devices, and functional biomimetic materials. The pro-ject contributed to the training and professional development of undergraduate students and graduate students, post-doctoral assistants, and a high-school teacher. Project personnel took part in several outreach and education activities each year.

  19. Nanostructured polyoxometalate arrays with unprecedented properties and functions.

    SciTech Connect

    Dunphy, Darren Robert; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Singh, Seema; Nyman, May Devan

    2003-11-01

    Polyoxometalates (POMs) are ionic (usually anionic) metal -oxo clusters that are both functional entities for a variety of applications, as well as structural units that can be used as building blocks if reacted under appropriate conditions. This is a powerful combination in that functionality can be built into materials, or doped into matrices. Additionally, by assembling functional POMs in ordered materials, new collective behaviors may be realized. Further, the vast variety of POM geometries, compositions and charges that are achievable gives this system a high degree of tunability. Processing conditions to link together POMs to build materials offer another vector of control, thus providing infinite possibilities of materials that can he nano-engineered through POM building blocks. POM applications that can be built into POM-based materials include catalysis, electro-optic and electro-chromic, anti-viral, metal binding, and protein binding. We have begun to explore three approaches in developing this field of functional, nano-engineered POM-based materials; and this report summarizes the work carried out for these approaches to date. The three strategies are: (1) doping POMs into silica matrices using sol-gel science, (2) forming POM-surfactant arrays and metal-POM-surfactant arrays, (3) using aerosol-spray pyrolysis of the POM-surfactant arrays to superimpose hierarchical architecture by self-assembly during aerosol-processing. Doping POMs into silica matrices was successful, but the POMs were partially degraded upon attempts to remove the structure-directing templates. The POM-surfactant and metal-POM-surfactant arrays approach was highly successful and holds much promise as a novel approach to nano-engineering new materials from structural and functional POM building blocks, as well as forming metastable or unusual POM geometries that may not be obtained by other synthetic methods. The aerosol-assisted self assembly approach is in very preliminary state of

  20. Nanostructured composite materials of cerium oxide and barium cerate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedev, D. A.; Pikalova, E. Yu.; Demin, A. K.; Khrustov, V. R.; Nikolaenko, I. V.; Nikonov, A. V.; Malkov, V. B.; Antonov, B. D.

    2013-02-01

    Nanosized powders with a composition of (1- x)Ce0.8Sm0.2O2-δ- xBace0.8Sm0.2O3-δ ( x = 0, 0.3, and 1) were obtained by self-ignition combustion synthesis (SICS) from the appropriate nitrates and various organic fuels (glycine, glycerol, citric acid, and a mixture of citric acid and ethylene glycol). The most finely dispersed powders formed when the concentration of the perovskite phase in the system decreased or when glycerol or citric acid-enthyleneglycol mixture was used as a fuel during SICS. A procedure for the preparation of powders and nanostructured ceramics was developed and their electric properties were studied.

  1. Novel applications exploiting the thermal properties of nanostructured materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Eastman, J. A.

    1998-11-20

    A new class of heat transfer fluids, termed nanofluids, has been developed by suspending nanocrystalline particles in liquids. Due to the orders-of-magnitude larger thermal conductivities of solids compared to those of liquids such as water, significantly enhanced thermal properties are obtained with nanofluids. The use of nanofluids could impact many industrial sectors, including transportation, energy supply and production, electronics, textiles, and paper production by, for example, decreasing pumping power needs or reducing heat exchanger sizes. In contrast to the enhancement in effective thermal transport rates that is obtained when nanoparticles are suspended in fluids, nanocrystalline coatings are expected to exhibit reduced thermal conductivities compared to coarse-grained coatings. Reduced thermal conductivities are predicted to arise because of a reduction in the mean free path of phonons due to presence of grain boundaries. This behavior, combined with improved mechanical properties, makes nanostructured zirconia coatings excellent candidates for future applications as thermal barriers.

  2. Characterisation and tribological investigation on thermally processed nanostructured Fe-based and Cu-based cermet materials.

    PubMed

    Basak, A K; Eddine, W Zein; Celis, J P; Matteazzi, P

    2010-02-01

    The feasibility of achieving a nanostructured material after different thermal processing of nanosized powders is presented. The thermal processing was done by either atmospheric plasma spraying, laser sintering, or extrusion followed by hot isostatic pressing. The structural characterisation of such thermally processed nanostructured Fe-based and Cu-based metallic or Al2O3 reinforced cermets, confirmed the retention of a nanostructure after each of these thermal processes. Hardness measurements confirmed an increased hardness as expected in the case that nanostructuring is achieved. The role of grain boundaries and second phase particles on the retention of the nanostructure after thermal processing is discussed. Finally, the possible benefit of nanostructuring on the friction and wear behaviour of materials in sliding tests against corundum in ambient air is reported and discussed. PMID:20352775

  3. The Interaction of Bacteria with Engineered Nanostructured Polymeric Materials: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Armentano, Ilaria; Arciola, Carla Renata; Fortunati, Elena; Ferrari, Davide; Mattioli, Samantha; Amoroso, Concetta Floriana; Rizzo, Jessica; Kenny, Jose M.; Imbriani, Marcello; Visai, Livia

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial infections are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In spite of great advances in biomaterials research and development, a significant proportion of medical devices undergo bacterial colonization and become the target of an implant-related infection. We present a review of the two major classes of antibacterial nanostructured materials: polymeric nanocomposites and surface-engineered materials. The paper describes antibacterial effects due to the induced material properties, along with the principles of bacterial adhesion and the biofilm formation process. Methods for antimicrobial modifications of polymers using a nanocomposite approach as well as surface modification procedures are surveyed and discussed, followed by a concise examination of techniques used in estimating bacteria/material interactions. Finally, we present an outline of future sceneries and perspectives on antibacterial applications of nanostructured materials to resist or counteract implant infections. PMID:25025086

  4. Development of Nanostructured Materials with Improved Radiation Tolerance for Advanced Nuclear Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zinghang Zhang; K. Ted Hartwig

    2009-08-12

    This project will explore the fundamental mechanisms through which interfaces in nanolayered structures and grain boundaries of bulk nanomaterials are able to attract and rapidly eliminate point defects and unwanted foreign species. Candidate materials that will be studied include both nanostructured multilayer composites synthesized by magnetron sputtering and structural bulk nanomaterials produced by severed plastic deformation, equal channel angular extrusion.

  5. The total scattering atomic pair distribution function: New methodology for nanostructure analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masadeh, Ahmad

    The conventional xray diffration (XRD) methods probe for the presence of long-range order (periodic structure) which are reflected in the Bragg peaks. Local structural deviations or disorder mainly affect the diffuse scattering intensity. In order to obtain structural information about both long-range order and local structure disorder, a technique that takes in account both Bragg and diffuse scattering need to be employed, such as the atomic pair distribution function (PDF) technique. This work introduces a PDF based methodology to quantitatively investigate nanostructure materials in general. The introduced methodology can be applied to extract quantitatively structural information about structure, crystallinity level, core/shell size, nanoparticle size, and inhomogeneous internal strain in the measured nanoparticles. This method is generally applicable to the characterization of the nano-scale solid, many of which may exhibit complex disorder and strain

  6. Sustainable approach toward synthesis of green functional carbonaceous 3-D micro/nanostructures from biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavangar, Amirhossein; Tan, Bo; Venkatakrishnan, Krishnan

    2013-08-01

    This study proposes a novel technique to synthesize functional carbonaceous three-dimensional (3-D) micro/nanocompounds from agricultural by-products using femtosecond laser irradiation. Biowastes of rice husk and wheat straw are value-engineered to carbonaceous structures in a single-step process under ambient conditions. Our results demonstrate that by controlling the laser fluence, structures with a variety of different morphologies from nanostructures to microstructures can be achieved. Also, the results indicate that altering the laser processing parameters influences the chemical composition of the synthesized structures. This sustainable approach presents an important step towards synthesizing 3-D micro/nanofibrous compounds from biowaste materials. These structures, as-synthesized or as nanocomposite fillers, can have practical uses in electronic, sensing, biological, and environmental applications.

  7. Sustainable approach toward synthesis of green functional carbonaceous 3-D micro/nanostructures from biomass.

    PubMed

    Tavangar, Amirhossein; Tan, Bo; Venkatakrishnan, Krishnan

    2013-01-01

    This study proposes a novel technique to synthesize functional carbonaceous three-dimensional (3-D) micro/nanocompounds from agricultural by-products using femtosecond laser irradiation. Biowastes of rice husk and wheat straw are value-engineered to carbonaceous structures in a single-step process under ambient conditions. Our results demonstrate that by controlling the laser fluence, structures with a variety of different morphologies from nanostructures to microstructures can be achieved. Also, the results indicate that altering the laser processing parameters influences the chemical composition of the synthesized structures. This sustainable approach presents an important step towards synthesizing 3-D micro/nanofibrous compounds from biowaste materials. These structures, as-synthesized or as nanocomposite fillers, can have practical uses in electronic, sensing, biological, and environmental applications. PMID:23924310

  8. Thermal evaporation furnace with improved configuration for growing nanostructured inorganic materials.

    PubMed

    Joanni, E; Savu, R; Valadares, L; Cilense, M; Zaghete, M A

    2011-06-01

    A tubular furnace specifically designed for growing nanostructured materials is presented in this work. The configuration allows an accurate control of evaporation temperature, substrate temperature, total pressure, oxygen partial pressure, volumetric flow and source-substrate distance, with the possibility of performing both downstream and upstream depositions. In order to illustrate the versatility of the equipment, the furnace was used for growing semiconducting oxide nanostructures under different deposition conditions. Highly crystalline indium oxide nanowires with different morphologies were synthesized by evaporating mixtures of indium oxide and graphite powders with different mass ratios at temperatures between 900 °C and 1050 °C. The nanostructured layers were deposited onto oxidized silicon substrates with patterned gold catalyst in the temperature range from 600 °C to 900 °C. Gas sensors based on these nanowires exhibited enhanced sensitivity towards oxygen, with good response and recovery times. PMID:21721724

  9. Glass-ceramics: A class of nanostructured materials for photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pablos-Martin, A.; Ferrari, M.; Pascual, M. J.; Righini, G. C.

    2015-07-01

    Glass-ceramics (GCs) are constituted by nanometer-to-micron-sized crystals embedded in a glass matrix; usually, their structural or functional elements (clusters, crystallites or molecules) have dimensions in the 1 to 100nm range. As the name says, GCs must be considered an intermediate material between inorganic glasses and ceramics; in most cases the crystallinity is between 30 and 50%. GCs share many properties with both glasses and ceramics, offering low defects, extra hardness, high thermal shock resistance (typical of ceramics) together with the ease of fabrication and moulding (typical of glasses). The embedded crystalline phase, however, can enhance the existing properties of the matrix glass or lead to entirely new properties. GCs are produced by controlled crystallization of certain glasses, generally induced by nucleating additives; they may result opaque or transparent. Transparent GCs are now gaining a competitive advantage with respect to amorphous glasses and, sometimes, to crystals too. The aim of the present paper is to introduce the basic characteristics of transparent glass-ceramics, with particular attention to the relationship between structure and transparency and to the mechanism of crystallization, which may also be induced by selective laser treatments. Their applications to the development of guided-wave structures are also briefly described.

  10. Nanostructured multilayered thin film barriers for Mg{sub 2}Si thermoelectric materials

    SciTech Connect

    Battiston, S.; Boldrini, S.; Fiameni, S.; Agresti, F.; Famengo, A.; Fabrizio, M.; Barison, S.

    2012-06-26

    The Mg{sub 2}Si-based alloys are promising candidates for thermoelectric energy conversion in the middle-high temperature range in order to replace lead compounds. The main advantages of silicide-based thermoelectrics are the nontoxicity and the abundance of their constituent elements in the earth crust. The drawback of such kind of materials is their oxygen sensitivity at high temperature that entails their use under vacuum or inert atmosphere. In order to limit the corrosion phenomena, nanostructured multilayered molybdenum silicide-based materials were deposited via RF magnetron sputtering onto stainless steel, alumina and silicon (100) to set up the deposition process and then onto Mg{sub 2}Si pellets. XRD, EDS, FE-SEM and electrical measurements at high temperature were carried out in order to obtain, respectively, the structural, compositional, morphological and electrical characterization of the deposited coatings. At the end, the mechanical behavior of the system thin film/Mg{sub 2}Si-substrate as a function of temperature and the barrier properties for oxygen protection after thermal treatment in air at high temperature were qualitatively evaluated by FE-SEM.

  11. Review on recent progress of nanostructured anode materials for Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goriparti, Subrahmanyam; Miele, Ermanno; De Angelis, Francesco; Di Fabrizio, Enzo; Proietti Zaccaria, Remo; Capiglia, Claudio

    2014-07-01

    This review highlights the recent research advances in active nanostructured anode materials for the next generation of Li-ion batteries (LIBs). In fact, in order to address both energy and power demands of secondary LIBs for future energy storage applications, it is required the development of innovative kinds of electrodes. Nanostructured materials based on carbon, metal/semiconductor, metal oxides and metal phosphides/nitrides/sulfides show a variety of admirable properties for LIBs applications such as high surface area, low diffusion distance, high electrical and ionic conductivity. Therefore, nanosized active materials are extremely promising for bridging the gap towards the realization of the next generation of LIBs with high reversible capacities, increased power capability, long cycling stability and free from safety concerns. In this review, anode materials are classified, depending on their electrochemical reaction with lithium, into three groups: intercalation/de-intercalation, alloy/de-alloy and conversion materials. Furthermore, the effect of nanoscale size and morphology on the electrochemical performance is presented. Synthesis of the nanostructures, lithium battery performance and electrode reaction mechanisms are also discussed. To conclude, the main aim of this review is to provide an organic outline of the wide range of recent research progresses and perspectives on nanosized active anode materials for future LIBs.

  12. Enhanced functionalization of Mn2O3@SiO2 core-shell nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaidya, Sonalika; Thaplyal, Pallavi; Ganguli, Ashok Kumar

    2011-12-01

    Core-shell nanostructures of Mn2O3@SiO2, Mn2O3@amino-functionalized silica, Mn2O3@vinyl-functionalized silica, and Mn2O3@allyl-functionalized silica were synthesized using the hydrolysis of the respective organosilane precursor over Mn2O3 nanoparticles dispersed using colloidal solutions of Tergitol and cyclohexane. The synthetic methodology used is an improvement over the commonly used post-grafting or co-condensation method as it ensures a high density of functional groups over the core-shell nanostructures. The high density of functional groups can be useful in immobilization of biomolecules and drugs and thus can be used in targeted drug delivery. The high density of functional groups can be used for extraction of elements present in trace amounts. These functionalized core-shell nanostructures were characterized using TEM, IR, and zeta potential studies. The zeta potential study shows that the hydrolysis of organosilane to form the shell results in more number of functional groups on it as compared to the shell formed using post-grafting method. The amino-functionalized core-shell nanostructures were used for the immobilization of glucose and L -methionine and were characterized by zeta potential studies.

  13. Solid-State Nanostructured Materials from Self-Assembly of a Globular Protein-Polymer Diblock Copolymer

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Carla S.; Glassman, Matthew J.; Olsen, Bradley D.

    2014-01-01

    Self-assembly of three-dimensional solid-state nanostructures containing approximately 33% by weight globular protein is demonstrated using a globular protein-polymer diblock copolymer, providing a route to direct nanopatterning of proteins for use in bioelectronic and biocatalytic materials. A mutant red fluorescent protein, mCherryS131C, was prepared by incorporation of a unique cysteine residue and site-specifically conjugated to end-functionalized poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) through thiol-maleimide coupling to form a well-defined model protein-polymer block copolymer. The block copolymer was self-assembled into bulk nanostructures by solvent evaporation from concentrated solutions. Small-angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy illustrated the formation of highly disordered lamellae or hexagonally perforated lamellae depending upon the selectivity of the solvent during evaporation. Solvent annealing of bulk samples resulted in a transition towards lamellar nanostructures with mCherry packed in a bilayer configuration and a large improvement in long range ordering. Wide-angle X-ray scattering indicated that mCherry did not crystallize within the block copolymer nanodomains and that the β-sheet spacing was not affected by self-assembly. Circular dichroism showed no change in protein secondary structure after self-assembly, while UV-vis spectroscopy indicated approximately 35% of the chromophore remained optically active. PMID:21696135

  14. Challenges in Applying Surface Analysis Methods to Nanoparticles and Nanostructured Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, Donald R.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Gaspar, Dan J.; Matson, Dean W.; Pecher, Klaus H.; Williams, Josh R.; Wang, Chong M.

    2005-03-01

    Nanostructured materials of various types and forms are formulated in a variety of novel ways and increasingly subject to many types of chemical and physical analysis. Since nanomaterial systems contain a relatively large amount of surface or interface area, it should be natural to characterize them using tools designed to analyze surfaces and interfaces. We have found that nanoparticles and other nanostructured materials present a variety of challenges. This paper reviews environmental effects on measurements of Ce-oxide nanoparticles and nanoporous silica films and focuses on efforts to quantify the ion damage and sputter rates for the Fe-oxide nanoparticles. We have found that nanoparticles appear more readily damaged and to have sputter rates that exceed “bulk” materials. To verify such effects, we need to know many details about size, size distribution, density, and shape that are not always easily obtained.

  15. Nanostructured thin film-based near-infrared tunable perfect absorber using phase-change material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocer, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Nanostructured thin film absorbers embedded with phase-change thermochromic material can provide a large level of absorption tunability in the near-infrared region. Vanadium dioxide was employed as the phase-change material in the designed structures. The optical absorption properties of the designed structures with respect to the geometric and material parameters were systematically investigated using finite-difference time-domain computations. Absorption level of the resonance wavelength in the near-IR region was tuned from the perfect absorption level to a low level (17%) with a high positive dynamic range of near-infrared absorption intensity tunability (83%). Due to the phase transition of vanadium dioxide, the resonance at the near-infrared region is being turned on and turned off actively and reversibly under the thermal bias, thereby rendering these nanostructures suitable for infrared camouflage, emitters, and sensors.

  16. Research High-temperature Consolidation of Nanostructured Bimodal Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nefedova, E.; Aleksandrova, E.; Grigoryev, E.; Olevsky, E.

    In this paper the high-temperature consolidation of bimodal powder mixtures was investigated by using technology spark-plasma sintering (SPS). Nano- and micropowders of pure copper have been used as the initial material mixture. As result, it was studied influence of sintering parameters on the final density, microstructure and mechanical properties of bulk compact bimodal materials.

  17. Primary role of electron work function for evaluation of nanostructured titania implant surface against bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Golda-Cepa, M; Syrek, K; Brzychczy-Wloch, M; Sulka, G D; Kotarba, A

    2016-09-01

    The electron work function as an essential descriptor for the evaluation of metal implant surfaces against bacterial infection is identified for the first time. Its validity is demonstrated on Staphylococcus aureus adhesion to nanostructured titania surfaces. The established correlation: work function-bacteria adhesion is of general importance since it can be used for direct evaluation of any electrically conductive implant surfaces. PMID:27207043

  18. CRYOGENIC ADSORPTION OF HYDROGEN ISOTOPES OVER NANO-STRUCTURED MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, S.; Heung, L.

    2010-10-07

    Porous materials such as zeolites, activated carbon, silica gels, alumina and a number of industrial catalysts are compared and ranked for hydrogen and deuterium adsorption at liquid nitrogen temperature. All samples show higher D{sub 2} adsorption than that of H{sub 2}, in which a HY sample has the greatest isotopic effect while 13X has the highest hydrogen uptake capacity. Material's moisture content has significant impact to its hydrogen uptake. A material without adequate drying could result in complete loss of its adsorption capacity. Even though some materials present higher H{sub 2} adsorption capacity at full pressure, their adsorption at low vapor pressure may not be as good as others. Adsorption capacity in a dynamic system is much less than in a static system. A sharp desorption is also expected in case of temperature upset.

  19. Mimicking photosynthesis to make functional nanostructures and nanodevices.

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, Eulalia; Shelnutt, John Allen; Medforth, Craig John; Song, Yujiang; Wang, Zhongchun

    2005-02-01

    Photocatalytic porphyrins are used to reduce metal complexes from aqueous solution and, further, to control the deposition of metals onto porphyrin nanotubes and surfactant assembly templates to produce metal composite nanostructures and nanodevices. For example, surfactant templates lead to spherical platinum dendrites and foam-like nanomaterials composed of dendritic platinum nanosheets. Porphyrin nanotubes are reported for the first time, and photocatalytic porphyrin nanotubes are shown to reduce metal complexes and deposit the metal selectively onto the inner or outer surface of the tubes, leading to nanotube-metal composite structures that are capable of hydrogen evolution and other nanodevices.

  20. Techniques for in situ HVEM mechanical deformation of nanostructural materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, M.A.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Dahmen, U.

    1995-08-07

    We have developed two in-situ HVEM techniques which allow us to begin fundamental investigations into the mechanisms of deformation and fracture in nonstructured materials. A procedure for the observation of tensile deformation and failure in multilayers materials in cross-section is given and also the development of an in-situ HVEM nanoindentor of surfaces and films on surfaces in cross-section.

  1. Controlled growth and characterization of one-dimensional nano-structured materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Yongfu

    As the research in nanomaterials is progressing at a rapid pace, it has become increasingly clear that the functionalization of the nanomaterials largely depends on the level of control in the fabrication of the nanomaterials. The main theme of this thesis is to develop a number of new techniques to fabricate one-dimensional nanostructured materials, study the growth processes and understand the growth mechanisms of the nanomaterials. The control over the nanomaterials growth was imparted by judiciously designing the synthesis experiments. Firstly, the ultra-thin beta--Bi2O3 nanowires with a diameter down to 7 nm and a length of several mum have been successfully prepared for the first time using an oxidative metal vapor transport deposition technique. We also extended this technique for the controlled growth of thin ZnO nano-tetrapods. Secondly, the Kirkendall approach was first used to prepare ultra-thin, single crystalline ZnO nanotubes with inner and outer diameters of about 3 and 13 nm respectively. Thirdly, gold hollow tetrapods were prepared using ZnO tetrapods as the template, HAuCl4 as the gold source and ascorbic acid as the reducing reagent. Fourthly, we have successfully synthesized aligned ZnO nanowires and Cu(OH)2 nanoribbons on the corresponding Zn and Cu substrates through the gas-solution-solid method. Finally, the application of ZnO tetrapods and ultra-thin tube as humidity sensor was explored.

  2. Ordered Nanostructured Amphiphile Self-Assembly Materials from Endogenous Nonionic Unsaturated Monoethanolamide Lipids in Water

    SciTech Connect

    Sagnella, Sharon M.; Conn, Charlotte E.; Krodkiewska, Irena; Moghaddam, Minoo; Seddon, John M.; Drummond, Calum J.

    2010-08-23

    The self-assembly, solid state and lyotropic liquid crystalline phase behavior of a series of endogenous n-acylethanolamides (NAEs) with differing degrees of unsaturation, viz., oleoyl monoethanolamide, linoleoyl monoethanolamide, and linolenoyl monoethanolamide, have been examined. The studied molecules are known to possess inherent biological function. Both the monoethanolamide headgroup and the unsaturated hydrophobe are found to be important in dictating the self-assembly behavior of these molecules. In addition, all three molecules form lyotropic liquid crystalline phases in water, including the inverse bicontinuous cubic diamond (Q{sub II}{sup D}) and gyroid (Q{sub II}{sup G}) phases. The ability of the NAE's to form inverse cubic phases and to be dispersed into ordered nanostructured colloidal particles, cubosomes, in excess water, combined with their endogenous nature and natural medicinal properties, makes this new class of soft mesoporous amphiphile self-assembly materials suitable candidates for investigation in a variety of advanced multifunctional applications, including encapsulation and controlled release of therapeutic agents and incorporation of medical imaging agents.

  3. Polymeric Bicontinuous Microemulsions as Templates for Nanostructured Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Brad Howard

    Ternary blends of two homopolymers and a diblock copolymer can self-assemble into interpenetrating, three dimensionally-continuous networks with a characteristic length scale of ˜ 100 nm. In this thesis, it is shown that these liquid phases, known as polymeric bicontinuous microemulsions (BμE), can be designed as versatile precursors to nanoporous materials having pores with uniform sizes of ˜ 100 nm. The model blends from which the porous materials are derived are composed of polyethylene (PE) and a sacrificial polyolefin. The liquid BμE structure is captured by crystallization of the PE, and a three-dimensionally continuous pore network with a narrow pore size distribution is generated by selective extraction of the sacrificial component. The original BμE structure is retained in the resultant nanoporous PE. This monolithic material is then used as a template in the synthesis of other nanoporous materials for which structural control at the nm scale has traditionally been difficult to achieve. These materials, which include a high-temperature ceramic, polymeric thermosets, and a conducting polymer, are produced by a simple nanocasting process, providing an inverse replica of the PE template. On account of the BμE structure of the template, the product materials also possess three-dimensionally continuous pore networks with narrow size distributions centered at ˜ 100 nm. The PE template is further used as a template for the production of hierarchically structured inorganic and polymeric materials by infiltration of mesostructured compounds into its pore network. In the former case, a hierarchically porous SiO2 material is demonstrated, simultaneously possessing two discrete, bicontinuous pore networks with sizes differing by over an order of magnitude. Finally, the templating procedures are extended to thin films supported on substrates and novel conductive polymer films are synthesized. The work described herein represents an unprecedented suite of

  4. Nanostructured energetic materials using sol-gel methodologies

    SciTech Connect

    Tillotson, T M; Simpson, R L; Hrubesh, L W; Gash, A E; Thomas, I M; Poco, J F

    2000-09-27

    The fundamental differences between energetic composites and energetic materials made from a monomolecular approach are the energy density attainable and the energy release rates. For the past 4 years, we have been exploiting sol-gel chemistry as a route to process energetic materials on a microstructural scale. At the last ISA conference, we described four specific sol-gel approaches to fabricating energetic materials and presented our early work and results on two methods - solution crystallization and powder addition. Here, we detail our work on a third approach, energetic nanocomposites. Synthesis of thermitic types of energetic nanocomposites are presented using transition and main group metal-oxide skeletons. Results on characterization of structure and performance will also be given.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of large specific surface area nanostructured amorphous silica materials.

    PubMed

    Marquez-Linares, Francisco; Roque-Malherbe, Rolando M A

    2006-04-01

    Large specific surface area materials attract wide attention because of their applications in adsorption, catalysis, and nanotechnology. In the present study, we describe the synthesis and characterization of nanostructured amorphous silica materials. These materials were obtained by means of a modification of the Stobe-Fink-Bohn (SFB) method. The morphology and essential features of the synthesized materials have been studied using an automated surface area and pore size analyzer and scanning electron microscopy. The existence of a micro/mesoporous structure in the obtained materials has been established. It was also found that the obtained particle packing materials show large specific surface area up to 1,600 m2/g. (To our best knowledge, there is no any reported amorphous silica material with such a higher specific surface area.) The obtained materials could be useful in the manufacture of adsorbents, catalyst supports, and other nanotechnological applications. PMID:16736774

  6. Nano-structured Materials in New and Existing Buildings: To Improved Performance and Saving of Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalisi, F.

    Improving well-being in buildings, in relation to energy conservation, represents a great challenge. In southern Italy a basic problem is that of keeping buildings cool in the summer months. This problem affects not only newly-erected buildings, but also the large number of existing buildings, some of which are of historical importance. Nano-technology represents an excellent opportunity to harness the salvage of existing buildings to the living requirements of contemporary society. The use of nano-structured materials in newly-erected buildings will lead to improved performance and a considerable saving of energy. Above all, the use of nano-structured materials in existing buildings will provide the possibility of intervention in these buildings and help improve, for example, insulation or lighting, without invasive intervention and consequent damage to the building itself.

  7. Antireflection effects at nanostructured material interfaces and the suppression of thin-film interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qiaoyin; Zhang, Xu A.; Bagal, Abhijeet; Guo, Wei; Chang, Chih-Hao

    2013-06-01

    Thin-film interference is a well-known effect, and it is commonly observed in the colored appearance of many natural phenomena. Caused by the interference of light reflected from the interfaces of thin material layers, such interference effects can lead to wavelength and angle-selective behavior in thin-film devices. In this work, we describe the use of interfacial nanostructures to eliminate interference effects in thin films. Using the same principle inspired by moth-eye structures, this approach creates an effective medium where the index is gradually varying between the neighboring materials. We present the fabrication process for such nanostructures at a polymer-silicon interface, and experimentally demonstrate its effectiveness in suppressing thin-film interference. The principle demonstrated in this work can lead to enhanced efficiency and reduce wavelength/angle sensitivity in multilayer optoelectronic devices.

  8. In Situ Neutron Scattering Study of Nanostructured PbTe-PbS Bulk Thermoelectric Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Fei; Schmidt, Robert; Case, Eldon D.; An, Ke

    2016-07-01

    Nanostructures play an important role in thermoelectric materials. Their thermal stability, such as phase change and evolution at elevated temperatures, is thus of great interest to the thermoelectric community. In this study, in situ neutron diffraction was used to examine the phase evolution of nanostructured bulk PbTe-PbS materials fabricated using hot pressing and pulsed electrical current sintering (PECS). The PbS second phase was observed in all samples in the as-pressed condition. The temperature dependent lattice parameter and phase composition data show an initial formation of PbS precipitates followed by a redissolution during heating. The redissolution process started around 570-600 K, and completed at approximately 780 K. During cooling, the PECS sample followed a reversible curve while the heating/cooling behavior of the hot pressed sample was irreversible.

  9. Nano-structure fabrication by using self-organizing properties of materials

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, T.; Maruno, T.; Ishii, Y.

    1994-12-31

    Self-organizing properties of materials can be used to fabricate well-ordered nanostructures on a large scale and also to develop new advanced materials. Three examples of self-organized nanostructures are described in this paper. A unidirectionally ordered metallo-phthalocyanine thin film was formed over the entire surface of a sapphire (1{bar 1}02) substrate by using a newly synthesized dibenzo[b,t] phthalocyaninato-Zn(II), which has a unique two-fold symmetrical molecular structure. A buried SiO{sub 2} layer with atomically abrupt Si/SiO{sub 2} interface was formed by oxygen ion implantation into silicon and subsequent annealing. A nano-particle consisting of outer graphitic shells and a core nano-crystal of LaC{sub 2} was formed in a self-organizing manner when a hot carbon-lanthanum particle was cooled on an arc-discharge electrode in a He atmosphere.

  10. NANOSTRUCTURED MATERIAL DESIGN FOR HG, AS, AND SE CAPTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this research project is to identify potential materials that can be used as multipollutant sorbents using a hierarchy of computational modeling approaches. Palladium (Pd) and gold (Au) alloys were investigated and the results show that the addition of a small amou...

  11. High-capacity nanostructured germanium-containing materials and lithium alloys thereof

    DOEpatents

    Graetz, Jason A.; Fultz, Brent T.; Ahn, Channing; Yazami, Rachid

    2010-08-24

    Electrodes comprising an alkali metal, for example, lithium, alloyed with nanostructured materials of formula Si.sub.zGe.sub.(z-1), where 0

  12. Electrical, thermal, catalytic and magnetic properties of nano-structured materials and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zuwei

    Nanotechnology is a subject that studies the fabrication, properties, and applications of materials on the nanometer-scale. Top-down and bottom-up approaches are commonly used in nano-structure fabrication. The top-down approach is used to fabricate nano-structures from bulk materials by lithography, etching, and polishing etc. It is commonly used in mechanical, electronic, and photonic devices. Bottom-up approaches fabricate nano-structures from atoms or molecules by chemical synthesis, self-assembly, and deposition, such as sol-gel processing, molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), focused ion beam (FIB) milling/deposition, chemical vapor deposition (CVD), and electro-deposition etc. Nano-structures can have several different dimensionalities, including zero-dimensional nano-structures, such as fullerenes, nano-particles, quantum dots, nano-sized clusters; one-dimensional nano-structures, such as carbon nanotubes, metallic and semiconducting nanowires; two-dimensional nano-structures, such as graphene, super lattice, thin films; and three-dimensional nano-structures, such as photonic structures, anodic aluminum oxide, and molecular sieves. These nano-structured materials exhibit unique electrical, thermal, optical, mechanical, chemical, and magnetic properties in the quantum mechanical regime. Various techniques can be used to study these properties, such as scanning probe microscopy (SPM), scanning/transmission electron microscopy (SEM/TEM), micro Raman spectroscopy, etc. These unique properties have important applications in modern technologies, such as random access memories, display, solar energy conversion, chemical sensing, and bio-medical devices. This thesis includes four main topics in the broad area of nanoscience: magnetic properties of ferro-magnetic cobalt nanowires, plasmonic properties of metallic nano-particles, photocatalytic properties of titanium dioxide nanotubes, and electro-thermal-optical properties of carbon nanotubes. These materials and their

  13. Temperature-dependent thermal conductivity in silicon nanostructured materials studied by the Boltzmann transport equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, Giuseppe; Esfarjani, Keivan; Strubbe, David A.; Broido, David; Kolpak, Alexie M.

    2016-01-01

    Nanostructured materials exhibit low thermal conductivity because of the additional scattering due to phonon-boundary interactions. As these interactions are highly sensitive to the mean free path (MFP) of phonons, MFP distributions in nanostructures can be dramatically distorted relative to bulk. Here we calculate the MFP distribution in periodic nanoporous Si for different temperatures, using the recently developed MFP-dependent Boltzmann transport equation. After analyzing the relative contribution of each phonon branch to thermal transport in nanoporous Si, we find that at room temperature optical phonons contribute 17 % to heat transport, compared to 5 % in bulk Si. Interestingly, we observe a constant thermal conductivity over the range 200 K nanostructured materials and demonstrate the necessity of multiscale heat transport engineering, in which the bulk material and geometry are optimized concurrently.

  14. Nanostructured Solar Irradiation Control Materials for Solar Energy Conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kang, Jinho; Marshall, I. A.; Torrico, M. N.; Taylor, C. R.; Ely, Jeffry; Henderson, Angel Z.; Kim, J.-W.; Sauti, G.; Gibbons, L. J.; Park, C.; Lowther, S. E.; Lillehei, P. T.; Bryant, R. G.

    2012-01-01

    Tailoring the solar absorptivity (alpha(sub s)) and thermal emissivity (epsilon(sub T)) of materials constitutes an innovative approach to solar energy control and energy conversion. Numerous ceramic and metallic materials are currently available for solar absorbance/thermal emittance control. However, conventional metal oxides and dielectric/metal/dielectric multi-coatings have limited utility due to residual shear stresses resulting from the different coefficient of thermal expansion of the layered materials. This research presents an alternate approach based on nanoparticle-filled polymers to afford mechanically durable solar-absorptive and thermally-emissive polymer nanocomposites. The alpha(sub s) and epsilon(sub T) were measured with various nano inclusions, such as carbon nanophase particles (CNPs), at different concentrations. Research has shown that adding only 5 wt% CNPs increased the alpha(sub s) and epsilon(sub T) by a factor of about 47 and 2, respectively, compared to the pristine polymer. The effect of solar irradiation control of the nanocomposite on solar energy conversion was studied. The solar irradiation control coatings increased the power generation of solar thermoelectric cells by more than 380% compared to that of a control power cell without solar irradiation control coatings.

  15. Conversion of cellulose materials into nanostructured ceramics by biomineralization

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Yongsoon; Exarhos, Gregory J

    2007-06-01

    Synthesis of hierarchically ordered silica materials having ordered wood cellular structures has been demonstrated through in-situ mineralization of wood by means of surfactant-directed mineralization in solutions of different pH. At low pH, silicic acid penetrates the buried interfaces of the wood cellular structure without clogging the pores to subsequently “molecularly paint” the interfaces thereby forming a positive replica following calcinations. At high pH, the hydrolyzed silica rapidly condenses to fill the open cells and pits within the structure resulting in a negative replica of the structure. Surfactant-templated mineralization in acid solutions leads to the formation of micelles that hexagonally pack at the wood interfaces preserving structural integrity while integrating hexagonally ordered nanoporosity into the structure of the cell walls following thermal treatment in air. The carbothermal reduction of mineralized wood with silica at high temperature produces biomorphic silicon carbide (SiC) materials, which are typical aggregations of β-SiC nanoparticles. To understand the roles of each component (lignin, crystalline cellulose, amorphous cellulose) comprising the natural biotemplates in the transformation to SiC rods, three different cellulose precursors including unbleached and bleached pulp, and cellulose nanocrystals have been utilized. Lignin in unbleached pulp blocked homogeneous penetration of silica into the pores between cellulose fibers resulting in non-uniform SiC fibers containing thick silica layers. Bleached pulp produced uniform SiC rods with camelback structures (80nm in diameter; ~50m in length), indicating that more silica infiltrates into the amorphous constituent of cellulose to form chunky rather than straight rod structures. The cellulose nanocrystal (CNXL) material produced clean and uniform SiC nanowires (70nm in diameter; >100m in length) without the camelback structure.

  16. Nanostructure of Materials Determined by Relayed Paramagnetic Relaxation Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Particle and domain sizes strongly influence the properties of materials. Here we present an NMR approach based on paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) relayed by spin diffusion (SD), which allows us to determine lengths in the nm−μm range. We demonstrate the method on multicomponent organic polymer mixtures by selectively doping one component with a paramagnetic center in order to measure the domain size in a second component. Using this approach we determine domain sizes in ethyl cellulose/hydroxypropyl cellulose film coatings in pharmaceutical controlled release formulations. Here we measure particle sizes ranging from around 50 to 200 nm. PMID:26397956

  17. Methods for high volume production of nanostructured materials

    DOEpatents

    Ripley, Edward B.; Morrell, Jonathan S.; Seals, Roland D.; Ludtka, Gerald M.

    2011-03-22

    A system and method for high volume production of nanoparticles, nanotubes, and items incorporating nanoparticles and nanotubes. Microwave, radio frequency, or infrared energy vaporizes a metal catalyst which, as it condenses, is contacted by carbon or other elements such as silicon, germanium, or boron to form agglomerates. The agglomerates may be annealed to accelerate the production of nanotubes. Magnetic or electric fields may be used to align the nanotubes during their production. The nanotubes may be separated from the production byproducts in aligned or non-aligned configurations. The agglomerates may be formed directly into tools, optionally in compositions that incorporate other materials such as abrasives, binders, carbon-carbon composites, and cermets.

  18. PDMS-on-silicon microsystems: Integration of polymer micro/nanostructures for new MEMS device functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tung, Yi-Chung

    2005-11-01

    Modern technologies found in military, space-craft, automotive, and telecommunications applications strongly demand reductions of the manufacturing cost, power consumption, size, and weight of integrated sensors and actuators. The research field of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) has seen significant technological innovations and advancements to meet this demand in the last two decades. Historically, MEMS technology has been seen as an offspring of silicon-based integrated circuit (IC) technology. But recently, the roles that polymer materials play in MEMS have been more pronounced due to their cost effectiveness, manufacturability, and compatibility with micro/nanoscale biological and chemical systems. Among these polymers, an organic elastomer, Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), has become one of the most popular materials because of its unique material properties and moldability suited for low-cost rapid prototyping based on a fabrication technique called soft lithography. However, PDMS micro/nanostructures, not allowed to be integrated with other silicon-based devices, find their limited use in MEMS other than in passive microfluidic components. The lack of a technology bridging the gap between silicon and PDMS prohibits us to realize new MEMS devices potentially resulting from the simultaneous use of these two materials. This research explores a fully new technological concept of "PDMS-on-silicon microsystems." "PDMS-on-silicon microsystems" refers to a class of novel MEMS devices integrating PDMS micro/nanostructures onto silicon actuators and/or sensors. The research aims to demonstrate a new type of MEMS devices taking advantage of benefits resulting from both of silicon and PDMS. To achieve this goal, this work develops a new MEMS fabrication technique called "soft-lithographic lift-off and grafting (SLLOG)." The SLLOG process starts with soft lithography-based molding and release of a three-dimensional (3D) PDMS microstructure. This is followed by

  19. Laser microprocessing and nanoengineering of large-area functional micro/nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, M.; Xie, X. Z.; Yang, J.; Chen, Z. C.; Xu, L.; Choo, Y. S.; Hong, M. H.

    2011-12-01

    Laser microprocessing and nanoengineering are of great interest to both scientists and engineers, since the inspired properties of functional micro/nanostructures over large areas can lead to numerous unique applications. Currently laser processing systems combined with high speed automation ensure the focused laser beam to process various materials at a high throughput and a high accuracy over large working areas. UV lasers are widely used in both laser microprocessing and nanoengineering. However by improving the processing methods, green pulsed laser is capable of replacing UV lasers to make high aspect ratio micro-grooves on fragile and transparent sapphire substrates. Laser micro-texturing can also tune the wetting property of metal surfaces from hydrophilic to super-hydrophobic at a contact angle of 161° without chemical coating. Laser microlens array (MLA) can split a laser beam into multiple laser beams and reduce the laser spot size down to sub-microns. It can be applied to fabricate split ring resonator (SRR) meta-materials for THz sensing, surface plasmonic resonance (SPR) structures for NIR and molding tools for soft lithography. Furthermore, laser interference lithography combined with thermal annealing can obtain a large area of sub-50nm nano-dot clusters used for SPR applications.

  20. Compatibility of RPECVD silicon dioxide with depletion gate materials for silicon-based nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rack, Mary Jo

    The focus of this work has been upon deposited oxide and gate materials suitable for use in silicon-based nanostructures. The latter use e-beam patterned depletion gates in order to create three-dimensional confinement of electrons in the 2-dimensional electron gas of a metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) inversion layer. Remote Plasma Enhanced chemical Vapor Deposition (RPECVD) silicon dioxide was selected as the deposited oxide. The deposition process was optimized using statistical techniques. Typically, low temperature deposited oxide is annealed in order to achieve device quality. The behavior of the oxide as a function of deposition and annealing temperature was characterized in order to understand the advantages of the anneal and the thermal budget required to accomplish the objectives of the MOSFET gate oxide quality oxide. Bulk oxide was assessed using etch rates in HF containing solutions, infrared absorption data, refractive index, and AFM measurements of surface roughness. The interface quality was examined using C-V measurements. Breakdown measurements were performed. The impact of the oxide deposition process on a thermally established Si/SiOsb2 interface was explored. Three materials were investigated for the role of depletion gates that might tolerate a high temperature aneal: cobalt silicide, cobalt and chrome. Their thermal stability was tested, sandwiched between a thermal oxide and a deposited oxide, for annealing temperatures of 700, 800 and 900 C by Auger electron spectroscopy and cross-sectional transmission electron spectroscopy. The impact of the oxide deposition process on the depletion gates was significant and so this has been studied as well.

  1. Nanostructured material for advanced energy storage : magnesium battery cathode development.

    SciTech Connect

    Sigmund, Wolfgang M.; Woan, Karran V.; Bell, Nelson Simmons

    2010-11-01

    Magnesium batteries are alternatives to the use of lithium ion and nickel metal hydride secondary batteries due to magnesium's abundance, safety of operation, and lower toxicity of disposal. The divalency of the magnesium ion and its chemistry poses some difficulties for its general and industrial use. This work developed a continuous and fibrous nanoscale network of the cathode material through the use of electrospinning with the goal of enhancing performance and reactivity of the battery. The system was characterized and preliminary tests were performed on the constructed battery cells. We were successful in building and testing a series of electrochemical systems that demonstrated good cyclability maintaining 60-70% of discharge capacity after more than 50 charge-discharge cycles.

  2. Discovering new properties and applications of ultrafast laser nanostructuring in transparent materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beresna, Martynas; Gecevičius, Mindaugas; Kazansky, Peter G.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper we overview recent progress in ultrafast laser nanostructuring of transparent materials. A remarkable effect has also been discovered, referred to as quill or calligraphic laser writing, which reveals strong dependence of the material modification, in particular the self-assembled sub-wavelength structures in glass, on orientation of the writing direction relative to direction of the pulse front tilt. Moreover, evidence of the first order phase transition associated with self-assembled nanostructures formation was revealed and supercooled state of laser damage was observed using pulses with tilted intensity front. More recently it has been demonstrated that the tip of an ultrafast laser quill has a property that is very different from an ordinary quill. Specifically, the modification of glass can be controlled even in stationary conditions by the mutual orientation of light polarization azimuth and the pulse front tilt. More recently, the selfassembled sub-wavelength nanostructuring have been proposed for fabrication of vortex polarization converters and rewritable polarization multiplexed optical memory, where the information encoding is realized by means of two birefringence parameters, i.e. the slow axis orientation (4th dimension) and retardance (5th dimension), in addition to three spatial coordinates.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of inorganic nanostructured materials for advanced energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Jin

    The performance of advanced energy storage devices is intimately connected to the designs of electrodes. To enable significant developments in this research field, we need detailed information and knowledge about how the functions and performances of the electrodes depend on their chemical compositions, dimensions, morphologies, and surface properties. This thesis presents my successes in synthesizing and characterizing electrode materials for advanced electrochemical energy storage devices, with much attention given to understanding the operation and fading mechanism of battery electrodes, as well as methods to improve their performances and stabilities. This dissertation is presented within the framework of two energy storage technologies: lithium ion batteries and lithium oxygen batteries. The energy density of lithium ion batteries is determined by the density of electrode materials and their lithium storage capabilities. To improve the overall energy densities of lithium ion batteries, silicon has been proposed to replace lithium intercalation compounds in the battery anodes. However, with a ~400% volume expansion upon fully lithiation, silicon-based anodes face serious capacity degradation in battery operation. To overcome this challenge, heteronanostructure-based Si/TiSi2 were designed and synthesized as anode materials for lithium ion batteries with long cycling life. The performance and morphology relationship was also carefully studied through comparing one-dimensional and two-dimensional heteronanostructure-based silicon anodes. Lithium oxygen batteries, on the other hand, are devices based on lithium conversion chemistries and they offer higher energy densities compared to lithium ion batteries. However, existing carbon based electrodes in lithium oxygen batteries only allow for battery operation with limited capacity, poor stability and low round-trip efficiency. The degradation of electrolytes and carbon electrodes have been found to both contribute

  4. MATERIALS, FABRICATION, AND MANUFACTURING OF MICRO/NANOSTRUCTURED SURFACES FOR PHASE-CHANGE HEAT TRANSFER ENHANCEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, M; Gerasopoulos, K; Maroo, SC; Hart, AJ

    2014-07-23

    This article describes the most prominent materials, fabrication methods, and manufacturing schemes for micro- and nanostructured surfaces that can be employed to enhance phase-change heat transfer phenomena. The numerous processes include traditional microfabrication techniques such as thin-film deposition, lithography, and etching, as well as template-assisted and template-free nanofabrication techniques. The creation of complex, hierarchical, and heterogeneous surface structures using advanced techniques is also reviewed. Additionally, research needs in the field and future directions necessary to translate these approaches from the laboratory to high-performance applications are identified. Particular focus is placed on the extension of these techniques to the design of micro/nanostructures for increased performance, manufacturability, and reliability. The current research needs and goals are detailed, and potential pathways forward are suggested.

  5. Nanostructured inorganic materials: Synthesis and associated electrochemical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yau, Shali Zhu

    Synthetic strategy for preparing potential battery materials at low temperature was developed. Magnetite (Fe3O4), silver hollandnite (AgxMn8O16), magnesium manganese oxide (MgxMnO 2˙yH2O), and silver vanadium phosphorous oxide (Ag 2VO2PO4) were studied. Magnetite (Fe3O4) was prepared by coprecipitation induced by triethylamine from aqueous iron(II) and iron(III) chloride solutions of varying concentrations. Variation of the iron(II) and iron(III) concentrations results in crystallite size control of the Fe3O4 products. Materials characterization of the Fe3O4 samples is reported, including Brunauer-Emmitt-Teller (BET) surface area, x-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), particle size, and saturation magnetization results. A strong correlation between discharge capacity and voltage recovery behavior versus crystallite size was observed when tested as an electrode material in lithium electrochemical cells. Silver hollandite (AgxMn8O16) was successfully synthesized through a low temperature reflux reaction. The crystallite size and silver content of AgxMn8O16 by varying the reactant ratio of silver permanganate (AgMnO4) and manganese sulfate monohydrate (MnSO4˙H2O). Silver hollandite was characterized by Brunauer-Emmitt-Teller (BET) surface area, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission (ICP-OES) spectrometry, helium pycnometry, simultaneous thermogravimetric analysis/differential scanning calorimetry (TGA/DSC), and x-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The crystallite size showed a strong correlation with silver content, BET surface area, and particle sizes. The silver hollandite cathode showed good discharge capacity retention in 30 cycles of discharge-charge. There were a good relationship between crystallite size and rate capability and pulse ability. Magnesium manganese oxide (MgxMnO2˙yH 2O) was made by redox reaction by mixing sodium hydroxide (NaOH), manganese sulfate monohydrate (MnSO4˙HO2), and potassium persulfate (K2S2O8

  6. Nanostructured carbon materials for adsorption of methane and other gases

    SciTech Connect

    Stadie, Nicholas P.; Fultz, Brent T.; Ahn, Channing; Murialdo, Maxwell

    2015-06-30

    Provided are methods for storing gases on porous adsorbents, methods for optimizing the storage of gases on porous adsorbents, methods of making porous adsorbents, and methods of gas storage of optimized compositions, as in systems containing porous adsorbents and gas adsorbed on the surface of the porous adsorbent. The disclosed methods and systems feature a constant or increasing isosteric enthalpy of adsorption as a function of uptake of the gas onto the exposed surface of a porous adsorbent. Adsorbents with a porous geometry and surface dimensions suited to a particular adsorbate are exposed to the gas at elevated pressures in the specific regime where n/V (density) is larger than predicted by the ideal gas law by more than several percent.

  7. Anisotropic Thermal Properties of Nanostructured Magnetic, Carbon and Hybrid Magnetic - Carbon Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, Sylvester

    In this dissertation research we investigated thermal properties of three groups of nanostructured materials: (i) magnetic; (ii) reduced graphene oxide films; and (iii) hybrid magnetic -- graphite -- graphene composites. The thermal measurements were conducted using the transient "hot disk" and "laser flash" techniques. The rare-earth free nanostructured SrFe12O19 permanent magnets were produced by the current activated pressure assisted densification technique. The thermal conductivity of the nanostructured bulk magnets was found to range from 3.8 to 5.6 W/mK for the in-plane and 2.36 W/mk to 2.65 W/mK for the cross-plane directions, respectively. The heat conduction was dominated by phonons near the room temperature. The anisotropy of heat conduction was explained by the brick-like alignment of crystalline grains with the longer grain size in-plane direction. The thermal conductivity scales up with the average grain size and mass density of the material revealing weak temperature dependence. Using the nanostructured ferromagnetic Fe3O4 composites as an example system, we incorporated graphene and graphite fillers into magnetic material without changing their morphology. It was demonstrated that addition of 5 wt. % of equal mixture of graphene and graphite flakes to the composite results in a factor of x2.6 enhancement of the thermal conductivity without significant degradation of the saturation magnetization. We investigated thermal conductivity of free-standing reduced graphene oxide films subjected to a high-temperature treatment of up to 1000°C. It was found that the high-temperature annealing dramatically increased the in-plane thermal conductivity, K, of the films from ˜3 W/mK to ˜61 W/mK at room temperature. The cross-plane thermal conductivity, K⊥, revealed an interesting opposite trend of decreasing to a very small value of ˜0.09 W/mK in the reduced graphene oxide films annealed at 1000°C. The obtained films demonstrated an exceptionally strong

  8. Tailoring properties and functionalities of nanostructures through compositions, components and morphologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Lin

    The field of nanoscience and nanotechnology has made significant progresses over the last thirty years. Sophisticated nanostructures with tunable properties for novel physics and applications have been successfully fabricated, characterized and underwent practical test. In this thesis, I will focus on our recent efforts to develop new strategies to manipulate the properties of nanostructures. Particularly, three questions have been answered from our perspective, based on the nanomaterials synthesized: (1) How does the composition affect a novel nanostructure? We started from single-molecule precursors to reach nanostructures whose bulk counterparts only exist under extreme conditions. Fe3S and Fe3S2 are used as examples to demonstrate this synthetic strategy. Their potential magnetic properties have been measured, which may lead to interesting findings in astronomy and materials science. (2) How to achieve modularity control at nanoscale by a general bottom-up approach? Starting with reviewing the current status of this field, our recent experimental progresses towards delicate modularity control are presented by abundant novel heteronanostructures. An interesting catalytic mechanism of these nanostructures has also been verified, which involves the interaction between phonons, photons, plasmons, and excitons. (3) What can the morphology difference tell us about the inside of nanostructures? By comparing a series of data from three types of CdSe/CdS core-shell structures, a conclusion has been reached on the CdS growth mechanism on CdSe under different conditions, which also may lead to a solution to the asymmetry problem in the synthesis of CdSe/CdS nanorods. Finally this thesis is concluded by a summary and future outlook.

  9. Modification of implant material surface properties by means of oxide nano-structured coatings deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safonov, Vladimir; Zykova, Anna; Smolik, Jerzy; Rogowska, Renata; Lukyanchenko, Vladimir; Kolesnikov, Dmitrii

    2014-08-01

    The deposition of functional coatings on the metal surface of artificial joints is an effective way of enhancing joint tribological characteristics. It is well-known that nanostructured oxide coatings have specific properties advantageous for future implant applications. In the present study, we measured the high hardness parameters, the adhesion strength and the low friction coefficient of the oxide magnetron sputtered coatings. The corrosion test results show that the oxide coating deposition had improved the corrosion resistance by a factor of ten for both stainless steel and titanium alloy substrates. Moreover, the hydrophilic nature of coated surfaces in comparison with the metal ones was investigated in the tensiometric tests. The surfaces with nanostructured oxide coatings demonstrated improved biocompatibility for in vitro and in vivo tests, attributed to the high dielectric constants and the high values of the surface free energy parameters.

  10. Doping in controlling the type of conductivity in bulk and nanostructured thermoelectric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuks, D.; Komisarchik, G.; Kaller, M.; Gelbstein, Y.

    2016-08-01

    Doping of materials for thermoelectric applications is widely used nowadays to control the type of conductivity. We report the results of ab-initio calculations aimed at developing the consistent scheme for determining the role of impurities that may change the type of conductivity in two attractive thermoelectric classes of materials. It is demonstrated that alloying of TiNiSn with Cu makes the material of n-type, and alloying with Fe leads to p-type conductivity. Similar calculations for PbTe with small amount of Na substituting for Pb leads to p-type conductivity, while Cl substituting for Te makes PbTe an n-type material. It is shown also that for nano-grained materials the n-type conductivity should be observed. The effect of impurities segregating to the grain boundaries in nano-structured PbTe is also discussed.

  11. Shock wave interactions with nano-structured materials: a molecular dynamics approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Qananwah, A. K.; Koplik, J.; Andreopoulos, Y.

    2013-02-01

    Porous materials have long been known to be effective in blast mitigation strategies. Nano-structured materials appear to have an even greater potential for blast mitigation because of their high surface-to-volume ratio, a geometric factor which substantially attenuates shock wave propagation. A molecular dynamics approach was used to explore the effects of this remarkable property on the behavior of traveling shocks impacting on solid materials. The computational setup included a moving piston, a gas region, and a target solid wall with and without a porous structure. The materials involved were represented by realistic interaction potentials. The results indicate that the presence of a nano-porous material layer in front of the target wall reduced the stress magnitude and the energy deposited inside the solid by about 30 %, while at the same time substantially decreasing the loading rate.

  12. Band Gap Narrowing and Widening of ZnO Nanostructures and Doped Materials.

    PubMed

    Kamarulzaman, Norlida; Kasim, Muhd Firdaus; Rusdi, Roshidah

    2015-12-01

    Band gap change in doped ZnO is an observed phenomenon that is very interesting from the fundamental point of view. This work is focused on the preparation of pure and single phase nanostructured ZnO and Cu as well as Mn-doped ZnO for the purpose of understanding the mechanisms of band gap narrowing in the materials. ZnO, Zn0.99Cu0.01O and Zn0.99Mn0.01O materials were prepared using a wet chemistry method, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that all samples were pure and single phase. UV-visible spectroscopy showed that materials in the nanostructured state exhibit band gap widening with respect to their micron state while for the doped compounds exhibited band gap narrowing both in the nano and micron states with respect to the pure ZnO materials. The degree of band gap change was dependent on the doped elements and crystallite size. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that there were shifts in the valence bands. From both UV-visible and XPS spectroscopy, it was found that the mechanism for band gap narrowing was due to the shifting of the valance band maximum and conduction band minimum of the materials. The mechanisms were different for different samples depending on the type of dopant and dimensional length scales of the crystallites. PMID:26319225

  13. Nanostructure-based plasmon-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for surface analysis of materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Song-Yuan; Yi, Jun; Li, Jian-Feng; Ren, Bin; Wu, De-Yin; Panneerselvam, Rajapandiyan; Tian, Zhong-Qun

    2016-06-01

    Since 2000, there has been an explosion of activity in the field of plasmon-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (PERS), including surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) and shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SHINERS). In this Review, we explore the mechanism of PERS and discuss PERS hotspots — nanoscale regions with a strongly enhanced local electromagnetic field — that allow trace-molecule detection, biomolecule analysis and surface characterization of various materials. In particular, we discuss a new generation of hotspots that are generated from hybrid structures combining PERS-active nanostructures and probe materials, which feature a strong local electromagnetic field on the surface of the probe material. Enhancement of surface Raman signals up to five orders of magnitude can be obtained from materials that are weakly SERS active or SERS inactive. We provide a detailed overview of future research directions in the field of PERS, focusing on new PERS-active nanomaterials and nanostructures and the broad application prospect for materials science and technology.

  14. Synthesis of nanostructured manganese oxides based materials and application for supercapacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dung Dang, Trung; Le, Thi Thu Hang; Bich Thuy Hoang, Thi; Mai, Thanh Tung

    2015-01-01

    Manganese oxides are important materials with a variety of applications in different fields such as chemical sensing devices, magnetic devices, field-emission devices, catalysis, ion-sieves, rechargeable batteries, hydrogen storage media and microelectronics. To open up new applications of manganese oxides, novel morphologies or nanostructures are required to be developed. Via sol—gel and anodic electrodeposition methods, M (Co, Fe) doped manganese oxides were prepared. On the other hand, nanostructured (nanoparticles, nanorods and hollow nanotubes) manganese oxides were synthesized via a process including a chemical reaction with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) templates followed by heat treatment. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used for characterization of the prepared materials. The influence of chemical reaction conditions, heat treatment and template present on the morphology, structure, chemical and electrochemical properties of the prepared materials were investigated. Chronopotentiometry (CP) and CV results show high specific capacitance of 186.2 to 298.4 F g-1 and the charge/discharge stability of the prepared materials and the ideal pseudocapacitive behaviors were observed. These results give an opening and promising application of these materials in advanced energy storage applications.

  15. Novel Nanostructures Enabled by On-Wire Lithography: New Materials and Architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangelson, Bryan Farrin

    Advances in nanotechnology enable researches to study and utilize new materials properties and are in large part driven by development and improvement of methods for synthesizing nanostructures. This dissertation discuses the advancement of one such method, On-Wire Lithography (OWL), a template directed electrochemical nanostructure synthesis technique. Chapter 2 is a demonstration of what was the first extension of OWL to an inorganic semiconductor material, namely anatase TiO2. The combination of this material with plasmonically active Au disk dimers results in the formation of composite plasmonic-semiconducting nanowires. This is accomplished via the sol-gel electrochemical deposition of Ti precursors on the Au dimers, followed by the selective chemical etching of Ni, and annealing of the Ti gel to form the anatase phase of TiO2. Chapter 3 extends the OWL toolbox to include Pd metal as a material. It is also shown that by taking advantage of the ability of OWL to form small gaps within the nanowire structure, a Pd based hydrogen gas sensor can be achieved. Chapter 4 shows the power of OWL for controlling the geometric architecture of nanowire-based structures. By introducing multiple nanowire dimers within the same structure, a single nanostructure exhibiting multiple plasmon resonances can be made. The spectral response of these structures is tailorable allowing one to create broadband absorbing structures. It is also demonstrated that by precise placement of the nanowire dimers with respect to each other a near field coupling effect can be observed which increases the total extinction of the structure by 12%. In Chapter 5 a composite plasmonic-semiconductor material composed of OWL fabricated nanowire dimers within sheets of Anatase TiO2 is fabricated. Despite the harsh conditions necessary to synthesize crystalline TiO2 sheets, the gapped nanostructures remain intact. Additionally, the optical properties of these structures can be tailored to produce

  16. Structural and Functional Hierarchy in Photosynthetic Energy Conversion-from Molecules to Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Tibor; Magyar, Melinda; Hajdu, Kata; Dorogi, Márta; Nyerki, Emil; Tóth, Tünde; Lingvay, Mónika; Garab, Győző; Hernádi, Klára; Nagy, László

    2015-12-01

    Basic principles of structural and functional requirements of photosynthetic energy conversion in hierarchically organized machineries are reviewed. Blueprints of photosynthesis, the energetic basis of virtually all life on Earth, can serve the basis for constructing artificial light energy-converting molecular devices. In photosynthetic organisms, the conversion of light energy into chemical energy takes places in highly organized fine-tunable systems with structural and functional hierarchy. The incident photons are absorbed by light-harvesting complexes, which funnel the excitation energy into reaction centre (RC) protein complexes containing redox-active chlorophyll molecules; the primary charge separations in the RCs are followed by vectorial transport of charges (electrons and protons) in the photosynthetic membrane. RCs possess properties that make their use in solar energy-converting and integrated optoelectronic systems feasible. Therefore, there is a large interest in many laboratories and in the industry toward their use in molecular devices. RCs have been bound to different carrier matrices, with their photophysical and photochemical activities largely retained in the nano-systems and with electronic connection to conducting surfaces. We show examples of RCs bound to carbon-based materials (functionalized and non-functionalized single- and multiwalled carbon nanotubes), transitional metal oxides (ITO) and conducting polymers and porous silicon and characterize their photochemical activities. Recently, we adapted several physical and chemical methods for binding RCs to different nanomaterials. It is generally found that the P(+)(QAQB)(-) charge pair, which is formed after single saturating light excitation is stabilized after the attachment of the RCs to the nanostructures, which is followed by slow reorganization of the protein structure. Measuring the electric conductivity in a direct contact mode or in electrochemical cell indicates that there is an

  17. Structural and Functional Hierarchy in Photosynthetic Energy Conversion—from Molecules to Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabó, Tibor; Magyar, Melinda; Hajdu, Kata; Dorogi, Márta; Nyerki, Emil; Tóth, Tünde; Lingvay, Mónika; Garab, Győző; Hernádi, Klára; Nagy, László

    2015-12-01

    Basic principles of structural and functional requirements of photosynthetic energy conversion in hierarchically organized machineries are reviewed. Blueprints of photosynthesis, the energetic basis of virtually all life on Earth, can serve the basis for constructing artificial light energy-converting molecular devices. In photosynthetic organisms, the conversion of light energy into chemical energy takes places in highly organized fine-tunable systems with structural and functional hierarchy. The incident photons are absorbed by light-harvesting complexes, which funnel the excitation energy into reaction centre (RC) protein complexes containing redox-active chlorophyll molecules; the primary charge separations in the RCs are followed by vectorial transport of charges (electrons and protons) in the photosynthetic membrane. RCs possess properties that make their use in solar energy-converting and integrated optoelectronic systems feasible. Therefore, there is a large interest in many laboratories and in the industry toward their use in molecular devices. RCs have been bound to different carrier matrices, with their photophysical and photochemical activities largely retained in the nano-systems and with electronic connection to conducting surfaces. We show examples of RCs bound to carbon-based materials (functionalized and non-functionalized single- and multiwalled carbon nanotubes), transitional metal oxides (ITO) and conducting polymers and porous silicon and characterize their photochemical activities. Recently, we adapted several physical and chemical methods for binding RCs to different nanomaterials. It is generally found that the P+(QAQB)- charge pair, which is formed after single saturating light excitation is stabilized after the attachment of the RCs to the nanostructures, which is followed by slow reorganization of the protein structure. Measuring the electric conductivity in a direct contact mode or in electrochemical cell indicates that there is an

  18. Improvements in 3-omega measurement of thermal conductivity for nanostructured materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chuanle; Grayson, M.; Koblmueller, G.

    2011-03-01

    Nanostructured materials have reduced thermal conductivity in order to enhance the thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT). The 3 ω method is widely used for vertical thermal conductivity measurements in the nanostructure materials, especially layered materials. The challenge for this method is to measure the small 3 ω voltage at the third harmonic, above the comparably large ω voltage from the sample at the fundamental frequency, complicated by the nonlinear signal from other components in the measurement circuit. We carefully study the 3 ω method [Cahill, Rev. Sci. lnstrum. 61 (2), 802 (1990)] and develop a strategy to increase the signal to noise ratio of the data, for more accurate results. We also investigate an alternate sample preparation geometry for the 3 ω measurement, so that the heat flow is vertical and linear through the thin film instead of cylindrical as is standard for this method. This results in a direct measurement of the vertical thermal conductivity in such an anisotropic material. New geometries for measuring lateral thermal conductivity will also be proposed and explored.

  19. Laser interference lithography for large area patterning and the fabrication of functional nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wathuthanthri, Ishan

    Nature-inspired phenomena such as the "moth eye" and "lotus leaf" effects have gained a lot of interest in recent years due to potential applications in a wide range of scientific and engineering disciplines. To practically achieve a majority of these biomimetic applications it is necessary to fabricate such nano-featured surfaces in a low-cost and high-throughput manner. To this end, this dissertation focuses on developing and using the Interference Lithography (IL) technologies to achieve large-area nanopatterning. IL is a parallel-type nanolithography technique that shares many of the advantages of other parallel-type techniques such as deep-UV photolithography while alleviating a majority of concerns such as cost and complexity. IL relies on the interference of two or more beams of light where the resulting interference fringes are generally recorded on a light sensitive polymeric material such as photoresist. In simple two-beam IL systems, the periodicity of the interference fringes is simply a function of wavelength and the angle of separation of the two beams, while the maximum coverage area is a constrained by the optical path and the exposed area. To this extent, in the design of interferometers for nanopatterning, the challenge remains in designing systems where a simple mechanism exists for varying the angle of separation of the interfering beams and in turn periodicity of the interference fringes while also enabling large-area exposures. To this end, the first half of this dissertation demonstrates three different IL systems (Lloyd-mirror, two-degree-of freedom Lloyd-mirror, and the tunable two-mirror systems) designed and established at Stevens capable of fast tuning of periodicities while also achieving wafer-scale (4") large-area nanopatterning. Using the large-area nanopatterns of photoresist, various pattern transfer techniques have also been investigated where the photoresist film is used as a template layer to transfer the large-area periodic

  20. Paper-supported nanostructured ultrathin gold film electrodes - Characterization and functionalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihalainen, Petri; Määttänen, Anni; Pesonen, Markus; Sjöberg, Pia; Sarfraz, Jawad; Österbacka, Ronald; Peltonen, Jouko

    2015-02-01

    Ultrathin gold films (UTGFs) were fabricated on a nanostructured latex-coated paper substrate by physical vapour deposition (PVD) with the aim to provide low-cost and flexible conductive electrodes in paper-based electronics. Morphological, electric and optical properties of UTGFs were dependent on the deposited film thickness. In addition, UTGFs were functionalized with insulating and hydrophobic 1-octadecanethiol self-assembled monolayer and inkjet-printed conductive and hydrophilic poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT-PSS) layer and their electrochemical properties were examined. Results showed that sufficient mechanical stability and adhesion of UTGFs deposited on latex-coated paper was achieved without the need on any additional adhesive layers, enabling a more robust fabrication process of the electrodes. UTGF electrodes tolerated extensive bending without adverse effects and conductivity comparable to the bulk gold was obtained already with the film thickness of 6 nm. Although not been fabricated with the high-throughput method like printing, a very low material consumption (∼12 μg/cm2) together with a high conductivity (resistivity < 3 × 10-6 Ω cm) makes the UTGFs electrodes potential candidates low-cost components in flexible electronics. In addition, the excellent stability of the UTGF electrodes in electrochemical experiments enables their application in the development of paper-based electrochemical platforms, e.g. for biosensing purposes.

  1. PREFACE: Functional materials and nanotechnologies (FM&NT-2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternberg, Andris; Muzikante, Inta

    2007-06-01

    The International Baltic Sea Region conference Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies (FM&NT-2007) was held in Riga, 2-4 April 2007 in the Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia (ISSP LU). The conference was organized in co-operation with projects ERANET 'MATERA' and EUREKA 'BIONANOCOMPOSITE'. The purpose of the conference was to bring together scientists, engineers and students from universities, research institutes and related industrial companies active in the field of advanced material science and materials technologies trends and future activities. Scientific themes covered in the conference are:

  2. advanced inorganic materials for photonics, energetics and microelectronics
  3. organic materials for photonics and nanoelectronics
  4. advanced methods for investigation of nanostructures
  5. perspective biomaterials and medicine technologies
  6. development of technologies for design of nanostructured materials, nanoparticles, and thin films
  7. design of functional materials and nanocomposites and development of their technologies
  8. The number of registered participants from 14 countries was nearly 110. During three days of the conference 70 oral reports and 58 posters were presented, 50 papers, based on these reports, are included in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series. Additional information about FM&NT-2007 is available in its homepage http://fmnt.lu.lv and http://www.fmnt.lv . The Organizing Committee would like to thank all speakers, contributors, session chairs, referees and meeting staff for their efforts in making the FM&NT-2007 successful. The local Organization Committee would like to acknowledge and thank our sponsors - Latvian Council of Science and the Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia. Andris Sternberg Inta Muzikante Guest editors

  9. Reactive Ballistic Deposition of Nanostructured Model Materials for Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Flaherty, David W.; Hahn, Nathan T.; May, Robert A.; Berglund, Sean P.; Lin, Yong-Mao; Stevenson, Keith J.; Dohnalek, Zdenek; Kay, Bruce D.; Mullins, C. Buddie

    2012-03-20

    Finely structured, supported thin films offer a host of opportunities for fundamental and applied research. Nanostructured materials often exhibit physical properties which differ from their bulk counterparts due to the increased importance of the surface in determining the thermodynamics and behavior of the system. Thus, control of the characteristic size, porosity, morphology, and surface area presents opportunities to tailor new materials which are useful platforms for elucidating the fundamental processes related to energy conversion and storage. The ability to produce high purity materials with direct control of relevant film parameters such as porosity, film thickness, and film morphology is of immediate interest in the fields of electrochemistry, photocatalysis, and thermal catalysis. Studies of various photoactive materials have introduced questions concerning the effects of film architecture and surface structure on the performance of the materials, while recent work has demonstrated that nanostructured, mesoporous, or disordered materials often deform plastically, making them robust in applications where volumetric expansion and phase transformations occur, such as in materials for lithium-ion batteries. Moreover, renewed emphasis has been placed on the formation of semi-conductive electrodes with controlled pore-size and large surface areas for the study and application of pseudo-capacitance and cation insertion processes for electrical energy storage. Understanding how the performance of such materials depends on morphology, porosity, and surface structure and area requires a synthesis technique which provides for incremental variations in structure and facilitates assessment of the performance with the appropriate analytical tools, preferably those that provide both structural information and kinetic insight into photoelectrochemical processes.

  10. Atomistic simulations of thermal transport in Si and SiGe based materials: From bulk to nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savic, Ivana; Mingo, Natalio; Donadio, Davide; Galli, Giulia

    2010-03-01

    It has been recently proposed that Si and SiGe based nanostructured materials may exhibit low thermal conductivity and overall promising properties for thermoelectric applications. Hence there is a considerable interest in developing accurate theoretical and computational methods which can help interpret recent measurements, identify the physical origin of the reduced thermal conductivity, as well as shed light on the interplay between disorder and nanostructuring in determining a high figure of merit. In this work, we investigate the capability of an atomistic Green's function method [1] to describe phonon transport in several types of Si and SiGe based systems: amorphous Si, SiGe alloys, planar and nanodot Si/SiGe multilayers. We compare our results with experimental data [2,3], and with the findings of molecular dynamics simulations and calculations based on the Boltzmann transport equation. [1] I. Savic, N. Mingo, and D. A. Stewart, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 165502 (2008). [2] S.-M. Lee, D. G. Cahill, and R. Venkatasubramanian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2957 (1997). [3] G. Pernot et al., submitted.

  11. Electrospray neutralization process and apparatus for generation of nano-aerosol and nano-structured materials

    DOEpatents

    Bailey, Charles L.; Morozov, Victor; Vsevolodov, Nikolai N.

    2010-08-17

    The claimed invention describes methods and apparatuses for manufacturing nano-aerosols and nano-structured materials based on the neutralization of charged electrosprayed products with oppositely charged electrosprayed products. Electrosprayed products include molecular ions, nano-clusters and nano-fibers. Nano-aerosols can be generated when neutralization occurs in the gas phase. Neutralization of electrospan nano-fibers with molecular ions and charged nano-clusters may result in the formation of fibrous aerosols or free nano-mats. Nano-mats can also be produced on a suitable substrate, forming efficient nano-filters.

  12. Silver Nanostructures Applicable As Core Materials Of SERS-Based Molecular Sensors And Barcodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwan; Lee, Hyang Bong; Choi, Jeong-Yong; Shin, Kuan Soo

    2010-12-01

    We have developed a simple electroless plating method used to prepare silver-deposited silica or magnetic beads and also succeeded in coating them further with silica layers, without affecting the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectral features of marker molecules assembled on the silver nanostructures. The Ag-deposited dye-embedded silica beads can then be used as a dual-tag sensor, operating via both fluorescence and SERS, for immunoassays and the Ag-deposited Fe3O4-embedded silica beads can be used as Raman barcode materials, possessing also strong enough magnetic moments.

  13. Functional materials for rechargeable batteries.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fangyi; Liang, Jing; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun

    2011-04-19

    There is an ever-growing demand for rechargeable batteries with reversible and efficient electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Rechargeable batteries cover applications in many fields, which include portable electronic consumer devices, electric vehicles, and large-scale electricity storage in smart or intelligent grids. The performance of rechargeable batteries depends essentially on the thermodynamics and kinetics of the electrochemical reactions involved in the components (i.e., the anode, cathode, electrolyte, and separator) of the cells. During the past decade, extensive efforts have been dedicated to developing advanced batteries with large capacity, high energy and power density, high safety, long cycle life, fast response, and low cost. Here, recent progress in functional materials applied in the currently prevailing rechargeable lithium-ion, nickel-metal hydride, lead acid, vanadium redox flow, and sodium-sulfur batteries is reviewed. The focus is on research activities toward the ionic, atomic, or molecular diffusion and transport; electron transfer; surface/interface structure optimization; the regulation of the electrochemical reactions; and the key materials and devices for rechargeable batteries. PMID:21394791

  14. Pattern recognition of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in whole blood samples using new platforms based on nanostructured materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefan-van Staden, Raluca-Ioana; Gugoasa, Livia Alexandra; Biris, Alexandru Radu

    2015-09-01

    Four stochastic microsensors based on nanostructured materials (graphene, maltodextrin (MD), and diamond) integrated in miniaturized platforms were proposed. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine whose main function is to regulate cell trafficking. It is correlated with the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and obesity, and was used as the model analyte in this study. The screening of whole blood samples for MCP-1 can be done for concentrations ranging from 10-12 to 10-8 g mL-1. The method was used for both qualitative and quantitative assessments of MCP-1 in whole blood samples. The lowest quantification limits for the assay of MCP-1 (1 pg mL-1) were reached when the microsensors based on protoporphyrin IX/Graphene-Au-3 and on MD/Graphene were employed in the platform design.

  15. Pattern recognition of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in whole blood samples using new platforms based on nanostructured materials.

    PubMed

    Stefan-van Staden, Raluca-Ioana; Gugoasa, Livia Alexandra; Biris, Alexandru Radu

    2015-09-28

    Four stochastic microsensors based on nanostructured materials (graphene, maltodextrin (MD), and diamond) integrated in miniaturized platforms were proposed. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine whose main function is to regulate cell trafficking. It is correlated with the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and obesity, and was used as the model analyte in this study. The screening of whole blood samples for MCP-1 can be done for concentrations ranging from 10(-12) to 10(-8) g mL(-1). The method was used for both qualitative and quantitative assessments of MCP-1 in whole blood samples. The lowest quantification limits for the assay of MCP-1 (1 pg mL(-1)) were reached when the microsensors based on protoporphyrin IX/Graphene-Au-3 and on MD/Graphene were employed in the platform design. PMID:26183340

  16. Magnetic Alignment and Charge Transport Improvement in Functional Soft Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majewski, Pawel W.

    The realization of nanostructured functional materials by self-assembly in polymers and polymer nanocomposites is adversely affected by persisting structural defects which greatly diminish the performance of the material. The use of magnetic fields to impose long-range order is investigated in three distinct systems - ion-conducting block copolymers, semiconducting nanowire-polymer composites and lyotropic surfactant mesophases. The alignment process is quantitatively studied with X-ray scattering and microscopic methods. Time and temperature resolved data collected in situ during the magnetic experiments provide an insight into the thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of the process. These data together with simultaneous electrical conductivity measurements allow relating fundamental structural properties (e.g., morphology and long-range order) to transport properties (i.e., conductivity). In particular, it is demonstrated that magnetic fields offer a viable route for improvement of electric conductivity in these systems. More than an order of magnitude increase in conductivity is recorded in magnetically-annealed materials. The resulting aligned nanostructured systems are attractive for ordered solid polymer electrolyte membranes, heterojunction photovoltaic devices and generally help to understand charge transport mechanisms in anisotropic heterogeneous systems.

  17. Application of Traditional and Nanostructure Materials for Medical Electron Beams Collimation: Numerical Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miloichikova, I. A.; Stuchebrov, S. G.; Zhaksybayeva, G. K.; Wagner, A. R.

    2015-11-01

    Nowadays, the commercial application of the electron accelerators grows in the industry, in the research investigations, in the medical diagnosis and treatment. In this regard, the electron beam profile modification in accordance with specific purposes is an actual task. In this paper the model of the TPU microtron extracted electron beam developed in the program “Computer Laboratory (PCLab)” is described. The internal beam divergence influence for the electron beam profile and depth dose distribution in the air is considered. The possibility of using the nanostructure materials for the electron beam formation was analyzed. The simulation data of the electron beam shape collimated by different materials (lead, corund- zirconia nanoceramic, gypsum) are shown. The collimator material influence for the electron beam profile and shape are analyzed.

  18. WTEC Panel Report on Internaitonal Assessment of Research and Development in Catalysis by Nanostructured Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Robert J.; Guilants, Vadim V.; Huber, George; Lobo, Raul F.; Neurock, Matthew; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Sharma, Renu; Thompson, Levi

    2009-01-01

    This WTEC panel report assesses the international research and development activities in the field of catalysis by nanostructured materials. Catalysis is important for a wide variety of processes that impact manufacturing, energy conversion, and environmental protection. This study focused specifically on solid catalysts and how nanoscale structures associated with them affect their reactivity. The principal technical areas of the study are (a) design and control of synthetic nanostructures; (b) nanoscale characterization of catalysts in their working state; (c) theory and simulation; and (d) applications. The panel visited over 40 institutions and companies throughout East Asia and Western Europe to explore the active research projects in those institutions, the physical infrastructure used for the projects, the funding schemes that enable the research, and the collaborative interactions among universities, national laboratories, and corporate research centers. A bibliometric analysis of research in catalysis by nanostructured materials published from 1996 to 2005 was conducted as part of this WTEC study. The total number of published papers as well as the expected total number of citations of those papers revealed a growing focus on this subject. Western Europe was the numerical output leader in the world; U.S. output, while published in high-impact journals, was relatively stagnant, and the number of published papers originating from China was growing exponentially and expected to exceed that from the United States in the latter half of this decade. China's rapidly expanding economy together with its growth in large-scale chemical and refining plants motivate its significant commitment to catalysis research. The panel found that cooperation between universities and companies in catalysis R&D is common in Europe and Asia, presumably because of a more favorable intellectual property environment outside of the United States. In the area of catalyst synthesis, there

  19. Survey of materials for nanoskiving and influence of the cutting process on the nanostructures produced.

    PubMed

    Lipomi, Darren J; Martinez, Ramses V; Rioux, Robert M; Cademartiri, Ludovico; Reus, William F; Whitesides, George M

    2010-09-01

    This paper examines the factors that influence the quality of nanostructures fabricated by sectioning thin films with an ultramicrotome ("nanoskiving"). It surveys different materials (metals, ceramics, semiconductors, and conjugated polymers), deposition techniques (evaporation, sputter deposition, electroless deposition, chemical-vapor deposition, solution-phase synthesis, and spin-coating), and geometries (nanowires or two-dimensional arrays of rings and crescents). It then correlates the extent of fragmentation of the nanostructures with the composition of the thin films, the methods used to deposit them, and the parameters used for sectioning. There are four major conclusions. (i) Films of soft and compliant metals (those that have bulk values of hardness less than or equal to those of palladium, or ≤500 MPa) tend to remain intact upon sectioning, whereas hard and stiff metals (those that have values of hardness greater than or equal to those of platinum, or ≥500 MPa) tend to fragment. (ii) All conjugated polymers tested form intact nanostructures. (iii) The extent of fragmentation is lowest when the direction of cutting is perpendicular to the exposed edge of the embedded film. (iv) The speed of cutting-from 0.1 to 8 mm/s-has no effect on the frequency of defects. Defects generated during sectioning include scoring from defects in the knife, delamination of the film from the matrix, and compression of the matrix. The materials tested were: aluminum, titanium, nickel, copper, palladium, silver, platinum, gold, lead, bismuth, germanium, silicon dioxide (SiO2), alumina (Al2O3), tin-doped indium oxide (ITO), lead sulfide nanocrystals, the semiconducting polymers poly(2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene) (MEH-PPV), poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), and poly(benzimidazobenzophenanthroline ladder) (BBL), and the conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). PMID:20815347

  20. In situ X-ray pair distribution function analysis of geopolymer gel nanostructure formation kinetics.

    PubMed

    White, Claire E; Provis, John L; Bloomer, Breaunnah; Henson, Neil J; Page, Katharine

    2013-06-14

    With the ever-increasing environmentally-driven demand for technologically advanced structural materials, geopolymer cement is fast becoming a viable alternative to traditional cements due to its proven engineering characteristics and the reduction in CO2 emitted during manufacturing (as much as 80% less CO2 emitted in manufacture, compared to ordinary Portland cement). Nevertheless, much remains unknown regarding the kinetics of reaction responsible for nanostructural evolution during the geopolymerisation process. Here, in situ X-ray total scattering measurements and pair distribution function (PDF) analysis are used to quantify the extent of reaction as a function of time for alkali-activated metakaolin/slag geopolymer binders, including the impact of various activators (alkali hydroxide/silicate) on the kinetics of the geopolymerisation reaction. Quantifying the reaction process in situ from X-ray PDF data collected during the initial ten hours can provide an estimate of the total reaction extent, but when combined with data obtained at longer times (128 days here) enables more accurate determination of the overall rate of reaction. To further assess the initial stages of the geopolymerisation reaction process, a pseudo-single step first order rate equation is fitted to the extent of reaction data, which reveals important mechanistic information regarding the role of free silica in the activators in the evolution of the binder systems. Hence, it is shown that in situ X-ray PDF analysis is an ideal experimental local structure tool to probe the reaction kinetics of complex reacting systems involving transitions between disordered/amorphous phases, of which geopolymerisation is an important example. PMID:23450172

  21. Dual-functionalized nanostructured biointerfaces by click chemistry.

    PubMed

    Schenk, Franziska C; Boehm, Heike; Spatz, Joachim P; Wegner, Seraphine V

    2014-06-17

    The presentation of biologically active molecules at interfaces has made it possible to investigate the responses of cells to individual molecules in their matrix at a given density and spacing. However, more sophisticated methods are needed to create model surfaces that present more than one molecule in a controlled manner in order to mimic at least partially the complexity given in natural environments. Herein, we present dual-functionalized surfaces combining quasi-hexagonally arranged gold nanoparticles with defined spacings and a newly developed PEG-alkyne coating to functionalize the glass in the intermediate space. The PEG-alkyne coating provides an inert background for cell interactions but can be modified orthogonally to the gold nanoparticles with numerous azides, including spectroscopically active molecules, peptides, and biotin at controlled densities by the copper(I)-catalyzed azide alkyne click reaction. The simultaneous presentation of cRGD on the gold nanoparticles with 100 nm spacing and synergy peptide PHSRN in the space between has a striking effect on REF cell adhesion; cells adhere, spread, and form mature focal adhesions on the dual-functionalized surfaces, whereas cells cannot adhere on either monofunctional surface. Combining these orthogonal functionalization methods creates a new platform to study precisely the crosstalk and synergy between different signaling molecules and clustering effects in ligand-receptor interactions. PMID:24856250

  22. Dual-Functionalized Nanostructured Biointerfaces by Click Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The presentation of biologically active molecules at interfaces has made it possible to investigate the responses of cells to individual molecules in their matrix at a given density and spacing. However, more sophisticated methods are needed to create model surfaces that present more than one molecule in a controlled manner in order to mimic at least partially the complexity given in natural environments. Herein, we present dual-functionalized surfaces combining quasi-hexagonally arranged gold nanoparticles with defined spacings and a newly developed PEG-alkyne coating to functionalize the glass in the intermediate space. The PEG-alkyne coating provides an inert background for cell interactions but can be modified orthogonally to the gold nanoparticles with numerous azides, including spectroscopically active molecules, peptides, and biotin at controlled densities by the copper(I)-catalyzed azide alkyne click reaction. The simultaneous presentation of cRGD on the gold nanoparticles with 100 nm spacing and synergy peptide PHSRN in the space between has a striking effect on REF cell adhesion; cells adhere, spread, and form mature focal adhesions on the dual-functionalized surfaces, whereas cells cannot adhere on either monofunctional surface. Combining these orthogonal functionalization methods creates a new platform to study precisely the crosstalk and synergy between different signaling molecules and clustering effects in ligand–receptor interactions. PMID:24856250

  23. Temperature Prediction in a Free-Burning Arc and Electrodes for Nanostructured Materials and Systems.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won-Ho; Kim, Youn-Jea; Lee, Jong-Chul

    2015-11-01

    Temperature in a free-burning arc used for synthesis of nanoparticles and nanostructured materials is generally around 20,000 K just below the cathode, falling to about 15,000 K just above the anode, and decreasing rapidly in the radial direction. Therefore, the electrode erosion is indispensable for these atmospheric plasma systems, as well as for switching devices, due to the high heat flux transferred from high temperature arcs to electrodes, but experimental and theoretical works have not identified the characteristic phenomena because of the complex physical processes. To the previous study, we have focused on the arc self-induced fluid flow in a free-burning arc using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique. At this time, our investigation is concerned with the whole region of free-burning high-intensity arcs including the tungsten cathode, the arc plasma and the anode using a unified numerical model for applying synthesis of nanoparticles and nanostructured materials practically. PMID:26726532

  24. Surface modification of plasmonic nanostructured materials with thiolated oligonucleotides in 10 seconds using selective microwave heating.

    PubMed

    Abel, Biebele; Aslan, Kadir

    2012-11-01

    This study demonstrates the proof-of-principle of rapid surface modification of plasmonic nanostructured materials with oligonucleotides using low power microwave heating. Due to their interesting optical and electronic properties, silver nanoparticle films (SNFs, 2 nm thick) deposited onto glass slides were used as the model plasmonic nanostructured materials. Rapid surface modification of SNFs with oligonucleotides was carried out using two strategies (1) Strategy 1: for ss-oligonucleotides, surface hybridization and (2) Strategy 2: for ds-oligonucleotides, solution hybridization), where the samples were exposed to 10, 15, 30 and 60 seconds microwave heating. To assess the efficacy of our new rapid surface modification technique, identical experiments carried out without the microwave heating (i.e., conventional method), which requires 24 hours for the completion of the identical steps. It was found that SNFs can be modified with ss- and ds-oligonucleotides in 10 seconds, which typically requires several hours of incubation time for the chemisorption of thiol groups on to the planar metal surface using conventional techniques. PMID:23645933

  25. In vivo and in vitro investigations of a nanostructured coating material – a preclinical study

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Martin; Ganz, Cornelia; Xu, Weiguo; Sarajian, Hamid-Reza; Götz, Werner; Gerber, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Immediate loading of dental implants is only possible if a firm bone-implant anchorage at early stages is developed. This implies early and high bone apposition onto the implant surface. A nanostructured coating material based on an osseoinductive bone grafting is investigated in relation to the osseointegration at early stages. The goal is to transmit the structure (silica matrix with embedded hydroxyapatite) and the properties of the bone grafting into a coating material. The bone grafting substitute offers an osseoinductive potential caused by an exchange of the silica matrix in vivo accompanied by vascularization. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy analysis show that the coating material consists of a high porous silica matrix with embedded nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite with the same morphology as human hydroxyapatite. An in vitro investigation shows the early interaction between coating and human blood. Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis showed that the silica matrix was replaced by an organic matrix within a few minutes. Uncoated and coated titanium implants were inserted into the femora of New Zealand White rabbits. The bone-to-implant contact (BIC) was measured after 2, 4, and 6 weeks. The BIC of the coated implants was increased significantly at 2 and 4 weeks. After 6 weeks, the BIC was decreased to the level of the control group. A histological analysis revealed high bone apposition on the coated implant surface after 2 and 4 weeks. Osteoblastic and osteoclastic activities on the coating material indicated that the coating participates in the bone-remodeling process. The nanostructure of the coating material led to an exchange of the silica matrix by an autologous, organic matrix without delamination of the coating. This is the key issue in understanding initial bone formation on a coated surface. PMID:24627631

  26. Carbon fiber CVD coating by carbon nanostructured for space materials protection against atomic oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastore, Roberto; Bueno Morles, Ramon; Micheli, Davide

    2016-07-01

    adhesion and durability in the environment. Though these coatings are efficient in protecting polymer composites, their application imposes severe constraints. Their thermal expansion coefficients may differ markedly from those of polymer composite substrates: as a result, cracks develop in the coatings on thermal cycling and AO can penetrate through them to the substrate. In addition to the technicalities of forming an effective barrier, such factors as cost, convenience of application and ease of repair are important considerations in the selection of a coating for a particular application. The latter issues drive the aerospace research toward the development of novel light composite materials, like the so called polymer nanocomposites, which are materials with a polymer matrix and a filler with at least one dimension less than 100 nanometers. Current interest in nanocomposites has been generated and maintained because nanoparticle-filled polymers exhibit unique combinations of properties not achievable with traditional composites. These combinations of properties can be achieved because of the small size of the fillers, the large surface area the fillers provide, and in many cases the unique properties of the fillers themselves. In particular, the carbon fiber-based polymeric composite materials are the basic point of interest: the aim of the present study is to find new solution to produce carbon fiber-based composites with even more upgraded performances. One intriguing strategy to tackle such an issue has been picked out in the coupling between the carbon fibers and the carbon nanostructures. That for two main reasons: first, carbon nanostructures have shown fancy potentialities for any kind of technological applications since their discovery, second, the chemical affinity between fiber and nanostructure (made of the same element) should be a likely route to approach the typical problems due to thermo-mechanical compatibility. This work is joined in such framework

  27. Functional Nanostructured Platforms for Chemical and Biological Sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Letant, S E

    2006-03-20

    The central goal of our work is to combine semiconductor nanotechnology and surface functionalization in order to build platforms for the selective detection of bio-organisms ranging in size from bacteria (micron range) down to viruses, as well as for the detection of chemical agents (nanometer range). We will show on three porous silicon platforms how pore geometry and pore wall chemistry can be combined and optimized to capture and detect specific targets. We developed a synthetic route allowing to directly anchor proteins on silicon surfaces and illustrated the relevance of this technique by immobilizing live enzymes onto electrochemically etched luminescent nano-porous silicon. The powerful association of the specific enzymes with the transducing matrix led to a selective hybrid platform for chemical sensing. We also used light-assisted electrochemistry to produce periodic arrays of through pores on pre-patterned silicon membranes with controlled diameters ranging from many microns down to tens of nanometers. We demonstrated the first covalently functionalized silicon membranes and illustrated their selective capture abilities with antibody-coated micro-beads. These engineered membranes are extremely versatile and could be adapted to specifically recognize the external fingerprints (size and coat composition) of target bio-organisms. Finally, we fabricated locally functionalized single nanopores using a combination of focused ion beam drilling and ion beam assisted oxide deposition. We showed how a silicon oxide ring can be grown around a single nanopore and how it can be functionalized with DNA probes to detect single viral-sized beads. The next step for this platform is the detection of whole viruses and bacteria.

  1. Functional nanostructured platforms for chemical and biological sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Létant, S. E.

    2006-05-01

    The central goal of our work is to combine semiconductor nanotechnology and surface functionalization in order to build platforms for the selective detection of bio-organisms ranging in size from bacteria (micron range) down to viruses, as well as for the detection of chemical agents (nanometer range). We will show on three porous silicon platforms how pore geometry and pore wall chemistry can be combined and optimized to capture and detect specific targets. We developed a synthetic route allowing to directly anchor proteins on silicon surfaces and illustrated the relevance of this technique by immobilizing live enzymes onto electrochemically etched luminescent nano-porous silicon. The powerful association of the specific enzymes with the transducing matrix led to a selective hybrid platform for chemical sensing. We also used light-assisted electrochemistry to produce periodic arrays of through pores on pre-patterned silicon membranes with controlled diameters ranging from many microns down to tens of nanometers. We demonstrated the first covalently functionalized silicon membranes and illustrated their selective capture abilities with antibody-coated micro-beads. These engineered membranes are extremely versatile and could be adapted to specifically recognize the external fingerprints (size and coat composition) of target bio-organisms. Finally, we fabricated locally functionalized single nanopores using a combination of focused ion beam drilling and ion beam assisted oxide deposition. We showed how a silicon oxide ring can be grown around a single nanopore and how it can be functionalized with DNA probes to detect single viral-sized beads. The next step for this platform is the detection of whole viruses and bacteria.

  2. One-dimensional nanostructured materials for lithium-ion battery and supercapacitor electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Candace Kay

    The need for improved electrochemical storage devices has necessitated research on new and advanced electrode materials. One-dimensional nanomaterials such as nanowires, nanotubes, and nanoribbons, can provide a unique opportunity to engineer electrochemical devices to have improved electronic and ionic conductivity as well as electrochemical and structural transformations. Silicon and germanium nanowires (NWs) were studied as negative electrode materials for lithiumion batteries because of their ability to alloy with large amounts of lithium, leading to 4-10 times higher specific capacities than the graphite standard. These nanowires could be grown vertically off of metallic current collector substrates using the gold-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid synthesis. Electrochemical measurements of the SiNWs showed that capacities greater than 3,500 mAh/g could be obtained for tens of cycles, while hundreds of cycles could be obtained at lower capacities. As opposed to bulk Si, the SiNWs were observed to maintain their morphology during cycling and did not pulverize due to the large volume changes. Detailed TEM and XRD characterization showed that the SiNWs became amorphous during the first lithiation (charge) and formed a two-phase region between crystalline Si and amorphous Li xSi. Afterwards, the SiNWs remained amorphous and subsequent reaction was through a single-phase cycling of amorphous Si. The good cycling behavior compared to bulk and micron-sized Si particles was attributed to the nanowire morphology and electrode design. The surface chemistry and solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) were studied using XPS as a function of charge and discharge potential. The common reduction productions expected in the electrolyte (1 M LiPF6 in 1:1 EC/DEC) were observed, with the main component being Li2CO3. The morphology of the SEI was found to change at different potentials, indicating a dynamic process involving deposition, dissolution, and re-deposition on the SiNWs. Longterm

  3. Center for Fundamental and Applied Research in Nanostructured and Lightweight Materials. Final Technical Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mullins, Michael; Rogers, Tony; King, Julia; Keith, Jason; Cornilsen, Bahne; Allen, Jeffrey; Gilbert, Ryan; Holles, Joseph

    2010-09-28

    The core projects for this DOE-sponsored Center at Michigan Tech have focused on several of the materials problems identified by the NAS. These include: new electrode materials, enhanced PEM materials, lighter and more effective bipolar plates, and improvement of the carbon used as a current carrier. This project involved fundamental and applied research in the development and testing of lightweight and nanostructured materials to be used in fuel cell applications and for chemical synthesis. The advent of new classes of materials engineered at the nanometer level can produce materials that are lightweight and have unique physical and chemical properties. The grant was used to obtain and improve the equipment infrastructure to support this research and also served to fund seven research projects. These included: 1. Development of lightweight, thermally conductive bipolar plates for improved thermal management in fuel cells; 2. Exploration of pseudomorphic nanoscale overlayer bimetallic catalysts for fuel cells; 3. Development of hybrid inorganic/organic polymer nanocomposites with improved ionic and electronic properties; 4. Development of oriented polymeric materials for membrane applications; 5. Preparation of a graphitic carbon foam current collectors; 6. The development of lightweight carbon electrodes using graphitic carbon foams for battery and fuel cell applications; and 7. Movement of water in fuel cell electrodes.

  4. Independent control of electrical and heat conduction by nanostructure designing for Si-based thermoelectric materials

    PubMed Central

    Yamasaka, Shuto; Watanabe, Kentaro; Sakane, Shunya; Takeuchi, Shotaro; Sakai, Akira; Sawano, Kentarou; Nakamura, Yoshiaki

    2016-01-01

    The high electrical and drastically-low thermal conductivities, a vital goal for high performance thermoelectric (TE) materials, are achieved in Si-based nanoarchitecture composed of Si channel layers and epitaxial Ge nanodots (NDs) with ultrahigh areal density (~1012 cm−2). In this nanoarchitecture, the ultrasmall NDs and Si channel layers play roles of phonon scattering sources and electrical conduction channels, respectively. Electron conductivity in n-type nanoacrhitecture shows high values comparable to those of epitaxial Si films despite the existence of epitaxial NDs. This is because Ge NDs mainly scattered not electrons but phonons selectively, which could be attributed to the small conduction band offset at the epitaxially-grown Si/Ge interface and high transmission probability through stacking faults. These results demonstrate an independent control of thermal and electrical conduction for phonon-glass electron-crystal TE materials by nanostructure designing and the energetic and structural interface control. PMID:26973092

  5. Independent control of electrical and heat conduction by nanostructure designing for Si-based thermoelectric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamasaka, Shuto; Watanabe, Kentaro; Sakane, Shunya; Takeuchi, Shotaro; Sakai, Akira; Sawano, Kentarou; Nakamura, Yoshiaki

    2016-03-01

    The high electrical and drastically-low thermal conductivities, a vital goal for high performance thermoelectric (TE) materials, are achieved in Si-based nanoarchitecture composed of Si channel layers and epitaxial Ge nanodots (NDs) with ultrahigh areal density (~1012 cm‑2). In this nanoarchitecture, the ultrasmall NDs and Si channel layers play roles of phonon scattering sources and electrical conduction channels, respectively. Electron conductivity in n-type nanoacrhitecture shows high values comparable to those of epitaxial Si films despite the existence of epitaxial NDs. This is because Ge NDs mainly scattered not electrons but phonons selectively, which could be attributed to the small conduction band offset at the epitaxially-grown Si/Ge interface and high transmission probability through stacking faults. These results demonstrate an independent control of thermal and electrical conduction for phonon-glass electron-crystal TE materials by nanostructure designing and the energetic and structural interface control.

  6. Lyotropic liquid crystal engineering-ordered nanostructured small molecule amphiphile self-assembly materials by design.

    PubMed

    Fong, Celesta; Le, Tu; Drummond, Calum J

    2012-02-01

    Future nanoscale soft matter design will be guided to a large extent by the teachings of amphiphile (lipid or surfactant) self-assembly. Ordered nanostructured lyotropic liquid crystalline mesophases may form in select mixtures of amphiphile and solvent. To reproducibly engineer the low energy amphiphile self-assembly of materials for the future, we must first learn the design principles. In this critical review we discuss the evolution of these design rules and in particular discuss recent key findings regarding (i) what drives amphiphile self-assembly, (ii) what governs the self-assembly structures that are formed, and (iii) how can amphiphile self-assembly materials be used to enhance product formulations, including drug delivery vehicles, medical imaging contrast agents, and integral membrane protein crystallisation media. We focus upon the generation of 'dilutable' lyotropic liquid crystal phases with two- and three-dimensional geometries from amphiphilic small molecules (225 references). PMID:21975366

  7. Nanostructures of Designed Geometry and Functionality Enable Regulation of Cellular Signaling Processes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie-Ren; Shi, Lifang; Deng, Zhao; Lo, Su Hao; Liu, Gang-yu

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular matrices (ECM) triggered cellular signaling processes often begin with the clustering of the cellular receptors such as integrin and FcεRI. The sizes of these initial protein complexes or clusters are tens to 100 nm in dimension; therefore, engineered nanostructures could provide effective mimics of ECM for investigation and control of the initial and downstream specific signaling process. This current topic discusses recent advances in nanotechnology in the context of design and production of matching chemical functionality and geometry for control of specific cellular signaling processes. Two investigations are reported to demonstrate this concept: (a) how the presentation of antigen at nanometer scale would influence the aggregation of FcεRI, which would impact the formation of activation complexes, leading to rearrangement of actin in cytoskeleton and degranulation or activation of mast cells; (b) how the engineered nanostructure could guide the initial integrin clustering, which would impact the formation of focal adhesion and downstream cell signaling cascades, leading to polarization, migration and morphological changes. Complimentary to engineered ECMs using synthetic ligands or peptides, or topographic control at micrometer scale, nanostructures of designed geometry and chemical functionality provide new and effective biochemical cues for regulation of cellular signaling processes and downstream behaviors. PMID:22783801

  8. Application of 2D Non-Graphene Materials and 2D Oxide Nanostructures for Biosensing Technology

    PubMed Central

    Shavanova, Kateryna; Bakakina, Yulia; Burkova, Inna; Shtepliuk, Ivan; Viter, Roman; Ubelis, Arnolds; Beni, Valerio; Starodub, Nickolaj; Yakimova, Rositsa; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of graphene and its unique properties has inspired researchers to try to invent other two-dimensional (2D) materials. After considerable research effort, a distinct “beyond graphene” domain has been established, comprising the library of non-graphene 2D materials. It is significant that some 2D non-graphene materials possess solid advantages over their predecessor, such as having a direct band gap, and therefore are highly promising for a number of applications. These applications are not limited to nano- and opto-electronics, but have a strong potential in biosensing technologies, as one example. However, since most of the 2D non-graphene materials have been newly discovered, most of the research efforts are concentrated on material synthesis and the investigation of the properties of the material. Applications of 2D non-graphene materials are still at the embryonic stage, and the integration of 2D non-graphene materials into devices is scarcely reported. However, in recent years, numerous reports have blossomed about 2D material-based biosensors, evidencing the growing potential of 2D non-graphene materials for biosensing applications. This review highlights the recent progress in research on the potential of using 2D non-graphene materials and similar oxide nanostructures for different types of biosensors (optical and electrochemical). A wide range of biological targets, such as glucose, dopamine, cortisol, DNA, IgG, bisphenol, ascorbic acid, cytochrome and estradiol, has been reported to be successfully detected by biosensors with transducers made of 2D non-graphene materials. PMID:26861346

  9. Application of 2D Non-Graphene Materials and 2D Oxide Nanostructures for Biosensing Technology.

    PubMed

    Shavanova, Kateryna; Bakakina, Yulia; Burkova, Inna; Shtepliuk, Ivan; Viter, Roman; Ubelis, Arnolds; Beni, Valerio; Starodub, Nickolaj; Yakimova, Rositsa; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of graphene and its unique properties has inspired researchers to try to invent other two-dimensional (2D) materials. After considerable research effort, a distinct "beyond graphene" domain has been established, comprising the library of non-graphene 2D materials. It is significant that some 2D non-graphene materials possess solid advantages over their predecessor, such as having a direct band gap, and therefore are highly promising for a number of applications. These applications are not limited to nano- and opto-electronics, but have a strong potential in biosensing technologies, as one example. However, since most of the 2D non-graphene materials have been newly discovered, most of the research efforts are concentrated on material synthesis and the investigation of the properties of the material. Applications of 2D non-graphene materials are still at the embryonic stage, and the integration of 2D non-graphene materials into devices is scarcely reported. However, in recent years, numerous reports have blossomed about 2D material-based biosensors, evidencing the growing potential of 2D non-graphene materials for biosensing applications. This review highlights the recent progress in research on the potential of using 2D non-graphene materials and similar oxide nanostructures for different types of biosensors (optical and electrochemical). A wide range of biological targets, such as glucose, dopamine, cortisol, DNA, IgG, bisphenol, ascorbic acid, cytochrome and estradiol, has been reported to be successfully detected by biosensors with transducers made of 2D non-graphene materials. PMID:26861346

  10. The effect of dimensionality of nanostructured carbon on the architecture of organic-inorganic hybrid materials.

    PubMed

    Misra, R D K; Depan, D; Shah, J

    2013-08-21

    The natural tendency of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to agglomerate is an underlying reason that prevents the realization of their full potential. On the other hand, covalent functionalization of CNTs to control dispersion leads to disruption of π-conjugation in CNTs and the non-covalent functionalization leads to a weak CNT-polymer interface. To overcome these challenges, we describe the characteristics of fostering of direct nucleation of polymers on nanostructured carbon (CNTs of diameters (~2-200 nm), carbon nanofibers (~200-300 nm), and graphene), which culminates in interfacial adhesion, resulting from electrostatic and van der Waals interaction in the hybrid nanostructured carbon-polymer architecture. Furthermore, the structure is tunable through a change in undercooling. High density polyethylene and polypropylene were selected as two model polymers and two sets of experiments were carried out. The first set of experiments was carried out using CNTs of diameter ~2-5 nm to explore the effect of undercooling and polymer concentration. The second set of experiments was focused on studying the effect of dimensionality on geometrical confinements. The periodic crystallization of polyethylene on small diameter CNTs is demonstrated to be a consequence of the geometrical confinement effect, rather than epitaxy, such that petal-like disks nucleate on large diameter CNTs, carbon nanofibers, and graphene. The application of the process is illustrated in terms of fabricating a system for cellular uptake and bioimaging. PMID:23817610

  11. Curvature-Induced Anomalous Enhancement in the Work Function of Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Jasmin; Kant, Rama

    2015-08-01

    An analytical theory to estimate the electronic work function in curved geometries is formulated under Thomas-Fermi approximation. The work function is framed as the work against the electrostatic self-capacitive energy. The contribution of surface curvature is characterized by mean and Gaussian curvature (through multiple scattering expansion). The variation in work function of metal and semimetal nanostructures is shown as the consequence of surface radius of curvature comparable to electronic screening length. For ellipsoidal particles, the maximum value of work function is observed at the equator and poles for oblate and prolate particles, respectively, whereas triaxial ellipsoid shows nonuniform distribution of the work function over the surface. Similarly, theory predicts manifold increase in the work function for a particle with atomic scale roughness. Finally, the theory is validated with experimental data, and it is concluded that the work function of a nanoparticle can be tailored through its shape. PMID:26267172

  12. Nanostructured pseudocapacitive materials decorated 3D graphene foam electrodes for next generation supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Umakant; Lee, Su Chan; Kulkarni, Sachin; Sohn, Ji Soo; Nam, Min Sik; Han, Suhyun; Jun, Seong Chan

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays, advancement in performance of proficient multifarious electrode materials lies conclusively at the core of research concerning energy storage devices. To accomplish superior capacitance performance the requirements of high capacity, better cyclic stability and good rate capability can be expected from integration of electrochemical double layer capacitor based carbonaceous materials (high power density) and pseudocapacitive based metal hydroxides/oxides or conducting polymers (high energy density). The envisioned three dimensional (3D) graphene foams are predominantly advantageous to extend potential applicability by offering a large active surface area and a highly conductive continuous porous network for fast charge transfer with decoration of nanosized pseudocapacitive materials. In this article, we review the latest methodologies and performance evaluation for several 3D graphene based metal oxides/hydroxides and conducting polymer electrodes with improved electrochemical properties for next-generation supercapacitors. The most recent research advancements of our and other groups in the field of 3D graphene based electrode materials for supercapacitors are discussed. To assess the studied materials fully, a careful interpretation and rigorous scrutiny of their electrochemical characteristics is essential. Auspiciously, both nano-structuration as well as confinement of metal hydroxides/oxides and conducting polymers onto a conducting porous 3D graphene matrix play a great role in improving the performance of electrodes mainly due to: (i) active material access over large surface area with fast charge transportation; (ii) synergetic effect of electric double layer and pseudocapacitive based charge storing.

  13. Unusual Function of Modified Polyolefins for Manipulating Magnetic Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Qingliang; Yuan, Tingting; Wei, Suying; Guo, Zhanhu

    2014-04-01

    The unusual function of a long known plastic additive in industry, polypropylene- graft-maleic anhydride (PP- g-MA), is reviewed for serving as a polymeric surfactant to synthesize and stabilize magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) with tunable morphology and crystalline structure. The synthesis route employs a solution-based, one-pot, bottom-up method. Specifically, magnetic NPs were synthesized through thermo-decomposing organo-metallic precursors [i.e., Fe(CO)5 or Co2(CO)8] in the presence of PP- g-MA in solvent xylene. By simply changing the backbone length/concentration of PP- g-MA, different morphologies (monodispersed hollow vs. chain-like solid, or chain-like vs. monodispersed polyhedral-shaped NPs) and crystalline structures [α- vs. γ-phase for Fe2O3 NPs, or face-centered cubic (fcc)- vs. ɛ-phase for Co NPs] can be controlled simultaneously. In addition, for the chain-like Fe2O3 NPs, a different chain diameter and building block morphology can be controlled by only varying the molecular weight of PP- g-MA.

  14. Functionalization of Biomolecules with Nanostructured Porous Silicon for Biomedical Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeyakumar, P.; Saravanakumar, S. S.; Kulathuraan, K.; Ramadas, V.; Natarajan, B.

    2015-02-01

    Porous silicon (PS) fabrication, changes in the optical properties and surface modification in the oxidized PS (dipped into the Glucose oxide) due to the infiltration of biomolecules using Luminescence Spectrophotometer [Photoluminescence (PL)], Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) were studied. The surface morphology of oxidized PS (OPS) and treated with Glucose have been studied by SEM. Spontaneous imbibition weight was calculated theoretically using imbibition equation for the porous medium using glucose solution as the wetting liquid. FTIR analysis revealed that, the strong Si-H, Si-O-Si bonds which covered most of the OPS surface. In the glucose treated PS layer, the amide I (C=O) stretch and amide II (C=N) stretch (1690 cm-1 and 1551 cm-1) groups were appeared in the spectrum which confirmed the coupling reaction. Efficient visible Photoluminescence was obtained at around 624 nm from glucose treated porous silicon. The functionalization of glucose with nano structured PS, changes light emission over the surface of OPS. It can be applied in optical biosensor and which can be used in biomedical applications.

  15. Dopamine biosensor based on surface functionalized nanostructured nickel oxide platform.

    PubMed

    Roychoudhury, Appan; Basu, Suddhasatwa; Jha, Sandeep Kumar

    2016-10-15

    A dopamine biosensor has been developed using nickel oxide nanoparticles (NPs) and tyrosinase enzyme conjugate. Nickel oxide (NiO) NPs were synthesized by sol-gel method using anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), as template to control the size of synthesized nanoparticles. The structural and morphological studies of the prepared NPs were carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) techniques. Afterwards, tyrosinase enzyme molecules were adsorbed on NiO NPs surface and enzyme coated NPs were deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate by solution casting method. The formation of enzyme-NPs conjugate was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques and used in selective detection and estimation of neurochemical dopamine by electrochemical method. The fabricated Tyrosinase/NiO/ITO electrode exhibits high sensitivity of 60.2nA/µM in linear detection range (2-100μM) with a detection limit of 1.038μM. The proposed sensor had a response time of 45s, long shelf life (45 days) with good reproducibility and selectivity in presence of interfering substances and was validated with real samples. The tyrosinase enzyme functionalized NiO platform has good bio-sensing efficacy and can be used in detection of other catecholamines and phenolic neurochemicals. PMID:26626970

  16. Nano-Structured Bio-Inorganic Hybrid Material for High Performing Oxygen Reduction Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Rongzhong; Tran, Dat T; McClure, Joshua P; Chu, Deryn

    2015-08-26

    In this study, we demonstrate a non-Pt nanostructured bioinorganic hybrid (BIH) catalyst for catalytic oxygen reduction in alkaline media. This catalyst was synthesized through biomaterial hemin, nanostructured Ag-Co alloy, and graphene nano platelets (GNP) by heat-treatment and ultrasonically processing. This hybrid catalyst has the advantages of the combined features of these bio and inorganic materials. A 10-fold improvement in catalytic activity (at 0.8 V vs RHE) is achieved in comparison of pure Ag nanoparticles (20-40 nm). The hybrid catalyst reaches 80% activity (at 0.8 V vs RHE) of the state-of-the-art catalyst (containing 40% Pt and 60% active carbon). Comparable catalytic stability for the hybrid catalyst with the Pt catalyst is observed by chronoamperometric experiment. The hybrid catalyst catalyzes 4-electron oxygen reduction to produce water with fast kinetic rate. The rate constant obtained from the hybrid catalyst (at 0.6 V vs RHE) is 4 times higher than that of pure Ag/GNP catalyst. A catalytic model is proposed to explain the oxygen reduction reaction at the BIH catalyst. PMID:26280984

  17. A dual enzyme functionalized nanostructured thulium oxide based interface for biomedical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Jay; Roychoudhury, Appan; Srivastava, Manish; Solanki, Pratima R.; Lee, Dong Won; Lee, Seung Hee; Malhotra, B. D.

    2013-12-01

    nanorods has been electrophoretically deposited (EPD) onto an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) glass substrate. The n-Tm2O3 nanorods are found to provide improved sensing characteristics to the electrode interface in terms of electroactive surface area, diffusion coefficient, charge transfer rate constant and electron transfer kinetics. The structural and morphological studies of n-Tm2O3 nanorods have been carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic techniques. This interfacial platform has been used for fabrication of a total cholesterol biosensor by immobilizing cholesterol esterase (ChEt) and cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) onto a Tm2O3 nanostructured surface. The results of response studies of the fabricated ChEt-ChOx/n-Tm2O3/ITO bioelectrode show a broad linear range of 8-400 mg dL-1, detection limit of 19.78 mg (dL cm-2)-1, and high sensitivity of 0.9245 μA (mg per dL cm-2)-1 with a response time of 40 s. Further, this bioelectrode has been utilized for estimation of total cholesterol with negligible interference (3%) from analytes present in human serum samples. The utilization of this n-Tm2O3 modified electrode for enzyme-based biosensor analysis offers an efficient strategy and a novel interface for application of the rare earth metal oxide materials in the field of electrochemical sensors and bioelectronic devices. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: XPS spectra of n-Tm2O3, differential pulse voltammograms, magnitude of potential difference as a function of scan rate (10-100 mV s-1), effect of working potential, amount of enzyme used for immobilization, amount of enzyme loading, effect of interferents, response time, effect of temperature, determination of cholesterol in serum samples and photometric enzyme activity studies. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr05043b

  18. Sorptive removal of trinitroglycerin (TNG) from water using nanostructured silica-based materials.

    PubMed

    Saad, Rabih; Thibutot, Sonia; Ampleman, Guy; Hawari, Jalal

    2010-01-01

    Trinitroglycerin (TNG), a nitrate ester, is widely used in the pharmaceutical industry for the treatment of angina pectoris (chest pain) and by the military for the manufacturing of dynamite and propellants. Currently, TNG is considered as a key environmental contaminant due to the discharge of wastewater tainted with the chemical from various military and pharmaceutical industries. The present study describes the use of a nanostructured silica material (Mobil Composite Material no. 48 [MCM-48]) prepared by mixing tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) to remove TNG from water. The sorption of TNG onto MCM-48 rapidly reached equilibrium within 1 h. Sorption kinetics were best described using a pseudo-second order model, whereas sorption isotherms were best interpreted using the Langmuir model. The latter gave a maximum sorption capacity of 55.2 mg g(-1) at 40 degrees C. The enthalpy and entropy of TNG sorption onto MCM-48 were 1.89 kJ mol(-1) and 79.0 J mol(-1).K(-1), indicating the endothermic nature of the TNG sorption onto MCM-48. When MCM-48 was heated at 540 degrees C for 5 h, the resulting calcined material (absence of the surfactant) did not sorb TNG, suggesting that the surfactant component of the nanomaterial was responsible for TNG sorption. Finally, we found that MCM-48 lost approximately 30% of its original sorption capacity after five sorption-desorption cycles. In conclusion, the nanostructured silica based sorbent, with high sorption capacity and remarkable reusability, should constitute the basis for the development of an effective technology for the removal of TNG from contaminated water. PMID:20176831

  19. Tunable plasmons in few-layer nitrogen-doped graphene nanostructures: A time-dependent density functional theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Xiao-qin; Zhang, Hong; Cheng, Xin-lu; Miyamoto, Yoshiyuki

    2016-05-01

    Compared with conventional metal plasmonic materials, surface plasmons in graphene are advantageous in terms of higher confinement, relative low loss, flexible featuring, and good tunability. However, the working frequencies of the pristine graphene (undoped graphene) surface plasmons are located in the terahertz and infrared regions, which limit their applications. Here we show high-frequency plasmons in nitrogen (N)-doped graphene nanostructures investigated by time-dependent density functional theory. We found the optical absorption strength of systems containing two layers to be more than twofold stronger than that of systems with monolayers. The optical absorption strength increases as the interlayer distance increases, and the absorption spectra are red-shifted for impulse excitations polarized in the armchair edge direction (x axis). For microstructures of more than two layers, the optical absorption strength increases as number of layers of the N-doped graphene nanostructures increases. In addition, when the number of layers becomes elevated at low-energy resonances, the absorption spectra are seen to blue-shift. The plasmon energy resonance points are located in the visible and ultraviolet regions. The N-doped graphene provides an effective strategy for nanoscale plasmon devices in the visible and ultraviolet regions, despite their weaker absorption intensities when compared with the pristine graphene.

  20. On-chip surface modified nanostructured ZnO as functional pH sensors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Liu, Wenpeng; Sun, Chongling; Zhang, Hao; Pang, Wei; Zhang, Daihua; Duan, Xuexin

    2015-09-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures are promising candidates as electronic components for biological and chemical applications. In this study, ZnO ultra-fine nanowire (NW) and nanoflake (NF) hybrid structures have been prepared by Au-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) under ambient pressure. Their surface morphology, lattice structures, and crystal orientation were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Two types of ZnO nanostructures were successfully integrated as gate electrodes in extended-gate field-effect transistors (EGFETs). Due to the amphoteric properties of ZnO, such devices function as pH sensors. We found that the ultra-fine NWs, which were more than 50 μm in length and less than 100 nm in diameter, performed better in the pH sensing process than NW-NF hybrid structures because of their higher surface-to-volume ratio, considering the Nernst equation and the Gouy-Chapman-Stern model. Furthermore, the surface coating of (3-Aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) protects ZnO nanostructures in both acidic and alkaline environments, thus enhancing the device stability and extending its pH sensing dynamic range. PMID:26266876

  1. On-chip surface modified nanostructured ZnO as functional pH sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qing; Liu, Wenpeng; Sun, Chongling; Zhang, Hao; Pang, Wei; Zhang, Daihua; Duan, Xuexin

    2015-09-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures are promising candidates as electronic components for biological and chemical applications. In this study, ZnO ultra-fine nanowire (NW) and nanoflake (NF) hybrid structures have been prepared by Au-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) under ambient pressure. Their surface morphology, lattice structures, and crystal orientation were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Two types of ZnO nanostructures were successfully integrated as gate electrodes in extended-gate field-effect transistors (EGFETs). Due to the amphoteric properties of ZnO, such devices function as pH sensors. We found that the ultra-fine NWs, which were more than 50 μm in length and less than 100 nm in diameter, performed better in the pH sensing process than NW-NF hybrid structures because of their higher surface-to-volume ratio, considering the Nernst equation and the Gouy-Chapman-Stern model. Furthermore, the surface coating of (3-Aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) protects ZnO nanostructures in both acidic and alkaline environments, thus enhancing the device stability and extending its pH sensing dynamic range.

  2. Carbon fiber CVD coating by carbon nanostructured for space materials protection against atomic oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastore, Roberto; Bueno Morles, Ramon; Micheli, Davide

    2016-07-01

    adhesion and durability in the environment. Though these coatings are efficient in protecting polymer composites, their application imposes severe constraints. Their thermal expansion coefficients may differ markedly from those of polymer composite substrates: as a result, cracks develop in the coatings on thermal cycling and AO can penetrate through them to the substrate. In addition to the technicalities of forming an effective barrier, such factors as cost, convenience of application and ease of repair are important considerations in the selection of a coating for a particular application. The latter issues drive the aerospace research toward the development of novel light composite materials, like the so called polymer nanocomposites, which are materials with a polymer matrix and a filler with at least one dimension less than 100 nanometers. Current interest in nanocomposites has been generated and maintained because nanoparticle-filled polymers exhibit unique combinations of properties not achievable with traditional composites. These combinations of properties can be achieved because of the small size of the fillers, the large surface area the fillers provide, and in many cases the unique properties of the fillers themselves. In particular, the carbon fiber-based polymeric composite materials are the basic point of interest: the aim of the present study is to find new solution to produce carbon fiber-based composites with even more upgraded performances. One intriguing strategy to tackle such an issue has been picked out in the coupling between the carbon fibers and the carbon nanostructures. That for two main reasons: first, carbon nanostructures have shown fancy potentialities for any kind of technological applications since their discovery, second, the chemical affinity between fiber and nanostructure (made of the same element) should be a likely route to approach the typical problems due to thermo-mechanical compatibility. This work is joined in such framework

  3. Plasma-based ion implantation: a valuable technology for the elaboration of innovative materials and nanostructured thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vempaire, D.; Pelletier, J.; Lacoste, A.; Béchu, S.; Sirou, J.; Miraglia, S.; Fruchart, D.

    2005-05-01

    Plasma-based ion implantation (PBII), invented in 1987, can now be considered as a mature technology for thin film modification. After a brief recapitulation of the principle and physics of PBII, its advantages and disadvantages, as compared to conventional ion beam implantation, are listed and discussed. The elaboration of thin films and the modification of their functional properties by PBII have already been achieved in many fields, such as microelectronics (plasma doping/PLAD), biomaterials (surgical implants, bio- and blood-compatible materials), plastics (grafting, surface adhesion) and metallurgy (hard coatings, tribology), to name a few. The major advantages of PBII processing lie, on the one hand, in its flexibility in terms of ion implantation energy (from 0 to 100 keV) and operating conditions (plasma density, collisional or non-collisional ion sheath), and, on the other hand, in the easy transferrability of processes from the laboratory to industry. The possibility of modifying the composition and physical nature of the films, or of drastically changing their physical properties over several orders of magnitude makes this technology very attractive for the elaboration of innovative materials, including metastable materials, and the realization of micro- or nanostructures. A review of the state of the art in these domains is presented and illustrated through a few selected examples. The perspectives opened up by PBII processing, as well as its limitations, are discussed.

  4. Simulation of Semiconductor Nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, A J; Grossman, J C; Puzder, A; Benedict, L X; Galli, G

    2001-07-19

    The field of research into the optical properties of silicon nanostructures has seen enormous growth over the last decade. The discovery that silicon nanoparticles exhibit visible photoluminescence (PL) has led to new insights into the mechanisms responsible for such phenomena. The importance of understanding and controlling the PL properties of any silicon based material is of paramount interest to the optoelectronics industry where silicon nanoclusters could be embedded into existing silicon based circuitry. In this talk, we present a combination of quantum Monte Carlo and density functional approaches to the calculation of the electronic, structural, and optical properties of silicon nanostructures.

  5. Attosecond nanotechnology: NEMS of energy storage and nanostructural transformations in materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beznosyuk, Sergey A.; Zhukovsky, Mark S.; Maslova, Olga A.

    2015-10-01

    The attosecond technology of the nanoelectromechanical system (NEMS) energy storage as active center fast transformation of nanostructures in materials is considered. The self-organizing relaxation of the NEMS active center containing nanocube of 256-atoms limited by planes (100) in the FCC lattice matrix of 4d-transition metals (Ru, Rh, Pd) is described by the quantum NEMS-kinetics (NK) method. Typical for these metals change of the NEMS active center physicochemical characteristics during the time of relaxation is presented. There are three types of intermediate quasistationary states of the NEMS active center. Their forms are plainly distinguishable. The full relaxed NEMS active centers (Ru256, Rh256, Pd256) accumulate next storage energies: ERu = 2.27 eV/at, ERh = 1.67 eV/at, EPd = 3.02 eV/at.

  6. Versatile, high sensitivity, and automatized angular dependent vectorial Kerr magnetometer for the analysis of nanostructured materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, J. M.; Lusche, R.; Ventura, J.; Fermento, R.; Carpinteiro, F.; Araujo, J. P.; Sousa, J. B.; Cardoso, S.; Freitas, P. P.

    2011-04-01

    Magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) magnetometry is an indispensable, reliable, and one of the most widely used techniques for the characterization of nanostructured magnetic materials. Information, such as the magnitude of coercive fields or anisotropy strengths, can be readily obtained from MOKE measurements. We present a description of our state-of-the-art vectorial MOKE magnetometer, being an extremely versatile, accurate, and sensitivity unit with a low cost and comparatively simple setup. The unit includes focusing lenses and an automatized stepper motor stage for angular dependent measurements. The performance of the magnetometer is demonstrated by hysteresis loops of Co thin films displaying uniaxial anisotropy induced on growth, MnIr/CoFe structures exhibiting the so called exchange bias effect, spin valves, and microfabricated flux guides produced by optical lithography.

  7. Attosecond nanotechnology: NEMS of energy storage and nanostructural transformations in materials

    SciTech Connect

    Beznosyuk, Sergey A. Maslova, Olga A.; Zhukovsky, Mark S.

    2015-10-27

    The attosecond technology of the nanoelectromechanical system (NEMS) energy storage as active center fast transformation of nanostructures in materials is considered. The self-organizing relaxation of the NEMS active center containing nanocube of 256-atoms limited by planes (100) in the FCC lattice matrix of 4d-transition metals (Ru, Rh, Pd) is described by the quantum NEMS-kinetics (NK) method. Typical for these metals change of the NEMS active center physicochemical characteristics during the time of relaxation is presented. There are three types of intermediate quasistationary states of the NEMS active center. Their forms are plainly distinguishable. The full relaxed NEMS active centers (Ru{sub 256}, Rh{sub 256}, Pd{sub 256}) accumulate next storage energies: E{sub Ru} = 2.27 eV/at, E{sub Rh} = 1.67 eV/at, E{sub Pd} = 3.02 eV/at.

  8. Ternary eutectic growth of nanostructured thermoelectric Ag-Pb-Te materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Hsin-jay; Chen, Sinn-wen; Foo, Wei-jian; Jeffrey Snyder, G.

    2012-07-09

    Nanostructured Ag-Pb-Te thermoelectric materials were fabricated by unidirectionally solidifying the ternary Ag-Pb-Te eutectic and near-eutectic alloys using the Bridgeman method. Specially, the Bridgman-grown eutectic alloy exhibited a partially aligned lamellar microstructure, which consisted of Ag{sub 5}Te{sub 3} and Te phases, with additional 200-600 nm size particles of PbTe. The self-assembled interfaces altered the thermal and electronic transport properties in the bulk Ag-Pb-Te eutectic alloy. Presumably due to phonon scattering from the nanoscale microstructure, a low thermal conductivity ({kappa} = 0.3 W/mK) was achieved of the eutectic alloy, leading to a zT peak of 0.41 at 400 K.

  9. Dislocation mechanisms of low-temperature internal friction in nanostructured materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natsik, V. D.; Semerenko, Yu. A.

    2016-02-01

    A new method of statistically describing the dislocation component of low-temperature internal friction in nanostructured materials. The latter term is applied to ultrafine polycrystals with high density intragranular and grain boundary dislocations, the lines of which are divided into nanometer-scale fragments (dislocation relaxants) with random geometrical and energy parameters. The resonant interaction of elastic vibrations and thermally activated excitations of such relaxators are examined, and the maxima caused by these relaxators along the internal friction temperature dependence are analyzed. It is shown that at low temperatures, the shape of the peaks and the region of their localization along the temperature axis are largely determined by the dispersion of the relaxator activation energy. An algorithm is written in order to analyze the internal friction recorded in the experiment, allowing us to identify the physical model corresponding to the relaxator, and obtain empirical estimates of its parameters.

  10. In-situ TEM - a tool for quantitative observations of deformation behavior in thin films and nano-structured materials

    SciTech Connect

    Stach, E.A.

    2001-09-04

    This paper highlights future developments in the field of in-situ transmission electron microscopy, as applied specifically to the issues of deformation in thin films and nanostructured materials. Emphasis is place on the forthcoming technical advances that will aid in extraction of improved quantitative experimental data using this technique.

  11. Chemically modified and nanostructured porous silicon as a drug delivery material and device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anglin, Emily Jessica

    This thesis describes the fabrication, chemical modification, drug release, and toxicity studies of nanostructured porous silicon for the purposes of developing a smart drug delivery device. The first chapter is an introductory chapter, presenting the chemical and physical properties of porous silicon, the concepts and issues of current drug delivery devices and materials, and how porous silicon can address the issues regarding localized and controlled drug therapies. The second chapter discusses chemical modifications of nanostructured porous Si for stabilizing the material in biologically relevant media while providing an extended release of a therapeutic in vitro. This chapter also demonstrates the utility of the porous silicon optical signatures for effectively monitoring drug release from the system and its applications for development of a self-reporting drug delivery device. In chapter three, the concept of providing a triggered release of a therapeutic from porous silicon microparticles through initiation by an external stimulus is demonstrated. The microparticles are chemically modified, and the release is enhanced by a short application of ultrasound to the particulate system. The effect of ultrasound on the drug release and particle size is discussed. Chapter four presents a new method for sustaining the release of a monoclonal antibody from the porous matrix of porous SiO2. The therapeutic is incorporated into the films through electrostatic adsorption and a slow release is observed in vitro. A new method of quantifying the extent of drug loading is monitored with interferometry. The last chapter of the thesis provides a basic in vivo toxicity study of various porous Si microparticles for intraocular applications. Three types of porous Si particles are fabricated and studied in a rabbit eye model. The toxicity studies were conducted by collaborators at the Shiley Eye Center, La Jolla, CA. This work, demonstrates the feasibility of developing a self

  12. Molecular level assessment of thermal transport and thermoelectricity in materials: From bulk alloys to nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinaci, Alper

    The ability to manipulate material response to dynamical processes depends on the extent of understanding of transport properties and their variation with chemical and structural features in materials. In this perspective, current work focuses on the thermal and electronic transport behavior of technologically important bulk and nanomaterials. Strontium titanate is a potential thermoelectric material due to its large Seebeck coefficient. Here, first principles electronic band structure and Boltzmann transport calculations are employed in studying the thermoelectric properties of this material in doped and deformed states. The calculations verified that excessive carrier concentrations are needed for this material to be used in thermoelectric applications. Carbon- and boron nitride-based nanomaterials also offer new opportunities in many applications from thermoelectrics to fast heat removers. For these materials, molecular dynamics calculations are used to evaluate lattice thermal transport. To do this, first, an energy moment term is reformulated for periodic boundary conditions and tested to calculate thermal conductivity from Einstein relation in various systems. The influences of the structural details (size, dimensionality) and defects (vacancies, Stone-Wales defects, edge roughness, isotopic disorder) on the thermal conductivity of C and BN nanostructures are explored. It is observed that single vacancies scatter phonons stronger than other type of defects due to unsatisfied bonds in their structure. In pristine states, BN nanostructures have 4-6 times lower thermal conductivity compared to C counterparts. The reason of this observation is investigated on the basis of phonon group velocities, life times and heat capacities. The calculations show that both phonon group velocities and life times are smaller in BN systems. Quantum corrections are also discussed for these classical simulations. The chemical and structural diversity that could be attained by

  13. Attenuation of shock waves propagating through nano-structured porous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Qananwah, Ahmad K.; Koplik, Joel; Andreopoulos, Yiannis

    2013-07-01

    Porous materials have long been known to be effective in energy absorption and shock wave attenuation. These properties make them attractive in blast mitigation strategies. Nano-structured materials have an even greater potential for blast mitigation because of their high surface-to-volume ratio, a geometric parameter which substantially attenuates shock wave propagation. A molecular dynamics approach was used to explore the effects of this remarkable property on the behavior of traveling shocks impacting on solid materials. The computational setup included a moving piston, a gas region and a target solid wall with and without a porous structure. The gas and porous solid were modeled by Lennard-Jones-like and effective atom potentials, respectively. The shock wave is resolved in space and time and its reflection from a solid wall is gradual, due to the wave's finite thickness, and entails a self-interaction as the reflected wave travels through the incoming incident wave. Cases investigated include a free standing porous structure, a porous structure attached to a wall and porous structures with graded porosity. The effects of pore shape and orientation have been also documented. The results indicate that placing a nano-porous material layer in front of the target wall reduced the stress magnitude and the energy deposited inside the solid by about 30 percent, while at the same time substantially decreasing the loading rate.

  14. One dimensional semiconductor nanostructures: An effective active-material for terahertz detection

    SciTech Connect

    Vitiello, Miriam S. Viti, Leonardo; Ercolani, Daniele; Sorba, Lucia; Coquillat, Dominique; Knap, Wojciech

    2015-02-01

    One-dimensional (1D) nanostructure devices are at the frontline of studies on future electronics, although issues like massive parallelization, doping control, surface effects, and compatibility with silicon industrial requirements are still open challenges. The recent progresses in atomic to nanometer scale control of materials morphology, size, and composition including the growth of axial, radial, and branched nanowire (NW)-based heterostructures make the NW an ideal building block for implementing rectifying diodes or detectors that could be well operated into the Terahertz (THz), thanks to their typical achievable attofarad-order capacitance. Here, we report on our recent progresses in the development of 1D InAs or InAs/InSb NW-based field effect transistors exploiting novel morphologies and/or material combinations effective for addressing the goal of a semiconductor plasma-wave THz detector array technology. Through a critical review of material-related parameters (NW doping concentration, geometry, and/or material choice) and antenna-related issues, here we underline the crucial aspects that can affect detection performance across the THz frequency region.

  15. Biosynthetic Polymers as Functional Materials

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of functional polymers encoded with biomolecules has been an extensive area of research for decades. As such, a diverse toolbox of polymerization techniques and bioconjugation methods has been developed. The greatest impact of this work has been in biomedicine and biotechnology, where fully synthetic and naturally derived biomolecules are used cooperatively. Despite significant improvements in biocompatible and functionally diverse polymers, our success in the field is constrained by recognized limitations in polymer architecture control, structural dynamics, and biostabilization. This Perspective discusses the current status of functional biosynthetic polymers and highlights innovative strategies reported within the past five years that have made great strides in overcoming the aforementioned barriers. PMID:27375299

  16. AFM characterization of nonwoven material functionalized by ZnO sputter coating

    SciTech Connect

    Deng Bingyao; Yan Xiong; Wei Qufu Gao Weidong

    2007-10-15

    Sputter coatings provide new approaches to the surface functionalization of textile materials. In this study, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) nonwoven material was used as a substrate for creating functional nanostructures on the fiber surfaces. A magnetron sputter coating was used to deposit functional zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures onto the nonwoven substrate. The evolution of the surface morphology of the fibers in the nonwoven web was examined using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The AFM observations revealed a significant difference in the morphology of the fibers before and after the sputter coating. The AFM images also indicated the effect of the sputtering conditions on the surface morphology of the fibers. The increase in the sputtering time led to the growth of the ZnO grains on the fiber surfaces. The higher pressure in the sputtering chamber could cause the formation of larger grains on the fiber surfaces. The higher power used also generated larger grains on the fiber surfaces.

  17. Nanostructured TiOx as a catalyst support material for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Richard S.

    Recent interest in the development of new catalyst support materials for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) has stimulated research into the viability of TiO2-based support structures. Specifically, substoichiometric TiO2 (TiOx) has been reported to exhibit a combination of high conductivity, stability, and corrosion resistance. These properties make TiOx-based support materials a promising prospect when considering the inferior corrosion resistance of traditional carbon-based supports. This document presents an investigation into the formation of conductive and stable TiOx thin films employing atomic layer deposition (ALD) and a post deposition oxygen reducing anneal (PDORA). Techniques for manufacturing TiOx-based catalyst support nanostructures by means of ALD in conjunction with carbon black (CB), anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) and silicon nanowires (SiNWs) will also be presented. The composition and thickness of resulting TiOx thin films was determined with the aid of Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Film crystal structure was determined with X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Film conductivity was calculated using four-point probe (4-PP) and film thickness measurement data. Resulting thin films show a significant decrease of oxygen in ALD TiOx films corresponding with a great increase in conductivity following the PDORA. The effectiveness of the PDORA was also found to be highly dependent on ALD process parameters. TiOx-based nanostructures were coated with platinum using one of three Pt deposition techniques. First, liquid phase deposition (LPD), which was performed at room temperature, provided equal access to catalyst support material surfaces which were suspended in solution. Second, plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD), which was performed at 450°C, provided good Pt

  18. One-Dimensional Oxide Nanostructures as Gas-Sensing Materials: Review and Issues

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyoung Jin; Jang, Ho Won

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we review gas sensor application of one-dimensional (1D) metal-oxide nanostructures with major emphases on the types of device structure and issues for realizing practical sensors. One of the most important steps in fabricating 1D-nanostructure devices is manipulation and making electrical contacts of the nanostructures. Gas sensors based on individual 1D nanostructure, which were usually fabricated using electron-beam lithography, have been a platform technology for fundamental research. Recently, gas sensors with practical applicability were proposed, which were fabricated with an array of 1D nanostructures using scalable micro-fabrication tools. In the second part of the paper, some critical issues are pointed out including long-term stability, gas selectivity, and room-temperature operation of 1D-nanostructure-based metal-oxide gas sensors. PMID:22319343

  19. ATRP in the design of functional materials for biomedical applications

    PubMed Central

    Siegwart, Daniel J.; Oh, Jung Kwon; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP) is an effective technique for the design and preparation of multifunctional, nanostructured materials for a variety of applications in biology and medicine. ATRP enables precise control over macromolecular structure, order, and functionality, which are important considerations for emerging biomedical designs. This article reviews recent advances in the preparation of polymer-based nanomaterials using ATRP, including polymer bioconjugates, block copolymer-based drug delivery systems, cross-linked microgels/nanogels, diagnostic and imaging platforms, tissue engineering hydrogels, and degradable polymers. It is envisioned that precise engineering at the molecular level will translate to tailored macroscopic physical properties, thus enabling control of the key elements for realized biomedical applications. PMID:23525884

  20. NiO-silica based nanostructured materials obtained by microemulsion assisted sol-gel procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Mihaly, M.; Comanescu, A.F.; Rogozea, A.E.; Vasile, E.; Meghea, A.

    2011-10-15

    Graphical abstract: TEM micrograph of NiO/SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. Highlights: {yields} Microemulsion assisted sol-gel procedure for NiO silica nanomaterials synthesis. {yields} Controlling the size and shape of nanoparticles and avoiding their aggregation. {yields} Narrow band-gap semiconductors (energies <3 eV) absorbing VIS or near-UV light biologically and chemically inert semiconductors entrapping/coating in silica network. {yields} Low cost as the microemulsion is firstly used in water metallic cation extraction. -- Abstract: NiO-silica based materials have been synthesized by microemulsion assisted sol-gel procedure. The versatility of these soft nanotechnology techniques has been exploited in order to obtain different types of nanostructures, such as NiO nanoparticles, NiO silica coated nanoparticles and NiO embedded in silica matrix. These materials have been characterized by adequate structural and morphology techniques: DLS, HR-TEM/SAED, BET, AFM. Optical and semiconducting properties (band-gap values) of the synthesized materials have been quantified by means of VIS-NIR diffuse reflectance spectra, thus demonstrating their applicative potential in various electron transfer phenomena such as photocatalysis, electrochromic thin films, solid oxide fuel cells.

  1. Nanostructured materials and their role as heterogeneous catalysts in the conversion of biomass to biofuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadigan, Chris

    Prior to the discovery of inexpensive and readily available fossil fuels, the world relied heavily on biomass to provide its energy needs. Due to a worldwide growth in demand for fossil fuels coupled with the shrinkage of petroleum resources, and mounting economic, political, and environmental concerns, it has become more pressing to develop sustainable fuels and chemicals from biomass. The present dissertation studies multiple nanostructured catalysts investigated in various processes related to gasification of biomass into synthesis gas, and further upgrading to biofuels and value added chemicals. These reactions include: syngas conditioning, alcohol synthesis from carbon monoxide hydrogenation, and steam reforming ethanol to form higher hydrocarbons. Nanomaterials were synthesized, characterized, studied in given reactions, and then further characterized post-reaction. Overall goals were aimed at determining catalytic activities towards desired products and determining which material properties were most desirable based on experimental results. Strategies to improve material design for second-generation materials are suggested based on promising reaction results coupled with pre and post reaction characterization analysis.

  2. Synthesis and magnetic properties of CoPt-poly(methylmethacrylate) nanostructured composite material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Jiye; Tung, L. D.; Stokes, Kevin L.; He, Jibao; Caruntu, Daniela; Zhou, Weilie L.; O'Connor, Charles J.

    2002-05-01

    We have prepared nanometer-sized CoPt particles dispersed in a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) matrix, as a novel nanostructured magnetic plastic, through a soft chemical processing route. In this work, CoPt nanoparticles were successfully synthesized from a solution phase reduction system in the presence of capping ligands and stabilizing agents at high temperature. The CoPt nanoparticles were annealed at 400 °C for 3 h, and were subsequently re-dispersed in methylmethacrylate (monomer). The polymerization was induced by a UV source and the hardness of final product was adjusted by varying the amount of monomeric cross-link agent. Annealed bare CoPt nanoparticles as a "core" material and CoPt-PMMA composite material were characterized by using energy dispersive spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction, indicating that we are able to prepare CoPt nanoparticles with <10 nm in diameter (after annealing) by employing this high temperature colloidal processing method. Magnetic investigation of this CoPt-PMMA material indicates an intrinsic coercivity of 300 Oe at 300 K and 1665 Oe at 5 K.

  3. Surface-Functionalization of Nanostructured Cellulose Aerogels by Solid State Eumelanin Coating.

    PubMed

    Panzella, Lucia; Melone, Lucio; Pezzella, Alessandro; Rossi, Bianca; Pastori, Nadia; Perfetti, Marco; D'Errico, Gerardino; Punta, Carlo; d'Ischia, Marco

    2016-02-01

    Bioinspired aerogel functionalization by surface modification and coating is in high demand for biomedical and technological applications. In this paper, we report an expedient three-step entry to all-natural surface-functionalized nanostructured aerogels based on (a) TEMPO/NaClO promoted synthesis of cellulose nanofibers (TOCNF); (b) freeze-drying for aerogel preparation; and (c) surface coating with a eumelanin thin film by ammonia-induced solid state polymerization (AISSP) of 5,6-dihydroxyindole (DHI) or 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid (DHICA) previously deposited from an organic solution. Scanning electron microscopy showed uniform deposition of the dark eumelanin coating on the template surface without affecting porosity, whereas solid state (13)C NMR and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy confirmed the eumelanin-type character of the coatings. DHI melanin coating was found to confer to TOCNF templates a potent antioxidant activity, as tested by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assays as well as strong dye adsorption capacity, as tested on methylene blue. The unprecedented combination of nanostructured cellulose and eumelanin thin films disclosed herein implements an original all-natural multifunctional aerogel biomaterial realized via an innovative coating methodology. PMID:26734842

  4. Optoacoustic Microscopy for Investigation of Material Nanostructures-Embracing the Ultrasmall, Ultrafast, and the Invisible

    SciTech Connect

    Nurmikko, Arto; Humphrey, Maris

    2014-07-10

    The goal of this grant was the development of a new type of scanning acoustic microscope for nanometer resolution ultrasound imaging, based on ultrafast optoacoustics (>GHz). In the microscope, subpicosecond laser pulses was used to generate and detect very high frequency ultrasound with nanometer wavelengths. We report here on the outcome of the 3-year DOE/BES grant which involved the design, multifaceted construction, and proof-of-concept demonstration of an instrument that can be used for quantitative imaging of nanoscale material features – including features that may be buried so as to be inaccessible to conventional lightwave or electron microscopies. The research program has produced a prototype scanning optoacoustic microscope which, in combination with advanced computational modeling, is a system-level new technology (two patents issues) which offer novel means for precision metrology of material nanostructures, particularly those that are of contemporary interest to the frontline micro- and optoelectronics device industry. For accomplishing the ambitious technical goals, the research roadmap was designed and implemented in two phases. In Phase I, we constructed a “non-focusing” optoacoustic microscope instrument (“POAM”), with nanometer vertical (z-) resolution, while limited to approximately 10 micrometer scale lateral recolution. The Phase I version of the instrument which was guided by extensive acoustic and optical numerical modeling of the basic underlying acoustic and optical physics, featured nanometer scale close loop positioning between the optoacoustic transducer element and a nanostructured material sample under investigation. In phase II, we implemented and demonstrated a scanning version of the instrument (“SOAM”) where incident acoustic energy is focused, and scanned on lateral (x-y) spatial scale in the 100 nm range as per the goals of the project. In so doing we developed advanced numerical simulations to provide

  5. Precursor Derived Nanostructured Si-C-X Materials for Nuclear Applications. Final Report, October 2010 - September 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Bordia, Rajendra; Tomar, Vikas; Henager, Chuck

    2015-04-08

    Polymer derived ceramic route is an attractive approach to make structural materials with unique nanostructures that have very desirable high temperature properties. Processing techniques to make a variety of needed shapes and forms (e.g. coatings, matrices for fiber reinforced composites, porous ceramics) have been developed. With appropriate high temperature processing, the precursors can be converted to nano-crystalline materials. In this collaborative project, we investigated the processing, stability and properties of nanostructured Si-C materials, derived from polymeric precursors, and their performance under conditions appropriate for nuclear energy applications. All the milestones of the project were accomplished. Some of the results are being currently analyzed and additional papers being prepared in which support from NEUP will be acknowledged. So far, eight peer-reviewed papers have been published and one invention disclosure made. In this report, we summarize the major findings of this project.

  6. Comparative electrochemical studies of a nanostructured vanadium oxide electrode material in aqueous electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soghomonian, Victoria; Yuan, Qifan; Ren, Shaola; Zukowski, Julia

    Electrochemical energy storage plays an increasing role in energy solutions. We report on a new hydrothermally synthesized vanadium oxide nanostructured material and study its performance as electrode material for insertion of various ions from aqueous solutions. The as-synthesized product is in the form of nanosheets forming quasi-spherical 3-dimensional objects. Variable temperature resistivity measurements indicate a thermally activated behavior. Electrodes are constructed, and comparative electrochemical insertion reactions of Li, Na, K and NH4 cations, over different cycle numbers, investigated. Concomitantly, morphological and microstructural changes are characterized by scanning electron microscopy, providing physical input to the observed electrochemical behavior. Specific charge is calculated. For Li and K, the specific charge decreases as the cycle number increases, while the reverse is observed for Na and NH4 cations. The trends are correlated to the morphological changes observed. The specific charge in the case of ammonium reaches 180 mAh/g after 20 cycles and continues increasing, indicating that ammonium cations may be considered as viable charge carriers for electrical energy storage system, and moreover in an aqueous electrolyte. We acknowledge support from the National Science Foundation, Grant No. DMR-1206338.

  7. X-ray transmission through nanostructured and microstructured CuO materials.

    PubMed

    Botelho, M Z; Künzel, R; Okuno, E; Levenhagen, R S; Basegio, T; Bergmann, C P

    2011-02-01

    This study presents a comparison of the X-ray transmission through microsized and nanosized materials. For this purpose CuO nanoparticles, with 13.4 nm average grain size, and CuO microparticles, with a mean particle size of 56 μm, were incorporated separately to beeswax in a concentration of 5%. Results show that the transmission through the above material plates with microsized and nanosized CuO was almost the same for X-ray beams generated at 60 and 102 kV tube voltages. However, for the radiation beams generated at 26 and 30 kV tube voltages the X-rays are more attenuated by the nanostructured CuO plates by a factor of at least 14%. Results suggest that the difference in the low energy range may be due to the higher number of particles/gram in the plates designed with CuO nanoparticles and due to the grain size effect on the X-ray transmission. PMID:21112215

  8. Nanostructured materials for multifunctional applications under NSF-CREST research at Norfolk State University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, A. K.; Mundle, R.; Zhang, K.; Holloway, T.; Amponsah, O.; Biswal, D.; Konda, R.; White, C.; Dondapati, H.; Santiago, K.; Birdsong, T.; Arslan, M.; Peeples, B.; Shaw, D.; Smak, J.; Samataray, C.; Bahoura, M.

    2012-04-01

    O nanolayers were also grown by atomic layer deposition techniques. These nanolayers of ZnO demonstrate remarkable optical and electrical properties. These nanolayers were patterned by the Electron Beam Lithography (EBL) technique. A major goal of nanotechnology is to couple the self-assembly of molecular nanostructures with conventional lithography, using either or both bottom-up and top-down fabrication methods, that would enable us to register individual molecular nanostructures onto the functional devices. However, combining the nanofabrication technique with high resolution Electron Beam Lithography, we can achieve 3D bimolecular or/and DNA origami that will be able to identify nucleic acid sequences, antigen targets, and other molecules, as for a perfect nano-biosensor. We have explored some of the nanopatterning using EBL in order to fabricate biomolecule sensing on a single chip with sub nm pitch. The applications are not limited for the bioactivity, but for enhancing immunoreactions, cell culture dishes, and tissue engineering applications.

  9. MATERIALS AEROMETRIC DATABASE FOR USE IN DEVELOPING MATERIALS DAMAGE FUNCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Meteorological and air quality data acquired at field exposure sites have been accumulated into the Materials Aerometric Database (MAD). Task Group VII of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) will use the MAD to develop damage functions for materials exposed...

  10. [The emergency plastic reconstruction of the tympanic membrane defects of post-traumatic and iatrogenic etiology with the application of the nanostructured bioplastic material].

    PubMed

    Zabirov, R A; Kar'kaeva, S M; Shchetinin, V N; Akimov, A V

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate the effectiveness of the application of the nanostructured bioplastic material for the plastic reconstruction of tympanic defects of post-traumatic and iatrogenic etiology. The authors report the results of the emergency plastic reconstruction of tympanic defects of post-traumatic and iatrogenic nature with the application of the nanostructured bioplastic material (giamatrix). The analysis of the results of the study prfovidd definitive evidence of the effectiveness of plastic reconstruction of tympanic defects with the application of the nanostructured bioplastic material. PMID:25588474

  11. Tunable top-down fabrication and functional surface coating of single-crystal titanium dioxide nanostructures and nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ha, Seungkyu; Janissen, Richard; Ussembayev, Yera Ye; van Oene, Maarten M; Solano, Belen; Dekker, Nynke H

    2016-05-19

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a key component of diverse optical and electronic applications that exploit its exceptional material properties. In particular, the use of TiO2 in its single-crystalline phase can offer substantial advantages over its amorphous and polycrystalline phases for existing and yet-to-be-developed applications. However, the implementation of single-crystal TiO2 has been hampered by challenges in its fabrication and subsequent surface functionalization. Here, we introduce a novel top-down approach that allows for batch fabrication of uniform high-aspect-ratio single-crystal TiO2 nanostructures with targeted sidewall profiles. We complement our fabrication approach with a functionalization strategy that achieves dense, uniform, and area-selective coating with a variety of biomolecules. This allows us to fabricate single-crystal rutile TiO2 nanocylinders tethered with individual DNA molecules for use as force- and torque-transducers in an optical torque wrench. These developments provide the means for increased exploitation of the superior material properties of single-crystal TiO2 at the nanoscale. PMID:27160731

  12. Development of Nano-structured Electrode Materials for High Performance Energy Storage System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhendong

    Systematic studies have been done to develop a low cost, environmental-friendly facile fabrication process for the preparation of high performance nanostructured electrode materials and to fully understand the influence factors on the electrochemical performance in the application of lithium ion batteries (LIBs) or supercapacitors. For LIBs, LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NCM) with a 1D porous structure has been developed as cathode material. The tube-like 1D structure consists of inter-linked, multi-facet nanoparticles of approximately 100-500nm in diameter. The microscopically porous structure originates from the honeycomb-shaped precursor foaming gel, which serves as self-template during the stepwise calcination process. The 1D NCM presents specific capacities of 153, 140, 130 and 118mAh·g-1 at current densities of 0.1C, 0.5C, 1C and 2C, respectively. Subsequently, a novel stepwise crystallization process consisting of a higher crystallization temperature and longer period for grain growth is employed to prepare single crystal NCM nanoparticles. The modified sol-gel process followed by optimized crystallization process results in significant improvements in chemical and physical characteristics of the NCM particles. They include a fully-developed single crystal NCM with uniform composition and a porous NCM architecture with a reduced degree of fusion and a large specific surface area. The NCM cathode material with these structural modifications in turn presents significantly enhanced specific capacities of 173.9, 166.9, 158.3 and 142.3mAh·g -1 at 0.1C, 0.5C, 1C and 2C, respectively. Carbon nanotube (CNT) is used to improve the relative low power capability and poor cyclic stability of NCM caused by its poor electrical conductivity. The NCM/CNT nanocomposites cathodes are prepared through simply mixing of the two component materials followed by a thermal treatment. The CNTs were functionalized to obtain uniformly-dispersed MWCNTs in the NCM matrix. The electrochemical

  13. Contributions of Phenoxazone-Based Pigments to the Structure and Function of Nanostructured Granules in Squid Chromatophores.

    PubMed

    Williams, Thomas L; DiBona, Christopher W; Dinneen, Sean R; Labadie, Stephanie F Jones; Chu, Feixia; Deravi, Leila F

    2016-04-19

    Understanding the structure-function relationships of pigment-based nanostructures can provide insight into the molecular mechanisms behind biological signaling, camouflage, or communication experienced in many species. In squid Doryteuthis pealeii, combinations of phenoxazone-based pigments are identified as the source of visible color within the nanostructured granules that populate dermal chromatophore organs. In the absence of the pigments, granules experience a reduction in diameter with the loss of visible color, suggesting important structural and functional features. Energy gaps are estimated from electronic absorption spectra, revealing highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO)-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energies that are dependent upon the varying carboxylated states of the pigment. These results implicate a hierarchical mechanism for the bulk coloration in cephalopods originating from the molecular components confined within in the nanostructured granules of chromatophore organs. PMID:27049640

  14. Converting environmentally hazardous materials into clean energy using a novel nanostructured photoelectrochemical fuel cell

    SciTech Connect

    Gan, Yong X.; Gan, Bo J.; Clark, Evan; Su, Lusheng; Zhang, Lihua

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: ► A photoelectrochemical fuel cell has been made from TiO{sub 2} nanotubes. ► The fuel cell decomposes environmentally hazardous materials to produce electricity. ► Doping the anode with a transition metal oxide increases the visible light sensitivity. ► Loading the anode with a conducting polymer enhances the visible light absorption. -- Abstract: In this work, a novel photoelectrochemical fuel cell consisting of a titanium dioxide nanotube array photosensitive anode and a platinum cathode was made for decomposing environmentally hazardous materials to produce electricity and clean fuel. Titanium dioxide nanotubes (TiO{sub 2} NTs) were prepared via electrochemical oxidation of pure Ti in an ammonium fluoride and glycerol-containing solution. Scanning electron microscopy was used to analyze the morphology of the nanotubes. The average diameter, wall thickness and length of the as-prepared TiO{sub 2} NTs were determined. The photosensitive anode made from the highly ordered TiO{sub 2} NTs has good photo-catalytic property, as proven by the decomposition tests on urea, ammonia, sodium sulfide and automobile engine coolant under ultraviolet (UV) radiation. To improve the efficiency of the fuel cell, doping the TiO{sub 2} NTs with a transition metal oxide, NiO, was performed and the photosensitivity of the doped anode was tested under visible light irradiation. It is found that the NiO-doped anode is sensitive to visible light. Also found is that polyaniline-doped photosensitive anode can harvest photon energy in the visible light spectrum range much more efficiently than the NiO-doped one. It is concluded that the nanostructured photoelectrochemical fuel cell can generate electricity and clean fuel by decomposing hazardous materials under sunlight.

  15. Magnetic studies of mesoporous nanostructured iron oxide materials synthesized by one-step soft-templating.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jing; Hines, William A; Kuo, Chung-Hao; Perry, David M; Poyraz, Altug S; Xia, Yan; Zaidi, Taha; Nieh, Mu-Ping; Suib, Steven L

    2015-07-14

    A combined magnetization and (57)Fe spin-echo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study has been carried out on mesoporous nanostructured materials consisting of the magnetite (Fe3O4) and maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) phases. Two series of samples were synthesized using a recently developed one-step soft-templating approach with systematic variations in calcination temperature and reaction atmosphere. Nuclear magnetic resonance has been shown to be a valuable tool for distinguishing between the two magnetic iron oxide spinel phases, Fe3O4 and γ-Fe2O3, on the nanoscale as well as monitoring phase transformation resulting from oxidation. For the Fe3O4 and γ-Fe2O3 phases, peaks in the NMR spectra are attributed to Fe in the tetrahedral (A) sites and octahedral (B) sites. The magnetic field dependence of the peaks was observed and confirmed the site assignments. Fe3O4 on a nanoscale readily oxidizes to form γ-Fe2O3 and this was clearly evident in the NMR spectra. As evidenced by transmission electron microscope (TEM) images, the porous mesostructure for the iron oxide materials is formed by a random close-packed aggregation of nanoparticles; correspondingly, superparamagnetic behavior was observed in the magnetic measurements. Although X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows the spinel structure for the Fe3O4 and γ-Fe2O3 phases, unlike NMR, it is difficult to distinguish between the two phases with XRD. Nitrogen sorption isotherms characterize the mesoporous structures of the materials, and yield BET surface area values and limited BJH pore size distribution curves. PMID:26067028

  16. Nanostructures of LiBH4: a density-functional study.

    PubMed

    Vajeeston, P; Ravindran, P; Fjellvåg, H

    2009-07-01

    The phase stability and electronic structure of alpha- LiBH(4)-derived nanostructures and possible low energy surfaces of thin films have been investigated using the ab initio projected augmented plane wave method. Structural optimizations based on total energy calculations predicted that, for the alpha- LiBH(4) phase, the (010) surface is the most stable of the possible low-energy surfaces. The predicted critical sizes of the nano-cluster and nano-whisker for alpha- LiBH(4) are 1.75 and 1.5 nm, respectively. Similarly, the bond distances in the surfaces of a nano-whisker are found to be higher than that in the bulk material. The calculated hydrogen site energies suggest that it is relatively easier to remove hydrogen from the surface of the clusters and nano-whiskers than from bulk crystals. PMID:19531862

  17. Nanostructures of LiBH4: a density-functional study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vajeeston, P.; Ravindran, P.; Fjellvåg, H.

    2009-07-01

    The phase stability and electronic structure of α- LiBH4-derived nanostructures and possible low energy surfaces of thin films have been investigated using the ab initio projected augmented plane wave method. Structural optimizations based on total energy calculations predicted that, for the α- LiBH4 phase, the (010) surface is the most stable of the possible low-energy surfaces. The predicted critical sizes of the nano-cluster and nano-whisker for α- LiBH4 are 1.75 and 1.5 nm, respectively. Similarly, the bond distances in the surfaces of a nano-whisker are found to be higher than that in the bulk material. The calculated hydrogen site energies suggest that it is relatively easier to remove hydrogen from the surface of the clusters and nano-whiskers than from bulk crystals.

  18. Nanostructured Carbon/Antimony Composites as Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries with Long Life.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yong; Yi, Zheng; Wang, Chunli; Wang, Lidong; Wu, Yaoming; Wang, Limin

    2016-08-01

    A series of nanostructured carbon/antimony composites have been successfully synthesized by a simple sol-gel, high-temperature carbon thermal reduction process. In the carbon/antimony composites, antimony nanoparticles are homogeneously dispersed in the pyrolyzed nanoporous carbon matrix. As an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, the C/Sb10 composite displays a high initial discharge capacity of 1214.6 mAh g(-1) and a reversible charge capacity of 595.5 mAh g(-1) with a corresponding coulombic efficiency of 49 % in the first cycle. In addition, it exhibits a high reversible discharge capacity of 466.2 mAh g(-1) at a current density of 100 mA g(-1) after 200 cycles and a high rate discharge capacity of 354.4 mAh g(-1) at a current density of 1000 mA g(-1) . The excellent cycling stability and rate discharge performance of the C/Sb10 composite could be due to the uniform dispersion of antimony nanoparticles in the porous carbon matrix, which can buffer the volume expansion and maintain the integrity of the electrode during the charge-discharge cycles. PMID:27310879

  19. Relaxation NMR as a tool to study the dispersion and formulation behavior of nanostructured carbon materials.

    PubMed

    Fairhurst, David; Cosgrove, Terence; Prescott, Stuart W

    2016-06-01

    Solvent relaxation NMR has been used to estimate the surface areas and wettability of various types of nanostructured carbon materials in a range of solvents including water, ethanol, and tetrahydrofuran. We illustrate the application of the technique through several short case studies using samples including nanocarbon blacks, graphene oxide, nanographites, and porous graphenes. The technique is shown to give a good measure of surface area, correlating well with conventional surface area estimates obtained by nitrogen adsorption, transmission electron microscopy, or light scattering for the non-porous samples. NMR relaxation has advantages in terms of speed of analysis and being able to use concentrated, wet, and opaque samples. For samples that are porous, two distinct surface areas can be estimated assuming the two environments ('inner' and 'outer') have the same surface chemistry, and that there is a slow exchange of solvent molecules between them. Furthermore, we show that differences in wettability and dispersability between samples dispersed in water, ethanol, and cyclopentanone can be observed, along with changes to the surface chemistry of the interface. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25989999

  20. Crystallization and functionality of inorganic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Dongfeng; Li, Keyan; Liu, Jun; Sun, Congting; Chen, Kunfeng

    2012-10-15

    In this article, we briefly summarized our recent work on the studies of crystallization and functionality of inorganic materials. On the basis of the chemical bonding theory of single crystal growth, we can quantitatively simulate Cu{sub 2}O crystallization processes in solution system. We also kinetically controlled Cu{sub 2}O crystallization process in the reduction solution route. Lithium ion battery and supercapacitor performances of some oxides such as Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} and MnO{sub 2} were shown to elucidate the important effect of crystallization on functionality of inorganic materials. This work encourages us to create novel functionalities through the study of crystallization of inorganic materials, which warrants more chances in the field of functional materials.

  1. Method for phase boundary structure control of laminated materials; destruction process investigations of nanostructured coatings with predetermined phase boundary texture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantinova, T. A.; Mamaev, A. I.; Chubenko, A. K.; Mamaeva, V. A.

    2016-02-01

    New surface texturing method by means of microplasma coating deposition with the following etching of the coating was shown and described. The method of step by step microplasma texturing was proposed to control the phase boundary of laminated materials. Micrographs of nanostructured inorganic non-metallic coating surface were obtained and analyzed before and after mechanical deformation. The nature of cracks formation and growth was investigated.

  2. Electronic Detection of Lectins Using Carbohydrate Functionalized Nanostructures: Graphene versus Carbon Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yanan; Vedala, Harindra; Kotchey, Gregg P.; Audfray, Aymeric; Cecioni, Samy; Imberty, Anne; Vidal, Sébastien; Star, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Here we investigated the interactions between lectins and carbohydrates using field-effect transistor (FET) devices comprised of chemically converted graphene (CCG) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). Pyrene- and porphyrin-based glycoconjugates were functionalized noncovalently on the surface of CCG-FET and SWNT-FET devices, which were then treated with 2 µM of nonspecific and specific lectins. In particular, three different lectins (PA-IL, PA-IIL and ConA) and three carbohydrate epitopes (galactose, fucose and mannose) were tested. The responses of 36 different devices were compared and rationalized using computer-aided models of carbon nanostructure/glycoconjugate interactions. Glycoconjugates surface coverage in addition to one-dimensional structures of SWNTs resulted in optimal lectin detection. Additionally, lectin titration data of SWNT- and CCG-based biosensors were used to calculate lectin dissociation constants (Kd) and compare them to the values obtained from the isothermal titration microcalorimetry (ITC) technique. PMID:22136380

  3. Micropatterned nanostructures: a bioengineered approach to mass-produce functional myocardial grafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serpooshan, Vahid; Mahmoudi, Morteza

    2015-02-01

    Cell-based therapies are a recently established path for treating a wide range of human disease. Tissue engineering of contractile heart muscle for replacement therapy is among the most exciting and important of these efforts. However, current in vitro techniques of cultivating functional mature cardiac grafts have only been moderately successful due to the poor capability of traditional two-dimensional cell culture systems to recapitulate necessary in vivo conditions. In this issue, Kiefer et al [1] introduce a laser-patterned nanostructured substrate (Al/Al2O3 nanowires) for efficient maintenance of oriented human cardiomyocytes, with great potential to open new roads to mass-production of contractile myocardial grafts for cardiovascular tissue engineering.

  4. From small aromatic molecules to functional nanostructured carbon by pulsed laser-induced photochemical stitching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokhale, R. R.; Thakare, V. P.; Warule, S.; Lefez, B.; Hannoyer, B.; Jog, J. P.; Ogale, S. B.

    2012-06-01

    A novel route employing UV laser pulses (KrF Excimer, 248 nm) to cleave small aromatic molecules and stitch the generated free radicals into functional nanostructured forms of carbon is introduced. The process differs distinctly from any strategies wherein the aromatic rings are broken in the primary process. It is demonstrated that this pulsed laser-induced photochemical stitching (PLPS) process when applied to routine laboratory solvents (or toxic chemical wastes when discarded) Chlorobenzene and o-Dichlorobenzene yields Carbon Nanospheres (CNSs) comprising of graphene-like sheets assembled in onion-like configurations. This room temperature process implemented under normal laboratory conditions is versatile and clearly applicable to the whole family of haloaromatic compounds without and with additions of precursors or other nanomaterials. We further bring out its applicability for synthesis of metal-oxide based carbon nanocomposites.

  5. Effect of Dual-Function Nano-Structured Silicon Oxide Thin Film on Multi-Junction Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, B.; Sivec, L.; Yue, G.; Jiang, C. S.; Yang, J.; Guha, S.

    2011-01-01

    We present our recent study of using nano-structured hydrogenated silicon oxide films (nc-SiO{sub x}:H) as a dual-function layer in multi-junction solar cells. The nc-SiO{sub x}:H films were deposited using very high frequency glow discharge of a SiH{sub 4} (or Si{sub 2}H{sub 6}), CO{sub 2}, PH{sub 3}, and H{sub 2} gas mixture. By optimizing deposition parameters, we obtained 'dual function' nc-SiO{sub x}:H material characterized by a conductivity suitable for use as an n layer and optical properties suitable for use as an inter-reflection layer. We tested the nc-SiO{sub x}:H by replacing the normal n-type material in the tunnel junction of a multi-junction structure. The advantage of the dual-function nc-SiO{sub x}:H layer is twofold; one is to simplify the cell structure, and the other is to reduce any optical loss associated with the inter-reflection layer. Quantum efficiency measurements show the gain in top cell current is equal to or greater than the loss in bottom cell current for a-Si:H/nc-Si:H structures. In addition, a thinner a-Si:H top cell with the nc-SiO{sub x}:H n layer improves the top-cell stability, thereby providing higher stabilized solar cell efficiency. We also used the dual-function layer between the middle and the bottom cells in a-Si:H/a-SiGe:H/nc-Si:H triple-junction structures. The gain in the middle cell current is {approx}1.0 mA/cm{sup 2}, leading to an initial active-area efficiency of 14.8%.

  6. The toxicological mode of action and the safety of synthetic amorphous silica-a nanostructured material.

    PubMed

    Fruijtier-Pölloth, Claudia

    2012-04-11

    Synthetic amorphous silica (SAS), in the form of pyrogenic (fumed), precipitated, gel or colloidal SAS, has been used in a wide variety of industrial and consumer applications including food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical products for many decades. Based on extensive physico-chemical, ecotoxicology, toxicology, safety and epidemiology data, no environmental or health risks have been associated with these materials if produced and used under current hygiene standards and use recommendations. With internal structures in the nanoscale size range, pyrogenic, precipitated and gel SAS are typical examples of nanostructured materials as recently defined by the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO). The manufacturing process of these SAS materials leads to aggregates of strongly (covalently) bonded or fused primary particles. Weak interaction forces (van der Waals interactions, hydrogen bonding, physical adhesion) between aggregates lead to the formation of micrometre (μm)-sized agglomerates. Typically, isolated nanoparticles do not occur. In contrast, colloidal SAS dispersions may contain isolated primary particles in the nano-size range which can be considered nano-objects. The size of the primary particle resulted in the materials often being considered as "nanosilica" and in the inclusion of SAS in research programmes on nanomaterials. The biological activity of SAS can be related to the particle shape and surface characteristics interfacing with the biological milieu rather than to particle size. SAS adsorbs to cellular surfaces and can affect membrane structures and integrity. Toxicity is linked to mechanisms of interactions with outer and inner cell membranes, signalling responses, and vesicle trafficking pathways. Interaction with membranes may induce the release of endosomal substances, reactive oxygen species, cytokines and chemokines and thus induce inflammatory responses. None of the SAS forms, including colloidal nano-sized particles, were shown

  7. Continuous spray forming of functionally gradient materials

    SciTech Connect

    McKechnie, T.N.; Richardson, E.H.

    1995-12-01

    Researchers at Plasma Processes Inc. have produced a Functional Gradient Material (FGM) through advanced vacuum plasma spray processing for high heat flux applications. Outlined in this paper are the manufacturing methods used to develop a four component functional gradient material of copper, tungsten, boron, and boron nitride. The FGM was formed with continuous gradients and integral cooling channels eliminating bondlines and providing direct heat transfer from the high temperature exposed surface to a cooling medium. Metallurgical and x-ray diffraction analyses of the materials formed through innovative VPS (vacuum plasma spray) processing are also presented. Applications for this functional gradient structural material range from fusion reactor plasma facing components to missile nose cones to boilers.

  8. Macromolecular changes and nano-structural arrangements in gliadin and glutenin films upon chemical modification: Relation to functionality.

    PubMed

    Rasheed, Faiza; Newson, William R; Plivelic, Tomás S; Kuktaite, Ramune; Hedenqvist, Mikael S; Gällstedt, Mikael; Johansson, Eva

    2015-08-01

    Protein macromolecules adopted for biological and bio-based material functions are known to develop a structured protein network upon chemical modification. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the impact of chemical additives such as, NaOH, NH4OH and salicylic acid (SA), on the secondary and nano-structural transitions of wheat proteins. Further, the effect of chemically induced modifications in protein macromolecular structure was anticipated in relation to functional properties. The gliadin-NH4OH-SA film showed a supramolecular protein organization into hexagonal structures with 65 Å lattice parameter, and other not previously observed structural entities having a characteristic distance of 50 Å. Proteins in gliadin-NH4OH-SA films were highly polymerized, with increased amount of disulfide crosslinks and β-sheets, causing improved strength and stiffness. Glutenin and WG proteins with NH4OH-SA showed extensive aggregation and an increase in β-sheet content together with irreversible crosslinks. Irreversible crosslinks hindered a high order structure formation in glutenins, and this resulted in films with only moderately improved stiffness. Thus, formation of nano-hierarchical structures based on β-sheets and disulfide crosslinks are the major reasons of high strength and stiffness in wheat protein based films. PMID:25936284

  9. Synthesis, structure and properties of hierarchical nanostructured porous materials studied by molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, Kisung

    For applications of porous materials in many fields of technological importance, such as catalysis, filtration, separation, energy storage and conversion, the efficiency is often limited by chemical kinetics, and/or diffusion of reactants and products to and from the active sites. Hierarchical nanostructured porous materials (HNPMs) that possess both mesopores (2 nm < pore size < 50 nm) and micropores (pore size < 2 nm) have shown great potential for these applications as their bimodal porous structure can provide highly efficient mass transport through mesopores and high electrochemically accessible surface area from micropores. Despite extensive experimental studies, it remains a great challenge to quantify the synthesis-structure-properties relations in HNPMs due to the limitations of existing characterization tools and the difficulty in separating the sum of many effects in experiments. In this thesis work, we carried out a detailed study on the synthesis-structure-property relations in hierarchical nanostructured porous carbons (HNPCs) by using classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We first developed a unique computational nanocasting approach in MD to mimic the synthesis of HNPCs with both mesopores from the templating and micropores from the direct quench of carbon source in MD. Mesoporous structure such as the pore size and the pore wall roughness as well as the microporous structure such as the density and the graphitic pore walls can be independently controlled by synthesis parameters, such as the size of the template, the interaction strength between the template and carbon source, the initial carbon density and the quench rate, respectively. These atomic models allowed us to quantify the structure-mechanical properties relation in aligned carbon nanotubes/amorphous porous carbon nanocomposites. Our study shows that there is an optimum balance between the crystallinity of CNTs and the number bridging bonds between CNTs and the microporous matrix

  10. Tunable top-down fabrication and functional surface coating of single-crystal titanium dioxide nanostructures and nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Seungkyu; Janissen, Richard; Ussembayev, Yera Ye.; van Oene, Maarten M.; Solano, Belen; Dekker, Nynke H.

    2016-05-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a key component of diverse optical and electronic applications that exploit its exceptional material properties. In particular, the use of TiO2 in its single-crystalline phase can offer substantial advantages over its amorphous and polycrystalline phases for existing and yet-to-be-developed applications. However, the implementation of single-crystal TiO2 has been hampered by challenges in its fabrication and subsequent surface functionalization. Here, we introduce a novel top-down approach that allows for batch fabrication of uniform high-aspect-ratio single-crystal TiO2 nanostructures with targeted sidewall profiles. We complement our fabrication approach with a functionalization strategy that achieves dense, uniform, and area-selective coating with a variety of biomolecules. This allows us to fabricate single-crystal rutile TiO2 nanocylinders tethered with individual DNA molecules for use as force- and torque-transducers in an optical torque wrench. These developments provide the means for increased exploitation of the superior material properties of single-crystal TiO2 at the nanoscale.Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a key component of diverse optical and electronic applications that exploit its exceptional material properties. In particular, the use of TiO2 in its single-crystalline phase can offer substantial advantages over its amorphous and polycrystalline phases for existing and yet-to-be-developed applications. However, the implementation of single-crystal TiO2 has been hampered by challenges in its fabrication and subsequent surface functionalization. Here, we introduce a novel top-down approach that allows for batch fabrication of uniform high-aspect-ratio single-crystal TiO2 nanostructures with targeted sidewall profiles. We complement our fabrication approach with a functionalization strategy that achieves dense, uniform, and area-selective coating with a variety of biomolecules. This allows us to fabricate single-crystal rutile

  11. Self-Assembly of Crystalline Structures of Magnetic Core-Shell Nanoparticles for Fabrication of Nanostructured Materials.

    PubMed

    Xue, Xiaozheng; Wang, Jianchao; Furlani, Edward P

    2015-10-14

    A theoretical study is presented of the template-assisted formation of crystalline superstructures of magnetic-dielectric core-shell particles. The templates produce highly localized gradient fields and a corresponding magnetic force that guides the assembly with nanoscale precision in particle placement. The process is studied using two distinct and complementary computational models that predict the dynamics and energy of the particles, respectively. Both mono- and polydisperse colloids are studied, and the analysis demonstrates for the first time that although the particles self-assemble into ordered crystalline superstructures, the particle formation is not unique. There is a Brownian motion-induced degeneracy in the process wherein various distinct, energetically comparable crystalline structures can form for a given template geometry. The models predict the formation of hexagonal close packed (HCP) and face centered cubic (FCC) structures as well as mixed phase structures due to in-plane stacking disorders, which is consistent with experimental observations. The polydisperse particle structures are less uniform than the monodisperse particle structures because of the irregular packing of different-sized particles. A comparison of self-assembly using soft- and hard-magnetic templates is also presented, the former being magnetized in a uniform field. This analysis shows that soft-magnetic templates enable an order-of-magnitude more rapid assembly and much higher spatial resolution in particle placement than their hard-magnetic counterparts. The self-assembly method discussed is versatile and broadly applies to arbitrary template geometries and multilayered and multifunctional mono- and polydisperse core-shell particles that have at least one magnetic component. As such, the method holds potential for the bottom-up fabrication of functional nanostructured materials for a broad range of applications. This work provides unprecedented insight into the assembly

  12. A dual enzyme functionalized nanostructured thulium oxide based interface for biomedical application.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jay; Roychoudhury, Appan; Srivastava, Manish; Solanki, Pratima R; Lee, Dong Won; Lee, Seung Hee; Malhotra, B D

    2014-01-21

    In this paper, we present results of the studies related to fabrication of a rare earth metal oxide based efficient biosensor using an interface based on hydrothermally prepared nanostructured thulium oxide (n-Tm2O3). A colloidal solution of prepared nanorods has been electrophoretically deposited (EPD) onto an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) glass substrate. The n-Tm2O3 nanorods are found to provide improved sensing characteristics to the electrode interface in terms of electroactive surface area, diffusion coefficient, charge transfer rate constant and electron transfer kinetics. The structural and morphological studies of n-Tm2O3 nanorods have been carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic techniques. This interfacial platform has been used for fabrication of a total cholesterol biosensor by immobilizing cholesterol esterase (ChEt) and cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) onto a Tm2O3 nanostructured surface. The results of response studies of the fabricated ChEt-ChOx/n-Tm2O3/ITO bioelectrode show a broad linear range of 8-400 mg dL(-1), detection limit of 19.78 mg (dL cm(-2))(-1), and high sensitivity of 0.9245 μA (mg per dL cm(-2))(-1) with a response time of 40 s. Further, this bioelectrode has been utilized for estimation of total cholesterol with negligible interference (3%) from analytes present in human serum samples. The utilization of this n-Tm2O3 modified electrode for enzyme-based biosensor analysis offers an efficient strategy and a novel interface for application of the rare earth metal oxide materials in the field of electrochemical sensors and bioelectronic devices. PMID:24301799

  13. Fabrication and application of advanced functional materials from lignincellulosic biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Sixiao

    This dissertation explored the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into advanced functional materials and their potential applications. Lignocellulosic biomass represents an as-of-yet underutilized renewable source for not only biofuel production but also functional materials fabrication. This renewable source is a great alternative for fossil fuel based chemicals, which could be one of the solutions to energy crisis. In this work, it was demonstrated a variety of advanced materials including functional carbons, metal and silica nanoparticles could be derived from lignocellulosic biomass. Chapter 1 provided overall reviewed of the lignin structures, productions and its utilizations as plastics, absorbents and carbons, as well as the preparation of nano-structured silver, silica and silicon carbide/nitride from biomass. Chapter 2, 3 and 4 discussed the fabrication of highly porous carbons from isolated lignin, and their applications as electric supercapacitors for energy storage. In chapter 2, ultrafine porous carbon fibers were prepared via electrospinning followed by simultaneous carbonization and activation. Chapter 3 covered the fabrication of supercapacitor based on the porous carbon fibers and the investigation of their electrochemical performances. In chapter 4, porous carbon particulates with layered carbon nano plates structures were produced by simple oven-drying followed by simultaneous carbonization and activation. The effects of heat processing parameters on the resulting carbon structures and their electrochemical properties were discussed in details. Chapter 5 and 6 addressed the preparation of silver nanoparticles using lignin. Chapter 5 reported the synthesis, underlying kinetics and mechanism of monodispersed silver nanospheres with diameter less than 25 nm in aqueous solutions using lignin as dual reducing and capping agents. Chapter 6 covered the preparation of silver nanoparticles on electrospun celluloses ultrafine fibers using lignin as both

  14. Engineering Hybrid Metallic Nanostructures Using a Single Domain of Block Copolymer Templates.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhicheng; Chang, Tongxin; Huang, Haiying; He, Tianbai

    2015-11-25

    Building complex nanostructures using a simple patterned template is challenging in material science and nanotechnology. In the present work, three different strategies have been exploited for the successful fabrication of hybrid dots-on-wire metallic nanostructures through combining an in-situ method with an ex-situ method. Basically, plasma etching was applied to generate a metallic wire-like nanostructure, and preformed nanoparticles could be placed through multiple means before or after the formation of the wire-like nanostructure. Various monometallic and bimetallic nanostructures have been obtained by utilizing only one functional domain of block copolymer templates. In these cases, full utilization of the functional domain or introduction of the molecular linker is critical to engineering hybrid metallic nanostructures. Other complex and multifunctional hybrid nanostructures can be developed via these strategies similarly, and these nanostructures are promising for useful applications such as optics and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). PMID:26517409

  15. Nanoparticle Decorated Ultrathin Porous Nanosheets as Hierarchical Co3O4 Nanostructures for Lithium Ion Battery Anode Materials.

    PubMed

    Mujtaba, Jawayria; Sun, Hongyu; Huang, Guoyong; Mølhave, Kristian; Liu, Yanguo; Zhao, Yanyan; Wang, Xun; Xu, Shengming; Zhu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    We report a facile synthesis of a novel cobalt oxide (Co3O4) hierarchical nanostructure, in which crystalline core-amorphous shell Co3O4 nanoparticles with a bimodal size distribution are uniformly dispersed on ultrathin Co3O4 nanosheets. When tested as anode materials for lithium ion batteries, the as-prepared Co3O4 hierarchical electrodes delivered high lithium storage properties comparing to the other Co3O4 nanostructures, including a high reversible capacity of 1053.1 mAhg(-1) after 50 cycles at a current density of 0.2 C (1 C = 890 mAg(-1)), good cycling stability and rate capability. PMID:26846434

  16. Nanoparticle Decorated Ultrathin Porous Nanosheets as Hierarchical Co3O4 Nanostructures for Lithium Ion Battery Anode Materials

    PubMed Central

    Mujtaba, Jawayria; Sun, Hongyu; Huang, Guoyong; Mølhave, Kristian; Liu, Yanguo; Zhao, Yanyan; Wang, Xun; Xu, Shengming; Zhu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    We report a facile synthesis of a novel cobalt oxide (Co3O4) hierarchical nanostructure, in which crystalline core-amorphous shell Co3O4 nanoparticles with a bimodal size distribution are uniformly dispersed on ultrathin Co3O4 nanosheets. When tested as anode materials for lithium ion batteries, the as-prepared Co3O4 hierarchical electrodes delivered high lithium storage properties comparing to the other Co3O4 nanostructures, including a high reversible capacity of 1053.1 mAhg−1 after 50 cycles at a current density of 0.2 C (1 C = 890 mAg−1), good cycling stability and rate capability. PMID:26846434

  17. Dwell-time effect on the synthesis of a nano-structured material in water by using Ni wire explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eom, Gyu Sub; Kwon, Hyeok Jung; Cho, Yong Sub; Paek, Kwang-Hyun; Joo, Won-Tae

    2014-10-01

    Nickel nano-structured materials are synthesized by using a wire explosion in water. Based on an analysis of each step of the wire explosion, we propose insufficient energy deposition before a plasma restrike as the cause for the inclusion of coarse particles in the wire-explosion product. We confirmed that more energy, in excess of 30%, could be deposited by increasing the dwell time, which resulted from a compression of vapor by the surrounding water and from suppression of plasma restrikes. Because of an increased energy loss into the surrounding water, the specific energy increased by two-fold compared to a gas atmosphere. The synthesized nano-structured nickel showed a uniform particle size of 20 nm with a few coarse particles that were mainly metallic nickel with a little oxide and hydroxide phases. The possibility for large-volume production through a continuous explosion of 300 shots was confirmed.

  18. Nanoparticle Decorated Ultrathin Porous Nanosheets as Hierarchical Co3O4 Nanostructures for Lithium Ion Battery Anode Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mujtaba, Jawayria; Sun, Hongyu; Huang, Guoyong; Mølhave, Kristian; Liu, Yanguo; Zhao, Yanyan; Wang, Xun; Xu, Shengming; Zhu, Jing

    2016-02-01

    We report a facile synthesis of a novel cobalt oxide (Co3O4) hierarchical nanostructure, in which crystalline core-amorphous shell Co3O4 nanoparticles with a bimodal size distribution are uniformly dispersed on ultrathin Co3O4 nanosheets. When tested as anode materials for lithium ion batteries, the as-prepared Co3O4 hierarchical electrodes delivered high lithium storage properties comparing to the other Co3O4 nanostructures, including a high reversible capacity of 1053.1 mAhg-1 after 50 cycles at a current density of 0.2 C (1 C = 890 mAg-1), good cycling stability and rate capability.

  19. Analysis of Advanced Thermoelectric Materials and Their Functional Limits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hyun Jung

    2015-01-01

    The world's demand for energy is increasing dramatically, but the best energy conversion systems operate at approximately 30% efficiency. One way to decrease energy loss is in the recovery of waste heat using thermoelectric (TE) generators. A TE generator is device that generates electricity by exploiting heat flow across a thermal gradient. The efficiency of a TE material for power generation and cooling is determined by the dimensionless Figure of Merit (ZT): ZT = S(exp. 2)sigmaT/?: where S is the Seebeck coefficient, sigma is the electrical conductivity, T is the absolute temperature, and ? is the thermal conductivity. The parameters are not physically independent, but intrinsically coupled since they are a function of the transport properties of electrons. Traditional research on TE materials has focused on synthesizing bulk semiconductor-type materials that have low thermal conductivity and high electrical conductivity affording ZT values of 1. The optimization of the s/? ratio is difficult to achieve using current material formats, as these material constants are complementary. Recent areas of research are focusing on using nanostructural artifacts that introduce specific dislocations and boundary conditions that scatter the phonons. This disrupts the physical link between thermal (phonon) and electrical (electron) transport. The result is that ? is decreased without decreasing s. These material formats give ZT values of up to 2 which represent approximately 18% energy gain from waste heat recovery. The next challenge in developing the next generation of TE materials with superior performance is to tailor the interconnected thermoelectric physical parameters of the material system. In order to approach this problem, the fundamental physics of each parameter S, sigma, and ? need to be physically understood in their context of electron/phonon interaction for the construction of new high ZT thermoelectric devices. Is it possible to overcome the physical limit

  20. Synthesis of nanostructured materials by using metal-cyanide coordination polymers and their lithium storage properties.

    PubMed

    Nie, Ping; Shen, Laifa; Luo, Haifeng; Li, Hongsen; Xu, Guiyin; Zhang, Xiaogang

    2013-11-21

    Herein, we demonstrate a novel and simple two-step process for preparing LiCoO2 nanocrystals by using a Prussian blue analogue Co3[Co(CN)6]2 as a precursor. The resultant LiCoO2 nanoparticles possess single crystalline nature and good uniformity with an average size of ca. 360 nm. The unique nanostructure of LiCoO2 provides relatively shorter Li(+) diffusion pathways, thus facilitating the fast kinetics of electrochemical reactions. As a consequence, high reversible capacity, excellent cycling stability and rate capability are achieved with these nanocrystals as cathodes for lithium storage. The LiCoO2 nanocrystals deliver specific capacities of 154.5, 135.8, 119, and 100.3 mA h g(-1) at 0.2, 0.4, 1, and 2 C rates, respectively. Even at a high current density of 4 C, a reversible capacity of 87 mA h g(-1) could be maintained. Importantly, a capacity retention of 83.4% after 100 cycles is achieved at a constant discharge rate of 1 C. Furthermore, owing to facile control of the morphology and size of Prussian blue analogues by varying process parameters, as well as the tailored design of multi-component metal-cyanide hybrid coordination polymers, with which we have successfully prepared porous Fe2O3@NixCo3-xO4 nanocubes, one of the potential anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, such a simple and scalable approach could also be applied to the synthesis of other nanomaterials for energy storage devices. PMID:24071706

  1. Ultimate osmosis engineered by the pore geometry and functionalization of carbon nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhigong; Xu, Zhiping

    2015-01-01

    Osmosis is the key process in establishing versatile functions of cellular systems and enabling clean-water harvesting technologies. Membranes with single-atom thickness not only hold great promises in approaching the ultimate limit of these functions, but also offer an ideal test-bed to explore the underlying physical mechanisms. In this work, we explore diffusive and osmotic transport of water and ions through carbon nanotube and porous graphene based membranes by performing molecular dynamics simulations. Our comparative study shows that the cylindrical confinement in carbon nanotubes offers much higher salt rejection at similar permeability in osmosis compared to porous graphene. Moreover, chemical functionalization of the pores modulates the membrane performance by its steric and electrostatic nature, especially at small-size pores due to the fact that the optimal transport is achieved by ordered water transport near pore edges. These findings lay the ground for the ultimate design of forward osmosis membranes with optimized performance trade-off, given the capability of nano-engineering nanostructures by their geometry and chemistry. PMID:26037602

  2. Ultimate Osmosis Engineered by the Pore Geometry and Functionalization of Carbon Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zhigong; Xu, Zhiping

    2015-01-01

    Osmosis is the key process in establishing versatile functions of cellular systems and enabling clean-water harvesting technologies. Membranes with single-atom thickness not only hold great promises in approaching the ultimate limit of these functions, but also offer an ideal test-bed to explore the underlying physical mechanisms. In this work, we explore diffusive and osmotic transport of water and ions through carbon nanotube and porous graphene based membranes by performing molecular dynamics simulations. Our comparative study shows that the cylindrical confinement in carbon nanotubes offers much higher salt rejection at similar permeability in osmosis compared to porous graphene. Moreover, chemical functionalization of the pores modulates the membrane performance by its steric and electrostatic nature, especially at small-size pores due to the fact that the optimal transport is achieved by ordered water transport near pore edges. These findings lay the ground for the ultimate design of forward osmosis membranes with optimized performance trade-off, given the capability of nano-engineering nanostructures by their geometry and chemistry. PMID:26037602

  3. Crystallization Times of Ge2Sb2Te5 Nanostructures as a Function of Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirisaglik, Faruk; Cil, Kadir; Wennberg, Maren; King, Adrienne; Akbulut, Mustafa; Zhu, Yu; Lam, Chung; Gokirmak, Ali; Silva, Helena

    2012-02-01

    Phase-change memory is a promising non-volatile memory technology in which a small volume of a phase change material is reversibly and rapidly switched between amorphous and crystalline phases by a suitable electrical pulse. Amorphization is achieved by fast cooling after a melting pulse while crystallization is achieved through electrical breakdown of the amorphous element that leads to heating above the crystallization temperature for a sufficient period. Significant difference between the crystallization behavior of phase-change materials in bulk, thin films and in nanostructures have been observed[1,2]. We have studied the crystallization times of nanoscale Ge2Sb2Te5 line structures using 50-500 ns voltage pulses with a baseline offset in the 500 K to 625 K range under high-vacuum. The baseline voltage allows measurement of resistance before and after the pulse and crystallization time. Current and voltage were recorded with high time-resolution for amorphizing pulse and very long periods of time to observe the crystallization time. The crystallization time decreases for increasing temperature but it remains on the order of seconds even at elevated temperatures. [1] H. Wong et al., Proc IEEE 98, 2201, 2010. [2] T. Zhang et al., Scr. Mater. 58, 977, 2008.

  4. The ``Missing Compounds'' affair in functionality-driven material discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zunger, Alex

    2014-03-01

    In the paradigm of ``data-driven discovery,'' underlying one of the leading streams of the Material Genome Initiative (MGI), one attempts to compute high-throughput style as many of the properties of as many of the N (about 10**5- 10**6) compounds listed in databases of previously known compounds. One then inspects the ensuing Big Data, searching for useful trends. The alternative and complimentary paradigm of ``functionality-directed search and optimization'' used here, searches instead for the n much smaller than N configurations and compositions that have the desired value of the target functionality. Examples include the use of genetic and other search methods that optimize the structure or identity of atoms on lattice sites, using atomistic electronic structure (such as first-principles) approaches in search of a given electronic property. This addresses a few of the bottlenecks that have faced the alternative, data-driven/high throughput/Big Data philosophy: (i) When the configuration space is theoretically of infinite size, building a complete data base as in data-driven discovery is impossible, yet searching for the optimum functionality, is still a well-posed problem. (ii) The configuration space that we explore might include artificially grown, kinetically stabilized systems (such as 2D layer stacks; superlattices; colloidal nanostructures; Fullerenes) that are not listed in compound databases (used by data-driven approaches), (iii) a large fraction of chemically plausible compounds have not been experimentally synthesized, so in the data-driven approach these are often skipped. In our approach we search explicitly for such ``Missing Compounds''. It is likely that many interesting material properties will be found in cases (i)-(iii) that elude high throughput searches based on databases encapsulating existing knowledge. I will illustrate (a) Functionality-driven discovery of topological insulators and valley-split quantum-computer semiconductors, as well

  5. Cellular interactions and stimulated biological functions mediated by nanostructured carbon for tissue reconstruction and tracheal tubes and sutures.

    PubMed

    Misra, R D K; Chaudhari, P M

    2013-02-01

    Nylon 6,6 is used for biological applications including gastrointestinal segments, tracheal tubes and sutures, vascular graft, and for hard tissue reconstruction. While it is a relatively inexpensive polymer, it is not widely acceptable as a preferred biomaterial because of bioactivity. To this end, we have discovered the exciting evidence that introduction of a novel nanostructured carbon, graphene, in the void space between the nylon chains and processing at elevated pressure favorably stimulates cellular functions and provides high degree of cytocompatibility. The cell-substrate interactions on stand alone Nylon 6,6 and Nylon 6,6-graphene oxide hybrid system were investigated in terms of cell attachment, viability, proliferation, and assessment of proteins, actin, vinculin, and fibronectin. The enhanced biological functions in the nanostructured hybrid system are attributed to relatively superior hydrophilicity of the surface and to the presence of graphene. Furthermore, it is proposed that the negatively charged graphene interacts with the polar nature of cells and the culture medium, such that the interaction is promoted through polar forces. This is accomplished by investigating cell attachment, proliferation, and morphology, including cytomorphometry evaluation, and quantitative assessment of prominent proteins, actin, vinculin, and fibronectin that are sensitive to cell-substrate interactions. Osteoblasts were studied to establish the practical viability of the hybrid nanostructured biomaterial. The study strengthens the foundation for utilizing nano- or quantum-size effects of nanostructured biomaterials. PMID:22927360

  6. Design and functionality of colloidal-crystal-templated materials--chemical applications of inverse opals.

    PubMed

    Stein, Andreas; Wilson, Benjamin E; Rudisill, Stephen G

    2013-04-01

    Templating with colloidal crystals composed of monodisperse spheres is a convenient chemical method to obtain porous materials with well-ordered periodicity and interconnected pore systems. The three-dimensionally ordered macroporous (3DOM) products or inverse opals are of interest for numerous applications, both for the optical properties related to structural color of these photonic crystal materials and because of their bicontinuous nanostructure, i.e., a continuous nanostructured skeleton with large interfacial area and a three-dimensionally interconnected pore system with low tortuosity. This review outlines various synthetic methods used to control the morphology of 3DOM materials with different compositions. It highlights aspects of the choice of colloidal particles, assembly of the colloidal crystal template, infiltration and processing, template removal, and other necessary modifications to enhance the functionality of the materials. It also considers syntheses within the confinement of 3DOM materials and summarizes characterization methods that are particularly useful in the analysis of 3DOM materials. The review then discusses chemical applications of 3DOM materials, namely sorption and controlled release, optical and electrochemical sensors, solar cells, lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, fuel cells, and environmental and chemical fuel catalysis. A focus is on structural features and materials properties that enable these applications. PMID:23079696

  7. Mapping the chemistry in nanostructured materials by energy-filtering transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM).

    PubMed

    Hofer, F; Warbichler, P; Kronberger, H; Zweck, J

    2001-09-01

    Energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) can be used to acquire elemental distribution maps at high lateral resolution within short acquisition times, which makes it quite efficient for a detailed characterization of nanostructures, as illustrated with examples concerning a nanostructured substituted La-based cermet compound and a nanoscale multilayer. In the first example, we show how phases in a rapidly cooled substituted LaNi5 can be visualized by recording jump ratio images. Secondly, EFTEM was capable of imaging individual nanoscale layers in a magnetic multilayer consisting of 2 nm terbium and 3 nm iron. PMID:11666085

  8. Micro-nanostructured CuO/C spheres as high-performance anode materials for Na-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yanying; Zhang, Ning; Zhao, Qing; Liang, Jing; Chen, Jun

    2015-02-14

    In this paper, we report on the synthesis of micro-nanostructured CuO/C spheres by aerosol spray pyrolysis and their application as high-performance anodes in sodium-ion batteries. Micro-nanostructured CuO/C spheres with different CuO contents were synthesized through aerosol spray pyrolysis by adjusting the ratio of reactants and heat-treated by an oxidation process. The as-prepared CuO/C spheres show uniformly spherical morphology, in which CuO nanoparticles (∼10 nm) are homogeneously embedded in the carbon matrix (denoted as 10-CuO/C). The electrochemical performance of 10-CuO/C with a carbon weight of 44% was evaluated as the anode material for Na-ion batteries. It can deliver a capacity of 402 mA h g(-1) after 600 cycles at a current density of 200 mA g(-1). Furthermore, a capacity of 304 mA h g(-1) was obtained at a high current density of 2000 mA g(-1). The superior electrochemical performance of the micro-nanostructured CuO/C spheres leads to the enhancement of the electronic conductivity of the nanocomposite and the accommodation of the volume variation of CuO/C during charge/discharge cycling. PMID:25584745

  9. Relationship between material properties and transparent heater performance for both bulk-like and percolative nanostructured networks.

    PubMed

    Sorel, Sophie; Bellet, Daniel; Coleman, Jonathan N

    2014-05-27

    Transparent heaters are important for many applications and in the future are likely to be fabricated from thin, conducting, nanostructured networks. However, the electrical properties of such networks are almost always controlled by percolative effects. The impact of percolation on heating effects has not been considered, and the material parameter combinations that lead to efficient performance are not known. In fact, figures of merit for transparent heaters have not been elucidated, either in bulk-like or percolative systems. Here, we develop a simple yet comprehensive model describing the operation of transparent heaters. By considering the balance of Joule heating versus power dissipated by both convection and radiation, we derive an expression for the time-dependent heater temperature as a function of both electrical and thermal parameters. This equation can be modified to describe the relationship between temperature, optical transmittance, and electrical/thermal parameters in both bulk-like and percolative systems. By performing experiments on silver nanowire networks, systems known to display both bulk-like and percolative regimes, we show the model to describe real systems extremely well. This work shows the performance of transparent heaters in the percolative regime to be significantly less efficient compared to the bulk-like regime, implying the diameter of the nanowires making up the network to be critical. The model allows the identification of figures of merit for networks in both bulk-like and percolative regimes. We show that metallic nanowire networks are most promising, closely followed by CVD graphene, with networks of solution-processed graphene and carbon nanotubes being much less efficient. PMID:24694252

  10. Functionalization of graphene oxide nanostructures improves photoluminescence and facilitates their use as optical probes in preclinical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhakar, Neeraj; Näreoja, Tuomas; von Haartman, Eva; Şen Karaman, Didem; Burikov, Sergey A.; Dolenko, Tatiana A.; Deguchi, Takahiro; Mamaeva, Veronika; Hänninen, Pekka E.; Vlasov, Igor I.; Shenderova, Olga A.; Rosenholm, Jessica M.

    2015-06-01

    Recently reported photoluminescent nanographene oxides (nGOs), i.e. nanographene oxidised with a sulfuric/nitric acid mixture (SNOx method), have tuneable photoluminescence and are scalable, simple and fast to produce optical probes. This material belongs to the vast class of photoluminescent carbon nanostructures, including carbon dots, nanodiamonds (NDs), graphene quantum dots (GQDs), all of which demonstrate a variety of properties that are attractive for biomedical imaging such as low toxicity and stable photoluminescence. In this study, the nGOs were organically surface-modified with poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ethylene imine) (PEG-PEI) copolymers tagged with folic acid as the affinity ligand for cancer cells expressing folate receptors. The functionalization enhanced both the cellular uptake and quantum efficiency of the photoluminescence as compared to non-modified nGOs. The nGOs exhibited an excitation dependent photoluminescence that facilitated their detection with a wide range of microscope configurations. The functionalized nGOs were non-toxic, they were retained in the stained cell population over a period of 8 days and they were distributed equally between daughter cells. We have evaluated their applicability in in vitro and in vivo (chicken embryo CAM) models to visualize and track migratory cancer cells. The good biocompatibility and easy detection of the functionalized nGOs suggest that they could address the limitations faced with quantum dots and organic fluorophores in long-term in vivo biomedical imaging.Recently reported photoluminescent nanographene oxides (nGOs), i.e. nanographene oxidised with a sulfuric/nitric acid mixture (SNOx method), have tuneable photoluminescence and are scalable, simple and fast to produce optical probes. This material belongs to the vast class of photoluminescent carbon nanostructures, including carbon dots, nanodiamonds (NDs), graphene quantum dots (GQDs), all of which demonstrate a variety of properties that are

  11. Functional oxide nanobelts - from materials to nanodevices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhong; Wang

    2003-11-01

    Nanowire and nanotube based materials have been demonstrated as building blocks for nanocircuits, nanosystems and nano-optoelectronics. Recently, ultra-long belt-like, quasi-one-dimensional nanostructures (so called nanobelts or nanoribbons) have been successfully synthesized for semiconducting oxides of zinc, tin, indium, cadmium and gallium, by simply evaporating the desired commercial metal oxide powders at high temperatures [1]. The as-synthesized oxide nanobelts are pure, structurally uniform, single crystalline and most of them free from dislocations; they have a rectangular-like cross-section with typical widths of 30 - 300 nm, width-to-thickness ratios of 5 - 10 and lengths of up to a few millimeters. The belt-like morphology appears to be a unique and common structural characteristic for the family of semiconducting oxides with cations of different valence states and materials of distinct crystallographic structures. Using the technique demonstrated for measuring the mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes based on in-situ transmission electron microscopy [2,3], the bending modulus of the oxide nanobelts has been measured and the nanobelt is shown to be a dual mode nanoresonator for NEMS technology. Field effect transistors [4] and ultra-sensitive nano-size gas sensors [5], nanoresonators and nanocantilevers [6] have also been fabricated based on individual nanobelts. Thermal transport along the nanobelt has also been measured. Nanocantilevers based on nanobelts have been fabricated. Very recently, structurally nanobelts exhibiting piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties have been synthesized, which could be a candidate for nano-scale traducers, actuators and sensors. [1] Z.W. Pan, Z.R. Dai and Z.L. Wang, Science, 209 (2001) 1947. [2] P. Poncharal, Z.L. Wang, D. Ugarte and W.A. de Heer, Science, 283 (1999) 1513; Electron Microscopy of Nanotubes, ed. Z.L. Wang and C. Hui, Kluwer Academic Publisher (2003). [3] R.P. Gao, Z.L. Wang, Z.G. Bai, W. de Heer

  12. Electrostatic interactions for directed assembly of high performance nanostructured energetic materials of Al/Fe2O3/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tianfu; Ma, Zhuang; Li, Guoping; Wang, Zhen; Zhao, Benbo; Luo, Yunjun

    2016-05-01

    Electrostatic self-assembly in organic solvent without intensively oxidative or corrosive environments, was adopted to prepare Al/Fe2O3/MWCNT nanostructured energetic materials as an energy generating material. The negatively charged MWCNT was used as a glue-like agent to direct the self-assembly of the well dispersed positively charged Al (fuel) and Fe2O3 (oxide) nanoparticles. This spontaneous assembly method without any surfactant chemistry or other chemical and biological moieties decreased the aggregation of the same nanoparticles largely, moreover, the poor interfacial contact between the Al (fuel) and Fe2O3 (oxide) nanoparticles was improved significantly, which was the key characteristic of high performance nanostructured energetic materials. In addition, the assembly process was confirmed as Diffusion-Limited Aggregation. The assembled Al/Fe2O3/MWCNT nanostructured energetic materials showed excellent performance with heat release of 2400 J/g, peak pressure of 0.42 MPa and pressurization rate of 105.71 MPa/s, superior to that in the control group Al/Fe2O3 nanostructured energetic materials prepared by sonication with heat release of 1326 J/g, peak pressure of 0.19 MPa and pressurization rate of 33.33 MPa/s. Therefore, the approach, which is facile, opens a promising route to the high performance nanostructured energetic materials.

  13. Modeling Bamboo as a Functionally Graded Material

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, Emilio Carlos Nelli; Walters, Matthew C.; Paulino, Glaucio H.

    2008-02-15

    Natural fibers are promising for engineering applications due to their low cost. They are abundantly available in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, and they can be employed as construction materials. Among natural fibers, bamboo has been widely used for housing construction around the world. Bamboo is an optimized composite material which exploits the concept of Functionally Graded Material (FGM). Biological structures, such as bamboo, are composite materials that have complicated shapes and material distribution inside their domain, and thus the use of numerical methods such as the finite element method and multiscale methods such as homogenization, can help to further understanding of the mechanical behavior of these materials. The objective of this work is to explore techniques such as the finite element method and homogenization to investigate the structural behavior of bamboo. The finite element formulation uses graded finite elements to capture the varying material distribution through the bamboo wall. To observe bamboo behavior under applied loads, simulations are conducted considering a spatially-varying Young's modulus, an averaged Young's modulus, and orthotropic constitutive properties obtained from homogenization theory. The homogenization procedure uses effective, axisymmetric properties estimated from the spatially-varying bamboo composite. Three-dimensional models of bamboo cells were built and simulated under tension, torsion, and bending load cases.

  14. Boosting electrical conductivity in a gel-derived material by nanostructuring with trace carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canevet, David; Pérez Del Pino, Angel; Amabilino, David B.; Sallé, Marc

    2011-07-01

    An organogelator with two distinct π-functional units is able to incorporate carbon nanotubes into its mesh of fibres in the gel state. The morphology of the material derived from this nanocomposite after evaporation of the solvent is a complex mesh of fibres which is clearly different from the pure gelator. This feature indicates a role of the nanotubes in assisting the formation of a fibre structure in the gel thanks to their interaction with the pyrene units in the organogelator. The nanocomposite conducts electricity once the p-type gelator is doped with iodine vapour. The change in morphology caused by the carbon material increases the conductivity of the material compared with the purely organic conducting system. It is remarkable that this improvement in the physical property is caused by an extremely small proportion of the carbon material (only present at a ratio of 0.1% w/w). The practically unique properties of TTF unit allow measurements with both doped and undoped materials with conducting atomic force microscopy which have demonstrated that the carbon nanotubes are not directly responsible for the increased conductivity.An organogelator with two distinct π-functional units is able to incorporate carbon nanotubes into its mesh of fibres in the gel state. The morphology of the material derived from this nanocomposite after evaporation of the solvent is a complex mesh of fibres which is clearly different from the pure gelator. This feature indicates a role of the nanotubes in assisting the formation of a fibre structure in the gel thanks to their interaction with the pyrene units in the organogelator. The nanocomposite conducts electricity once the p-type gelator is doped with iodine vapour. The change in morphology caused by the carbon material increases the conductivity of the material compared with the purely organic conducting system. It is remarkable that this improvement in the physical property is caused by an extremely small proportion of the

  15. Development of lithium-ion batteries from micro-structured to nanostructured materials: its issues and challenges.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Harish; Rajan, Sundar; Shukla, Ashok K

    2012-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are the systems of choice, offering high energy density, flexibility, lightness in weight, design and longer lifespan than comparable battery technologies. A brief historical review is given of the development of Li-ion rechargeable batteries, highlighting the ongoing research strategies, and highlighting the challenges regarding synthesis, characterization, electrochemical performance and safety of these systems. This work is primarily focused on development of Li-ion batteries from micro-structured to nanostructured materials and some of the critical issues namely, electrode preparation, synthesis, and electrochemical characterization. The purpose of this review is to act as a reference for future work in this area. PMID:23094326

  16. Acoustoplasma synthesis of nanoparticles of metal oxides and formation of nanostructured coatings on material surfaces under ultrasonic treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulychev, N. A.; Morozova, E. A.; Muravyev, E. N.; Chernov, A. A.; Kazaryan, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, a new form of plasma discharge in a liquid under intensive ultrasonic treatment exceeding the cavitation threshold has been explored in view of initiation of various physical and chemical processes. Furthermore, in this plasma discharge, nanoparticles of oxides of various metals with controlled shape and size of particles and narrow particles size distribution have been synthesized. Further research proved that ultrasonic cavitation during synthesis significantly affects the physical and chemical characteristics of nanoparticles. These nanoparticles can be used for formation of nanostructured coatings on surfaces of various materials by an ultrasonic technique.

  17. Crystallization of Oxides as Functional Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Congting; Song, Shuyan; Xue, Dongfeng; Zhang, Hongjie

    2012-06-01

    Crystallization is essential to the manufacture of functional materials as varies as electronic devices, energy storage and conversion devices, and highly reactive catalysts. As an important part of functional materials, metal oxides possess wide applications and the crystallization of oxide materials has thus received considerable attention from both fundamental and technological perspectives. With particular emphasis on our recent laboratory results, this feature article gives a brief review in the field of crystallization of oxides. On the basis of chemical bonding theory of single crystal growth, we have simulated thermodynamic growth behaviors of various functional oxides such as ZnO, MgO, Cu2O, Nb2O5, V2O5, MnO2, SnO2, NiO, KDP/ADP, LiNbO3, and NaNbO3. Quantitatively analyzing bonding conditions of controllable crystallographic faces enables us to design proper synthesis strategies and optimize growth parameters, consequently obtaining functional oxides with desirable crystallization behaviors.

  18. Nanostructured Aptamer-Functionalized Black Phosphorus Sensing Platform for Label-Free Detection of Myoglobin, a Cardiovascular Disease Biomarker.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinod; Brent, Jack R; Shorie, Munish; Kaur, Harmanjit; Chadha, Gaganpreet; Thomas, Andrew G; Lewis, Edward A; Rooney, Aidan P; Nguyen, Lan; Zhong, Xiang Li; Burke, M Grace; Haigh, Sarah J; Walton, Alex; McNaughter, Paul D; Tedstone, Aleksander A; Savjani, Nicky; Muryn, Christopher A; O'Brien, Paul; Ganguli, Ashok K; Lewis, David J; Sabherwal, Priyanka

    2016-09-01

    We report the electrochemical detection of the redox active cardiac biomarker myoglobin (Mb) using aptamer-functionalized black phosphorus nanostructured electrodes by measuring direct electron transfer. The as-synthesized few-layer black phosphorus nanosheets have been functionalized with poly-l-lysine (PLL) to facilitate binding with generated anti-Mb DNA aptamers on nanostructured electrodes. This aptasensor platform has a record-low detection limit (∼0.524 pg mL(-1)) and sensitivity (36 μA pg(-1) mL cm(-2)) toward Mb with a dynamic response range from 1 pg mL(-1) to 16 μg mL(-1) for Mb in serum samples. This strategy opens up avenues to bedside technologies for multiplexed diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases in complex human samples. PMID:27508925

  19. Surface Anchoring of Nematic Phase on Carbon Nanotubes: Nanostructure of Ultra-High Temperature Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ogale, Amod A

    2012-04-27

    consisting of strong carbon fibers embedded in a carbon matrix are needed. Such carbon/carbon (C/C) composites have been used in aerospace industry to produce missile nose cones, space shuttle leading edge, and aircraft brake-pads. However, radiation-tolerance of such materials is not adequately known because only limited radiation studies have been performed on C/C composites, which suggest that pitch-based carbon fibers have better dimensional stability than that of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) based fibers [4]. The thermodynamically-stable state of graphitic crystalline packing of carbon atoms derived from mesophase pitch leads to a greater stability during neutron irradiation [5]. The specific objectives of this project were: (i) to generating novel carbonaceous nanostructures, (ii) measure extent of graphitic crystallinity and the extent of anisotropy, and (iii) collaborate with the Carbon Materials group at Oak Ridge National Lab to have neutron irradiation studies and post-irradiation examinations conducted on the carbon fibers produced in this research project.

  20. Electrospun V2O5 nanostructures with controllable morphology as high-performance cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Heng-guo; Ma, De-long; Huang, Yun; Zhang, Xin-bo

    2012-07-16

    Porous V(2)O(5) nanotubes, hierarchical V(2)O(5) nanofibers, and single-crystalline V(2)O(5) nanobelts were controllably synthesized by using a simple electrospinning technique and subsequent annealing. The mechanism for the formation of these controllable structures was investigated. When tested as the cathode materials in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), the as-formed V(2)O(5) nanostructures exhibited a highly reversible capacity, excellent cycling performance, and good rate capacity. In particular, the porous V(2)O(5) nanotubes provided short distances for Li(+)-ion diffusion and large electrode-electrolyte contact areas for high Li(+)-ion flux across the interface; Moreover, these nanotubes delivered a high power density of 40.2 kW kg(-1) whilst the energy density remained as high as 201 W h kg(-1), which, as one of the highest values measured on V(2)O(5)-based cathode materials, could bridge the performance gap between batteries and supercapacitors. Moreover, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first preparation of single-crystalline V(2)O(5) nanobelts by using electrospinning techniques. Interestingly, the beneficial crystal orientation provided improved cycling stability for lithium intercalation. These results demonstrate that further improvement or optimization of electrochemical performance in transition-metal-oxide-based electrode materials could be realized by the design of 1D nanostructures with unique morphologies. PMID:22689094

  1. Surface functionalization for tailoring the aggregation and magnetic behaviour of silica-coated iron oxide nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roca, A. G.; Carmona, D.; Miguel-Sancho, N.; Bomatí-Miguel, O.; Balas, F.; Piquer, C.; Santamaría, J.

    2012-04-01

    We report here a detailed structural and magnetic study of different silica nanocapsules containing uniform and highly crystalline maghemite nanoparticles. The magnetic phase consists of 5 nm triethylene glycol (TREG)- or dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA)-coated maghemite particles. TREG-coated nanoparticles were synthesized by thermal decomposition. In a second step, TREG ligands were exchanged by DMSA. After the ligand exchange, the ζ potential of the particles changed from - 10 to - 40 mV, whereas the hydrodynamic size remained constant at around 15 nm. Particles coated by TREG and DMSA were encapsulated in silica following a sol-gel procedure. The encapsulation of TREG-coated nanoparticles led to large magnetic aggregates, which were embedded in coalesced silica structures. However, DMSA-coated nanoparticles led to small magnetic clusters inserted in silica spheres of around 100 nm. The final nanostructures can be described as the result of several competing factors at play. Magnetic measurements indicate that in the TREG-coated nanoparticles the interparticle magnetic interaction scenario has not dramatically changed after the silica encapsulation, whereas in the DMSA-coated nanoparticles, the magnetic interactions were screened due to the function of the silica template. Moreover, the analysis of the AC susceptibility suggests that our systems essentially behave as cluster spin glass systems.

  2. Tuning the Nanostructure of Highly Functionalized Silica Using Amphiphilic Organosilanes: Curvature Agent Effects.

    PubMed

    Besnard, Romain; Arrachart, Guilhem; Cambedouzou, Julien; Pellet-Rostaing, Stéphane

    2016-05-10

    The self-assembly of amino-undecyl-triethoxysilane (AUT) as micelles in water is considered. The behavior of acid/AUT systems is governed by a complete proton transfer from the acid to the amine, leading to the formation of an ammonium headgroup. This moiety is responsible for the bending of the interface between the organic core of the micelles and the surrounding water. By playing with the size of the acid used as curvature agent, the amphiphilic behavior of the organosilane molecule may be adjusted. We follow the aggregation as the curvature agent size increases. This approach constitutes an efficient and original method in order to tune the nanostructure of highly functionalized silica at the early stage of the elaboration. Small-angle X-ray scattering, wet scanning transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and complementary characterization techniques indicate that hybrid organic-inorganic planar objects and vesicles are obtained for smaller curvature agents. Increasing the size of the curvature agent results in a transition of the aggregation geometry from vesicles to cylindrical direct micelles, finally leading to nanofibers organized in a 2D hexagonal network resembling a "reverse MCM-41 structure". A geometrical molecular self-assembly model is finally proposed, considering the dimensions of the surfactant tail and those of the head groups. PMID:27081741

  3. Investigation Into Gas-Sensing Mechanism of Nanostructured Magnesium Aluminate as a Function of Temperature.

    PubMed

    Nithyavathy, N; Arunmetha, S; Dhineshbabu, N R; Rajendran, V

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we used a new simple chemical method to synthesise nanostructured magnesium aluminate (NMA) powder. Sol-gel technique followed by sonication was used to develop different sensor samples namely NMA573, NMA873, and NMA1 073 by calcination at temperatures of 573, 873, and 1073 K respectively. Average crystallite size of 18-27 nm and specific surface area of 68.09 to 61.84 m2 g(-1) was obtained for the sensor samples. The existence of functional groups at 800 and 550 cm-1 corresponding respectively to AIO6 group and the lattice vibration of MgO4 stretching were confirmed through FTIR studies; SEM/EDX confirm the spherical morphology with elemental composition Mg, Al and O at different calcination temperatures. UV-Vis absorption spectra show band gap energy as 3.50, 3.48, and 3.44 eV for the sensor samples NMA573, NMA873, and NMA1 073 respectively. The effect of polyethylene glycol on the gas-sensing behaviour was studied in all the sensor samples. In particular, NMA1073 was found to have better resistance and sensor response for CO gas than NMA573 and NMA873. The effect of increase in calcination temperature of the sensor samples on the structural, morphological, optical, and gas response properties were carried out extensively to explore its gas sensing applications. PMID:26373088

  4. Microwave-assisted Synthesis and Biomedical Applications of Inorganic Nanostructured Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Juncai

    Inorganic nanostrucured materials have attracted much attention owing to their unique features and important applications in biomedicine. This thesis describes the development of rapid and efficient approaches to synthesize inorganic nanostructures, and introduces some potential applications. Magnetic nanostructures, such as necklace-like FeNi3 magnetic nanochains and magnetite nanoclusters, were synthesized by an efficient microwave-hydrothermal process. They were used as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents. Magnetic FeNi3 nanochains were synthesized by reducing iron(III) acetylacetonate and nickel(II) acetylacetonate with hydrazine in ethylene glycol solution without any template under microwave irradiation. This was a rapid and economical route based on an efficient microwave-hydrothermal process which significantly shortened the synthesis time to mins. The morphologies and size of the materials could be effectively controlled by adjusting the reaction conditions, such as, the reaction time, temperature and concentrations of reactants. The morphology and composition of the as-prepared products were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The size of the aligned nanospheres in the magnetic FeNi 3 chains could be adjusted from 150nm to 550nm by increasing the amounts of the precursors. Magnetic measurements revealed that the FeNi3 nanochains showed enhanced coercivity and saturation magnetization. Toxicity tests by exposure of FeNi3 nanochains to the zebrafish larvae showed that the as-prepared nanochains were biocompatible. In vitro magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirms the effectiveness of the FeNi 3 nanochains as sensitive MRI probes. Magnetite nanoclusters were synthesized by reducing iron(III) acetylacetonate with hydrazine in ethylene glycol under microwave irradiation. The nanoclusters showed enhanced T2

  5. Flower-like CoS with nanostructures as a new cathode-active material for rechargeable magnesium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Dong; Wu, Danni; Gao, Jing; Wu, Xiaomei; Zeng, Xiaoqin; Ding, Wenjiang

    2015-10-01

    Cobalt sulfides have become promising electrode materials for lithium ion batteries while their applications in rechargeable magnesium batteries are rarely reported. In this paper, we have done some research on the electrochemical properties of cobalt sulfide (CoS) as the cathode-active material for rechargeable magnesium batteries. Flower-like CoS with nanostructures is synthesized by a facile solvothermal route. The obvious redox peaks on the cyclic voltammetric curves confirm the possibility of applications. The galvanostatic charge-discharge tests display excellent cycle stability and high coulomb efficiency. Meanwhile, the possible mechanism of charge-discharge reactions is proposed and discussed. These results show that flower-like CoS is a promising candidate as cathode-active material for rechargeable magnesium batteries.

  6. Review of one-dimensional and two-dimensional nanostructured materials for hydrogen generation.

    PubMed

    Babu, Veluru Jagadeesh; Vempati, Sesha; Uyar, Tamer; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2015-02-01

    Hydrogen is an attractive alternative to fossil fuels in terms of environmental and other advantages. Of the various production methods for H2, photocatalysis requires further development so that it can be applied economically on an industrial scale. One- and two-dimensional nanostructures in both pristine and modified forms have shown great potential as catalysts in the generation of H2. We review here recent developments in these nanostructure catalysts and their efficiency in the generation of H2 under UV/visible/simulated solar light. Despite much research effort, many photocatalysts do not yet meet the practical requirements for the generation of H2, such as visible light activity. H2 production is dependent on a variety of parameters and factors. To meet future energy demands, several challenges in H2 production still need to be solved. We address here the factors that influence the efficiency of H2 production and suggest alternatives. The nanostructures are classified based on their morphology and their efficiency is considered with respect to the influencing parameters. We suggest effective ways of engineering catalyst combinations to overcome the current performance barriers. PMID:25536309

  7. Integration of MEMS with nanostructured metal-oxide materials for improved sensors for volatile organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Sudhir; Pandya, Hardik; Vyas, Anoop

    2012-10-01

    The primary aim of the present work is to lower the operating temperature of the metal-oxide based sensors for detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) without compromising the sensitivity of the device. For this purpose, nanostructured oxides of ITO, Cu and Zn have been explored. The oxides of Cu and Zn have been synthesized by a novel process of thermal oxidation of the respective metal layers in air ambient without using any seed or catalyst layer. On the other hand, nanostructured ITO was obtained by RF magnetron sputtering process. For the heating of the sensing layer, a Ni microheater has been integrated on the sensor chip. Micro-electro-mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology has been adopted for the fabrication of the complete sensor for achieving the desired operating temperature at reduced power level. The sensor was extensively tested for a variety of VOCs such as acetone, methanol, ethanol and IPA. The issues involved in integrating nanostructured oxides with MEMS technology are also addressed.

  8. Electrodeposited manganese dioxide nanostructures on electro-etched carbon fibers: High performance materials for supercapacitor applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kazemi, Sayed Habib; Maghami, Mostafa Ghaem; Kiani, Mohammad Ali

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • We report a facile method for fabrication of MnO{sub 2} nanostructures on electro-etched carbon fiber. • MnO{sub 2}-ECF electrode shows outstanding supercapacitive behavior even at high discharge rates. • Exceptional cycle stability was achieved for MnO{sub 2}-ECF electrode. • The coulombic efficiency of MnO{sub 2}-ECF electrode is nearly 100%. - Abstract: In this article we introduce a facile, low cost and additive/template free method to fabricate high-rate electrochemical capacitors. Manganese oxide nanostructures were electrodeposited on electro-etched carbon fiber substrate by applying a constant anodic current. Nanostructured MnO{sub 2} on electro-etched carbon fiber was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The electrochemical behavior of MnO{sub 2} electro-etched carbon fiber electrode was investigated by electrochemical techniques including cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. A maximum specific capacitance of 728.5 F g{sup −1} was achieved at a scan rate of 5 mV s{sup −1} for MnO{sub 2} electro-etched carbon fiber electrode. Also, this electrode showed exceptional cycle stability, suggesting that it can be considered as a good candidate for supercapacitor electrodes.

  9. Nanostructured materials in drug and gene delivery: a review of the state of the art.

    PubMed

    Petkar, Kailash C; Chavhan, Sandip S; Agatonovik-Kustrin, Snezana; Sawant, Krutika K

    2011-01-01

    A wide variety of drug delivery systems have been developed, each with its own advantages and limitations, but the important goals of all of the systems are to enhance bioavailability, reduce drug toxicity, target to a particular organ, and increase the stability of the drug. The development of nanostructured drug carriers have grasped increased attention from scientific and commercial organizations due to their unique ability to deliver drugs and challenging molecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. These carriers present many technological advantages such as high carrier capacity, high chemical and biological stability, feasibility of incorporating both hydrophilic and hydrophobic substances, and their ability to be administered by a variety of routes (including oral, inhalational, and parenteral) to provide controlled/sustained drug release. Moreover, applications of nanoparticulate formulations in enhancing drug solubility, dissolution, bioavailability, safety, and stability have already been proven. In the view of their multifaceted applications, the present review aims to discuss and summarize some of the interesting findings and applications, methods of preparation, and characterization of various nanostructured carriers useful in drug delivery. Included in this discussion are polymeric nanoparticles, solid lipid nanoparticles, nanostructured lipid carriers, dendrimers, cyclodextrins, fullerenes, gold and silica nanoparticles, and quantum dots. Because there are likely to be new applications for nanoparticles in drug delivery, they are expected to solve many problems associated with the delivery of drugs and biomolecules through different delivery routes. PMID:21663574

  10. Synthesis and characterization of bismuth telluride based nanostructured thermoelectric composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshavarz Khorasgani, Mohsen

    Thermoelectric (TE) materials and devices are attractive in solid-state energy conversion applications such as waste heat recovery, air-conditioning, and refrigeration. Since the 1950's lots of unremitting efforts have been made to enhance the efficiency of energy conversion in TE materials (i. e. improving the figure of merit (ZT)), however, most of commercial bulk TE materials still suffer from low efficiency with ZTs around unity. To enhance the performance of bismuth telluride based TE alloys, we have developed composite TE materials, based on the idea that introducing more engineered interfaces in the bulk TE materials may lead to thermal conductivity reduction due to increased phonon scattering by these interfaces. In this approach it is expected that the electronic transport properties of the material are not effectively affected. Consequently, ZT enhancement can be achieved. In this dissertation we will discuss synthesis and characterization of two types of bismuth telluride based bulk composite TE materials. The first type is engineered to contain the presence of coherent interfaces between phases in the material resulting from different mixtures of totally miscible compounds with similar composition. The second type includes the nanocomposites with embedded foreign nano-particles in which the matrix and the particles are delimited by incoherent interfaces. The synthesis procedure, micro- and nano-structures as well as thermoelectric properties of these composites will be presented. In our study on the composites with coherent interfaces, we produced a series of different composites of p-type bismuth antimony telluride alloys and studied their microstructure and thermoelectric properties. Each composite consists of two phases that were obtained in powder form by mechanical alloying. Mixed powders in various proportions of the two different phases were consolidated by hot extrusion to obtain each bulk composite. The minimum grain size of bulk composites as

  11. Interfacing nanostructures to biological cells

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Xing; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.; Zettl, Alexander K.

    2012-09-04

    Disclosed herein are methods and materials by which nanostructures such as carbon nanotubes, nanorods, etc. are bound to lectins and/or polysaccharides and prepared for administration to cells. Also disclosed are complexes comprising glycosylated nanostructures, which bind selectively to cells expressing glycosylated surface molecules recognized by the lectin. Exemplified is a complex comprising a carbon nanotube functionalized with a lipid-like alkane, linked to a polymer bearing repeated .alpha.-N-acetylgalactosamine sugar groups. This complex is shown to selectively adhere to the surface of living cells, without toxicity. In the exemplified embodiment, adherence is mediated by a multivalent lectin, which binds both to the cells and the .alpha.-N-acetylgalactosamine groups on the nanostructure.

  12. Review of Recent Progress of Plasmonic Materials and Nano-Structures for Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Alan X.; Kong, Xianming

    2016-01-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has demonstrated single-molecule sensitivity and is becoming intensively investigated due to its significant potential in chemical and biomedical applications. SERS sensing is highly dependent on the substrate, where excitation of the localized surface plasmons (LSPs) enhances the Raman scattering signals of proximate analyte molecules. This paper reviews research progress of SERS substrates based on both plasmonic materials and nano-photonic structures. We first discuss basic plasmonic materials, such as metallic nanoparticles and nano-rods prepared by conventional bottom-up chemical synthesis processes. Then, we review rationally-designed plasmonic nano-structures created by top-down approaches or fine-controlled synthesis with high-density hot-spots to provide large SERS enhancement factors (EFs). Finally, we discuss the research progress of hybrid SERS substrates through the integration of plasmonic nano-structures with other nano-photonic devices, such as photonic crystals, bio-enabled nanomaterials, guided-wave systems, micro-fluidics and graphene. PMID:26900428

  13. Low work function thermionic emission materials

    SciTech Connect

    Zavadil, K.R.; King, D.B.; Ruffner, J.A.

    1999-11-01

    Thermionic energy conversion in a microminiature format shows potential as a viable, high efficiency, on-chip power source. Microminiature thermionic converters (MTC) with inter-electrode spacings on the order of microns are currently being prototyped and evaluated at Sandia. The remaining enabling technology is the development of low work function materials and processes than can be integrated into these converters. In this report, the authors demonstrate a method of incorporating thin film emitters into converters using rf sputtering. They find that the resultant films possess a minimum work function of 1.2 eV. Practical energy conversion is hindered by surface work function non-uniformity. They postulate the source of this heterogeneity to be a result of limited bulk and surface transport of barium. Several methods are proposed for maximizing transport, including increased film porosity and the use of metal terminating layers. They demonstrate a novel method for incorporating film porosity based on metal interlayer coalescence.

  14. Micro-nanostructured CuO/C spheres as high-performance anode materials for Na-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yanying; Zhang, Ning; Zhao, Qing; Liang, Jing; Chen, Jun

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the synthesis of micro-nanostructured CuO/C spheres by aerosol spray pyrolysis and their application as high-performance anodes in sodium-ion batteries. Micro-nanostructured CuO/C spheres with different CuO contents were synthesized through aerosol spray pyrolysis by adjusting the ratio of reactants and heat-treated by an oxidation process. The as-prepared CuO/C spheres show uniformly spherical morphology, in which CuO nanoparticles (~10 nm) are homogeneously embedded in the carbon matrix (denoted as 10-CuO/C). The electrochemical performance of 10-CuO/C with a carbon weight of 44% was evaluated as the anode material for Na-ion batteries. It can deliver a capacity of 402 mA h g-1 after 600 cycles at a current density of 200 mA g-1. Furthermore, a capacity of 304 mA h g-1 was obtained at a high current density of 2000 mA g-1. The superior electrochemical performance of the micro-nanostructured CuO/C spheres leads to the enhancement of the electronic conductivity of the nanocomposite and the accommodation of the volume variation of CuO/C during charge/discharge cycling.In this paper, we report on the synthesis of micro-nanostructured CuO/C spheres by aerosol spray pyrolysis and their application as high-performance anodes in sodium-ion batteries. Micro-nanostructured CuO/C spheres with different CuO contents were synthesized through aerosol spray pyrolysis by adjusting the ratio of reactants and heat-treated by an oxidation process. The as-prepared CuO/C spheres show uniformly spherical morphology, in which CuO nanoparticles (~10 nm) are homogeneously embedded in the carbon matrix (denoted as 10-CuO/C). The electrochemical performance of 10-CuO/C with a carbon weight of 44% was evaluated as the anode material for Na-ion batteries. It can deliver a capacity of 402 mA h g-1 after 600 cycles at a current density of 200 mA g-1. Furthermore, a capacity of 304 mA h g-1 was obtained at a high current density of 2000 mA g-1. The superior

  15. Fracture behaviour of functionally graded materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marur, Prabhakar R.

    Functionally graded materials (FGMs) are special composites consisting of two constituent phases whose composition change continuously along one direction. The gradual transition in material properties alleviates thermal mismatch problems experienced by cladded and coated components. The microstructure of FGM is usually heterogenous and the dominant failure mode of FGM is the crack initiation and propagation from the inclusions. Hence, the knowledge of crack growth and propagation is important in designing components involving FGM. The interface crack problem is studied by examining the asymptotic behavior of stress and displacement fields around the crack in FGM, and by comparing the results with known solutions for bimaterial systems. The, focus is on characterizing the influence of material nonhomogeneity on the fracture parameters, and determining the fracture strength of FGM under quasi-static and dynamic loading. The numerical and experimental techniques developed in this study are unified for both bimaterial and FGM, permitting direct comparison of fracture parameters and test results obtained for different material types. A crack opening displacement (COD) extrapolation technique is developed for the numerical computation of the fracture parameters from finite element analysis, and a new strain gage technique is devised for complex SIF measurement in both bimaterial and FGM. A simple and highly repeatable FGM manufacturing process has been established, and the continuous variation of material properties is evaluated using a novel technique involving ultrasonic wave velocity and local contact stiffness measurements. The nature of singular field around the crack in FGM is studied by varying material gradient, the position of the crack in the graded region and the crack length. The various fracture parameters are compared with that computed for homogenous and bimaterial counterparts. The numerical results show that the crack in FGM, regardless of the position

  16. Magnetic spectroscopy and microscopy of functional materials

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, Catherine Ann

    2011-05-01

    Heusler intermetallics Mn2Y Ga and X2MnGa (X; Y =Fe, Co, Ni) undergo tetragonal magnetostructural transitions that can result in half metallicity, magnetic shape memory, or the magnetocaloric effect. Understanding the magnetism and magnetic behavior in functional materials is often the most direct route to being able to optimize current materials for todays applications and to design novel ones for tomorrow. Synchrotron soft x-ray magnetic spectromicroscopy techniques are well suited to explore the the competing effects from the magnetization and the lattice parameters in these materials as they provide detailed element-, valence-, and site-specifc information on the coupling of crystallographic ordering and electronic structure as well as external parameters like temperature and pressure on the bonding and exchange. Fundamental work preparing the model systems of spintronic, multiferroic, and energy-related compositions is presented for context. The methodology of synchrotron spectroscopy is presented and applied to not only magnetic characterization but also of developing a systematic screening method for future examples of materials exhibiting any of the above effects. The chapter progression is as follows: an introduction to the concepts and materials under consideration (Chapter 1); an overview of sample preparation techniques and results, and the kinds of characterization methods employed (Chapter 2); spectro- and microscopic explorations of X2MnGa/Ge (Chapter 3); spectroscopic investigations of the composition series Mn2Y Ga to the logical Mn3Ga endpoint (Chapter 4); and a summary and overview of upcoming work (Chapter 5). Appendices include the results of a Think Tank for the Graduate School of Excellence MAINZ (Appendix A) and details of an imaging project now in progress on magnetic reversal and domain wall observation in the classical Heusler material Co2FeSi (Appendix B).

  17. Nano-structured and functionalized surfaces for cytocompatibility improvement and bactericidal action.

    PubMed

    Slepicka, Petr; Kasalkova, Nikola Slepickova; Siegel, Jakub; Kolska, Zdenka; Bacakova, Lucie; Svorcik, Vaclav

    2015-11-01

    The field of material surface modification with the aim of biomaterial construction involves several approaches of treatments that allow the preparation of materials, which positively influence adhesion of cells and their proliferation and thus aid and improve tissue formation. Modified materials have a surface composition and morphology intended to interact with biological systems and cellular functions. Not only surface chemistry has an effect on material biological response, surface structures of different morphology can be constructed to guide a desirable biological outcome. Nano-patterned material surfaces have been tested with the aim of how surface geometry and physical properties on a micro- and nano-scale can affect cellular response and influence cell adhesion and proliferation. Biological functionality of solid state substrates was significantly improved by the irradiation of material with plasma discharge or laser treatment. Commonly used "artificial" polymers (e.g. polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyethylene naphthalate (PEN)) and biopolymers (e.g. Poly-l-Lactic acid (PLLA), polymethylpentene (PMP)) were treated with aim of biocompatibility improvement. The treatment of polymer/biopolymer substrates leads to formation of ripple or wrinkle-like structures, supported also with heat treatment or other subsequent surface processing. Several types of chemically different substances (e.g. metal or carbon nano-particles, proteins) were grafted onto material surfaces or built into material structures by different processes. Surface physico-chemical properties (e.g. chemistry, charge, morphology, wettability, electrical conductivity, optical and mechanical properties) of treated surfaces were determined. The enhancement of adhesion and proliferation of cells on modified substrates was investigated in vitro. Bactericidal action of noble metal nano-particles (e.g. Au, Ag) on polymers was

  18. MicroRNA-triggered, cascaded and catalytic self-assembly of functional ``DNAzyme ferris wheel'' nanostructures for highly sensitive colorimetric detection of cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wenjiao; Liang, Wenbin; Li, Xin; Chai, Yaqin; Yuan, Ruo; Xiang, Yun

    2015-05-01

    The construction of DNA nanostructures with various sizes and shapes has significantly advanced during the past three decades, yet the application of these DNA nanostructures for solving real problems is still in the early stage. On the basis of microRNA-triggered, catalytic self-assembly formation of the functional ``DNAzyme ferris wheel'' nanostructures, we show here a new signal amplification platform for highly sensitive, label-free and non-enzyme colorimetric detection of a small number of human prostate cancer cells. The microRNA (miR-141), which is catalytically recycled and reused, triggers isothermal self-assembly of a pre-designed, G-quadruplex sequence containing hairpin DNAs into ``DNAzyme ferris wheel''-like nanostructures (in association with hemin) with horseradish peroxidase mimicking activity. These DNAzyme nanostructures catalyze an intensified color transition of the probe solution for highly sensitive detection of miR-141 down to 0.5 pM with the naked eye, and the monitoring of as low as 283 human prostate cancer cells can also, theoretically, be achieved in a colorimetric approach. The work demonstrated here thus offers new opportunities for the construction of functional DNA nanostructures and for the application of these DNA nanostructures as an effective signal amplification means in the sensitive detection of nucleic acid biomarkers.

  19. A Rationally Designed Connector for Assembly of Protein-Functionalized DNA Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Koßmann, Katja J; Ziegler, Cornelia; Angelin, Alessandro; Meyer, Rebecca; Skoupi, Marc; Rabe, Kersten S; Niemeyer, Christof M

    2016-06-16

    We report on the rational engineering of the binding interface of the self-ligating HaloTag protein to generate an optimized linker for DNA nanostructures. Five amino acids positioned around the active-site entry channel for the chlorohexyl ligand (CH) of the HaloTag protein were exchanged for positively charged lysine amino acids to produce the HOB (halo-based oligonucleotide binder) protein. HOB was genetically fused with the enzyme cytochrome P450 BM3, as well as with BMR, the separated reductase domain of BM3. The resulting HOB-fusion proteins revealed significantly improved rates in ligation with CH-modified oligonucleotides and DNA origami nanostructures. These results suggest that the efficient self-assembly of protein-decorated DNA structures can be greatly improved by fine-tuning of the electrostatic interactions between proteins and the negatively charged nucleic acid nanostructures. PMID:26972311

  20. Tuning the work function of randomly oriented ZnO nanostructures by capping with faceted Au nanostructure and oxygen defects: enhanced field emission experiments and DFT studies.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Arnab; Guha, Puspendu; Thapa, Ranjit; Selvaraj, Sinthika; Kumar, Mohit; Rakshit, Bipul; Dash, Tapan; Bar, Rajshekhar; Ray, Samit K; Satyam, Parlapalli Venkata

    2016-03-29

    The lowering of the work function (Φ) can lead to a better field emission (FE) behavior at lower threshold fields. We report on enhanced FE from randomly oriented and faceted Au-capped ZnO hetero-nanostructures (HNs) having more oxygen defects. Large-area arrays of non-aligned, faceted Au-capped ZnO HNs, such as nanowires (NWs) and triangular nanoflakes (TNFs) are grown using the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Enhanced FE properties from the TNF sample resulted in a turn-on field as low as 0.52 V μm(-1) at a current density of 0.1 mA cm(-2) and a field enhancement factor (β) as high as ≈5.16 × 10(5). Under similar experimental conditions, drawing the same current density from an NW specimen needs a higher turn-on field (0.86 V μm(-1)) and to exhibit nearly four times less field enhancement factor compared to the TNFs samples. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements confirm the presence of more oxygen defects in the TNF samples compared to the NW samples. Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) measurements show the average local work function to be 4.70 ± 0.1 eV for the TNF sample, which is ≈ 0.34 eV lower than the NW sample. Using density functional theory (DFT) calculations, the estimated Φ values are found to be 4.98 eV for ZnO(0001), 4.17 eV for Au(001)/ZnO(0001) and 3.91 eV for Au(001)/Ovac-ZnO(0001) surfaces. The DFT results are qualitatively in agreement with our experimental results. The presence of Au nanostructures on top of O-deficient and sharp-tipped TNFs results in enhanced FE performance following their reduced tunneling barrier via pinning of effective Φ. PMID:26883495

  1. Tuning the work function of randomly oriented ZnO nanostructures by capping with faceted Au nanostructure and oxygen defects: enhanced field emission experiments and DFT studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Arnab; Guha, Puspendu; Thapa, Ranjit; Selvaraj, Sinthika; Kumar, Mohit; Rakshit, Bipul; Dash, Tapan; Bar, Rajshekhar; Ray, Samit K.; Venkata Satyam, Parlapalli

    2016-03-01

    The lowering of the work function (Φ) can lead to a better field emission (FE) behavior at lower threshold fields. We report on enhanced FE from randomly oriented and faceted Au-capped ZnO hetero-nanostructures (HNs) having more oxygen defects. Large-area arrays of non-aligned, faceted Au-capped ZnO HNs, such as nanowires (NWs) and triangular nanoflakes (TNFs) are grown using the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Enhanced FE properties from the TNF sample resulted in a turn-on field as low as 0.52 V μm-1 at a current density of 0.1 mA cm-2 and a field enhancement factor (β) as high as ≈5.16 × 105. Under similar experimental conditions, drawing the same current density from an NW specimen needs a higher turn-on field (0.86 V μm-1) and to exhibit nearly four times less field enhancement factor compared to the TNFs samples. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements confirm the presence of more oxygen defects in the TNF samples compared to the NW samples. Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) measurements show the average local work function to be 4.70 ± 0.1 eV for the TNF sample, which is ≈ 0.34 eV lower than the NW sample. Using density functional theory (DFT) calculations, the estimated Φ values are found to be 4.98 eV for ZnO(0001), 4.17 eV for Au(001)/ZnO(0001) and 3.91 eV for Au(001)/Ovac-ZnO(0001) surfaces. The DFT results are qualitatively in agreement with our experimental results. The presence of Au nanostructures on top of O-deficient and sharp-tipped TNFs results in enhanced FE performance following their reduced tunneling barrier via pinning of effective Φ.

  2. High Speed SPM of Functional Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Huey, Bryan D.

    2015-08-14

    The development and optimization of applications comprising functional materials necessitates a thorough understanding of their static and dynamic properties and performance at the nanoscale. Leveraging High Speed SPM and concepts enabled by it, efficient measurements and maps with nanoscale and nanosecond temporal resolution are uniquely feasible. This includes recent enhancements for topographic, conductivity, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric properties as originally proposed, as well as newly developed methods or improvements to AFM-based mechanical, friction, thermal, and photoconductivity measurements. The results of this work reveal fundamental mechanisms of operation, and suggest new approaches for improving the ultimate speed and/or efficiency, of data storage systems, magnetic-electric sensors, and solar cells.

  3. Gen IV Materials Handbook Functionalities and Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Weiju

    2009-12-01

    This document is prepared for navigation and operation of the Gen IV Materials Handbook, with architecture description and new user access initiation instructions. Development rationale and history of the Handbook is summarized. The major development aspects, architecture, and design principles of the Handbook are briefly introduced to provide an overview of its past evolution and future prospects. Detailed instructions are given with examples for navigating the constructed Handbook components and using the main functionalities. Procedures are provided in a step-by-step fashion for Data Upload Managers to upload reports and data files, as well as for new users to initiate Handbook access.

  4. A silica sol-gel design strategy for nanostructured metallic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Scott C.; Perkins, Matthew R.; Adams, Ashley M.; Kamperman, Marleen; Burns, Andrew A.; Arora, Hitesh; Herz, Erik; Suteewong, Teeraporn; Sai, Hiroaki; Li, Zihui; Werner, Jörg; Song, Juho; Werner-Zwanziger, Ulrike; Zwanziger, Josef W.; Grätzel, Michael; Disalvo, Francis J.; Wiesner, Ulrich

    2012-05-01

    Batteries, fuel cells and solar cells, among many other high-current-density devices, could benefit from the precise meso- to macroscopic structure control afforded by the silica sol-gel process. The porous materials made by silica sol-gel chemistry are typically insulators, however, which has restricted their application. Here we present a simple, yet highly versatile silica sol-gel process built around a multifunctional sol-gel precursor that is derived from the following: amino acids, hydroxy acids or peptides; a silicon alkoxide; and a metal acetate. This approach allows a wide range of biological functionalities and metals—including noble metals—to be combined into a library of sol-gel materials with a high degree of control over composition and structure. We demonstrate that the sol-gel process based on these precursors is compatible with block-copolymer self-assembly, colloidal crystal templating and the Stöber process. As a result of the exceptionally high metal content, these materials can be thermally processed to make porous nanocomposites with metallic percolation networks that have an electrical conductivity of over 1,000 S cm-1. This improves the electrical conductivity of porous silica sol-gel nanocomposites by three orders of magnitude over existing approaches, opening applications to high-current-density devices.

  5. An amplified femtosecond laser system for material micro-/nanostructuring with an integrated Raman microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalloum, Othman H. Y.; Parrish, Matthew; Terekhov, Alexander; Hofmeister, William

    2010-05-01

    In order to obtain new insights into laser-induced chemical material modifications, we introduce a novel combined approach of femtosecond pulsed laser-direct writing and in situ Raman microscopy within a single experimental apparatus. A newly developed scanning microscope, the first of its kind, provides a powerful tool for micro-/nanomachining and characterization of material properties and allows us to relate materials' functionality with composition. We address the issues of light delivery to the photomodification site and show the versatility of the system using tight focusing. Amplified femtosecond pulses are generated by a Ti:sapphire laser oscillator and a chirped-pulse regenerative amplifier, both pumped by a diode-pumped frequency doubled neodymium-doped yttrium orthovanadate (Nd:YVO4) laser operating at 532 nm. Results of Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy images of femtosecond laser micro-/nanomachining on the surface and in the bulk of single-crystal diamond obtained from first trials of this instrument are also presented. This effective combination could help to shed light on the influence of the local structure fluctuations on controllability of the laser processing and the role of the irradiation in the ablation processes ruling out possible imprecisions coming from the use of the two independent techniques.

  6. Photoresponsive Toroidal Nanostructure Formed by Self-Assembly of Azobenzene-Functionalized Tris(phenylisoxazolyl)benzene.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Hiroaki; Hirai, Yuko; Ikeda, Toshiaki; Maeda, Makoto; Hori, Ryo; Kutsumizu, Shoichi; Haino, Takeharu

    2016-03-01

    The self-assembly of tris(phenylisoxazolyl)benzene 1b with photochemically addressable azobenzene moieties produced toroidal nanostructures, the formation and dissociation of which were reversibly regulated upon photoirradiation. 1b displayed a mesogenic behavior. In the solution, the stacked assemblies along with their C3 axes were formed. In the mesophase, two molecules of 1b most likely adopted the antiparallel arrangement to stabilize the columnar organization. This assembling behavior most likely triggered the development of the supramolecular toroidal nanostructures. PMID:26910789

  7. New generation photoelectric converter structure optimization using nano-structured materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dronov, A.; Gavrilin, I.; Zheleznyakova, A.

    2014-12-01

    In present work the influence of anodizing process parameters on PAOT geometric parameters for optimizing and increasing ETA-cell efficiency was studied. During the calculations optimal geometrical parameters were obtained. Parameters such as anodizing current density, electrolyte composition and temperature, as well as the anodic oxidation process time were selected for this investigation. Using the optimized TiO2 photoelectrode layer with 3,6 μm porous layer thickness and pore diameter more than 80 nm the ETA-cell efficiency has been increased by 3 times comparing to not nanostructured TiO2 photoelectrode.

  8. Surface Functionalization of Graphene-based Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathkar, Akshay

    Graphene-based materials have generated tremendous interest in the past decade. Manipulating their characteristics using wet-chemistry methods holds distinctive value, as it provides a means towards scaling up, while not being limited by yield. The majority of this thesis focuses on the surface functionalization of graphene oxide (GO), which has drawn tremendous attention as a tunable precursor due to its readily chemically manipulable surface and richly functionalized basal plane. Firstly, a room-temperature based method is presented to reduce GO stepwise, with each organic moiety being removed sequentially. Characterization confirms the carbonyl group to be reduced first, while the tertiary alcohol is reduced last, as the optical gap decrease from 3.5 eV down to 1 eV. This provides greater control over GO, which is an inhomogeneous system, and is the first study to elucidate the order of removal of each functional group. In addition to organically manipulating GO, this thesis also reports a chemical methodology to inorganically functionalize GO and tune its wetting characteristics. A chemical method to covalently attach fluorine atoms in the form of tertiary alkyl fluorides is reported, and confirmed by MAS 13C NMR, as two forms of fluorinated graphene oxide (FGO) with varying C/F and C/O ratios are synthesized. Introducing C-F bonds decreases the overall surface free energy, which drastically reduces GO's wetting behavior, especially in its highly fluorinated form. Ease of solution processing leads to development of sprayable inks that are deposited on a range of porous and nonporous surfaces to impart amphiphobicity. This is the first report that tunes the wetting characteristics of GO. Lastly as a part of a collaboration with ConocoPhillips, another class of carbon nanomaterials - carbon nanotubes (CNTs), have been inorganically functionalized to repel 30 wt% MEA, a critical solvent in CO 2 recovery. In addition to improving the solution processability of CNTs

  9. Novel solid-state route to nanostructured tin, zinc and cerium oxides as potential materials for sensors.

    PubMed

    Diaz, C; Platoni, S; Molina, A; Valenzuela, M L; Geaney, H; O'Dwyer, C

    2014-09-01

    Solid-state sensor nanostructured materials (SnO2, ZnO and CeO2) have been prepared by pyrolysis of macromolecular complexes: PSP-co-4-PVP x (SnCl2)n, PSP-co-4-PVP x (ZnCl2)n and PSP-co-4-PVP x (Ce(NO3)3)n in several molar ratios under air at 800 degrees C. The as-prepared nanostructured SnO2 exhibits morphologies and particle sizes which are dependent upon the molar ratio of the SnCl2:PSP-co-4-PVP. When a larger weight fraction of the inorganic salt in the precursor mixture is used (1:10 > 1:5 > 1.1) larger crystalline crystals are found for each oxide. For ZnO and CeO2 agglomerates of morphologies from the respective hexagonal and cubic structures were observed with typical sizes of 30-50 nm in both cases for a precursor mixture ratio of 1:1. PMID:25924326

  10. Three-dimensional graphene/LiFePO{sub 4} nanostructures as cathode materials for flexible lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Y.H.; Ren, H.M.; Huang, Y.Y.; Chang, F.H.; Zhang, P.

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Graphene/LiFePO{sub 4} composites as a high-performance cathode material for flexible lithium-ion batteries have been prepared by using a co-precipitation method to synthesize graphene/LiFePO4 powders as precursors and then followed by a solvent evaporation process. - Highlights: • Flexible LiFePO{sub 4}/graphene films were prepared first time by a solvent evaporation process. • The flexible electrode exhibited a high discharge capacity without conductive additives. • Graphene network offers the electrode adequate strength to withstand repeated flexing. - Abstract: Three-dimensional graphene/LiFePO{sub 4} nanostructures for flexible lithium-ion batteries were successfully prepared by solvent evaporation method. Structural characteristics of flexible electrodes were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Electrochemical performance of graphene/LiFePO{sub 4} was examined by a variety of electrochemical testing techniques. The graphene/LiFePO{sub 4} nanostructures showed high electrochemical properties and significant flexibility. The composites with low graphene content exhibited a high capacity of 163.7 mAh g{sup −1} at 0.1 C and 114 mAh g{sup −1} at 5 C without further incorporation of conductive agents.

  11. Comparative Incorporation of PNA into DNA Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Ronnie O; Kong, Jing; Achim, Catalina; LaBean, Thomas H

    2015-01-01

    DNA has shown great promise as a building material for self-assembling nanoscale structures. To further develop the potential of this technology, more methods are needed for functionalizing DNA-based nanostructures to increase their chemical diversity. Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) holds great promise for realizing this goal, as it conveniently allows for inclusion of both amino acids and peptides in nucleic acid-based structures. In this work, we explored incorporation of a positively charged PNA within DNA nanostructures. We investigated the efficiency of annealing a lysine-containing PNA probe with complementary, single-stranded DNA sequences within nanostructures, as well as the efficiency of duplex invasion and its dependence on salt concentration. Our results show that PNA allows for toehold-free strand displacement and that incorporation yield depends critically on binding site geometry. These results provide guidance for the design of PNA binding sites on nucleic acid nanostructures with an eye towards optimizing fabrication yield. PMID:26404232

  12. The synthesis of novel hybrid thiol-functionalized nano-structured SBA-15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Van Duc; Phuong Dang, Tuyet; Khieu Dinh, Quang; Phu Nguyen, Huu; Vu, Anh Tuan

    2010-09-01

    Mesoporous thiol-functionalized SBA-15 has been directly synthesized by co-condensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS) with triblock copolymer P123 as-structure-directing agent under hydrothermal conditions. Surfactant removal was performed by Soxhlet ethanol extraction. These materials have been characterized by powder x-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption/desorption (BET model), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy (IR) and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The main parameters, such as the initial molar ratio of MPTMS to TEOS, the time of adding MPTMS to synthesized gel and the Soxhlet ethanol extraction on the thiol functionalized SBA-15 with high thiol content and highly ordered hexagonal mesostructure, were investigated and evaluated. The adsorption capacity of the thiol-functionalized and non-functionalized SBA-15 materials for Pb2+ ion from aqueous solution was tested. It was found that the Pb2+ adsorption capacity of the thiol functionalized SBA-15 is three times higher than that of non-functionalized SBA-15.

  13. Fabrication of functional materials in microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shum, Ho Cheung

    In this thesis, we present a study on how droplets prepared in microfluidics can be used for fabrication of functional materials. We utilize the high degree of fluidic control enabled by miniaturizing the channels to achieve monodisperse single and multiple emulsion with high encapsulation efficiency. By engineering the interfaces of such emulsions and/or applying appropriate reactions, novel functional materials have been fabricated for encapsulation and release applications and for carrying out reactions in confined environments. Glass capillary microfluidics is used in the majority of the thesis. Glass offers excellent solvent resistance to most organic solvents needed for fabricating the desired materials. In Chapter 1, we describe a double-emulsion-templated approach to form polymer vesicles, also known as polymersomes. By dissolving amphiphilic block copolymers in a volatile solvent, which forms the shell layer of double emulsions, polymersomes are formed after evaporation of the volatile solvent. In Chapter 2, we apply the same approach to fabricate phospholipid vesicles. In Chapter 3, we investigate the physics of membrane formation at interfaces laden with amphiphilic diblock copolymers. In Chapter 4, we fabricate polymersomes with multiple compaitalents by using controlled double emulsion drops with multiple inner droplets as templates. In Chapter 5, we describe a non-microfluidic approach for fabricating similar polymersomes with large number of compartments. In Chapter 6, we show that the double-emulsion templated approach for forming polymersomes can be applied to two-dimensional stamped devices, which can be easily scaled up for production of large amount of polymersomes. Apart from polymersomes, controlled emulsions can also be used for generating other functional materials. In Chapter 7, we use double emulsion drops as microreactors for fabricating particles of hydroxyapatite. In Chapter 8, we generate solid capsules by emulsifying a molten phase as

  14. Optimizing the Binding Energy of Hydrogen on Nanostructured Carbon Materials through Structure Control and Chemical Doping

    SciTech Connect

    Jie Liu

    2011-02-01

    The DOE Hydrogen Sorption Center of Excellence (HSCoE) was formed in 2005 to develop materials for hydrogen storage systems to be used in light-duty vehicles. The HSCoE and two related centers of excellence were created as follow-on activities to the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy’s (EERE’s) Hydrogen Storage Grand Challenge Solicitation issued in FY 2003. The Hydrogen Sorption Center of Excellence (HSCoE) focuses on developing high-capacity sorbents with the goal to operate at temperatures and pressures approaching ambient and be efficiently and quickly charged in the tank with minimal energy requirements and penalties to the hydrogen fuel infrastructure. The work was directed at overcoming barriers to achieving DOE system goals and identifying pathways to meet the hydrogen storage system targets. To ensure that the development activities were performed as efficiently as possible, the HSCoE formed complementary, focused development clusters based on the following four sorption-based hydrogen storage mechanisms: 1. Physisorption on high specific surface area and nominally single element materials 2. Enhanced H2 binding in Substituted/heterogeneous materials 3. Strong and/or multiple H2 binding from coordinated but electronically unsatruated metal centers 4. Weak Chemisorption/Spillover. As a member of the team, our group at Duke studied the synthesis of various carbon-based materials, including carbon nanotubes and microporous carbon materials with controlled porosity. We worked closely with other team members to study the effect of pore size on the binding energy of hydrogen to the carbon –based materials. Our initial project focus was on the synthesis and purification of small diameter, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with well-controlled diameters for the study of their hydrogen storage properties as a function of diameters. We developed a chemical vapor deposition method that synthesized gram quantities of carbon nanotubes with

  15. The Synthesis of Functional Mesoporous Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Fryxell, Glen E.

    2006-11-01

    The ability to decorate a silica surface with specific ligand fields and/or metal complexes creates powerful new capabilities for catalysis, chemical separations and sensor development. Integrating this with the ability to control the spacing of these complexes across the surface, as well as the symmetry and size of the pore structure, allows the synthetic chemist to hierarchically tailor these structured nanomaterials to specific needs. The next step up the “scale ladder” is provided by the ability to coat these mesoporous materials onto complex shapes, allowing for the intimate integration of these tailored materials into device interfaces. The ability to tailor the pore structure of these mesoporous supports is derived from the surfactant templated synthesis of mesoporous materials, an area which has seen an explosion of activity over the last decade.[1,2] The ability to decorate the surface with the desired functionality requires chemical modification of the oxide interface, most commonly achieved using organosilane self-assembly.[3-6] This manuscript describes recent results from the confluence of these two research areas, with a focus on synthetic manipulation of the morphology and chemistry of the interface, with the ultimate goal of binding metal centers in a chemically useful manner.

  16. Plasma Functionalized Nanocarbon Materials and Their Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongfeng

    2015-09-01

    The plasma treatment method is important for modifying carbon nanomaterials since it has the advantage of being nonpolluting. It has the possibility of scaling up to produce large quantities necessary for commercial use. The liquid-related plasma is especially advantageous in avoiding use of toxic stabilizers and reducing agents during the nanoparticle formation process. In this work, both gas phase and liquid phase plasmas are used to modify nanocarbon materials including graphene and carbon nanotubes. The synthesis of metal nanoparticles functionalized nanocarbon materials including carbon nanotubes and graphene has been realized by an environmentally-friendly gas-liquid interfacial method. Furthermore, the new catalysts based on hybrid of nanocarbon materials and metal nanoparticles have been proved to be stable and high catalytic performance in organic molecule transformation reactions. In addition, the modification of few-layer graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition via the nitrogen plasma ion irradiation has been performed, and the modified graphene sheets as counter electrodes in bifacial dye-sensitized solar cells exhibit high performance.

  17. Functional Hydrogel Materials Inspired by Amyloid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Joel

    2012-02-01

    Protein assembly resulting in the formation of amyloid fibrils, assemblies rich in cross beta-sheet structure, is normally thought of as a deleterious event associated with disease. However, amyloid formation is also involved in a diverse array of normal biological functions such as cell adhesion, melanin synthesis, insect defense mechanism and modulation of water surface tension by fungi and bacteria. These findings indicate that Nature has evolved to take advantage of large, proteinaceous fibrillar assemblies to elicit function. We are designing functional materials, namely hydrogels, from peptides that self-assembled into fibrillar networks, rich in cross beta-sheet structure. These gels can be used for the direct encapsulation and delivery of small molecule-, protein- and cell-based therapeutics. Loaded gels exhibit shear-thinning/self-healing mechanical properties enabling their delivery via syringe. In addition to their use for delivery, we have found that some of these gels display antibacterial activity. Although cytocompatible towards mammalian cells, the hydrogels can kill a broad spectrum of bacteria on contact.

  18. Ab initio density-functional calculations in materials science: from quasicrystals over microporous catalysts to spintronics.

    PubMed

    Hafner, Jürgen

    2010-09-29

    During the last 20 years computer simulations based on a quantum-mechanical description of the interactions between electrons and atomic nuclei have developed an increasingly important impact on materials science, not only in promoting a deeper understanding of the fundamental physical phenomena, but also enabling the computer-assisted design of materials for future technologies. The backbone of atomic-scale computational materials science is density-functional theory (DFT) which allows us to cast the intractable complexity of electron-electron interactions into the form of an effective single-particle equation determined by the exchange-correlation functional. Progress in DFT-based calculations of the properties of materials and of simulations of processes in materials depends on: (1) the development of improved exchange-correlation functionals and advanced post-DFT methods and their implementation in highly efficient computer codes, (2) the development of methods allowing us to bridge the gaps in the temperature, pressure, time and length scales between the ab initio calculations and real-world experiments and (3) the extension of the functionality of these codes, permitting us to treat additional properties and new processes. In this paper we discuss the current status of techniques for performing quantum-based simulations on materials and present some illustrative examples of applications to complex quasiperiodic alloys, cluster-support interactions in microporous acid catalysts and magnetic nanostructures. PMID:21386539

  19. Functional, Responsive Materials Assembled from Recombinant Oleosin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Daniel

    Biological cells are surrounded by a plasma membrane made primarily of phospholipids that form a bilayer. This membrane is permselective and compartmentalizes the cell. A simple form of artificial cell is the vesicle, in which a phospholipid bilayer membrane surrounds an aqueous solution. However, there is no a priori reason why a membrane needs to be made of phospholipids. It could be made of any surfactant that forms a bilayer. We have assembled membranes and other structures from the recombinant plant protein oleosin. The ability to assemble from a recombinant protein means that every molecule is identical, we have complete control over the sequence, and hence can build in designer functionality with high fidelity, including adhesion and enzymatic activity. Such incorporation is trivial using the tools of molecular biology. We find that while many variants of oleosin make membranes, others make micelles and sheets. We show how the type of supramolecular structure can be altered by the conditions of solvent, such as ionic strength, and the architecture of the surfactant itself. We show that protease cleavable domains can be incorporated within oleosin, and be engineered to protect other functional domains such as adhesive motifs, to make responsive materials whose activity and shape depend on the action of proteases. We will also present the idea of making ``Franken''-oleosins, where large domains of native oleosin are replaced with domains from other functional proteins, to make hybrids conferred by the donor protein. Thus, we can view oleosin as a template upon which a vast array of designer functionalities can be imparted..

  20. Advanced nanostructured materials and their application for improvement of sun-light harvesting and efficiency of solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimova-Malinovska, D.

    2016-02-01

    This review describes the application of different nanostructured materials in solar cells technology for improvement of sun-light harvesting and their efficiency. Several approaches have recently been proposed to increase the efficiency of solar cells above the theoretical limit which are based on a “photon management” concept that employs such phenomena as: (i) down-conversion, and (ii) surface plasmon resonance effect (iii) decreasing of the loss due to the reflection of the radiation, (iv) increasing of the reflection from the back contact, v) increasing of the effective solar cells surface, etc. The results demonstrate the possibility for to increasing of light harvesting, short circuit current and efficiency by application of nanomaterials in thin film and hetero-junction (HJ) solar cells. The first promising results allow an expectation for application of advanced nanomaterials in the 3d generation solar cells.

  1. Synthesis of functional materials in combustion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuravlev, V. D.; Bamburov, V. G.; Ermakova, L. V.; Lobachevskaya, N. I.

    2015-12-01

    The conditions for obtaining oxide compounds in combustion reactions of nitrates of metals with organic chelating-reducing agents such as amino acids, urea, and polyvinyl alcohol are reviewed. Changing the nature of internal fuels and the reducing agent-to-oxidizing agent ratio makes possible to modify the thermal regime of the process, fractal dimensionality, morphology, and dispersion of synthesized functional materials. This method can be used to synthesize simple and complex oxides, composites, and metal powders, as well as ceramics and coatings. The possibilities of synthesis in combustion reactions are illustrated by examples of αand γ-Al2O3, YSZ composites, uranium oxides, nickel powder, NiO and NiO: YSZ composite, TiO2, and manganites, cobaltites, and aluminates of rare earth elements.

  2. Synthesis of functional materials in combustion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuravlev, V. D. Bamburov, V. G.; Ermakova, L. V.; Lobachevskaya, N. I.

    2015-12-15

    The conditions for obtaining oxide compounds in combustion reactions of nitrates of metals with organic chelating–reducing agents such as amino acids, urea, and polyvinyl alcohol are reviewed. Changing the nature of internal fuels and the reducing agent-to-oxidizing agent ratio makes possible to modify the thermal regime of the process, fractal dimensionality, morphology, and dispersion of synthesized functional materials. This method can be used to synthesize simple and complex oxides, composites, and metal powders, as well as ceramics and coatings. The possibilities of synthesis in combustion reactions are illustrated by examples of αand γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, YSZ composites, uranium oxides, nickel powder, NiO and NiO: YSZ composite, TiO{sub 2}, and manganites, cobaltites, and aluminates of rare earth elements.

  3. Functional materials for energy-efficient buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebert, H.-P.

    2015-08-01

    The substantial improving of the energy efficiency is essential to meet the ambitious energy goals of the EU. About 40% of the European energy consumption belongs to the building sector. Therefore the reduction of the energy demand of the existing building stock is one of the key measures to deliver a substantial contribution to reduce CO2-emissions of our society. Buildings of the future have to be efficient in respect to energy consumption for construction and operation. Current research activities are focused on the development of functional materials with outstanding thermal and optical properties to provide, for example, slim thermally superinsulated facades, highly integrated heat storage systems or adaptive building components. In this context it is important to consider buildings as entities which fulfill energy and comfort claims as well as aesthetic aspects of a sustainable architecture.

  4. Kinetics of the formation of 2D-hexagonal silica nanostructured materials by nonionic block copolymer templating in solution.

    PubMed

    Manet, Sabine; Schmitt, Julien; Impéror-Clerc, Marianne; Zholobenko, Vladimir; Durand, Dominique; Oliveira, Cristiano L P; Pedersen, Jan Skov; Gervais, Christel; Baccile, Niki; Babonneau, Florence; Grillo, Isabelle; Meneau, Florian; Rochas, Cyrille

    2011-10-01

    The different steps of the self-assembly in solution of several 2D-hexagonal silica nanostructured SBA-15 materials have been investigated by SAXS and SANS in situ experiments. Unique quantitative information about the shape and size evolution upon time of the micellar aggregates throughout the self-assembly process is obtained using a complete model that describes well the scattering data for the various synthesis conditions. In all cases, before the precipitation of the material, the micelles shape changes from spherical to rod-like, where the structure of the rod-like micelles is linked to the structure of the 2D-hexagonal precipitated material. In addition, the kinetics of hydrolysis of the inorganic precursor (TEOS) has been determined by in situ Raman spectroscopy. More specifically, by comparing synthesis made with different acids (HNO(3), HBr, HCl, H(2)SO(4), and H(3)PO(4)), it is found that materials prepared using the "salting-out" anions (SO(4)(2-) and H(2)PO(4)(-)) are much better ordered than with the "salting-in" anions (NO(3)(-) and Br(-)). PMID:21863844

  5. Computational nano-materials design of self-organized nanostructures by spinodal nano-decomposition in Eu-doped GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masago, Akira; Fukushima, Tetsuya; Sato, Kazunori; Katayama-Yoshida, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    We propose that nanostructures spontaneously generated by spinodal decomposition can be used as an efficiently luminescent material. The doping of Eu into GaN beyond the solubility limit forms EuN nanostructures, whose forms depend on the crystal growth method and conditions. The three-dimensional crystal growth generates the Dairiseki phase constructed of EuN quantum dots. These nanostructures are suitable for emission of red light and laser. The two-dimensional layer-by-layer crystal growth leads to the Konbu phase consisting of nanorods. The Konbu phase can be applied to the bottom-up construction of distributed feedback semiconductor lasers, which is currently built by the top-down nanotechnology such as photolithography.

  6. Computer Code for Nanostructure Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filikhin, Igor; Vlahovic, Branislav

    2009-01-01

    Due to their small size, nanostructures can have stress and thermal gradients that are larger than any macroscopic analogue. These gradients can lead to specific regions that are susceptible to failure via processes such as plastic deformation by dislocation emission, chemical debonding, and interfacial alloying. A program has been developed that rigorously simulates and predicts optoelectronic properties of nanostructures of virtually any geometrical complexity and material composition. It can be used in simulations of energy level structure, wave functions, density of states of spatially configured phonon-coupled electrons, excitons in quantum dots, quantum rings, quantum ring complexes, and more. The code can be used to calculate stress distributions and thermal transport properties for a variety of nanostructures and interfaces, transport and scattering at nanoscale interfaces and surfaces under various stress states, and alloy compositional gradients. The code allows users to perform modeling of charge transport processes through quantum-dot (QD) arrays as functions of inter-dot distance, array order versus disorder, QD orientation, shape, size, and chemical composition for applications in photovoltaics and physical properties of QD-based biochemical sensors. The code can be used to study the hot exciton formation/relation dynamics in arrays of QDs of different shapes and sizes at different temperatures. It also can be used to understand the relation among the deposition parameters and inherent stresses, strain deformation, heat flow, and failure of nanostructures.

  7. Nanostructured electrochromic smart windows: traditional materials and NIR-selective plasmonic nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Runnerstrom, EL; Llordes, A; Lounis, SD; Milliron, DJ

    2014-06-04

    Electrochromic devices, which dynamically change colour under applied potential, are widely studied for use in energy-efficient smart windows. To improve the viability of smart windows, many researchers are utilizing nanomaterials, which can provide electrochromic devices with improved colouration efficiencies, faster switching times, longer cycle lives, and potentially reduced costs. In an effort to demonstrate a new type of electrochromic device that goes beyond the capabilities of commonly used electrochromic materials, researchers have turned to plasmonic transparent conductive oxide (TCO) nanocrystals. Electrochemical injection of electrons into plasmonic TCO nanocrystal films induces a shift in the plasmon frequency and gives rise to the new functionality of selective optical modulation in the near-infrared region of the solar spectrum. These nanocrystals can be used as building blocks to enable creation of advanced electrochromic devices containing mesoporous electrodes or nanocrystal-in-glass composites. Such devices have been important in advancing the field towards achieving the ideal smart window with independent control over visible and NIR transmittance.

  8. Nanostructured electrochromic smart windows: traditional materials and NIR-selective plasmonic nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Runnerstrom, Evan L; Llordés, Anna; Lounis, Sebastien D; Milliron, Delia J

    2014-09-21

    Electrochromic devices, which dynamically change colour under applied potential, are widely studied for use in energy-efficient smart windows. To improve the viability of smart windows, many researchers are utilizing nanomaterials, which can provide electrochromic devices with improved colouration efficiencies, faster switching times, longer cycle lives, and potentially reduced costs. In an effort to demonstrate a new type of electrochromic device that goes beyond the capabilities of commonly used electrochromic materials, researchers have turned to plasmonic transparent conductive oxide (TCO) nanocrystals. Electrochemical injection of electrons into plasmonic TCO nanocrystal films induces a shift in the plasmon frequency and gives rise to the new functionality of selective optical modulation in the near-infrared region of the solar spectrum. These nanocrystals can be used as building blocks to enable creation of advanced electrochromic devices containing mesoporous electrodes or nanocrystal-in-glass composites. Such devices have been important in advancing the field towards achieving the ideal smart window with independent control over visible and NIR transmittance. PMID:24935022

  9. A review on the application of inorganic nano-structured materials in the modification of textiles: focus on anti-microbial properties.

    PubMed

    Dastjerdi, Roya; Montazer, Majid

    2010-08-01

    Textiles can provide a suitable substrate to grow micro-organisms especially at appropriate humidity and temperature in contact to human body. Recently, increasing public concern about hygiene has been driving many investigations for anti-microbial modification of textiles. However, using many anti-microbial agents has been avoided because of their possible harmful or toxic effects. Application of inorganic nano-particles and their nano-composites would be a good alternative. This review paper has focused on the properties and applications of inorganic nano-structured materials with good anti-microbial activity potential for textile modification. The discussed nano-structured anti-microbial agents include TiO(2) nano-particles, metallic and non-metallic TiO(2) nano-composites, titania nanotubes (TNTs), silver nano-particles, silver-based nano-structured materials, gold nano-particles, zinc oxide nano-particles and nano-rods, copper nano-particles, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), nano-clay and its modified forms, gallium, liposomes loaded nano-particles, metallic and inorganic dendrimers nano-composite, nano-capsules and cyclodextrins containing nano-particles. This review is also concerned with the application methods for the modification of textiles using nano-structured materials. PMID:20417070

  10. Functional organic materials for electronics industries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shibayama, K.; Ono, H.

    1982-01-01

    Topics closely related with organic, high molecular weight material synthesis are discussed. These are related to applications such as display, recording, sensors, semiconductors, and I.C. correlation. New materials are also discussed. General principles of individual application are not included. Materials discussed include color, electrochromic, thermal recording, organic photoconductors for electrophotography, and photochromic materials.

  11. Functional Carbon Materials for Electrochemical Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Huihui

    The ability to harvest and convert solar energy has been associated with the evolution of human civilization. The increasing consumption of fossil fuels since the industrial revolution, however, has brought to concerns in ecological deterioration and depletion of the fossil fuels. Facing these challenges, humankind is forced to seek for clean, sustainable and renewable energy resources, such as biofuels, hydraulic power, wind power, geothermal energy and other kinds of alternative energies. However, most alternative energy sources, generally in the form of electrical energy, could not be made available on a continuous basis. It is, therefore, essential to store such energy into chemical energy, which are portable and various applications. In this context, electrochemical energy-storage devices hold great promises towards this goal. The most common electrochemical energy-storage devices are electrochemical capacitors (ECs, also called supercapacitors) and batteries. In comparison to batteries, ECs posses high power density, high efficiency, long cycling life and low cost. ECs commonly utilize carbon as both (symmetric) or one of the electrodes (asymmetric), of which their performance is generally limited by the capacitance of the carbon electrodes. Therefore, developing better carbon materials with high energy density has been emerging as one the most essential challenges in the field. The primary objective of this dissertation is to design and synthesize functional carbon materials with high energy density at both aqueous and organic electrolyte systems. The energy density (E) of ECs are governed by E = CV 2/2, where C is the total capacitance and V is the voltage of the devices. Carbon electrodes with high capacitance and high working voltage should lead to high energy density. In the first part of this thesis, a new class of nanoporous carbons were synthesized for symmetric supercapacitors using aqueous Li2SO4 as the electrolyte. A unique precursor was adopted to

  12. Mechanism of Charge Transfer from Plasmonic Nanostructures to Chemically Attached Materials.

    PubMed

    Boerigter, Calvin; Aslam, Umar; Linic, Suljo

    2016-06-28

    Plasmonic metal nanoparticles can efficiently convert the energy of visible photons into the energy of hot charge carriers within the nanoparticles. These energetic charge carriers can transfer to molecules or semiconductors, chemically attached to the nanoparticles, where they can induce photochemical transformations. Classical models of photoinduced charge excitation and transfer in metals suggest that the majority of the energetic charge carriers rapidly decay within the metal nanostructure before they are transferred into the neighboring molecule or semiconductor, and therefore, the efficiency of charge transfer is low. Herein, we present experimental evidence that calls into question this conventional picture. We demonstrate a system where the presence of a molecule, adsorbed on the surface of a plasmonic nanoparticle, significantly changes the flow of charge within the excited plasmonic system. The nanoparticle-adsorbate system experiences high rates of direct, resonant flow of charge from the nanoparticle to the molecule, bypassing the conventional charge excitation and thermalization process taking place in the nanoparticle. This picture of charge transfer suggests that the yield of extracted hot electrons (or holes) from plasmonic nanoparticles can be significantly higher than the yields expected based on conventional models. We discuss a conceptual physical framework that allows us to explain our experimental observations. This analysis points us in a direction toward molecular control of the charge transfer process using interface and local field engineering strategies. PMID:27268233

  13. Controllable fabrication of nanostructured materials for photoelectrochemical water splitting via atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tuo; Luo, Zhibin; Li, Chengcheng; Gong, Jinlong

    2014-11-21

    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting is an attractive approach to generate hydrogen as a clean chemical fuel from solar energy. But there remain many fundamental issues to be solved, including inadequate photon absorption, short carrier diffusion length, surface recombination, vulnerability to photo-corrosion, and unfavorable reaction kinetics. Owing to its self-limiting surface reaction mechanism, atomic layer deposition (ALD) is capable of depositing thin films in a highly controllable manner, which makes it an enabling technique to overcome some of the key challenges confronted by PEC water splitting. This tutorial review describes some unique and representative applications of ALD in fabricating high performance PEC electrodes with various nanostructures, including (i) coating conformal thin films on three-dimensional scaffolds to facilitate the separation and migration of photocarriers and enhance light trapping, as well as realizing controllable doping for bandgap engineering and forming homojunctions for carrier separation; (ii) achieving surface modification through deposition of anti-corrosion layers, surface state passivation layers, and surface catalytic layers; and (iii) identifying the main rate limiting steps with model electrodes with highly defined thickness, composition, and interfacial structure. PMID:24500041

  14. Quantitative Nanostructure Characterization Using Atomic Pair Distribution Functions Obtained From Laboratory Electron Microscopes

    SciTech Connect

    Abeykoon M.; Billinge S.; Malliakas, C.D.; Juhas, P.; Bozin, E.S.; Kanatzidis, M.G.

    2012-05-01

    Quantitatively reliable atomic pair distribution functions (PDFs) have been obtained from nanomaterials in a straightforward way from a standard laboratory transmission electron microscope (TEM). The approach looks very promising for making electron derived PDFs (ePDFs) a routine step in the characterization of nanomaterials because of the ubiquity of such TEMs in chemistry and materials laboratories. No special attachments such as energy filters were required on the microscope. The methodology for obtaining the ePDFs is described as well as some opportunities and limitations of the method.

  15. Structure and optical function of amorphous photonic nanostructures from avian feather barbs: a comparative small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis of 230 bird species

    PubMed Central

    Saranathan, Vinodkumar; Forster, Jason D.; Noh, Heeso; Liew, Seng-Fatt; Mochrie, Simon G. J.; Cao, Hui; Dufresne, Eric R.; Prum, Richard O.

    2012-01-01

    Non-iridescent structural colours of feathers are a diverse and an important part of the phenotype of many birds. These colours are generally produced by three-dimensional, amorphous (or quasi-ordered) spongy β-keratin and air nanostructures found in the medullary cells of feather barbs. Two main classes of three-dimensional barb nanostructures are known, characterized by a tortuous network of air channels or a close packing of spheroidal air cavities. Using synchrotron small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and optical spectrophotometry, we characterized the nanostructure and optical function of 297 distinctly coloured feathers from 230 species belonging to 163 genera in 51 avian families. The SAXS data provided quantitative diagnoses of the channel- and sphere-type nanostructures, and confirmed the presence of a predominant, isotropic length scale of variation in refractive index that produces strong reinforcement of a narrow band of scattered wavelengths. The SAXS structural data identified a new class of rudimentary or weakly nanostructured feathers responsible for slate-grey, and blue-grey structural colours. SAXS structural data provided good predictions of the single-scattering peak of the optical reflectance of the feathers. The SAXS structural measurements of channel- and sphere-type nanostructures are also similar to experimental scattering data from synthetic soft matter systems that self-assemble by phase separation. These results further support the hypothesis that colour-producing protein and air nanostructures in feather barbs are probably self-assembled by arrested phase separation of polymerizing β-keratin from the cytoplasm of medullary cells. Such avian amorphous photonic nanostructures with isotropic optical properties may provide biomimetic inspiration for photonic technology. PMID:22572026

  16. Improvement of the functional properties of nanostructured Ti-Ni shape memory alloys by means of thermomechanical processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreitcberg, Alena

    Severe plastic deformation (SPD) is commonly used for nanostructure formation in Ti-Ni shape memory alloys (SMAs), but it increases the risk of damage during processing and, consequently, negatively affects functional fatigue resistance of these materials. The principal objective of this project is, therefore, to study the interrelations between the processing conditions, damageability during processing, microstructure and the functional properties of Ti-Ni SMAs with the aim of improving long-term functional performances of these materials by optimizing their processing conditions. First, microstructure and fatigue properties of Ti-Ni SMAs were studied after thermomechanical treatment (TMT) with different combinations of severe cold and warm rolling (CR and WR), as well as intermediate and post-deformation annealing (IA and PDA) technological steps. It was shown that either when WR and IA were introduced into the TMT schedule, or CR intensity was decreased, the fatigue life was improved as a consequence of less processing-induced damage and higher density of the favorable B2-austenite texture. This improvement was reached, however, at a price of a lower multi-cycle functional stability of these materials, the latter being a direct consequence of the microstructure coarsening after higher-temperature lower-intensity processing. At the end of this study, however, it was not possible to distinguish between contributions to the functional performances of Ti-Ni SMAs from different processing-related features: a) grain/subgrain size; b) texture; and c) level of rolling-induced defects. To be capable of separating contributions to the functional properties of Ti-Ni alloys from grain/subgrain size and from texture, the theoretical crystallographic resource of recovery strain after different TMTs and, therefore, different textures, were calculated and compared with the experiment. The comparative analysis showed that the structural factors (grain/subgrain size) strongly

  17. Improved cladding nano-structured materials with self-repairing capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Popa-Simil, L.

    2012-07-01

    When designing nuclear reactors or the materials that go into them, one of the key challenges is finding materials that can withstand an outrageously extreme environment. In addition to constant bombardment by radiation, reactor materials may be subjected to extremes in temperature, physical stress, and corrosive conditions. A limitation in fuel burnup is and usage of the nuclear fuel material is related to the structural material radiation damage, that makes the fuel be removed with low-burnup and immobilized in the waste storage pools. The advanced burnup brings cladding material embitterment due to radiation damage effects corroborated with corrosion effects makes the fuel pellet life shorter. The novel nano-clustered structured sintered material may mitigate simultaneously the radiation damage and corrosion effects driving to more robust structural materials that may make the nuclear reactor safer and more reliable. The development of nano-clustered sinter alloys provides new avenues for further examination of the role of grain boundaries and engineered material interfaces in self-healing of radiation-induced defects driving to the design of highly radiation-tolerant materials for the next generation of nuclear energy applications. (authors)

  18. Graphene oxide-SiO2 hybrid nanostructure as coating material for capillary electrochromatography.

    PubMed

    Qu, Qishu; Xuan, Han; Zhang, Kehua; Ding, Yi; Xu, Qin

    2016-05-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) has been considered as a promising stationary phase for chromatographic separation. However, the very strong adsorption of the analytes on the GO surface lead to the severe peak tailing, which in turn resulting in decreased separation performance. In this work, GO and silica nanoparticles hybrid nanostructures (GO/SiO2 NPs@column) were coated onto the capillary inner wall by passing the mixture of GO and silica sol through the capillary column. The successful of coating of GO/SiO2 NPs onto the capillary wall was confirmed by SEM and electroosmotic flow mobilities test. By partially covering the GO surface with silica nanoparticles, the peak tailing was decreased greatly while the unique high shape selectivity arises from the surface of remained GO was kept. Consequently, compared with the column modified with GO (GO@column), the column modified with GO and silica nanoparticles through layer-by-layer method (GO-SiO2 NPs@column), or the column modified with silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs@column), GO/SiO2 NPs@column possessed highest resolutions. The GO/SiO2 NPs@column was applied to separate egg white and both acidic and basic proteins as well as three glycoisoforms of ovalbumin were separated in a single run within 36 min. The intra-day, inter-day, and column-to-column reproducibilities were evaluated by calculating the RSDs of the retention of naphthalene and biphenyl in open-tubular capillary electrochromatography. The RSD values were found to be less than 7.1%. PMID:26829671

  19. Zinc oxide nanostructure-modified textile and its application to biosensing, photocatalysis, and as antibacterial material.

    PubMed

    Hatamie, Amir; Khan, Azam; Golabi, Mohsen; Turner, Anthony P F; Beni, Valerio; Mak, Wing Cheung; Sadollahkhani, Azar; Alnoor, Hatim; Zargar, Behrooz; Bano, Sumaira; Nur, Omer; Willander, Magnus

    2015-10-01

    Recently, one-dimensional nanostructures with different morphologies (such as nanowires, nanorods (NRs), and nanotubes) have become the focus of intensive research, because of their unique properties with potential applications. Among them, zinc oxide (ZnO) nanomaterials has been found to be highly attractive, because of the remarkable potential for applications in many different areas such as solar cells, sensors, piezoelectric devices, photodiode devices, sun screens, antireflection coatings, and photocatalysis. Here, we present an innovative approach to create a new modified textile by direct in situ growth of vertically aligned one-dimensional (1D) ZnO NRs onto textile surfaces, which can serve with potential for biosensing, photocatalysis, and antibacterial applications. ZnO NRs were grown by using a simple aqueous chemical growth method. Results from analyses such as X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the ZnO NRs were dispersed over the entire surface of the textile. We have demonstrated the following applications of these multifunctional textiles: (1) as a flexible working electrode for the detection of aldicarb (ALD) pesticide, (2) as a photocatalyst for the degradation of organic molecules (i.e., Methylene Blue and Congo Red), and (3) as antibacterial agents against Escherichia coli. The ZnO-based textile exhibited excellent photocatalytic and antibacterial activities, and it showed a promising sensing response. The combination of sensing, photocatalysis, and antibacterial properties provided by the ZnO NRs brings us closer to the concept of smart textiles for wearable sensing without a deodorant and antibacterial control. Perhaps the best known of the products that is available in markets for such purposes are textiles with silver nanoparticles. Our modified textile is thus providing acceptable antibacterial properties, compared to available commercial modified textiles. PMID:26372851

  20. Nanostructured Black Phosphorus/Ketjenblack-Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Composite as High Performance Anode Material for Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Xu, Gui-Liang; Chen, Zonghai; Zhong, Gui-Ming; Liu, Yuzi; Yang, Yong; Ma, Tianyuan; Ren, Yang; Zuo, Xiaobing; Wu, Xue-Hang; Zhang, Xiaoyi; Amine, Khalil

    2016-06-01

    Sodium-ion batteries are promising alternatives to lithium-ion batteries for large-scale applications. However, the low capacity and poor rate capability of existing anodes for sodium-ion batteries are bottlenecks for future developments. Here, we report a high performance nanostructured anode material for sodium-ion batteries that is fabricated by high energy ball milling to form black phosphorus/Ketjenblack-multiwalled carbon nanotubes (BPC) composite. With this strategy, the BPC composite with a high phosphorus content (70 wt %) could deliver a very high initial Coulombic efficiency (>90%) and high specific capacity with excellent cyclability at high rate of charge/discharge (∼1700 mAh g(-1) after 100 cycles at 1.3 A g(-1) based on the mass of P). In situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, synchrotron high energy X-ray diffraction, ex situ small/wide-angle X-ray scattering, high resolution transmission electronic microscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance were further used to unravel its superior sodium storage performance. The scientific findings gained in this work are expected to serve as a guide for future design on high performance anode material for sodium-ion batteries. PMID:27222911

  1. Nanostructured Electrode Materials Derived from Metal-Organic Framework Xerogels for High-Energy-Density Asymmetric Supercapacitor.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Asif; Zou, Ruqiang; Wang, Qingfei; Xia, Wei; Tabassum, Hassina; Qiu, Bin; Zhao, Ruo

    2016-01-27

    This work successfully demonstrates metal-organic framework (MOF) derived strategy to prepare nanoporous carbon (NPC) with or without Fe3O4/Fe nanoparticles by the optimization of calcination temperature as highly active electrode materials for asymmetric supercapacitors (ASC). The nanostructured Fe3O4/Fe/C hybrid shows high specific capacitance of 600 F/g at a current density of 1 A/g and excellent capacitance retention up to 500 F/g at 8 A/g. Furthermore, hierarchically NPC with high surface area also obtained from MOF gels displays excellent electrochemical performance of 272 F/g at 2 mV/s. Considering practical applications, aqueous ASC (aASC) was also assembled, which shows high energy density of 17.496 Wh/kg at the power density of 388.8 W/kg. The high energy density and excellent capacity retention of the developed materials show great promise for the practical utilization of these energy storage devices. PMID:26720405

  2. Patterning of light-extraction nanostructures on sapphire substrates using nanoimprint and ICP etching with different masking materials.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Zhang, Qi; Chou, Stephen Y

    2015-02-27

    Sapphire nanopatterning is the key solution to GaN light emitting diode (LED) light extraction. One challenge is to etch deep nanostructures with a vertical sidewall in sapphire. Here, we report a study of the effects of two masking materials (SiO2 and Cr) and different etching recipes (the reaction gas ratio, the reaction pressure and the inductive power) in a chlorine-based (BCl3 and Cl2) inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching of deep nanopillars in sapphire, and the etching process optimization. The masking materials were patterned by nanoimprinting. We have achieved high aspect ratio sapphire nanopillar arrays with a much steeper sidewall than the previous etching methods. We discover that the SiO2 mask has much slower erosion rate than the Cr mask under the same etching condition, leading to the deep cylinder-shaped nanopillars (122 nm diameter, 200 nm pitch, 170 nm high, flat top, and a vertical sidewall of 80° angle), rather than the pyramid-shaped shallow pillars (200 nm based diameter, 52 nm height, and 42° sidewall) resulted by using Cr mask. The processes developed are scalable to large volume LED manufacturing. PMID:25648720

  3. Patterning of light-extraction nanostructures on sapphire substrates using nanoimprint and ICP etching with different masking materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hao; Zhang, Qi; Chou, Stephen Y.

    2015-02-01

    Sapphire nanopatterning is the key solution to GaN light emitting diode (LED) light extraction. One challenge is to etch deep nanostructures with a vertical sidewall in sapphire. Here, we report a study of the effects of two masking materials (SiO2 and Cr) and different etching recipes (the reaction gas ratio, the reaction pressure and the inductive power) in a chlorine-based (BCl3 and Cl2) inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching of deep nanopillars in sapphire, and the etching process optimization. The masking materials were patterned by nanoimprinting. We have achieved high aspect ratio sapphire nanopillar arrays with a much steeper sidewall than the previous etching methods. We discover that the SiO2 mask has much slower erosion rate than the Cr mask under the same etching condition, leading to the deep cylinder-shaped nanopillars (122 nm diameter, 200 nm pitch, 170 nm high, flat top, and a vertical sidewall of 80° angle), rather than the pyramid-shaped shallow pillars (200 nm based diameter, 52 nm height, and 42° sidewall) resulted by using Cr mask. The processes developed are scalable to large volume LED manufacturing.

  4. Simulating functional magnetic materials on supercomputers.

    PubMed

    Gruner, Markus Ernst; Entel, Peter

    2009-07-22

    The recent passing of the petaflop per second landmark by the Roadrunner project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory marks a preliminary peak of an impressive world-wide development in the high-performance scientific computing sector. Also, purely academic state-of-the-art supercomputers such as the IBM Blue Gene/P at Forschungszentrum Jülich allow us nowadays to investigate large systems of the order of 10(3) spin polarized transition metal atoms by means of density functional theory. Three applications will be presented where large-scale ab initio calculations contribute to the understanding of key properties emerging from a close interrelation between structure and magnetism. The first two examples discuss the size dependent evolution of equilibrium structural motifs in elementary iron and binary Fe-Pt and Co-Pt transition metal nanoparticles, which are currently discussed as promising candidates for ultra-high-density magnetic data storage media. However, the preference for multiply twinned morphologies at smaller cluster sizes counteracts the formation of a single-crystalline L1(0) phase, which alone provides the required hard magnetic properties. The third application is concerned with the magnetic shape memory effect in the Ni-Mn-Ga Heusler alloy, which is a technologically relevant candidate for magnetomechanical actuators and sensors. In this material strains of up to 10% can be induced by external magnetic fields due to the field induced shifting of martensitic twin boundaries, requiring an extremely high mobility of the martensitic twin boundaries, but also the selection of the appropriate martensitic structure from the rich phase diagram. PMID:21828528

  5. Development of Micro and Nanostructured Materials for Interfacial Self-Healing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaiszik, Benjamin James

    2009-01-01

    Damage in polymeric coatings, adhesives, microelectronic components, and composites spans many length scales. For small scale damage, autonomic self-healing can repair multiple damage modes without manual intervention. In autonomic self-healing materials, a healing response is triggered by damage to the material. Size scale considerations, such as…

  6. Noncovalent Functionalization of Graphene and Graphene Oxide for Energy Materials, Biosensing, Catalytic, and Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Georgakilas, Vasilios; Tiwari, Jitendra N; Kemp, K Christian; Perman, Jason A; Bourlinos, Athanasios B; Kim, Kwang S; Zboril, Radek

    2016-05-11

    This Review focuses on noncovalent functionalization of graphene and graphene oxide with various species involving biomolecules, polymers, drugs, metals and metal oxide-based nanoparticles, quantum dots, magnetic nanostructures, other carbon allotropes (fullerenes, nanodiamonds, and carbon nanotubes), and graphene analogues (MoS2, WS2). A brief description of π-π interactions, van der Waals forces, ionic interactions, and hydrogen bonding allowing noncovalent modification of graphene and graphene oxide is first given. The main part of this Review is devoted to tailored functionalization for applications in drug delivery, energy materials, solar cells, water splitting, biosensing, bioimaging, environmental, catalytic, photocatalytic, and biomedical technologies. A significant part of this Review explores the possibilities of graphene/graphene oxide-based 3D superstructures and their use in lithium-ion batteries. This Review ends with a look at challenges and future prospects of noncovalently modified graphene and graphene oxide. PMID:27033639

  7. Super-Resolution Molecular and Functional Imaging of Nanoscale Architectures in Life and Materials Science

    PubMed Central

    Habuchi, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Super-resolution (SR) fluorescence microscopy has been revolutionizing the way in which we investigate the structures, dynamics, and functions of a wide range of nanoscale systems. In this review, I describe the current state of various SR fluorescence microscopy techniques along with the latest developments of fluorophores and labeling for the SR microscopy. I discuss the applications of SR microscopy in the fields of life science and materials science with a special emphasis on quantitative molecular imaging and nanoscale functional imaging. These studies open new opportunities for unraveling the physical, chemical, and optical properties of a wide range of nanoscale architectures together with their nanostructures and will enable the development of new (bio-)nanotechnology. PMID:25152893

  8. Intermatrix Synthesis as a rapid, inexpensive and reproducible methodology for the in situ functionalization of nanostructured surfaces with quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastos-Arrieta, Julio; Muñoz, Jose; Stenbock-Fermor, Anja; Muñoz, Maria; Muraviev, Dmitri N.; Céspedes, Francisco; Tsarkova, Larisa A.; Baeza, Mireia

    2016-04-01

    Intermatrix Synthesis (IMS) technique has proven to be a valid methodology for the in situ incorporation of quantum dots (QDs) in a wide range of nanostructured surfaces for the preparation of advanced hybrid-nanomaterials. In this sense, this communication reports the recent advances in the application of IMS for the synthesis of CdS-QDs with favourable distribution on sulfonated polyetherether ketone (SPEEK) membrane thin films (TFs), multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and nanodiamonds (NDs). The synthetic route takes advantage of the ion exchange functionality of the reactive surfaces for the loading of the QDs precursor and consequent QDs appearance by precipitation. The benefits of such modified nanomaterials were studied using CdS-QDs@MWCNTs hybrid-nanomaterials. CdS-QDs@MWCNTs has been used as conducting filler for the preparation of electrochemical nanocomposite sensors, which present electrocatalytic properties. Finally, the optical properties of the QDs contained on MWCNTs could allow a new procedure for the analytical detection of nanostructured carbon allotropes in water.

  9. Static and Dynamical Properties of Ferroelectrics and Related Materials in Bulk and Nanostructure Forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gui, Zhigang

    Ferroelectrics (FE) and multiferroics (MFE) have attracted a lot of attentions due to their rich and novel properties. Studies towards FE and MFE are of both fundamental and technological importance. We use a first-principles-based effective Hamiltonian method, conventional ab-initio packages and linear-scale three-dimension fragment method to investigate several important issues about FE and MFE. Tuning the properties of FE and MFE films are essential for miniaturized device applications, which can be realized through epitaxial strain and growth direction. In this dissertation, we use the effective Hamiltonian method to study (i) BaTiO3 films grown along the (110) pseudocubic direction on various substrates, (ii) BaTiO3 films grown on a single substrate along directions varying from [001] to [110] via [111] pseudocubic direction. Optimized physical responses or curie temperatures are found along some special directions or under epitaxial strain of certain range. FE and MFE nanostructures are shown to possess electrical vortices (known as one type topological defect), which have the potential to be used in new memory devices. However, the dynamic mechanism behind them is barely known. We use the effective Hamiltonian method to reveal that there exists a distinct mode which is shown to be responsible for the formation of the electrical vortices and in the THz region. Spin-canted magnetic structures are commonly seen in MFE, which results in the coexistence of two or more magnetic order parameters in the same structure. Understanding the physics behind such coupled magnetic order parameters is of obvious benefit for the sake of control of the magnetic properties of such systems. We employ both the effective Hamiltonian and ab-initio methods to derive and prove there is a universal law that explicitly correlates various magnetic order parameters with the different types of oxygen octahedra rotations. FE or MFE possessing electrical vortices are experimentally shown to

  10. Functional Nanofibers via Electospinning: New Materials and Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manasco, Joshua Lee

    Cyclodextrins are fascinating, amphiphilic molecules that are of considerable interest due to their ability to be used in a variety of applications ranging from pharmaceuticals and cosmetics to foods and agriculture. These are ring-shaped sugar molecules possess a hydrophobic cavity and a hydrophilic exterior which imparts them water solubility. There are three main types of naturally occurring cyclodextrins namely alpha-, beta- and gamma- CD which have 6, 7 and 8 member rings, respectively. Owing to their hydrophobic interior, cyclodextrin molecules encapsulate hydrophobic guest molecules (from small to macromolecules) to form host-guest supermolecular structures. Chemically modified CDs are often preferred to the natural forms, particularly methylated (MbetaCD) and hydroxypropylated (HPbetaCD) cyclodextrins, for their enhanced solubility and chemical stability. Electrostatic spinning (electrospinning) of nanofibers has drawn significant research attention in recent decades. This technique involves the stretching of a polymer solution or melt in a high electric field to produce fibers on the nanoscale. These 1-Dimensional nanostructures possess extraordinary surface-to-weight ratio and find applications that vary from filtration membranes and tissue scaffolding materials to drug delivery and many others. The scope of this research attempts to leverage the unique features of CDs with the high aspect ratio of nanofibers to create functional nanomaterials. The present study can be divided into three sections. In the first part, we establish that CDs can be electrospun without the need for a "carrier" polymer. This discovery may serve to extend the horizon of what is currently considered "electrospinnable" from macromolecules now to small molecules. The ability to electrospin CDs led to their incorporation of other polymers to create bicomponent fibers with poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and polyacrylonitrile (PAN). In the case of PVA we demonstrate the ability to not

  11. Incorporation of Novel Nanostructured Materials into Solar Cells and Nanoelectronic Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, Rene; Pak, Joshua; Holland, Andrew; Hunt, Alan; Bitterwolf, Thomas; Qiang, You; Bergman, Leah; Berven, Christine; Punnoose, Alex; Tenne, Dmitri

    2011-11-11

    Each of the investigators on this project has had significant accomplishments toward the production of semiconductor nanoparticles, particles, and thin films and attempts to incorporate these materials into photovoltaics or sensors; to use them for improving fluorescence diagnostics; or to employ them as cancer fighting agents. The synthesis and characterization of the nanomaterials, and more recently the device construction and testing of these materials, have been the subject of several publications and presentations by team members. During the course of the investigations, several students were fully involved as part of their graduate and undergraduate training. The nature of these projects in material development dictates that the students have gained significant experience in a diverse array of material-related topics.

  12. Single potential electrodeposition of nanostructured battery materials for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosby, James Matthew

    The increasing reliance on portable electronics is continuing to fuel research in the area of low power lithium-ion batteries, while a new surge in research for high power lithium-ion batteries has been sparked by the demand for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and plug-in electric vehicles (PEV). To compete with current lead-acid battery chemistry, a few of the shortcomings of lithium-ion battery chemistry need to be addressed. The three main drawbacks of lithium-ion batteries for this application are: (1) low power density, (2) safety, and (3) the high cost of manufacturing. This dissertation covers the development of a low cost fabrication technique for an alternative anode material with high surface area geometries. The anode material is safer than the conventional anode material in lithium-ion batteries and the high surface area geometries permit higher power densities to be achieved. Electrodeposition is an inexpensive alternative method for synthesizing materials for electronics, energy conversion and energy storage applications relative to traditional solid state techniques. These techniques led to expensive device fabrication. Unlike most solid state synthesis routes, electrodeposition can usually be performed from common solutions and at moderate conditions. Three other benefits of using electrodeposition are: (1) it allows precise control of composition and crystallinity, (2) it provides the ability to deposit on complex shapes, and (3) it can deposit materials with nanoscale dimensions. The use of electrodeposition for alternative anode materials results in the deposition of the material directly onto the current collector that is used for the battery testing and applications without the need of additional binders and with excellent electrical contact. While this improves the characterization of the material and lowers the weight of the non-active materials within a battery, it also allows the anode to be deposited onto current collectors with

  13. Density functional theory in materials science

    PubMed Central

    Neugebauer, Jörg; Hickel, Tilmann

    2013-01-01

    Materials science is a highly interdisciplinary field. It is devoted to the understanding of the relationship between (a) fundamental physical and chemical properties governing processes at the atomistic scale with (b) typically macroscopic properties required of materials in engineering applications. For many materials, this relationship is not only determined by chemical composition, but strongly governed by microstructure. The latter is a consequence of carefully selected process conditions (e.g., mechanical forming and annealing in metallurgy or epitaxial growth in semiconductor technology). A key task of computational materials science is to unravel the often hidden composition–structure–property relationships using computational techniques. The present paper does not aim to give a complete review of all aspects of materials science. Rather, we will present the key concepts underlying the computation of selected material properties and discuss the major classes of materials to which they are applied. Specifically, our focus will be on methods used to describe single or polycrystalline bulk materials of semiconductor, metal or ceramic form. PMID:24563665

  14. Material dependence of the distributed bolometric effect in resonant metallic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuadrado, Alexander; González, Francisco J.; Agustí, Jordi; Alda, Javier

    2012-10-01

    Optical antennas and passive resonant structures, as frequency selective surfaces, configure a new kind of optical systems that can be classified as belonging to the resonant optics area. Typical antenna-coupled detectors using microbolometers as transducers have included materials with the largest temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) value. These materials are located at the feed point of the antenna where the electric current is the largest and the Joule effect dissipates the best. At the same time, the signal delivered to the external circuit is also depending on the resistivity value. This two-material configuration requires al least two e-beam fabrication steps. Although the resistivity values of metals changes substantially, the actual range of TCR values for most of metals is quite narrow. In this contribution we analyze how the choice of the material involved in the fabrication of resonant structures may enhance the bolometric effect. This analysis is made taking into account the electromagnetic interaction of light with the resonant element. The generated heat changes temperature and this variation produces the signal. Finite element package Comsol has been used to properly simulate the situation and predict the effect of changing the fabrication to an unique material, simplifying the manufacturing. Besides, the performance of the structure is depending on the used material.

  15. Biomimetic micro∕nanostructured functional surfaces for microfluidic and tissue engineering applications

    PubMed Central

    Stratakis, E.; Ranella, A.; Fotakis, C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews our work on the application of ultrafast pulsed laser micro∕nanoprocessing for the three-dimensional (3D) biomimetic modification of materials surfaces. It is shown that the artificial surfaces obtained by femtosecond-laser processing of Si in reactive gas atmosphere exhibit roughness at both micro- and nanoscales that mimics the hierarchical morphology of natural surfaces. Along with the spatial control of the topology, defining surface chemistry provides materials exhibiting notable wetting characteristics which are potentially useful for open microfluidic applications. Depending on the functional coating deposited on the laser patterned 3D structures, we can achieve artificial surfaces that are (a) of extremely low surface energy, thus water-repellent and self-cleaned, and (b) responsive, i.e., showing the ability to change their surface energy in response to different external stimuli such as light, electric field, and pH. Moreover, the behavior of different kinds of cells cultured on laser engineered substrates of various wettabilities was investigated. Experiments showed that it is possible to preferentially tune cell adhesion and growth through choosing proper combinations of surface topography and chemistry. It is concluded that the laser textured 3D micro∕nano-Si surfaces with controllability of roughness ratio and surface chemistry can advantageously serve as a novel means to elucidate the 3D cell-scaffold interactions for tissue engineering applications. PMID:21522501

  16. Controllable Synthesis of Functional Hollow Carbon Nanostructures with Dopamine As Precursor for Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Wang, Jing; Li, Jiansheng; Luo, Rui; Shen, Jinyou; Sun, Xiuyun; Han, Weiqing; Wang, Lianjun

    2015-08-26

    N-doped hollow carbon spheres (N-HCSs) are promising candidates as electrode material for supercapacitor application. In this work, we report a facile one-step synthesis of discrete and highly dispersible N-HCSs with dopamine (DA) as a carbon precursor and TEOS as a structure-assistant agent in a mixture containing water, ethanol, and ammonia. The architectures of resultant N-HCSs, including yolk-shell hollow carbon spheres (YS-HCSs), single-shell hollow carbon spheres (SS-HCSs), and double-shells hollow carbon spheres (DS-HCSs), can be efficiently controlled through the adjustment of the amount of ammonia. To explain the relation and formation mechanism of these hollow carbon structures, the samples during the different synthetic steps, including polymer/silica spheres, carbon/silica spheres and silica spheres by combustion in air, were characterized by TEM. Electrochemical measurements performed on YS-HCSs, SS-HCSs, and DS-HCSs showed high capacitance with 215, 280, and 381 F g(-1), respectively. Moreover, all the nitrogen-doped hollow carbon nanospheres showed a good cycling stability 97.0% capacitive retention after 3000 cycles. Notably, the highest capacitance of DS-HCSs up to 381 F g(-1) is higher than the capacitance reported so far for many carbon-based materials, which may be attributed to the high surface area, hollow structure, nitrogen functionalization, and double-shell architecture. These kinds of N-doped hollow-structured carbon spheres may show promising prospects as advanced energy storage materials and catalyst supports. PMID:26243663

  17. PREFACE: Self-organized nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousset, Sylvie; Ortega, Enrique

    2006-04-01

    In order to fabricate ordered arrays of nanostructures, two different strategies might be considered. The `top-down' approach consists of pushing the limit of lithography techniques down to the nanometre scale. However, beyond 10 nm lithography techniques will inevitably face major intrinsic limitations. An alternative method for elaborating ultimate-size nanostructures is based on the reverse `bottom-up' approach, i.e. building up nanostructures (and eventually assemble them to form functional circuits) from individual atoms or molecules. Scanning probe microscopies, including scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) invented in 1982, have made it possible to create (and visualize) individual structures atom by atom. However, such individual atomic manipulation is not suitable for industrial applications. Self-assembly or self-organization of nanostructures on solid surfaces is a bottom-up approach that allows one to fabricate and assemble nanostructure arrays in a one-step process. For applications, such as high density magnetic storage, self-assembly appears to be the simplest alternative to lithography for massive, parallel fabrication of nanostructure arrays with regular sizes and spacings. These are also necessary for investigating the physical properties of individual nanostructures by means of averaging techniques, i.e. all those using light or particle beams. The state-of-the-art and the current developments in the field of self-organization and physical properties of assembled nanostructures are reviewed in this issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. The papers have been selected from among the invited and oral presentations of the recent summer workshop held in Cargese (Corsica, France, 17-23 July 2005). All authors are world-renowned in the field. The workshop has been funded by the Marie Curie Actions: Marie Curie Conferences and Training Courses series named `NanosciencesTech' supported by the VI Framework Programme of the European Community, by

  18. Bioinspired chemistry: Rewiring nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulijn, Rein V.; Caponi, Pier-Francesco

    2010-07-01

    The cell's dynamic skeleton, a tightly regulated network of protein fibres, continues to provide inspiration for the design of synthetic nanostructures. Genetic engineering has now been used to encode non-biological functionality within these structures.

  19. Metal ion binding by a G-2 poly(ethylene imine) dendrimer. Ion-directed self-assembling of hierarchical mono- and two-dimensional nanostructured materials.

    PubMed

    Bazzicalupi, Carla; Bianchi, Antonio; Giorgi, Claudia; Gratteri, Paola; Mariani, Palma; Valtancoli, Barbara

    2013-02-18

    The second-generation poly(ethylene imine) dendrimer (L), based on ammonia as the initiating core molecule, forms stable metal complexes in aqueous solution. Speciation of the complex species formed and determination of the relevant stability constants were performed by means of potentiometric titration in 0.10 M NMe(4)Cl solution at 298.1 K. The interaction of L with Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+), and Pb(2+) gives rise to stable complexes with 1:1 (all metal ions), 2:1 (Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+)), 3:2 (Ni(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+)), and 3:1 (Cu(2+)) metal/ligand stoichiometries. The crystal structures of [Ni(3)L(2)](ClO(4))(6)·6H(2)O (1) and [Cu(3)LCl(OH)(0.5)(NO(3))(0.5)ox]Cl(1.5)(NO(3))(0.5)·5.5H(2)O (2) were solved by X-ray diffraction. The Ni(3)L(2)(6+) complex cation in 1, existing in solution as a very stable species, shows two dendrimer units linked together by a bridging Ni(2+) ion. In 2, the Cu(3)L(6+) complex cation, which also exists in solution as a very stable species, gives rise, via bridging coordination of oxalate anions, to nanostructured polymeric chains that self-organize into two-dimensional sheets. In both structures, the hierarchical mono- and two-dimensional aggregation is triggered by the action of ionic species behaving either as functional groups on the dendrimer surface (metal ions) or as the glue (metal ions, oxalate) that sticks together dendrimer units. Two association routes, developing via coordinative forces, guide the directional aggregation of dendrimer units: (a) aggregation via metal ions shared by the surfaces of contiguous dendrimer molecules and (b) aggregation via chelating ligands bridging surface metal ions pertaining to contiguous dendrimer molecules. Such aggregation modes provide coordinative routes for the self-assembly of novel families of nanostructured functional materials. PMID:23387293

  20. Nanostructured oxide materials and modules for high-temperature power generation from waste heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngo Van, Nong; Pryds, Nini

    2013-06-01

    A large amount of thermal energy emitted from many industrial processes is available as waste heat. Thermoelectric (TE) power generators that convert heat directly into electricity can offer a very promising means of waste heat recovery. However, the requirements for this task place in the materials are not easily satisfied by conventional TE materials. Not only must they possess a sufficient TE performance, but they should also be stable at high temperatures, nontoxic and have low-cost comprising elements, and must be also able to be processed and shaped cheaply. Oxides are among the strongest candidate materials for this purpose. In this review, the progress in the development of two representative p- and n-type novel oxide materials based on Ca3Co4O9 and doped-ZnO is presented. TE modules built up from these oxides were fabricated, tested at high temperatures, and compared with other similar oxide modules reported in the literature. A maximum power density of 45.3 mW cm-2 was obtained for an oxide module comprising eight p-n couples at a temperature difference of 496 K, an encouraging result in the context of the present high-temperature oxide modules. Invited talk at the 6th International Workshop on Advanced Materials Science and Nanotechnology IWAMSN2012, 30 October-2 November, 2012, Ha Long, Vietnam.

  1. Three-dimensional nanostructuring of polymer materials by controlled avalanche using femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    RekštytÄ--, Sima; Jonušauskas, Linas; Žukauskas, Albertas; Gervinskas, Gediminas; Malinauskas, Mangirdas; Juodkazis, Saulius

    2014-03-01

    We report direct laser fabrication of free-standing 3D structures in a sol-gel photo-polymer SZ2080, poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEG-DA-700) and thermo-polymer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) without use of two-photon absorbing photo-sensitizers. By estimating the multi-photon and avalanche ionization rates in the focal volume it is shown that bulk structuring of pure materials was achieved via a controlled avalanche. It is shown that several non-photosesitized materials can be combined for fabrication of composite material structures evoking a possibility to create non-toxic biocompatible scaffolds for tissue engineering, transparent microoptical elements and higher damage threshold photonic devices.

  2. Nano-structural analysis of effective transport paths in fuel-cell catalyst layers by using stochastic material network methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Seungho; Kim, Ah-Reum; Um, Sukkee

    2016-02-01

    A two-dimensional material network model has been developed to visualize the nano-structures of fuel-cell catalysts and to search for effective transport paths for the optimal performance of fuel cells in randomly-disordered composite catalysts. Stochastic random modeling based on the Monte Carlo method is developed using random number generation processes over a catalyst layer domain at a 95% confidence level. After the post-determination process of the effective connectivity, particularly for mass transport, the effective catalyst utilization factors are introduced to determine the extent of catalyst utilization in the fuel cells. The results show that the superficial pore volume fractions of 600 trials approximate a normal distribution curve with a mean of 0.5. In contrast, the estimated volume fraction of effectively inter-connected void clusters ranges from 0.097 to 0.420, which is much smaller than the superficial porosity of 0.5 before the percolation process. Furthermore, the effective catalyst utilization factor is determined to be linearly proportional to the effective porosity. More importantly, this study reveals that the average catalyst utilization is less affected by the variations of the catalyst's particle size and the absolute catalyst loading at a fixed volume fraction of void spaces.

  3. Fabrication of Smart Chemical Sensors Based on Transition-Doped-Semiconductor Nanostructure Materials with µ-Chips

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Mohammed M.; Khan, Sher Bahadar; Asiri, Abdullah M.

    2014-01-01

    Transition metal doped semiconductor nanostructure materials (Sb2O3 doped ZnO microflowers, MFs) are deposited onto tiny µ-chip (surface area, ∼0.02217 cm2) to fabricate a smart chemical sensor for toxic ethanol in phosphate buffer solution (0.1 M PBS). The fabricated chemi-sensor is also exhibited higher sensitivity, large-dynamic concentration ranges, long-term stability, and improved electrochemical performances towards ethanol. The calibration plot is linear (r2 = 0.9989) over the large ethanol concentration ranges (0.17 mM to 0.85 M). The sensitivity and detection limit is ∼5.845 µAcm−2mM−1 and ∼0.11±0.02 mM (signal-to-noise ratio, at a SNR of 3) respectively. Here, doped MFs are prepared by a wet-chemical process using reducing agents in alkaline medium, which characterized by UV/vis., FT-IR, Raman, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) etc. The fabricated ethanol chemical sensor using Sb2O3-ZnO MFs is simple, reliable, low-sample volume (<70.0 µL), easy of integration, high sensitivity, and excellent stability for the fabrication of efficient I–V sensors on μ-chips. PMID:24454785

  4. Nano-structured composite of Si/(S-doped-carbon nanowire network) as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Dan; Tang, Daoping; Yang, Jianwen; Li, Yanwei; Zhang, Lingzhi

    2015-11-01

    Novel nanostructured silicon composites, Si/Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) nanowire network (Si/PNW) and Si/(S-doped-carbon nanowire network) (Si/S-CNW), are prepared by a soft-template polymerization of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as surfactant with the presence of Si nanoparticles and a subsequent carbonization of Si/PNW, respectively. The presence of Si nanoparticles in the soft-template polymerization of EDOT plays a critical role in the formation of PEDOT nanowire network instead of 1D nanowire. After the carbonization of PEDOT, the S-doped-carbon nanowire network matrix shows higher electrical conductivity than PNW counterpart, which facilitates to construct robust conductive bridges between Si nanoparticles and provide large electrode/electrolyte interfaces for rapid charge transfer reactions. Thus, Si/S-CNW composite exhibits excellent cycling stability and rate capability as anode material, retaining a specific capacity of 820 mAh g-1 after 400 cycles with a very small capacity fade of 0.09% per cycle.

  5. A facile route for 3D aerogels from nanostructured 1D and 2D materials

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sung Mi; Jung, Hyun Young; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.; Jung, Yung Joon; Kong, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Aerogels have numerous applications due to their high surface area and low densities. However, creating aerogels from a large variety of materials has remained an outstanding challenge. Here, we report a new methodology to enable aerogel production with a wide range of materials. The method is based on the assembly of anisotropic nano-objects (one-dimensional (1D) nanotubes, nanowires, or two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets) into a cross-linking network from their colloidal suspensions at the transition from the semi-dilute to the isotropic concentrated regime. The resultant aerogels have highly porous and ultrafine three-dimensional (3D) networks consisting of 1D (Ag, Si, MnO2, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs)) and 2D materials (MoS2, graphene, h-BN) with high surface areas, low densities, and high electrical conductivities. This method opens up a facile route for aerogel production with a wide variety of materials and tremendous opportunities for bio-scaffold, energy storage, thermoelectric, catalysis, and hydrogen storage applications. PMID:23152940

  6. Single potential electrodeposition of nanostructured battery materials for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosby, James Matthew

    The increasing reliance on portable electronics is continuing to fuel research in the area of low power lithium-ion batteries, while a new surge in research for high power lithium-ion batteries has been sparked by the demand for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and plug-in electric vehicles (PEV). To compete with current lead-acid battery chemistry, a few of the shortcomings of lithium-ion battery chemistry need to be addressed. The three main drawbacks of lithium-ion batteries for this application are: (1) low power density, (2) safety, and (3) the high cost of manufacturing. This dissertation covers the development of a low cost fabrication technique for an alternative anode material with high surface area geometries. The anode material is safer than the conventional anode material in lithium-ion batteries and the high surface area geometries permit higher power densities to be achieved. Electrodeposition is an inexpensive alternative method for synthesizing materials for electronics, energy conversion and energy storage applications relative to traditional solid state techniques. These techniques led to expensive device fabrication. Unlike most solid state synthesis routes, electrodeposition can usually be performed from common solutions and at moderate conditions. Three other benefits of using electrodeposition are: (1) it allows precise control of composition and crystallinity, (2) it provides the ability to deposit on complex shapes, and (3) it can deposit materials with nanoscale dimensions. The use of electrodeposition for alternative anode materials results in the deposition of the material directly onto the current collector that is used for the battery testing and applications without the need of additional binders and with excellent electrical contact. While this improves the characterization of the material and lowers the weight of the non-active materials within a battery, it also allows the anode to be deposited onto current collectors with

  7. Dendrite-like Co3O4 nanostructure and its applications in sensors, supercapacitors and catalysis.

    PubMed

    Pang, Huan; Gao, Feng; Chen, Qun; Liu, Rongmei; Lu, Qingyi

    2012-05-21

    Dendrite-like Co(3)O(4) nanostructure, made up of many nanorods with diameters of 15-20 nm and lengths of 2-3 μm, has been successfully prepared by calcining the corresponding nanostructured Co-8-hydroxyquinoline coordination precursor in air. The Co(3)O(4) nanostructure was evaluated as an electrochemical sensor for H(2)O(2) detection and the results reveal that it has good linear dependence and high sensitivity to H(2)O(2) concentration changes. As an electrode material of a supercapacitor, it was found that the nanostructured Co(3)O(4) electrode exhibits high specific capacitance and long cycle life. The Co(3)O(4) nanostructure also has good catalytic properties and is steadily active for CO oxidation, giving 100% CO conversion at low temperatures. The multifunctional Co(3)O(4) nanostructure would be a promising functional nanomaterial applied in multi industrialized fields. PMID:22453646

  8. Repairable, nanostructured biomimetic hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firestone, M.; Brombosz, S.; Grubjesic, S.

    2013-03-01

    Proteins facilitate many key cellular processes, including signal recognition and energy transduction. The ability to harness this evolutionarily-optimized functionality could lead to the development of protein-based systems useful for advancing alternative energy storage and conversion. The future of protein-based, however, requires the development of materials that will stabilize, order and control the activity of the proteins. Recently we have developed a synthetic approach for the preparation of a durable biomimetic chemical hydrogel that can be reversibly swollen in water. The matrix has proven ideal for the stable encapsulation of both water- and membrane-soluble proteins. The material is composed of an aqueous dispersion of a diacrylate end-derivatized PEO-PPO-PEO macromer, a saturated phospholipid and a zwitterionic co-surfactant that self-assembles into a nanostructured physical gel at room temperature as determined by X-ray scattering. The addition of a water soluble PEGDA co-monomer and photoinitator does not alter the self-assembled structure and UV irradiation serves to crosslink the acrylate end groups on the macromer with the PEGDA forming a network within the aqueous domains as determined by FT-IR. More recently we have begun to incorporate reversible crosslinks employing Diels-Alder chemistry, allowing for the extraction and replacement of inactive proteins. The ability to replenish the materials with active, non-denatured forms of protein is an important step in advancing these materials for use in nanostructured devices This work was supported by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences, USDoE under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  9. Surface-functionalized mesoporous carbon materials

    DOEpatents

    Dai, Sheng; Gorka, Joanna; Mayes, Richard T.

    2016-02-02

    A functionalized mesoporous carbon composition comprising a mesoporous carbon scaffold having mesopores in which polyvinyl polymer grafts are covalently attached, wherein said mesopores have a size of at least 2 nm and up to 50 nm. Also described is a method for producing the functionalized mesoporous composition, wherein a reaction medium comprising a precursor mesoporous carbon, vinyl monomer, initiator, and solvent is subjected to sonication of sufficient power to result in grafting and polymerization of the vinyl monomer into mesopores of the precursor mesoporous carbon. Also described are methods for using the functionalized mesoporous carbon, particularly in extracting metal ions from metal-containing solutions.

  10. Alternative nano-structured thin-film materials used as durable thermal nanoimprint lithography templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossard, M.; Boussey, J.; Le Drogoff, B.; Chaker, M.

    2016-02-01

    Nanoimprint templates made of diamond-like carbon (DLC) and amorphous silicon carbide (SiC) thin films and fluorine-doped associated materials, i.e. F-DLC and F-SiC were investigated in the context of thermal nanoimprint lithography (NIL) with respect to their release properties. Their performances in terms of durability and stability were evaluated and compared to those of conventional silicon or silica molds coated with antisticking molecules applied as a self-assembled monolayer. Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition parameters were firstly tuned to optimize mechanical and structural properties of the DLC and SiC thin films. The impact of the amount of fluorine dopant on the deposited thin films properties was then analyzed. A comparative analysis of DLC, F-DLC as well as SiC and F-SiC molds was then carried out over multiple imprints, performed into poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) thermo-plastic resist. The release properties of un-patterned films were evaluated by the measurement of demolding energies and surface energies, associated with a systematic analysis of the mold surface contamination. These analyses showed that the developed materials behave as intrinsically easy-demolding and contamination-free molds over series of up to 40 imprints. To our knowledge, it is the first time that such a large number of imprints has been considered within an exhaustive comparative study of materials for NIL. Finally, the developed materials went through standard e-beam lithography and plasma etching processes to obtain nanoscale-patterned templates. The replicas of those patterned molds, imprinted into PMMA, were shown to be of high fidelity and good stability after several imprints.

  11. Alternative nano-structured thin-film materials used as durable thermal nanoimprint lithography templates.

    PubMed

    Bossard, M; Boussey, J; Le Drogoff, B; Chaker, M

    2016-02-19

    Nanoimprint templates made of diamond-like carbon (DLC) and amorphous silicon carbide (SiC) thin films and fluorine-doped associated materials, i.e. F-DLC and F-SiC were investigated in the context of thermal nanoimprint lithography (NIL) with respect to their release properties. Their performances in terms of durability and stability were evaluated and compared to those of conventional silicon or silica molds coated with antisticking molecules applied as a self-assembled monolayer. Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition parameters were firstly tuned to optimize mechanical and structural properties of the DLC and SiC thin films. The impact of the amount of fluorine dopant on the deposited thin films properties was then analyzed. A comparative analysis of DLC, F-DLC as well as SiC and F-SiC molds was then carried out over multiple imprints, performed into poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) thermo-plastic resist. The release properties of un-patterned films were evaluated by the measurement of demolding energies and surface energies, associated with a systematic analysis of the mold surface contamination. These analyses showed that the developed materials behave as intrinsically easy-demolding and contamination-free molds over series of up to 40 imprints. To our knowledge, it is the first time that such a large number of imprints has been considered within an exhaustive comparative study of materials for NIL. Finally, the developed materials went through standard e-beam lithography and plasma etching processes to obtain nanoscale-patterned templates. The replicas of those patterned molds, imprinted into PMMA, were shown to be of high fidelity and good stability after several imprints. PMID:26783068

  12. Stalking the Materials Genome: A Data-Driven Approach to the Virtual Design of Nanostructured Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Bharath; Krein, Michael; Wu, Ke; Morkowchuk, Lisa; Li, Yang; Deng, Hua; Xu, Hongyi

    2016-01-01

    Accelerated insertion of nanocomposites into advanced applications is predicated on the ability to perform a priori property predictions on the resulting materials. In this paper, a paradigm for the virtual design of spherical nanoparticle-filled polymers is demonstrated. A key component of this “Materials Genomics” approach is the development and use of Materials Quantitative Structure-Property Relationship (MQSPR) models trained on atomic-level features of nanofiller and polymer constituents and used to predict the polar and dispersive components of their surface energies. Surface energy differences are then correlated with the nanofiller dispersion morphology and filler/matrix interface properties and integrated into a numerical analysis approach that allows the prediction of thermomechanical properties of the spherical nanofilled polymer composites. Systematic experimental studies of silica nanoparticles modified with three different surface chemistries in polystyrene (PS), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), poly(ethyl methacrylate) (PEMA) and poly(2-vinyl pyridine) (P2VP) are used to validate the models. While demonstrated here as effective for the prediction of meso-scale morphologies and macro-scale properties under quasi-equilibrium processing conditions, the protocol has far ranging implications for Virtual Design.

  13. Synthesis of nanostructured hybrid sorbent materials using organosilane self-assembly on mesoporous ceramic oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Fryxell, Glen E.

    2007-01-30

    The single most important factor in determining quality of life in human society is the availability of pure, clean drinking water. Wars have been fought, and will continue to be fought, over access and control of clean water. Drinking water has two major classes of contamination, biological contamination and chemical contamination. Bacterial contamination can be dealt with by a number of well-established technologies (e.g. chlorination, ozone, UV, etc.), but chemical contamination is a somewhat more challenging target. Common organic contaminants, such as pesticides, agricultural chemicals, industrial solvents, and fuels can be removed by treatment with UV/ozone, activated carbon or plasma technologies. Toxic heavy metals like mercury, lead and cadmium can be partially addressed by using traditional sorbent materials like alumina, but these materials bind metal ions non-specifically and can easily be saturated with harmless, ubiquitous species like calcium, magnesium and zinc (which are actually nutrients, and don’t need to be removed). Another weakness of these traditional sorbent materials is that metal ion sorption to a ceramic oxide surface is a reversible process, meaning they can easily desorb back into the drinking water supply.

  14. Nanostructured catalyst materials for next generation polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khudhayer, Wisam J.

    Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are electrochemical energy conversion devices which have demonstrated great promise as future energy sources for electric vehicles, as they convert chemical energy to electrical energy with a significantly higher efficiency and lower environmental impact than in standard combustion processes. However, the commercialization of PEM fuel cells for transportation applications has been hindered by several factors such as high cost of Pt, low Pt utilization, poor long-term durability of the conventional PEM fuel cell catalyst (Pt nanoparticels supported on carbon black; Pt/C), and poor thermal and chemical stability of the electrocatalyst supports (carbon black). The goal of this research was to fabricate high performance, durable, carbon-free, controllable porosity, and low cost (low Pt loading) sputtered-nanostructured electrocatalysts and investigate their morphologies, crystal properties, and electrocatalytic activities. First, the electrocatalytic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity of vertically-aligned solid Pt nanorods was evaluated. A glancing angle deposition (GLAD) technique was used to fabricate Pt nanorod arrays directly on glassy carbon (GC) electrodes. It was found that Pt-nanorod electrocatalysts exhibit higher area-specific activity, greater electrochemical stability, higher electron-transfer rate constant, and comparable activation energy for ORR than those of Pt/C due to their larger crystallite size, single-crystal property, and dominance of the preferred crystal orientations (Pt[110]) for ORR. However, Pt nanorods show lower mass specific activity than that of Pt/C electrocatalyst due to the large diameter of nanorods. Second, to further enhance the mass-specific activity of solid GLAD Pt nanorods, the GLAD chromium (Cr) nanorods were used as low-cost catalyst supports for conformal Pt thin film coating achieved by a small angle deposition (SAD) technique as a potential catalyst electrode for oxygen

  15. Detection of volatile organic compounds using flexible gas sensing devices based on tungsten oxide nanostructures functionalized with Au and Pt nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Vallejos, S; Gràcia, I; Bravo, J; Figueras, E; Hubálek, J; Cané, C

    2015-07-01

    Flexible gas sensor devices are fabricated and optimized by integrating directly, via a single-step vapor-phase deposition method, highly crystalline tungsten oxide nanostructures functionalized with either gold or platinum nanoparticles. Gas tests of these devices show significant improvements with respect to flexible gas sensors based on non-functionalized structures, including greater responses to various volatile organic compounds (ethanol, acetone, methanol and toluene) and better selectivity towards ethanol and methanol, as demonstrate results for the sensors based on platinum-functionalized structures. The method presented here, which includes the fabrication of the whole flexible gas sensing device and the integration of functional nanostructures without the use of transfer methods, provides a simpler, faster and inexpensive method for the fabrication of highly functional flexible microsystems for gas sensing. PMID:25882404

  16. Redox preparation of mixed-valence cobalt manganese oxide nanostructured materials: highly efficient noble metal-free electrocatalysts for sensing hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Cheng-Chi; Lan, Wen-Jie; Chen, Chun-Hu

    2013-12-01

    High-performance hydrogen peroxide sensors provide valuable signals of biological interactions, disorders, and developing of diseases. Low-cost metal oxides are promising alternatives but suffer from low conductivity and sensing activity. Multi-component metal oxides are excellent candidates to accomplish these challenges, but the composition inhomogeneity is difficult to manage with conventional material preparation. We demonstrated redox preparation strategies to successfully synthesize highly homogeneous, noble metal-free H2O2 sensors of spinel nanostructured cobalt manganese oxides with enhanced conductivity, multiple mixed-valence features, and efficient H2O2 sensing activities. The designed redox reactions accompanied with material nucleation/formation are the key factors for compositional homogeneity. High conductivity (1.5 × 10-2 S cm-1) and H2O2 sensing activity (12 times higher than commercial Co3O4) were achieved due to the homogeneous multiple mixed-valence systems of Co(ii)/(iii) and Mn(iii)/(iv). A wide linear detection range (from 0.1 to 25 mM) with a detection limit of 15 μM was observed. Manganese species assist the formation of large surface area nanostructures, enhancing the H2O2 reduction activities, and inhibit the sensing interference. The material controls of hierarchical nanostructures, elemental compositions, porosity, and electrochemical performances are highly associated with the reaction temperatures. The temperature-dependent properties and nanostructure formation mechanisms based on a reaction rate competition are proposed.High-performance hydrogen peroxide sensors provide valuable signals of biological interactions, disorders, and developing of diseases. Low-cost metal oxides are promising alternatives but suffer from low conductivity and sensing activity. Multi-component metal oxides are excellent candidates to accomplish these challenges, but the composition inhomogeneity is difficult to manage with conventional material

  17. Nonlinear optics and carrier dynamics in nanostructured and two-dimensional materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suess, Ryan J.

    Understanding and measuring the interaction of light with sub-wavelength structures and atomically thin materials is of critical importance for the development of next generation photonic devices. One approach to achieve the desired optical properties in a material is to manipulate its mesoscopic structure or its composition in order to affect the properties of the light-matter interaction. There has been tremendous recent interest in so called two-dimensional materials, consisting of only a single to a few layers of atoms arranged in a planar sheet. These materials have demonstrated great promise as a platform for studying unique phenomena arising from the low-dimensionality of the material and for developing new types of devices based on these effects. A thorough investigation of the optical and electronic properties of these new materials is essential to realizing their potential. In this work we present studies that explore the nonlinear optical properties and carrier dynamics in nanoporous silicon waveguides, two-dimensional graphite (graphene), and atomically thin black phosphorus. We first present an investigation of the nonlinear response of nanoporous silicon optical waveguides using a novel pump-probe method. A two-frequency heterodyne technique is developed in order to measure the pump-induced transient change in phase and intensity in a single measurement. The experimental data reveal a characteristic material response time and temporally resolved intensity and phase behavior matching a physical model dominated by free-carrier effects that are significantly stronger and faster than those observed in traditional silicon-based waveguides. These results shed light on the large optical nonlinearity observed in nanoporous silicon and demonstrate a new measurement technique for heterodyne pump-probe spectroscopy. Next we explore the optical properties of low-doped graphene in the terahertz spectral regime, where both intraband and interband effects play a

  18. Preparation and characterization of photocatalytic carbon dots-sensitized electrospun titania nanostructured fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Haopeng; Zhu, Yihua; Cao, Huimin; Yang, Xiaoling; Li, Chunzhong

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► The TiO{sub 2}-CDs nanostructured fibers are fabricated by using APS combining the electrospinning TiO{sub 2} nanostructured fibers and CDs. ► The CD can work as a photosensitizer in the degradation of rhodamine B under visible light irradiation. ► The TiO{sub 2}-CDs nanostructured fibers exhibit enhanced photocatalytic efficiency and can be easily handled and recycled. -- Abstract: The carbon dots (CDs) are new functional carbon-aceous materials. Compared to conventional dye molecules and semiconductor quantum dots, CDs are superior in chemical inertness and low toxicity. The TiO{sub 2}-CDs nanostructured fibers were fabricated by combining the electrospinning technique and reflux method. Compared with the pure TiO{sub 2} nanostructured fibers and P25, the TiO{sub 2}-CDs nanostructured fibers exhibited enhanced photocatalytic efficiency of photodegradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2}-CDs nanostructured fibers could be attributed to the presence of CDs embedded in TiO{sub 2} nanostructured fibers. The CD can work as a photosensitizer in the degradation. Furthermore, the TiO{sub 2}-CDs nanostructured fibers could be easily handled and recycled due to their one-dimensional nanostructural property.

  19. Spectroscopic, luminescent and laser properties of nanostructured CaF2:Tm materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyapin, A. A.; Fedorov, P. P.; Garibin, E. A.; Malov, A. V.; Osiko, V. V.; Ryabochkina, P. A.; Ushakov, S. N.

    2013-08-01

    The laser quality transparent СаF2:Tm fluoride ceramics has been prepared by hot forming. Comparative study of absorption and emission spectra of СаF2:Tm (4 mol.% TmF3) ceramic and single crystal samples demonstrated that these materials possess almost identical spectroscopic properties. Laser oscillations of СаF2:Tm ceramics were obtained at 1898 nm under diode pumping, with the slope efficiency of 5.5%. Also, the continuous-wave (CW) laser have been obtained for СаF2:Tm single crystal at 1890 nm pumped by a diode laser was demonstrated.

  20. Hybrid nanostructured microporous carbon-mesoporous carbon doped titanium dioxide/sulfur composite positive electrode materials for rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zegeye, Tilahun Awoke; Kuo, Chung-Feng Jeffrey; Wotango, Aselefech Sorsa; Pan, Chun-Jern; Chen, Hung-Ming; Haregewoin, Atetegeb Meazah; Cheng, Ju-Hsiang; Su, Wei-Nien; Hwang, Bing-Joe

    2016-08-01

    Herein, we design hybrid nanostructured microporous carbon-mesoporous carbon doped titanium dioxide/sulfur composite (MC-Meso C-doped TiO2/S) as a positive electrode material for lithium-sulfur batteries. The hybrid MC-Meso C-doped TiO2 host material is produced by a low-cost, hydrothermal and annealing process. The resulting conductive material shows dual microporous and mesoporous behavior which enhances the effective trapping of sulfur and polysulfides. The hybrid MC-Meso C-doped TiO2/S composite material possesses rutile TiO2 nanotube structure with successful carbon doping while sulfur is uniformly distributed in the hybrid MC-Meso C-doped TiO2 composite materials after the melt-infusion process. The electrochemical measurement of the hybrid material also shows improved cycle stability and rate performance with high sulfur loading (61.04%). The material delivers an initial discharge capacity of 802 mAh g-1 and maintains it at 578 mAh g-1 with a columbic efficiency greater than 97.1% after 140 cycles at 0.1 C. This improvement is thought to be attributed to the unique hybrid nanostructure of the MC-Meso C-doped TiO2 host and the good dispersion of sulfur in the narrow pores of the MC spheres and the mesoporous C-doped TiO2 support.

  1. Hybrid nanostructured microporous carbon-mesoporous carbon doped titanium dioxide/sulfur composite positive electrode materials for rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zegeye, Tilahun Awoke; Kuo, Chung-Feng Jeffrey; Wotango, Aselefech Sorsa; Pan, Chun-Jern; Chen, Hung-Ming; Haregewoin, Atetegeb Meazah; Cheng, Ju-Hsiang; Su, Wei-Nien; Hwang, Bing-Joe

    2016-08-01

    Herein, we design hybrid nanostructured microporous carbon-mesoporous carbon doped titanium dioxide/sulfur composite (MC-Meso C-doped TiO2/S) as a positive electrode material for lithium-sulfur batteries. The hybrid MC-Meso C-doped TiO2 host material is produced by a low-cost, hydrothermal and annealing process. The resulting conductive material shows dual microporous and mesoporous behavior which enhances the effective trapping of sulfur and polysulfides. The hybrid MC-Meso C-doped TiO2/S composite material possesses rutile TiO2 nanotube structure with successful carbon doping while sulfur is uniformly distributed in the hybrid MC-Meso C-doped TiO2 composite materials after the melt-infusion process. The electrochemical measurement of the hybrid material also shows improved cycle stability and rate performance with high sulfur loading (61.04%). The material delivers an initial discharge capacity of 802 mAh g-1 and maintains it at 578 mAh g-1 with a columbic efficiency greater than 97.1% after 140 cycles at 0.1 C. This improvement is thought to be attributed to the unique hybrid nanostructure of the MC-Meso C-doped TiO2 host and the good dispersion of sulfur in the narrow pores of the MC spheres and the mesoporous C-doped TiO2 support.

  2. Bio-inspired Propulsion with Functionally Graded Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleicher, William; Floryan, Daniel; van Buren, Tyler; Smits, Alexander; Moored, Keith; Lehigh University Team; Priceton University Team

    2015-11-01

    From an engineering perspective, biological swimmers are a composite material system with varying material properties across their propulsors. These material properties govern how the swimmer's structure interacts with its surrounding fluid. A two dimensional boundary element fluid solver is strongly coupled to a direct, implicit, geometrically non-linear structure solver to study the effects of functionally graded materials. A zeroth order functionally graded material approximation is used, where a rigid material abruptly meets a flexible material. Thrust, input power, and propulsive efficiency are studied as functions of non-dimensional frequency, reduced frequency, Strouhal number, flexion ratio, and effective stiffness. The numerical results are compared to experimental results for zero attack angle cases, building confidence in the numerical model. The results are further compared to structurally rigid materials. Supported by the Office of Naval Research under Program Director Dr. Bob Brizzolara, MURI grant number N00014-14-1-0533.

  3. Formation of nanostructure in magnesium diboride based materials with high superconducting characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prikhna, T. A.; Shapovalov, A. P.; Grechnev, G. E.; Boutko, V. G.; Gusev, A. A.; Kozyrev, A. V.; Belogolovskiy, M. A.; Moshchil, V. E.; Sverdun, V. B.

    2016-05-01

    The paper presents an analysis of the properties of bulk superconducting magnesium diboride-based materials obtained by heating at high quasi-hydrostatic pressures (1-2 GPa), hot pressing (30 MPa), spark plasma sintering (16-96 MPa) and loose powder sintering. It is shown that the optimization of impurity distribution in MgB2 can be achieved by varying the synthesis conditions and introducing dopants. In particular, polycrystalline MgB2 materials synthesized at 2 GPa and containing a high amount of impurity oxygen demonstrates high critical current densities (106 and 103 A/cm2 at 20 K in magnetic fields of 1 and 8.5 T, respectively). It is found that the oxygen impurities are mainly localized in nanolayers or nanoinclusions, homogeneously distributed in the matrix. They act as pinning centers, while the MgB2 matrix also contains small amounts of dissolved oxygen. Impurity or intentionally added carbon entering the magnesium diboride structure leads to an increase in the critical magnetic fields up to Bc2 (22 K) = 15 T and Birr (18.5 K) = 15 T. The results of ab initio calculations of the electronic structure and stability of the magnesium diboride compounds with partial oxygen or carbon substitution for boron show that it is energetically favorable for carbon to distribute homogeneously in MgB2 structure, while oxygen atoms replace boron pairwise in neighboring positions or form zigzag chains.

  4. Differentiated growth of human renal tubule cells on thin-film and nanostructured materials.

    PubMed

    Fissell, William H; Manley, Sargum; Westover, Angela; Humes, H David; Fleischman, Aaron J; Roy, Shuvo

    2006-01-01

    Over 300,000 Americans are dependent on hemodialysis as treatment for renal failure, and kidney transplantation is limited by scarcity of donor organs. This shortage has prompted research into tissue engineering of renal replacement therapy. Existing bioartificial kidneys are large and their use labor intensive, but they have shown improved survival compared to conventional therapy in preclinical studies and an US Food and Drug Administration-approved phase 2 clinical trial. This hybrid technology will require miniaturization of hemofilters, cell culture substrates, sensors, and integration of control electronics. Using the same harvesting and isolation techniques used in preparing bioartificial kidneys for clinical use, we characterized human renal tubule cell growth on a variety of silicon and related thin-film material substrates commonly used in the construction of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), as well as novel silicon nanopore membranes (SNMs). Human cortical tubular epithelial cells (HCTC) were seeded onto samples of single-crystal silicon, polycrystalline silicon, silicon dioxide, silicon nitride, SU-8 photoresist, SNMs, and polyester tissue culture inserts, and grown to confluence. The cells formed confluent monolayers with tight junctions and central cilia. Transepithelial resistances were similar between SNMs and polyester membranes. The differentiated growth of human tubular epithelial cells on MEMS materials strongly suggests that miniaturization of the existing bioartificial kidney will be feasible, paving the way for widespread application of this novel technology. PMID:16760708

  5. Advanced Functional Materials for Energy Related Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasan, Koroush

    The current global heavy dependency on fossil fuels gives rise to two critical problems: I) fossil fuels will be depleted in the near future; II) the release of green house gas CO2 generated by the combustion of fossil fuels contributes to global warming. To potentially address both problems, this dissertation documents three primary areas of investigation related to the development of alternative energy sources: electrocatalysts for fuel cells, photocatalysts for hydrogen generation, and photoreduction catalysts for converting CO2 to CH4. Fuel cells could be a promising source of alternative energy. Decreasing the cost and improving the durability and power density of Pt/C as a catalyst for reducing oxygen are major challenges for developing fuel cells. To address these concerns, we have synthesized a Nitrogen-Sulfur-Iron-doped porous carbon material. Our results indicate that the synthesized catalyst exhibits not only higher current density and stability but also higher tolerance to crossover chemicals than the commercial Pt/C catalyst. More importantly, the synthetic method is simple and inexpensive. Using photocatalysts and solar energy is another potential alternative solution for energy demand. We have synthesized a new biomimetic heterogeneous photocatalyst through the incorporation of homogeneous complex 1 [(i-SCH 2)2NC(O)C5H4N]-Fe2(CO) 6] into the highly robust zirconium-porphyrin based metal-organic framework (ZrPF). As photosensitizer ZrPF absorbs the visible light and produces photoexcited electrons that can be transferred through axial covalent bond to di-nuclear complex 1 for hydrogen generation. Additionally, we have studied the photoreduction of CO2 to CH4 using self-doped TiO2 (Ti+3@TiO 2) as photocatalytic materials. The incorporation of Ti3+ into TiO2 structures narrows the band gap, leading to significantly increased photocatalytic activity for the reduction of CO2 into renewable hydrocarbon fuel in the presence of water vapor under visible

  6. Nanostructured lipid carrier surface modified with Eudragit RS 100 and its potential ophthalmic functions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenji; Li, Xuedong; Ye, Tiantian; Chen, Fen; Yu, Shihui; Chen, Jianting; Yang, Xinggang; Yang, Na; Zhang, Jinsong; Liu, Jinlu; Pan, Weisan; Kong, Jun

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the ocular performance of a cationic Eudragit (EDU) RS 100-coated nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC). The genistein encapsulated NLC (GEN-NLC) was produced using the melt-emulsification technique followed by surface absorption of EDU RS 100. The EDU RS 100 increased the surface zeta potential from −7.46 mV to +13.60 mV, by uniformly forming a spherical coating outside the NLC surface, as shown by transmission electron microscopy images. The EDU RS 100 on the NLC surface effectively improved the NLC stability by inhibiting particle size growth. The obtained EDU RS 100-GEN-NLC showed extended precorneal clearance and a 1.22-fold increase in AUC (area under the curve) compared with the bare NLC in a Gamma scintigraphic evaluation. The EDU RS 100 modification also significantly increased corneal penetration producing a 3.3-fold increase in apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) compared with references. Draize and cytotoxicity testing confirmed that the developed EDU RS 100-GEN-NLC was nonirritant to ocular tissues and nontoxic to corneal cells. These results indicate that the NLC surface modified by EDU RS 100 significantly improves the NLC properties and exhibits many advantages for ocular use. PMID:25246787

  7. New materials and functionality in spintronics devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Lubna R.

    The next generation of electronics devices, known as spintronics, which incorporate the spin property of the carriers in combination with their charge degree of freedom is the focus of to-date research. Therefore, exciting new classes of materials have been emerging for the last few years for the development of spintronics devices. This study has been carried out to understand/control various properties of such materials at the fundamental level which is important for the spintronics devices applications. Materials studied here include magnetic semiconductors, magnetostrictive alloys and magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJ) based sensors. In the first part, a comparative study of the room temperature ferromagnetism of Co doped ZnO and CeO2 is presented with emphasis on the role of dopant, defects and host oxide. Systemic structural, magnetic, and transport analyses reveal that the nature of donor defects and host oxide plays a vital role in establishing ferromagnetism. This study provides an insight into the underlying mechanisms responsible for the ferromagnetism in Co-ZnO and Co-CeO 2. Moreover, the discussed exchange mechanisms are in good agreement with the electronic structure calculation of magnetic impurity ions and defects. Composite materials with strong magneto-electric (ME) coupling require magnetic thin films with large saturation magnetostriction constant at low magnetic fields. In the second part of this dissertation, we have studied FeGa alloys where changes in their microstructure with the incorporation of boron occur. These changes make this material a soft magnetic alloy (coercivity ˜ 2 Oe) which has a narrow ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) line width, large magnetostriction and high saturation magnetization. The anisotropy values have been extracted from study of the angular dependence of FMR. This work highlights the role of crystalline anisotropy and induced uniaxial anisotropy which determine the magnetic softness and enhanced magnetostriction at

  8. 29 CFR 1208.4 - Material relating to representation function.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Material relating to representation function. 1208.4 Section 1208.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION § 1208.4 Material relating to representation function. (a) The documents constituting the...

  9. 29 CFR 1208.4 - Material relating to representation function.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Material relating to representation function. 1208.4 Section 1208.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION § 1208.4 Material relating to representation function. (a) The documents constituting the...

  10. 29 CFR 1208.4 - Material relating to representation function.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Material relating to representation function. 1208.4 Section 1208.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued)