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Sample records for functional programming glasgow

  1. Gait and Glasgow Coma Scale scores can predict functional recovery in patients with traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Bilgin, Sevil; Guclu-Gunduz, Arzu; Oruckaptan, Hakan; Kose, Nezire; Celik, Bülent

    2012-09-01

    Fifty-one patients with mild (n = 14), moderate (n = 10) and severe traumatic brain injury (n = 27) received early rehabilitation. Level of consciousness was evaluated using the Glasgow Coma Score. Functional level was determined using the Glasgow Outcome Score, whilst mobility was evaluated using the Mobility Scale for Acute Stroke. Activities of daily living were assessed using the Barthel Index. Following Bobath neurodevelopmental therapy, the level of consciousness was significantly improved in patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury, but was not greatly influenced in patients with mild traumatic brain injury. Mobility and functional level were significantly improved in patients with mild, moderate and severe traumatic brain injury. Gait recovery was more obvious in patients with mild traumatic brain injury than in patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury. Activities of daily living showed an improvement but this was insignificant except for patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Nevertheless, complete recovery was not acquired at discharge. Multiple regression analysis showed that gait and Glasgow Coma Scale scores can be considered predictors of functional outcomes following traumatic brain injury. PMID:25624828

  2. Silica research in Glasgow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, B. W.; Cagnoli, G.; Casey, M. M.; Clubley, D.; Crooks, D. R. M.; Danzmann, K.; Elliffe, E. J.; Goßler, S.; Grant, A.; Grote, H.; Heptonstall, A.; Hough, J.; Jennrich, O.; Lück, H.; McIntosh, S. A.; Newton, G. P.; Palmer, D. A.; Plissi, M. V.; Robertson, D. I.; Robertson, N. A.; Rowan, S.; Skeldon, K. D.; Sneddon, P.; Strain, K. A.; Torrie, C. I.; Ward, H.; Willems, P. A.; Willke, B.; Winkler, W.

    2002-04-01

    The Glasgow group is involved in the construction of the GEO600 interferometer as well as in R&D activity on technology for advanced gravitational wave detectors. GEO600 will be the first GW detector using quasi-monolithic silica suspensions in order to decrease thermal noise significantly with respect to steel wire suspensions. The results concerning GEO600 suspension mounting and performance will be shown in the first section. Section 2 is devoted to the present results from the direct measurement of thermal noise in mirrors mounted in the 10 m interferometer in Glasgow which has a sensitivity limit of 4 × 10-19 m Hz-1/2 above 1 kHz. Section 3 presents results on the measurements of coating losses. R&D activity has been carried out to understand better how thermal noise in the suspensions affects the detector sensitivity, and in section 4 a discussion on the non-linear thermoelastic effect is presented.

  3. The medical collections at the University of Glasgow.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Maggie; McDonald, Stuart W

    2009-01-01

    The medical and other collections in the University of Glasgow have at their core the generous bequest of Dr William Hunter (1718 - 1783), a local man who rose to become an internationally renowned anatomist and obstetrician. The University does not have a Medical Museum as such but an Anatomy Museum, a Zoology Museum, a Pathology Collection, medical displays in the main halls of the Hunterian Museum in the Gilbert Scott Building and a rich collection of antiquarian medical books and archives as well as contemporary libraries. The Hunterian Collection, since its inauguration at the University of Glasgow in 1807, has engendered a spirit of diversity and scholarship that embraces many disciplines across the campus. The Hunterian Museum was the first public museum in Scotland and service to the local, national and international communities and response to their academic needs is very much at heart of its function today. PMID:20481359

  4. 78 FR 67024 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Glasgow, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... airspace at the Glasgow VOR/DME navigation aid, Glasgow, MT (78 FR 59807, September 30, 2013). The FAA... Federal Register of September 30, 2013 (78 FR 59807), Airspace Docket No. 13- ANM-17, FR Doc. 2013-23669... airspace at the Glasgow VHF Omni-Directional Radio Range/Distance Measuring Equipment (VOR/DME)...

  5. Program Computes Thermodynamic Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbride, Bonnie J.; Gordon, Sanford

    1994-01-01

    PAC91 is latest in PAC (Properties and Coefficients) series. Two principal features are to provide means of (1) generating theoretical thermodynamic functions from molecular constants and (2) least-squares fitting of these functions to empirical equations. PAC91 written in FORTRAN 77 to be machine-independent.

  6. Multiprocessor execution of functional programs

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, B. )

    1988-10-01

    Functional languages have recently gained attention as vehicles for programming in a concise and element manner. In addition, it has been suggested that functional programming provides a natural methodology for programming multiprocessor computers. This paper describes research that was performed to demonstrate that multiprocessor execution of functional programs on current multiprocessors is feasible, and results in a significant reduction in their execution times. Two implementations of the functional language ALFL were built on commercially available multiprocessors. Alfalfa is an implementation on the Intel iPSC hypercube multiprocessor, and Buckwheat is an implementation on the Encore Multimax shared-memory multiprocessor. Each implementation includes a compiler that performs automatic decomposition of ALFL programs and a run-time system that supports their execution. The compiler is responsible for detecting the inherent parallelism in a program, and decomposing the program into a collection of tasks, called serial combinators, that can be executed in parallel. The abstract machine model supported by Alfalfa and Buckwheat is called heterogeneous graph reduction, which is a hybrid of graph reduction and conventional stack-oriented execution. This model supports parallelism, lazy evaluation, and higher order functions while at the same time making efficient use of the processors in the system. The Alfalfa and Buckwheat runtime systems support dynamic load balancing, interprocessor communication (if required), and storage management. A large number of experiments were performed on Alfalfa and Buckwheat for a variety of programs. The results of these experiments, as well as the conclusions drawn from them, are presented.

  7. Multiprocessor execution of functional programs

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, B.F.

    1988-01-01

    Functional languages have recently gained attention as vehicles for programming in a concise and elegant manner. In addition, it has been suggested that functional programming provides a natural methodology for programming multiprocessor computers. This dissertation demonstrates that multiprocessor execution of functional programs is feasible, and results in a significant reduction in their execution times. Two implementations of the functional language ALFL were built on commercially available multiprocessors. ALFL is an implementation on the Intel iPSC hypercube multiprocessor, and Buckwheat is an implementation on the Encore Multimax shared-memory multiprocessor. Each implementation includes a compiler that performs automatic decomposition of ALFL programs. The compiler is responsible for detecting the inherent parallelism in a program, and decomposing the program into a collection of tasks, called serial combinators, that can be executed in parallel. One of the primary goals of the compiler is to generate serial combinators exhibiting the coarsest granularity possibly without sacrificing useful parallelism. This dissertation describes the algorithms used by the compiler to analyze, decompose, and optimize functional programs. The abstract machine model supported by Alfalfa and Buckwheat is called heterogeneous graph reduction, which is a hybrid of graph reduction and conventional stack-oriented execution. This model supports parallelism, lazy evaluation, and higher order functions while at the same time making efficient use of the processors in the system. The Alfalfa and Buckwheat run-time systems support dynamic load balancing, interprocessor communication (if required) and storage management. A large number of experiments were performed on Alfalfa and Buckwheat for a variety of programs. The results of these experiments, as well as the conclusions drawn from them, are presented.

  8. Road to refractory epilepsy: the Glasgow story.

    PubMed

    Brodie, Martin J

    2013-05-01

    This short article reviews 30 years of prospective observations on outcomes relevant to an expanding cohort of adolescent and adult patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy, who received their first antiepileptic drug (AED) and subsequent long-term follow-up at the Epilepsy Unit at the Western Infirmary in Glasgow, United Kingdom. Despite the fact that the overall prognosis has slowly improved over this time, >30% of the patients remain uncontrolled despite the introduction of a range of new AEDs, some with unique mechanisms of action, over the last 20 years. Most patients followed a constant course (59% controlled, 25% refractory), which could usually be predicted early. The remaining 16% fluctuated between periods of remission and relapse. The likelihood of seizure freedom declined with successive drug regimens, most markedly from the first to the third. A number of factors predicting poorer outcomes have been identified, particularly high pretreatment seizure density and concomitant psychiatric comorbidities. Novel approaches to identifying and treating the processes underpinning the generation and propagation of seizures are required if the current rather disappointing scenario is to be substantially improved. PMID:23646962

  9. Case Study: A Distance Education Contribution to a Social Strategy To Combat Poverty: Open University Community Education Courses in Glasgow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farnes, N. C.

    This project located in Glasgow, Scotland, is concerned with the use of distance teaching for a non-formal community education program that is a component of a social change strategy to combat poverty. The study shows that the use of distance learning courses in non-formal community education is successful in attracting, at a reasonable cost per…

  10. Female streetworking prostitution and HIV infection in Glasgow.

    PubMed Central

    McKeganey, N.; Barnard, M.; Leyland, A.; Coote, I.; Follet, E.

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To identify the extent of HIV infection and injecting drug use among female streetworking prostitutes in Glasgow; to estimate the size of the female streetworking prostitute population in the city; and to estimate the number of HIV positive women working as prostitutes on the streets in Glasgow. DESIGN--Observation and interviewing of female prostitutes over seven months in red light district; analysis of saliva samples for presence of antibodies to HIV; capture-recapture approach to estimating the size of the female streetworking prostitute population. SETTING--Glasgow. SUBJECTS--206 female streetworking prostitutes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Number of women with antibodies to HIV, self reported use of injecting drugs, history of contact with 206 women. RESULTS--Saliva samples were requested from 197 women; 159 (81%) provided samples. Four (2.5%, 95% confidence interval 0.7%-6.3%) of the samples were positive for HIV, all of which had been provided by women who injected drugs. Of the 206 streetworking women contacted 147 (71%) were injecting drug users. About 1150 women are estimated to work on the streets in Glasgow over a 12 month period. CONCLUSIONS--HIV is not as widespread among female prostitutes as many reports in the tabloid press suggest. A greater proportion of female streetworking prostitutes in Glasgow are injecting drugs than has been reported for other British cities. PMID:1422360

  11. The Physical Tourist Physics in Glasgow: A Heritage Tour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Sean F.

    2006-12-01

    I trace the history of the physical and applied sciences, and particularly physics, in Glasgow. Among the notable individuals I discuss are Joseph Black (1728 1799), James Watt (1736 1819), William John Macquorn Rankine (1820 1872), William Thomson, Lord Kelvin (1824 1907), John Kerr (1824 1907), Frederick Soddy (1877 1956), John Logie Baird (1888 1946), and Ian Donald (1910 1987), as well as physics-related businesses.The locations, centering on the city center and University of Glasgow, include sites both recognizable today and transformed from past usage, as well as museums and archives related to the history and interpretation of physics.

  12. Territorialities in Scotland: Perceptions of Young People in Glasgow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holligan, Christopher Peter; Deuchar, Ross

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an exploratory, small-scale qualitative research enquiry into the perceptions and experiences of young people in communities afflicted by deprivation in Glasgow, Scotland's largest city. The context within which we address this focus contains a culture reputed to involve sectarianism, territoriality and gangs.…

  13. Pure Dead Brilliant?: Evaluating the Glasgow Story Digitisation Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Ian G.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present an evaluation of The Glasgow Story (TGS) digitisation project, funded by the UK's National Lottery's New Opportunities Fund digitisation (NOF-Digi) programme, and a critique of the evaluation process itself. The paper emphasises the need for user impact evaluation and for results to be brought into…

  14. Emotional and Behavioural Development in Glasgow Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchett, Rachel; Nowek, Gail; Neill, Cróna; Minnis, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Studies examining the well-being of British children find that about 5-10% are at risk of developing problems. This study aimed to examine the emotional and behavioural development of six to eight year olds in an area of socio-economic deprivation in Glasgow (Scotland) and compare this with UK norms. Furthermore, it aimed to look at overlap…

  15. 78 FR 59807 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Glasgow, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to establish controlled airspace at Glasgow, MT (78 FR 41337). Interested...'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant... FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in 14 CFR...

  16. 76 FR 45179 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Glasgow, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... accommodate aircraft using Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) standard instrument approach... proposed rulemaking to amend Class E controlled airspace at Glasgow, MT (76 FR 30300). Interested parties...) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February...

  17. Aspects of neurosurgical assessment using the Glasgow Coma Scale.

    PubMed

    Ellis, A; Cavanagh, S J

    1992-06-01

    The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) has become a cornerstone of the neurological/surgical assessment of patients used by both nursing and medical staff. Since its development in the 1970s it has been used in a variety of clinical situations to monitor changes in a number of key neurological functions, including level of consciousness, pupil reaction and limb movement. During this time, however, there have been suggestions that there are problems with some of the measurement principles underlying its use, which in part has stimulated the development of other neuro-assessment tools. Irrespective of measurement device, there is always the possibility of error or incorrect assessment. In the field of neurosurgery, as with other high dependency environments, a patient's condition can change rapidly. Additionally, there is the association of certain assessment responses with nursing and medical interventions. Thus, accuracy in all aspects of assessment and recording is paramount. Despite the growing body of literature surrounding the GCS, little is known about the pattern of errors made by nursing staff using the GCS to assess neurosurgical patients. This study compared the assessment findings of Registered General Nurses (RGNs), Enrolled Nurses and Student Nurses after viewing videotaped neuro-assessments of patients in a high dependency unit. The criterion for judging the accuracy of subject's assessments was established by a panel of experts. As expected, RGNs had the highest proportion of correct assessments and students the least. Subjects were identified as having difficulty in determining the relative amounts of weakness that a patient exhibited, and in correctly distinguishing between flexion and extension. PMID:1611292

  18. Revisiting the eye opening response of the Glasgow Coma Scale.

    PubMed

    Rabiu, Taopheeq Bamidele

    2011-01-01

    The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), introduced by Teasdale and Jenneth in 1974, has received tremendous acclaim from clinicians and has been extensively used in clinical practice for the evaluation of the level of consciousness. The author notes that some traumatic brain injury patients close eyes in response to painful stimuli as opposed to the eye opening response to pain of the GCS. A revision of the eye opening response subsection of the GCS is suggested. PMID:21633551

  19. A survey of functional programming language principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, C. M.

    1986-01-01

    Research in the area of functional programming languages has intensified in the 8 years since John Backus' Turing Award Lecture on the topic was published. The purpose of this paper is to present a survey of the ideas of functional programming languages. The paper assumes the reader is comfortable with mathematics and has knowledge of the basic principles of traditional programming languages, but does not assume any prior knowledge of the ideas of functional languages. A simple functional language is defined and used to illustrate the basic ideas. Topics discussed include the reasons for developing functional languages, methods of expressing concurrency, the algebra of functional programming languages, program transformation techniques, and implementations of functional languages. Existing functional languages are also mentioned. The paper concludes with the author's opinions as to the future of functional languages. An annotated bibliography on the subject is also included.

  20. Unhealthy Glasgow: a case for ecological public health?

    PubMed

    Hanlon, Phil

    2015-10-01

    Ecological public health has been proposed as an approach appropriate for addressing the multiple transitions that currently affect human health and sustainability. The paper draws on the author's experience in public health in Glasgow to analyse the health challenges faced by this postindustrial Scottish city. Like other such cities, it not only faces multiple health challenges but also demonstrates a currently unexplained excess mortality that has been dubbed the 'Glasgow Effect'. To explore this troubled mixture, the paper outlines four historical waves of public health challenge and response in Glasgow over the last century, and proposes that a fifth is emerging. The challenge now is how to negotiate environmental sustainability with social, political and economic sustainability to enhance health for all. The paper suggests that gains made by past approaches still need to be protected and can be included within ecological public health, but they lack the wider vision, coherence and capacity required if cities are to address the scale and range of contemporary conditions. A number of lessons are offered for the ecological public health perspective. PMID:26376607

  1. Libraries for Life: Democracy, Diversity, Delivery. IFLA Council and General Conference: Conference Programme and Proceedings (68th, Glasgow, Scotland, August 18-24, 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, The Hague (Netherlands).

    This document presents the program and proceedings from the 68th International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) Conference held in Glasgow, Scotland, August 18-24, 2002. Topics of presentations include: library services for parliaments; needs assessment; the effects of September 11th on information provision and privacy;…

  2. Estimating the variability in the risk of infection for hepatitis C in the Glasgow injecting drug user population.

    PubMed

    Sutton, A J; McDonald, S A; Palmateer, N; Taylor, A; Hutchinson, S J

    2012-12-01

    Glasgow (Scotland's largest city) has a high prevalence of injecting drug use and has one of the highest prevalences of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in injecting drug users (IDUs) in Western Europe. HCV prevalence data from surveys of Glasgow's IDUs from 1990 to 2007 were utilized and a model was applied that described the prevalence of HCV as a function of the rate (force) of infection. Force-of-infection estimates for HCV that may vary over time and injecting career length over a range of variables were investigated. New initiates to injecting were found to be at increased risk of HCV infection, with being recruited from a street location and reporting injecting in prison leading to a significant increase in the risk of infection in new initiates. These results indicate areas of importance for the planning of public health measures that target the IDU population. PMID:22459739

  3. Farmers' Functional Literacy Program in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauhan, Malikhan S.

    The Farmers' Functional Literacy Program has been conducted in conjunction with an intensive agricultural development program in the villages of India since 1968. A recent innovation of significance to developing countries, the program incorporates the concept of linking education to development. This joint venture of three governmental ministries…

  4. Learning from history: The Glasgow Airport terrorist attack.

    PubMed

    Crichton, Gillies

    Glasgow Airport was the target of a terrorist attack on 30th June, 2007. Many people within Scotland had come to believe that Scotland was immune from terrorism. This perception was in large part informed by Scotland's experience during the protracted Troubles in Northern Ireland, during which the Provisional Irish Republican Army's mainland bombing campaign focused on targets in England, sparing both Scotland and Wales. While Glasgow Airport did not expect such an attack to take place, meticulous planning, organising and testing of plans had taken place to mitigate the unlikely event of such an attack. The attack stands up as a shining example of robust business continuity management, where the airport reopened for business as usual in less than 24 hours from the time of the attack. Little is known about how the airport handled the situation in conjunction with other responding agencies as people tend to want to focus on high-profile disasters only. Yet countless such incidents are happening worldwide on a daily basis, in which there are excellent learning opportunities, and, taken in the spirit of converting hindsight into foresight, the likelihood of similar incidents could potentially be reduced in the future. PMID:25416378

  5. The Glasgow Outcome Scale - 40 years of application and refinement.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Tom; Wilson, Lindsay; Ponsford, Jennie; Levin, Harvey; Teasdale, Graham; Bond, Michael

    2016-08-01

    The Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) was first published in 1975 by Bryan Jennett and Michael Bond. With over 4,000 citations to the original paper, it is the most highly cited outcome measure in studies of brain injury and the second most-cited paper in clinical neurosurgery. The original GOS and the subsequently developed extended GOS (GOSE) are recommended by several national bodies as the outcome measure for major trauma and for head injury. The enduring appeal of the GOS is linked to its simplicity, short administration time, reliability and validity, stability, flexibility of administration (face-to-face, over the telephone and by post), cost-free availability and ease of access. These benefits apply to other derivatives of the scale, including the Glasgow Outcome at Discharge Scale (GODS) and the GOS paediatric revision. The GOS was devised to provide an overview of outcome and to focus on social recovery. Since the initial development of the GOS, there has been an increasing focus on the multidimensional nature of outcome after head injury. This Review charts the development of the GOS, its refinement and usage over the past 40 years, and considers its current and future roles in developing an understanding of brain injury. PMID:27418377

  6. MatLab Script and Functional Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

    2007-01-01

    MatLab Script and Functional Programming: MatLab is one of the most widely used very high level programming languages for scientific and engineering computations. It is very user-friendly and needs practically no formal programming knowledge. Presented here are MatLab programming aspects and not just the MatLab commands for scientists and engineers who do not have formal programming training and also have no significant time to spare for learning programming to solve their real world problems. Specifically provided are programs for visualization. The MatLab seminar covers the functional and script programming aspect of MatLab language. Specific expectations are: a) Recognize MatLab commands, script and function. b) Create, and run a MatLab function. c) Read, recognize, and describe MatLab syntax. d) Recognize decisions, loops and matrix operators. e) Evaluate scope among multiple files, and multiple functions within a file. f) Declare, define and use scalar variables, vectors and matrices.

  7. Making Evaluation "Operational" in Functional Literacy Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhola, H. S.

    Steps to be taken to "operationalize" evaluation, i.e., to make evaluation work, are discussed and applied to the Unesco program of functional literacy. Evaluation is seen as an important social concern, as well as a field of study and an area of competence. Four types of evaluation applied to the Unesco program are context evaluation, input…

  8. Trigger Happy: The Troubling Trend of Primary School Closures in Glasgow City Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Joshua F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the continuing trend of school closures in Glasgow, Scotland. Particular attention will be paid to Stonedyke Primary School, which Glasgow City Council was proposing to close at the time of this research. Current statistical data and research is used to better examine the current crisis Stonedyke Primary faces. Furthermore,…

  9. Quantitative assessment of protein function prediction programs.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, B N; Steffens, M B R; Raittz, R T; Santos-Weiss, I C R; Marchaukoski, J N

    2015-01-01

    Fast prediction of protein function is essential for high-throughput sequencing analysis. Bioinformatic resources provide cheaper and faster techniques for function prediction and have helped to accelerate the process of protein sequence characterization. In this study, we assessed protein function prediction programs that accept amino acid sequences as input. We analyzed the classification, equality, and similarity between programs, and, additionally, compared program performance. The following programs were selected for our assessment: Blast2GO, InterProScan, PANTHER, Pfam, and ScanProsite. This selection was based on the high number of citations (over 500), fully automatic analysis, and the possibility of returning a single best classification per sequence. We tested these programs using 12 gold standard datasets from four different sources. The gold standard classification of the databases was based on expert analysis, the Protein Data Bank, or the Structure-Function Linkage Database. We found that the miss rate among the programs is globally over 50%. Furthermore, we observed little overlap in the correct predictions from each program. Therefore, a combination of multiple types of sources and methods, including experimental data, protein-protein interaction, and data mining, may be the best way to generate more reliable predictions and decrease the miss rate. PMID:26782400

  10. Functional Localization of Genetic Network Programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eto, Shinji; Hirasawa, Kotaro; Hu, Jinglu

    According to the knowledge of brain science, it is suggested that there exists cerebral functional localization, which means that a specific part of the cerebrum is activated depending on various kinds of information human receives. The aim of this paper is to build an artificial model to realize functional localization based on Genetic Network Programming (GNP), a new evolutionary computation method recently developed. GNP has a directed graph structure suitable for realizing functional localization. We studied the basic characteristics of the proposed system by making GNP work in a functionally localized way.

  11. Prenatal programming of neuroendocrine reproductive function.

    PubMed

    Evans, Neil P; Bellingham, Michelle; Robinson, Jane E

    2016-07-01

    It is now well recognized that the gestational environment can have long-lasting effects not only on the life span and health span of an individual but also, through potential epigenetic changes, on future generations. This article reviews the "prenatal programming" of the neuroendocrine systems that regulate reproduction, with a specific focus on the lessons learned using ovine models. The review examines the critical roles played by steroids in normal reproductive development before considering the effects of prenatal exposure to exogenous steroid hormones including androgens and estrogens, the effects of maternal nutrition and stress during gestation, and the effects of exogenous chemicals such as alcohol and environment chemicals. In so doing, it becomes evident that, to maximize fitness, the regulation of reproduction has evolved to be responsive to many different internal and external cues and that the GnRH neurosecretory system expresses a degree of plasticity throughout life. During fetal life, however, the system is particularly sensitive to change and at this time, the GnRH neurosecretory system can be "shaped" both to achieve normal sexually differentiated function but also in ways that may adversely affect or even prevent "normal function". The exact mechanisms through which these programmed changes are brought about remain largely uncharacterized but are likely to differ depending on the factor, the timing of exposure to that factor, and the species. It would appear, however, that some afferent systems to the GnRH neurons such as kisspeptin, may be critical in this regard as it would appear to be sensitive to a wide variety of factors that can program reproductive function. Finally, it has been noted that the prenatal programming of neuroendocrine reproductive function can be associated with epigenetic changes, which would suggest that in addition to direct effects on the exposed offspring, prenatal programming could have transgenerational effects on

  12. Some new insights into the history of the Glasgow time ball and time guns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, David; Kinns, Roger

    2012-03-01

    The 1857 time ball machinery at the Glasgow Sailors' Home was supplied by Alexander McKenzie, mechanist, using a design that had much in common with the 1853 Edinburgh apparatus. It was operated using electrical connections to a mean time clock in the Home. This clock required adjustment by hand each day to compensate for its losing rate. Such manual intervention and lack of independent verification of accuracy under-mined the authority of the signal. The relative prestige of the Glasgow and Edinburgh Observatories was an important issue. There was no telegraphic link between Glasgow Observatory and the City until the end of 1863, but it had been demonstrated as early as October 1855 that a time ball could be dropped by telegraph from Edinburgh. Another Edinburgh initiative in September 1863 using time guns fired from Edinburgh caused offence in Glasgow and the trials were terminated in February 1864. Professor Grant, Director of Glasgow Observatory, argued successfully that a system of slave clocks controlled from Glasgow Observatory would be far superior to either a time ball or time guns which only provided a signal once per day. He won the debate in March 1864.

  13. An Exploration of Smoking Behavior of African Male Immigrants Living in Glasgow

    PubMed Central

    Ezika, Ejiofor Augustine

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The aim of this research study was to explore the smoking behavior of adult African male immigrant smokers living in Glasgow to inform and contribute to primary health promotion frameworks. METHODS 25 adult African male immigrant smokers living in Glasgow were recruited via consecutive sampling by soliciting for participation through the use of flyers, posters and word of mouth. Data collection occurred via semi-structured face-to-face interviews. The interviews were audio taped, after which verbatim transcription was carried out and the data analyzed thematically. RESULTS The participants’ smoking habits were influenced by cold weather environment as well as societal norms that appear to make the smoking habit more acceptable in Glasgow than Africa. It appears the more educated the participants were, the fewer cigarettes they smoked. However, there was only a slight difference in the number of cigarettes smoked between participants with a degree and those with a postgraduate degree. CONCLUSION The participants’ smoking habits in Glasgow appear to have increased because of environmental variables associated with living in Glasgow, specifically the cold weather environment and high acceptability of smoking habits in Glasgow. PMID:25741179

  14. Space Radar Image of Missouri River, Glasgow, Missouri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a false-color L-band image of an area near Glasgow, Missouri, centered at about 39.2 degrees north latitude and 92.8 degrees west longitude. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 50th orbit on October 3, 1994. The false-color composite was made by displaying the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received) return in red; the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received) return in green; and the sum of the two channels in blue. The area shown is approximately 37 kilometers by 25 kilometers (23 miles by 16 miles). The radar data, coupled with pre-flood aerial photography and satellite data and post-flood topographic and field data, are being used to evaluate changes associated with levee breaks in landforms, where deposits formed during the widespread flooding in 1993 along the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers. The distinct radar scattering properties of farmland, sand fields and scoured areas will be used to inventory floodplains along the Missouri River and determine the processes by which these areas return to preflood conditions. The image shows one such levee break near Glasgow, Missouri. In the upper center of the radar image is a region covered by several meters of sand, shown as blue regions below the bend in the river. West (left) of this dark area, a blue gap in the levee tree canopy can be seen, showing the area where the levee failed. Radar data such as these can help scientists more accurately assess the potential for future flooding in this region and how that might impact surrounding communities. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar(SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm

  15. Cellular functions of programmed cell death 5.

    PubMed

    Li, Ge; Ma, Dalong; Chen, Yingyu

    2016-04-01

    Programmed cell death 5 (PDCD5) was originally identified as an apoptosis-accelerating protein that is widely expressed and has been well conserved during the process of evolution. PDCD5 has complex biological functions, including programmed cell death and immune regulation. It can accelerate apoptosis in different type of cells in response to different stimuli. During this process, PDCD5 rapidly translocates from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. PDCD5 regulates the activities of TIP60, HDAC3, MDM2 and TP53 transcription factors. These proteins form part of a signaling network that is disrupted in most, if not all, cancer cells. Recent evidence suggests that PDCD5 participates in immune regulation by promoting regulatory T cell function via the PDCD5-TIP60-FOXP3 pathway. The stability and expression of PDCD5 are finely regulated by other molecules, such as NF-κB p65, OTUD5, YAF2 and DNAJB1. PDCD5 is phosphorylated by CK2 at Ser119, which is required for nuclear translocation in response to genotoxic stress. In this review, we describe what is known about PDCD5 and its cellular functions. PMID:26775586

  16. Evidence-based improvement of the National Trauma Triage Protocol: The Glasgow Coma Scale versus Glasgow Coma Scale motor subscale

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Joshua B.; Forsythe, Raquel M.; Stassen, Nicole A.; Peitzman, Andrew B.; Billiar, Timothy R.; Sperry, Jason L.; Gestring, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Ideal triage uses simple criteria to identify severely injured patients. Glasgow Coma Scale motor (GCSm) may be easier for field use and was considered for the National Trauma Triage Protocol (NTTP). This study evaluated performance of the NTTP if GCSm is substituted for the current GCS score ≤ 13 criterion. METHODS Subjects in the National Trauma Data Bank undergoing scene transport were included. Presence of NTTP physiologic (Step 1) and anatomic (Step 2) criteria was determined. GCSm score ≤ 5 was defined as a positive criterion. Trauma center need (TCN) was defined as Injury Severity Score (ISS) > 15, intensive care unit admission, urgent operation, or emergency department death. Test characteristics were calculated to predict TCN. Area under the curve was compared between GCSm and GCS scores, individually and within the NTTP. Logistic regression was used to determine the association of GCSm score ≤ 5 and GCS score ≤ 13 with TCN after adjusting for other triage criteria. Predicted versus actual TCN was compared. RESULTS There were 811,143 subjects. Sensitivity was lower (26.7% vs. 30.3%), specificity was higher (95.1% vs. 93.1%), and accuracy was similar (66.1% vs. 66.3%) for GCSm score ≤ 5 compared with GCS score ≤ 13. Incorporated into the NTTP Steps 1 + 2, GCSm score ≤ 5 traded sensitivity (60.4% vs. 62.1%) for specificity (67.1% vs. 65.7%) with similar accuracy (64.2% vs. 64.2%) to GCS score ≤ 13. There was no difference in the area under the curve between GCSm score ≤ 5 and GCS score ≤ 13 when incorporated into the NTTP Steps 1 + 2 (p = 0.10). GCSm score ≤ 5 had a stronger association with TCN (odds ratio, 3.37; 95% confidence interval, 3.27–3.48; p < 0.01) than GCS score ≤ 13 (odds ratio, 3.03; 95% confidence interval, 2.94–3.13; p < 0.01). GCSm had a better fit of predicted versus actual TCN than GCS at the lower end of the scales. CONCLUSION GCSm score ≤ 5 increases specificity at the expense of sensitivity

  17. 42 CFR 421.304 - Medicare integrity program contractor functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medicare integrity program contractor functions... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE CONTRACTING Medicare Integrity Program Contractors § 421.304 Medicare integrity program contractor functions. The contract between CMS and a...

  18. A tale of two cities: a review of homicide in Melbourne and Glasgow in 2005.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Matthew; Black, Marjorie

    2008-01-01

    The Departments of Forensic Medicine and Science at the University of Glasgow and the Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine in Melbourne are academic university-based forensic medicine units providing a medico-legal death investigation service to the Strathclyde region of Scotland and the State of Victoria, Australia, respectively. We reviewed and compared homicides in the two jurisdictions for the year 2005. Whilst gross numbers were comparable, the homicide rate per capita was significantly higher in Glasgow. Death due to stabbing comprised a greater proportion of homicides in Glasgow, reflective of a well recognised social epidemic of knife-related trauma amongst young males. Blunt force trauma was the most prevalent cause of homicidal injury in the Australian cases. The cities shared a low incidence of firearm- related homicide, reflective of strict legislative initiatives. PMID:18341154

  19. Women's work in offices and the preservation of men's "breadwinning" jobs in early twentieth-century Glasgow.

    PubMed

    Wilson, R G

    2001-01-01

    As Britain's industrial economy matured and the volume of administrative work increased, different kinds of clerical jobs and clerical careers became possible. Using examples from a variety of small- to medium-sized enterprises in Glasgow, this article will describe how the main functions of administrative work - financial, secretarial and managerial - were divided both horizontally and vertically in order to preserve secure, well-paid, "breadwinning" jobs for men, leaving routine secretarial work for women. The isolation of women in all-women enclaves carrying out shorthand and typing work and the subsequent devaluation of these as kinds of work were of primary importance in the creation of office work that was explicitly women's work. PMID:19678416

  20. Predicting Outcome in Acute Organophosphorus Poisoning with a Poison Severity Score or the Glasgow Coma Scale

    PubMed Central

    Davies, James O. J.; Eddleston, Michael; Buckley, Nick A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Organophosphorus pesticide poisoning kills around 200,000 people each year, principally due to self poisoning in the Asia-Pacific region. Aim: We wished to assess whether patients at high risk of death could be identified accurately using clinical parameters soon after hospital admission. Design: We evaluated the usefulness of the International Program on Chemical Safety Poison Severity Score (IPCS PSS) and the Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) prospectively for predicting death in patients poisoned by organophosphorus pesticides. Methods: Data were collected as part of a multicentre cohort study in Sri Lanka. Study doctors saw all patients on admission, collecting data on pulse, blood pressure, pupil size, need for intubation, and GCS. Results: 1365 patients with a history of acute organophosphorus poisoning were included. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were calculated for the IPCS PSS and GCS on admission. The IPCS PSS and GCS had similar ROC area under the curves (AUC) and best cut points as determined by Youden's index (AUC/sensitivity/specificity 0.81/0.78/0.79 for IPCS PSS ≥ grade 2 and 0.84/0.79/0.79 for GCS ≤13). The predictive value varied with the pesticide ingested, being more accurate for dimethoate poisoning and less accurate for fenthion poisoning (GCS AUC 0.91 compared to 0.69). Conclusions: GCS and the IPCS PSS were similarly effective at predicting outcome. Patients presenting with a GCS ≤ 13 need intensive monitoring and treatment. However, the identity of the organophosphate must be taken into account since the half of all patients who died from fenthion poisoning only had mild symptoms at presentation. PMID:18319295

  1. Perspectives on differing health outcomes by city: accounting for Glasgow's excess mortality.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Simon Ds; George, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Several health outcomes (including mortality) and health-related behaviors are known to be worse in Scotland than in comparable areas of Europe and the United Kingdom. Within Scotland, Greater Glasgow (in West Central Scotland) experiences disproportionately poorer outcomes independent of measurable variation in socioeconomic status and other important determinants. Many reasons for this have been proposed, particularly related to deprivation, inequalities, and variation in health behaviors. The use of models (such as the application of Bradford Hill's viewpoints on causality to the different hypotheses) has provided useful insights on potentially causal mechanisms, with health behaviors and inequalities likely to represent the strongest individual candidates. This review describes the evolution of our understanding of Glasgow's excess mortality, summarizes some of the key work in this area, and provides some suggestions for future areas of exploration. In the context of demographic change, the experience in Glasgow is an important example of the complexity that frequently lies behind observed variations in health outcomes within and between populations. A comprehensive explanation of Glasgow's excess mortality may continue to remain elusive, but is likely to lie in a complex and difficult-to-measure interplay of health determinants acting at different levels in society throughout the life course. Lessons learned from the detailed examination of different potentially causative determinants in Scotland may provide useful methodological insights that may be applied in other settings. Ongoing efforts to unravel the causal mechanisms are needed to inform public health efforts to reduce health inequalities and improve outcomes in Scotland. PMID:26124684

  2. Drug Issues Affecting Chinese, Indian and Pakistani People Living in Greater Glasgow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, A. J.; Heim, D.; Bakshi, N.; Davies, J. B.; Flatley, K. J.; Hunter, S. C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes research on drug issues affecting Chinese, Indian and Pakistani people living in Greater Glasgow. There were two strands: (i) a questionnaire-based survey of young people and focus groups; (ii) interviews with young people and adults. The primary aims were to gather prevalence data and to investigate perceptions about current…

  3. The Use of Electronic Information Services and Information Literacy: A Glasgow Caledonian University Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, John

    2006-01-01

    The study was undertaken as part of the LIRG/SCONUL Value and Impact study and sought to establish direct evidence of the impact of electronic information services (EIS) on Glasgow Caledonian University students, both past and present. Evidence of the spread of information literacy among students and alumni was also sought. An electronic…

  4. Contested Urban Spaces: Exploring the Analytics of Young Persons' Experiences of Living in Glasgow's Deprived Zones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holligan, Chris; Deuchar, Ross

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports findings from an exploratory study of mainly young people's verbally articulated perceptions of urban life in Glasgow, Scotland. The focus is upon areas of deprivation where territory and social capital is contested and whose meanings are possibly only partially grasped by our informants. Their personal knowledge of violence and…

  5. 78 FR 67218 - CSX Transportation, Inc.-Trackage Rights Exemption-Glasgow Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board CSX Transportation, Inc.--Trackage Rights Exemption--Glasgow Railway Company..., referring to Docket No. FD 35778, must be filed with the Surface Transportation Board, 395 E Street...

  6. SNAP: A computer program for generating symbolic network functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, P. M.; Alderson, G. E.

    1970-01-01

    The computer program SNAP (symbolic network analysis program) generates symbolic network functions for networks containing R, L, and C type elements and all four types of controlled sources. The program is efficient with respect to program storage and execution time. A discussion of the basic algorithms is presented, together with user's and programmer's guides.

  7. Posttreatment Functioning of Alcoholic Patients: Its Relation to Program Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromet, Evelyn; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Assessed posttreatment functioning of 429 alcoholic patients selected from five different types of treatment facilities. Substantial improvement in three areas of functioning (drinking, occupational, and psychological) occurred among patients in each program, although there were significant differences among programs in level of functioning at…

  8. Counselor Education: A Program in Functional Humanism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island Coll., Providence.

    This report presents the 1973 Distinguished Achievement Award entry from the graduate program in counselor education at Rhode Island College--a performance-based program on effective selection, training, and evaluation procedures which leads to either a master's degree in counselor education (Ed.M.) or a Certificate of Advanced Graduate Study in…

  9. A functional programming interpreter. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robison, Arch Douglas

    1987-01-01

    Functional Programming (FP) sup BAC87 is an alternative to conventional imperative programming languages. This thesis describes an FP interpreter implementation. Superficially, FP appears to be a simple, but very inefficient language. Its simplicity, however, allows it to be interpreted quickly. Much of the inefficiency can be removed by simple interpreter techniques. This thesis describes the Illinois Functional Programming (IFP) interpreter, an interactive functional programming implementation which runs under both MS-DOS and UNIX. The IFP interpreter allows functions to be created, executed, and debugged in an environment very similar to UNIX. IFP's speed is competitive with other interpreted languages such as BASIC.

  10. Computer program for Bessel and Hankel functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreider, Kevin L.; Saule, Arthur V.; Rice, Edward J.; Clark, Bruce J.

    1991-01-01

    A set of FORTRAN subroutines for calculating Bessel and Hankel functions is presented. The routines calculate Bessel and Hankel functions of the first and second kinds, as well as their derivatives, for wide ranges of integer order and real or complex argument in single or double precision. Depending on the order and argument, one of three evaluation methods is used: the power series definition, an Airy function expansion, or an asymptotic expansion. Routines to calculate Airy functions and their derivatives are also included.

  11. The Association of Surgeons in Training Conference: #ASiT2015 Glasgow.

    PubMed

    Gokani, V J; Beamish, A J; Sinclair, P; Robson, A; Harries, R L

    2015-11-01

    The Association of Surgeons in Training (ASiT) is a professional body and registered charity working to promote excellence in surgical training for the benefit of junior doctors and patients alike. ASiT is in-dependent of the National Health Service (NHS), Surgical Royal Colleges, and specialty associations and represents trainees in all ten surgical specialties. ASiT was delighted to welcome a number of distinguished guests and speakers to Glasgow for #ASiT2015. The theme of 'The Future of Surgery' delved into challenges surgical training faces, exciting developments into using technology to help patients, a glance at the past with the development of the Glasgow Coma Score and whether mortality truly is the future of measured outcomes. More than £3500 of prizes was awarded by the incoming President, Miss. Rhiannon Harries to the highest scoring papers presented selected from over 1000 abstracts submitted. PMID:26525269

  12. Pulmonary function testing: custom programs for manual equipment.

    PubMed

    Petrini, M F

    1984-01-01

    Pulmonary Function Laboratories with manual equipment can expedite calculations and make them more accurate by using a programmable calculator that will compute functions and predictive equations. However, a custom-made set of programs is better than calculator libraries available from the manufacturer. With custom-made programs, calculations remain as the staff is used to receiving them, programs can be stored in the memory and called independently and only those tests used routinely need to be available. PMID:6546910

  13. Kinderheilkunde and continental connections in child health: the "Glasgow school revisited"--again.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Lawrence T

    2013-10-01

    The last two hundred years or so have seen the transformation of medical practice from a clinical art to the application of science to the diagnosis and treatment of disease. There has been a historical debate about how the use of technology and discoveries of the laboratory have become integrated within medical practice. In trying to understand the evolution of "scientific medicine," this has generally focused on the tensions between the differing cultures, persons, and professions of the "laboratory" and "clinic" and sought to explain how they were resolved within specific institutions. This paper looks again at the "Glasgow School" (the subject of a number of seminal papers on this subject) and the forces that shaped it, by exploring the career of Leonard Findlay, whose training in Glasgow, and in Berlin (where he worked in a department in which science and medicine were integrated), defined a style of clinical medicine that formed the model for a new sort of university department of medicine in which clinicians and scientists worked side by side, albeit under the leadership of the former. As a clinician exposed in Berlin to the emerging new sciences of nutrition, microbiology, and immunology, which were particularly relevant to the care of sick children, Findlay created in Glasgow a department of medical pediatrics, which owed less to local factors, figures, and forces and more to his experience in Germany. PMID:22492737

  14. Good in parts: the Gay Men's Task Force in Glasgow--a response to Kelly.

    PubMed

    Hart, G J; Williamson, L M; Flowers, P

    2004-02-01

    We know that peer education, or the use of popular opinion leaders (POLs), works in terms of reducing reported risk behaviour for HIV infection amongst gay men. The work of Jeffrey Kelly and his colleagues provides some of the best scientific evidence in support of this approach. Influenced by this work, we undertook a peer education intervention amongst gay men in bars in Glasgow--the Gay Men's Task Force (GMTF)--but failed to demonstrate any reduction in sexual risk behaviour for HIV infection. In this paper we describe why we were unable to repeat in Scotland the success in small cities in the USA of the POL model. Our explanations include: failure to replicate the 'core elements' of POL; spatial and temporal differences between the original POL settings and the bars of Glasgow; and the currency of ideas such as 'peer education' beyond the protocols designed for their implementation. However, we also describe some of the successful features of the GMTF in Glasgow, and the continued value of peer education in contributing to reductions in sexual risk behaviour for HIV infection. PMID:14676022

  15. Preliminary development of a GIS-tool to assess threats to shallow groundwater quality from soil pollutants in Glasgow, UK (GRASP).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dochartaigh, B. É. Ó.; Fordyce, F. M.; Ander, E. L.; Bonsor, H. C.

    2009-04-01

    geochemical dataset of 1600 soils (4 per km2) collected across Glasgow as part of the BGS Geochemical Baseline Survey of the Environment (G-BASE) project. These parameters are combined with assessments of climate, groundwater levels and the leaching potential of unsaturated Quaternary deposits to produce maps that prioritise the likely threats to shallow groundwater quality. Data processing for the GRASP methodology is carried out in five steps in Microsoft Excel®, using Visual Basic® programming language, and ArcGIS® software. The GRASP prioritisation tool is in the process of development; however, the rationale and initial derivation of the methodology for the city of Glasgow will be presented.

  16. Possibilities for Implementing Fracture Liaison Service in Poland in the Light of a Visit to Glasgow Western Infirmary.

    PubMed

    Amarowicz, Jarosław; Czerwiński, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis remains one of the top challenges for health services all over the world. Osteoporotic changes in bone structure along with the aging of society result in rapid growth of osteoporotic fractures. Statistics show that approximately 25% of women and 20% of men will suffer a subsequent fracture within 5 years of an initial one. In order to deal with the problem, a novel program in secondary fracture prevention was developed in Scotland in the late 1990's. The system was based on a coordinator and focused on identifying, diagnosing and treating patients with osteoporotic fractures. After just a few years, the system, known as Fracture Liaison Services (FLS), proved to be a cost-effective success. For the last several years, FLS has been implemented in countries all over the world. The Glasgow Western Infirmary, where the program started, continues to be one of the top exemplary facilities in the United Kingdom. Each year the Bone Metabolism Unit proves its effectiveness by providing 4000 DXA scans and taking care of 2500 fractures a year. In 2015, the European Foundation of Osteoporosis and Musculoskeletal Diseases successfully implemented a coordinator-based Fracture Liaison Service in Poland. PMID:26468179

  17. Planning, Programing, and Administration of Functional Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhola, H. S.

    The document was prepared as part of a UNESCO contract to train 16 counterpart officials of UNESCO-sponsored literacy projects. Functional literacy was studied in three parts, all dealing with the total planning process. First was project planning. Literacy projects must consider national educational plans and be related to relevant economic…

  18. Proceedings of a symposium on the neurobiology of the basal ganglia. Glasgow, United Kingdom, July 1999.

    PubMed

    2000-05-01

    Glasgow University in July 1999 as part of the Summer Meeting of the Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland. The invited speakers were chosen to be wide ranging and contributions encompassed evolution, circuitry and receptors of the basal ganglia, striatal remodelling after dopamine loss, striatal functioning in humans with Huntington's disease and in primate models after midbrain fetal transplants, and the genetics of basal ganglia disorders. Short presentations and posters of current results supplemented the main presentations and some are also included amongst these reviews. PMID:10960285

  19. Distributed implementation of functional program evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Fasel, J.H.; Douglass, R.J.; Michelsen, R.; Hudak, P.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the potential of the functional model, particularly as it pertains to architecture. In Section 2, we describe the graph-reduction operational model of computation and its relation to AI problems. In Section 3, we discuss a class of architectures that implement graph reduction and a prototype implementation in this class being developed at Los Alamos. Finally, we speculate on the applicability of graph reduction to some other classes of architecture.

  20. The Unseen Founders Of Quaternary Science - The Men Of Glasgow, Scotland (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, J.

    2010-12-01

    Louis Agassiz (1807-1873) and Charles Lyell (1797-1875) are widely regarded as the founders of Quaternary Science, and there is no doubt that they played their part: Agassiz in 1840 presented and promoted his case for the wide-scale fluctuations of glaciers, and Lyell, through his books and contacts, did much to introduce the subject which we now know as climate change. However there are a number of individuals who contributed to the founding of Quaternary Science who are not so readily recognised and a remarkable fact is that a significant proportion were men without academic training or background who come from, or worked in Glasgow or the adjacent region of central Scotland. First amongst the Glaswegians was James Smith (1782-1867) who, in 1836 presented a paper to the Geological Society of London (where it was duly ignored) in which he suggested, on the basis of fossils dredged from the bed of the Clyde and experience of sailing around Iceland, that the climate of Scotland had been as cold as that of Iceland in the recent past. In 1841, Charles Maclaren (1782-1866) a journalist from Edinburgh, but using information based on raised shorelines near Glasgow proposed what we now know as the glacio-eustatic theory in which the variations in glacier extent control the level of the sea. Perhaps the most important of all was James Croll (1821- 1890) who worked on the theory of ice ages, based on orbital forcing, while janitor at the Andersonian Institute and Museum in Glasgow between 1859-1867. This work was the true precursor to the Milankovitch theory which provides the explanation for the major predictable elements of climate change. Robert Jack (1845-1921) from Irvine, southwest of Glasgow, while doing fieldwork for the British Geological Survey near Loch Lomond close to Glasgow, described in 1874 evidence for non-glacial conditions between tills and clearly recognised that climate could change from glacial to temperate and then glacial climate, before returning to

  1. CONMIN: A FORTRAN program for constrained function minimization: User's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderplaats, G. N.

    1973-01-01

    CONMIN is a FORTRAN program, in subroutine form, for the solution of linear or nonlinear constrained optimization problems. The basic optimization algorithm is the Method of Feasible Directions. The user must provide a main calling program and an external routine to evaluate the objective and constraint functions and to provide gradient information. If analytic gradients of the objective or constraint functions are not available, this information is calculated by finite difference. While the program is intended primarily for efficient solution of constrained problems, unconstrained function minimization problems may also be solved, and the conjugate direction method of Fletcher and Reeves is used for this purpose. This manual describes the use of CONMIN and defines all necessary parameters. Sufficient information is provided so that the program can be used without special knowledge of optimization techniques. Sample problems are included to help the user become familiar with CONMIN and to make the program operational.

  2. Functional Literacy--The Concept and the Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhola, H. S.

    The concept of functional literacy might be considered to have its ceremonial initiation at the World Conference of Ministers of Education on the Eradication of Illiteracy in Tehran, Iran, in 1965. At that conference important implications emerged for program development, methodology of teaching, and program content. An effort is made in this…

  3. 42 CFR 421.304 - Medicare integrity program contractor functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Medicare integrity program contractor functions. 421.304 Section 421.304 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) MEDICARE CONTRACTING Medicare...

  4. 42 CFR 421.304 - Medicare integrity program contractor functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Medicare integrity program contractor functions. 421.304 Section 421.304 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) MEDICARE CONTRACTING Medicare...

  5. 42 CFR 421.304 - Medicare integrity program contractor functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Medicare integrity program contractor functions. 421.304 Section 421.304 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE CONTRACTING Medicare Integrity...

  6. 42 CFR 421.304 - Medicare integrity program contractor functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Medicare integrity program contractor functions. 421.304 Section 421.304 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) MEDICARE CONTRACTING Medicare...

  7. Frameworks for programming biological function through RNA parts and devices

    PubMed Central

    Win, Maung Nyan; Liang, Joe C.; Smolke, Christina D.

    2009-01-01

    One of the long-term goals of synthetic biology is to reliably engineer biological systems that perform human-defined functions. Currently, researchers face several scientific and technical challenges in designing and building biological systems, one of which is associated with our limited ability to access, transmit, and control molecular information through the design of functional biomolecules exhibiting novel properties. The fields of RNA biology and nucleic acid engineering, along with the tremendous interdisciplinary growth of synthetic biology, are fueling advances in the emerging field of RNA programming in living systems. Researchers are designing functional RNA molecules that exhibit increasingly complex functions and integrating these molecules into cellular circuits to program higher-level biological functions. The continued integration and growth of RNA design and synthetic biology presents exciting potential to transform how we interact with and program biology. PMID:19318211

  8. Career Exploration Program: A Composite Systematic Functional Objective Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohamed, Othman

    The composite systematic functional objective career exploration program model integrates various career development theoretical approaches. These approaches emphasize self-concept, life values, personality, the environment, and academic achievement and training as separate functions in explaining career development. Current social development in…

  9. THE ESSENTIAL SUPPORTIVE FUNCTIONS IN THE COLLEGE INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RAINES, MAX S.

    VISITS TO 70 JUNIOR COLLEGES RESULTED IN THE COMPILATION OF A LIST OF 21 FUNCTIONS WHICH ARE ESSENTIAL IN A BASIC STUDENT PERSONNEL PROGRAM FOR ANY JUNIOR COLLEGE, REGARDLESS OF ITS TYPE, SIZE, LOCATION, OR STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT. THESE FUNCTIONS MAY BE GROUPED INTO SEVEN MAJOR CATEGORIES--(1) ORIENTATION, INCLUDING PRECOLLEGE INFORMATION, CAREER…

  10. The food retail environment and area deprivation in Glasgow City, UK

    PubMed Central

    Macdonald, Laura; Ellaway, Anne; Macintyre, Sally

    2009-01-01

    It has previously been suggested that deprived neighbourhoods within modern cities have poor access to general amenities, for example, fewer food retail outlets. Here we examine the distribution of food retailers by deprivation in the City of Glasgow, UK. We obtained a list of 934 food retailers in Glasgow, UK, in 2007, and mapped these at address level. We categorised small areas (data zones) into quintiles of area deprivation using the 2006 Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation Income sub-domain score. We computed mean number of retailers per 1000 residents per data zone, and mean network distance to nearest outlet from data zone centroid, for all retailers combined and for each of seven categories of retailer separately (i.e. bakers, butchers, fruit and vegetable sellers, fishmongers, convenience stores, supermarkets and delicatessens). The most deprived quintile (of areas) had the greatest mean number of total food retailers per 1000 residents while quintile 1 (least deprived) had the least, and this difference was statistically significant (Chi-square p < 0.01). The closest mean distance to the nearest food retailer was within quintile 3 while the furthest distance was within quintile 1, and this was also statistically significant (Chi-square p < 0.01). There was variation in the distribution of the seven different types of food retailers, and access to amenities depended upon the type of food retailer studied and whether proximity or density was measured. Overall the findings suggested that deprived neighbourhoods within the City of Glasgow did not necessarily have fewer food retail outlets. PMID:19660114

  11. Prevalence and determinants of hepatitis C virus infection among female drug injecting sex workers in Glasgow

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Avril; Hutchinson, Sharon J; Gilchrist, Gail; Cameron, Sheila; Carr, Susan; Goldberg, David J

    2008-01-01

    Background Few studies of the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have focussed on women who work as street sex workers to finance their drug use. Methods The investigators report the survey findings of such a population in Glasgow. All women attending the health and social care drop-in centre, situated in Glasgow's "Red Light Area", during a four-week period in 1999 were invited to participate in a survey involving the provision of a saliva sample for anonymous HCV testing and the self-completion of a questionnaire seeking demographic, sexual and injecting practice data. Results Of the 223 women who attended, 51% agreed to participate. Of the 98 women who provided a sufficient saliva sample, 64% (95% CI: 54%–74%) tested HCV antibody positive; 98% of those who tested positive had ever injected drugs. Adjusting for the 85% sensitivity of the saliva test, the HCV antibody prevalence among IDU sex workers sampled was 81%; a rate which is considerably higher than those recorded, contemporaneously, among Glasgow IDUs generally. Two factors were independently associated with HCV antibody positivity in saliva: ever shared needles and syringes (adjusted OR 5.7, 95% CI 2–16) and number of times imprisoned (adjusted OR 7.3, 95% CI 1.4–39, for more than five times compared to zero times). Conclusion Women who engage in street sex work to finance their drug habit are a particularly desperate, chaotic and vulnerable population. This study demonstrates that their HCV infection risk may be greater than that for other IDUs. Those responsible for designing interventions to prevent HCV infection among IDUs should consider the special needs of this group. PMID:18355407

  12. Computer program for calculating and fitting thermodynamic functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbride, Bonnie J.; Gordon, Sanford

    1992-01-01

    A computer program is described which (1) calculates thermodynamic functions (heat capacity, enthalpy, entropy, and free energy) for several optional forms of the partition function, (2) fits these functions to empirical equations by means of a least-squares fit, and (3) calculates, as a function of temperture, heats of formation and equilibrium constants. The program provides several methods for calculating ideal gas properties. For monatomic gases, three methods are given which differ in the technique used for truncating the partition function. For diatomic and polyatomic molecules, five methods are given which differ in the corrections to the rigid-rotator harmonic-oscillator approximation. A method for estimating thermodynamic functions for some species is also given.

  13. Representing the Glasgow Coma Scale in IT: Proper Specification is Required for Assessment Scales.

    PubMed

    Goossen, William; Oemig, Frank

    2014-01-01

    In healthcare a huge amount of assessment scales and score systems are in use to abbreviate and summarize the results of clinical observations to interpret a patient's condition in a valid and reliable manner. It is challenging to convey the information in a semantic interoperable form to other systems. A bad approach would be to invent individual models for each of them. Within this paper we would like to demonstrate that a generic model is sufficient by demonstrating the realization with the Glasgow Coma Scale. PMID:24851961

  14. The Necessity of Functional Analysis for Space Exploration Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, A. Terry; Breidenthal, Julian C.

    2011-01-01

    As NASA moves toward expanded commercial spaceflight within its human exploration capability, there is increased emphasis on how to allocate responsibilities between government and commercial organizations to achieve coordinated program objectives. The practice of program-level functional analysis offers an opportunity for improved understanding of collaborative functions among heterogeneous partners. Functional analysis is contrasted with the physical analysis more commonly done at the program level, and is shown to provide theoretical performance, risk, and safety advantages beneficial to a government-commercial partnership. Performance advantages include faster convergence to acceptable system solutions; discovery of superior solutions with higher commonality, greater simplicity and greater parallelism by substituting functional for physical redundancy to achieve robustness and safety goals; and greater organizational cohesion around program objectives. Risk advantages include avoidance of rework by revelation of some kinds of architectural and contractual mismatches before systems are specified, designed, constructed, or integrated; avoidance of cost and schedule growth by more complete and precise specifications of cost and schedule estimates; and higher likelihood of successful integration on the first try. Safety advantages include effective delineation of must-work and must-not-work functions for integrated hazard analysis, the ability to formally demonstrate completeness of safety analyses, and provably correct logic for certification of flight readiness. The key mechanism for realizing these benefits is the development of an inter-functional architecture at the program level, which reveals relationships between top-level system requirements that would otherwise be invisible using only a physical architecture. This paper describes the advantages and pitfalls of functional analysis as a means of coordinating the actions of large heterogeneous organizations

  15. Rickets and Osteomalacia in the Glasgow Pakistani Community, 1961-71

    PubMed Central

    Ford, J. A.; Colhoun, E. M.; McIntosh, W. B.; Dunnigan, M. G.

    1972-01-01

    The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was reassessed in April and May 1971, 10 years after the discovery of widespread late rickets and osteomalacia in the Glasgow Pakistani community. Evidence of vitamin D deficiency was found in 28 out of 115 adults and children examined (24%). Children at the age of puberty were most severely affected by rickets, whereas most infants and younger children in the survey were protected by vitamin D supplements. Mild biochemical osteomalacia was common in Pakistani women. A total of 21 Pakistani and Indian children with rickets were admitted to Glasgow hospitals during 1968-70. These comprised 10 children with infantile rickets and 11 with late rickets. Four of the latter group required osteotomy for severe rachitic deformity. Late rickets and osteomalacia in Pakistani and Indian immigrants are not primarily due to nutritional deficiency of vitamin D, though the high phytate content of their diet may be of aetiological importance. A combination of environmental, social, and endogenous factors, the relative importance of which is not at present clear, may also be involved. Advice on the prophylaxis of vitamin D deficiency should be given to all Pakistani and Indian communities in the United Kingdom. PMID:5031709

  16. The importance of empathy in the enablement of patients attending the Glasgow Homoeopathic Hospital.

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Stewart W; Reilly, David; Watt, Graham C M

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patient enablement in general practice is known to be limited by consultation length. However, the processes within the consultation that lead to enablement are not well understood. AIMS: To investigate patient enablement in a setting where time is less of a constraint than in primary care, in order to determine the importance of other factors in enablement. DESIGN OF STUDY: Exploratory questionnaire-based study. SETTING: Two hundred consecutive outpatients attending four doctors at the Glasgow Homoeopathic Hospital, an NHS-funded integrated complementary and orthodox medicine unit. METHOD: Information was collected on enablement and a range of other factors, including the patients expectations, their perception of the doctors empathy, and the doctors own confidence in the doctor-patient relationship. RESULTS: Although there were many factors that correlated with enablement, multi-regression analysis showed patients expectation, doctor's empathy (as perceived by the patient), and doctor's own confidence in the therapeutic relationship to be the three key factors. Together they accounted for 41% of the variation in enablement, with empathy being the single most important factor (66% of the explained variation in enablement). CONCLUSION: Patient enablement at the Glasgow Homoeopathic Hospital is mainly related to the patients perception of the doctor's empathy. PMID:12434958

  17. Dr. Auzoux's botanical teaching models and medical education at the universities of Glasgow and Aberdeen.

    PubMed

    Olszewski, Margaret Maria

    2011-09-01

    In the 1860s, Dr. Louis Thomas Jérôme Auzoux introduced a set of papier-mâché teaching models intended for use in the botanical classroom. These botanical models quickly made their way into the educational curricula of institutions around the world. Within these institutions, Auzoux's models were principally used to fulfil educational goals, but their incorporation into diverse curricula also suggests they were used to implement agendas beyond botanical instruction. This essay examines the various uses and meanings of Dr. Auzoux's botanical teaching models at the universities of Glasgow and Aberdeen in the nineteenth century. The two main conclusions of this analysis are: (1) investing in prestigious scientific collections was a way for these universities to attract fee-paying students so that better medical accommodation could be provided and (2) models were used to transmit different kinds of botanical knowledge at both universities. The style of botany at the University of Glasgow was offensive and the department there actively embraced and incorporated ideas of the emerging new botany. At Aberdeen, the style of botany was defensive and there was some hesitancy when confronting new botanical ideas. PMID:21802633

  18. Assessment of daytime outdoor comfort levels in and outside the urban area of Glasgow, UK.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Eduardo; Drach, Patricia; Emmanuel, Rohinton; Corbella, Oscar

    2013-07-01

    To understand thermal preferences and to define a preliminary outdoor comfort range for the local population of Glasgow, UK, an extensive series of measurements and surveys was carried out during 19 monitoring campaigns from winter through summer 2011 at six different monitoring points in pedestrian areas of downtown Glasgow. For data collection, a Davis Vantage Pro2 weather station equipped with temperature and humidity sensors, cup anemometer with wind vane, silicon pyranometer and globe thermometer was employed. Predictions of the outdoor thermal index PET (physiologically equivalent temperature) correlated closely to the actual thermal votes of respondents. Using concurrent measurements from a second Davis Vantage Pro2 weather station placed in a rural setting approximately 15 km from the urban area, comparisons were drawn with regard to daytime thermal comfort levels and urban-rural temperature differences (∆T(u-r)) for the various sites. The urban sites exhibited a consistent lower level of thermal discomfort during daytime. No discernible effect of urban form attributes in terms of the sky-view factor were observed on ∆Tu-r or on the relative difference of the adjusted predicted percentage of dissatisfied (PPD*). PMID:22886367

  19. Female streetworker--prostitutes in Glasgow: a descriptive study of their lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Green, S T; Goldberg, D J; Christie, P R; Frischer, M; Thomson, A; Carr, S V; Taylor, A

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the lifestyle of a group of female prostitutes. The collection of information was achieved by: (i) using a self administered questionnaire; and (ii) conducting conversational type interviews. Of 85 women attending a health care drop-in centre for female street prostitutes in Glasgow, 63 completed the questionnaire and 72 participated in conversational interviews. For 63 women the mean age of commencement of prostitution was 21 years. Fifty-one (81%) were injecting drug users, their most commonly used drugs being heroin and temazepam. They worked a mean of 5.5 evenings per week and provided sexual services to a mean of 6.4 clients per working day. Less than half of these services were estimated to be vaginal intercourse. While 59/60 women indicated that they always used condoms during vaginal intercourse, this only applied to commercial sex; only 8/47 (17%) always used condoms with their regular sexual partners. Unconventional sexual services, e.g. voyeurism and physical abuse, were commonly provided and clients were often violent. A typical female streetworking-prostitute in Glasgow was aged 25, unemployed, an injecting drug user and had commenced prostitution 4 years before. Her knowledge of HIV/AIDS was good and for vaginal intercourse she almost always used condoms with clients, though probably not with her regular partner. Her main concern was likely to be violence from clients. PMID:8218467

  20. 34 CFR 200.82 - Use of program funds for unique program function costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of program funds for unique program function costs. 200.82 Section 200.82 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF...

  1. Semantics and correctness proofs for programs with partial functions

    SciTech Connect

    Yakhnis, A.; Yakhnis, V.

    1996-09-01

    This paper presents a portion of the work on specification, design, and implementation of safety-critical systems such as reactor control systems. A natural approach to this problem, once all the requirements are captured, would be to state the requirements formally and then either to prove (preferably via automated tools) that the system conforms to spec (program verification), or to try to simultaneously generate the system and a mathematical proof that the requirements are being met (program derivation). An obstacle to this is frequent presence of partially defined operations within the software and its specifications. Indeed, the usual proofs via first order logic presuppose everywhere defined operations. Recognizing this problem, David Gries, in ``The Science of Programming,`` 1981, introduced the concept of partial functions into the mainstream of program correctness and gave hints how his treatment of partial functions could be formalized. Still, however, existing theorem provers and software verifiers have difficulties in checking software with partial functions, because of absence of uniform first order treatment of partial functions within classical 2-valued logic. Several rigorous mechanisms that took partiality into account were introduced [Wirsing 1990, Breu 1991, VDM 1986, 1990, etc.]. However, they either did not discuss correctness proofs or departed from first order logic. To fill this gap, the authors provide a semantics for software correctness proofs with partial functions within classical 2-valued 1st order logic. They formalize the Gries treatment of partial functions and also cover computations of functions whose argument lists may be only partially available. An example is nuclear reactor control relying on sensors which may fail to deliver sense data. This approach is sufficiently general to cover correctness proofs in various implementation languages.

  2. International Programs in Schools: Considerations of Form and Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Matthew S.

    2002-09-01

    (Intergenerational Programs in Schools: Considerations of Form and Function) - In recent years there has been a groundswell of intergenerational program activity occurring on an international scale. At an unprecedented level, new initiatives are emerging which aim to bring young people and older adults together in various settings - to interact, stimulate, educate, support, and provide care for one another. The focus of this paper is on intergenerational programs implemented in schools. Discussion centers primarily on how such initiatives enhance and reinforce the educational curriculum, contribute to student learning and personal growth, enrich the lives of senior adult participants, and have a positive impact on the surrounding communities. The paper concludes with a review of some key issues that need to be taken into account when developing and evaluating intergenerational programs.

  3. Programming a real code in a functional language (part 1)

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, C.P.

    1991-09-10

    For some, functional languages hold the promise of allowing ease of programming massively parallel computers that imperative languages such as Fortran and C do not offer. At LLNL, we have initiated a project to write the physics of a major production code in Sisal, a functional language developed at LLNL in collaboration with researchers throughout the world. We are investigating the expressibility of Sisal, as well as its performance on a shared-memory multiprocessor, the Y-MP. An interesting aspect of the project is that Sisal modules can call Fortran modules, and are callable by them. This eliminates the rewriting of 80% of the production code that would not benefit from parallel execution. Preliminary results indicate that the restrictive nature of the language does not cause problems in expressing the algorithms we have chosen. Some interesting aspects of programming in a mixed functional-imperative environment have surfaced, but can be managed. 8 refs.

  4. The 20 item prosopagnosia index (PI20): relationship with the Glasgow face-matching test

    PubMed Central

    Sowden, Sophie; Gaule, Anne; Bird, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    The 20 item prosopagnosia index (PI20) was recently developed to identify individuals with developmental prosopagnosia. While the PI20’s principal purpose is to aid researchers and clinicians, it was suggested that it may serve as a useful screening tool to identify people with face recognition difficulties in applied settings where face matching is a critical part of their occupation. Although the PI20 has been validated using behavioural measures of face recognition, it has yet to be validated against a measure of face-matching ability that is more representative of applied settings. In this study, the PI20 was therefore administered with the Glasgow face-matching test (GFMT). A strong correlation was observed between PI20 and GFMT scores, providing further validation for the PI20, indicating that it is likely to be of value in applied settings. PMID:26715995

  5. Audit of the Forensic Psychiatry Liaison Service to Glasgow Sheriff Court 1994 to 1998.

    PubMed

    White, T; Ramsay, L; Morrison, R

    2002-01-01

    This study seeks to describe the demographic, offence, and diagnostic details of subjects referred by the Procurator Fiscal at Glasgow Sheriff Court to the Forensic Psychiatry Liaison between 1994 and 1997. The initial outcome of the assessment and an assessment of medical time involved is presented. This study is a retrospective review of audit forms completed between 1993 and 1994 and once more in 1997. The referral criteria, age structure and offence pattern was broadly similar to that reported in court diversion schemes in England. A primary diagnosis of alcohol and/or drug dependence was seen in one third of referrals during both years of the audit. A marked increase (250%) in referrals between 1994 and 1997 resulted in a marked reduction of those admitted to hospital, and an increase in the percentage who had 'no psychiatric diagnosis'. The need for ongoing liaison between the Procurators Fiscal and the Forensic Psychiatrists involved would appear important in modifying referral criteria. PMID:11848141

  6. Highlights from the Ninth European Breast Cancer Conference, Glasgow, 19–21 March 2014

    PubMed Central

    Munzone, Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    The Ninth European Breast Cancer Conference (EBCC-9), one of the largest breast cancer conferences in the world, was held in Glasgow in March 2014, and brought together the voices of doctors, researchers, nurses, and patients. All the major breast cancer advocacy groups and institutions were united in one forum (Europa Donna, the EORTC Breast Cancer group, and EUSOMA). The Scientific Programme for EBCC-9 highlighted a holistic picture of breast cancer, including research, prevention, treatment, advocacy, and care. Participants were able to discover the most up-to-date developments and findings within the field for implementation into daily practice. Improvements in treatment, as well as enhanced access to care, underlie the sustained decreases in breast cancer mortality seen in 30 European countries from 1989 to 2010. PMID:24834121

  7. Do obesity-promoting food environments cluster around socially disadvantaged schools in Glasgow, Scotland?

    PubMed Central

    Ellaway, Anne; Macdonald, Laura; Lamb, Karen; Thornton, Lukar; Day, Peter; Pearce, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    Increase in the consumption of food and drinks outside the home by adolescents and young people and associations with rising levels of obesity is a significant concern worldwide and it has been suggested that the food environment around schools may be a contributory factor. As few studies have explored this issue in a UK setting, we examined whether different types of food outlets are clustered around public secondary schools in Glasgow, and whether this pattern differed by social disadvantage. We found evidence of clustering of food outlets around schools but a more complex picture in relation to deprivation was observed. Across all schools there were numerous opportunities for pupils to purchase energy dense foods locally and the implications for policy are discussed. PMID:22819370

  8. Alternative manifestations of actor responses to urban flooding: case studies from Bradford and Glasgow.

    PubMed

    Cashman, A C

    2009-01-01

    Flooding processes are complex and can occur throughout urban areas sometimes with devastating consequences. Traditionally flood risks have been managed through a combination of structural defence measures, warnings and emergency measures. More recently they have included development controls and land zoning policies. When such measures fail, individuals, authorities and the economy have to cope with the consequences. There is a growing realization that the resilience of individuals and institutions to floods and the risks from flooding need to be addressed. In the past few years there has been what some have referred to as a paradigm shift in the way responses to flooding are being conceptualized and the way this affects actors and actions. Based on fieldwork including interviews this paper presents two examples of actor and institutional responses to flooding events from the cities of Bradford and Glasgow in the United Kingdom. PMID:19587405

  9. Diets for disease? Intraurban variation in reported food consumption in Glasgow.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, A; Macintyre, S; Anderson, A

    1994-06-01

    A recent official report on the Scottish Diet reviews evidence for poor health and poor diets among the Scots, and makes extensive and specific recommendations about dietary change. This paper examines the extent to which reported consumption of fifteen of the food groups discussed in that report vary among four neighbourhoods in Glasgow City. Some foods appear to be typical of a wider Glaswegian (or Scottish) diet and show little variation among neighbourhoods (e.g. semi-skimmed milk, white fish, confectionery, cakes and pastries, savoury snacks). Other foods however show marked differences between neighbourhoods after controlling for sex, age and social class; these include fruit, vegetables, meat (particularly processed meat products), bread, spreading fats, sugar, natural fruit juice and alcohol. This suggests that such intraurban variations in food consumption cannot be explained simply by socio-demographic or socio-economic factors in individuals and that cultural and supply factors also need to be taken into account. PMID:7979343

  10. Hegel in Glasgow: Idealists and the Emergence of Adult Education in the West of Scotland, 1866-1927

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Robert; Turner, Robert

    2006-01-01

    This paper considers how Hegel's philosophical idealism influenced the thinking and practical activities of four successive holders of the Chair of Moral Philosophy in the University of Glasgow between 1866 and 1927. It argues that their activities were shaped by Hegelian concepts of citizenship, which engendered a commitment to encouraging the…

  11. Functional communication with AD patients: a caregiver training program.

    PubMed

    Ripich, D N

    1994-01-01

    The loss of functional communication in Alzheimer disease (AD) results from the disproportionate breakdowns in the pragmatic and semantic areas of language in these patients. Communication breakdown is regularly listed among the top four stressors in measures of stress and burden of AD caregivers. A caregiver training program designed around seven specific communication strategies can be used to alter communication interactions. As a pilot program, the acronym FOCUSED organized the seven strategies for easy recall (Face-to-face, Orientation, Continuity, Unsticking, Structure, Exchanges, and Direct). Significant differences in both attitude toward AD patients, knowledge of AD, and knowledge of communication strategies were shown in comparisons of pre- and posttraining assessments. PMID:7999352

  12. Out-of-home food outlets and area deprivation: case study in Glasgow, UK

    PubMed Central

    Macintyre, Sally; McKay, Laura; Cummins, Steven; Burns, Cate

    2005-01-01

    Background There is a popular belief that out-of-home eating outlets, which typically serve energy dense food, may be more commonly found in more deprived areas and that this may contribute to higher rates of obesity and related diseases in such areas. Methods We obtained a list of all 1301 out-of-home eating outlets in Glasgow, UK, in 2003 and mapped these at unit postcode level. We categorised them into quintiles of area deprivation using the 2004 Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation and computed mean density of types of outlet (restaurants, fast food restaurants, cafes and takeaways), and all types combined, per 1000 population. We also estimated odds ratios for the presence of any outlets in small areas within the quintiles. Results The density of outlets, and the likelihood of having any outlets, was highest in the second most affluent quintile (Q2) and lowest in the second most deprived quintile (Q4). Mean outlets per 1,000 were 4.02 in Q2, 1.20 in Q4 and 2.03 in Q5. With Q2 as the reference, Odds Ratios for having any outlets were 0.52 (CI 0.32–0.84) in Q1, 0.50 (CI 0.31 – 0.80) in Q4 and 0.61 (CI 0.38 – 0.98) in Q5. Outlets were located in the City Centre, West End, and along arterial roads. Conclusion In Glasgow those living in poorer areas are not more likely to be exposed to out-of-home eating outlets in their neighbourhoods. Health improvement policies need to be based on empirical evidence about the location of fast food outlets in specific national and local contexts, rather than on popular 'factoids'. PMID:16248898

  13. Asbestos and lung cancer in Glasgow and the west of Scotland.

    PubMed Central

    De Vos Irvine, H; Lamont, D W; Hole, D J; Gillis, C R

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To quantify the relation between lung cancer and exposure to asbestos in men in west Scotland and to estimate the proportion of lung cancer which may be attributed to exposure to asbestos. DESIGN--An ecological correlation study of the incidence of lung cancer in men and past asbestos exposure. The unit of analysis was the postcode sector. Correction was made for past cigarette smoking, air pollution, and deprivation. SETTING--The region covered by the west of Scotland cancer registry, containing 2.72 million people and including Glasgow and the lower reaches of the River Clyde, where shipbuilding was once a major industry. SUBJECTS--All men diagnosed with lung cancer between 1975 and 1984 whose residence at the time of registration was within the west of Scotland. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--The population attributable risk for asbestos related lung cancer. RESULTS--An estimated 5.7% (95% confidence interval 2.3 to 9.1%) of all lung cancers in men registered in the west of Scotland during the period 1975-84 were asbestos related, amounting to 1081 cases. CONCLUSIONS--A considerable proportion of cases of lung cancer in men in Glasgow and the west of Scotland from 1975 to 1984 were asbestos related. Most of these may not have been considered for compensation by the Department of Social Security. Given the very small annual number of recorded cases of asbestosis this condition is probably not a prerequisite for the development of asbestos related lung cancer. A heightened awareness of the increasing incidence of asbestos related neoplasms and their more thorough investigation are recommended. PMID:8518676

  14. Assessment of nurse’s knowledge about Glasgow coma scale at a university hospital

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Wesley Cajaíba; Vancini-Campanharo, Cássia Regina; Lopes, Maria Carolina Barbosa Teixeira; Okuno, Meiry Fernanda Pinto; Batista, Ruth Ester Assayag

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To assess knowledge of nurses of emergency services and intensive care units about Glasgow Coma Scale. Methods This cross-sectional analytical study included 127 nurses of critical units of an university hospital. We used structured interview with 12 questions to evaluate their knowledge about the scale. Association of Knowledge with professionals’ sociodemographic variables were verified by the Fisher-test, χ2 and likelihood ratio. Results Most of participants were women mean aged 31.1 years, they had graduated more than 5 years previously, and had 1 to 3 years of work experience. In the assessment of best score possible for Glasgow scale (question 3) nurses who had graduate more than 5 years ago presented a lower percentage success rate (p=0.0476). However, in the question 7, which evaluated what interval of the scale indicated moderate severity of brain trauma injury, those with more years of experience had higher percentage of correct answers (p=0.0251). In addition, nurses from emergency service had more correct answers than nurses from intensive care unit (p=0.0143) in the same question. Nurses graduated for more than 5 years ago had a lower percentage of correct answers in question 7 (p=0.0161). Nurses with more work experience had a better score (p=0.0119) to identify how assessment of motor response should be started. Conclusion Number of year since graduation, experience, and work at critical care units interfered in nurses’ knowledge about the scale, which indicates the need of training. PMID:27462896

  15. Prognostic value of the Glasgow Prognostic Score in metastatic colorectal cancer in the era of anti-EGFR therapies.

    PubMed

    Dréanic, Johann; Maillet, Marianne; Dhooge, Marion; Mir, Olivier; Brezault, Catherine; Goldwasser, François; Chaussade, Stanislas; Coriat, Romain

    2013-01-01

    The Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS), combination of C-reactive protein and albumin, has proven its prognostic value in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients receiving conventional cytotoxic therapy. More recently, anti-EGFR therapies have been validated in mCRC and roll forward the patients' overall survival (OS). We aimed to evaluate the prognostic accuracy of the GPS in patients receiving anti-EGFR therapy in addition to conventional chemotherapy. From January 2007 to February 2012, consecutive mCRC patients who received 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy plus cetuximab were included in the present analysis. Patients were eligible for the study if they met the following criteria: advanced pathologically proven MCRC, age >18 years, adequate renal function (creatinine clearance >40 ml/min), C-reactive protein and albumin and performance status evaluation before treatment initiation. A total of 49 patients received cetuximab plus 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy (colon, n = 34; rectum, n = 15) and were treated with a median follow-up of 35 months (16.5-74.7). Median age was 48 years old. In addition to cetuximab, patients received oxaliplatin- (n = 34, 60%) or irinotecan (n = 15, 30%)-based chemotherapy. At time of diagnosis, 55, 29 and 16% of patients had a GPS of 0 (n = 27), 1 (n = 14) and 2 (n = 8), respectively. Fifty-five, 29 and 14 % of patients add one, two or ≥3 metastatic sites, respectively. Considering two groups (GPS = 0 and GPS ≥1), median progression-free survivals were significantly different (p = 0.0084). Median OS in the GPS 0, 1 and 2 groups were 38.2, 14 and 12.1 months, respectively (p = 0.0093). The results of the present study confirm that the GPS is still a simple and effective prognostic factor in the era of cetuximab therapy in mCRC patients. PMID:23839775

  16. Enhancing Functional Performance using Sensorimotor Adaptability Training Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Brady, R.; Audas, C.; Ruttley, T. M.; Cohen, H. S.

    2009-01-01

    During the acute phase of adaptation to novel gravitational environments, sensorimotor disturbances have the potential to disrupt the ability of astronauts to perform functional tasks. The goal of this project is to develop a sensorimotor adaptability (SA) training program designed to facilitate recovery of functional capabilities when astronauts transition to different gravitational environments. The project conducted a series of studies that investigated the efficacy of treadmill training combined with a variety of sensory challenges designed to increase adaptability including alterations in visual flow, body loading, and support surface stability.

  17. Subdifferential of Optimal Value Functions in Nonlinear Infinite Programming

    SciTech Connect

    Huy, N. Q. Giang, N. D.; Yao, J.-C.

    2012-02-15

    This paper presents an exact formula for computing the normal cones of the constraint set mapping including the Clarke normal cone and the Mordukhovich normal cone in infinite programming under the extended Mangasarian-Fromovitz constraint qualification condition. Then, we derive an upper estimate as well as an exact formula for the limiting subdifferential of the marginal/optimal value function in a general Banach space setting.

  18. Geometric programming, chemical equilibrium, and the anti-entropy function.

    PubMed

    Duffin, R J; Zener, C

    1969-07-01

    THE CULMINATION OF THIS PAPER IS THE FOLLOWING DUALITY PRINCIPLE OF THERMODYNAMICS: maximum S = minimum S(*). (1) The left side of relation (1) is the classical characterization of equilibrium. It says to maximize the entropy function S with respect to extensive variables which are subject to certain constraints. The right side of (1) is a new characterization of equilibrium and concerns minimization of an anti-entropy function S(*) with respect to intensive variables. Relation (1) is applied to the chemical equilibrium of a mixture of gases at constant temperature and volume. Then (1) specializes to minimum F = maximum F(*), (2) where F is the Helmholtz function for free energy and F(*) is an anti-Helmholtz function. The right-side of (2) is an unconstrained maximization problem and gives a simplified practical procedure for calculating equilibrium concentrations. We also give a direct proof of (2) by the duality theorem of geometric programming. The duality theorem of geometric programming states that minimum cost = maximum anti-cost. (30). PMID:16591769

  19. Chamber identity programs drive early functional partitioning of the heart

    PubMed Central

    Mosimann, Christian; Panáková, Daniela; Werdich, Andreas A.; Musso, Gabriel; Burger, Alexa; Lawson, Katy L.; Carr, Logan A.; Nevis, Kathleen R.; Sabeh, M. Khaled; Zhou, Yi; Davidson, Alan J.; DiBiase, Anthony; Burns, Caroline E.; Burns, C. Geoffrey; MacRae, Calum A.; Zon, Leonard I.

    2015-01-01

    The vertebrate heart muscle (myocardium) develops from the first heart field (FHF) and expands by adding second heart field (SHF) cells. While both lineages exist already in teleosts, the primordial contributions of FHF and SHF to heart structure and function remain incompletely understood. Here we delineate the functional contribution of the FHF and SHF to the zebrafish heart using the cis-regulatory elements of the draculin (drl) gene. The drl reporters initially delineate the lateral plate mesoderm, including heart progenitors. Subsequent myocardial drl reporter expression restricts to FHF descendants. We harnessed this unique feature to uncover that loss of tbx5a and pitx2 affect relative FHF versus SHF contributions to the heart. High-resolution physiology reveals distinctive electrical properties of each heart field territory that define a functional boundary within the single zebrafish ventricle. Our data establish that the transcriptional program driving cardiac septation regulates physiologic ventricle partitioning, which successively provides mechanical advantages of sequential contraction. PMID:26306682

  20. Programming cancer through phase-functionalized silicon based biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Premnath, Priyatha; Venkatakrishnan, Krishnan; Tan, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Applications of biomaterials in cancer therapy has been limited to drug delivery systems and markers in radiation therapy. In this article, we introduce the concept of phase-functionalization of silicon to preferentially select cancer cell populations for survival in a catalyst and additive free approach. Silicon is phase-functionalized by the interaction of ultrafast laser pulses, resulting in the formation of rare phases of SiO2 in conjunction with differing silicon crystal lattices. The degree of phase-functionalization is programmed to dictate the degree of repulsion of cancer cells. Unstable phases of silicon oxides are synthesized during phase-functionalization and remain stable at ambient conditions. This change in phase of silicon as well as formation of oxides contributes to changes in surface chemistry as well as surface energy. These material properties elicit in precise control of migration, cytoskeleton shape, direction and population. To the best of our knowledge, phase-functionalized silicon without any changes in topology or additive layers and its applications in cancer therapy has not been reported before. This unique programmable phase-functionalized silicon has the potential to change current trends in cancer research and generate focus on biomaterials as cancer repelling or potentially cancer killing surfaces. PMID:26043430

  1. Programming cell fate on bio-functionalized silicon.

    PubMed

    Premnath, Priyatha; Tan, Bo; Venkatakrishnan, Krishnan

    2015-04-01

    Controlling the growth of cells on the surface of silicon without an additive layer or topographical modification is unexplored. This research article delineates the discovery of unique properties of a bio-functionalized silicon substrate, programmed to repel or control cells, generated by ultrafast femtosecond pulse interaction with silicon. Remarkably, bio-functionalization in any shape or size without change in topology or morphology is observed indicating only sub-surface phase transformations. Material characterization reveals the presence of a unique mixture of phases of SiO2 and Si. Consequently, these variations in phase alter the physicochemical characteristics on the surface of silicon resulting in its bio-functionalization. The culture of mouse embryonic fibroblasts shows unique adhesion characteristics on these bio-functionalized silicon surfaces that include cell controlling, cell trapping, and cell shaping. Furthermore, the directionality of fibroblasts is restrained parallel to bio-functionalized zones as evidenced by changes in cytoskeleton. The controlling of proliferation, migration and adhesion of cells is attributed to unique phase bio-functionalization. This method presents considerable promise in a myriad of applications such as tissue engineering, MEMS, and lab-on-a-chip devices. PMID:25731099

  2. An Introduction to the China Rice Functional Genomics Program

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhihong

    2002-01-01

    The China Rice Functional Genomics Program (CRFGP) was initiated in 1999 by the Ministry of Science and Technology of China under the National Basic Sciences Initiative and was expected to last for an initial period of five years. The CRFGP involves 20 research groups from the Chinese Academy of Sciences and some major universities and focuses on the identification of genes controlling flowering, plant architecture, fertility, reproduction, metabolic controls and stress responses in rice through a combinatorial approach based on genetics, molecular biology and functional genomics as well as the generation of intellectual properties related to crop breeding and improvements. We will briefly describe the mission of the CRFGP as well as its recent progress. PMID:18628891

  3. Item-Level Psychometrics of the Glasgow Outcome Scale: Extended Structured Interviews.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ickpyo; Li, Chih-Ying; Velozo, Craig A

    2016-04-01

    The Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOSE) structured interview captures critical components of activities and participation, including home, shopping, work, leisure, and family/friend relationships. Eighty-nine community dwelling adults with mild-moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) were recruited (average = 2.7 year post injury). Nine items of the 19 items were used for the psychometrics analysis purpose. Factor analysis and item-level psychometrics were investigated using the Rasch partial-credit model. Although the principal components analysis of residuals suggests that a single measurement factor dominates the measure, the instrument did not meet the factor analysis criteria. Five items met the rating scale criteria. Eight items fit the Rasch model. The instrument demonstrated low person reliability (0.63), low person strata (2.07), and a slight ceiling effect. The GOSE demonstrated limitations in precisely measuring activities/participation for individuals after TBI. Future studies should examine the impact of the low precision of the GOSE on effect size. PMID:27504879

  4. Clinical Significance of the Glasgow Prognostic Score for Survival after Colorectal Cancer Surgery.

    PubMed

    Eren, Tunc; Burcu, Busra; Tombalak, Ercument; Ozdemir, Tugrul; Leblebici, Metin; Ozemir, Ibrahim Ali; Ziyade, Sedat; Alimoglu, Orhan

    2016-06-01

    Glasgow prognostic score (GPS) has been found to be a useful tool in various cancer types. Our aim was to evaluate the significance of GPS in patients operated on for colorectal cancer (CRC). Patients with CRC who underwent radical resections between April 2010 and January 2015 were retrospectively evaluated. GPS was estimated based on the preoperative measurement of C-reactive protein and serum albumin levels. Data including demographics, laboratory and pathological parameters, surgical outcomes, and late-term follow-up results were analyzed. The study group of 115 patients consisted of 51 (44 %) women and 64 (56 %) men with a median age of 66 (range 32-91) years. The mean follow-up period was 20 (range 7-41) months. Tumor size and wound infection rates were significantly increased in patients with higher GPS (p = 0.019 and p = 0.003, respectively). According to multivariate analyses, CEA and GPS were found to be independent risk factors significantly effecting mortality (p = 0.001 and p = 0.009, respectively). At the end of the late-term follow-up period, it was detected that cancer-specific survival significantly decreased as the GPS increased (p = 0.016). The GPS is a significant prognostic factor in CRC and should be included in the routine preoperative assessment of all surgically treated CRC patients. PMID:26925798

  5. [Assessment of Cachexia in Head and Neck Cancer Patients Based on a Modified Glasgow Prognostic Score].

    PubMed

    Matsuzuka, Takashi; Suzuki, Masahiro; Saijoh, Satoshi; Ikeda, Masakazu; Imaizumi, Mitsumasa; Nomoto, Yukio; Matsui, Takamichi; Tada, Yasuhiro; Omori, Koichi

    2016-02-01

    We retrospectively analyzed 54 patients who died of head and neck squamous cell caricinoma regarding the process and duration of cachexia using the modified Glasgow Prognostic Score (mGPS). The patients were classified as having cachexia when the serum albumin level was less than 3.5 mg/dL and the C-reactive protein (CRP) level was more than 0.5 mg/dL. The number of patients with cachexia was eight (8%) at the first visit and 50 (93%) at the time of death. In the 50 patients, the median and average time of having cachexia was 59 and 95 days, respectively. Thirty-two of the 50 patients (64%) died within three months after the presence of cachexia was confirmed. In this study, the time of having cachexia was so short, then the policy of care should be converted from aggressive into supportive in patients classified as having cachexia. mGPS would be an accurate assessment tool for cachexia and ascertain the end stage of head and neck cancer patients. PMID:27149710

  6. A health impact assessment of the 2014 Commonwealth Games in Glasgow

    PubMed Central

    McCartney, G.; Palmer, S.; Winterbottom, J.; Jones, R.; Kendall, R.; Booker, D.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Objective To influence the planning of the 2014 Commonwealth Games such that the positive impacts are maximized and the negative impacts are mitigated. Study design Participatory health impact assessment (HIA). Methods A participatory HIA was performed using standard World Health Organization methods. A scoping event was held to involve decision makers in the process and to identify the key areas for consideration. A large community engagement exercise and a systematic review were conducted as part of the evidence-gathering phase. The results of the HIA were reported to the key decision makers involved in the Glasgow City Council legacy strategy. Results The likely net health impact of hosting the Commonwealth Games was uncertain. It was suggested that the main mechanisms through which impacts were likely to be felt were: the economy; civic pride; engagement in decision making; the provision of new infrastructure; and participation in cultural events. A series of recommendations was produced in order to maximize positive health benefits and mitigate negative impacts. Conclusions HIA is a useful tool for engaging communities and decision makers in the public health agenda. HIAs of major multi-sport events are limited by a lack of quality evidence and the inability to predict impacts reliably. PMID:20630546

  7. Meteorological conditions and incidence of Legionnaires' disease in Glasgow, Scotland: application of statistical modelling.

    PubMed

    Dunn, C E; Rowlingson, B; Bhopal, R S; Diggle, P

    2013-04-01

    This study investigated the relationships between Legionnaires' disease (LD) incidence and weather in Glasgow, UK, by using advanced statistical methods. Using daily meteorological data and 78 LD cases with known exact date of onset, we fitted a series of Poisson log-linear regression models with explanatory variables for air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and year, and sine-cosine terms for within-year seasonal variation. Our initial model showed an association between LD incidence and 2-day lagged humidity (positive, P = 0·0236) and wind speed (negative, P = 0·033). However, after adjusting for year-by-year and seasonal variation in cases there were no significant associations with weather. We also used normal linear models to assess the importance of short-term, unseasonable weather values. The most significant association was between LD incidence and air temperature residual lagged by 1 day prior to onset (P = 0·0014). The contextual role of unseasonably high air temperatures is worthy of further investigation. Our methods and results have further advanced understanding of the role which weather plays in risk of LD infection. PMID:22687530

  8. Parallel functional programming in Sisal: Fictions, facts, and future

    SciTech Connect

    McGraw, J.R.

    1993-07-01

    This paper provides a status report on the progress of research and development on the functional language Sisal. This project focuses on providing a highly effective method of writing large scientific applications that can efficiently execute on a spectrum of different multiprocessors. The paper includes sections on the language definition, compilation strategies, and programming techniques intended for readers with little or no background with Sisal. The section on performance presents our most recent results on execution speed for shared-memory multiprocessors, our findings using Sisal to develop codes, and our experiences migrating the same source code to different machines. For large programs, the execution performance of Sisal (with minimal supporting advice from the programmer) usually exceeds that of the best available automatic, vector/parallel Fortran compilers. Our evidence also indicates that Sisal programs tend to be shorter in length, faster to write, and dearer to understand than equivalent algorithms in Fortran. The paper concludes with a substantial discussion of common criticisms of the language and our plans for addressing them. Most notably, efficient implementations for distributed memory machines are lacking; an issue we plan to remedy.

  9. GIANT API: an application programming interface for functional genomics

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Andrew M.; Wong, Aaron K.; Fisk, Ian; Troyanskaya, Olga G.

    2016-01-01

    GIANT API provides biomedical researchers programmatic access to tissue-specific and global networks in humans and model organisms, and associated tools, which includes functional re-prioritization of existing genome-wide association study (GWAS) data. Using tissue-specific interaction networks, researchers are able to predict relationships between genes specific to a tissue or cell lineage, identify the changing roles of genes across tissues and uncover disease-gene associations. Additionally, GIANT API enables computational tools like NetWAS, which leverages tissue-specific networks for re-prioritization of GWAS results. The web services covered by the API include 144 tissue-specific functional gene networks in human, global functional networks for human and six common model organisms and the NetWAS method. GIANT API conforms to the REST architecture, which makes it stateless, cacheable and highly scalable. It can be used by a diverse range of clients including web browsers, command terminals, programming languages and standalone apps for data analysis and visualization. The API is freely available for use at http://giant-api.princeton.edu. PMID:27098035

  10. GIANT API: an application programming interface for functional genomics.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Andrew M; Wong, Aaron K; Fisk, Ian; Troyanskaya, Olga G

    2016-07-01

    GIANT API provides biomedical researchers programmatic access to tissue-specific and global networks in humans and model organisms, and associated tools, which includes functional re-prioritization of existing genome-wide association study (GWAS) data. Using tissue-specific interaction networks, researchers are able to predict relationships between genes specific to a tissue or cell lineage, identify the changing roles of genes across tissues and uncover disease-gene associations. Additionally, GIANT API enables computational tools like NetWAS, which leverages tissue-specific networks for re-prioritization of GWAS results. The web services covered by the API include 144 tissue-specific functional gene networks in human, global functional networks for human and six common model organisms and the NetWAS method. GIANT API conforms to the REST architecture, which makes it stateless, cacheable and highly scalable. It can be used by a diverse range of clients including web browsers, command terminals, programming languages and standalone apps for data analysis and visualization. The API is freely available for use at http://giant-api.princeton.edu. PMID:27098035

  11. A Short Executive Function Training Program Improves Preschoolers’ Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Blakey, Emma; Carroll, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive training has been shown to improve executive functions (EFs) in middle childhood and adulthood. However, fewer studies have targeted the preschool years—a time when EFs undergo rapid development. The present study tested the effects of a short four session EF training program in 54 four-year-olds. The training group significantly improved their working memory from pre-training relative to an active control group. Notably, this effect extended to a task sharing few surface features with the trained tasks, and continued to be apparent 3 months later. In addition, the benefits of training extended to a measure of mathematical reasoning 3 months later, indicating that training EFs during the preschool years has the potential to convey benefits that are both long-lasting and wide-ranging. PMID:26635710

  12. HANOIPC3: a computer program to evaluate executive functions.

    PubMed

    Guevara, M A; Rizo, L; Ruiz-Díaz, M; Hernández-González, M

    2009-08-01

    This article describes a computer program (HANOIPC3) based on the Tower of Hanoi game that, by analyzing a series of parameters during execution, allows a fast and accurate evaluation of data related to certain executive functions, especially planning, organizing and problem-solving. This computerized version has only one level of difficulty based on the use of 3 disks, but it stipulates an additional rule: only one disk may be moved at a time, and only to an adjacent peg (i.e., no peg can be skipped over). In the original version--without this stipulation--the minimum number of movements required to complete the task is 7, but under the conditions of this computerized version this increases to 26. HANOIPC3 has three important advantages: (1) it allows a researcher or clinician to modify the rules by adding or removing certain conditions, thus augmenting the utility and flexibility in test execution and the interpretation of results; (2) it allows to provide on-line feedback to subjects about their execution; and, (3) it creates a specific file to store the scores that correspond to the parameters obtained during trials. The parameters that can be measured include: latencies (time taken for each movement, measured in seconds), total test time, total number of movements, and the number of correct and incorrect movements. The efficacy and adaptability of this program has been confirmed. PMID:19303660

  13. A review of the predictive ability of Glasgow Coma Scale scores in head-injured patients.

    PubMed

    McNett, Molly

    2007-04-01

    According to 1999 data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, traumatic brain injuries (TBI) caused by motor vehicle accidents, firearms, and falls are recorded as a leading cause of death and lifelong disability for young adults in the United States. Researchers have investigated if correlations exist between variables in the acute stage of injury and outcome measures in TBI patients. The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score is one variable that was extensively studied for its ability to predict outcome in TBI patients. However, the use of different designs and methodologies in these studies makes the interpretation of the cumulative findings difficult. Therefore the purpose of this review was to provide a summary of the research findings on the ability of the GCS scores to predict outcome in TBI patients. A search was done on MEDLINE and CINAHL to identify studies that investigated the predictive ability of the GCS score. Studies that used the GCS as a variable in predicting outcome with adult patients who had sustained some type of head injury were included. GCS scores are most accurate at predicting outcome in head-injured patients when they are combined with patient age and pupillary response and when broad outcome categories are used. The motor component of the GCS yields similar prediction rates as the summed GCS score, and better prediction occurs with very high or very low GCS scores. Information about the cumulative research findings on the predictive ability of GCS scores aids nurses in providing support and education to family members during the acute stage of injury, and in coordinating the services of members of the healthcare team, which could result in improved outcomes for both patient and family. PMID:17477220

  14. Effects of Urban Morphology on Intra-Urban Temperature Differences: Two Squares in Glasgow City Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drach, P. R. C.; Emmanuel, R.

    2014-12-01

    The perspective of climate change increases the necessity of tackling the urban over heating effects, by developing strategies to mitigate/adapt to changes. Analysing the influence of urban form on intra-urban temperature dynamics could be a helpful way of reducing its negative consequences. Also, it would help untangle the urban effect from the effect caused by atmospheric conditions. The present paper presents the effect of atmospheric conditions as exemplified by atmospheric stability (modified Pasquill-Gifford-Turner classification system) and urban morphology as measured by the Sky View Factor (SVF) on intra-urban variations in air temperature in a cold climate city, in and around the mature urban area of Glasgow, UK (55° 51' 57.294"N, 4° 15' 0.2628"W). The aim is to highlight their combined importance and to make preliminary investigations on the local warming effect of urban morphology under specific atmospheric stability classes. The present work indicates that the maximum intra-urban temperature differences (i.e. temperature difference between the coolest and the warmest spots in a given urban region) is strongly correlated with atmospheric stability. The spatial patterns in local temperature variations consistently show that water bodies and urban parks have lower temperature variations. Thus, greenery and urban materials could play an important role in influencing the local climate in cold cities. The knowledge of urban morphology's influence on local temperature variations could be an important tool for devising appropriate planning/design strategies to face urban overheating in the coming years as the background climate continues to warm.

  15. Glasgow Coma Scale and Outcomes after Structural Traumatic Head Injury in Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Heather, Natasha L.; Derraik, José G. B.; Beca, John; Hofman, Paul L.; Dansey, Rangi; Hamill, James; Cutfield, Wayne S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the association of the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) with radiological evidence of head injury (the Abbreviated Injury Scale for the head region, AIS-HR) in young children hospitalized with traumatic head injury (THI), and the predictive value of GCS and AIS-HR scores for long-term impairment. Methods Our study involved a 10-year retrospective review of a database encompassing all patients admitted to Starship Children’s Hospital (Auckland, New Zealand, 2000–2010) with THI. Results We studied 619 children aged <5 years at the time of THI, with long-term outcome data available for 161 subjects. Both GCS and AIS-HR scores were predictive of length of intensive care unit and hospital stay (all p<0.001). GCS was correlated with AIS-HR (ρ=-0.46; p<0.001), although mild GCS scores (13–15) commonly under-estimated the severity of radiological injury: 42% of children with mild GCS scores had serious–critical THI (AIS-HR 3–5). Increasingly severe GCS or AIS-HR scores were both associated with a greater likelihood of long-term impairment (neurological disability, residual problems, and educational support). However, long-term impairment was also relatively common in children with mild GCS scores paired with structural THI more severe than a simple linear skull fracture. Conclusion Severe GCS scores will identify most cases of severe radiological injury in early childhood, and are good predictors of poor long-term outcome. However, young children admitted to hospital with structural THI and mild GCS scores have an appreciable risk of long-term disability, and also warrant long-term follow-up. PMID:24312648

  16. 42 CFR 455.232 - Medicaid integrity audit program contractor functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medicaid integrity audit program contractor... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PROGRAM INTEGRITY: MEDICAID Medicaid Integrity Program § 455.232 Medicaid integrity audit program contractor functions. The contract between...

  17. 42 CFR 455.232 - Medicaid integrity audit program contractor functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Medicaid integrity audit program contractor... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PROGRAM INTEGRITY: MEDICAID Medicaid Integrity Program § 455.232 Medicaid integrity audit program contractor functions. The contract between...

  18. Using RNA as Molecular Code for Programming Cellular Function.

    PubMed

    Kushwaha, Manish; Rostain, William; Prakash, Satya; Duncan, John N; Jaramillo, Alfonso

    2016-08-19

    RNA is involved in a wide-range of important molecular processes in the cell, serving diverse functions: regulatory, enzymatic, and structural. Together with its ease and predictability of design, these properties can lead RNA to become a useful handle for biological engineers with which to control the cellular machinery. By modifying the many RNA links in cellular processes, it is possible to reprogram cells toward specific design goals. We propose that RNA can be viewed as a molecular programming language that, together with protein-based execution platforms, can be used to rewrite wide ranging aspects of cellular function. In this review, we catalogue developments in the use of RNA parts, methods, and associated computational models that have contributed to the programmability of biology. We discuss how RNA part repertoires have been combined to build complex genetic circuits, and review recent applications of RNA-based parts and circuitry. We explore the future potential of RNA engineering and posit that RNA programmability is an important resource for firmly establishing an era of rationally designed synthetic biology. PMID:26999422

  19. Plethyzmography in assessment of hemodynamic results of pacemaker functions programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojciechowski, Dariusz; Sionek, Piotr; Peczalski, Kazimierz; Janusek, Dariusz

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents potential role of plethyzmography in optimization of heart hemodynamic function during pacemaker programming. The assessment of optimal stroke volume in patients, with implanted dual chamber pacemaker (DDD), by plethyzmography was a goal of the study. The data were collected during pacing rhythm. 20 patients (8 female and 12 male, average 77.4+/-4.6 years) with dual chamber pacemaker (DDD) and with pacing rhythm during routine pacemaker control and study tests were incorporated in the study group. Hemodynamic parameters were assessed during modification of atrio-ventricular delay (AVD) for pacing rhythm of 70 bpm and 90 bpm. The time of atrioventricular was programmed with 20 ms steps within range 100-200 ms and data were recorded with two minutes delay between two consecutive measurements. Stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO) were calculated from plethyzmographic signal by using Beatscope software (TNO Holand). Highest SV calculated for given pacing rhythm was named optimal stroke volume (OSV) and consequently highest cardiac output was named maximal cardiac output (MCO). The time of atrio-ventricular delay for OSV was named optimal atrioventricular delay (OAVD). The results have showed: mean values of OAVD for 70 bpm - 152+/-33 ms and for 90 bpm -149+/-35 ms, shortening of the mean OAVD time caused by increase of pacing rate from 70 bpm to 90 bpm what resulted in statistically significant decrease of OSV with not statistically significant increase of MCO. The analysis of consecutive patients revealed three types of response to increase of pacing rhythm: 1. typical-shortening of OAVD, 2. neutral-no change of OAVD and 3.atypical-lengthening of OAVD.

  20. Which score should be used in intubated patients’ Glasgow coma scale or full outline of unresponsiveness?

    PubMed Central

    Gorji, Mohammad Ali Heidari; Gorji, Ali Morad Heidari; Hosseini, Seyed Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Today Glasgow coma scale (GCS) is the most well-known and common score for evaluation of the level of consciousness and outcome predict after traumatic brain injuries in the world. Regarding to some advantages of the full outline of unresponsiveness (FOUR) score over GCS in intubated patients, we’re going to compare the precision of these two scores in predicting the outcome predict in intubated patients. Methods: This research was a diagnostic-based study, which was conducted prospectively on 80 patients with Traumatic brain injury who were intubated and admitted to Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of Educational Hospitals of Mazandaran University of Medical Science during February 2013 to August 2013. The scores of FOUR and GCS were measured by the researcher in the first 24 h of admission in ICU. The information's recorded in the check list including the mortality rate of early and late inside of the hospital interred to excel. The findings were analyzed using SPSS software, through descriptive statistics and regression logistic. Results: The results showed of 80 patients 21 patients (20%) were female and 59 patients (80%) were male. The age average of the samples was 33.80 ± 12.60 ranging from 16 to 60 years old. 21 patients (26.2%) died during treatment. Of 21 patients, 15 patients died during first 14 days (18.7%) and 6 patients died after 14 years (7.5%). The area under curve (AUC) of FOUR score in early mortality was 0.90 (C1 = 0.95, 0.88–0.90). The amount AUC for GCS was 0.80 (C1 = 0.95, 0.78–0.84), which in delayed mortality it was ordered as 0.86 (C1 = 0.95, 0.84–0.90) and 0.89 (C1 = 0.95, 0.78–0.88). Conclusion: The research results indicated that FOUR score is more exact and more practical in intubated patients regarding lack of verbal response factor in early mortality prediction in GCS. Hence, it is recommended for health professionals to use the FOUR score to predict the early outcome of intubated patients with traumatic

  1. A lead isotopic study of the human bioaccessibility of lead in urban soils from Glasgow, Scotland.

    PubMed

    Farmer, John G; Broadway, Andrew; Cave, Mark R; Wragg, Joanna; Fordyce, Fiona M; Graham, Margaret C; Ngwenya, Bryne T; Bewley, Richard J F

    2011-11-01

    The human bioaccessibility of lead (Pb) in Pb-contaminated soils from the Glasgow area was determined by the Unified Bioaccessibility Research Group of Europe (BARGE) Method (UBM), an in vitro physiologically based extraction scheme that mimics the chemical environment of the human gastrointestinal system and contains both stomach and intestine compartments. For 27 soils ranging in total Pb concentration from 126 to 2160 mg kg(-1) (median 539 mg kg(-1)), bioaccessibility as determined by the 'stomach' simulation (pH ~1.5) was 46-1580 mg kg(-1), equivalent to 23-77% (mean 52%) of soil total Pb concentration. The corresponding bioaccessibility data for the 'stomach+intestine' simulation (pH ~6.3) were 6-623 mg kg(-1) and 2-42% (mean 22%) of soil Pb concentration. The soil (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios ranged from 1.057 to 1.175. Three-isotope plots of (208)Pb/(206)Pb against (206)Pb/(207)Pb demonstrated that (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios were intermediate between values for source end-member extremes of imported Australian Pb ore (1.04)--used in the manufacture of alkyl Pb compounds (1.06-1.10) formerly added to petrol--and indigenous Pb ores/coal (1.17-1.19). The (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios of the UBM 'stomach' extracts were similar (<0.01 difference) to those of the soil for 26 of the 27 samples (r=0.993, p<0.001) and lower in 24 of them. A slight preference for lower (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio was discernible in the UBM. However, the source of Pb appeared to be less important in determining the extent of UBM-bioaccessible Pb than the overall soil total Pb concentration and the soil phases with which the Pb was associated. The significant phases identified in a subset of samples were carbonates, manganese oxides, iron-aluminium oxyhydroxides and clays. PMID:21930292

  2. Preoperative Glasgow prognostic score as a predictor of primary bladder cancer recurrence

    PubMed Central

    YUKSEL, OZGUR HAKI; AKAN, SERKAN; URKMEZ, AHMET; YILDIRIM, CAGLAR; SAHIN, AYTAC; VERIT, AYHAN

    2016-01-01

    The correlation between systemic inflammatory markers and malignancies has been assessed by a number of recent studies. The aim of this study was to prospectively assess preoperative inflammation markers and Glasgow prognostic scores (GPS) in patients who underwent surgery for primary bladder cancer (BC), and evaluate the predictive value of GPS for disease recurrence and progression. A total of 38 patients (mean age, 60.16±9.71 years; range, 33–76 years) who were treated in our department between May, 2014 and August, 2015 were enrolled in the present study. Preoperatively, patient information regarding gender, body mass index, serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and albumin levels, GPS and comorbidities, were collected and recorded. Transurethral resection of the bladder was performed, followed by histopathological evaluation of the resected material. The tumor size, stage and grade and the presence of necrosis were determined. According to the international TNM classification, the results of the histopathological analysis were as follows: Ta low- (n=24) and high-grade (n=4); and T1 low- (n=2) and high-grade (n=8). The median follow-up period was 10.1 months (range, 6–12 months). During this period, recurrence was observed in 10 cases and disease progression was detected in 1 patient. Hypoalbuminemia was encountered in 40% of the cases with recurrence, which was significantly higher compared with that in patients without recurrence (7.1%; P=0.031). In patients who had recurrence, a GPS of 1–2 points and tumor necrosis were more frequently detected compared with those without recurrence (60 vs. 7.1%, P=0.002; and 80 vs. 7.1%, P=0.001, respectively). Excluding a cystectomized case with a diagnosis of muscle-invasive BC, disease progression was not detected in any of the cases with recurrence during follow-up. Therefore, we consider that GPS and serum markers of systemic inflammatory response may be used as predictors of recurrence in patients with transitional

  3. A Functioning University Transfer Program of Engineering Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cone, Bonnie E.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Considered programs for engineering technology that provide professionals familiar with sophisticated machines, instruments, computers, industrial processes, and transportation and communication systems with a bachelor's degree program. These programs also provided community college students with two year technician training an opportunity to…

  4. A Functional-Notional Approach for English for Specific Purposes (ESP) Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Min

    English for Specific Purposes (ESP) programs, characterized by the special needs of the language learners, are described and a review of the literature on a functional-notional approach to the syllabus design of ESP programs is presented. It is suggested that effective ESP programs should teach the language skills necessary to function and perform…

  5. Neighbourhood demolition, relocation and health. A qualitative longitudinal study of housing-led urban regeneration in Glasgow, UK

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Matt; Lawson, Louise; Kearns, Ade; Conway, Ellie; Neary, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a qualitative longitudinal study to explore how adult residents of disadvantaged urban neighbourhoods (Glasgow, UK) experienced neighbourhood demolition and relocation. Data from 23 households was collected in 2011 and 2012. Some participants described moves to new or improved homes in different neighbourhoods as beneficial to their and their families’ wellbeing. Others suggested that longstanding illnesses and problems with the new home and/or neighbourhood led to more negative experiences. Individual-level contextual differences, home and neighbourhood-level factors and variations in intervention implementation influence the experiences of residents involved in relocation programmes. PMID:25814338

  6. Neighbourhood demolition, relocation and health. A qualitative longitudinal study of housing-led urban regeneration in Glasgow, UK.

    PubMed

    Egan, Matt; Lawson, Louise; Kearns, Ade; Conway, Ellie; Neary, Joanne

    2015-05-01

    We conducted a qualitative longitudinal study to explore how adult residents of disadvantaged urban neighbourhoods (Glasgow, UK) experienced neighbourhood demolition and relocation. Data from 23 households was collected in 2011 and 2012. Some participants described moves to new or improved homes in different neighbourhoods as beneficial to their and their families' wellbeing. Others suggested that longstanding illnesses and problems with the new home and/or neighbourhood led to more negative experiences. Individual-level contextual differences, home and neighbourhood-level factors and variations in intervention implementation influence the experiences of residents involved in relocation programmes. PMID:25814338

  7. Prehospital heart rate and blood pressure increase the positive predictive value of the Glasgow Coma Scale for high-mortality traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Reisner, Andrew; Chen, Xiaoxiao; Kumar, Kamal; Reifman, Jaques

    2014-05-15

    We hypothesized that vital signs could be used to improve the association between a trauma patient's prehospital Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score and his or her clinical condition. Previously, abnormally low and high blood pressures have both been associated with higher mortality for patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). We undertook a retrospective analysis of 1384 adult prehospital trauma patients. Vital-sign data were electronically archived and analyzed. We examined the relative risk of severe head Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) 5-6 as a function of the GCS, systolic blood pressure (SBP), heart rate (HR), and respiratory rate (RR). We created multi-variate logistic regression models and, using DeLong's test, compared their area under receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC AUCs) for three outcomes: head AIS 5-6, all-cause mortality, and either head AIS 5-6 or neurosurgical procedure. We found significant bimodal relationships between head AIS 5-6 versus SBP and HR, but not RR. When the GCS was <15, ROC AUCs were significantly higher for a multi-variate regression model (GCS, SBP, and HR) versus GCS alone. In particular, patients with abnormalities in all parameters (GCS, SBP, and HR) were significantly more likely to have high-mortality TBI versus those with abnormalities in GCS alone. This could be useful for mobilizing resources (e.g., neurosurgeons and operating rooms at the receiving hospital) and might enable new prehospital management protocols where therapies are selected based on TBI mortality risk. PMID:24372334

  8. 42 CFR 455.232 - Medicaid integrity audit program contractor functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Medicaid integrity audit program contractor functions. 455.232 Section 455.232 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PROGRAM INTEGRITY: MEDICAID Medicaid Integrity Program § 455.232 Medicaid...

  9. 42 CFR 455.232 - Medicaid integrity audit program contractor functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Medicaid integrity audit program contractor functions. 455.232 Section 455.232 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PROGRAM INTEGRITY: MEDICAID Medicaid Integrity Program § 455.232 Medicaid...

  10. 42 CFR 455.232 - Medicaid integrity audit program contractor functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Medicaid integrity audit program contractor functions. 455.232 Section 455.232 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PROGRAM INTEGRITY: MEDICAID Medicaid Integrity Program § 455.232 Medicaid...

  11. Functional Foods Programs Serve as a Vehicle to Provide Nutrition Education to Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cirignano, Sherri M.

    2011-01-01

    An increase in consumer interest in functional foods provides an opportunity for FCS educators to use this topic in Extension programming to promote current nutrition recommendations. The Functional Foods for Life Educational Programs (FFL) are a curriculum of six evidence-based mini-seminars that highlight specific functional foods that have the…

  12. Computer programs for calculation of thermodynamic functions of mixing in crystalline solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comella, P. A.; Saxena, S. K.

    1972-01-01

    The computer programs Beta, GEGIM, REGSOL1, REGSOL2, Matrix, and Quasi are presented. The programs are useful in various calculations for the thermodynamic functions of mixing and the activity-composition relations in rock forming minerals.

  13. Unravelling the Glasgow effect: The relationship between accumulative bio- psychosocial stress, stress reactivity and Scotland's health problems.

    PubMed

    Cowley, Joe; Kiely, John; Collins, Dave

    2016-12-01

    To date, multiple hypotheses have been proposed for the Scottish effect and, more specifically, Glasgow's high mortality rate and the associated Glasgow effect. Previous authors have highlighted the improbability of a single factor as responsible for this effect with seventeen possible hypotheses presented. These have ranged from socio-economic factors, lifestyle and cultural factors such as sectarianism, and political and economic factors. Although these may all be contributory factors to this paradox, the underpinning reasons for the observed effect remain relatively unexplained. In this paper, we suggest that the compounding effect of a unique blend of accumulating life stressors may predispose Scots, and particularly socially-disadvantaged Glaswegians, to a wide-range of health disorders. In short, a confluence of social, environmental, attitudinal and cultural stressors perhaps combine to negatively influence biological health. Future directions should consider the stress remediating role of physical activity, and the problems presented by barriers to participation in physical activity and exercise during key transitional stages of life. PMID:27512652

  14. 36 CFR 67.1 - Program authority and function.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Street, NW., Washington, DC 20240. (b) NPS WASO establishes program direction and considers appeals of... rehabilitation work are sent by an owner first to the appropriate SHPO for review. State comments are recorded...

  15. 36 CFR 67.1 - Program authority and function.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Street, NW., Washington, DC 20240. (b) NPS WASO establishes program direction and considers appeals of... rehabilitation work are sent by an owner first to the appropriate SHPO for review. State comments are recorded...

  16. 36 CFR 67.1 - Program authority and function.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Street, NW., Washington, DC 20240. (b) NPS WASO establishes program direction and considers appeals of... rehabilitation work are sent by an owner first to the appropriate SHPO for review. State comments are recorded...

  17. Designing post-graduate Master's degree programs: the advanced training program in Dental Functional Analysis and Therapy as one example

    PubMed Central

    Ratzmann, Anja; Ruge, Sebastian; Ostendorf, Kristin; Kordaß, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The decision to consolidate European higher education was reached by the Bologna Conference. Based on the Anglo-American system, a two-cycle degree program (Bachelor and Master) has been introduced. Subjects culminating in a state examination, such as Medicine and Dentistry, were excluded from this reform. Since the state examination is already comparable in its caliber to a Master’s degree in Medicine or Dentistry, only advanced Master’s degree programs with post-graduate specializations come into consideration for these subjects. In the field of dentistry numerous post-graduate study programs are increasingly coming into existence. Many different models and approaches are being pursued. Method: Since the 2004-2005 winter semester, the University of Greifswald has offered the Master’s degree program in Dental Functional Analysis and Therapy. Two and a half years in duration, this program is structured to allow program participation while working and targets licensed dentists who wish to attain certified skills for the future in state-of-the-art functional analysis and therapy. Aim: The design of this post-graduate program and the initial results of the evaluation by alumni are presented here. Conclusion: Our experiences show that the conceptual idea of an advanced Master’s program has proved successful. The program covers a specialty which leads to increased confidence in handling challenging patient cases. The sharing of experiences among colleagues was evaluated as being especially important. PMID:24872853

  18. Curatorial functions and the U.S. Antarctic meteorite program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, M. B.; Bogard, D. D.; Annexstad, J. O.

    1981-01-01

    The discovery of concentrations of meteorites in Antarctica by Japanese field parties in 1969, and subsequently by joint U.S.-Japanese and U.S. field parties since 1976 has provided a significant new resource for understanding the origin and evolution of the solar system. The number of meteorites as well as the variety of meteorites has increased dramatically, and substantial amounts of data derived from their study has begun to appear in the scientific literature. The U.S. program of investigation has drawn on curatorial experience derived from the lunar program to: (1) develop specific collection and preliminary examination protocols; (2) provide documented samples for scientific investigations in response to specific requests; and (3) coordinate research by scientific consortia. The productivity of scientific research is significantly enhanced by these management approaches. Some of the results of the curatorial program for Antarctic meteorites carried out over the past three years are described.

  19. Basic Life Functions Instructional Program Model. Field Copy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison. Div. for Handicapped Children.

    Presented is a model, designed by the Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction, for development of an instructional program in basic living skills for trainable mentally retarded children (2- to 20-years-old). The model identifies the following instructional goals: to communicate ideas, to understand one's self and interact with others, to…

  20. Cumulative distribution functions and their use in monitoring programs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological resource monitoring programs typically have estimating the status and change in status as an objective. A well designed and skillfully implemented survey design will produce an accurate representation of the status of the resource at the time the survey was conducted....

  1. Data synthesis and display programs for wave distribution function analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storey, L. R. O.; Yeh, K. J.

    1992-01-01

    At the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) software was written to synthesize and display artificial data for use in developing the methodology of wave distribution analysis. The software comprises two separate interactive programs, one for data synthesis and the other for data display.

  2. Mothers' exercise during pregnancy programs vasomotor function in adult offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The intrauterine environment is influenced by maternal behavior and known to influence lifelong atherosclerotic disease susceptibility in offspring. The purpose of this investigation was to test the hypothesis that maternal exercise during pregnancy increases endothelial function in offs...

  3. Deploying a culture change programme management approach in support of information and communication technology developments in Greater Glasgow NHS Board.

    PubMed

    Frame, Joanne; Watson, Janice; Thomson, Katie

    2008-06-01

    This article reports on the project management and Culture Change Programme adopted by the NHS Greater Glasgow Health Board to deliver an electronic patient record (EPR) to support cardiology and stroke clinical services. To achieve its vision for the EPR (;to "really make a difference" to patient care by providing to the right person, the right information, under the right safeguards') the Board recognized that attending to social and organizational issues is at least of equal importance to addressing strictly technical concerns. Consequently, an ICT Culture Change Programme (ICT CCP) was devised and implemented to assist in the management of change, and in particular to facilitate a visionary clinical and cultural environment operating in conjunction with the evolving technical environment. In this article we describe the key components of this approach, outline the benefits we believe have accrued, and describe the steps being taken to build upon lessons learned. PMID:18477599

  4. WHEN CONSCIENCE ISN'T CLEAR: GREATER GLASGOW HEALTH BOARD v DOOGAN AND ANOTHER [2014] UKSC 68.

    PubMed

    Neal, Mary

    2015-01-01

    The Supreme Court's judgment in Doogan is a judicial review of a decision by Greater Glasgow Health Board regarding the scope of the conscience-based exemption in section 4(1) of the Abortion Act 1967. The case progressed through the Outer and Inner Houses of the Court of Session in Edinburgh before final judgment was delivered in the Supreme Court by Baroness Hale on December 17 2014. The Supreme Court eschewed consideration of the human rights dimension of the case (which had featured in the Outer House decision) and approached its judgment as 'a pure question of statutory construction'. This commentary engages with the judgment on its own terms, assessing it as an exercise in statutory interpretation, and leaves it to others who may wish to do so to comment on the human rights aspects of the case. PMID:26324460

  5. Seeking to Institutionally Embed Lessons from a Funded Project: Experiences from the Digital Libraries in the Classroom Spoken Word Project at Glasgow Caledonian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donald, David; Wallace, Iain

    2007-01-01

    The Joint Information Systems Committee and the National Science Foundation programme, Digital Libraries in the Classroom (DLiC), addresses implications for the learning of the revolution in scholarly communication. What are the obstacles to undergraduates "'writing' on and for the Internet"? Glasgow Caledonian University (GCU) is a partner in one…

  6. Reliability and Validity of the Dutch Version of the Glasgow Anxiety Scale for People with an Intellectual Disability (GAS-ID)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermans, H.; Wieland, J.; Jelluma, N.; Van der Pas, F.; Evenhuis, H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In the Netherlands, no self-report screening questionnaire for anxiety in people with intellectual disabilities (ID) was available yet. Therefore, we have translated the Glasgow Anxiety Scale for people with an Intellectual Disability (GAS-ID) into Dutch and studied its reliability and validity in adults with borderline, mild or…

  7. SPEECH PATHOLOGY, DIAGNOSIS--THEORY AND PRACTICE, REPORT OF THE NATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE COLLEGE OF SPEECH THERAPISTS (GLASGOW, JULY 25-29, 1966).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1967

    TWENTY ARTICLES AND ABSTRACTS ON THE THEORY AND PRACTICE OF DIAGNOSIS ARE INCLUDED IN THIS REPORT OF THE NATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE COLLEGE OF SPEECH THERAPISTS IN GLASGOW IN 1966. FOUR PAPERS ON STAMMERING CONSIDER TONGUE THRUSTING, THE NEUROSES INVOLVED, PROGNOSIS, AND DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS IN DISORDERS OF FLUENCY. OTHER ARTICLES DISCUSS AREAS…

  8. Changes in functional independence measure ratings associated with a safe patient handling and movement program.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Margaret; Radawiec, Stephanie; Campo, Marc; Wright, Laurette R

    2011-01-01

    Safe patient handling and movement (SPHM) programs are effective in reducing healthcare worker injuries. However, the perception among rehabilitation personnel that SPHM equipment promotes patient dependence and adversely affects functional outcomes is one barrier to implementing successful programs. This barrier is particularly evident in acute inpatient rehabilitation facilities, where functional independence is the primary goal. The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to evaluate this perception. Functional Independence Measure (FIM) ratings were collected from 94 patients with a diagnosis of stroke. Forty-seven patients were admitted 1 year prior to implementation of the SPHM program (Group 1), and 47 were admitted to the facility over a period of 1 year (Group 2) 18 months after program implementation. Group 2 obtained equal or better discharge mobility FIM ratings than Group 1, who received care without the SPHM equipment. This study suggests that SPHM programs do not impede functional outcomes in stroke patients. PMID:21721394

  9. The Purposes and Functions of Policy: Plans, Programs, and Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fincher, Cameron

    This documents consists of two monographs, first published in 1973 and 1975, which examine the purpose and functions of institutional policy in dealing with the problems and issues affecting higher education. Their focus is conceptual, and the discussion looks to the philosophical, historical, and sociocultural underpinnings of institutional…

  10. Special Education in Transition: Functional Assessment and Noncategorical Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reschly, Daniel J., Ed.; Tilly, W. David, III, Ed.; Grimes, Jeffrey P., Ed.

    This volume offers 12 readings which attempt to synthesize key ideas underlying a shift toward functional and noncategorical approaches to special education in light of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments of 1997. The chapters are: (1) "Origins of Categorical Special Education Services in Schools and a Rationale for Changing…

  11. 34 CFR 489.1 - What is the Functional Literacy for State and Local Prisoners Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the Functional Literacy for State and Local... (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FUNCTIONAL LITERACY FOR STATE AND LOCAL PRISONERS PROGRAM General § 489.1 What is the Functional Literacy for State and...

  12. 34 CFR 489.1 - What is the Functional Literacy for State and Local Prisoners Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is the Functional Literacy for State and Local... (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FUNCTIONAL LITERACY FOR STATE AND LOCAL PRISONERS PROGRAM General § 489.1 What is the Functional Literacy for State and...

  13. 34 CFR 489.1 - What is the Functional Literacy for State and Local Prisoners Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is the Functional Literacy for State and Local... (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FUNCTIONAL LITERACY FOR STATE AND LOCAL PRISONERS PROGRAM General § 489.1 What is the Functional Literacy for State and...

  14. 34 CFR 489.1 - What is the Functional Literacy for State and Local Prisoners Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What is the Functional Literacy for State and Local... (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FUNCTIONAL LITERACY FOR STATE AND LOCAL PRISONERS PROGRAM General § 489.1 What is the Functional Literacy for State and...

  15. 34 CFR 489.1 - What is the Functional Literacy for State and Local Prisoners Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is the Functional Literacy for State and Local... (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FUNCTIONAL LITERACY FOR STATE AND LOCAL PRISONERS PROGRAM General § 489.1 What is the Functional Literacy for State and...

  16. Frequency domain transfer function identification using the computer program SYSFIT

    SciTech Connect

    Trudnowski, D.J.

    1992-12-01

    Because the primary application of SYSFIT for BPA involves studying power system dynamics, this investigation was geared toward simulating the effects that might be encountered in studying electromechanical oscillations in power systems. Although the intended focus of this work is power system oscillations, the studies are sufficiently genetic that the results can be applied to many types of oscillatory systems with closely-spaced modes. In general, there are two possible ways of solving the optimization problem. One is to use a least-squares optimization function and to write the system in such a form that the problem becomes one of linear least-squares. The solution can then be obtained using a standard least-squares technique. The other method involves using a search method to obtain the optimal model. This method allows considerably more freedom in forming the optimization function and model, but it requires an initial guess of the system parameters. SYSFIT employs this second approach. Detailed investigations were conducted into three main areas: (1) fitting to exact frequency response data of a linear system; (2) fitting to the discrete Fourier transformation of noisy data; and (3) fitting to multi-path systems. The first area consisted of investigating the effects of alternative optimization cost function options; using different optimization search methods; incorrect model order, missing response data; closely-spaced poles; and closely-spaced pole-zero pairs. Within the second area, different noise colorations and levels were studied. In the third area, methods were investigated for improving fitting results by incorporating more than one system path. The following is a list of guidelines and properties developed from the study for fitting a transfer function to the frequency response of a system using optimization search methods.

  17. Cell-based composite materials with programmed structures and functions

    DOEpatents

    None

    2016-03-01

    The present invention is directed to the use of silicic acid to transform biological materials, including cellular architecture into inorganic materials to provide biocomposites (nanomaterials) with stabilized structure and function. In the present invention, there has been discovered a means to stabilize the structure and function of biological materials, including cells, biomolecules, peptides, proteins (especially including enzymes), lipids, lipid vesicles, polysaccharides, cytoskeletal filaments, tissue and organs with silicic acid such that these materials may be used as biocomposites. In many instances, these materials retain their original biological activity and may be used in harsh conditions which would otherwise destroy the integrity of the biological material. In certain instances, these biomaterials may be storage stable for long periods of time and reconstituted after storage to return the biological material back to its original form. In addition, by exposing an entire cell to form CSCs, the CSCs may function to provide a unique system to study enzymes or a cascade of enzymes which are otherwise unavailable.

  18. Altered adipocyte structure and function in nutritionally programmed microswine offspring.

    PubMed

    DuPriest, E A; Kupfer, P; Lin, B; Sekiguchi, K; Morgan, T K; Saunders, K E; Chatkupt, T T; Denisenko, O N; Purnell, J Q; Bagby, S P

    2012-06-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) dysfunction links obesity of any cause with cardiometabolic disease, but whether early-life nutritional deficiency can program adipocyte dysfunction independently of obesity is untested. In 3-5-month-old juvenile microswine offspring exposed to isocaloric perinatal maternal protein restriction (MPR) and exhibiting accelerated prepubertal fat accrual without obesity, we assessed markers of acquired obesity: adiponectin and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels and adipocyte size in intra-abdominal (ABD-AT) and subcutaneous (SC-AT) adipose tissues. Plasma cortisol, leptin and insulin levels were measured in fetal, neonatal and juvenile offspring. In juvenile low-protein offspring (LPO), adipocyte size in ABD-AT was reduced 22% (P = 0.011 v. controls), whereas adipocyte size in SC-AT was increased in female LPO (P = 0.05) and normal in male LPO; yet, adiponectin mRNA in LPO was low in both sexes and in both depots (P < 0.001). Plasma leptin (P = 0.004) and cortisol (P < 0.05) were reduced only in neonatal LPO during MPR. In juveniles, correlations between % body fat and adiponectin mRNA, TNF-α mRNA or plasma leptin were significant in normal-protein offspring (NPO) but absent in LPO. Plasma glucose in juvenile LPO was increased in males but decreased in females (interaction, P = 0.023); plasma insulin levels and insulin sensitivity were unaffected. Findings support nutritional programming of adipocyte size and gene expression and subtly altered glucose homeostasis. Reduced adiponectin mRNA and adipokine dysregulation in juvenile LPO following accelerated growth occurred independently of obesity, adipocyte hypertrophy or inflammatory markers; thus, perinatal MPR and/or growth acceleration can alter adipocyte structure and disturb adipokine homeostasis in metabolically adverse patterns predictive of enhanced disease risk. PMID:25102010

  19. Prenatal programming-effects on blood pressure and renal function.

    PubMed

    Ritz, Eberhard; Amann, Kerstin; Koleganova, Nadezda; Benz, Kerstin

    2011-03-01

    Impaired intrauterine nephrogenesis-most clearly illustrated by low nephron number-is frequently associated with low birthweight and has been recognized as a powerful risk factor for renal disease; it increases the risks of low glomerular filtration rate, of more rapid progression of primary kidney disease, and of increased incidence of chronic kidney disease or end-stage renal disease. Another important consequence of impaired nephrogenesis is hypertension, which further amplifies the risk of onset and progression of kidney disease. Hypertension is associated with low nephron numbers in white individuals, but the association is not universal and is not seen in individuals of African origin. The derangement of intrauterine kidney development is an example of a more general principle that illustrates the paradigm of plasticity during development-that is, that transcription of the genetic code is modified by epigenetic factors (as has increasingly been documented). This Review outlines the concept of prenatal programming and, in particular, describes its role in kidney disease and hypertension. PMID:21283139

  20. Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams: Effects of Group Contingency Programs in Urban Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamps, Debra; Wills, Howard P.; Heitzman-Powell, Linda; Laylin, Jeff; Szoke, Carolyn; Petrillo, Tai; Culey, Amy

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effectiveness of the Class-Wide Function-related Intervention Teams (CW-FIT) program, a group contingency intervention for whole classes, and for students with disruptive behaviors who are at risk for emotional/behavioral disorders (EBD). The CW-FIT program includes four elements designed from…

  1. Possible Content Areas for Implementation of the Basic Life Functions Instructional Program Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison. Div. for Handicapped Children.

    Identified are curricular items intended to develop skills pertinent to the 12 broad instructional objectives of the Basic Life Functions Instructional Program Model, a program for trainable mentally retarded children. The 12 instructional objectives are: communicating ideas, self-understanding, interacting with others, traveling, adapting to and…

  2. Recursive Functional Programming for the Student in the Humanities and Social Sciences. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, John Seely; Rubinstein, Richard

    Concepts in recursive functional programing form the basis of a course designed to introduce Humanities and Social Science students to computer programing. Unlike many introductory courses, recursion was taught prior to any mention of iteration or assigned operations. LOGO, a non-numeric language originally invented for use by children, was chosen…

  3. Form versus Function: Using Technology to Develop Individualized Education Programs for Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Gloria Lodato; Michaels, Craig A.; Margolis, Howard

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the use of IEP software applications from the perspectives of form (i.e., legally correct documents) and function (i.e., educationally appropriate individualized programs). The article provides an overview of the basic components of two fairly comprehensive IEP software programs and discusses the general strengths and…

  4. PuFT: Computer-Assisted Program for Pulmonary Function Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Joseph

    1983-01-01

    PuFT computer program (Microsoft Basic) is designed to help in understanding/interpreting pulmonary function tests (PFT). The program provides predicted values for common PFT after entry of patient data, calculates/plots graph simulating force vital capacity (FVC), and allows observations of effects on predicted PFT values and FVC curve when…

  5. Everyday Memory Function of Older Adults: The Impact of Intergenerational School Volunteer Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Sally; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Participants in an intergenerational school volunteer program (26 adults over 60) completed memory instruments at 3 time periods. The effect of program participating on actual and perceived memory function varied with age and educational level. Dramatic positive mood changes were noted for those over 70 and those who were college educated. (SK)

  6. Summer Treatment Program Improves Behavior of Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Elisabeth Sheridan; Mrug, Sylvie; Patterson, Cryshelle S.; Bailey, Kirstin J.; Bart Hodgens, J.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a behavioral summer treatment program for children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD). Twenty boys (M = 9.2 years) diagnosed with HFASD participated in the 6-week program across 6 years. Detailed daily behavioral data were collected on a variety of positive and negative social behaviors.…

  7. Activities and Programs That Improve Children’s Executive Functions

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, Adele

    2014-01-01

    Executive functions (EFs; e.g., reasoning, working memory, and self-control) can be improved. Good news indeed, since EFs are critical for school and job success and for mental and physical health. Various activities appear to improve children’s EFs. The best evidence exists for computer-based training, traditional martial arts, and two school curricula. Weaker evidence, though strong enough to pass peer review, exists for aerobics, yoga, mindfulness, and other school curricula. Here I address what can be learned from the research thus far, including that EFs need to be progressively challenged as children improve and that repeated practice is key. Children devote time and effort to activities they love; therefore, EF interventions might use children’s motivation to advantage. Focusing narrowly on EFs or aerobic activity alone appears not to be as efficacious in improving EFs as also addressing children’s emotional, social, and character development (as do martial arts, yoga, and curricula shown to improve EFs). Children with poorer EFs benefit more from training; hence, training might provide them an opportunity to “catch up” with their peers and not be left behind. Remaining questions include how long benefits of EF training last and who benefits most from which activities. PMID:25328287

  8. Functional Integration of mRNA Translational Control Programs.

    PubMed

    MacNicol, Melanie C; Cragle, Chad E; Arumugam, Karthik; Fosso, Bruno; Pesole, Graziano; MacNicol, Angus M

    2015-01-01

    Regulated mRNA translation plays a key role in control of cell cycle progression in a variety of physiological and pathological processes, including in the self-renewal and survival of stem cells and cancer stem cells. While targeting mRNA translation presents an attractive strategy for control of aberrant cell cycle progression, mRNA translation is an underdeveloped therapeutic target. Regulated mRNAs are typically controlled through interaction with multiple RNA binding proteins (RBPs) but the mechanisms by which the functions of distinct RBPs bound to a common target mRNA are coordinated are poorly understood. The challenge now is to gain insight into these mechanisms of coordination and to identify the molecular mediators that integrate multiple, often conflicting, inputs. A first step includes the identification of altered mRNA ribonucleoprotein complex components that assemble on mRNAs bound by multiple, distinct RBPs compared to those recruited by individual RBPs. This review builds upon our knowledge of combinatorial control of mRNA translation during the maturation of oocytes from Xenopus laevis, to address molecular strategies that may mediate RBP diplomacy and conflict resolution for coordinated control of mRNA translational output. Continued study of regulated ribonucleoprotein complex dynamics promises valuable new insights into mRNA translational control and may suggest novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of disease. PMID:26197342

  9. Modelling shallow urban geology using reservoir modelling techniques: voxel-based lithology and physical properties of the greater Glasgow area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingdon, Andrew; Williams, John D. O.; Williamson, J. Paul; Lark, R. Murray; Dobbs, Marcus R.; Kearsey, Timothy; Finlayson, Andrew; Campbell, S. Diarmad G.

    2013-04-01

    Conventional 3D geological models of lithostratigraphy undertaken by BGS have facilitated a significant step forward in understanding of the 3D sedimentological and structural controls in the subsurface of the UK. However, when lithostratigraphic units are mapped or modelled in 3D, intra-unit variability is often not recognized and may be substantial, particularly in sedimentologically heterogeneous successions. Because of this BGS has been testing voxel grid-based approaches in urban areas with high borehole density. A city-scale lithology model of shallow, unconsolidated sediments in Glasgow, Scotland has been developed as a test of the applicability of these techniques to aid geological understanding and possible future applications. This is of particular significance in this location due to the complex fluvial and glacial history of the superficial geology which alternates between inter-fingering sedimentary packages and short-scale variability of subsurface materials. The model has been created by developing a stochastic model of clastic geology on a voxel support, based on upscaling of observed borehole lithology, independent of lithostratigraphy. Multiple realisations of lithology were generated, each honouring the borehole observations. Lithology information has therefore been used to both develop a model of the distribution of lithology throughout the grid, but also to develop an understanding of the associated uncertainty by providing estimates of the probability with which a particular lithology occurs at a given node. This lithological model compares well with 'traditional' deterministic lithostratigraphic 3D models created in the same area, and with field-based geological maps. This lithological voxel model has been used as a matrix through which physical property data can be attributed within the grid by stochastic modelling and simulation of the variability of properties within the lithological units. Several different property datasets have been

  10. Reinforced Concrete Condition Assessment in Architectural Heritage. The Lion Chambers (Glasgow, UK) and the Theatre E. Duni (Matera, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guida, A.; Dimitrijevic, B.; Pagliuca, A.

    2012-04-01

    The research objective is to provide new qualitative information on the strength of reinforced concrete structures of two prominent examples of modern architecture by using innovative, non-invasive testing techniques. The first one is Lion Chambers in Glasgow (Scotland, United Kingdom) designed by the architects Salmon, Son and Gillespie and completed in 1907. It was the second example of the use of François Hennebique's reinforced concrete system in a building in Glasgow and one of the earliest in Britain. The second example is Duni Theatre in Matera (Southern Italy), designed by the architect Ettore Stella and completed in 1949. The tests on the internal reinforced concrete columns were undertaken by using "SonReb" (SONic + REBound) method that enables assessing the concrete resistance by combining the speed of ultrasound waves and the index of surface bounce through a scleorometric test. In fact, the sclerometer index only gives information regarding the surface layer of the building's structure. In fact, due to the effects of the natural ageing, catalysed by the presence of humidity, surface layers of concrete are affected over time by carbonatation, which increases surface rigidity, providing as a result a greatly "altered" rebound index (much greater than one would have under normal conditions). On the other hand, the ultrasound speed, on the contrary to resistance, is inversely proportional to the age of the concrete (this seems to be due to the cracks that occur and reduce the speed). The hardening process continues over time with a consequent increase in resistance, which diminishes with the passage of time. The paper provides the results of the tests run on the structure of the Lion Chambers and the Duni Theatre. The tests carried out are the basis of a diagnostic project that is possible to implement and monitor to guarantee a deeper knowledge, with the goal of attaining a level of thorough understanding aimed at the preservation of "Modern Architecture

  11. Medicare program; Medicare integrity program, intermediary and carrier functions, and conflict of interest requirements--HCFA. Proposed rule.

    PubMed

    1998-03-20

    This proposed rule would implement section 1893 of the Social Security Act (the Act) by establishing the Medicare integrity program (MIP) to carry out Medicare program integrity activities that are funded from the Medicare Trust Funds. Section 1893 expands our contracting authority to allow us to contract with "eligible entities" to perform Medicare program integrity activities. These activities include review of provider and supplier activities, including medical, fraud, and utilization review: cost report audits; Medicare secondary payer determinations; education of providers, suppliers, beneficiaries, and other persons regarding payment integrity and benefit quality assurance issues; and developing and updating a list of durable medical equipment items that are subject to prior authorization. This proposed rule would set forth the definition of eligible entities, services to be procured, competitive requirements based on Federal acquisition regulations and exceptions (guidelines for automatic renewal), procedures for identification, evaluation, and resolution of conflicts of interest, and limitations on contractor liability. In addition, this proposed rule would bring certain sections of the Medicare regulations concerning fiscal intermediaries and carriers into conformity with the Act. The rule would distinguish between those functions that the statute requires be included in agreements with intermediaries and those that may be included in the agreements. It would also provide that some or all of the listed functions may be included in carrier contracts. Currently all these functions are mandatory for carrier contracts. These changes would give us the flexibility to transfer functions from one intermediary or carrier to another or to otherwise limit the functions an intermediary or carrier performs if we determine that to do so would result in more effective and efficient program administration. PMID:10177750

  12. A Physical Activity Program Improves Behavior and Cognitive Functions in Children with ADHD: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verret, Claudia; Guay, Marie-Claude; Berthiaume, Claude; Gardiner, Phillip; Beliveau, Louise

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to explore the effects of a moderate- to high-intensity physical activity program on fitness, cognitive functions, and ADHD-related behavior in children with ADHD. Method: Fitness level, motor skills, behaviors, and cognitive functions are assessed by standardized tests before and after a 10-week training…

  13. NEWSUMT: A FORTRAN program for inequality constrained function minimization, users guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miura, H.; Schmit, L. A., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    A computer program written in FORTRAN subroutine form for the solution of linear and nonlinear constrained and unconstrained function minimization problems is presented. The algorithm is the sequence of unconstrained minimizations using the Newton's method for unconstrained function minimizations. The use of NEWSUMT and the definition of all parameters are described.

  14. Teaching the Relevance of Mathematics in Information Technologies through Functional Programming in Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Rosario Vera

    2011-01-01

    From the point of view of functional programming, a computational process to solve a problem is described as a mathematical function taking some arguments (corresponding to the data of the problem) and returning as a result its solution. Turtle Graphics can be used to describe the movements of a virtual turtle, which leaves a trail along his path…

  15. Strength Development: Using Functional Isometrics in an Isotonic Strength Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Allen; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A study was made to determine if a combination of functional isometrics and standard isotonic training would be superior to a standard isotonic program in an instructional setting. The results provide support for functional isometrics as an enhancement where achievement of maximum strength is the goal. (Author/MT)

  16. Block clustering based on difference of convex functions (DC) programming and DC algorithms.

    PubMed

    Le, Hoai Minh; Le Thi, Hoai An; Dinh, Tao Pham; Huynh, Van Ngai

    2013-10-01

    We investigate difference of convex functions (DC) programming and the DC algorithm (DCA) to solve the block clustering problem in the continuous framework, which traditionally requires solving a hard combinatorial optimization problem. DC reformulation techniques and exact penalty in DC programming are developed to build an appropriate equivalent DC program of the block clustering problem. They lead to an elegant and explicit DCA scheme for the resulting DC program. Computational experiments show the robustness and efficiency of the proposed algorithm and its superiority over standard algorithms such as two-mode K-means, two-mode fuzzy clustering, and block classification EM. PMID:23777526

  17. LOGISTIC FUNCTION PROFILE FIT: A least-squares program for fitting interface profiles to an extended logistic function

    SciTech Connect

    Kirchhoff, William H.

    2012-09-15

    The extended logistic function provides a physically reasonable description of interfaces such as depth profiles or line scans of surface topological or compositional features. It describes these interfaces with the minimum number of parameters, namely, position, width, and asymmetry. Logistic Function Profile Fit (LFPF) is a robust, least-squares fitting program in which the nonlinear extended logistic function is linearized by a Taylor series expansion (equivalent to a Newton-Raphson approach) with no apparent introduction of bias in the analysis. The program provides reliable confidence limits for the parameters when systematic errors are minimal and provides a display of the residuals from the fit for the detection of systematic errors. The program will aid researchers in applying ASTM E1636-10, 'Standard practice for analytically describing sputter-depth-profile and linescan-profile data by an extended logistic function,' and may also prove useful in applying ISO 18516: 2006, 'Surface chemical analysis-Auger electron spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy-determination of lateral resolution.' Examples are given of LFPF fits to a secondary ion mass spectrometry depth profile, an Auger surface line scan, and synthetic data generated to exhibit known systematic errors for examining the significance of such errors to the extrapolation of partial profiles.

  18. Adopting seven-day working in practice: a report by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow.

    PubMed

    Scott, H R; Isles, C J; Fisher, B M; Long, J; Dunn, F G

    2014-11-01

    Following the UK Academy of Medical Royal Colleges Report on seven day consultant present care, the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow held a symposium to explore clinicians' views on the ways in which clinical care should best be enhanced outside 'normal' working hours. In addition, a survey of members and fellows was undertaken to identify the tests which would make the greatest impact on care out of hours. Key messages were: (a) that seven-day consultant delivered care would not achieve the desired benefit to patient care if introduced in isolation from other inter-relating factors. These include alternatives to hospital admission, enhanced nursing support, increased junior medical, pharmacy, social care and ambulance availability and greater access to selected diagnostic services; (b) that the care of hospital inpatients is a service which is one part of the totality of secondary care provision. Any significant change in the deployment of staff for inpatient care must be carefully managed so as not to result in a reduced quality of care provided by the rest of the system. PMID:25351425

  19. Case notes, case histories, and the patient's experience of insanity at Gartnavel Royal Asylum, Glasgow, in the nineteenth century.

    PubMed

    Andrews, J

    1998-08-01

    This article is concerned primarily with questions as to how and why case notes were produced and utilized, and how they may (or may not) be used by historians. More specifically, it discusses how the Glasgow Royal Asylum's case notes may be deployed to access patients' experiences of madness and confinement. The deficiencies and biases of the case record are also explored. So too is the relationship of case notes with other asylum based records, including reception order questionnaires, with a separate section on patient writings as part of the case history corpus. This leads into an analysis of how the Asylum's case notes became case histories and for what purposes. These subjects are related to changes and continuities in medical ideologies about insanity, social attitudes to the insane and the nature of medical practice in asylums. Some fundamental shifts in emphasis in the use of the case note and case history occurred in this period. These shifts were associated with an increased emphasis on organic interpretations of mental disease and on clinical approaches to insanity; with the medicalization of asylum records and the wider discourse on insanity, and with declining deference to the public at large in the presentation of cases. The survey concludes by analysing the changing place of patient testimony within the case record. PMID:11620430

  20. Constructing Patient Stories: 'Dynamic' Case Notes and Clinical Encounters at Glasgow's Gartnavel Mental Hospital, 1921-32.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Hazel

    2016-01-01

    This article contextualises the production of patient records at Glasgow's Gartnavel Mental Hospital between 1921 and 1932. Following his appointment as asylum superintendent in 1921, psychiatrist David Kennedy Henderson sought to introduce a so-called dynamic approach to mental health care. He did so, primarily, by encouraging patients to reveal their inner lives through their own language and own understanding of their illness. To this effect, Henderson implemented several techniques devised to gather as much information as possible about patients. He notably established routine 'staff meetings' in which a psychiatrist directed questions towards a patient while a stenographer recorded word-for-word the conversation that passed between the two parties. As a result, the records compiled at Gartnavel under Henderson's guidance offer a unique window into the various strategies deployed by patients, but also allow physicians and hospital staff to negotiate their place amidst these clinical encounters. In this paper, I analyse the production of patient narratives in these materials. The article begins with Henderson's articulation of his 'dynamic' psychotherapeutic method, before proceeding to an in-depth hermeneutic investigation into samples of Gartnavel's case notes and staff meeting transcripts. In the process, patient-psychiatrist relationships are revealed to be mutually dependent and interrelated subjects of historical enquiry rather than as distinct entities. This study highlights the multi-vocal nature of the construction of stories 'from below' and interrogates their subsequent appropriation by historians. PMID:26651189

  1. Influence of a quality improvement learning collaborative program on team functioning in primary healthcare.

    PubMed

    Kotecha, Jyoti; Brown, Judith Belle; Han, Han; Harris, Stewart B; Green, Michael; Russell, Grant; Roberts, Sharon; Webster-Bogaert, Susan; Fournie, Meghan; Thind, Amardeep; Reichert, Sonja M; Birtwhistle, Richard

    2015-09-01

    Quality improvement (QI) programs are frequently implemented to support primary healthcare (PHC) team development and to improve care outcomes. In Ontario, Canada, the Quality Improvement and Innovation Partnership (QIIP) offered a learning collaborative (LC) program to support the development of interdisciplinary team function and improve chronic disease management, disease prevention, and access to care. A qualitative study using a phenomenological approach was conducted as part of a mixed-method evaluation to explore the influence of the program on team functioning in participating PHC teams. A purposive sampling strategy was used to identify PHC teams (n = 10), from which participants of different professional roles were selected through a purposeful recruitment process to reflect maximum variation of team roles. Additionally, QI coaches working with the interview participants and the LC administrators were also interviewed. Data were collected through semistructured telephone interviews that were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was conducted through an iterative and interpretive approach. The shared experience of participating in the program appeared to improve team functioning. Participants described increased trust and respect for each other's clinical and administrative roles and were inspired by learning about different approaches to interdisciplinary care. This appeared to enhance collegial relationships, collapse professional silos, improve communication, and increase interdisciplinary collaboration. Teamwork involves more than just physically grouping healthcare providers from multiple disciplines and mandating them to work together. The LC program provided opportunities for participants to learn how to work collaboratively, and participation in the LC program appeared to enhance team functioning. PMID:25799255

  2. Computing single step operators of logic programming in radial basis function neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamadneh, Nawaf; Sathasivam, Saratha; Choon, Ong Hong

    2014-07-01

    Logic programming is the process that leads from an original formulation of a computing problem to executable programs. A normal logic program consists of a finite set of clauses. A valuation I of logic programming is a mapping from ground atoms to false or true. The single step operator of any logic programming is defined as a function (Tp:I→I). Logic programming is well-suited to building the artificial intelligence systems. In this study, we established a new technique to compute the single step operators of logic programming in the radial basis function neural networks. To do that, we proposed a new technique to generate the training data sets of single step operators. The training data sets are used to build the neural networks. We used the recurrent radial basis function neural networks to get to the steady state (the fixed point of the operators). To improve the performance of the neural networks, we used the particle swarm optimization algorithm to train the networks.

  3. Computing single step operators of logic programming in radial basis function neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Hamadneh, Nawaf; Sathasivam, Saratha; Choon, Ong Hong

    2014-07-10

    Logic programming is the process that leads from an original formulation of a computing problem to executable programs. A normal logic program consists of a finite set of clauses. A valuation I of logic programming is a mapping from ground atoms to false or true. The single step operator of any logic programming is defined as a function (T{sub p}:I→I). Logic programming is well-suited to building the artificial intelligence systems. In this study, we established a new technique to compute the single step operators of logic programming in the radial basis function neural networks. To do that, we proposed a new technique to generate the training data sets of single step operators. The training data sets are used to build the neural networks. We used the recurrent radial basis function neural networks to get to the steady state (the fixed point of the operators). To improve the performance of the neural networks, we used the particle swarm optimization algorithm to train the networks.

  4. Functional process descriptions for the program to develop the Nuclear Waste Management System

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, T.W.

    1991-09-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is executing a plan for improvement of the systems implemented to carry out its responsibilities under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA). As part of the plan, OCRWM is performing a systems engineering analysis of both the physical system, i.e., the Nuclear Waste Management System (NWMS), and the programmatic functions that must be accomplished to bring the physical system into being. The purpose of the program analysis is to provide a systematic identification and definition of all program functions, functional process flows, and function products necessary and sufficient to provide the physical system. The analysis resulting from this approach provides a basis for development of a comprehensive and integrated set of policies, standard practices, and procedures for the effective and efficient execution of the program. Thus, this analysis will form a basis for revising current OCRWM policies and procedures, or developing new ones is necessary. The primary purposes of this report are as follows: (1) summarizes the major functional processes and process flows that have been developed as a part of the program analysis, and (2) provide an introduction and assistance in understanding the detailed analysis information contained in the three volume report titled The Analysis of the Program to Develop the Nuclear Waste Management System (Woods 1991a).

  5. Effect of Educational Program Based On Exercise Therapy on Burned Hand Function

    PubMed Central

    Mohaddes Ardebili, Fatemeh; Manzari, Zahra Sadat; Bozorgnejad, Mehri

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Hands burn was associated with significant functional disorders that severely affected patient’s quality of life. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of educational program based on exercise therapy on burned hand function. METHODS This experimental research was conducted in a period of ten months in 2010-2011 in Mottahari Hospital in Tehran in Iran. The sample included 60 patients, who were randomly assigned into experimental and control groups, half in intervention and half in control group. Educational program was implemented on experimental group. The data collection tools were two observational checklists about determining of hand function. RESULTS Both groups were matched in characteristic of demographic and burn injury. Subjects in experimental group demonstrated significant improvements in range of motion and hand function balance from admission to discharge. CONCLUSION In order to reduce the hand functional impairment caused by burns, it is recommended that special attention be paid to patient education about exercise therapy. PMID:25489523

  6. Mapping of health system functions to strengthen priority programs. The case of maternal health in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Health system strengthening is critical to ensure the integration and scaling-up of priority health promotion, disease prevention and control programs. Normative guidelines are available to address health system function imbalances while strategic and analytical frameworks address critical functions in complex systems. Tacit knowledge-based health system constructs can help identify actors' perspectives, contributing to improve strengthening strategies. Using maternal health as an example, this paper maps and analyses the health system functions that critical actors charged with formulating and delivering priority health programs consider important for their success. Methods Using concept mapping qualitative and statistical methods, health system functions were mapped for different categories of actors in high maternal mortality states of Mexico and at the federal level. Functions within and across maps were analyzed for degree of classification, importance, feasibility and coding. Results Hospital infrastructure and human resource training are the most prominent functions in the maternal health system, associated to federal efforts to support emergency obstetric care. Health policy is a highly diffuse function while program development, intercultural and community participation and social networks are clearly stated although less focused and with lower perceived importance. The importance of functions is less correlated between federal and state decision makers, between federal decision makers and reproductive health/local health area program officers and between state decision makers and system-wide support officers. Two sets of oppositions can be observed in coding across functions: health sector vs. social context; and given structures vs. manageable processes. Conclusions Concept mapping enabled the identification of critical functions constituting adaptive maternal health systems, including aspects of actor perspectives that are seldom included in

  7. Impacts of a prekindergarten program on children's mathematics, language, literacy, executive function, and emotional skills.

    PubMed

    Weiland, Christina; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2013-01-01

    Publicly funded prekindergarten programs have achieved small-to-large impacts on children's cognitive outcomes. The current study examined the impact of a prekindergarten program that implemented a coaching system and consistent literacy, language, and mathematics curricula on these and other nontargeted, essential components of school readiness, such as executive functioning. Participants included 2,018 four and five-year-old children. Findings indicated that the program had moderate-to-large impacts on children's language, literacy, numeracy and mathematics skills, and small impacts on children's executive functioning and a measure of emotion recognition. Some impacts were considerably larger for some subgroups. For urban public school districts, results inform important programmatic decisions. For policy makers, results confirm that prekindergarten programs can improve educationally vital outcomes for children in meaningful, important ways. PMID:23534487

  8. Second Order Duality in Multiobjective Fractional Programming with Square Root Term under Generalized Univex Function

    PubMed Central

    Tripathy, Arun Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Three approaches of second order mixed type duality are introduced for a nondifferentiable multiobjective fractional programming problem in which the numerator and denominator of objective function contain square root of positive semidefinite quadratic form. Also, the necessary and sufficient conditions of efficient solution for fractional programming are established and a parameterization technique is used to establish duality results under generalized second order ρ-univexity assumption. PMID:27379308

  9. Developing an "essential functions" rubric: purposes and applications for speech-language-hearing academic programs.

    PubMed

    Horner, Jennifer; Schwarz, Ilsa; Jackson, Roberta; Johnstone, Patti; Mulligan, Moira; Roberts, Kathleen; Sohlberg, McKay Moore

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the purpose and application of an essential functions rubric for prospective and current students engaged in the study of communication sciences and disorders. Adopted in 2007 by the Council on Academic Programs in Communication Sciences and Disorders (CAPCSD), the essential functions rubric identifies core skills and attributes in five areas: communication, motor, intellectual-cognitive, sensory/observational, and behavioral/social. CAPCSD does not intend the rubric to be prescriptive but rather expects that it will be adapted to reflect the unique mission or circumstances of each academic program. The value of an essential functions rubric for academic programs is the opportunity it provides to educate students about the roles and responsibilities of the disciplines. A rubric also allows academic programs an objective basis for counseling students about professional expectations. Importantly, an essential functions rubric gives both students and programs opportunities to determine what, if any, accommodations might be employed to allow students who are otherwise qualified to help them succeed both academically and clinically. PMID:20011824

  10. Family-based training program improves brain function, cognition, and behavior in lower socioeconomic status preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Neville, Helen J.; Stevens, Courtney; Pakulak, Eric; Bell, Theodore A.; Fanning, Jessica; Klein, Scott; Isbell, Elif

    2013-01-01

    Using information from research on the neuroplasticity of selective attention and on the central role of successful parenting in child development, we developed and rigorously assessed a family-based training program designed to improve brain systems for selective attention in preschool children. One hundred forty-one lower socioeconomic status preschoolers enrolled in a Head Start program were randomly assigned to the training program, Head Start alone, or an active control group. Electrophysiological measures of children’s brain functions supporting selective attention, standardized measures of cognition, and parent-reported child behaviors all favored children in the treatment program relative to both control groups. Positive changes were also observed in the parents themselves. Effect sizes ranged from one-quarter to half of a standard deviation. These results lend impetus to the further development and broader implementation of evidence-based education programs that target at-risk families. PMID:23818591

  11. Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility Quality Assurance Program Plan, Project W-236A. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, L.R.

    1995-05-30

    This document describes the Quality Assurance (QA) program for the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF) Project. The purpose of this QA program is to control project activities in such a manner as to achieve the mission of the MWTF Project in a safe and reliable manner. The QA program for the MWTF Project is founded on DOE Order 5700.6C, Quality Assurance, and implemented through the use of ASME NQA-1, Quality Assurance Program Requirements for Nuclear Facilities (ASME 1989 with addenda la-1989, lb-1991 and lc-1992). This document describes the program and planned actions which the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) will implement to demonstrate and ensure that the project meets the requirements of DOE Order 5700.6C through the interpretive guidance of ASME NQA-1.

  12. [Organization and functioning of health services of the IMSS-Solidaridad program].

    PubMed

    Velázquez-Díaz, G

    1992-01-01

    In this report the organization and performance of the IMSS-Solidaridad Program of Mexico is described. This program is managed by the Mexican Institute for Social Security, which services 10.5 million inhabitants of the rural underserved areas, with federal government resources in 18 states. This study compares the structure and functioning of the IMSS-Solidaridad Program with Local Health Systems, as they have been proposed by the Panamerican Health Organization for country members and by the Ministry of Health of Mexico, particularly in relation to the decision-making process at local level. Some assets and limitations of the IMSS-Solidaridad Program are analyzed and, finally, concrete procedures to improve coordination between the IMSS-Solidaridad Program and other health services for similar populations (populations without social security protection) in Mexico are suggested, with the purpose of using resources more adequately and succeed in the national goal to achieve equity in health. PMID:1475700

  13. A formal approach to detect functionally irrelevant barriers in MPI programs.

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, S.; Vakkalanka, S.; Gopalakrishnan, G.; Kirby, R. M.; Thakur, R.; Gropp, W.

    2008-01-01

    We examine the unsolved problem of automatically and efficiently detecting functionally irrelevant barriers in MPI programs. A functionally irrelevant barrier is a set of MPI-Barrier calls, one per MPI process, such that their removal does not alter the overall MPI communication structure of the program. Static analysis methods are incapable of solving this problem, as MPI programs can compute many quantities at runtime, including send targets, receive sources, tags, and communicators, and also can have data-dependent control flows. We offer an algorithm called Fib to solve this problem based on dynamic (runtime) analysis. Fib applies to MPI programs that employ 24 widely used two-sided MPI operations. We show that it is sufficient to detect barrier calls whose removal causes a wildcard receive statement placed before or after a barrier to now begin matching a send statement with which it did not match before. Fib determines whether a barrier becomes relevant in any interleaving of the MPI processes of a given MPI program. Since the number of interleavings can grow exponentially with the number of processes, Fib employs a sound method to drastically reduce this number, by computing only the relevant interleavings. We show that many MPI programs do not have data dependent control flows, thus making the results of Fib applicable to all the input data the program can accept.

  14. The predictive and prognostic value of the Glasgow Prognostic Score in metastatic colorectal carcinoma patients receiving bevacizumab.

    PubMed

    Maillet, Marianne; Dréanic, Johann; Dhooge, Marion; Mir, Olivier; Brezault, Catherine; Goldwasser, François; Chaussade, Stanislas; Coriat, Romain

    2014-11-01

    The Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS), based on C-reactive protein and albumin levels, has shown its prognostic value in metastatic colorectal carcinoma (mCRC) patients receiving conventional cytotoxic therapy. Bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody to vascular epidermal growth factor, improves the overall survival in mCRC. The aim of the present study was to assess the prognostic value of GPS in mCRC patients receiving antivascular epidermal growth factor therapy. From August 2005 to August 2012, consecutive patients with mCRC who received chemotherapy plus bevacizumab were eligible for the present analysis. The clinical stage, C-reactive protein, albumin and the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status were recorded at the time of initiation of bevacizumab. Patients received 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy plus bevacizumab in accordance with the digestive oncology multidisciplinary staff proposal and in line with the French recommendations for the treatment of mCRC. Eighty patients were eligible (colon n = 59, rectum n = 21), with a median follow-up of 14 months (range 1-58 months). Chemotherapy given with bevacizumab and 5-fluorouracil was oxaliplatin (n = 41, 51%) or irinotecan (n = 27, 34%). At baseline, 56, 31 and 13% of patients had a GPS of 0 (n = 45), 1 (n = 25) and 2 (n = 10), respectively. The median progression-free survival in these groups was 10.1, 6.5 and 5.6 months (P = 0.16), respectively. The median overall survival was 20.1, 11.4 and 6.5 months, respectively (P = 0.004). Our study confirmed the prognostic value of GPS in mCRC patients receiving chemotherapy plus bevacizumab. Given the poor survival observed in patients with an GPS of 2, studies dedicated to these patients could identify optimal treatment modalities. PMID:24858536

  15. Prognostic significance of modified Glasgow Prognostic Score in patients with non-metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cho, Dae Sung; Kim, Sun Il; Choo, Seol Ho; Jang, Seok Heun; Ahn, Hyun Soo; Kim, Se Joong

    2016-06-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the modified Glasgow Prognostic Score (mGPS) as a prognostic factor in patients with non-metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Materials and methods Between June 1994 and July 2012, 469 patients with RCC underwent radical or partial nephrectomy at two hospitals. Among these patients, 65 with non-clear cell type histology and 16 with lymph-node or distant metastasis were excluded. The medical records of the remaining 388 patients were retrospectively reviewed. The mGPS was calculated using a selective combination of C-reactive protein (CRP) and albumin as previously described. The prognostic significance of various clinicopathological variables including mGPS was analyzed using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results Of the total 388 patients, 40 patients (10.3%) developed local recurrence or distant metastasis and 18 patients (4.6%) died of disease during the follow-up period. The univariate analysis identified CRP, mGPS, thrombocytosis, T stage, Fuhrman's nuclear grade and lymphovascular invasion as significant prognostic factors for recurrence-free survival (RFS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS). The multivariate analysis indicated that mGPS (p < 0.001), T stage (p = 0.024) and lymphovascular invasion (p = 0.046) were independent prognostic factors for RFS, whereas mGPS (p = 0.001) was the only independent prognostic factor for CSS. Conclusions The mGPS is an independent prognostic factor for RFS and CSS in patients with non-metastatic clear cell RCC treated with radical or partial nephrectomy. These findings suggest that mGPS should be used for predicting recurrence or survival in patients undergoing nephrectomy for non-metastatic clear cell RCC. PMID:26878156

  16. A new Fortran 90 program to compute regular and irregular associated Legendre functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Barry I.; Segura, Javier; Gil, Amparo; Guan, Xiaoxu; Bartschat, Klaus

    2010-12-01

    We present a modern Fortran 90 code to compute the regular Plm(x) and irregular Qlm(x) associated Legendre functions for all x∈(-1,+1) (on the cut) and |x|>1 and integer degree ( l) and order ( m). The code applies either forward or backward recursion in ( l) and ( m) in the stable direction, starting with analytically known values for forward recursion and considering both a Wronskian based and a modified Miller's method for backward recursion. While some Fortran 77 codes existed for computing the functions off the cut, no Fortran 90 code was available for accurately computing the functions for all real values of x different from x=±1 where the irregular functions are not defined. Program summaryProgram title: Associated Legendre Functions Catalogue identifier: AEHE_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEHE_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 6722 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 310 210 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 90 Computer: Linux systems Operating system: Linux RAM: bytes Classification: 4.7 Nature of problem: Compute the regular and irregular associated Legendre functions for integer values of the degree and order and for all real arguments. The computation of the interaction of two electrons, 1/|r-r|, in prolate spheroidal coordinates is used as one example where these functions are required for all values of the argument and we are able to easily compare the series expansion in associated Legendre functions and the exact value. Solution method: The code evaluates the regular and irregular associated Legendre functions using forward recursion when |x|<1 starting the recursion with the analytically known values of the first two members of the sequence. For values of

  17. Tissue-Specific Signals Control Reversible Program of Localization and Functional Polarization of Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Okabe, Yasutaka; Medzhitov, Ruslan

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Tissue-resident macrophages are highly heterogeneous in terms of their functions and phenotypes as a consequence of adaptation to different tissue environments. Local tissue-derived signals are thought to control functional polarization of resident macrophages; however, the identity of these signals remains largely unknown. It is also unknown whether functional heterogeneity is a result of irreversible lineage-specific differentiation or a consequence of continuous but reversible induction of diverse functional programs. Here, we identified retinoic acid as a signal that induces tissue-specific localization and functional polarization of peritoneal macrophages through the reversible induction of transcription factor GATA6. We further found that GATA6 in macrophages regulates gut IgA production through peritoneal B-1 cells. These results provide insight into the regulation of tissue-resident macrophage functional specialization by tissue-derived signals. PMID:24792964

  18. Functions of Arabic-English Code-Switching: Sociolinguistic Insights from a Study Abroad Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Masaeed, Khaled

    2013-01-01

    This sociolinguistic study examines the functions and motivations of code-switching, which is used here to mean the use of more than one language in the same conversation. The conversations studied here take place in a very particular context: one-on-one speaking sessions in a study abroad program in Morocco where English is the L1 and Arabic the…

  19. Effects of a Computer-Based Intervention Program on the Communicative Functions of Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hetzroni, Orit E.; Tannous, Juman

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the use of computer-based intervention for enhancing communication functions of children with autism. The software program was developed based on daily life activities in the areas of play, food, and hygiene. The following variables were investigated: delayed echolalia, immediate echolalia, irrelevant speech, relevant…

  20. Functional Outcomes and Consumer Satisfaction in the Independent Living Program for Older Individuals Who Are Blind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, J. Elton; Steinman, Bernard A.; Giesen, J. Martin; Frank, John J.

    2006-01-01

    This study of a national sample of elders served by the Independent Living Program for Older Individuals Who Are Blind found that, overall, they were highly satisfied with the quality and timeliness of services and help in achieving independent living goals. A slight improvement was found in their perceptions of functional outcomes from 1999 to…

  1. Relation of Physical Activity to Memory Functioning in Older Adults: The Memory Workout Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebok, George W.; Plude, Dana J.

    2001-01-01

    The Memory Workout, a CD-ROM program designed to help older adults increase changes in physical and cognitive activity influencing memory, was tested with 24 subjects. Results revealed a significant relationship between exercise time, exercise efficacy, and cognitive function, as well as interest in improving memory and physical activity.…

  2. STATISTICAL INFERENCE PROCEDURES FOR PROBABILITY SELECTION FUNCTIONS IN LONG-TERM MONITORING PROGRAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report develops the theory and illustrates the use of selection functions to describe changes over time in the distributions of environmentally important variables at sites sampled as part of environmental monitoring programs. he first part of the report provides a review of...

  3. Functionality of Objectives in the Program and Education Plans of Persons with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, Joseph B.; Karst, Ralph R.

    This study examined the relationship between the functionality of training objectives established in Individual Program Plans (IPPs) and Individual Education Plans (IEPs) of persons with severe and profound mental retardation and different service delivery environments. Each training objective in the IPPs and IEPs of 78 individuals was classified…

  4. Students' Perceptions of Long-Functioning Cooperative Teams in Accelerated Adult Degree Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Favor, Judy

    2012-01-01

    This study examined 718 adult students' perceptions of long-functioning cooperative study teams in accelerated associate's, bachelor's, and master's business degree programs. Six factors were examined: attraction toward team, alignment of performance expectations, intrateam conflict, workload sharing, preference for teamwork, and impact on…

  5. Benefits of the Comprehensive Child Development Program as a Function of AFDC Receipt and SES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Carey S.; McCall, Robert B.; Robinson, Debbie R.; Groark, Christina J.; Mulvey, Laurie; Plemons, Bradford W.

    2002-01-01

    Examined benefits of the federal Comprehensive Child Development Program (CCDP) as a function of socioeconomic and welfare status. Found that more families in the CCDP left Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) than control families. The CCDP produced benefits for children whose parents were not receiving AFDC, who tended to choose…

  6. 77 FR 10933 - Maximizing the Effectiveness of Federal Programs and Functions Supporting Trade and Investment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ....) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, February 17, 2012 [FR Doc. 2012-4438 Filed 2-22-12; 11:15 am] Billing... Federal Programs and Functions Supporting Trade and Investment Memorandum for the Heads of Executive... in the United States and ensuring sustainable economic growth are the top priorities of...

  7. The Effectiveness of Community-Based Occupational Therapy Education and Functional Training Programs for Older Adults: A Critical Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Seanne; Jung, Bonny; Wishart, Laurie; Edwards, Mary; Norton, Shelley Gamble

    2003-01-01

    Results of a literature review describing the provision of education and occupational therapy training programs for older adults indicate that programs are effective in three areas: prevention of functional decline and falls, stroke, and rheumatoid arthritis. (Contains 37 references.) (JOW)

  8. Development of an efficient rehabilitation exercise program for functional recovery in chronic ankle instability

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kewwan; Jeon, Kyoungkyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to construct an integrated rehabilitation exercise program to prevent chronic pain and improve motor ability in cases of ankle injury and re-injury. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-six male soccer players who required functional strength exercises due to repeated ankle injury were the subjects. A 12-week rehabilitation exercise program was constructed with the aim of improving muscle strength in the ankle and dynamic coordination of the lower limb. Muscle strength and dynamic coordination were evaluated using the Y Balance Test, and isokinetic muscle strength of ankle dorsiflexion, plantarflexion, inversion, and eversion were measured before and after the 12-week program. [Results] Following 12 weeks of rehabilitation exercise, there were statistically significant improvements in the ratios of dorsiflexor strength to plantarflexor strength, eversion strength, and inversion strength on the left side. The other variables showed no significant changes. [Conclusion] The rehabilitation exercise program for chronic ankle instability helped to reduce pain, and to restore normal joint range of motion, muscle strength and endurance, and functional ability. Active protocols to improve complex functions need to be developed to complement these results. PMID:27313347

  9. Development of an efficient rehabilitation exercise program for functional recovery in chronic ankle instability.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kewwan; Jeon, Kyoungkyu

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to construct an integrated rehabilitation exercise program to prevent chronic pain and improve motor ability in cases of ankle injury and re-injury. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-six male soccer players who required functional strength exercises due to repeated ankle injury were the subjects. A 12-week rehabilitation exercise program was constructed with the aim of improving muscle strength in the ankle and dynamic coordination of the lower limb. Muscle strength and dynamic coordination were evaluated using the Y Balance Test, and isokinetic muscle strength of ankle dorsiflexion, plantarflexion, inversion, and eversion were measured before and after the 12-week program. [Results] Following 12 weeks of rehabilitation exercise, there were statistically significant improvements in the ratios of dorsiflexor strength to plantarflexor strength, eversion strength, and inversion strength on the left side. The other variables showed no significant changes. [Conclusion] The rehabilitation exercise program for chronic ankle instability helped to reduce pain, and to restore normal joint range of motion, muscle strength and endurance, and functional ability. Active protocols to improve complex functions need to be developed to complement these results. PMID:27313347

  10. Effects of virtual reality programs on balance in functional ankle instability

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki-Jong; Heo, Myoung

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of present study was to identify the impact that recent virtual reality training programs used in a variety of fields have had on the ankle’s static and dynamic senses of balance among subjects with functional ankle instability. [Subjects and Methods] This study randomly divided research subjects into two groups, a strengthening exercise group (Group I) and a balance exercise group (Group II), with each group consisting of 10 people. A virtual reality program was performed three times a week for four weeks. Exercises from the Nintendo Wii Fit Plus program were applied to each group for twenty minutes along with ten minutes of warming up and wrap-up exercises. [Results] Group II showed a significant decrease of post-intervention static and dynamic balance overall in the anterior-posterior, and mediolateral directions, compared with the pre-intervention test results. In comparison of post-intervention static and dynamic balance between Group I and Group II, a significant decrease was observed overall. [Conclusion] Virtual reality programs improved the static balance and dynamic balance of subjects with functional ankle instability. Virtual reality programs can be used more safely and efficiently if they are implemented under appropriate monitoring by a physiotherapist. PMID:26644652

  11. Effects of virtual reality programs on balance in functional ankle instability.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Jong; Heo, Myoung

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] The aim of present study was to identify the impact that recent virtual reality training programs used in a variety of fields have had on the ankle's static and dynamic senses of balance among subjects with functional ankle instability. [Subjects and Methods] This study randomly divided research subjects into two groups, a strengthening exercise group (Group I) and a balance exercise group (Group II), with each group consisting of 10 people. A virtual reality program was performed three times a week for four weeks. Exercises from the Nintendo Wii Fit Plus program were applied to each group for twenty minutes along with ten minutes of warming up and wrap-up exercises. [Results] Group II showed a significant decrease of post-intervention static and dynamic balance overall in the anterior-posterior, and mediolateral directions, compared with the pre-intervention test results. In comparison of post-intervention static and dynamic balance between Group I and Group II, a significant decrease was observed overall. [Conclusion] Virtual reality programs improved the static balance and dynamic balance of subjects with functional ankle instability. Virtual reality programs can be used more safely and efficiently if they are implemented under appropriate monitoring by a physiotherapist. PMID:26644652

  12. An initial assessment of spatial relationships between respiratory cases, soil metal content, air quality and deprivation indicators in Glasgow, Scotland, UK: relevance to the environmental justice agenda.

    PubMed

    Morrison, S; Fordyce, F M; Scott, E Marian

    2014-04-01

    There is growing interest in links between poor health and socio-environmental inequalities (e.g. inferior housing, crime and industrial emissions) under the environmental justice agenda. The current project assessed associations between soil metal content, air pollution (NO2/PM10) and deprivation and health (respiratory case incidence) across Glasgow. This is the first time that both chemical land quality and air pollution have been assessed citywide in the context of deprivation and health for a major UK conurbation. Based on the dataset 'averages' for intermediate geography areas, generalised linear modelling of respiratory cases showed significant associations with overall soil metal concentration (p = 0.0367) and with deprivation (p < 0.0448). Of the individual soil metals, only nickel showed a significant relationship with respiratory cases (p = 0.0056). Whilst these associations could simply represent concordant lower soil metal concentrations and fewer respiratory cases in the rural versus the urban environment, they are interesting given (1) possible contributions from soil to air particulate loading and (2) known associations between airborne metals like nickel and health. This study also demonstrated a statistically significant correlation (-0.213; p < 0.05) between soil metal concentration and deprivation across Glasgow. This highlights the fact that despite numerous regeneration programmes, the legacy of environmental pollution remains in post-industrial areas of Glasgow many decades after heavy industry has declined. Further epidemiological investigations would be required to determine whether there are any causal links between soil quality and population health/well-being. However, the results of this study suggest that poor soil quality warrants greater consideration in future health and socio-environmental inequality assessments. PMID:24203260

  13. Transfer-function-parameter estimation from frequency response data: A FORTRAN program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidel, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    A FORTRAN computer program designed to fit a linear transfer function model to given frequency response magnitude and phase data is presented. A conjugate gradient search is used that minimizes the integral of the absolute value of the error squared between the model and the data. The search is constrained to insure model stability. A scaling of the model parameters by their own magnitude aids search convergence. Efficient computer algorithms result in a small and fast program suitable for a minicomputer. A sample problem with different model structures and parameter estimates is reported.

  14. Distributed Function Mining for Gene Expression Programming Based on Fast Reduction.

    PubMed

    Deng, Song; Yue, Dong; Yang, Le-chan; Fu, Xiong; Feng, Ya-zhou

    2016-01-01

    For high-dimensional and massive data sets, traditional centralized gene expression programming (GEP) or improved algorithms lead to increased run-time and decreased prediction accuracy. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a new improved algorithm called distributed function mining for gene expression programming based on fast reduction (DFMGEP-FR). In DFMGEP-FR, fast attribution reduction in binary search algorithms (FAR-BSA) is proposed to quickly find the optimal attribution set, and the function consistency replacement algorithm is given to solve integration of the local function model. Thorough comparative experiments for DFMGEP-FR, centralized GEP and the parallel gene expression programming algorithm based on simulated annealing (parallel GEPSA) are included in this paper. For the waveform, mushroom, connect-4 and musk datasets, the comparative results show that the average time-consumption of DFMGEP-FR drops by 89.09%%, 88.85%, 85.79% and 93.06%, respectively, in contrast to centralized GEP and by 12.5%, 8.42%, 9.62% and 13.75%, respectively, compared with parallel GEPSA. Six well-studied UCI test data sets demonstrate the efficiency and capability of our proposed DFMGEP-FR algorithm for distributed function mining. PMID:26751200

  15. Improving Children's Coordinative Skills and Executive Functions: The Effects of a Football Exercise Program.

    PubMed

    Alesi, Marianna; Bianco, Antonino; Luppina, Giorgio; Palma, Antonio; Pepi, Annamaria

    2016-02-01

    Recent studies have focused on the positive influence of regular physical activity on executive functioning in children. Coordinative skills (agility) and executive functions (updating, attention, inhibition and planning processes) were investigated in children before and after 6 months of a Football Exercise Program compared to a control group of sedentary peers. The participants were 44 children aged 8.8 years: Group 1 comprised 24 children in a football (i.e., soccer) exercise program and Group 2 comprised 20 sedentary children. At pre-test and post-test, coordinative skills and executive functions were measured. After the Football Exercise Program, there were significant differences between sport and sedentary groups in coordinative skills and executive functions. The football group at post-test showed significantly larger gains than the sedentary group on measures of agility, visuo-spatial working memory, attention, planning and inhibition. Findings shed light on the issue to plan structured sport activities as a natural and enjoyable way to improve cognitive skills. PMID:27420304

  16. Satisfiability of logic programming based on radial basis function neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Hamadneh, Nawaf; Sathasivam, Saratha; Tilahun, Surafel Luleseged; Choon, Ong Hong

    2014-07-10

    In this paper, we propose a new technique to test the Satisfiability of propositional logic programming and quantified Boolean formula problem in radial basis function neural networks. For this purpose, we built radial basis function neural networks to represent the proportional logic which has exactly three variables in each clause. We used the Prey-predator algorithm to calculate the output weights of the neural networks, while the K-means clustering algorithm is used to determine the hidden parameters (the centers and the widths). Mean of the sum squared error function is used to measure the activity of the two algorithms. We applied the developed technique with the recurrent radial basis function neural networks to represent the quantified Boolean formulas. The new technique can be applied to solve many applications such as electronic circuits and NP-complete problems.

  17. Satisfiability of logic programming based on radial basis function neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamadneh, Nawaf; Sathasivam, Saratha; Tilahun, Surafel Luleseged; Choon, Ong Hong

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a new technique to test the Satisfiability of propositional logic programming and quantified Boolean formula problem in radial basis function neural networks. For this purpose, we built radial basis function neural networks to represent the proportional logic which has exactly three variables in each clause. We used the Prey-predator algorithm to calculate the output weights of the neural networks, while the K-means clustering algorithm is used to determine the hidden parameters (the centers and the widths). Mean of the sum squared error function is used to measure the activity of the two algorithms. We applied the developed technique with the recurrent radial basis function neural networks to represent the quantified Boolean formulas. The new technique can be applied to solve many applications such as electronic circuits and NP-complete problems.

  18. Joint pricing and production management: a geometric programming approach with consideration of cubic production cost function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadjadi, Seyed Jafar; Hamidi Hesarsorkh, Aghil; Mohammadi, Mehdi; Bonyadi Naeini, Ali

    2014-08-01

    Coordination and harmony between different departments of a company can be an important factor in achieving competitive advantage if the company corrects alignment between strategies of different departments. This paper presents an integrated decision model based on recent advances of geometric programming technique. The demand of a product considers as a power function of factors such as product's price, marketing expenditures, and consumer service expenditures. Furthermore, production cost considers as a cubic power function of outputs. The model will be solved by recent advances in convex optimization tools. Finally, the solution procedure is illustrated by numerical example.

  19. Method, systems, and computer program products for implementing function-parallel network firewall

    DOEpatents

    Fulp, Errin W.; Farley, Ryan J.

    2011-10-11

    Methods, systems, and computer program products for providing function-parallel firewalls are disclosed. According to one aspect, a function-parallel firewall includes a first firewall node for filtering received packets using a first portion of a rule set including a plurality of rules. The first portion includes less than all of the rules in the rule set. At least one second firewall node filters packets using a second portion of the rule set. The second portion includes at least one rule in the rule set that is not present in the first portion. The first and second portions together include all of the rules in the rule set.

  20. Perinatal nutrition programs neuroimmune function long-term: mechanisms and implications

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Sarah J.

    2013-01-01

    Our early life nutritional environment can influence several aspects of physiology, including our propensity to become obese. There is now evidence to suggest perinatal diet can also independently influence development of our innate immune system. This review will address three not-necessarily-exclusive mechanisms by which perinatal nutrition can program neuroimmune function long-term: by predisposing the individual to obesity, by altering the gut microbiota, and by inducing epigenetic modifications that alter gene transcription throughout life. PMID:23964195

  1. Interactive web-based programs to teach functional anatomy: the pterygopalatine fossa.

    PubMed

    Sinav, Ahmet; Ambron, Richard

    2004-07-01

    Certain areas of the body contain structures that are difficult to envision in their proper spatial orientations and whose functions are complex and difficult to grasp. This is especially true in the head, where many structures are relatively small and inaccessible. To address this problem, we are designing Web-based programs that consist of high-resolution interactive bitmap illustrations, prepared using Adobe Photoshop, and vector-based animations, prepared via Macromedia Flash. Flash action script language is used for the animations. We have used this approach to prepare a program on the pterygopalatine fossa, an important neurovascular junction in the deep face that is especially difficult to approach by dissection and to depict in static images in an atlas. The program can be viewed online at http://cds.osr.columbia.edu/anatomy/ppfossa/. A table of contents simplifies navigation through the program and a menu enables the user to identify each of the vascular and neuronal components and either to insert or to remove each from its position in the fossa. The functional anatomy of the nerves in the fossa is animated. For example, users can activate and subsequently follow action potentials as they course along axons to their targets. This high degree of interactivity helps promote learning. PMID:15278936

  2. The functional analysis of psychological terms: in defense of a research program.

    PubMed

    Leigland, S

    1996-01-01

    In 1945, B. F. Skinner outlined a proposal that psychological or mentalistic terms found in natural language might be analyzed empirically in terms of the variables, conditions, and contingencies of which they may be observed to be a function. Such an analysis would enable discriminations to be made between different classes of variables that enter into the control of the term. In this way, the analysis would clarify what is traditionally called the "meanings" of such terms as they occur as properties of verbal behavior. Despite his expressed confidence in the success of such a program, Skinner largely abandoned the functional analysis of psychological terms in favor of the development of a promising new field; the experimental analysis of behavior. The present paper argues that the original program is of great importance as well, and for the following reasons: (a) to make full, immediate, and (most importantly) effective contact with the range of issues and terms of central importance to the traditionally and culturally important concepts of "mind" and "mental life" (and thereby demonstrating the relevance of radical behaviorism to the full range of human and verbal behavior); and (b) to extend the methodology of the functional analysis of verbal behavior more generally. Such a research program would demonstrate, through an empirically-based scientific analysis, that the philosophical problems concerning "mental life" may be productively analyzed as problems of verbal behavior. Issues of methodology are discussed, and possible methodological strategies are proposed regarding the confirmation of behavior analytic interpretations of mentalistic terms. PMID:22477113

  3. EPW: A program for calculating the electron-phonon coupling using maximally localized Wannier functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noffsinger, Jesse; Giustino, Feliciano; Malone, Brad D.; Park, Cheol-Hwan; Louie, Steven G.; Cohen, Marvin L.

    2010-12-01

    EPW ( Electron- Phonon coupling using Wannier functions) is a program written in Fortran90 for calculating the electron-phonon coupling in periodic systems using density-functional perturbation theory and maximally localized Wannier functions. EPW can calculate electron-phonon interaction self-energies, electron-phonon spectral functions, and total as well as mode-resolved electron-phonon coupling strengths. The calculation of the electron-phonon coupling requires a very accurate sampling of electron-phonon scattering processes throughout the Brillouin zone, hence reliable calculations can be prohibitively time-consuming. EPW combines the Kohn-Sham electronic eigenstates and the vibrational eigenmodes provided by the Quantum ESPRESSO package (see Giannozzi et al., 2009 [1]) with the maximally localized Wannier functions provided by the wannier90 package (see Mostofi et al., 2008 [2]) in order to generate electron-phonon matrix elements on arbitrarily dense Brillouin zone grids using a generalized Fourier interpolation. This feature of EPW leads to fast and accurate calculations of the electron-phonon coupling, and enables the study of the electron-phonon coupling in large and complex systems. Program summaryProgram title: EPW Catalogue identifier: AEHA_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEHA_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU Public License No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 304 443 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 487 466 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 90 Computer: Any architecture with a Fortran 90 compiler Operating system: Any environment with a Fortran 90 compiler Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: Yes, optimized for 1 to 64 processors RAM: Heavily system dependent, as small as a few MB Supplementary material: A copy of the "EPW/examples" directory

  4. An Analysis of Factors Influencing Urbanite Woman Learner-Participation in Functional Literacy Programs in Selected Christian Churches, Accra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saah, Albert Amoah

    2013-01-01

    The promotion of adult functional literacy programs per se, neither creates the necessary motivation for learning, nor enhances the participation of adult learners in work-oriented or socio-cultural functional literacy programs. The task in learning-teaching transaction is to create the enabling environment for harnessing and enhancing…

  5. HANFORD SITE WELDING PROGRAM SUCCESSFULLY PROVIDING A SINGLE SITE FUNCTION FOR USE BY MULTIPLE CONTRACTORS

    SciTech Connect

    CANNELL GR

    2009-11-19

    The Department of Energy, Richland Operations (DOE-RL) recently restructured its Hanford work scope, awarding two new contracts over the past several months for a total of three contracts to manage the sites cleanup efforts. DOE-RL met with key contractor personnel prior to and during contract transition to ensure site welding activities had appropriate oversight and maintained code compliance. The transition also provided an opportunity to establish a single site-wide function that would provide welding and materials engineering services to the Hanford site contractors: CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC); Mission Support Alliance (MSA); Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS); and Washington Closure Hanford (WCH). Over the years, multiple and separate welding programs (amongst the several contractors) existed at the Hanford site leading to inefficiencies resulting from duplication of administrative efforts, maintenance of welding procedures, welder performance certifications, etc. The new, single program eliminates these inefficiencies. The new program, co-managed by two of the sites' new contractors, the CHPRC ('owner' of the program and responsible for construction welding services) and the MSA (provides maintenance welding services), provides more than just the traditional construction and maintenance welding services. Also provided, are welding engineering, specialty welding development/qualification for the closure of radioactive materials containers and materials evaluation/failure analysis. The following describes the new Hanford site welding program.

  6. Development of an Enhanced Payback Function for the Superior Energy Performance Program

    SciTech Connect

    Therkelsen, Peter; Rao, Prakash; McKane, Aimee; Sabouni, Ridah; Sheihing, Paul

    2015-08-03

    The U.S. DOE Superior Energy Performance (SEP) program provides recognition to industrial and commercial facilities that achieve certification to the ISO 50001 energy management system standard and third party verification of energy performance improvements. Over 50 industrial facilities are participating and 28 facilities have been certified in the SEP program. These facilities find value in the robust, data driven energy performance improvement result that the SEP program delivers. Previous analysis of SEP certified facility data demonstrated the cost effectiveness of SEP and identified internal staff time to be the largest cost component related to SEP implementation and certification. This paper analyzes previously reported and newly collected data of costs and benefits associated with the implementation of an ISO 50001 and SEP certification. By disaggregating “sunk energy management system (EnMS) labor costs”, this analysis results in a more accurate and detailed understanding of the costs and benefits of SEP participation. SEP is shown to significantly improve and sustain energy performance and energy cost savings, resulting in a highly attractive return on investment. To illustrate these results, a payback function has been developed and is presented. On average facilities with annual energy spend greater than $2M can expect to implement SEP with a payback of less than 1.5 years. Finally, this paper also observes and details decreasing facility costs associated with implementing ISO 50001 and certifying to the SEP program, as the program has improved from pilot, to demonstration, to full launch.

  7. ‘At-risk’ places: inequities in the distribution of environmental stressors and prescription rates of mental health medications in Glasgow, Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maantay, Juliana; Maroko, Andrew

    2015-11-01

    Using geospatial analytical methods, this study examines the association between one aspect of the built environment, namely, the concentration of vacant and derelict land (VDL), and the prevalence of mental health disorders (using the proxy variable of mental health medication prescription rates) in Glasgow, Scotland. This study builds on our previous research, which demonstrated the spatial correspondence between the locations of VDL in Glasgow and several physical health outcomes. Numerous studies of other locales have found similar correspondence between different elements of the built environment and various health outcomes. This is the first study of its kind to look at the spatial concentration of vacant and derelict land in relation to mental health, socio-economic indicators, environmental justice, and health inequities. The findings of this study demonstrate an inequity with respect to the distribution of vacant and derelict land, as confirmed by Pearson correlations between VDL density and deprivation (r = .521, p < .001). This suggests that many deprived communities are disproportionately burdened with environmental impacts and psycho-social stressors associated with this land use. Regression analyses show a significant positive association between the proportion of the population who were prescribed medication for anxiety, depression, or psychosis and the density of vacant and derelict land while adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics. This indicates that areas with higher VDL densities tend to exhibit higher rates of mental health issues. Based on these findings, strategies for constructive re-use of VDL are proposed.

  8. The Performance of a Modified Glasgow Blatchford Score in Predicting Clinical Interventions in Patients with Acute Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding: A Vietnamese Prospective Multicenter Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Quach, Duc Trong; Dao, Ngoi Huu; Dinh, Minh Cao; Nguyen, Chung Huu; Ho, Linh Xuan; Nguyen, Nha-Doan Thi; Le, Quang Dinh; Vo, Cong Minh Hong; Le, Sang Kim; Hiyama, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims To compare the performance of a modified Glasgow Blatchford score (mGBS) to the Glasgow Blatchford score (GBS) and the pre-endoscopic Rockall score (RS) in predicting clinical interventions in Vietnamese patients with acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (AN-VUGIB). Methods A prospective multicenter cohort study was conducted in five tertiary hospitals from May 2013 to February 2014. The mGBS, GBS, and pre-endoscopic RS scores were prospectively calculated for all patients. The accuracy of mGBS was compared with that of GBS and pre-endoscopic RS using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Clinical interventions were defined as blood transfusions, endoscopic or radiological intervention, or surgery. Results There were 395 patients including 128 (32.4%) needing endoscopic treatment, 117 (29.6%) requiring blood transfusion and two (0.5%) needing surgery. In predicting the need for clinical intervention, the mGBS (AUC, 0.707) performed as well as the GBS (AUC, 0.708; p=0.87) and outperformed the pre-endoscopic RS (AUC, 0.594; p<0.001). However, none of these scores effectively excluded the need for endoscopic intervention at a threshold of 0. Conclusions mGBS performed as well as GBS and better than pre-endoscopic RS for predicting clinical interventions in Vietnamese patients with ANVUGIB. PMID:26601829

  9. Introducing PROFESS: A new program for orbital-free density functional theory calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Gregory S.; Lignères, Vincent L.; Carter, Emily A.

    2008-12-01

    We present PROFESS (PRinceton Orbital-Free Electronic Structure Software), a new software package that performs orbital-free density functional theory (OF-DFT) calculations. OF-DFT is a first principles quantum mechanics method primarily for condensed matter that can be made to scale linearly with system size. We describe the implementation of energy, force, and stress functionals and the methods used to optimize the electron density under periodic boundary conditions. All electronic energy and potential terms scale linearly while terms involving the ions exhibit quadratic scaling in our code. Despite the latter scaling, the program can treat tens of thousands of atoms with quantum mechanics on a single processor, as we demonstrate here. Limitations of the method are also outlined, the most serious of which is the accuracy of state-of-the-art kinetic energy functionals, which limits the applicability of the method to main group elements at present. Program summaryProgram title: PROFESS Catalogue identifier: AEBN_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEBN_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 35 933 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 329 924 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 90 Computer: Intel with ifort; AMD Opteron with pathf90 Operating system: Linux RAM: Problem dependent, but 2 GB is sufficient for up to 10,000 ions Classification: 7.3 External routines: FFTW ( http://www.fftw.org), MINPACK-2 Nature of problem: Given a set of coordinates describing the initial ion positions under periodic boundary conditions, recovers the ground state energy, electron density, ion positions, and cell lattice vectors predicted by orbital-free density functional theory. Except for computation of the

  10. Innate-like functions of natural killer T cell subsets result from highly divergent gene programs.

    PubMed

    Engel, Isaac; Seumois, Grégory; Chavez, Lukas; Samaniego-Castruita, Daniela; White, Brandie; Chawla, Ashu; Mock, Dennis; Vijayanand, Pandurangan; Kronenberg, Mitchell

    2016-06-01

    Natural killer T cells (NKT cells) have stimulatory or inhibitory effects on the immune response that can be attributed in part to the existence of functional subsets of NKT cells. These subsets have been characterized only on the basis of the differential expression of a few transcription factors and cell-surface molecules. Here we have analyzed purified populations of thymic NKT cell subsets at both the transcriptomic level and epigenomic level and by single-cell RNA sequencing. Our data indicated that despite their similar antigen specificity, the functional NKT cell subsets were highly divergent populations with many gene-expression and epigenetic differences. Therefore, the thymus 'imprints' distinct gene programs on subsets of innate-like NKT cells that probably impart differences in proliferative capacity, homing, and effector functions. PMID:27089380

  11. An efficient ensemble of radial basis functions method based on quadratic programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Renhe; Liu, Li; Long, Teng; Liu, Jian

    2016-07-01

    Radial basis function (RBF) surrogate models have been widely applied in engineering design optimization problems to approximate computationally expensive simulations. Ensemble of radial basis functions (ERBF) using the weighted sum of stand-alone RBFs improves the approximation performance. To achieve a good trade-off between the accuracy and efficiency of the modelling process, this article presents a novel efficient ERBF method to determine the weights through solving a quadratic programming subproblem, denoted ERBF-QP. Several numerical benchmark functions are utilized to test the performance of the proposed ERBF-QP method. The results show that ERBF-QP can significantly improve the modelling efficiency compared with several existing ERBF methods. Moreover, ERBF-QP also provides satisfactory performance in terms of approximation accuracy. Finally, the ERBF-QP method is applied to a satellite multidisciplinary design optimization problem to illustrate its practicality and effectiveness for real-world engineering applications.

  12. The Development and Implementation of a District Computer Education Program. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walzl, F. Neil

    The Development and Implementation of a District Computer Education Program conducted at Glasgow High School, Newark, Delaware, was designed to model full utilization of computer services in a public high school. The phases of the project included: (1) development of goals and objectives at the district level; (2) workshops for teacher training;…

  13. Using quality function deployment to design better marketing and demand-side management programs

    SciTech Connect

    Henneberger, T.

    1996-01-01

    EPRI conducts a considerable amount of work in the area of Quality Function Deployment (QFD). QFD, which originated in the manufacturing and automobile industries, is perhaps one of the most important program design processes in the electric utility industry. The manner in which demand-side management (DSM) programs are typically approached-and lighting is no exception-is that the utility begins with an inward look. It asks, {open_quotes}What sort of load-shape impact do I want to achieve?{close_quotes} and having answered that question it looks to a variety of technologies to help it realize its load-shape objective. Lighting is one of those technologies. The problem with this approach is that utilities don`t purchase the lighting systems; customers do, and the customers must live daily with lighting systems on their premises. This means the process is backward. Rather than looking inward, a better way of approaching program design is to look outward-to look first to the customer. That`s what QFD is all about. It is a planning and communication tool for translating customer requirements-the voice of utility customers-into appropriate product service or programming characteristics at each stage of the design and implementation process.

  14. The role of early life nutrition in programming of reproductive function.

    PubMed

    Chadio, S; Kotsampasi, B

    2014-02-01

    Accumulating evidence suggest that the concept of programming can also be applied to reproductive development and function, representing an ever expanding research area. Recently issues such as peri- or even preconceptional nutrition, transgenerational effects and underlying mechanisms have received considerable attention. The present chapter presents the existed evidence and reviews the available data from numerous animal and human studies on the effects of early life nutritional environment on adult reproductive function. Specific outcomes depend on the severity, duration and stage of development when nutritional perturbations are imposed, while sex-specific effects are also manifested. Apart from undernutrition, effects of relative overnutrition as well as the complex interactions between pre- and postnatal nutrition is of high importance, especially in the context of our days obesity epidemic. Mechanisms underlying reproductive programming are yet unclear, but may include a role for epigenetic modifications. Epigenetic modulation of critical genes involved in the control of reproductive function and potential intergenerational effects represent an exciting area of interdisciplinary research toward the development of new nutritional approaches during pre- and postnatal periods to ensure reproductive health in later life. PMID:24847686

  15. Effects of a Summer Treatment Program on Functional Sports Outcomes in Young Children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Fabiano, Gregory A.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Belin, Peter J.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Pelham, William E.; Greiner, Andrew R.; Roemmich, James N.

    2015-01-01

    Participation in youth sports can be very beneficial, but children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may participate less often and less successfully. The current study evaluated functional sports outcomes for children with ADHD who attended an intensive behavioral treatment program that included a sports training component, and it compared outcomes to children with ADHD who did not attend the program. Results suggest that treatment resulted in significant improvements in many aspects of children’s sports functioning, including knowledge of game rules, in vivo game performance, and fundamental skill tasks (motor proficiency, ability to trap a soccer ball appropriately, reduced handball penalties in soccer, and improved ability to catch a baseball). Parents also reported improved sports skills and good sportsmanship in the treatment group. No differences between groups were evident on additional skill tasks evaluating accurately kicking a soccer ball, throwing a baseball, or hitting a baseball off a tee. These results suggest intensive behavioral intervention that includes sports training can significantly improve functional sports outcomes for young children with ADHD. PMID:24362766

  16. Effects of a summer treatment program on functional sports outcomes in young children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Briannon C; Fabiano, Gregory A; Waschbusch, Daniel A; Belin, Peter J; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Pelham, William E; Greiner, Andrew R; Roemmich, James N

    2014-08-01

    Participation in youth sports can be very beneficial, but children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may participate less often and less successfully. The current study evaluated functional sports outcomes for children with ADHD who attended an intensive behavioral treatment program that included a sports training component, and it compared outcomes to children with ADHD who did not attend the program. Results suggest that treatment resulted in significant improvements in many aspects of children's sports functioning, including knowledge of game rules, in vivo game performance, and fundamental skill tasks (motor proficiency, ability to trap a soccer ball appropriately, reduced handball penalties in soccer, and improved ability to catch a baseball). Parents also reported improved sports skills and good sportsmanship in the treatment group. No differences between groups were evident on additional skill tasks evaluating accurately kicking a soccer ball, throwing a baseball, or hitting a baseball off a tee. These results suggest intensive behavioral intervention that includes sports training can significantly improve functional sports outcomes for young children with ADHD. PMID:24362766

  17. The functional analysis of psychological terms: In defense of a research program

    PubMed Central

    Leigland, Sam

    1996-01-01

    In 1945, B. F. Skinner outlined a proposal that psychological or mentalistic terms found in natural language might be analyzed empirically in terms of the variables, conditions, and contingencies of which they may be observed to be a function. Such an analysis would enable discriminations to be made between different classes of variables that enter into the control of the term. In this way, the analysis would clarify what is traditionally called the “meanings” of such terms as they occur as properties of verbal behavior. Despite his expressed confidence in the success of such a program, Skinner largely abandoned the functional analysis of psychological terms in favor of the development of a promising new field; the experimental analysis of behavior. The present paper argues that the original program is of great importance as well, and for the following reasons: (a) to make full, immediate, and (most importantly) effective contact with the range of issues and terms of central importance to the traditionally and culturally important concepts of “mind” and “mental life” (and thereby demonstrating the relevance of radical behaviorism to the full range of human and verbal behavior); and (b) to extend the methodology of the functional analysis of verbal behavior more generally. Such a research program would demonstrate, through an empirically-based scientific analysis, that the philosophical problems concerning “mental life” may be productively analyzed as problems of verbal behavior. Issues of methodology are discussed, and possible methodological strategies are proposed regarding the confirmation of behavior analytic interpretations of mentalistic terms. PMID:22477113

  18. Revised trauma scoring system to predict in-hospital mortality in the emergency department: Glasgow Coma Scale, Age, and Systolic Blood Pressure score

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Our aim in this study was to assess whether the new Glasgow Coma Scale, Age, and Systolic Blood Pressure (GAP) scoring system, which is a modification of the Mechanism, Glasgow Coma Scale, Age, and Arterial Pressure (MGAP) scoring system, better predicts in-hospital mortality and can be applied more easily than previous trauma scores among trauma patients in the emergency department (ED). Methods This multicenter, prospective, observational study was conducted to analyze readily available variables in the ED, which are associated with mortality rates among trauma patients. The data used in this study were derived from the Japan Trauma Data Bank (JTDB), which consists of 114 major emergency hospitals in Japan. A total of 35,732 trauma patients in the JTDB from 2004 to 2009 who were 15 years of age or older were eligible for inclusion in the study. Of these patients, 27,154 (76%) with complete sets of important data (patient age, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, systolic blood pressure (SBP), respiratory rate and Injury Severity Score (ISS)) were included in our analysis. We calculated weight for the predictors of the GAP scores on the basis of the records of 13,463 trauma patients in a derivation data set determined by using logistic regression. Scores derived from four existing scoring systems (Revised Trauma Score, Triage Revised Trauma Score, Trauma and Injury Severity Score and MGAP score) were calibrated using logistic regression models that fit in the derivation set. The GAP scoring system was compared to the calibrated scoring systems with data from a total of 13,691 patients in a validation data set using c-statistics and reclassification tables with three defined risk groups based on a previous publication: low risk (mortality < 5%), intermediate risk, and high risk (mortality > 50%). Results Calculated GAP scores involved GCS score (from three to fifteen points), patient age < 60 years (three points) and SBP (> 120 mmHg, six points; 60 to 120

  19. CPhos: a program to calculate and visualize evolutionarily conserved functional phosphorylation sites.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Boyang; Pisitkun, Trairak; Hoffert, Jason D; Knepper, Mark A; Saeed, Fahad

    2012-11-01

    Profiling using high-throughput MS has discovered an overwhelming number of novel protein phosphorylation sites ("phosphosites"). However, the functional relevance of these sites is not always clear. In light of recent studies on the evolutionary mechanism of phosphorylation, we have developed CPhos, a Java program that can assess the conservation of phosphosites among species using an information theory-based approach. The degree of conservation established using CPhos can be used to assess the functional significance of phosphosites. CPhos has a user friendly graphical user interface and is available both as a web service and as a standalone Java application to assist phosphoproteomic researchers in analyzing and prioritizing lists of phosphosites for further experimental validation. CPhos can be accessed or downloaded at http://helixweb.nih.gov/CPhos/. PMID:23001821

  20. A Piano Training Program to Improve Manual Dexterity and Upper Extremity Function in Chronic Stroke Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Villeneuve, Myriam; Penhune, Virginia; Lamontagne, Anouk

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Music-supported therapy was shown to induce improvements in motor skills in stroke survivors. Whether all stroke individuals respond similarly to the intervention and whether gains can be maintained over time remain unknown. We estimated the immediate and retention effects of a piano training program on upper extremity function in persons with chronic stroke. Methods: Thirteen stroke participants engaged in a 3-week piano training comprising supervised sessions (9 × 60 min) and home practice. Fine and gross manual dexterity, movement coordination, and functional use of the upper extremity were assessed at baseline, pre-intervention, post-intervention, and at a 3-week follow-up. Results: Significant improvements were observed for all outcomes at post-intervention and follow-up compared to pre-intervention scores. Larger magnitudes of change in manual dexterity and functional use of the upper extremity were associated with higher initial levels of motor recovery. Conclusion: Piano training can result in sustainable improvements in upper extremity function in chronic stroke survivors. Individuals with a higher initial level of motor recovery at baseline appear to benefit the most from this intervention. PMID:25202258

  1. An explanatory model of functional exercise capacity in patients with systemic sclerosis: considerations for rehabilitation programs

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Agnaldo José; Ferreira, Arthur de Sá; Lima, Tatiana Rafaela Lemos; Menezes, Sara Lucia Silveira; Guimarães, Fernando Silva

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to evaluate the impact of lung function and peripheral muscle function on the six-minute walking distance (6MWD) in systemic sclerosis (SS) patients and, thereby, to develop an explanatory model of functional exercise capacity for these individuals. [Methods] In a cross-sectional study, 31 SS patients underwent pulmonary function testing (including spirometry, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide [DLCO], and respiratory muscle strength), isometric dynamometry with surface electromyography, and the 6MWD. [Results] There was a significant correlation between the 6MWD (% predicted, 6MWD%) and the following parameters: height (r = 0.427) and DLCO (r = 0.404). In contrast, no other independent variable showed a significant correlation with the 6MWD% (r ≤ 0.257). The final prediction model for 6MWD% (adjusted R2 = 0.456, SE of bias=12%) was 6MWD% Gibbons = −131.3 + 1.16 × heightcm + 0.33 × DLCO% predicted. [Conclusion] In SS patients, body height and pulmonary diffusion are the main determinants of the 6MWD. Our results justify further investigation of the performance of SS patients during exercise, which may increase the understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the disease. The impact of these findings in SS patients may be useful for evaluating the effects of rehabilitation programs. PMID:27065545

  2. Novel Foxo1–dependent transcriptional programs control Treg cell function

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Weiming; Liao, Will; Luo, Chong T.; Yin, Na; Huse, Morgan; Kim, Myoungjoo V.; Peng, Min; Chan, Pamela; Ma, Qian; Mo, Yifan; Meijer, Dies; Zhao, Keji; Rudensky, Alexander Y.; Atwal, Gurinder; Zhang, Michael Q.; Li, Ming O.

    2013-01-01

    Regulatory T (Treg) cells, characterized by expression of the transcription factor forkhead box P3 (Foxp3), maintain immune homeostasis by suppressing self-destructive immune responses1–4. Foxp3 operates as a late-acting differentiation factor controlling Treg cell homeostasis and function5, whereas the early Treg-cell-lineage commitment is regulated by the Akt kinase and the forkhead box O (Foxo) family of transcription factors6–10. However, whether Foxo proteins act beyond the Treg-cell-commitment stage to control Treg cell homeostasis and function remains largely unexplored. Here we show that Foxo1 is a pivotal regulatorof Treg cell function. Treg cells express high amounts of Foxo1 and display reduced T-cell-receptor-induced Akt activation, Foxo1 phosphorylation and Foxo1 nuclear exclusion. Mice with Treg-cell-specific deletion of Foxo1 develop a fatal inflammatory disorder similar in severity to that seen in Foxp3-deficient mice, but without the loss of Treg cells. Genome-wide analysis of Foxo1 binding sites reveals ~300 Foxo1-bound target genes, including the pro-inflammatory cytokine Ifng, that do not seem to be directly regulated by Foxp3. These findings show that the evolutionarily ancient Akt–Foxo1 signalling module controls a novel genetic program indispensable for Treg cell function. PMID:23135404

  3. Dendritic cell maturation: functional specialization through signaling specificity and transcriptional programming

    PubMed Central

    Dalod, Marc; Chelbi, Rabie; Malissen, Bernard; Lawrence, Toby

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are key regulators of both protective immune responses and tolerance to self-antigens. Soon after their discovery in lymphoid tissues by Steinman and Cohn, as cells with the unique ability to prime naïve antigen-specific T cells, it was realized that DC can exist in at least two distinctive states characterized by morphological, phenotypic and functional changes—this led to the description of DC maturation. It is now well appreciated that there are several subsets of DC in both lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues of mammals, and these cells show remarkable functional specialization and specificity in their roles in tolerance and immunity. This review will focus on the specific characteristics of DC subsets and how their functional specialization may be regulated by distinctive gene expression programs and signaling responses in both steady-state and in the context of inflammation. In particular, we will highlight the common and distinctive genes and signaling pathways that are associated with the functional maturation of DC subsets. PMID:24737868

  4. An explanatory model of functional exercise capacity in patients with systemic sclerosis: considerations for rehabilitation programs.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Agnaldo José; Ferreira, Arthur de Sá; Lima, Tatiana Rafaela Lemos; Menezes, Sara Lucia Silveira; Guimarães, Fernando Silva

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to evaluate the impact of lung function and peripheral muscle function on the six-minute walking distance (6MWD) in systemic sclerosis (SS) patients and, thereby, to develop an explanatory model of functional exercise capacity for these individuals. [Methods] In a cross-sectional study, 31 SS patients underwent pulmonary function testing (including spirometry, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide [DLCO], and respiratory muscle strength), isometric dynamometry with surface electromyography, and the 6MWD. [Results] There was a significant correlation between the 6MWD (% predicted, 6MWD%) and the following parameters: height (r = 0.427) and DLCO (r = 0.404). In contrast, no other independent variable showed a significant correlation with the 6MWD% (r ≤ 0.257). The final prediction model for 6MWD% (adjusted R(2) = 0.456, SE of bias=12%) was 6MWD% Gibbons = -131.3 + 1.16 × heightcm + 0.33 × DLCO% predicted. [Conclusion] In SS patients, body height and pulmonary diffusion are the main determinants of the 6MWD. Our results justify further investigation of the performance of SS patients during exercise, which may increase the understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the disease. The impact of these findings in SS patients may be useful for evaluating the effects of rehabilitation programs. PMID:27065545

  5. [Power and everyday life in a lunatic asylum environment - a case example from Glasgow at the beginning of the 20th century].

    PubMed

    Gründler, Jens

    In this article the focus of analysis lies on power relations in everyday life in one of Glasgow's Pauper Lunatic Asylums at the turn of the twentieth century. Taking a sample of patient case files I examine the daily processes of negotiation between inmates and their relatives, physicians, attendants and nurses as well as the poor law administration. Some cases especially exemplify the complex relationships between the actors. They show which opportunities and boundaries existed for "power brokering" for the more powerless. At the same time these cases illustrate the formal and practical limits of enforcement by doctors and nursing staff. Without turning a blind eve to hierarchies and power imbalances the analysis shows that even in settings like "total institutions" power remains volatile. Even there the more powerful actors have to actualize, seize and prevail on a regular basis. PMID:27501547

  6. An ethnographic study of HIV-related risk practices among Glasgow rent boys and their clients: report of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bloor, M; McKeganey, N; Barnard, M

    1990-01-01

    This paper provides an early report of a continuing ethnographic study of male prostitution in Glasgow. Pilot work indicates that rent boy activity may be of considerable importance for the spread of HIV infection. Although there is little evidence of an association between rent boy activity and injecting drug use, rent boys may well be implicated in epidemic spread because many (but not all) of them report unsafe sexual practices. Some boys reported that they engaged in unprotected anal sex both actively (insertor) and passively (insertee). Although the majority of the boys' clients were covert bisexuals--married men seeking occasional, anonymous, male sexual contact--a substantial minority of clients were gay-identified. PMID:2083256

  7. Do 12-Week Yoga Program Influence Respiratory Function of Elderly Women?

    PubMed Central

    Bezerra, Lídia Aguiar; de Melo, Helton Fabrício; Garay, Ana Paula; Reis, Victor Machado; Aidar, Felipe José; Bodas, Ana Rita; Garrido, Nuno Domingos; de Oliveira, Ricardo Jacó

    2014-01-01

    Aging produces several respiratory limitations and reduces tolerance to physical efforts, sometimes leading to pulmonary diseases in the elderly. The literature draws attention to the possible benefits of Yoga practice among the elderly, presenting evidence for significant improvements in quality of life. It was hypothesized that yoga practice can improve respiratory function in the elderly. The effects of a yoga program on pulmonary volumes and respiratory muscle strength were verified in 36 elderly women divided into a yoga group [YG] (63.1 ± 13.3 years of age) and a control group (61.0 ± 6.9 years of age). Maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressure (MIP and MEP) were assessed by a manovacuometer and tidal volume (VT), vital capacity (VC) and minute ventilation (VE) were measured by a ventilometer. The program comprised 65 min sessions, 3 times/week during 12 weeks. The heart rate and respiratory rate decreased significantly in the YG (76-39 ± 8-03 vs. 74-61±10.26 bpm and 18.61 ± 3.15 vs. 16.72 ± 3.12 resp/min, respectively). In the YG, VT and VE increased significantly (0.55 ± 0.22 vs. 0.64 ± 0.2 ml and 9.19 ± 2.39 vs. 10.05 ± 2.11 ml, respectively), as well as VC (1.48 ± 0.45 vs. 2.03 ± 0.72 ml). Improvements were also found in MIP and MEP in the YG (62.17 ± 14.77 vs. 73.06 ± 20.16 cmH2O and 80.56 ± 23.94 vs. 86.39 ± 20.16 cmH2O, respectively). It was concluded that a 12-week yoga program significantly improves pulmonary function of aged women. PMID:25713658

  8. Predictive power of UKCAT and other pre-admission measures for performance in a medical school in Glasgow: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The UK Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT) and its four subtests are currently used by 24 Medical and Dental Schools in the UK for admissions. This longitudinal study examines the predictive validity of UKCAT for final performance in the undergraduate medical degree programme at one Medical School and compares this with the predictive validity of the selection measures available pre-UKCAT. Methods This was a retrospective observational study of one cohort of students, admitted to Glasgow Medical School in 2007. We examined the associations which UKCAT scores, school science grades and pre-admissions interview scores had with performance indicators, particularly final composite scores that determine students’ postgraduate training opportunities and overall ranking (Educational Performance Measure - EPM, and Honours and Commendation – H&C). Analyses were conducted both with and without adjustment for potential socio-demographic confounders (gender, age, ethnicity and area deprivation). Results Despite its predictive value declining as students progress through the course, UKCAT was associated with the final composite scores. In mutually adjusted analyses (also adjusted for socio-demographic confounders), only UKCAT total showed independent relationships with both EPM (p = 0.005) and H&C (p = 0.004), school science achievements predicted EPM (p = 0.009), and pre-admissions interview score predicted neither. UKCAT showed less socio-demographic variation than did TSS. Conclusion UKCAT has a modest predictive power for overall course performance at the University of Glasgow Medical School over and above that of school science achievements or pre-admission interview score and we conclude that UKCAT is the most useful predictor of final ranking. PMID:24919950

  9. Better Glasgow outcome score, cerebral perfusion pressure and focal brain oxygenation in severely traumatized brain following direct regional brain hypothermia therapy: A prospective randomized study

    PubMed Central

    Idris, Zamzuri; Zenian, Mohd Sofan; Muzaimi, Mustapha; Hamid, Wan Zuraida Wan Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Background: Induced hypothermia for treatment of traumatic brain injury is controversial. Since many pathways involved in the pathophysiology of secondary brain injury are temperature dependent, regional brain hypothermia is thought capable to mitigate those processes. The objectives of this study are to assess the therapeutic effects and complications of regional brain cooling in severe head injury with Glasgow coma scale (GCS) 6-7. Materials and Methods: A prospective randomized controlled pilot study involving patients with severe traumatic brain injury with GCS 6 and 7 who required decompressive craniectomy. Patients were randomized into two groups: Cooling and no cooling. For the cooling group, analysis was made by dividing the group into mild and deep cooling. Brain was cooled by irrigating the brain continuously with cold Hartmann solution for 24-48 h. Main outcome assessments were a dichotomized Glasgow outcome score (GOS) at 6 months posttrauma. Results: A total of 32 patients were recruited. The cooling-treated patients did better than no cooling. There were 63.2% of patients in cooling group attained good GOS at 6 months compared to only 15.4% in noncooling group (P = 0.007). Interestingly, the analysis at 6 months post-trauma disclosed mild-cooling-treated patients did better than no cooling (70% vs. 15.4% attained good GOS, P = 0.013) and apparently, the deep-cooling-treated patients failed to be better than either no cooling (P = 0.074) or mild cooling group (P = 0.650). Conclusion: Data from this pilot study imply direct regional brain hypothermia appears safe, feasible and maybe beneficial in treating severely head-injured patients. PMID:25685201

  10. Coal-seismic, desktop computer programs in BASIC; Part 6, Develop rms velocity functions and apply mute and normal movement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hasbrouck, W.P.

    1983-01-01

    Processing of data taken with the U.S. Geological Survey's coal-seismic system is done with a desktop, stand-alone computer. Programs for this computer are written in the extended BASIC language utilized by the Tektronix 4051 Graphic System. This report presents computer programs used to develop rms velocity functions and apply mute and normal moveout to a 12-trace seismogram.

  11. Exploring the Effects of an "Everyday" Activity Program on Executive Function and Memory in Older Adults: Experience Corps[R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Michelle C.; Saczynski, Jane S.; Rebok, George W.; Seeman, Teresa; Glass, Thomas A.; McGill, Sylvia; Tielsch, James; Frick, Kevin D.; Hill, Joel; Fried, Linda P.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: There is little empirical translation of multimodal cognitive activity programs in "real-world" community-based settings. This study sought to demonstrate in a short-term pilot randomized trial that such an activity program improves components of cognition critical to independent function among sedentary older adults at greatest risk.…

  12. Mentoring Functions within the American Council on Education (ACE) Fellows Leadership Development Program: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grotrian-Ryan, Sheri A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine and better comprehend the concept of mentoring within the American Council on Education (ACE) Fellows Program. This study addressed the functions of mentoring and how they applied to those participating in the ACE Fellows Program--from the Fellows' (or protégés') perspectives. A sequential…

  13. The Impact of an Urban Universal Public Prekindergarten Program on Children's Early Numeracy, Language, Literacy, and Executive Function Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiland, Christina; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2011-01-01

    The authors add to and extend the emerging evidence base of the effects of public preschool programs on child school readiness. Using a quasi-experimental, Regression Discontinuity (RD) design, they estimate the impacts of a universal preschool program on children's early numeracy, language, literacy, and executive function skills, both for the…

  14. Factors Affecting the Functionality of Postgraduate Programs in Natural Sciences and Engineering in a Northwest State in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdés Cuervo, Angel Alberto; Estévez Nenninger, Etty Haydeé; Wendlandt Amezaga, Teodoro Rafael; Vera Noriega, José Ángel

    2015-01-01

    From the researchers' perspective, the study aimed to identify factors affecting the functionality of postgraduate programs in natural sciences and engineering in a north-western Mexican state. Through the typical cases method, 25 researchers who worked in six doctorate programs in the region were selected. From the perception of these…

  15. Programmed cell death promotes male sterility in the functional dioecious Opuntia stenopetala (Cactaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Rentería, Lluvia; Orozco-Arroyo, Gregorio; Cruz-García, Felipe; García-Campusano, Florencia; Alfaro, Isabel; Vázquez-Santana, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The sexual separation in dioecious species has interested biologists for decades; however, the cellular mechanism leading to unisexuality has been poorly understood. In this study, the cellular changes that lead to male sterility in the functionally dioecious cactus, Opuntia stenopetala, are described. Methods The spatial and temporal patterns of programmed cell death (PCD) were determined in the anthers of male and female flowers using scanning electron microscopy analysis and histological observations, focusing attention on the transition from bisexual to unisexual development. In addition, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling assays were used as an indicator of DNA fragmentation to corroborate PCD. Key results PCD was detected in anthers of both female and male flowers, but their patterns differed in time and space. Functionally male individuals developed viable pollen, and normal development involved PCD on each layer of the anther wall, which occurred progressively from the inner (tapetum) to the outer layer (epidermis). Conversely, functional female individuals aborted anthers by premature and displaced PCD. In anthers of female flowers, the first signs of PCD, such as a nucleus with irregular shape, fragmented and condensed chromatin, high vacuolization and condensed cytoplasm, occurred at the microspore mother cell stage. Later these features were observed simultaneously in all anther wall layers, connective tissue and filament. Neither pollen formation nor anther dehiscence was detected in female flowers of O. stenopetala due to total anther disruption. Conclusions Temporal and spatial changes in the patterns of PCD are responsible for male sterility of female flowers in O. stenopetala. Male fertility requires the co-ordination of different events, which, when altered, can lead to male sterility and to functionally unisexual individuals. PCD could be a widespread mechanism in the determination of

  16. Modeling earthquake ground motion with an earthquake simulation program (EMPSYN) that utilizes empirical Green's functions

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchings, L.

    1992-01-01

    This report outlines a method of using empirical Green's functions in an earthquake simulation program EMPSYN that provides realistic seismograms from potential earthquakes. The theory for using empirical Green's functions is developed, implementation of the theory in EMPSYN is outlined, and an example is presented where EMPSYN is used to synthesize observed records from the 1971 San Fernando earthquake. To provide useful synthetic ground motion data from potential earthquakes, synthetic seismograms should model frequencies from 0.5 to 15.0 Hz, the full wave-train energy distribution, and absolute amplitudes. However, high-frequency arrivals are stochastically dependent upon the inhomogeneous geologic structure and irregular fault rupture. The fault rupture can be modeled, but the stochastic nature of faulting is largely an unknown factor in the earthquake process. The effect of inhomogeneous geology can readily be incorporated into synthetic seismograms by using small earthquakes to obtain empirical Green's functions. Small earthquakes with source corner frequencies higher than the site recording limit f{sub max}, or much higher than the frequency of interest, effectively have impulsive point-fault dislocation sources, and their recordings are used as empirical Green's functions. Since empirical Green's functions are actual recordings at a site, they include the effects on seismic waves from all geologic inhomogeneities and include all recordable frequencies, absolute amplitudes, and all phases. They scale only in amplitude with differences in seismic moment. They can provide nearly the exact integrand to the representation relation. Furthermore, since their source events have spatial extent, they can be summed to simulate fault rupture without loss of information, thereby potentially computing the exact representation relation for an extended source earthquake.

  17. Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community College Journal, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Includes a collection of eight short articles describing model community college programs. Discusses a literacy program, a mobile computer classroom, a support program for at-risk students, a timber-harvesting program, a multimedia presentation on successful women graduates, a career center, a collaboration with NASA, and an Israeli engineering…

  18. Assessment of Functional Illiteracy in Washoe County and a Strategy of Recruitment for the Adult Basic Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Mary A.

    This study considers two questions: (1) Who are the functional illiterates in the Reno-Sparks area? and (2) How can they be brought into the adult basic education program if they are not at present enrolled? A survey was made of the area to obtain statistical information concerning the functional illiterates. A compilation of the statistics is…

  19. 25 CFR 1000.406 - Does Indian preference apply to services, activities, programs, and functions performed under a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Does Indian preference apply to services, activities, programs, and functions performed under a self-governance AFA? 1000.406 Section 1000.406 Indians OFFICE OF... functions performed under a self-governance AFA? Tribal law must govern Indian preference in...

  20. 25 CFR 1000.406 - Does Indian preference apply to services, activities, programs, and functions performed under a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Does Indian preference apply to services, activities, programs, and functions performed under a self-governance AFA? 1000.406 Section 1000.406 Indians OFFICE OF... functions performed under a self-governance AFA? Tribal law must govern Indian preference in...

  1. 25 CFR 1000.406 - Does Indian preference apply to services, activities, programs, and functions performed under a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does Indian preference apply to services, activities, programs, and functions performed under a self-governance AFA? 1000.406 Section 1000.406 Indians OFFICE OF... functions performed under a self-governance AFA? Tribal law must govern Indian preference in...

  2. 25 CFR 1000.406 - Does Indian preference apply to services, activities, programs, and functions performed under a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Does Indian preference apply to services, activities, programs, and functions performed under a self-governance AFA? 1000.406 Section 1000.406 Indians OFFICE OF... functions performed under a self-governance AFA? Tribal law must govern Indian preference in...

  3. 25 CFR 1000.406 - Does Indian preference apply to services, activities, programs, and functions performed under a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Does Indian preference apply to services, activities, programs, and functions performed under a self-governance AFA? 1000.406 Section 1000.406 Indians OFFICE OF... functions performed under a self-governance AFA? Tribal law must govern Indian preference in...

  4. Excitation functions of parameters in Erlang distribution, Schwinger mechanism, and Tsallis statistics in RHIC BES program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Li-Na; Liu, Fu-Hu; Lacey, Roy A.

    2016-05-01

    Experimental results of the transverse-momentum distributions of φ mesons and Ω hyperons produced in gold-gold (Au-Au) collisions with different centrality intervals, measured by the STAR Collaboration at different energies (7.7, 11.5, 19.6, 27, and 39 GeV) in the beam energy scan (BES) program at the relativistic heavy-ion collider (RHIC), are approximately described by the single Erlang distribution and the two-component Schwinger mechanism. Moreover, the STAR experimental transverse-momentum distributions of negatively charged particles, produced in Au-Au collisions at RHIC BES energies, are approximately described by the two-component Erlang distribution and the single Tsallis statistics. The excitation functions of free parameters are obtained from the fit to the experimental data. A weak softest point in the string tension in Ω hyperon spectra is observed at 7.7 GeV.

  5. Effects of motor programming on the power spectral density function of finger and wrist movements.

    PubMed

    Van Galen, G P; Van Doorn, R R; Schomaker, L R

    1990-11-01

    Power spectral density analysis was applied to the frequency content of the acceleration signal of pen movements in line drawing. The relative power in frequency bands between 1 and 32 Hz was measured as a function of motoric and anatomic task demands. Results showed a decrease of power at the lower frequencies (1-4 Hz) of the spectrum and an increase in the middle (9-12 Hz), with increasing motor demands. These findings evidence the inhibition of visual control and the disinhibition of physiological tremor under conditions of increased programming demands. Adductive movements displayed less power than abductive movements in the lower end of the spectrum, with a simultaneous increase at the higher frequencies. The relevance of the method for the measurement of neuromotor noise as a possible origin of delays in motor behavior is discussed. PMID:2148590

  6. FIT: Computer Program that Interactively Determines Polynomial Equations for Data which are a Function of Two Independent Variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbuckle, P. D.; Sliwa, S. M.; Roy, M. L.; Tiffany, S. H.

    1985-01-01

    A computer program for interactively developing least-squares polynomial equations to fit user-supplied data is described. The program is characterized by the ability to compute the polynomial equations of a surface fit through data that are a function of two independent variables. The program utilizes the Langley Research Center graphics packages to display polynomial equation curves and data points, facilitating a qualitative evaluation of the effectiveness of the fit. An explanation of the fundamental principles and features of the program, as well as sample input and corresponding output, are included.

  7. Effects of a low-volume, vigorous intensity step exercise program on functional mobility in middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Doheny, Emer P; McGrath, Denise; Ditroilo, Massimiliano; Mair, Jacqueline L; Greene, Barry R; Caulfield, Brian; De Vito, Giuseppe; Lowery, Madeleine M

    2013-08-01

    Aging-related decline in functional mobility is associated with loss of independence. This decline may be mitigated through programs of physical activity. Despite reports of aging-related mobility impairment in middle-aged adults, this age group has been largely overlooked in terms of exercise programs that target functional mobility and the preservation of independence in older age. A method to quantitatively assess changes in functional mobility could direct rehabilitation in a proactive rather than reactive manner. Thirty-three healthy but sedentary middle-aged adults participated in a four week low-volume, vigorous intensity stepping exercise program. Two baseline testing sessions and one post-training testing session were conducted. Functional mobility was assessed using the timed up and go (TUG) test, with its constituent sit-to-walk and walk-to-sit phases examined using a novel inertial sensor-based method. Additionally, semi-tandem balance and knee extensor muscle isometric torque were assessed. Trunk acceleration during walk-to-sit reduced significantly post-training, suggesting altered movement control due to the exercise program. No significant training-induced changes in sit-to-walk acceleration, TUG time, balance or torque were observed. The novel method of functional mobility assessment presented provides a reliable means to quantify subtle changes in mobility during postural transitions. Over time, this exercise program may improve functional mobility. PMID:23568151

  8. The effects of a strategic strength resistance exercise program on the isokinetic muscular function of the ankle

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Kyoung-Kyu; Kim, Tae-Young; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a strategic strength resistance exercise program on the isokinetic muscular function of the ankle joint. [Subjects] This study included 22 males in their twenties who were diagnosed with functional injury of the ankle joint. [Methods] To strengthen plantar flexion and dorsiflexion of the ankle joint, 8 weeks of weight, resistance band, and plyometric training, and training using props were performed. [Results] A medical examination by interview indicated that pain, swelling, instability, running, and support capacity of the ankle joint significantly improved with the strategic strength resistance exercise program. For the isokinetic peak torque of the ankles, significant differences were observed in right plantar flexion and bilateral dorsiflexion. [Conclusion] The strategic strength resistance exercise program is highly recommended for the functional stability of the ankle joint. Efficient exercise therapy is useful for muscle damage prevention, muscle strengthening, and functional interventions. PMID:26644696

  9. Numerical Experiments with a Continuous L{sub 2}-exponential Merit Function for Semi-Infinite Programming

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, Ana Isabel P. N.; Fernandes, Edite M. G. P.

    2008-11-06

    Here, we present some numerical experiments with a reduction method for solving nonlinear semi-infinite programming (SIP) problems. The method relies on a line search technique to ensure a sufficient decrease of a L{sub 2}-exponential merit function. The proposed merit function is continuous for SIP and improves the algorithm efficiency when compared with other previously tested merit functions. A comparison with other reduction methods is also included.

  10. The Balthazar Scales of Adaptive Behavior. Measures of Program Development for the Severely and Profoundly Mentally Retarded. Section 1. Skills of Functional Independence. Part Three: Program Scoring Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balthazar, Earl E.

    The scoring form for functional independence skills for the mentally retarded includes a section for recording subjects' demographic characteristics as well as tests used, date administered, and raw score. Other sections provide for a brief description of the program being used, an item scoring sheet for the Eating Scales (dependent feeding,…

  11. A nanobody modulates the p53 transcriptional program without perturbing its functional architecture

    PubMed Central

    Bethuyne, Jonas; De Gieter, Steven; Zwaenepoel, Olivier; Garcia-Pino, Abel; Durinck, Kaat; Verhelle, Adriaan; Hassanzadeh-Ghassabeh, Gholamreza; Speleman, Frank; Loris, Remy; Gettemans, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The p53 transcription factor plays an important role in genome integrity. To perform this task, p53 regulates the transcription of genes promoting various cellular outcomes including cell cycle arrest, apoptosis or senescence. The precise regulation of this activity remains elusive as numerous mechanisms, e.g. posttranslational modifications of p53 and (non-)covalent p53 binding partners, influence the p53 transcriptional program. We developed a novel, non-invasive tool to manipulate endogenous p53. Nanobodies (Nb), raised against the DNA-binding domain of p53, allow us to distinctively target both wild type and mutant p53 with great specificity. Nb3 preferentially binds ‘structural’ mutant p53, i.e. R175H and R282W, while a second but distinct nanobody, Nb139, binds both mutant and wild type p53. The co-crystal structure of the p53 DNA-binding domain in complex with Nb139 (1.9 Å resolution) reveals that Nb139 binds opposite the DNA-binding surface. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Nb139 does not disturb the functional architecture of the p53 DNA-binding domain using conformation-specific p53 antibody immunoprecipitations, glutaraldehyde crosslinking assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation. Functionally, the binding of Nb139 to p53 allows us to perturb the transactivation of p53 target genes. We propose that reduced recruitment of transcriptional co-activators or modulation of selected post-transcriptional modifications account for these observations. PMID:25324313

  12. A nanobody modulates the p53 transcriptional program without perturbing its functional architecture.

    PubMed

    Bethuyne, Jonas; De Gieter, Steven; Zwaenepoel, Olivier; Garcia-Pino, Abel; Durinck, Kaat; Verhelle, Adriaan; Hassanzadeh-Ghassabeh, Gholamreza; Speleman, Frank; Loris, Remy; Gettemans, Jan

    2014-11-10

    The p53 transcription factor plays an important role in genome integrity. To perform this task, p53 regulates the transcription of genes promoting various cellular outcomes including cell cycle arrest, apoptosis or senescence. The precise regulation of this activity remains elusive as numerous mechanisms, e.g. posttranslational modifications of p53 and (non-)covalent p53 binding partners, influence the p53 transcriptional program. We developed a novel, non-invasive tool to manipulate endogenous p53. Nanobodies (Nb), raised against the DNA-binding domain of p53, allow us to distinctively target both wild type and mutant p53 with great specificity. Nb3 preferentially binds 'structural' mutant p53, i.e. R175H and R282W, while a second but distinct nanobody, Nb139, binds both mutant and wild type p53. The co-crystal structure of the p53 DNA-binding domain in complex with Nb139 (1.9 Å resolution) reveals that Nb139 binds opposite the DNA-binding surface. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Nb139 does not disturb the functional architecture of the p53 DNA-binding domain using conformation-specific p53 antibody immunoprecipitations, glutaraldehyde crosslinking assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation. Functionally, the binding of Nb139 to p53 allows us to perturb the transactivation of p53 target genes. We propose that reduced recruitment of transcriptional co-activators or modulation of selected post-transcriptional modifications account for these observations. PMID:25324313

  13. MLL1 and MLL1 fusion proteins have distinct functions in regulating leukemic transcription program

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jing; Li, Li; Xiong, Jie; denDekker, Aaron; Ye, Andrew; Karatas, Hacer; Liu, Liu; Wang, He; Qin, Zhaohui S; Wang, Shaomeng; Dou, Yali

    2016-01-01

    Mixed lineage leukemia protein-1 (MLL1) has a critical role in human MLL1 rearranged leukemia (MLLr) and is a validated therapeutic target. However, its role in regulating global gene expression in MLLr cells, as well as its interplay with MLL1 fusion proteins remains unclear. Here we show that despite shared DNA-binding and cofactor interacting domains at the N terminus, MLL1 and MLL-AF9 are recruited to distinct chromatin regions and have divergent functions in regulating the leukemic transcription program. We demonstrate that MLL1, probably through C-terminal interaction with WDR5, is recruited to regulatory enhancers that are enriched for binding sites of E-twenty-six (ETS) family transcription factors, whereas MLL-AF9 binds to chromatin regions that have no H3K4me1 enrichment. Transcriptome-wide changes induced by different small molecule inhibitors also highlight the distinct functions of MLL1 and MLL-AF9. Taken together, our studies provide novel insights on how MLL1 and MLL fusion proteins contribute to leukemic gene expression, which have implications for developing effective therapies in the future.

  14. Programming of the complex logarithm function in the solution of the cracked anisotropic plate loaded by a point force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaal, K. J. J. M.

    1991-06-01

    In programming solutions of complex function theory, the complex logarithm function is replaced by the complex logarithmic function, introducing a discontinuity along the branch cut into the programmed solution which was not present in the mathematical solution. Recently, Liaw and Kamel presented their solution of the infinite anisotropic centrally cracked plate loaded by an arbitrary point force, which they used as Green's function in a boundary element method intended to evaluate the stress intensity factor at the tip of a crack originating from an elliptical home. Their solution may be used as Green's function of many more numerical methods involving anisotropic elasticity. In programming applications of Liaw and Kamel's solution, the standard definition of the logarithmic function with the branch cut at the nonpositive real axis cannot provide a reliable computation of the displacement field for Liaw and Kamel's solution. Either the branch cut should be redefined outside the domain of the logarithmic function, after proving that the domain is limited to a part of the plane, or the logarithmic function should be defined on its Riemann surface. A two dimensional line fractal can provide the link between all mesh points on the plane essential to evaluate the logarithm function on its Riemann surface. As an example, a two dimensional line fractal is defined for a mesh once used by Erdogan and Arin.

  15. Fetal programming of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function and behavior by synthetic glucocorticoids.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Amita; Petropoulos, Sophie; Matthews, Stephen G

    2008-03-01

    Reduced fetal growth has been closely associated with an increased risk for the development of chronic disease in later life. Accumulating evidence indicates that fetal exposure to excess glucocorticoids represents a critical mechanism underlying this association. Approximately 7% of pregnant women are at risk of preterm delivery and these women are routinely treated with synthetic glucocorticoids (sGC) between 24 and 34 of weeks gestation to improve neonatal outcome. Animal studies have demonstrated that maternally administered sGC crosses the placenta, affecting fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) development, resulting in changes in HPA axis function that persist throughout life. These changes appear to be modulated at the level of glucocorticoid receptors (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) in the brain and pituitary. As the HPA axis interacts with many other physiological pathways, the changes in endocrine function are also sex-specific and age-dependent. Alterations in behavior, particularly locomotion, in animals exposed to sGC in utero have also been demonstrated. Consistent with the finding in animal models, emerging human data are indicating attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like symptoms in children exposed to repeated courses of sGC in utero. This behavioral phenotype is likely linked to alterations in dopamine (DA) signaling, suggesting that sGC are able to permanently modify or 'program' this system. Finally, it is emerging that changes in HPA axis function and behavior following antenatal exposure to sGC are transgenerational and likely involve epigenetic mechanisms. A comprehensive understanding of the acute and long-term impact of sGC exposure in utero is necessary to begin to develop recommendations and treatment options for pregnant women at risk of preterm delivery. PMID:17716742

  16. WAVFLD: A program to compute ionospheric height gain functions and field strengths at VLF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, J. A.; Hitney, L. R.

    1987-11-01

    Implementation of a full-wave fields program developed for calculations at ELF is described. The program incorporates modifications to the original code for use at VLF, including allowance for multiple modes. Other changes relate to improving compatibility of the basic program setup with that of other programs in the Defense Nuclear Agency repertoire.

  17. Using Functional Languages and Declarative Programming to analyze ROOT data: LINQtoROOT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, Gordon

    2015-05-01

    Modern high energy physics analysis is complex. It typically requires multiple passes over different datasets, and is often held together with a series of scripts and programs. For example, one has to first reweight the jet energy spectrum in Monte Carlo to match data before plots of any other jet related variable can be made. This requires a pass over the Monte Carlo and the Data to derive the reweighting, and then another pass over the Monte Carlo to plot the variables the analyser is really interested in. With most modern ROOT based tools this requires separate analysis loops for each pass, and script files to glue to the results of the two analysis loops together. A framework has been developed that uses the functional and declarative features of the C# language and its Language Integrated Query (LINQ) extensions to declare the analysis. The framework uses language tools to convert the analysis into C++ and runs ROOT or PROOF as a backend to get the results. This gives the analyser the full power of an object-oriented programming language to put together the analysis and at the same time the speed of C++ for the analysis loop. The tool allows one to incorporate C++ algorithms written for ROOT by others. A by-product of the design is the ability to cache results between runs, dramatically reducing the cost of adding one-more-plot and also to keep a complete record associated with each plot for data preservation reasons. The code is mature enough to have been used in ATLAS analyses. The package is open source and available on the open source site CodePlex.

  18. The Effect of an Executive Functioning Training Program on Working Memory Capacity and Intrusive Thoughts.

    PubMed

    Bomyea, Jessica; Amir, Nader

    2011-12-01

    Recurrent intrusive thoughts are apparent across numerous clinical disorders, including depression (i.e., rumination) and anxiety disorders (e.g., worry, obsessions; Brewin et al. 2010). Theoretical accounts of intrusive thoughts suggest that individual differences in executive functioning, specifically poor inhibitory control, may account for the persistence of these thoughts in some individuals (e.g., Anderson and Levy 2009). The present study examined the causal effect of inhibitory control on intrusive thoughts by experimentally manipulating inhibition requirements in a working memory capacity (WMC) task and evaluating the effect of this training on intrusive thoughts during a thought suppression task. Unselected undergraduate participants were randomly assigned to repeatedly practice a task requiring either high inhibitory control (training condition) or low inhibitory control (control condition). Results indicated that individuals in the training condition demonstrated significantly greater WMC performance improvements from pre to post assessment relative to the control group. Moreover, individuals in the training group experienced fewer intrusions during a thought suppression task. These results provide support for theoretical accounts positing a relationship between inhibitory control and intrusive thoughts. Moreover, improving inhibitory control through computerized training programs may have clinical utility in disorders characterized by recurrent intrusive thoughts (e.g., depression, PTSD). PMID:22514357

  19. Effects of a computer-based intervention program on the communicative functions of children with autism.

    PubMed

    Hetzroni, Orit E; Tannous, Juman

    2004-04-01

    This study investigated the use of computer-based intervention for enhancing communication functions of children with autism. The software program was developed based on daily life activities in the areas of play, food, and hygiene. The following variables were investigated: delayed echolalia, immediate echolalia, irrelevant speech, relevant speech, and communicative initiations. Multiple-baseline design across settings was used to examine the effects of the exposure of five children with autism to activities in a structured and controlled simulated environment on the communication manifested in their natural environment. Results indicated that after exposure to the simulations, all children produced fewer sentences with delayed and irrelevant speech. Most of the children engaged in fewer sentences involving immediate echolalia and increased the number of communication intentions and the amount of relevant speech they produced. Results indicated that after practicing in a controlled and structured setting that provided the children with opportunities to interact in play, food, and hygiene activities, the children were able to transfer their knowledge to the natural classroom environment. Implications and future research directions are discussed. PMID:15162930

  20. Executive functions and school readiness intervention: impact, moderation, and mediation in the Head Start REDI program.

    PubMed

    Bierman, Karen L; Nix, Robert L; Greenberg, Mark T; Blair, Clancy; Domitrovich, Celene E

    2008-01-01

    Despite their potentially central role in fostering school readiness, executive function (EF) skills have received little explicit attention in the design and evaluation of school readiness interventions for socioeconomically disadvantaged children. The present study examined a set of five EF measures in the context of a randomized-controlled trial of a research-based intervention integrated into Head Start programs (Head Start REDI). Three hundred fifty-six 4-year-old children (17% Hispanic, 25% African American; 54% girls) were followed over the course of the prekindergarten year. Initial EF predicted gains in cognitive and social-emotional skills and moderated the impact of the Head Start REDI intervention on some outcomes. The REDI intervention promoted gains on two EF measures, which partially mediated intervention effects on school readiness. We discuss the importance of further study of the neurobiological bases of school readiness, the implications for intervention design, and the value of incorporating markers of neurobiological processes into school readiness interventions. PMID:18606033

  1. Combined mid- and short-term optimization of multireservoir systems via dynamic programming with function approximators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottacin-Busolin, Andrea; Wörman, Anders; Zmijewski, Nicholas

    2013-04-01

    A main challenge for the planning and management of water resources is the development of strategies for regulation of multireservoir systems under a complex stochastic environment. The sequential decision problem involving the release of water from multiple reservoirs depends on the stochastic variability of the hydrologic inflows over a spectrum of time scales. An important distinction is made between short-term and mid-term planning: the first is associated with regulation on the hourly scale within the one-week time horizon, whilst the second is associated with the weekly scale within the one-year horizon. Although a variety of optimization methods have been suggested, the achievement of a global optimum in the operation of large-scale systems is hindered by their high dimensional state space and by the stochastic nature of the hydrologic inflows. In this work, operational plans for multireservoir systems are derived via an approximate dynamic programming approach using a policy iteration algorithm. The algorithm is based on an off-line learning process in which policies are evaluated for a number of stochastic inflow scenarios by constructing approximations of their value functions, and the resulting value functions are used iteratively to design new, improved policies. In the mid-term planning phase, inflow scenarios are generated with a periodic autoregressive model that is calibrated against historical inflow data, and the policy iteration algorithm leads to a cyclostationary operating policy. In the short-term planning phase, the mid-term value function is used to calculate the value of a policy at the end of the short-term operating horizon, and synthetic inflow scenarios are generated by perturbing streamflow forecasts with Gaussian noise, following Zhao et al. (Water Resour. Res., 48, W01540, 2012). The variance of the noise is assumed to increase linearly over time and converges to the local variance of the historical time series. A case study is

  2. Designing and Evaluation for a Nurse Practitioner Program: Emphasis on Tailored, Functional Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Repicky, Paul A.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The design of a nurse practitioner program evaluation should (1) account for program complexity; (2) allow for judgmental and objective data; (3) provide formative data for decision making; (4) be tailored to the individual program; and (5) be relevant and meaningful to the audience. (SK)

  3. Provision of, and patient satisfaction with, primary care services in a relatively affluent area and a relatively deprived area of Glasgow.

    PubMed Central

    Wyke, S; Campbell, G; Maciver, S

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a survey of the structure of general practice in two contrasting areas within Greater Glasgow health board: the south west area had a more deprived social profile at the 1981 census and higher than average all cause and selected major cause standardized mortality ratios than the health board as a whole while the north west area had a more affluent social profile at the 1981 census and lower than average all cause and selected major cause standardized mortality ratios. The general practice survey data gathered in 1989 were supplemented with data from a survey of residents of the localities in three age cohorts carried out in 1987-88, which provided information on use of services, as well as perceived accessibility of and satisfaction with them. Despite the more deprived social and mortality profile of the south west area, and greater use of services, few systematic differences in the structure of general practices were found in the two areas. These findings support other studies which suggest that the stereotype of poorly resourced, low quality primary care in inner city areas may apply in London, but not elsewhere. Respondents in both areas were equally satisfied with services and found them accessible. PMID:1419258

  4. Pretreatment Modified Glasgow Prognostic Score Predicts Clinical Outcomes After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kishi, Takahiro; Matsuo, Yukinori Ueki, Nami; Iizuka, Yusuke; Nakamura, Akira; Sakanaka, Katsuyuki; Mizowaki, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic significance of the modified Glasgow Prognostic Score (mGPS) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who received stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: Data from 165 patients who underwent SBRT for stage I NSCLC with histologic confirmation from January 1999 to September 2010 were collected retrospectively. Factors, including age, performance status, histology, Charlson comorbidity index, mGPS, and recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class based on sex and T stage, were evaluated with regard to overall survival (OS) using the Cox proportional hazards model. The impact of the mGPS on cause of death and failure patterns was also analyzed. Results: The 3-year OS was 57.9%, with a median follow-up time of 3.5 years. A higher mGPS correlated significantly with poor OS (P<.001). The 3-year OS of lower mGPS patients was 66.4%, whereas that of higher mGPS patients was 44.5%. On multivariate analysis, mGPS and RPA class were significant factors for OS. A higher mGPS correlated significantly with lung cancer death (P=.019) and distant metastasis (P=.013). Conclusions: The mGPS was a significant predictor of clinical outcomes for SBRT in NSCLC patients.

  5. The Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS) as a novel and significant predictor of extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type.

    PubMed

    Li, Ya-Jun; Jiang, Wen-Qi; Huang, Jia-Jia; Xia, Zhong-Jun; Huang, Hui-Qiang; Li, Zhi-Ming

    2013-05-01

    The Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS), an inflammation-based prognostic score including C-reactive protein and albumin, shows significant prognostic value in several types of solid tumors. The prognostic value of GPS in lymphoma remains unclear. We performed this study to evaluate the prognostic significance of GPS in extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma (ENKL). We retrospectively analyzed 164 patients with newly diagnosed ENKL. The prognostic value of GPS was evaluated and compared with that of International Prognostic Index (IPI), Prognostic Index for Peripheral T-cell lymphoma unspecified (PIT), and Korean Prognostic Index (KPI). Patients with higher GPS tended to have more adverse clinical characteristics, lower rates of complete remission (P < 0.001), inferior progression-free survival (PFS, P < 0.001), and inferior overall survival (OS, P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that high GPS, age > 60 years, and elevated LDH were independent adverse predictors of OS. GPS was found superior to IPI, PIT, and KPI in discriminating patients with different outcomes in low-risk groups (all P < 0.05). GPS is an independent predictor of survival outcomes in ENKL. Inflammatory response might play an important role in the progression of ENKL and survival of patients with ENKL. PMID:23423859

  6. Executive functions improvement following a 5-month aquaerobics program in older adults: Role of cardiac vagal control in inhibition performance.

    PubMed

    Albinet, Cédric T; Abou-Dest, Amira; André, Nathalie; Audiffren, Michel

    2016-03-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the effects of aerobic exercise on measures of executive performance and their relationships with changes in cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiac vagal control (heart rate variability) and psychological variables. Thirty-six sedentary seniors aged 60-75 years were randomly assigned to a swimming and aquaerobics program or a stretching program two times a week for 21 weeks. Executive functions (inhibition, updating of working memory and cognitive flexibility) and cardiorespiratory fitness (estimated VO2max) were assessed at the start, after 10 weeks of program and at the end of the program. Resting HRV and measures of psychological outcomes (depression, self-efficacy, decisional balance) were obtained at the start and at the end of the program. Participants of both groups significantly improved their VO2max level, their psychological state and their performance for the 2-back task. Only the participants in the aquaerobics group significantly improved their vagally-mediated HRV and their performance for the Stroop test and the verbal running-span test at the end of the program. Only improvements in cardiac vagal control and in inhibition were shown to be functionally related. These results are discussed in line with the model of neurovisceral integration. PMID:26812613

  7. Sex Education: Issues for the Person with Autism. Revised. Functional Programming for People with Autism: A Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalrymple, Nancy; And Others

    Sex education for individuals with autism needs to be a part of planned instructional programs covering a variety of settings and foci, from health and hygiene to social skills and dating. The manner and amount of detail during the instruction will depend on the functioning level of the person being taught and what teaching strategies are most…

  8. Community Adaptation of Youth Accessing Residential Programs or a Home-Based Alternative: School Attendance and Academic Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frensch, Karen; Cameron, Gary; Preyde, Michele

    2009-01-01

    Caregivers of 210 youth receiving residential treatment (RT) or intensive family services (IFS) in Ontario were interviewed about the long term community adaptation of youth after leaving these programs. School attendance and academic functioning data at admission, discharge, and 12-18 months post-discharge were analyzed to explore predictors of…

  9. Effects of a virtual reality-based exercise program on functional recovery in stroke patients: part 1

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyoung-Hee

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of a virtual reality exercise program using the Interactive Rehabilitation and Exercise System (IREX) on the recovery of motor and cognitive function and the performance of activities of daily living in stroke patients. [Subjects] The study enrolled 10 patients diagnosed with stroke who received occupational therapy at the Department of Rehabilitation Medicine of Hospital A between January and March 2014. [Methods] The patients took part in the virtual reality exercise program for 30 minutes each day, three times per week, for 4 weeks. Then, the patients were re-evaluated to determine changes in upper extremity function, cognitive function, and performance of activities of daily living 4 weeks after the baseline assessment. [Results] In the experimental group, there were significant differences in the Korea-Mini Mental Status Evaluation, Korean version of the modified Barthel index, and Fugl-Meyer assessment scores between the baseline and endpoint. [Conclusion] The virtual reality exercise program was effective for restoring function in stroke patients. Further studies should develop systematic protocols for rehabilitation training with a virtual reality exercise program. PMID:26180287

  10. Effects of a Supported Speed Treadmill Training Exercise Program on Impairment and Function for Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Therese E.; Watson, Kyle E.; Ross, Sandy A.; Gates, Philip E.; Gaughan, John P.; Lauer, Richard T.; Tucker, Carole A.; Engsberg, Jack R.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To compare the effects of a supported speed treadmill training exercise program (SSTTEP) with exercise on spasticity, strength, motor control, gait spatiotemporal parameters, gross motor skills, and physical function. Method: Twenty-six children (14 males, 12 females; mean age 9y 6mo, SD 2y 2mo) with spastic cerebral palsy (CP; diplegia, n =…

  11. A Multi-Faceted Approach for the Development of the Army's Functional Basic Skills Education Program (BSEP).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begland, Robert R.

    In reviewing the Army Continuing Education System in 1979, the Assistant Secretary of the Army found a basic skills program based on traditional academic level goals was inadequate to meet the Army's requirement to provide functional, job-related basic skill education. Combining the shrinking manpower pool and projected basic skill deficiencies of…

  12. On One Unusual Method of Computation of Limits of Rational Functions in the Program Mathematica[R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hora, Jaroslav; Pech, Pavel

    2005-01-01

    Computing limits of functions is a traditional part of mathematical analysis which is very difficult for students. Now an algorithm for the elimination of quantifiers in the field of real numbers is implemented in the program Mathematica. This offers a non-traditional view on this classical theme. (Contains 1 table.)

  13. The Effectiveness of a Multidisciplinary Group Rehabilitation Program on the Psychosocial Functioning of Elderly People Who Are Visually Impaired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alma, Manna A.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Melis-Dankers, Bart J. M.; Suurmeijer, Theo P. B. M.; van der Mei, Sijrike F.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The pilot study reported here determined the effectiveness of a multidisciplinary group rehabilitation program, Visually Impaired Elderly Persons Participating (VIPP), on psychosocial functioning. Methods: The single-group pretest-posttest pilot study included 29 persons with visual impairments (aged 55 and older) who were referred…

  14. The Association Between Sleep and Physical Function Among Older Veterans in an Adult Day Health Care Program

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yeonsu; Dzierzewski, Joseph; Fung, Constance H.; Rodriguez, Juan C.; Jouldjian, Stella; Mitchell, Michael; Josephson, Karen R.; Alessi, Cathy A.; Martin, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To examine whether sleep disturbance is associated with poor physical function in older veterans in an adult day health care (ADHC) program. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SETTING One ADHC program in a Veterans Affairs Ambulatory Care Center. PARTICIPANTS Older veterans (N = 50) who were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of a sleep intervention program and provided complete baseline data. MEASUREMENTS Participant characteristics (e.g., age, depression, relationship to caregiver, pain, comorbidity) were collected using appropriate questionnaires. Physical function was measured using the total score of activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental ADLs (IADLs) from the Older Americans Resources and Services Multidimensional Functional Assessment Questionnaire. Sleep was assessed subjectively (by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Insomnia Severity Index) and objectively (by wrist actigraphy). RESULTS As expected, participants required substantial assistance with ADLs and IADLs. A regression model showed that participant characteristics (i.e., marital status, use of sleep medication, comorbidity, and posttraumatic stress disorder) and living arrangement (i.e., living with a spouse and/or others) were significantly associated with poor physical function. Poorer objective sleep (i.e., total sleep time, total numbers of awakenings, and total wake time) was significantly associated with poor physical function, accounting for a significant proportion of the variance above and beyond participant characteristics. CONCLUSION Objective measures of nighttime sleep disturbance were associated with poor physical function among older veterans in an ADHC program. Further research is needed to determine whether interventions to improve sleep will delay functional decline in this vulnerable population. PMID:26200520

  15. NWTS program criteria for mined geologic disposal of nuclear waste: program objectives, functional requirements, and system performance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    1981-04-01

    At the present time, final repository criteria have not been issued by the responsible agencies. This document describes general objectives, requirements, and criteria that the DOE intends to apply in the interim to the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program. These objectives, requirements, and criteria have been developed on the basis of DOE's analysis of what is needed to achieve the National objective of safe waste disposal in an environmentally acceptable and economic manner and are expected to be consistent with anticipated regulatory standards. The qualitative statements in this document address the broad issues of public and occupational health and safety, institutional acceptability, engineering feasibility, and economic considerations. A comprehensive set of criteria, general and project specific, of which these are a part, will constitute a portion of the technical basis for preparation and submittal by the DOE of formal documents to support future license applications for nuclear waste repositories.

  16. A Multi-Station Proprioceptive Exercise Program in Patients with Bilateral Knee Osteoarthrosis: Functional Capacity, Pain and Sensoriomotor Function. A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gür, Hakan

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the effects of a multi-station proprioceptive exercise program on functional capacity, perceived knee pain, and sensoriomotor function. Twenty-two patients (aged 41-75 years) with grade 2-3 bilateral knee osteoarthrosis were randomly assigned to two groups: treatment (TR; n = 12) and non-treatment (NONTR; n = 10). TR performed 11 different balance/coordination and proprioception exercises, twice a week for 6 weeks. Functional capacity and perceived knee pain during rest and physical activity was measured. Also knee position sense, kinaesthesia, postural control, isometric and isokinetic knee strength (at 60, 120 and 180°·s-1) measures were taken at baseline and after 6 weeks of training. There was no significant difference in any of the tested variables between TR and NONTR before the intervention period. In TR perceived knee pain during daily activities and functional tests was lessened following the exercise program (p < 0.05). Perceived knee pain was also lower in TR vs. NONTR after training (p < 0.05). The time for rising from a chair, stair climbing and descending improved in TR (p < 0.05) and these values were faster compared with NONTR after training (p < 0.05). Joint position sense (degrees) for active and passive tests and for weight bearing tests improved in TR (p < 0.05) and the values were lower compared with NONTR after training (p < 0.05). Postural control (‘eyes closed’) also improved for single leg and tandem tests in TR (p < 0.01) and these values were higher compared with NONTR after training. The isometric quadriceps strength of TR improved (p < 0.05) but the values were not significantly different compared with NONTR after training. There was no change in isokinetic strength for TR and NONTR after the training period. The results suggest that using a multi-station proprioceptive exercise program it is possible to improve postural control, functional capacity and decrease perceived knee pain in patients with bilateral knee

  17. Programmed cell death activated by Rose Bengal in Arabidopsis thaliana cell suspension cultures requires functional chloroplasts

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Jorge; González-Pérez, Sergio; García-García, Francisco; Daly, Cara T.; Lorenzo, Óscar; Revuelta, José L.; McCabe, Paul F.; Arellano, Juan B.

    2014-01-01

    Light-grown Arabidopsis thaliana cell suspension culture (ACSC) were subjected to mild photooxidative damage with Rose Bengal (RB) with the aim of gaining a better understanding of singlet oxygen-mediated defence responses in plants. Additionally, ACSC were treated with H2O2 at concentrations that induced comparable levels of protein oxidation damage. Under low to medium light conditions, both RB and H2O2 treatments activated transcriptional defence responses and inhibited photosynthetic activity, but they differed in that programmed cell death (PCD) was only observed in cells treated with RB. When dark-grown ACSC were subjected to RB in the light, PCD was suppressed, indicating that the singlet oxygen-mediated signalling pathway in ACSC requires functional chloroplasts. Analysis of up-regulated transcripts in light-grown ACSC, treated with RB in the light, showed that both singlet oxygen-responsive transcripts and transcripts with a key role in hormone-activated PCD (i.e. ethylene and jasmonic acid) were present. A co-regulation analysis proved that ACSC treated with RB exhibited higher correlation with the conditional fluorescence (flu) mutant than with other singlet oxygen-producing mutants or wild-type plants subjected to high light. However, there was no evidence for the up-regulation of EDS1, suggesting that activation of PCD was not associated with the EXECUTER- and EDS1-dependent signalling pathway described in the flu mutant. Indigo Carmine and Methylene Violet, two photosensitizers unable to enter chloroplasts, did not activate transcriptional defence responses in ACSC; however, whether this was due to their location or to their inherently low singlet oxygen quantum efficiencies was not determined. PMID:24723397

  18. The Educational Function of an Astronomy Research Experience for Undergraduates Program as Described by Female Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    The long-running REU-program is tacitly intended to increase retention and provide "an important educational experience" for undergraduates, particularly women, minorities and underrepresented groups. This longitudinal, two-stage study was designed to explore the ways in which the REU acted as an educational experience for 51 women in the field of astronomy. Stage-1 consisted of an ex post facto analysis of data collected over 8 years, including multiple interviews with each participant during their REU, annual open-ended alumni surveys, faculty interviews, and extensive field notes. Four themes emerged, related to developing understandings of the nature of professional scientific work, the scientific process, the culture of academia, and an understanding of the "self." Analysis provided an initial theory that was used to design the Stage-2 interview protocol. In Stage-2, over 10 hours of interviews were conducted with 8 participants selected for their potential to disconfirm the initial theory. Results indicate that the REU provided a limited impact in terms of participants’ knowledge of professional astronomy as a largely computer-based endeavor. The REU did not provide a substantive educational experience related to the nature of scientific work, the scientific process, the culture of academia, participants' conceptions about themselves as situated in science, or other aspects of the "self,” were limited. Instead, the data suggests that these women began the REU with pre-existing and remarkably strong conceptions in these areas, and that the REU did not functional to alter those states. These conceptions were frequently associated with other mentors/scientist interactions, from middle school into the undergraduate years. Instructors and family members also served as crucial forces in shaping highly developed, stable science identities. Sustained relationships with mentors were particularly transformational. These findings motivate an ongoing research agenda

  19. Benefits of the Comprehensive Child Development Program as a function of AFDC receipt and SES.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Carey S; McCall, Robert B; Robinson, Debbie R; Groark, Christina J; Mulvey, Laurie; Plemons, Bradford W

    2002-01-01

    The benefits for children at the Pittsburgh site of the federal Comprehensive Child Development Program (CCDP) were examined as a function of family welfare status (Aid to Families with Dependent Children; AFDC) and SES. The CCDP was the largest attempt by the federal government to provide two-generation, case-managed, comprehensive services to low-income families. Participating families could set their own goals and choose services to achieve them, but relatively few services were directed specifically at children. Results showed that more Pittsburgh families in the CCDP treatment group (N = 120) left AFDC than in the control group (N = 120), consistent with results from a national evaluation of the CCDP. Children whose families were on AFDC regardless of treatment group had lower mental test scores, even after controlling for family SES, a result suggesting that AFDC receipt over and above income level was associated with poorer child mental performance. The CCDP was associated with higher children's mental scores plus improvements over time in achievement scores only for children in families who were not on AFDC, even after controlling for SES. Such parents were more likely to choose parenting and child goals and services, which in turn were associated with higher child mental scores. In contrast, parents who were on AFDC tended to choose adult-centered goals and services, which did not benefit children. Therefore, in contrast to the national evaluation, which found no benefits of the CCDP for children, these analyses showed that the CCDP did produce benefits for children whose parents were not on AFDC, who tended to choose parenting and child services. PMID:14717260

  20. Improving the interactivity and functionality of Web-based radiology teaching files with the Java programming language.

    PubMed

    Eng, J

    1997-01-01

    Java is a programming language that runs on a "virtual machine" built into World Wide Web (WWW)-browsing programs on multiple hardware platforms. Web pages were developed with Java to enable Web-browsing programs to overlay transparent graphics and text on displayed images so that the user could control the display of labels and annotations on the images, a key feature not available with standard Web pages. This feature was extended to include the presentation of normal radiologic anatomy. Java programming was also used to make Web browsers compatible with the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) file format. By enhancing the functionality of Web pages, Java technology should provide greater incentive for using a Web-based approach in the development of radiology teaching material. PMID:9397464

  1. An Open-Source Sandbox for Increasing the Accessibility of Functional Programming to the Bioinformatics and Scientific Communities

    PubMed Central

    Fenwick, Matthew; Sesanker, Colbert; Schiller, Martin R.; Ellis, Heidi JC; Hinman, M. Lee; Vyas, Jay; Gryk, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Scientists are continually faced with the need to express complex mathematical notions in code. The renaissance of functional languages such as LISP and Haskell is often credited to their ability to implement complex data operations and mathematical constructs in an expressive and natural idiom. The slow adoption of functional computing in the scientific community does not, however, reflect the congeniality of these fields. Unfortunately, the learning curve for adoption of functional programming techniques is steeper than that for more traditional languages in the scientific community, such as Python and Java, and this is partially due to the relative sparseness of available learning resources. To fill this gap, we demonstrate and provide applied, scientifically substantial examples of functional programming, We present a multi-language source-code repository for software integration and algorithm development, which generally focuses on the fields of machine learning, data processing, bioinformatics. We encourage scientists who are interested in learning the basics of functional programming to adopt, reuse, and learn from these examples. The source code is available at: https://github.com/CONNJUR/CONNJUR-Sandbox (see also http://www.connjur.org). PMID:25328913

  2. An Open-Source Sandbox for Increasing the Accessibility of Functional Programming to the Bioinformatics and Scientific Communities.

    PubMed

    Fenwick, Matthew; Sesanker, Colbert; Schiller, Martin R; Ellis, Heidi Jc; Hinman, M Lee; Vyas, Jay; Gryk, Michael R

    2012-01-01

    Scientists are continually faced with the need to express complex mathematical notions in code. The renaissance of functional languages such as LISP and Haskell is often credited to their ability to implement complex data operations and mathematical constructs in an expressive and natural idiom. The slow adoption of functional computing in the scientific community does not, however, reflect the congeniality of these fields. Unfortunately, the learning curve for adoption of functional programming techniques is steeper than that for more traditional languages in the scientific community, such as Python and Java, and this is partially due to the relative sparseness of available learning resources. To fill this gap, we demonstrate and provide applied, scientifically substantial examples of functional programming, We present a multi-language source-code repository for software integration and algorithm development, which generally focuses on the fields of machine learning, data processing, bioinformatics. We encourage scientists who are interested in learning the basics of functional programming to adopt, reuse, and learn from these examples. The source code is available at: https://github.com/CONNJUR/CONNJUR-Sandbox (see also http://www.connjur.org). PMID:25328913

  3. Change in functional balance after an exercise program with Nintendo Wii in Latino patients with cerebral palsy: a case series

    PubMed Central

    Gatica-Rojas, Valeska; Cartes-Velásquez, Ricardo; Méndez-Rebolledo, Guillermo; Olave-Godoy, Felipe; Villalobos-Rebolledo, David

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to explore the possibility of improving functional balance using an exercise program with Nintendo and the Balance Board peripheral in subjects with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] This study included 4 male outpatients of a neurological center. All participants received an exercise program based on the use of Nintendo with the Balance Board peripheral. Training consisted of three 25-min sessions per week for 6 weeks. Each session was guided by a physical therapist. Timed up-and-go and one-leg standing tests were conducted before and after the intervention. [Results] All subjects showed significant improvements in the results of the timed up-and-go test. However, there were no significant changes in the results of the one-leg standing test. [Conclusion] The exercise protocol involving Nintendo with the Balance Board peripheral appears to improve functional dynamic balance in patients with cerebral palsy. However, static functional balance does not improve after 6 weeks of training.

  4. An accurate metalloprotein-specific scoring function and molecular docking program devised by a dynamic sampling and iteration optimization strategy.

    PubMed

    Bai, Fang; Liao, Sha; Gu, Junfeng; Jiang, Hualiang; Wang, Xicheng; Li, Honglin

    2015-04-27

    Metalloproteins, particularly zinc metalloproteins, are promising therapeutic targets, and recent efforts have focused on the identification of potent and selective inhibitors of these proteins. However, the ability of current drug discovery and design technologies, such as molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations, to probe metal-ligand interactions remains limited because of their complicated coordination geometries and rough treatment in current force fields. Herein we introduce a robust, multiobjective optimization algorithm-driven metalloprotein-specific docking program named MpSDock, which runs on a scheme similar to consensus scoring consisting of a force-field-based scoring function and a knowledge-based scoring function. For this purpose, in this study, an effective knowledge-based zinc metalloprotein-specific scoring function based on the inverse Boltzmann law was designed and optimized using a dynamic sampling and iteration optimization strategy. This optimization strategy can dynamically sample and regenerate decoy poses used in each iteration step of refining the scoring function, thus dramatically improving both the effectiveness of the exploration of the binding conformational space and the sensitivity of the ranking of the native binding poses. To validate the zinc metalloprotein-specific scoring function and its special built-in docking program, denoted MpSDockZn, an extensive comparison was performed against six universal, popular docking programs: Glide XP mode, Glide SP mode, Gold, AutoDock, AutoDock4Zn, and EADock DSS. The zinc metalloprotein-specific knowledge-based scoring function exhibited prominent performance in accurately describing the geometries and interactions of the coordination bonds between the zinc ions and chelating agents of the ligands. In addition, MpSDockZn had a competitive ability to sample and identify native binding poses with a higher success rate than the other six docking programs. PMID:25746437

  5. Functions of Status Testing in the Development of an Instructional Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niedermeyer, Fred C.; And Others

    This paper describes status testing conducted by the Southwest Regional Laboratory (SWRL) Composition Skills Program at the primary level. The outcomes of the program range from acquiring letter formation and word spacing proficiencies to writing a composition consistently organized according to a discernible framework and containing varieties of…

  6. The Socializing Function of New Employee Orientation Programs: A Study of Organizational Identification and Job Satisfaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Lisa R.; Hellweg, Susan A.

    This study examined one form of organizational socialization, the new employee orientation program, to determine whether such organizational efforts would increase levels of organizational identification and employee perceptions of job satisfaction when employees underwent such a program. An alternative model was tested to ascertain whether or not…

  7. THE IMPORTANCE OF OVERT RESPONSE IN PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION AS A FUNCTION OF SCHOLASTIC APTITUDE TEST SCORES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BARLOW, JOHN A.

    AT THE INDIANA UNIVERSITY REGIONAL CAMPUS AT FORT WAYNE, 171 FRESHMAN STUDIED A UNIT ON "STIMULUS AND RESPONSE" IN A MODIFIED FORM OF THE PROGRAMING STYLE CALLED "CONVERSATIONAL CHAINING," IN WHICH THE ONLY RESPONSE CONFIRMATION IS PROVIDED WITHIN THE NEXT FRAME IN THE PROGRAM. THERE WAS NO SPECIFIC EMPHASIS SUCH AS CAPITALIZATION, BUT ALWAYS AN…

  8. Effect of a muscle strengthening exercise program for pelvic control on gait function of stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Park, Byoung-Sun; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Yang, Seung-Min; Jeon, Hye-Joo; Lee, Won-Deok; Noh, Ji-Woong; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Junghwan

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of strengthening exercises for the hip extensors on the gait performance and stability of patients with hemiplegia. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were fifteen stroke patients (ten males, five females). The experimental subjects performed a hip extensor strengthening exercise (HESE) program for a total of four weeks. [Results] The experimental subjects showed significant improvements after the HESE program. Especially, walking speed and the affected side stance phase time significantly increased after the HESE program. Furthermore, the affected side stride length and symmetry index in the stance phase significantly increased after HESE program. [Conclusion] These results suggest that the HESE program may, in part, help to improve gait performance ability and stabilize physical disability after stroke. PMID:25931698

  9. Relevance of the International Classification of Functioning, Health and Disability: Children & Youth Version in Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Programs.

    PubMed

    Bagatto, Marlene P; Moodie, Sheila T

    2016-08-01

    Early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs have been guided by principles from the Joint Committee on Infant Hearing and an international consensus of best practice principles for family-centered early intervention. Both resources provide a solid foundation from which to design, implement, and sustain a high-quality, family-centered EHDI program. As a result, infants born with permanent hearing loss and their families will have the support they need to develop communication skills. These families also will benefit from programs that align with the framework offered by the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health: Children & Youth Version (ICF-CY). Within this framework, health and functioning is defined and measured by describing the consequences of the health condition (i.e., hearing loss) in terms of body function, structures, activity, and participation as well as social aspects of the child. This article describes the relevance of the ICF-CY for EHDI programs and offers a modified approach by including aspects of quality of life and human development across time. PMID:27489403

  10. Lessons from sexual and reproductive health voucher program design and function: a comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Developing countries face challenges in financing healthcare; often the poor do not receive the most basic services. The past decade has seen a sharp increase in the number of voucher programs, which target output-based subsidies for specific services to poor and underserved groups. The dearth of literature that examines lessons learned risks the wheel being endlessly reinvented. This paper examines commonalities and differences in voucher design and implementation, highlighting lessons learned for the design of new voucher programmes. Methodology The methodology comprised: discussion among key experts to develop inclusion/exclusion criteria; up-dating the literature database used by the DFID systematic review of voucher programs; and networking with key contacts to identify new programs and obtain additional program documents. We identified 40 programs for review and extracted a dataset of more than 120 program characteristics for detailed analysis. Results All programs aimed to increase utilisation of healthcare, particularly maternal health services, overwhelmingly among low-income populations. The majority contract(ed) private providers, or public and private providers, and all facilitate(d) access to services that are well defined, time-limited and reflect the country’s stated health priorities. All voucher programs incorporate a governing body, management agency, contracted providers and target population, and all share the same incentive structure: the transfer of subsidies from consumers to service providers, resulting in a strong effect on both consumer and provider behaviour. Vouchers deliver subsidies to individuals, who in the absence of the subsidy would likely not have sought care, and in all programs a positive behavioural response is observed, with providers investing voucher revenue to attract more clients. A large majority of programs studied used targeting mechanisms. Conclusions While many programs remain too small to address

  11. The educational function of an astronomy REU program as described by participating women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, Stephanie Jean

    The long-running REU-program is tacitly intended to increase retention and provide "an important educational experience" for undergraduates, particularly women, minorities and underrepresented groups. This longitudinal, two-stage study was designed to explore the ways in which REUs acted as educational experiences for 51 women in the field of astronomy, in an attempt to develop a theory of experience related to the REU. Stage-1 consisted of an ex post facto analysis of data collected over 8 years, including multiple interviews with each participant during their REU, annual open-ended alumni surveys, faculty interviews, and extensive field notes. All data were analyzed using a theoretical framework of continuity and interaction, in a search for transformative experiences. Four findings emerged, related to developing understandings of the nature of professional scientific work, the scientific process, the culture of academia, and an understanding of the "self." Analysis provided an initial theory that was used to design the Stage-2 interview protocol. In Stage-2, over 10 hours of interviews were conducted with 8 participants selected for their potential to disconfirm the initial theory. Results indicate that the REU provided a limited impact in terms of participants' knowledge of professional astronomy as a largely computer-based endeavor. The REU did not provide a substantive educational experience related to the nature of scientific work, the scientific process, the culture of academia, participants' conceptions about themselves as situated in science, or other aspects of the "self". Instead, the data suggests that these women began the REU with pre-existing and remarkably strong conceptions in these areas, and that the REU did not function to alter those states. These conceptions were frequently associated with other mentors/scientist interactions, from middle school into the undergraduate years. Instructors and family members also served as crucial forces in

  12. Do poorer people have poorer access to local resources and facilities? The distribution of local resources by area deprivation in Glasgow, Scotland☆

    PubMed Central

    Macintyre, Sally; Macdonald, Laura; Ellaway, Anne

    2008-01-01

    It has commonly been suggested that in modern cities individual or household deprivation (for example, low income or education) is amplified by area level deprivation (for example, lack of jobs or good schools), in ways which damage the health of the poorest and increase health inequalities. The aim of this study was to determine the location of a range of resources and exposures by deprivation in a UK city. We examined the location of 42 resources in Glasgow City, Scotland, in 2005–2006, by quintile of small area deprivation. Measures included number per 1000 population, network distance to nearest resource, and percentage of data zones containing at least one of each type of resource. Twelve resources had higher density in, and/or were closer to or more common in, more deprived neighbourhoods: public nurseries, public primary schools, police stations, pharmacies, credit unions, post offices, bus stops, bingo halls, public swimming pools, public sports centres, outdoor play areas, and vacant and derelict land/buildings. Sixteen had higher density in, and/or were closer to, or more common in, more affluent neighbourhoods: public secondary schools, private schools, banks, building societies, museums/art galleries, railway stations, subway stations, tennis courts, bowling greens, private health clubs, private swimming pools, colleges, A & E hospitals, parks, waste disposal sites, and tourist attractions. Private nurseries, Universities, fire stations, general, dental and ophthalmic practices, pawn brokers, ATMs, supermarkets, fast food chains, cafes, public libraries, golf courses, and cinemas showed no clear pattern by deprivation. Thus it appears that in the early 21st century access to resources does not always disadvantage poorer neighbourhoods in the UK. We conclude that we need to ensure that theories and policies are based on up-to-date and context-specific empirical evidence on the distribution of neighbourhood resources, and to engage in further research

  13. Anti-epidermal or anti-vascular endothelial growth factor as first-line metastatic colorectal cancer in modified Glasgow prognostic score 2' patients

    PubMed Central

    Dréanic, Johann; Dhooge, Marion; Barret, Maximilien; Brezault, Catherine; Mir, Olivier; Chaussade, Stanislas; Coriat, Romain

    2015-01-01

    Background In metastatic colorectal cancer, the modified Glasgow prognostic score (mGPS) has been approved as an independent prognostic indicator of survival. No data existed on poor prognosis patients treated with molecular-targeted agents. Methods From January 2007 to February 2012, patients with metastatic colorectal cancer and poor predictive survival score (mGPS = 2), treated with 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy in addition to an anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) or anti-vascular epidermal growth factor (VEGF) therapy, were included to assess the interest of targeted therapy within mGPS = 2' patients. Results A total of 27 mGPS = 2' patients were included and received a 5-fluorouracil-based systemic chemotherapy in addition to an anti-EGFR treatment (cetuximab; n = 18) or an anti-VEGF treatment (bevacizumab; n = 9). Median follow-up was 12.1 months (interquartile range 4.9–22). Patients were Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) Performance Status 1, 2, and 3 in 66% (n = 18), 26% (n = 7), and 8% (n = 2), respectively. Comparing anti-EGFR and anti-VEGF groups, median progression-free survival was 3.9 and 15.4 months, respectively, and was significantly different (P = 0.046). Conversely, the median overall survival was not significantly different between the two groups (P = 0.15). Conclusion Our study confirmed the poor survival of patients with mGPS = 2 despite the use of targeted therapy and identified the superiority of an anti-VEGF treatment in progression-free survival, without a significant benefit in the overall survival compared with the anti-EGFR therapy. Our results deserved confirmation by a prospective clinical trial. PMID:26401469

  14. Do poorer people have poorer access to local resources and facilities? The distribution of local resources by area deprivation in Glasgow, Scotland.

    PubMed

    Macintyre, Sally; Macdonald, Laura; Ellaway, Anne

    2008-09-01

    It has commonly been suggested that in modern cities individual or household deprivation (for example, low income or education) is amplified by area level deprivation (for example, lack of jobs or good schools), in ways which damage the health of the poorest and increase health inequalities. The aim of this study was to determine the location of a range of resources and exposures by deprivation in a UK city. We examined the location of 42 resources in Glasgow City, Scotland, in 2005-2006, by quintile of small area deprivation. Measures included number per 1000 population, network distance to nearest resource, and percentage of data zones containing at least one of each type of resource. Twelve resources had higher density in, and/or were closer to or more common in, more deprived neighbourhoods: public nurseries, public primary schools, police stations, pharmacies, credit unions, post offices, bus stops, bingo halls, public swimming pools, public sports centres, outdoor play areas, and vacant and derelict land/buildings. Sixteen had higher density in, and/or were closer to, or more common in, more affluent neighbourhoods: public secondary schools, private schools, banks, building societies, museums/art galleries, railway stations, subway stations, tennis courts, bowling greens, private health clubs, private swimming pools, colleges, A & E hospitals, parks, waste disposal sites, and tourist attractions. Private nurseries, Universities, fire stations, general, dental and ophthalmic practices, pawn brokers, ATMs, supermarkets, fast food chains, cafes, public libraries, golf courses, and cinemas showed no clear pattern by deprivation. Thus it appears that in the early 21st century access to resources does not always disadvantage poorer neighbourhoods in the UK. We conclude that we need to ensure that theories and policies are based on up-to-date and context-specific empirical evidence on the distribution of neighbourhood resources, and to engage in further research on

  15. The relationship between an inflammation‐based prognostic score (Glasgow Prognostic Score) and changes in serum biochemical variables in patients with advanced lung and gastrointestinal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Brown, D J F; Milroy, R; Preston, T; McMillan, D C

    2007-01-01

    Background The Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS), an inflammation‐based prognostic score formed from standard thresholds of C reactive protein (CRP) and albumin, has prognostic value in patients with advanced cancer. Little is known about the general biochemical disturbance associated with the systemic inflammatory response in cancer. Aim To examine the relationship between the GPS and blood biochemistry in patients with advanced lung and gastrointestinal cancer. Methods The GPS (albumin <35 g/l = 1 and CRP >10 mg/l = 1 combined to form a prognostic score of 0 (normal) and 1 or 2 (abnormal)) and a variety of biochemical variables were examined in patients (n = 50) with advanced lung or gastrointestinal cancer and in a healthy control group (n = 13). Results The GPS was normal in all the controls, but abnormal in 78% of the cancer group. Serum levels of sodium, chloride, creatine kinase, zinc and vitamin D were lower in the cancer group (all p<0.01), whereas levels of calcium, copper (both p<0.05), alkaline phosphatase, γ‐glutamyl transferase (both p<0.001) and lactate dehydrogenase (p<0.10) were raised. In the patient group, with increasing GPS, there was a median reduction in Karnofsky Performance Status (25%), haemoglobin (22%), sodium (3%), zinc (15%) and survival (93%, all p<0.05) and a median increase in white cell count (129%), alkaline phosphatase (217%), γ‐glutamyl transferase (371%) and lactate dehydrogenase (130%, all p<0.05). CRP levels were strongly and similarly correlated with alkaline phosphatase and γ‐glutamyl transferase, accounting for more than 25% of the variation in their activities. Conclusion Several correlations were seen between biochemical variables and increasing GPS. In particular, chronic activation of the systemic inflammatory response in cancer was associated with increase in γ‐glutamyl transferase and alkaline phosphatase activity in patients with advanced lung and gastrointestinal cancer. PMID:16644880

  16. Perinatal stress and early life programming of lung structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Rosalind J.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to environmental toxins during critical periods of prenatal and/or postnatal development may alter the normal course of lung morphogenesis and maturation, potentially resulting in changes that affect both structure and function of the respiratory system. Moreover, these early effects may persist into adult life magnifying the potential public health impact. Aberrant or excessive pro-inflammatory immune responses, occurring both locally and systemically, that result in inflammatory damage to the airway are a central determinant of lung structure-function changes throughout life. Disruption of neuroendocrine function in early development, specifically the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, may alter functional status of the immune system. Autonomic nervous system (ANS) function (sympathovagal imbalance) is another integral component of airway function and immunity in childhood. This overview discusses the evidence linking psychological factors to alterations in these interrelated physiological processes that may, in turn, influence childhood lung function and identifies gaps in our understanding. PMID:20080145

  17. Student Use of Physics to Make Sense of Incomplete but Functional VPython Programs in a Lab Setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weatherford, Shawn A.

    2011-12-01

    Computational activities in Matter & Interactions, an introductory calculus-based physics course, have the instructional goal of providing students with the experience of applying the same set of a small number of fundamental principles to model a wide range of physical systems. However there are significant instructional challenges for students to build computer programs under limited time constraints, especially for students who are unfamiliar with programming languages and concepts. Prior attempts at designing effective computational activities were successful at having students ultimately build working VPython programs under the tutelage of experienced teaching assistants in a studio lab setting. A pilot study revealed that students who completed these computational activities had significant difficultly repeating the exact same tasks and further, had difficulty predicting the animation that would be produced by the example program after interpreting the program code. This study explores the interpretation and prediction tasks as part of an instructional sequence where students are asked to read and comprehend a functional, but incomplete program. Rather than asking students to begin their computational tasks with modifying program code, we explicitly ask students to interpret an existing program that is missing key lines of code. The missing lines of code correspond to the algebraic form of fundamental physics principles or the calculation of forces which would exist between analogous physical objects in the natural world. Students are then asked to draw a prediction of what they would see in the simulation produced by the VPython program and ultimately run the program to evaluate the students' prediction. This study specifically looks at how the participants use physics while interpreting the program code and creating a whiteboard prediction. This study also examines how students evaluate their understanding of the program and modification goals at the

  18. Tribal Ecosystem Research Program (TERP) Workshop: Proper Functioning Condition (PFC) Assessment for Management and Monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    USEPA is developing alternative approaches to quantify improvements to impaired waterbodies (USEPA 303(d)/TMDL Draft Guidance). Tribal environmental programs are leading the way in the paradigm shift towards sustainability of natural resources. Resources such as wildlife, aquatic...

  19. Uncertainty in Cost Performance as a Function of the Cusp Catastrophe in the NASA Program Performance Management System.

    PubMed

    Butner, Jonathan E; Dyer, H Lawrence; Malloy, Thomas S; Kranz, Lucy V

    2014-10-01

    Cost performance by NASA programs can generate two stable states within the organization system used for program performance management. These states could be stable individually or show multistability with cusp-like behavior. To test this, we constructed a cusp catastrophe model in a multilevel modeling (HLM) procedure on the cost components of an eleven-month period of one NASA program. HLM was used for its ability to estimate random effects as replacements for unknown control parameters. The cusp catastrophe model was a good description of the data and there was some evidence that the overall budget size functioned as a control parameter. Results are presented in terms of three different forms of uncertainty: attractor strength, unistability or multistability, and control parameters. Recommendations and future directions are focused towards understanding the cause of uncertainty in complex management systems. PMID:25196707

  20. Investigation of the applicability of a functional programming model to fault-tolerant parallel processing for knowledge-based systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, Richard

    1989-01-01

    In a fault-tolerant parallel computer, a functional programming model can facilitate distributed checkpointing, error recovery, load balancing, and graceful degradation. Such a model has been implemented on the Draper Fault-Tolerant Parallel Processor (FTPP). When used in conjunction with the FTPP's fault detection and masking capabilities, this implementation results in a graceful degradation of system performance after faults. Three graceful degradation algorithms have been implemented and are presented. A user interface has been implemented which requires minimal cognitive overhead by the application programmer, masking such complexities as the system's redundancy, distributed nature, variable complement of processing resources, load balancing, fault occurrence and recovery. This user interface is described and its use demonstrated. The applicability of the functional programming style to the Activation Framework, a paradigm for intelligent systems, is then briefly described.

  1. Research on an augmented Lagrangian penalty function algorithm for nonlinear programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frair, L.

    1978-01-01

    The augmented Lagrangian (ALAG) Penalty Function Algorithm for optimizing nonlinear mathematical models is discussed. The mathematical models of interest are deterministic in nature and finite dimensional optimization is assumed. A detailed review of penalty function techniques in general and the ALAG technique in particular is presented. Numerical experiments are conducted utilizing a number of nonlinear optimization problems to identify an efficient ALAG Penalty Function Technique for computer implementation.

  2. NINE KEY FUNCTIONS FOR A HUMAN SUBJECTS PROTECTION PROGRAM FOR COMMUNITY-ENGAGED RESEARCH: POINTS TO CONSIDER1

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Lainie Friedman; Loup, Allan; Nelson, Robert M.; Botkin, Jeffrey R.; Kost, Rhonda; Smith, George R.; Gehlert, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    The Ethical Conduct of Community-engaged research (CEnR), of which the Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) model is the partnership model most widely discussed in the CEnR literature and is the primary model we draw upon in this discussion, requires an integrated and comprehensive human subjects protection (HSP) program that addresses the additional concerns salient to CEnR where members of a community are both research partners and participants. As delineated in the federal regulations, the backbone of a HSP program is the fulfillment of nine functions: (1) minimize risks; (2) reasonable benefit-risk ratio; (3) fair subject selection; (4) adequate monitoring; (5) informed consent; (6) privacy and confidentiality; (7) conflicts of interest; (8) address vulnerabilities; and (9) HSP training. The federal regulations, however, do not consider the risks and harms that may occur to groups, and these risks have not traditionally been included in the benefit: risk analysis nor have they been incorporated into an HSP framework. We explore additional HSP issues raised by CEnR within these nine ethical functions. Various entities exist that can provide HSP—the investigator, the Institutional Review Board, the Conflict of Interest Committee, the Research Ethics Consultation program, the Research Subject Advocacy program, the Data and Safety Monitoring Plan, and the Community Advisory Board. Protection is best achieved if these entities are coordinated to ensure that no gaps exist, to minimize unnecessary redundancy, and to provide checks and balances between the different entities of HSP and the nine functions that they must realize. The document is structured to provide a “points-to-consider” roadmap for HSP entities to help them adequately address the nine key functions necessary to provide adequate protection of individuals and communities in CEnR. PMID:20235862

  3. [Role and functional spectrum of HPTLC in a hospital pharmaceutical quality control program].

    PubMed

    Bourget, P; Perello, L; Demirdjian, S

    2001-02-01

    As part of the development of a quality assurance program (QAP), a high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) analysis unit was installed in the pharmacy department at Gustave-Roussy. The HPTLC-CAMAG consists of: 1) an HPTLC-Vario development chamber for optimization of the mobile phases; 2) TLC Sampler III automated sample applicators; 3) solid teflon migration chambers, i.e., horizontal tanks that enable separation to be carried out either in sandwich or in saturation mode; 4) a TLC Scanner 3 densitometer controlled by CATS 4 software; and 5) a Pentium MMX 233 MHz personal computer with an external backup unit. HPTLC quantitative and qualitative analysis has now reached a remarkably high level of development and performance. The samples (aqueous or non-aqueous solutions) that are to be processed are automatically applied by spraying (50-300 nl) in calibrated bands of a few mm (with up to 64 3-mm bands per 10 x 20 cm plate) on high-performance stationary phases and of wide technological diversity. The chromatogram is obtained in 10 min, and run over a migration pathway of 5-6 cm. The plates are read by absorption-reflection or fluorescence-reflection at an ad hoc wavelength (190-800 nm), then the peak areas which have been scanned are calculated by the trapezoid method. The calibration curves are generated by Michaelis-Menten non-linear regression, and validated by internal quality control. The analytical yield is high, i.e., up to 50 assays and 250 determinations per day. HPTLC analysis covers a wide functional range, and can be used in the following ways: 1) as a teaching tool for separative analysis and GLP; 2) it is an invaluable method for the optimization of mobile phases and for the determination of absorption spectra and absorption maxima, with a view to developing HPLC methods in complex matrices; 3) it provides major support for post-production quality control of prescribed hospital preparations of all types, e.g., those connected with parenteral

  4. MATLAB-Based Program for Teaching Autocorrelation Function and Noise Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jovanovic Dolecek, G.

    2012-01-01

    An attractive MATLAB-based tool for teaching the basics of autocorrelation function and noise concepts is presented in this paper. This tool enhances traditional in-classroom lecturing. The demonstrations of the tool described here highlight the description of the autocorrelation function (ACF) in a general case for wide-sense stationary (WSS)…

  5. Designing a lighting program at PSI energy: Thoughts and experiences using quality function deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Mulder, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    PSI Energy serves approximately 600,000 residential, commercial, and industrial customers in central Indiana, making it the largest investor-owned utility in the state. In 1991 PSI signed a Settlement Agreement with the major investors in the state to undertake demand-side management (DSM) programs for its customers. This agreement extends through 1995 and sets a goal for PSI to reduce Summer peak demand through conservation and load management programs by at least 85 MW. PSI`s latest Integrated Resource Plan calls for DSM programs to exceed this level, achieving a Summer peak demand savings of 120 MW by 1995. The Settlement Agreement provides PSI recovery of prudently incurred DSM implementation costs, the recovery of {open_quotes}lost revenues{close_quotes} (the contribution to fixed costs that is lost to reduced sales), and a shared savings incentive. This incentive shares the reduced costs generated between the customers and the shareholders. The most recent estimates indicate an incentive of approximately $50 million. A major goal for both PSI and the intervenors is to have the programs reach as many of the customers as possible. The program designed for smaller commercial and industrial customers was aimed at improving lighting efficiency. Lighting is by far the greates user of electricity in this market segment. The program is targeted at 66,000 customers, and its objective is to obtain 9.7 MW of capacity savings by summer 1995. Participation by as few as 10% of the customer base could see this goal achieved.

  6. Computer program for supersonic Kernel-function flutter analysis of thin lifting surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, H. J.

    1974-01-01

    This report describes a computer program (program D2180) that has been prepared to implement the analysis described in (N71-10866) for calculating the aerodynamic forces on a class of harmonically oscillating planar lifting surfaces in supersonic potential flow. The planforms treated are the delta and modified-delta (arrowhead) planforms with subsonic leading and supersonic trailing edges, and (essentially) pointed tips. The resulting aerodynamic forces are applied in a Galerkin modal flutter analysis. The required input data are the flow and planform parameters including deflection-mode data, modal frequencies, and generalized masses.

  7. Improvements in Negative Symptoms and Functional Outcome After a New Generation Cognitive Remediation Program: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ojeda, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive remediation improves cognition in patients with schizophrenia, but its effect on other relevant factors such as negative symptoms and functional outcome has not been extensively studied. In this hospital-based study, 84 inpatients with chronic schizophrenia were recruited from Alava Hospital (Spain). All of the subjects underwent a baseline and a 3-month assessment that examined neurocognition, clinical symptoms, insight, and functional outcome according to the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale and Disability Assessment Schedule from World Health Organization (DAS-WHO). In addition to receiving standard treatment, patients were randomly assigned either to receive neuropsychological rehabilitation (REHACOP) or to a control group. REHACOP is an integrative program that taps all basic cognitive functions. The program included experts’ latest suggestions about positive feedback and activities of daily living in the patients’ environment. The REHACOP group showed significantly greater improvements at 3 months in the areas of neurocognition, negative symptoms, disorganization, and emotional distress compared with the control group (Cohen’s effect size for these changes ranged from d = 0.47 for emotional distress to d = 0.58 for disorganization symptoms). The REHACOP group also improved significantly in both the GAF (d = 0.61) and DAS-WHO total scores (d = 0.57). Specifically, the patients showed significant improvement in vocational outcomes (d = 0.47), family contact (d = 0.50), and social competence (d = 0.56). In conclusion, neuropsychological rehabilitation may be useful for the reduction of negative symptoms and functional disability in schizophrenia. These findings support the integration of neuropsychological rehabilitation into standard treatment programs for patients with schizophrenia. PMID:23686130

  8. THE EFFICACY OF AN EIGHT-WEEK CORE STABILIZATION PROGRAM ON CORE MUSCLE FUNCTION AND ENDURANCE: A RANDOMIZED TRIAL

    PubMed Central

    Sperier, Aubrey D.; Hopkins, Colleen F.; Griffiths, Bridgette D.; Principe, Molly F.; Schnall, Barri L.; Bell, Johanna C.; Koppenhaver, Shane L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Body armor is credited with increased survival rates in soldiers but the additional axial load may negatively impact the biomechanics of the spine resulting in low back pain. Multiple studies have found that lumbar stabilization programs are superior to generalized programs for patients with chronic low back pain. It is not known if such programs produce objective changes in trunk muscle function with wear of body armor. Hypothesis/Purpose An eight-week core stability exercise program would result in a larger improvement in physical endurance and abdominal muscle thickness than a control intervention. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of an eight-week core stability exercise program on physical endurance and abdominal muscle thickness with and without wear of body armor. Study Design Randomized controlled trial Methods Participants (N = 33) were randomized into either the core strengthening exercise group or the control group. Testing included ultrasound imaging of abdominal muscle thickness in hook-lying and standing with and without body armor and timed measures of endurance. Results There were statistically significant group by time interactions for transversus abdominis muscle contraction thickness during standing, both with (p = 0.018) and without body armor (p = 0.038). The main effect for hold-time during the horizontal side-support (p = 0.016) indicated improvement over time regardless of group. There was a significant group by time interaction (p = 0.014) for horizontal side-support hold-time when compliance with the exercise protocol was set at 85%, indicating more improvement in the core stabilization group than in the control group. Conclusion Performing an eight-week core stabilization exercise program significantly improves transversus abdominis muscle activation in standing and standing with body armor. When compliant with the exercises, such a program may increase trunk strength and

  9. Sleep Functioning in Relation to Mood, Function, and Quality of Life at Entry to the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder (STEP-BD)

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, June; Harvey, Allison G.; Wang, Po W.; Brooks, John O.; Thase, Michael E.; Sachs, Gary S.; Ketter, Terence A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Sleep disturbance in bipolar disorder can be both a risk factor and symptom of mood episodes. However, the associations among sleep and clinical characteristics, function, and quality of life in bipolar disorder have not been fully investigated. Methods The prevalence of sleep disturbance, duration, and variability, as well as their associations with mood, function, and quality of life, was determined from 2,024 bipolar patients enrolled in the National Institute of Mental Health Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder (STEP-BD). Results Analyses indicated that 32% of patients were classified as short sleepers, 38% normal sleepers, and 23% long sleepers. Overall, short sleepers demonstrated greater mood elevation, earlier age at onset, and longer illness duration compared to both normal and long sleepers. Both short and long sleepers had greater depressive symptoms, poorer life functioning, and quality of life compared to normal sleepers. Discussion Short sleep duration in bipolar disorder was associated with a more severe symptom presentation, whereas both short and long sleep duration are associated with poorer function and quality of life compared to normal sleep duration. Sleep disturbance could be a trait marker of bipolar disorder, though longitudinal assessments are warranted to assess potential causal relations and the longer-term implications of sleep disturbance in bipolar disorder PMID:18707765

  10. Disulfiram Compliance as a Function of Patient Motivation, Program Philosophy and Side Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, Ivan R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Alcoholic male inpatients (N=26) who preferred disulfiram and who were entering a 28-day rehabilitation program were given either disulfiram, placebo, or nothing and were re-assessed about preferring disulfiram at discharge. The results appeared to show that the preference for disulfiram was unaffected by the treatment conditions. (Author/NB)

  11. Caregiver Involvement in the Intensive Mental Health Program: Influence on Changes in Child Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Margaret M.; Bowers, Mark J.; Lazicki, Tammy; Krall, Dan; Jacobs, Anne K.

    2008-01-01

    We examined behavioral markers of caregiver involvement and the ways in which family participation was related to treatment outcomes in 47 elementary school children with SED enrolled in a school-based intensive mental health program. Measures of caregiver involvement included therapeutic home visits, attendance at therapeutic meetings, completion…

  12. Young Adults' Perceptions and Use of Bilingualism as a Function of an Early Immersion Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilotti, Maura; Gutierrez, Anna; Klein, Eric; Mahamame, Salif

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to examine whether perceptions of bilingualism differed between two bilingual groups, those whose elementary education was shaped by a Spanish immersion program and those who had received an English-focused education. A structured interview was administered to gather information about self-perceived language…

  13. Effective Supervision and Consultation: A Model for the Development of Functional Supervision and Consultation Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, David R.; Schramski, Thomas G.

    1984-01-01

    Proposes the Effective Supervision and Consultation (ESC) model as a guide for counselor educators who are helping agencies build effective supervision programs. The ESC model is presented with an emphasis on the assessment, training, and evaluation components of consultation services in counselor supervision. (JAC)

  14. The Use of Technology in the Administration Function of School Library Media Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolls, Blanche; And Others

    The state-of-the-art review on the use of technology in the administration of school library media programs and in school library/public library cooperation which is presented is based on a literature review and interviews with media specialists from nine states. Additional information is incorporated from a survey of the status of technology in…

  15. A Preliminary Screening Program to Identify Functioning Strengths and Weaknesses in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amundson, Marian Stuehrenberg

    The purpose of this study was to compare two instruments for screening preschool children for potential learning problems. The two instruments used were the Metropolitan Readiness Tests (MRT) and the Wizard of Oz Preschool Preliminary Screening Program. The children tested on both measures were members of a self-contained kindergarten class. MRT…

  16. Effect of Core Training Program on Physical Functional Performance in Female Soccer Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taskin, Cengiz

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of core training program on speed, acceleration, vertical jump, and standing long jump in female soccer players. A total of 40 female soccer players volunteered to participate in this study. They were divided randomly into 1 of 2 groups: core training group (CTG; n = 20) and control group (CG;…

  17. MSTor: A program for calculating partition functions, free energies, enthalpies, entropies, and heat capacities of complex molecules including torsional anharmonicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jingjing; Mielke, Steven L.; Clarkson, Kenneth L.; Truhlar, Donald G.

    2012-08-01

    We present a Fortran program package, MSTor, which calculates partition functions and thermodynamic functions of complex molecules involving multiple torsional motions by the recently proposed MS-T method. This method interpolates between the local harmonic approximation in the low-temperature limit, and the limit of free internal rotation of all torsions at high temperature. The program can also carry out calculations in the multiple-structure local harmonic approximation. The program package also includes six utility codes that can be used as stand-alone programs to calculate reduced moment of inertia matrices by the method of Kilpatrick and Pitzer, to generate conformational structures, to calculate, either analytically or by Monte Carlo sampling, volumes for torsional subdomains defined by Voronoi tessellation of the conformational subspace, to generate template input files, and to calculate one-dimensional torsional partition functions using the torsional eigenvalue summation method. Catalogue identifier: AEMF_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEMF_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 77 434 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3 264 737 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 90, C, and Perl Computer: Itasca (HP Linux cluster, each node has two-socket, quad-core 2.8 GHz Intel Xeon X5560 “Nehalem EP” processors), Calhoun (SGI Altix XE 1300 cluster, each node containing two quad-core 2.66 GHz Intel Xeon “Clovertown”-class processors sharing 16 GB of main memory), Koronis (Altix UV 1000 server with 190 6-core Intel Xeon X7542 “Westmere” processors at 2.66 GHz), Elmo (Sun Fire X4600 Linux cluster with AMD Opteron cores), and Mac Pro (two 2.8 GHz Quad-core Intel Xeon

  18. A multi-functional electronic program for the management of radioisotopes.

    PubMed

    Ritchot, Nathalie; Santary, William

    2008-05-01

    Everyone will agree that specialized computer programs have done away with the many tedious tasks associated with manually keeping track of radioisotopes. Enhanced electronic programs have virtually cut the time of managing radioisotopes. Agriculture and Agri-Food, Canada's (AAFC) program for the management of radioisotopes, is somewhat different from most electronic programs. It is divided into three levels of management that are dependent on the roles that a user might have when applying the application. These roles include the Departmental Radiation Safety Officer (DRSO), Radiation Safety Officer (RSO), and authorized user, which meets the requirements of the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission. The DRSO and authorized AAFC Radiation Safety Committee members have access to the first level of management. This is the highest level of control, and only the DRSO has permission to add a nuclear substance to the system with the approval of the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC). This level of management is also responsible for adding authorized users, locations, and managing the Internal Use Permits. The second level of management is for site-specific RSOs. They have access to all information regarding their center of activity, but they cannot change Internal Use Permit data. The RSOs can reset passwords, authorize new users, control the maximum activity limit, etc., but are limited to viewing only the information that relates to their internal use permit. However, they retain significant control within the permit. The third and last level of management is for authorized users who can access the radioisotope order-distribution-disposal section, waste or storage containers creation file, and leak/wipe test procedures. As in the case of the DRSO and RSO, they also have access to all reports and inventories for their center of activity but they cannot change Internal Use Permit or inventories data. This program has proven to be a valuable tool for scientific staff

  19. Does a Wii-based exercise program enhance balance control of independently functioning older adults? A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Laufer, Yocheved; Dar, Gali; Kodesh, Einat

    2014-01-01

    Background Exercise programs that challenge an individual’s balance have been shown to reduce the risk of falls among older adults. Virtual reality computer-based technology that provides the user with opportunities to interact with virtual objects is used extensively for entertainment. There is a growing interest in the potential of virtual reality-based interventions for balance training in older adults. This work comprises a systematic review of the literature to determine the effects of intervention programs utilizing the Nintendo Wii console on balance control and functional performance in independently functioning older adults. Methods Studies were obtained by searching the following databases: PubMed, CINAHL, PEDro, EMBASE, SPORTdiscus, and Google Scholar, followed by a hand search of bibliographic references of the included studies. Included were randomized controlled trials written in English in which Nintendo Wii Fit was used to enhance standing balance performance in older adults and compared with an alternative exercise treatment, placebo, or no treatment. Results Seven relevant studies were retrieved. The four studies examining the effect of Wii-based exercise compared with no exercise reported positive effects on at least one outcome measure related to balance performance in older adults. Studies comparing Wii-based training with alternative exercise programs generally indicated that the balance improvements achieved by Wii-based training are comparable with those achieved by other exercise programs. Conclusion The review indicates that Wii-based exercise programs may serve as an alternative to more conventional forms of exercise aimed at improving balance control. However, due to the great variability between studies in terms of the intervention protocols and outcome measures, as well as methodological limitations, definitive recommendations as to optimal treatment protocols and the potential of such an intervention as a safe and effective home

  20. Effects of a 4-Week Multimodal Rehabilitation Program on Quality of Life, Cardiopulmonary Function, and Fatigue in Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Do, Junghwa; Cho, Youngki

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study examines the effects of a rehabilitation program on quality of life (QoL), cardiopulmonary function, and fatigue in breast cancer patients. The program included aerobic exercises as well as stretching and strengthening exercises. Methods Breast cancer patients (n=62) who had completed chemotherapy were randomly assigned to an early exercise group (EEG; n=32) or a delayed exercise group (DEG; n=30). The EEG underwent 4 weeks of a multimodal rehabilitation program for 80 min/day, 5 times/wk for 4 weeks. The DEG completed the same program during the next 4 weeks. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer-Core Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30), EORTC Breast Cancer-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-BR23), predicted maximal volume of oxygen consumption (VO2max), and fatigue severity scale (FSS) were used for assessment at baseline, and at 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks. Results After 8 weeks, statistically significant differences were apparent in global health, physical, role, and emotional functions, and cancer-related symptoms such as fatigue and pain, nausea, and dyspnea on the EORTC QLQ-C30; cancer-related symptoms involving the arm and breast on the EORTC QLQ-BR23; the predicted VO2max; muscular strength; and FSS (p<0.050), according to time, between the two groups. Conclusion The results of our study suggest that a supervised multimodal rehabilitation program may improve the physical symptoms, QoL, and fatigue in patients with breast cancer. PMID:25834616

  1. Frank A. Beach award: programming of neuroendocrine function by early-life experience: a critical role for the immune system.

    PubMed

    Bilbo, Staci D

    2013-05-01

    Many neuropsychiatric disorders are associated with a strong dysregulation of the immune system, and several have a striking etiology in development as well. Our recent evidence using a rodent model of neonatal Escherichia coli infection has revealed novel insight into the mechanisms underlying cognitive deficits in adulthood, and suggests that the early-life immune history of an individual may be critical to understanding the relative risk of developing later-life mental health disorders in humans. A single neonatal infection programs the function of immune cells within the brain, called microglia, for the life of the rodent such that an adult immune challenge results in exaggerated cytokine production within the brain and associated cognitive deficits. I describe the important role of the immune system, notably microglia, during brain development, and discuss some of the many ways in which immune activation during early brain development can affect the later-life outcomes of neural function, immune function, and cognition. PMID:23474365

  2. Cormack Research Project: Glasgow University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skinner, Susan; Ryan, James M.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this project was to investigate and improve upon existing methods of analysing data from COMITEL on the Gamma Ray Observatory for neutrons emitted during solar flares. In particular, a strategy for placing confidence intervals on neutron energy distributions, due to uncertainties on the response matrix has been developed. We have also been able to demonstrate the superior performance of one of a range of possible statistical regularization strategies. A method of generating likely models of neutron energy distributions has also been developed as a tool to this end. The project involved solving an inverse problem with noise being added to the data in various ways. To achieve this pre-existing C code was used to run Fortran subroutines which performed statistical regularization on the data.

  3. A controlled trial of the effectiveness of a diabetes education programme in a multi-ethnic community in Glasgow [ISRCT28317455

    PubMed Central

    Baradaran, Hamid R; Knill-Jones, Robin P; Wallia, Sunita; Rodgers, Alison

    2006-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic data have shown that the prevalence of Type 2 diabetes varies with ethnic origin. Type 2 diabetes is up to four times more common in British South Asians than in the indigenous white population. The aim of this study was to develop a culturally appropriate educational intervention programme for South Asians with Type 2 diabetes. We then investigated whether this intervention could produce an improvement, and finally whether any improvement was greater than background changes in knowledge in comparison groups. Methods A multi-site prospective, randomised controlled study was conducted in all day care centres and three general practice registers with high proportion patients from different ethnic minority groups in Glasgow, Scotland. The intervention consisted of 18 educational sessions in 6 separate programmes. A modified questionnaire was used to measure the knowledge, attitudes, and practice of diabetes before and after intervention. Results Baseline assessment showed that Indian and Pakistani subjects had less knowledge about diabetes, regarded the disease less seriously, and had a lesser understanding of the relationship between control and complications than the white population. No differences in initial responses were found between those who completed the second assessment and those who did not. The intervention group showed significant improvements in scores for Knowledge (+12.5%); Attitudes toward seriousness (+13.5%), complications (+8.1%), Practice (+20.0%). However there were also changes in the ethnic control group scores; respectively +5.0%, +16.3% (significant P < 0.001), +1.5%, +1.7%. The single white control group also showed some improvements; respectively +12.2%, +12.4% (P = 0.04), +6.0%, +25.0% (P = 0.007), but the differences in improvement between these two control groups were not significant. Overall, the improvement seen was similar in both intervention and ethnic control groups and there was no significant difference

  4. The plant metacaspase AtMC1 in pathogen-triggered programmed cell death and aging: functional linkage with autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Coll, N S; Smidler, A; Puigvert, M; Popa, C; Valls, M; Dangl, J L

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy is a major nutrient recycling mechanism in plants. However, its functional connection with programmed cell death (PCD) is a topic of active debate and remains not well understood. Our previous studies established the plant metacaspase AtMC1 as a positive regulator of pathogen-triggered PCD. Here, we explored the linkage between plant autophagy and AtMC1 function in the context of pathogen-triggered PCD and aging. We observed that autophagy acts as a positive regulator of pathogen-triggered PCD in a parallel pathway to AtMC1. In addition, we unveiled an additional, pro-survival homeostatic function of AtMC1 in aging plants that acts in parallel to a similar pro-survival function of autophagy. This novel pro-survival role of AtMC1 may be functionally related to its prodomain-mediated aggregate localization and potential clearance, in agreement with recent findings using the single budding yeast metacaspase YCA1. We propose a unifying model whereby autophagy and AtMC1 are part of parallel pathways, both positively regulating HR cell death in young plants, when these functions are not masked by the cumulative stresses of aging, and negatively regulating senescence in older plants. PMID:24786830

  5. Infants' Visual Attention to Baby DVDs as a Function of Program Pacing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gola, Alice Ann Howard; Calvert, Sandra L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of program pacing, defined as the rate of scene and character change per minute, on infants' visual attention to video presentations. Seventy-two infants (twenty-four 6-month-olds, twenty-four 9-month-olds, twenty-four 12-month-olds) were exposed to one of two sets of high- and low-paced commercial infant DVDs. Each…

  6. The effects of a multi-component higher-functioning autism anti-stigma program on adolescent boys.

    PubMed

    Staniland, Jessica J; Byrne, Mitchell K

    2013-12-01

    A six-session higher-functioning autism anti-stigma program incorporating descriptive, explanatory and directive information was delivered to adolescent boys and the impact upon knowledge, attitudes and behavioural intentions towards peers with autism was evaluated. Participants were seventh-, eighth- and ninth-grade students (N = 395) from regular classes in a mainstream school. Two-eighth-grade classes were randomly allocated to the intervention condition and all remaining students were either allocated to the no-intervention peer or no-intervention non-peer condition. The anti-stigma program improved the knowledge and attitudes, but not the behavioural intentions of participants towards their peers with autism. Knowledge and attitudinal changes were maintained at follow-up. There were no spill-over effects of the program to non-targeted students. These results provide some preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of multi-session anti-stigma programs incorporating combined information for adolescent students in inclusive educational environments. PMID:23619951

  7. Characteristics of Youth Presenting to a Canadian Youth Concurrent Disorders Program: Clinical Complexity, Trauma, Adaptive Functioning and Treatment Priorities

    PubMed Central

    Catchpole, Rosalind E. H.; Brownlie, E. B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study describes clinical characteristics of youth presenting for service at a Canadian youth concurrent mental health and substance use disorders (SUD) program. Method: Participants were 100 adolescents and emerging adults (aged 14–25) who attended a Canadian concurrent mental health and substance use disorders outpatient program. SUDs were assigned using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Self-reported mental health symptoms, trauma exposure and adaptive functioning were also assessed. Results: Eighty-three percent of participants scored over the clinical cut-off on at least one mental health scale and 33% reported at least one suicide attempt. Sixty-six percent met criteria for a current SUD; 96% met lifetime criteria. Exposure to adverse events was nearly universal (94%). Almost half of female (46%) and almost a third of male (31%) participants endorsed symptoms consistent with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Youth reported impairment and need for support in multiple domains of functioning, including school, peer, family and mental health. Substance use was least likely to be identified as a treatment priority. Conclusions: High rates of adverse events and PTSD highlight the need for trauma-informed care when providing services to this vulnerable population. Functional impairment in domains related to developmental transitions and tasks underscores the need for a developmental lens and integrated treatment that goes beyond mental health and SUD symptoms and addresses developmentally relevant domains during this transitional age. PMID:27274746

  8. Effect of a Home-Based Exercise Program on Functional Recovery Following Rehabilitation After Hip Fracture A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Latham, Nancy K.; Harris, Bette Ann; Bean, Jonathan F.; Heeren, Timothy; Goodyear, Christine; Zawacki, Stacey; Heislein, Diane M.; Mustafa, Jabed; Pardasaney, Poonam; Giorgetti, Marie; Holt, Nicole; Goehring, Lori; Jette, Alan M.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE For many older people, long-term functional limitations persist after a hip fracture. The efficacy of a home exercise program with minimal supervision after formal hip fracture rehabilitation ends has not been established. OBJECTIVE To determine whether a home exercise program with minimal contact with a physical therapist improved function after formal hip fracture rehabilitation ended. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Randomized clinical trial conducted from September 2008 to October 2012 in the homes of 232 functionally limited older adults who had completed traditional rehabilitation after a hip fracture. INTERVENTIONS The intervention group (n = 120) received functionally oriented exercises (such as standing from a chair, climbing a step) taught by a physical therapist and performed independently by the participants in their homes for 6 months. The attention control group (n = 112) received in-home and telephone-based cardiovascular nutrition education. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Physical function assessed at baseline, 6 months (ie, at completion of the intervention), and 9 months by blinded assessors. The primary outcome was change in function at 6 months measured by the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB; range 0-12, higher score indicates better function) and the Activity Measure for Post-Acute Care (AM-PAC) mobility and daily activity (range, 23-85 and 9-101, higher score indicates better function). RESULTS Among the 232 randomized patients, 195 were followed up at 6 months and included in the primary analysis. The intervention group (n=100) showed significant improvement relative to the control group (n=95) in functional mobility (mean SPPB scores for intervention group: 6.2 [SD, 2.7] at baseline, 7.2 [SD, 3] at 6 months; control group: 6.0 [SD, 2.8] at baseline, 6.2 [SD, 3] at 6 months; and between-group differences: 0.8 [95% CI, 0.4 to 1.2], P < .001; mean AM-PAC mobility scores for intervention group: 56.2 [SD, 7.3] at baseline, 58

  9. COE Loss-of-Function Analysis Reveals a Genetic Program Underlying Maintenance and Regeneration of the Nervous System in Planarians

    PubMed Central

    Cowles, Martis W.; Omuro, Kerilyn C.; Stanley, Brianna N.; Quintanilla, Carlo G.; Zayas, Ricardo M.

    2014-01-01

    Members of the COE family of transcription factors are required for central nervous system (CNS) development. However, the function of COE in the post-embryonic CNS remains largely unknown. An excellent model for investigating gene function in the adult CNS is the freshwater planarian. This animal is capable of regenerating neurons from an adult pluripotent stem cell population and regaining normal function. We previously showed that planarian coe is expressed in differentiating and mature neurons and that its function is required for proper CNS regeneration. Here, we show that coe is essential to maintain nervous system architecture and patterning in intact (uninjured) planarians. We took advantage of the robust phenotype in intact animals to investigate the genetic programs coe regulates in the CNS. We compared the transcriptional profiles of control and coe RNAi planarians using RNA sequencing and identified approximately 900 differentially expressed genes in coe knockdown animals, including 397 downregulated genes that were enriched for nervous system functional annotations. Next, we validated a subset of the downregulated transcripts by analyzing their expression in coe-deficient planarians and testing if the mRNAs could be detected in coe+ cells. These experiments revealed novel candidate targets of coe in the CNS such as ion channel, neuropeptide, and neurotransmitter genes. Finally, to determine if loss of any of the validated transcripts underscores the coe knockdown phenotype, we knocked down their expression by RNAi and uncovered a set of coe-regulated genes implicated in CNS regeneration and patterning, including orthologs of sodium channel alpha-subunit and pou4. Our study broadens the knowledge of gene expression programs regulated by COE that are required for maintenance of neural subtypes and nervous system architecture in adult animals. PMID:25356635

  10. COE loss-of-function analysis reveals a genetic program underlying maintenance and regeneration of the nervous system in planarians.

    PubMed

    Cowles, Martis W; Omuro, Kerilyn C; Stanley, Brianna N; Quintanilla, Carlo G; Zayas, Ricardo M

    2014-10-01

    Members of the COE family of transcription factors are required for central nervous system (CNS) development. However, the function of COE in the post-embryonic CNS remains largely unknown. An excellent model for investigating gene function in the adult CNS is the freshwater planarian. This animal is capable of regenerating neurons from an adult pluripotent stem cell population and regaining normal function. We previously showed that planarian coe is expressed in differentiating and mature neurons and that its function is required for proper CNS regeneration. Here, we show that coe is essential to maintain nervous system architecture and patterning in intact (uninjured) planarians. We took advantage of the robust phenotype in intact animals to investigate the genetic programs coe regulates in the CNS. We compared the transcriptional profiles of control and coe RNAi planarians using RNA sequencing and identified approximately 900 differentially expressed genes in coe knockdown animals, including 397 downregulated genes that were enriched for nervous system functional annotations. Next, we validated a subset of the downregulated transcripts by analyzing their expression in coe-deficient planarians and testing if the mRNAs could be detected in coe+ cells. These experiments revealed novel candidate targets of coe in the CNS such as ion channel, neuropeptide, and neurotransmitter genes. Finally, to determine if loss of any of the validated transcripts underscores the coe knockdown phenotype, we knocked down their expression by RNAi and uncovered a set of coe-regulated genes implicated in CNS regeneration and patterning, including orthologs of sodium channel alpha-subunit and pou4. Our study broadens the knowledge of gene expression programs regulated by COE that are required for maintenance of neural subtypes and nervous system architecture in adult animals. PMID:25356635

  11. Family-Based Training Program Improves Brain Function, Cognition, and Behavior in Lower Socioeconomic Status Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pakulak, Eric; Stevens, Courtney; Bell, Theodore A.; Fanning, Jessica; Klein, Scott; Isbell, Elif; Neville, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Over the course of several years of research, the authors have employed psychophysics, electrophysiological (ERP) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques to study the development and neuroplasticity of the human brain. During this time, they observed that different brain systems and related functions display markedly different degrees or…

  12. Contemporary Outcome Research and Programming Guidelines for Asperger Syndrome and High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsatsanis, Katharine D.; Foley, Christine; Donehower, Claire

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an extraordinary surge of interest in achieving a greater understanding of the needs of children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome and high-functioning autism, and with this increase in attention, research has provided a range of directions with respect to treatment guidelines. However, there is also a need for…

  13. Service Coordination and Children's Functioning in a School-Based Intensive Mental Health Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puddy, Richard W.; Roberts, Michael C.; Vernberg, Eric M.; Hambrick, Erin P.

    2012-01-01

    Coordination of mental health services in children with serious emotional disturbance (SED) has shown a preliminary relationship to positive outcomes in children. Yet, research in this area is sparse. Therefore, the relation between service coordination activities and adaptive functioning was examined for 51 children SED who were treated in the…

  14. Effects of a summer treatment program on functional sports outcomes in young children with ADHD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Participation in youth sports can be very beneficial, but children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may participate less often and less successfully. The current study evaluated functional sports outcomes for children with ADHD who attended an intensive behavioral treatment that...

  15. Fetal programming of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal function: prenatal stress and glucocorticoids

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Amita; Dunn, Elizabeth; Kostaki, Alice; Andrews, Marcus H; Matthews, Stephen G

    2006-01-01

    Prenatal stress (PS) and maternal exposure to exogenous glucocorticoids can lead to permanent modification of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function and stress-related behaviour. Both of these manipulations lead to increased fetal exposure to glucocorticoids. Glucocorticoids are essential for many aspects of normal brain development, but exposure of the fetal brain to an excess of glucocorticoids can have life-long effects on neuroendocrine function. Both endogenous glucocorticoid and synthetic glucocorticoid exposure have a number of rapid effects in the fetal brain, including modification of neurotransmitter systems and transcriptional machinery. Such fetal exposure permanently alters HPA function in prepubertal, postpubertal and ageing offspring, in a sex-dependent manner. Prenatal stress and exogenous glucocorticoid manipulation also lead to the modification of behaviour, brain and organ morphology, as well as altered regulation of other endocrine systems. It is also becoming increasingly apparent that the timing of exposure to PS or synthetic glucocorticoids has tremendous effects on the nature of the phenotypic outcome. Permanent changes in endocrine function will ultimately impact on health in both human and animal populations. PMID:16469780

  16. Pedagogical Design for a Cross-Functional Course in the Accelerated MBA Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balasubramnian, Bhanu; Steigner, Tanja; Coulson, Kevin R.

    2011-01-01

    The sub-prime financial crisis exposed weaknesses in the financial risk management of several prominent firms. A deficient risk management is mainly attributed to the lack of integration of finance with other business disciplines. In this paper, we describe a tested implementation of a cross-functional project that improves students' understanding…

  17. A Functional Specification for a Programming Language for Computer Aided Learning Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa (Ontario).

    In 1972 there were at least six different course authoring languages in use in Canada with little exchange of course materials between Computer Assisted Learning (CAL) centers. In order to improve facilities for producing "transportable" computer based course materials, a working panel undertook the definition of functional requirements of a user…

  18. An Educational Programming Framework for a Subset of Students with Diverse Learning Needs: Borderline Intellectual Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Steven R.

    2008-01-01

    Students with intelligence test scores between 70 and 85 frequently fall into the gap between general and special education. Students with borderline intellectual functioning are a large population at-risk for school failure. Recent educational trends (e.g., the use of response to intervention models of special education eligibility,…

  19. Knowledge-based function optimization using fuzzy cultural algorithms with evolutionary programming.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, R G; Zhu, S

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the advantages of a fuzzy representation in problem solving and search is investigated using the framework of Cultural algorithms (CAs). Since all natural languages contain a fuzzy component, the natural question is "Does this fuzzy representation facilitate the problem-solving process, within these systems". In order to investigate this question we use the CA framework of Reynolds (1996), CAs are a computational model of cultural evolution derived from and used to express basic anthropological models of culture and its development. A mathematical model of a full fuzzy CA is developed there. In it, the problem solving knowledge is represented using a fuzzy framework. Several theoretical results concerning its properties are presented. The model is then applied to the solution of a set of 12 difficult, benchmark problems in nonlinear real-valued function optimization. The performance of the full fuzzy model is compared with 8 other fuzzy and crisp architectures. The results suggest that a fuzzy approach can produce a statistically significant improvement in search efficiency over nonfuzzy versions for the entire set of functions, the then investigate the class of performance functions for which the full fuzzy system exhibits the greatest improvements over nonfuzzy systems. In general, these are functions which require some preliminary investigation in order to embark on an effective search. PMID:18244764

  20. Fitting Item Characteristic Curves with Spline Functions. [Program Statistics Research Technical Report Series].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winsberg, Suzanne; And Others

    In most item response theory models a particular mathematical form is assumed for all item characteristic curves, e.g., a logistic function. It could be desirable, however, to estimate the shape of the item characteristic curves without prior restrictive assumptions about its mathematical form. We have developed a practical method of estimating…

  1. Functional Genetic Screen to Identify Interneurons Governing Behaviorally Distinct Aspects of Drosophila Larval Motor Programs.

    PubMed

    Clark, Matt Q; McCumsey, Stephanie J; Lopez-Darwin, Sereno; Heckscher, Ellie S; Doe, Chris Q

    2016-01-01

    Drosophila larval crawling is an attractive system to study rhythmic motor output at the level of animal behavior. Larval crawling consists of waves of muscle contractions generating forward or reverse locomotion. In addition, larvae undergo additional behaviors, including head casts, turning, and feeding. It is likely that some neurons (e.g., motor neurons) are used in all these behaviors, but the identity (or even existence) of neurons dedicated to specific aspects of behavior is unclear. To identify neurons that regulate specific aspects of larval locomotion, we performed a genetic screen to identify neurons that, when activated, could elicit distinct motor programs. We used 165 Janelia CRM-Gal4 lines-chosen for sparse neuronal expression-to ectopically express the warmth-inducible neuronal activator TrpA1, and screened for locomotor defects. The primary screen measured forward locomotion velocity, and we identified 63 lines that had locomotion velocities significantly slower than controls following TrpA1 activation (28°). A secondary screen was performed on these lines, revealing multiple discrete behavioral phenotypes, including slow forward locomotion, excessive reverse locomotion, excessive turning, excessive feeding, immobile, rigid paralysis, and delayed paralysis. While many of the Gal4 lines had motor, sensory, or muscle expression that may account for some or all of the phenotype, some lines showed specific expression in a sparse pattern of interneurons. Our results show that distinct motor programs utilize distinct subsets of interneurons, and provide an entry point for characterizing interneurons governing different elements of the larval motor program. PMID:27172197

  2. Developmental programming: postnatal estradiol modulation of prenatally organized reproductive neuroendocrine function in sheep.

    PubMed

    Puttabyatappa, Muraly; Cardoso, Rodolfo C; Herkimer, Carol; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2016-08-01

    Gestational testosterone (TS) excess, acting via both the androgenic and estrogenic pathways, advances puberty and disrupts the neuroendocrine estradiol (E2) feedback and periovulatory hormonal dynamics in female sheep. These prenatally programmed defects may be subject to postnatal modifications by continued organizational and/or activational effects of steroids. This study investigated (1) the organizational contribution of prenatal estrogen excess and (2) the impact of postnatal exposure to E2 in modulating the effects of prenatal androgen excess (TS and dihydrotestosterone (DHT)) on puberty, neuroendocrine feedback mechanisms, and periovulatory hormonal dynamics in sheep. Pregnant Suffolk sheep were treated with TS, DHT, E2, or E2 plus DHT (ED) from days 30 to 90 of gestation. A subset of the control (C), TS, and DHT female offspring received a constant-release E2 implant postnatally. Findings revealed that (1) prenatal E2-treatment failed to reproduce the neuroendocrine disruptions predicted to be programmed by the estrogenic pathway and (2) prenatal E2D-treatment did not adequately replicate the reproductive neuroendocrine defects induced by prenatal TS excess. More importantly, continuous postnatal E2-treatment, while delaying the onset of puberty and reducing the inhibitory effects of E2 on tonic luteinizing hormone (LH) release, failed to amplify the E2-positive feedback and periovulatory defects induced by prenatal TS-treatment. Our results indicate that disruptions in E2-positive feedback mechanisms and periovulatory gonadotropin secretion induced by prenatal TS-treatment are programmed predominantly during the prenatal life with postnatal exposure to E2 excess not contributing further to these disruptions. PMID:27222598

  3. Functional Genetic Screen to Identify Interneurons Governing Behaviorally Distinct Aspects of Drosophila Larval Motor Programs

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Matt Q.; McCumsey, Stephanie J.; Lopez-Darwin, Sereno; Heckscher, Ellie S.; Doe, Chris Q.

    2016-01-01

    Drosophila larval crawling is an attractive system to study rhythmic motor output at the level of animal behavior. Larval crawling consists of waves of muscle contractions generating forward or reverse locomotion. In addition, larvae undergo additional behaviors, including head casts, turning, and feeding. It is likely that some neurons (e.g., motor neurons) are used in all these behaviors, but the identity (or even existence) of neurons dedicated to specific aspects of behavior is unclear. To identify neurons that regulate specific aspects of larval locomotion, we performed a genetic screen to identify neurons that, when activated, could elicit distinct motor programs. We used 165 Janelia CRM-Gal4 lines—chosen for sparse neuronal expression—to ectopically express the warmth-inducible neuronal activator TrpA1, and screened for locomotor defects. The primary screen measured forward locomotion velocity, and we identified 63 lines that had locomotion velocities significantly slower than controls following TrpA1 activation (28°). A secondary screen was performed on these lines, revealing multiple discrete behavioral phenotypes, including slow forward locomotion, excessive reverse locomotion, excessive turning, excessive feeding, immobile, rigid paralysis, and delayed paralysis. While many of the Gal4 lines had motor, sensory, or muscle expression that may account for some or all of the phenotype, some lines showed specific expression in a sparse pattern of interneurons. Our results show that distinct motor programs utilize distinct subsets of interneurons, and provide an entry point for characterizing interneurons governing different elements of the larval motor program. PMID:27172197

  4. Functional Status and Inflammation after Preseason Training Program in Professional and Recreational Soccer Players: a Proteomic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Sánchez, Francisco J.; Villalón, José María; Zamorano-León, José J.; Rosas, Luis Fernández; Proietti, Ricardo; Mateos-Caceres, Petra J.; González-Armengol, Juan J.; Villarroel, Pedro; Macaya, Carlos; López-Farré, Antonio J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine if an intensive pre- season training program modifies the inflammatory status in professional soccer players and if this inflammatory profile may be associated with the physical state. We compared plasma protein biomarkers, using proteomics, and the physiological state and cardiac function in 12 professional soccer players and 9 recreational soccer players. Reduced cardiac low frequency [LF] after the pre- season training program previous competition with respect to recreational soccer players was found. No differences were found in cardiac high frequency, cardiac high frequency/low frequency ratio, tension index and oxygen volume consumption. Alpha-1-antitrypsin isotype-3, fibrinogen-gamma isotypes-1, 2 and 3 and vitamin-D-binding protein isotype-1 were reduced in professionals players compared with those in recreational players. However, an increased content of alpha-1-antitrypsin isotype-6 and alpha-1-antichymotrypsin 1 and 4 were found in professional soccer players. Spearman’s analysis showed a positive correlation between LF and fibrinogen-gamma chain isotype 3; but LF was negatively correlated with alpha-antichymotrypsin isotype 4. Professional soccer players submitted to an intensive training showed differences in the content of plasma proteins associated with inflammatory/oxidative stress and thrombosis with respect to recreational soccer players. Proteomics analysis in combination with the analysis of cardiac function assessment may be useful to know more in depth molecular processes associated with sport and intensive exercise. Key points Proteomics allow us to find differences in the plasma protein content in sportsmen. Just after pre-season training program, professional soccer players showed lower content of circulating proteins associated with inflammation compared to recreational soccer players. Proteomic analysis in combination with the analysis of cardiac function may be useful to know more in depth

  5. Functional status and inflammation after preseason training program in professional and recreational soccer players: a proteomic approach.

    PubMed

    Martín-Sánchez, Francisco J; Villalón, José María; Zamorano-León, José J; Rosas, Luis Fernández; Proietti, Ricardo; Mateos-Caceres, Petra J; González-Armengol, Juan J; Villarroel, Pedro; Macaya, Carlos; López-Farré, Antonio J

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine if an intensive pre- season training program modifies the inflammatory status in professional soccer players and if this inflammatory profile may be associated with the physical state. We compared plasma protein biomarkers, using proteomics, and the physiological state and cardiac function in 12 professional soccer players and 9 recreational soccer players. Reduced cardiac low frequency [LF] after the pre- season training program previous competition with respect to recreational soccer players was found. No differences were found in cardiac high frequency, cardiac high frequency/low frequency ratio, tension index and oxygen volume consumption. Alpha-1-antitrypsin isotype-3, fibrinogen-gamma isotypes-1, 2 and 3 and vitamin-D-binding protein isotype-1 were reduced in professionals players compared with those in recreational players. However, an increased content of alpha-1-antitrypsin isotype-6 and alpha-1-antichymotrypsin 1 and 4 were found in professional soccer players. Spearman's analysis showed a positive correlation between LF and fibrinogen-gamma chain isotype 3; but LF was negatively correlated with alpha-antichymotrypsin isotype 4. Professional soccer players submitted to an intensive training showed differences in the content of plasma proteins associated with inflammatory/oxidative stress and thrombosis with respect to recreational soccer players. Proteomics analysis in combination with the analysis of cardiac function assessment may be useful to know more in depth molecular processes associated with sport and intensive exercise. Key pointsProteomics allow us to find differences in the plasma protein content in sportsmen.Just after pre-season training program, professional soccer players showed lower content of circulating proteins associated with inflammation compared to recreational soccer players.Proteomic analysis in combination with the analysis of cardiac function may be useful to know more in depth molecular

  6. A dual function for Deep orange in programmed autophagy in the Drosophila melanogaster fat body

    SciTech Connect

    Lindmo, Karine; Simonsen, Anne; Brech, Andreas; Finley, Kim; Rusten, Tor Erik; Stenmark, Harald . E-mail: stenmark@ulrik.uio.no

    2006-07-01

    Lysosomal degradation of cytoplasm by way of autophagy is essential for cellular amino acid homeostasis and for tissue remodeling. In insects such as Drosophila, autophagy is developmentally upregulated in the larval fat body prior to metamorphosis. Here, autophagy is induced by the hormone ecdysone through down-regulation of the autophagy-suppressive phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway. In yeast, Vps18 and other members of the HOPS complex have been found essential for autophagic degradation. In Drosophila, the Vps18 homologue Deep orange (Dor) has previously been shown to mediate fusion of multivesicular endosomes with lysosomes. A requirement of Dor for ecdysone-mediated chromosome puffing has also been reported. In the present report, we have tested the hypothesis that Dor may control programmed autophagy at the level of ecdysone signaling as well as by mediating autophagosome-to-lysosome fusion. We show that dor mutants are defective in programmed autophagy and provide evidence that autophagy is blocked at two levels. First, PI3K activity was not down-regulated correctly in dor larvae, which correlated with a decrease in ecdysone reporter activity. The down-regulation of PI3K activity was restored by feeding ecdysone to the mutant larvae. Second, neither exogenous ecdysone nor overexpression of PTEN, a silencer of PI3K signaling, restored fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes in the fat body of dor mutants. These results indicate that Dor controls autophagy indirectly, via ecdysone signaling, as well as directly, via autolysosomal fusion.

  7. Two Year Exercise Program Improves Physical Function in Parkinson’s Disease: the PRET-PD Study

    PubMed Central

    Prodoehl, Janey; Rafferty, Miriam; David, Fabian J.; Poon, Cynthia; Vaillancourt, David E.; Comella, Cynthia L.; Leurgans, Sue; Kohrt, Wendy M.; Corcos, Daniel M.; Robichaud, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The progressive resistance exercise (PRE) in Parkinson’s disease trial (PRET-PD) showed that PRE improved the motor signs of PD compared to a modified Fitness Counts (mFC) program. It is unclear how long-term exercise affects physical function in these individuals. Objective To examine the effects of long-term PRE and mFC on physical function outcome measures in individuals with PD. Methods A preplanned secondary analysis was conducted using data from the 38 patients with idiopathic PD who completed the PRET-PD trial. Participants were randomized into PRE or mFC groups and exercised 2 days/week up to 24 months. Blinded assessors obtained functional outcomes on and off medication at baseline, 6 and 24 months with the Modified Physical Performance Test (mPPT), five times sit to stand test (STS), Functional Reach Test (FRT), Timed Up and Go (TUG), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), 6 minute walk test (6MWT), and 50ft walking speed (walk speed). Results The groups did not differ on any physical function measure at 6 or 24 months (p’s > 0.1). Across time, all physical function measures improved from baseline to 24 months when tested on medication (p’s < .0001), except for 6MWT(p = .068). Off medication results were similar except that the 6MWT was now significant. Conclusions 24 months of supervised and structured exercise (either PRE or mFC) is effective at improving functional performance outcomes in individuals with moderate PD. Clinicians should strive to include structured and supervised exercise in the long-term plan of care for individuals with PD. PMID:24961994

  8. Dance-based exercise program in rheumatoid arthritis. Feasibility in individuals with American College of Rheumatology functional class III disease.

    PubMed

    Noreau, L; Moffet, H; Drolet, M; Parent, E

    1997-01-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that aerobic exercise training is beneficial to prevent physical deconditioning in persons with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) without inducing adverse effects on individual's joints and general health. After significant results in individuals with RA (Functional Class I and II), the present study was conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of a modified dance-based exercise program to improve the physical fitness and psychological state of persons with RA (Class III). Ten (10) female subjects (mean age, 54 +/- 10 years) participated in an eight-week exercise program (twice weekly). Health status, use of medication, joint pain and swelling, cardiorespiratory fitness, activity of daily living, and psychological state were assessed before and after the training program. A high level of participation has been maintained by the participants (mean = 14.8/16 sessions). Most of them were able to perform a maximal exercise test on treadmill and reached 90% of the predicted heart rate at maximal exercise. No significant gain in aerobic power was observed for the group as a whole, but four subjects showed improvements of between 10% and 20% of their cardiorespiratory fitness. Positive changes in depression, anxiety, fatigue, and tension were observed after the eight-week exercise program. No deleterious effect on the health status was observed. These findings provide some evidences as to the feasibility of submitting individuals with RA to a modified dance-exercise program. Further studies, however, are required to determine the long-term effect of weight-bearing exercise on the health status of individuals with RA. PMID:9129516

  9. Programming and Isolation of Highly Pure Physiologically and Pharmacologically Functional Sinus-Nodal Bodies from Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Julia Jeannine; Husse, Britta; Rimmbach, Christian; Krebs, Stefan; Stieber, Juliane; Steinhoff, Gustav; Dendorfer, Andreas; Franz, Wolfgang-Michael; David, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Summary Therapeutic approaches for “sick sinus syndrome” rely on electrical pacemakers, which lack hormone responsiveness and bear hazards such as infection and battery failure. These issues may be overcome via “biological pacemakers” derived from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs). Here, we show that forward programming of PSCs with the nodal cell inducer TBX3 plus an additional Myh6-promoter-based antibiotic selection leads to cardiomyocyte aggregates consisting of >80% physiologically and pharmacologically functional pacemaker cells. These induced sinoatrial bodies (iSABs) exhibited highly increased beating rates (300–400 bpm), coming close to those found in mouse hearts, and were able to robustly pace myocardium ex vivo. Our study introduces iSABs as highly pure, functional nodal tissue that is derived from PSCs and may be important for future cell therapies and drug testing in vitro. PMID:24936448

  10. [Functions of participatory ergonomics programs in reducing work-related musculoskeletal disorders].

    PubMed

    Guo, M J; Liu, J J; Yao, H Y

    2016-08-10

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are most commonly seen in all the occupational non-fatal injuries and illnesses for workers, especially those who are involved in labor-intensive industries. Participatory ergonomics is frequently used to prevent musculoskeletal disorders. This paper gives an overview of a historical perspective on the use of participatory ergonomics approach in reducing the health effects of labor-intensive industries. Progress, barriers and facilitators on the organization, implementation and evaluation of participatory ergonomics programs are studied. Participatory ergonomics seems a successful method to develop, prioritize measures to prevent MSDs. Participatory ergonomics can help industries reduce musculoskeletal injuries and disorders, improve workplace condition and promote health conditions of the workers. PMID:27539352

  11. Neurocognitive functioning and outcome of the Illness Management and Recovery Program for clients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder.

    PubMed

    Färdig, Rickard; Fredriksson, Anders; Lewander, Tommy; Melin, Lennart; Mueser, Kim T

    2016-08-01

    The relationship between psychosocial programming and neurocognition has been established in previous research, but has not been explored in the context of the Illness Management and Recovery Program (IMR). This study examined associations between neurocognition and illness self-management skills acquisition, based on two previous trials of IMR. Neurocognitive functioning was assessed at baseline and post-treatment in 53 participants with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who completed the IMR. Illness self-management was measured by the client and clinician versions of the Illness Management and Recovery Scale. Statistical analyses investigated improvements in neurocognitive functioning and possible association between illness self-management skills acquisition and neurocognitive functioning. Speed of processing as measured by the Trail Making Test A, was related to client-reported acquisition of illness self-management skills, before and after controlling for psychiatric symptoms and medication, but did not predict improvement in clinician ratings of client illness self-management skills. However, when controlling for client session attendance rates, the association between speed of processing and client-reported illness self-management skills acquisition ceased to be statistically significant, which suggests that compromised neurocognitive functioning does not reduce response to training in illness self-management in itself. The association between the frequency of attended IMR sessions and outcome of the IMR seems to decrease the negative impact of compromised neurocognition on illness self-management skills acquisition. Also, clients with slower speed of processing may experience less benefit from the IMR and may attend fewer sessions. PMID:26936087

  12. Fetal programming of adult Leydig cell function by androgenic effects on stem/progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Kilcoyne, Karen R.; Smith, Lee B.; Atanassova, Nina; Macpherson, Sheila; McKinnell, Chris; van den Driesche, Sander; Jobling, Matthew S.; Chambers, Thomas J. G.; De Gendt, Karel; Verhoeven, Guido; O’Hara, Laura; Platts, Sophie; Renato de Franca, Luiz; Lara, Nathália L. M.; Anderson, Richard A.; Sharpe, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    Fetal growth plays a role in programming of adult cardiometabolic disorders, which in men, are associated with lowered testosterone levels. Fetal growth and fetal androgen exposure can also predetermine testosterone levels in men, although how is unknown, because the adult Leydig cells (ALCs) that produce testosterone do not differentiate until puberty. To explain this conundrum, we hypothesized that stem cells for ALCs must be present in the fetal testis and might be susceptible to programming by fetal androgen exposure during masculinization. To address this hypothesis, we used ALC ablation/regeneration to identify that, in rats, ALCs derive from stem/progenitor cells that express chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor II. These stem cells are abundant in the fetal testis of humans and rodents, and lineage tracing in mice shows that they develop into ALCs. The stem cells also express androgen receptors (ARs). Reduction in fetal androgen action through AR KO in mice or dibutyl phthalate (DBP) -induced reduction in intratesticular testosterone in rats reduced ALC stem cell number by ∼40% at birth to adulthood and induced compensated ALC failure (low/normal testosterone and elevated luteinizing hormone). In DBP-exposed males, this failure was probably explained by reduced testicular steroidogenic acute regulatory protein expression, which is associated with increased histone methylation (H3K27me3) in the proximal promoter. Accordingly, ALCs and ALC stem cells immunoexpressed increased H3K27me3, a change that was also evident in ALC stem cells in fetal testes. These studies highlight how a key component of male reproductive development can fundamentally reprogram adult hormone production (through an epigenetic change), which might affect lifetime disease risk. PMID:24753613

  13. Early life adversity and the epigenetic programming of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function

    PubMed Central

    Anacker, Christoph; O'Donnell, Kieran J.; Meaney, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    We review studies with human and nonhuman species that examine the hypothesis that epigenetic mechanisms, particularly those affecting the expression of genes implicated in stress responses, mediate the association between early childhood adversity and later risk of depression. The resulting studies provide evidence consistent with the idea that social adversity, particularly that involving parent-offspring interactions, alters the epigenetic state and expression of a wide range of genes, the products of which regulate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function. We also address the challenges for future studies, including that of the translation of epigenetic studies towards improvements in treatments. PMID:25364283

  14. Thyroid Function Changes Related to Use of Iodinated Water in United States Space Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMonigal, Kathleen A.; Braverman, Lewis E.; Dunn, John T.; Stanbury, John B.; Wear, Mary L.; Hamm, Peggy B.; Sauer, Richard L.; Billica, Roger D.; Pool, Sam L.

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has used iodination as a method of microbial disinfection of potable water systems in United States spacecraft and long-duration habitability modules. A review of the effects on the thyroid following consumption o iodinated water by NASA astronauts was conducted. Pharmacological doses of iodine consumed by astronauts transiently decreased thyroid function, as reflected in serum TSH values. Although the adverse effects of excess iodine consumption in susceptible individuals are well documented, exposure to high doses of iodine during space flight did not result in a statistically significant increase in long-term thyroid disease in the astronaut population.

  15. Early Programming by Protein Intake: The Effect of Protein on Adiposity Development and the Growth and Functionality of Vital Organs

    PubMed Central

    Luque, Veronica; Closa-Monasterolo, Ricardo; Escribano, Joaquín; Ferré, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the role of protein intake on metabolic programming early in life. The observations that breastfeeding in infancy reduces the risk of being overweight and obese later in life and the differences in the protein content between formula milk and human milk have generated the early protein hypothesis. The present review focuses on a mechanistic approach to programmed adiposity and the growth and development of other organs by protein intake in infancy, which may be mediated by branched-chain amino acids, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor 1 via the mammalian target of rapamycin. Observational studies and clinical trials have shown that lowering the protein content in infant and follow-on formulas may reduce the risk of becoming obese later in life. The recent body of evidence is currently being translated into new policies. Therefore, the evolution of European regulatory laws and recommendations by expert panels on the protein content of infant and follow-on formulas are also reviewed. Research gaps, such as the critical window for programming adiposity by protein intake, testing formulas with modified amino acids, and the long-term consequences of differences in protein intake on organ functionality among well-nourished infants, have been identified. PMID:27013888

  16. Executive Functioning in Alcoholics Following an mHealth Cognitive Stimulation Program: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Jorge; Lopes, Paulo; Brito, Rodrigo; Morais, Diogo; Silva, Diana; Silva, Ana; Rebelo, Sara; Bastos, Marta; Deus, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Background The consequences of alcohol dependence are severe and may range from physical disease to neuropsychological deficits in several cognitive domains. Alcohol abuse has also been related to brain dysfunction specifically in the prefrontal cortex. Conventional neuropsychological interventions (paper-and-pencil cognitive stimulation training) have a positive effect but are time-consuming, costly, and not motivating for patients. Objective Our goal was to test the cognitive effects of a novel approach to neuropsychological intervention, using mobile technology and serious games, on patients with alcohol dependence. Methods The trial design consisted of a two-arm study assessing the cognitive outcomes of neuropsychological intervention with mobile serious games (mHealth) versus control (treatment-as-usual with no neuropsychological intervention) in patients undergoing treatment for alcohol dependence syndrome. Sixty-eight patients were recruited from an alcohol-rehab clinic and randomly assigned to the mHealth (n=33) or control condition (n=35). The intervention on the experimental group consisted of a therapist-assisted cognitive stimulation therapy for 4 weeks on a 2-3 days/week basis. Results Fourteen patients dropped out of the study. The results of the neuropsychological assessments with the remaining 54 patients showed an overall increase (P<.05) of general cognitive abilities, mental flexibility, psychomotor processing speed, and attentional ability in both experimental (n=26) and control groups (n=28). However, there was a more pronounced improvement (P=.01) specifically in frontal lobe functions from baseline (mean 13.89, SE 0.58) to follow-up (mean 15.50, SE 0.46) in the experimental group but not in the control group. Conclusions The overall increase in general cognitive function for both experimental and control groups supports the beneficial role of existing alcohol treatment protocols aimed at minimizing withdrawal symptoms, but the differential

  17. Multiple Sclerosis: Changes in Thalamic Resting-State Functional Connectivity Induced by a Home-based Cognitive Rehabilitation Program.

    PubMed

    De Giglio, Laura; Tona, Francesca; De Luca, Francesca; Petsas, Nikolaos; Prosperini, Luca; Bianchi, Valentina; Pozzilli, Carlo; Pantano, Patrizia

    2016-07-01

    Purpose To investigate thalamic connectivity changes after use of a video game-based cognitive rehabilitation program, as thalamic damage and alterations in thalamocortical functional connectivity (FC) are important factors in cognitive dysfunction in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Materials and Methods This prospective study was approved by the local ethical committee. Twenty-four patients with MS and cognitive impairment were randomly assigned to either an intervention or a wait-list group. Patients were evaluated with cognitive tests and 3-T resting-state functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at baseline and after an 8-week period. In addition, 11 healthy subjects underwent baseline resting-state functional MR imaging. Patients in the intervention group performed the video game-based cognitive rehabilitation program, while those in the wait-list group served as control subjects. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to test efficacy of the intervention. The thalamic resting-state network was identified with a seed-based method; both first-level and high-level analyses were performed by using software tools. Results Patients showed lower baseline FC compared with healthy subjects. A significant improvement was seen in results of the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test and the Stroop Test after 8 weeks of cognitive rehabilitation (F = 6.616, [P = .018] and F = 5.325 [P = .030], respectively). At follow-up, the intervention group had an increased FC in the cingulum, precuneus, and bilateral parietal cortex and a lower FC in the cerebellum and in left prefrontal cortex compared with the wait-list group (P < .05, family-wise error corrected); correlations were found between FC changes in these regions and cognitive improvement (P < .05, family-wise error corrected). Conclusion The results of this study show the relevance of thalamic regulation of the brain networks involved in cognition and suggest that changes in thalamic resting-state network

  18. Neonatal malnutrition programs the oxidant function of macrophages in response to Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Costa, Thacianna Barreto Da; Morais, Natália Gomes De; Pedrosa, Amanda Lúcia F; De Albuquerque, Suênia Da Cunha G; De Castro, Maria Carolina A B; Pereira, Valéria Rêgo A; Cavalcanti, Milena De Paiva; De Castro, Célia Maria M B

    2016-06-01

    Experimental maternal nutrition restriction models are used to investigate short or long-term consequences of nutritional deficiency on puppies' growth. By assuming that the immune function is directly related to host's nutritional status, the current study aims to investigate the effects of neonatal malnutrition on oxidative stress and on the cell death of the alveolar macrophage after in vitro infection by Candida albicans. Wistar rats were suckled by mothers fed on diets containing 17% protein (Nourished group) or 8% protein (Malnourished group) in the current assay. Both groups received the standard diet used in the vivarium until adulthood, after weaning. The results showed that the offspring from mothers fed on low-protein diet presented lower body weight from 5 days of life on. Their low weight remained until adulthood when it was compared to that of rats in the nourished group. Superoxide and nitric oxide production was lower in malnourished animals and it was accompanied by low inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression levels in systems in which the alveolar macrophages were challenged by immunogenic stimulus. No significant differences were observed in comparisons performed between the nourished and malnourished groups in any of the analyzed cell viability (apoptosis/necrosis) parameters. The fungal inoculum-stimulated system induced higher oxidative stress and cell death by necrosis. The current study demonstrated that dietary restriction during lactation alters the oxidant function of alveolar macrophages in puppies; It happens from the gene transcription step to the release of mediators, thus compromising the host's defenses against Candida albicans. It raises the possibility that Candida albicans may cease to be a commensal fungus to become a pathogen in offspring that have suffered nutritional deficiency during critical developmental periods, due to impaired immune responses. PMID:27001703

  19. Programmed cell death 2 functions as a tumor suppressor in osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yuanxun; Jin, Yan; Du, Wenxi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the role of programmed cell death 2 (PDCD2) in osteosarcoma (OS), along with correlations between PDCD2 and CD4+/CD8+. Methods: Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned to control group and OS group. The OS group rats were subjected to induce models of OS by transplantation with UMR106 cells. Peripheral blood was collected to test the percentages of the CD4+ and CD8+ cell subsets using flow cytometry (FCM). Western blotting was performed to determine the PDCD2 protein level. The correlations between PDCD2 and CD4+/CD8+ were analyzed by Pearson correlation coefficient. Besides, specific small interfering RNAs (siRNA) against PDCD2 and nonspecific (NS)-siRNA were transfected into UMR106 cells. Cell viability and invasive ability were determined after transfection. Results: CD4+ cells percentages were significantly decreased in the OS group, while CD8+ cells were significantly increased (P < 0.05). The PDCD2 protein levels were markedly lower than that in the control group (P < 0.05). Additionally, PDCD2 was positively correlated with CD4+ (R2 = 0.66, P < 0.05), but was negatively correlated with CD8+ (R2 = -0.94, P < 0.05). Moreover, the cell viability and invasion ability were significantly higher than that in the control group and the NS siRNA group after transfection with PDCD2 siRNA (P < 0.05). Conclusion: These results suggest that PDCD2 is involved in the pathogenesis of OS, and PDCD2 may play an important role in tumor suppression. These mechanisms might be related to immune response induced by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. PMID:26617804

  20. Methyl Donor Deficiency Affects Fetal Programming of Gastric Ghrelin Cell Organization and Function in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Bossenmeyer-Pourié, Carine; Blaise, Sébastien; Pourié, Grégory; Tomasetto, Catherine; Audonnet, Sandra; Ortiou, Sandrine; Koziel, Violette; Rio, Marie-Christine; Daval, Jean-Luc; Guéant, Jean-Louis; Beck, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Methyl donor deficiency (MDD) during pregnancy influences intrauterine development. Ghrelin is expressed in the stomach of fetuses and influences fetal growth, but MDD influence on gastric ghrelin is unknown. We examined the gastric ghrelin system in MDD-induced intrauterine growth retardation. By using specific markers and approaches (such as periodic acid–Schiff, bromodeoxyuridine, homocysteine, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin-dUTP nick end labeling, immunostaining, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction), we studied the gastric oxyntic mucosa cellular organization and ghrelin gene expression in the mucosa in 20-day-old fetuses and weanling pups, and plasma ghrelin concentration in weanling rat pups of dams either normally fed or deprived of choline, folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 during gestation and suckling periods. MDD fetuses weighed less than controls; the weight deficit reached 57% at weaning (P < 0.001). Both at the end of gestation and at weaning, they presented with an aberrant gastric oxyntic mucosa formation with loss of cell polarity, anarchic cell migration, abnormal progenitor differentiation, apoptosis, and signs of surface layer erosion. Ghrelin cells were abnormally located in the pit region of oxyntic glands. At weaning, plasma ghrelin levels were decreased (−28%; P < 0.001) despite unchanged mRNA expression in the stomach. This decrease was associated with lower body weight. Taken together, these data indicate that one mechanism through which MDD influences fetal programming is the remodeling of gastric cellular organization, leading to dysfunction of the ghrelin system and dramatic effects on growth. PMID:19948829

  1. Nonlinear programming extensions to rational function approximation methods for unsteady aerodynamic forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiffany, Sherwood H.; Adams, William M., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The approximation of unsteady generalized aerodynamic forces in the equations of motion of a flexible aircraft are discussed. Two methods of formulating these approximations are extended to include the same flexibility in constraining the approximations and the same methodology in optimizing nonlinear parameters as another currently used extended least-squares method. Optimal selection of nonlinear parameters is made in each of the three methods by use of the same nonlinear, nongradient optimizer. The objective of the nonlinear optimization is to obtain rational approximations to the unsteady aerodynamics whose state-space realization is lower order than that required when no optimization of the nonlinear terms is performed. The free linear parameters are determined using the least-squares matrix techniques of a Lagrange multiplier formulation of an objective function which incorporates selected linear equality constraints. State-space mathematical models resulting from different approaches are described and results are presented that show comparative evaluations from application of each of the extended methods to a numerical example.

  2. Root Exudation of Phytochemicals in Arabidopsis Follows Specific Patterns That Are Developmentally Programmed and Correlate with Soil Microbial Functions

    PubMed Central

    Sugiyama, Akifumi; Manter, Daniel K.; Vivanco, Jorge M.

    2013-01-01

    Plant roots constantly secrete compounds into the soil to interact with neighboring organisms presumably to gain certain functional advantages at different stages of development. Accordingly, it has been hypothesized that the phytochemical composition present in the root exudates changes over the course of the lifespan of a plant. Here, root exudates of in vitro grown Arabidopsis plants were collected at different developmental stages and analyzed using GC-MS. Principle component analysis revealed that the composition of root exudates varied at each developmental stage. Cumulative secretion levels of sugars and sugar alcohols were higher in early time points and decreased through development. In contrast, the cumulative secretion levels of amino acids and phenolics increased over time. The expression in roots of genes involved in biosynthesis and transportation of compounds represented in the root exudates were consistent with patterns of root exudation. Correlation analyses were performed of the in vitro root exudation patterns with the functional capacity of the rhizosphere microbiome to metabolize these compounds at different developmental stages of Arabidopsis grown in natural soils. Pyrosequencing of rhizosphere mRNA revealed strong correlations (p<0.05) between microbial functional genes involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates, amino acids and secondary metabolites with the corresponding compounds released by the roots at particular stages of plant development. In summary, our results suggest that the root exudation process of phytochemicals follows a developmental pattern that is genetically programmed. PMID:23383346

  3. C-Speak Aphasia Alternative Communication Program for People with Severe Aphasia: Importance of Executive Functioning and Semantic Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Nicholas, Marjorie; Sinotte, Michele P.; Helm-Estabrooks, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Learning how to use a computer-based communication system can be challenging for people with severe aphasia even if the system is not word-based. This study explored cognitive and linguistic factors relative to how they affected individual patients’ ability to communicate expressively using C-Speak Aphasia, (CSA), an alternative communication computer program that is primarily picture-based. Ten individuals with severe non-fluent aphasia received at least six months of training with CSA. To assess carryover of training, untrained functional communication tasks (i.e., answering autobiographical questions, describing pictures, making telephone calls, describing a short video, and two writing tasks) were repeatedly probed in two conditions: 1) using CSA in addition to natural forms of communication, and 2) using only natural forms of communication, e.g., speaking, writing, gesturing, drawing. Four of the ten participants communicated more information on selected probe tasks using CSA than they did without the computer. Response to treatment also was examined in relation to baseline measures of non-linguistic executive function skills, pictorial semantic abilities, and auditory comprehension. Only nonlinguistic executive function skills were significantly correlated with treatment response. PMID:21506045

  4. Exploring the Relationship Between Treatment Satisfaction, Perceived Improvements in Functioning and Well-Being and Gambling Harm Reduction Among Clients of Pathological Gambling Treatment Programs

    PubMed Central

    Bernhard, Bo; Abarbanel, Brett L. L.; St. John, Sarah; Kalina, Ashlee

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between treatment service quality, perceived improvement in social, functional, and material well-being and reduction in gambling behaviors among clients of Nevada state-funded pathological gambling treatment programs. Utilizing survey data from 361 clients from 2009 to 2010, analyses revealed that client satisfaction with treatment services is positively associated with perceived improvements in social, functional, and material well-being, abstinence from gambling, reduction in gambling thoughts and reduction in problems associated with gambling, even after controlling for various respondent characteristics. These findings can be useful to treatment program staff in managing program development and allocating resources. PMID:23756725

  5. Introducing PROFESS 2.0: A parallelized, fully linear scaling program for orbital-free density functional theory calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Linda; Huang, Chen; Shin, Ilgyou; Ho, Gregory S.; Lignères, Vincent L.; Carter, Emily A.

    2010-12-01

    Orbital-free density functional theory (OFDFT) is a first principles quantum mechanics method to find the ground-state energy of a system by variationally minimizing with respect to the electron density. No orbitals are used in the evaluation of the kinetic energy (unlike Kohn-Sham DFT), and the method scales nearly linearly with the size of the system. The PRinceton Orbital-Free Electronic Structure Software (PROFESS) uses OFDFT to model materials from the atomic scale to the mesoscale. This new version of PROFESS allows the study of larger systems with two significant changes: PROFESS is now parallelized, and the ion-electron and ion-ion terms scale quasilinearly, instead of quadratically as in PROFESS v1 (L. Hung and E.A. Carter, Chem. Phys. Lett. 475 (2009) 163). At the start of a run, PROFESS reads the various input files that describe the geometry of the system (ion positions and cell dimensions), the type of elements (defined by electron-ion pseudopotentials), the actions you want it to perform (minimize with respect to electron density and/or ion positions and/or cell lattice vectors), and the various options for the computation (such as which functionals you want it to use). Based on these inputs, PROFESS sets up a computation and performs the appropriate optimizations. Energies, forces, stresses, material geometries, and electron density configurations are some of the values that can be output throughout the optimization. New version program summaryProgram Title: PROFESS Catalogue identifier: AEBN_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEBN_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 68 721 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 708 547 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 90 Computer

  6. Toward the development of a supported employment program for individuals with high-functioning autism in Germany.

    PubMed

    Vogeley, K; Kirchner, J C; Gawronski, A; Tebartz van Elst, L; Dziobek, I

    2013-11-01

    Human-human interactions are of central relevance for the success in professional and occupational environments, which also substantially influence quality of life. This is especially true in the case of individuals with high-functioning autism (HFA), who experience deficits in social cognition that often lead to social exclusion and unemployment. Despite good education and high motivation, individuals with HFA do not reach employment rates that are substantially higher than 50 %. This is an alarmingly high rate of unemployment considering that the United Nations have recently emphasized the inclusion of handicapped persons as a mandatory human right. To date, the specific needs of autistic persons with respect to their working environment are largely unexplored. It remains moreover an open question how support systems and activities, including newly developed communication devices for professional environments of individuals with HFA, should look like. The German health and social care systems are not adequately prepared for the proper support of this population. This leads us to suggest that supported employment programs should be developed for adults with HFA that specifically address their needs and requirements. Such programs should comprise (1) the adequate assessment of HFA, including a neuropsychological profile and an individual matching of persons' preferences with requirements of the working place, (2) on-the-job coaching activities that include systematic communication and interaction training, and (3) instruction of non-autistic peers, including colleagues and supervisors, about weaknesses and strengths of HFA. PMID:24077909

  7. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report no. 3: Design/cost tradeoff studies. Appendix A: EOS program WBS dictionary. Appendix B: EOS mission functional analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The work breakdown structure (WBS) dictionary for the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) is defined. The various elements of the EOS program are examined to include the aggregate of hardware, computer software, services, and data required to develop, produce, test, support, and operate the space vehicle and the companion ground data management system. A functional analysis of the EOS mission is developed. The operations for three typical EOS missions, Delta, Titan, and Shuttle launched are considered. The functions were determined for the top program elements, and the mission operations, function 2.0, was expanded to level one functions. Selection of ten level one functions for further analysis to level two and three functions were based on concern for the EOS operations and associated interfaces.

  8. The interplay of early-life stress, nutrition, and immune activation programs adult hippocampal structure and function.

    PubMed

    Hoeijmakers, Lianne; Lucassen, Paul J; Korosi, Aniko

    2014-01-01

    Early-life adversity increases the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies and cognitive decline later in life. This association is supported by clinical and preclinical studies. Remarkably, experiences of stress during this sensitive period, in the form of abuse or neglect but also early malnutrition or an early immune challenge elicit very similar long-term effects on brain structure and function. During early-life, both exogenous factors like nutrition and maternal care, as well as endogenous modulators, including stress hormones and mediator of immunological activity affect brain development. The interplay of these key elements and their underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. We discuss here the hypothesis that exposure to early-life adversity (specifically stress, under/malnutrition and infection) leads to life-long alterations in hippocampal-related cognitive functions, at least partly via changes in hippocampal neurogenesis. We further discuss how these different key elements of the early-life environment interact and affect one another and suggest that it is a synergistic action of these elements that shapes cognition throughout life. Finally, we consider different intervention studies aiming to prevent these early-life adversity induced consequences. The emerging evidence for the intriguing interplay of stress, nutrition, and immune activity in the early-life programming calls for a more in depth understanding of the interaction of these elements and the underlying mechanisms. This knowledge will help to develop intervention strategies that will converge on a more complete set of changes induced by early-life adversity. PMID:25620909

  9. The interplay of early-life stress, nutrition, and immune activation programs adult hippocampal structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Hoeijmakers, Lianne; Lucassen, Paul J.; Korosi, Aniko

    2015-01-01

    Early-life adversity increases the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies and cognitive decline later in life. This association is supported by clinical and preclinical studies. Remarkably, experiences of stress during this sensitive period, in the form of abuse or neglect but also early malnutrition or an early immune challenge elicit very similar long-term effects on brain structure and function. During early-life, both exogenous factors like nutrition and maternal care, as well as endogenous modulators, including stress hormones and mediator of immunological activity affect brain development. The interplay of these key elements and their underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. We discuss here the hypothesis that exposure to early-life adversity (specifically stress, under/malnutrition and infection) leads to life-long alterations in hippocampal-related cognitive functions, at least partly via changes in hippocampal neurogenesis. We further discuss how these different key elements of the early-life environment interact and affect one another and suggest that it is a synergistic action of these elements that shapes cognition throughout life. Finally, we consider different intervention studies aiming to prevent these early-life adversity induced consequences. The emerging evidence for the intriguing interplay of stress, nutrition, and immune activity in the early-life programming calls for a more in depth understanding of the interaction of these elements and the underlying mechanisms. This knowledge will help to develop intervention strategies that will converge on a more complete set of changes induced by early-life adversity. PMID:25620909

  10. Continuous and interval training programs using deep water running improves functional fitness and blood pressure in the older adults.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Thaís; Kanitz, Ana Carolina; Delevatti, Rodrigo Sudatti; Bagatini, Natália Carvalho; Barroso, Bruna Machado; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of two periodized training programs of deep water running on functional fitness and blood pressure in the older adults. Thirty-six individuals were divided into continuous group (CONT) and interval group (INT). Both groups were trained for 28 weeks (twice weekly). Measures were performed before the training period, after 12 weeks and training period. Two-way ANOVA and post hoc of Bonferroni were used (α = 0.05). There were no differences between groups in functional tests, with the exception of the flexibility of the upper limbs, in which the INT group showed the highest values. There was a significant improvement in both groups of foot up-and-go test (CONT 6.45 to 5.67; INT 6.59 to 5.78, in seconds), flexibility of lower limbs (CONT -4.76 to -0.61; INT 0.54 to 4.63, in centimeters), strength of upper (CONT 18.76 to 27.69; INT 18.66 to 26.58, in repetitions) and lower limbs (CONT 14.46 to 21.23; INT 14.40 to 21.58, in repetitions), and 6-min walk (CONT 567.50 to 591.16; INT 521.41 to 582.77, in meters). No differences were shown between groups for systolic blood pressure; however, diastolic blood pressure remained higher in CONT during all training. The blood pressure decreased significantly in both groups after the training (CONT 142 ± 16/88 ± 3 to 125 ± 14/77 ± 7 mmHg; INT 133 ± 15/75 ± 7 to 123 ± 17 and 69 ± 11 mmHg). Both programs of deep water running training promoted improvements of similar magnitude in all parameters of functional fitness, with the exception of flexibility of upper limbs, and decreased blood pressure in the older individuals. PMID:26841888

  11. Comparison of Ranson, Glasgow, MOSS, SIRS, BISAP, APACHE-II, CTSI Scores, IL-6, CRP, and Procalcitonin in Predicting Severity, Organ Failure, Pancreatic Necrosis, and Mortality in Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Ajay K.; Meher, Susanta; Prakash, Shashi; Tiwary, Satyendra Kumar; Singh, Usha; Srivastava, Arvind; Dixit, V. K.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Multifactorial scorings, radiological scores, and biochemical markers may help in early prediction of severity, pancreatic necrosis, and mortality in patients with acute pancreatitis (AP). Methods. BISAP, APACHE-II, MOSS, and SIRS scores were calculated using data within 24 hrs of admission, whereas Ranson and Glasgow scores after 48 hrs of admission; CTSI was calculated on day 4 whereas IL-6 and CRP values at end of study. Predictive accuracy of scoring systems, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of various markers in prediction of severe acute pancreatitis, organ failure, pancreatic necrosis, admission to intensive care units and mortality were calculated. Results. Of 72 patients, 31 patients had organ failure and local complication classified as severe acute pancreatitis, 17 had pancreatic necrosis, and 9 died (12.5%). Area under curves for Ranson, Glasgow, MOSS, SIRS, APACHE-II, BISAP, CTSI, IL-6, and CRP in predicting SAP were 0.85, 0.75, 0.73, 0.73, 0.88, 0.80, 0.90, and 0.91, respectively, for pancreatic necrosis 0.70, 0.64, 0.61, 0.61, 0.68, 0.61, 0.75, 0.86, and 0.90, respectively, and for mortality 0.84, 0.83, 0.77, 0.76, 0.86, 0.83, 0.57, 0.80, and 0.75, respectively. Conclusion. CRP and IL-6 have shown a promising result in early detection of severity and pancreatic necrosis whereas APACHE-II and Ranson score in predicting AP related mortality in this study. PMID:24204087

  12. Clinical Psychology Ph.D. Program Admissions: Differential Values as a Function of Program Characteristics and the Implications of the Mentor-Model Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Jesse A.

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this research were to 1) examine the qualities for which applicants are selected for entrance into clinical psychology Ph.D. programs, and 2) investigate the prevalence and impact of the mentor-model approach to admissions on multiple domains of programs and the field at large. Fifty Directors of Clinical Training (DCTs) provided data…

  13. An Examination of Interprofessional Team Functioning in a BScN Blended Learning Program: Implications for Accessible Distance-Based Nursing Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Lorraine Mary; Beattie, Bev; Caswell, Wenda; Fitzgerald, Scott; Nowrouzi, Behdin

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the perceptions and experiences of an interprofessional team responsible for the development and delivery of the Registered Practical Nurse (RPN) to Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BScN) Blended Learning Program at Nipissing University were examined. In this program, RPNs can acquire a BScN through distance-based part-time study,…

  14. Solution of self-consistent equations for the N 3LO nuclear energy density functional in spherical symmetry. The program HOSPHE (v1.02)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlsson, B. G.; Dobaczewski, J.; Toivanen, J.; Veselý, P.

    2010-09-01

    We present solution of self-consistent equations for the N 3LO nuclear energy density functional. We derive general expressions for the mean fields expressed as differential operators depending on densities and for the densities expressed in terms of derivatives of wave functions. These expressions are then specified to the case of spherical symmetry. We also present the computer program HOSPHE (v1.02), which solves the self-consistent equations by using the expansion of single-particle wave functions on the spherical harmonic oscillator basis. Program summaryProgram title: HOSPHE (v1.02) Catalogue identifier: AEGK_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEGK_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 45 809 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 290 514 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran-90 Computer: PCs and workstations Operating system: Linux RAM: 50 MB Classification: 17.22 External routines: LAPACK ( http://www.netlib.org/lapack/), BLAS ( http://www.netlib.org/blas/) Nature of problem: The nuclear mean-field methods constitute principal tools of a description of nuclear states in heavy nuclei. Within the Local Density Approximation with gradient corrections up to N 3LO [1], the nuclear mean-field is local and contains derivative operators up to sixth order. The locality allows for an effective and fast solution of the self-consistent equations. Solution method: The program uses the spherical harmonic oscillator basis to expand single-particle wave functions of neutrons and protons for the nuclear state being described by the N 3LO nuclear energy density functional [1]. The expansion coefficients are determined by the iterative diagonalization of the mean-field Hamiltonian, which depends non

  15. A curated transcriptome dataset collection to investigate the functional programming of human hematopoietic cells in early life

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Mahbuba; Boughorbel, Sabri; Presnell, Scott; Quinn, Charlie; Cugno, Chiara; Chaussabel, Damien; Marr, Nico

    2016-01-01

    Compendia of large-scale datasets made available in public repositories provide an opportunity to identify and fill gaps in biomedical knowledge. But first, these data need to be made readily accessible to research investigators for interpretation. Here we make available a collection of transcriptome datasets to investigate the functional programming of human hematopoietic cells in early life. Thirty two datasets were retrieved from the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and loaded in a custom web application called the Gene Expression Browser (GXB), which was designed for interactive query and visualization of integrated large-scale data. Quality control checks were performed. Multiple sample groupings and gene rank lists were created allowing users to reveal age-related differences in transcriptome profiles, changes in the gene expression of neonatal hematopoietic cells to a variety of immune stimulators and modulators, as well as during cell differentiation. Available demographic, clinical, and cell phenotypic information can be overlaid with the gene expression data and used to sort samples. Web links to customized graphical views can be generated and subsequently inserted in manuscripts to report novel findings. GXB also enables browsing of a single gene across projects, thereby providing new perspectives on age- and developmental stage-specific expression of a given gene across the human hematopoietic system. This dataset collection is available at: http://developmentalimmunology.gxbsidra.org/dm3/geneBrowser/list. PMID:27347375

  16. A curated transcriptome dataset collection to investigate the functional programming of human hematopoietic cells in early life.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mahbuba; Boughorbel, Sabri; Presnell, Scott; Quinn, Charlie; Cugno, Chiara; Chaussabel, Damien; Marr, Nico

    2016-01-01

    Compendia of large-scale datasets made available in public repositories provide an opportunity to identify and fill gaps in biomedical knowledge. But first, these data need to be made readily accessible to research investigators for interpretation. Here we make available a collection of transcriptome datasets to investigate the functional programming of human hematopoietic cells in early life. Thirty two datasets were retrieved from the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and loaded in a custom web application called the Gene Expression Browser (GXB), which was designed for interactive query and visualization of integrated large-scale data. Quality control checks were performed. Multiple sample groupings and gene rank lists were created allowing users to reveal age-related differences in transcriptome profiles, changes in the gene expression of neonatal hematopoietic cells to a variety of immune stimulators and modulators, as well as during cell differentiation. Available demographic, clinical, and cell phenotypic information can be overlaid with the gene expression data and used to sort samples. Web links to customized graphical views can be generated and subsequently inserted in manuscripts to report novel findings. GXB also enables browsing of a single gene across projects, thereby providing new perspectives on age- and developmental stage-specific expression of a given gene across the human hematopoietic system. This dataset collection is available at: http://developmentalimmunology.gxbsidra.org/dm3/geneBrowser/list. PMID:27347375

  17. Legal changes necessitate proactive management of Musculoskeletal Disorders: the role of electrodiagnostic functional assessment Soft Tissue Management program.

    PubMed

    Cusimano-Reaston, MaryRose; Carney, Brendan

    2011-01-01

    Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSD) often classified as sprains and strains to the low back, neck, shoulder or knee are the leading cost drivers in the workers compensation system. In 2009, soft tissue muscle injuries accounted for 40% of total injury cases requiring days away from work. The demand on U.S. employers to comply with all applicable mandates has exponentially increased as the regulatory landscape grows more complex evidenced by recent legislation from Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), American With Disability Act 2.0 and Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Mandatory Reporting Act. Employers should revisit their return to work policies and engage in the interactive process to stay in compliance and avoid legal quagmire. EFA Soft Tissue Management (STM) is a comprehensive and compliant risk management program for objective diagnosis of work-related injuries that directs timely and proper allocation of resources to optimize injured worker (IW) outcomes. This bookend solution comparing pre- and post-loss data is a best practice to accurately determine between compensable acute workplace injury and exacerbation of a preexisting injury from chronic unrelated conditions. The EFA is an evidenced-based objective tool to assist in measuring functional status of the IW and make return to work determinations. PMID:22256090

  18. CD40L induces functional tunneling nanotube networks exclusively in dendritic cells programmed by mediators of type-1 immunity

    PubMed Central

    Zaccard, Colleen R.; Watkins, Simon C.; Kalinski, Pawel; Fecek, Ronald J.; Yates, Aarika L.; Salter, Russell D.; Ayyavoo, Velpandi; Rinaldo, Charles R.; Mailliard, Robbie B.

    2014-01-01

    The ability of dendritic cells (DC) to mediate CD4+ T cell help for cellular immunity is guided by instructive signals received during DC maturation, and the resulting pattern of DC responsiveness to the Th signal, CD40L. Furthermore, the professional transfer of antigenic information from migratory DC to lymph node-residing DC is critical for the effective induction of cellular immune responses. Here we report that, in addition to their enhanced IL-12p70 producing capacity, human DC matured in the presence of inflammatory mediators of type-1 immunity (DC1) are uniquely programmed to form networks of tunneling nanotube-like structures in response to CD40L-expressing Th cells or recombinant CD40L. This immunologic process of DC ‘reticulation’ facilitates intercellular trafficking of endosome-associated vesicles and Ag, but also pathogens such HIV-1, and is regulated by the opposing roles of IFN-γ and IL-4. The initiation of DC reticulation represents a novel helper function of CD40L and a superior mechanism of intercellular communication possessed by DC1, as well as a target for exploitation by pathogens to enhance direct cell-to-cell spread. PMID:25548234

  19. Proteasome machinery is instrumental in a common gain-of-function program of the p53 missense mutants in cancer.

    PubMed

    Walerych, Dawid; Lisek, Kamil; Sommaggio, Roberta; Piazza, Silvano; Ciani, Yari; Dalla, Emiliano; Rajkowska, Katarzyna; Gaweda-Walerych, Katarzyna; Ingallina, Eleonora; Tonelli, Claudia; Morelli, Marco J; Amato, Angela; Eterno, Vincenzo; Zambelli, Alberto; Rosato, Antonio; Amati, Bruno; Wiśniewski, Jacek R; Del Sal, Giannino

    2016-08-01

    In cancer, the tumour suppressor gene TP53 undergoes frequent missense mutations that endow mutant p53 proteins with oncogenic properties. Until now, a universal mutant p53 gain-of-function program has not been defined. By means of multi-omics: proteome, DNA interactome (chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing) and transcriptome (RNA sequencing/microarray) analyses, we identified the proteasome machinery as a common target of p53 missense mutants. The mutant p53-proteasome axis globally affects protein homeostasis, inhibiting multiple tumour-suppressive pathways, including the anti-oncogenic KSRP-microRNA pathway. In cancer cells, p53 missense mutants cooperate with Nrf2 (NFE2L2) to activate proteasome gene transcription, resulting in resistance to the proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib. Combining the mutant p53-inactivating agent APR-246 (PRIMA-1MET) with the proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib is effective in overcoming chemoresistance in triple-negative breast cancer cells, creating a therapeutic opportunity for treatment of solid tumours and metastasis with mutant p53. PMID:27347849

  20. Land use/ land cover and ecosystem functions change in the grassland restoration program areas in China from 2000 to 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Fan, J.

    2015-12-01

    The grassland restoration areas in China, most of which was located in arid and semi-arid areas, are affected by climate change and anthropogenic activities. Using the 3S (RS, GIS, GPS) technologies, quantitative analysis method of landscape patterns and ecological simulation, this study examines the spatiotemporal characteristics of land use/ land cover and ecosystem functions change in the grassland restoration areas in China from 2000 to 2010. We apply two parameters land use transfer matrix and land use dynamic degree to explore the speed and regional differentiation of land use change. We propose vegetation coverage, net primary production (NPP), soil and water conservation capacity to assess the ecosystem functions. This study analyzes the characteristics of landscape patterns at the class and landscape levels and explores the ecological effect of land use pattern and regional ecological processes. The results show that: (1) Grassland and others were the main landscape types in the study area in the past decade. The ecosystem structure was stable. About 0.37% of the total grassland area in 2000 experienced change in land use / land cover types. The area of woodlands, wetlands, farmlands, and built-up areas expanded. The area of others has declined. (2) The dynamic degree of regional land use was less than one percent in the recent ten years. The speed of land use and land cover change was low, and regional differentiation of change between the provinces was small. (3) The matrix of the landscape did not change in the study area. Landscape fragmentation index values decreased progressively; landscape diversity rose continuously; landscape aggregation and continuity decreased slightly; the landscape maintained relative integrity. (4) Ecosystem functions has increased as a whole. The vegetation coverages with significant increase (with a 1.99% yr-1 slope of regression) in the total study area; NPP has a fluctuating and increasing tendency, ranging from 218.23 g

  1. Associations between Classroom Quality and Children's Vocabulary and Executive Function Skills in an Urban Public Prekindergarten Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiland, Christina; Ulvestad, Kchersti; Sachs, Jason; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2013-01-01

    Despite evidence that high-quality preschool programs have substantial, long-lasting impacts on young children's developmental outcomes, associations between preschool quality measures and children's cognitive outcomes within preschool programs are generally small or null. Using data from a large urban prekindergarten program, we examined…

  2. The effects of aquatic walking and jogging program on physical function and fall efficacy in patients with degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae-Hyun; Sung, Eunsook

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of 12-week aqua walking and jogging program on muscle function, ankle range of motion (ROM), balance and fell efficacy in degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis (DLSS) patients. Six patients (2 males, 4 females) with DLSS participated in aquatic exercise program 3 times per week with each session of 60 min (warming-up, aqua walking, aqua jogging and cool down) at 1 m 20 cm–1 m 30 cm deep pool. Janda’s muscle function test, ankle ROM, Berg balance scale (BBS) and fall efficacy scale (FES) were analyzed before and after the training intervention. We found significant increases in balance, muscle function, ankle ROM and fall efficacy after training intervention. In conclusion, aquatic exercise seems to affect physical function and fall efficacy positively in elderly DLSS patients. PMID:26535218

  3. Influence of Two Different Exercise Programs on Physical Fitness and Cognitive Performance in Active Older Adults: Functional Resistance-Band Exercises vs. Recreational Oriented Exercises.

    PubMed

    Ponce-Bravo, Hernán; Ponce, Christian; Feriche, Belén; Padial, Paulino

    2015-12-01

    This study examines the impact of a resistance-band functional exercise program, compared with a recreational exercise program, on physical fitness and reaction times in persons older than 60 years. Fifty-four community-dwelling volunteers (71.76 ± 6.02 years) were assigned to a specific exercise program: Functional activity program (focused on resistance-band multi-joint activities; experimental group, EG), or recreational physical activity program (with gross motor activities of ludic content; control group, CG). Before and after the intervention, we determined cognitive capacity in terms of simple reaction time (S-RT), choice reaction time (C-RT) and fitness. In both groups physical performance improved, though this improvement was more marked in the EG for grip strength, arm strength and gross motor abilities (p < 0.05). Reaction times were better only in EG (S-RT = 10.70%, C-RT = 14.34%; p < 0.05) after the corresponding physical training intervention. The training period showed no effect on the moderate relationship between both RT and gross motor abilities in the CG, whereas the EG displayed an enhanced relationship between S-RT and grip-strength as well as the C-RT with arm strength and aerobic capacity (r ~ 0.457; p < 0.05). Our findings indicate that a functional exercise program using a resistance band improves fitness and cognitive performance in healthy older adults. Key pointsBetter cognitive processes can be achieved as physical condition improvesExercise sessions of a more recreational type do not seem to constitute a stimulus able to improve both physical and cognitive performance in healthy active older adultsThe improvement of cognitive function, as assessed through reaction times, seems more linked to the workload and strength component of the training program. PMID:26664267

  4. Influence of Two Different Exercise Programs on Physical Fitness and Cognitive Performance in Active Older Adults: Functional Resistance-Band Exercises vs. Recreational Oriented Exercises

    PubMed Central

    Ponce-Bravo, Hernán; Ponce, Christian; Feriche, Belén; Padial, Paulino

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the impact of a resistance-band functional exercise program, compared with a recreational exercise program, on physical fitness and reaction times in persons older than 60 years. Fifty-four community-dwelling volunteers (71.76 ± 6.02 years) were assigned to a specific exercise program: Functional activity program (focused on resistance-band multi-joint activities; experimental group, EG), or recreational physical activity program (with gross motor activities of ludic content; control group, CG). Before and after the intervention, we determined cognitive capacity in terms of simple reaction time (S-RT), choice reaction time (C-RT) and fitness. In both groups physical performance improved, though this improvement was more marked in the EG for grip strength, arm strength and gross motor abilities (p < 0.05). Reaction times were better only in EG (S-RT = 10.70%, C-RT = 14.34%; p < 0.05) after the corresponding physical training intervention. The training period showed no effect on the moderate relationship between both RT and gross motor abilities in the CG, whereas the EG displayed an enhanced relationship between S-RT and grip-strength as well as the C-RT with arm strength and aerobic capacity (r ~ 0.457; p < 0.05). Our findings indicate that a functional exercise program using a resistance band improves fitness and cognitive performance in healthy older adults. Key points Better cognitive processes can be achieved as physical condition improves Exercise sessions of a more recreational type do not seem to constitute a stimulus able to improve both physical and cognitive performance in healthy active older adults The improvement of cognitive function, as assessed through reaction times, seems more linked to the workload and strength component of the training program. PMID:26664267

  5. The effect of exercise intervention on frail elderly in need of care: half-day program in a senior day-care service facility specializing in functional training.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Ryota; Miura, Yasushi

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the long-term effect of a half-day exercise intervention program on health-related quality of life, life function, and physical function in frail elderly in need of care. The program was conducted at a senior day-care facility specializing in functional training. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects included 41 elderly in need of care who had visited the service facility for at least 1 year. Physical function and life function were evaluated at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Quality of life was evaluated with the Short Form-36 at baseline and 12 months. [Results] Improvements in balance, walking speed and endurance, complex performance abilities, self-efficacy during the activities, and the level and sphere of activity were observed at 6 months and maintained up to 12 months. Moreover, improvements in agility, activities of daily living, life function, and quality of life were also observed at 12 months. Improvements in muscle strength, walking ability, self-efficacy over an action, and activities of daily living were related to the improvement in quality of life. [Conclusion] The use of individualized exercise programs developed by physiotherapists led to improvements in activities of daily living and quality of life among elderly in need of care. PMID:27512243

  6. The effect of exercise intervention on frail elderly in need of care: half-day program in a senior day-care service facility specializing in functional training

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Ryota; Miura, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the long-term effect of a half-day exercise intervention program on health-related quality of life, life function, and physical function in frail elderly in need of care. The program was conducted at a senior day-care facility specializing in functional training. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects included 41 elderly in need of care who had visited the service facility for at least 1 year. Physical function and life function were evaluated at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Quality of life was evaluated with the Short Form-36 at baseline and 12 months. [Results] Improvements in balance, walking speed and endurance, complex performance abilities, self-efficacy during the activities, and the level and sphere of activity were observed at 6 months and maintained up to 12 months. Moreover, improvements in agility, activities of daily living, life function, and quality of life were also observed at 12 months. Improvements in muscle strength, walking ability, self-efficacy over an action, and activities of daily living were related to the improvement in quality of life. [Conclusion] The use of individualized exercise programs developed by physiotherapists led to improvements in activities of daily living and quality of life among elderly in need of care. PMID:27512243

  7. Alcohol Use Problems Mediate the Relation between Cannabis Use Frequency and College Functioning among Students Mandated to an Alcohol Diversion Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McChargue, Dennis E.; Klanecky, Alicia K.; Anderson, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the degree to which alcohol use problems explained the relationship between cannabis use frequency and college functioning. Undergraduates (N = 546) mandated to an alcohol diversion program at a Midwestern United States university completed screening questionnaires between October 2003 and April 2006. Sobel's (1982) test…

  8. An Exploratory Study Examining the National School Lunch Program; How It Functions on a Daily Basis; and How It May Be Improved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bereza, John Matthew

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to make transparent the current National School Lunch Program (NSLP). The first mission of this project is to clarify how the NSLP functions on a day-to-day basis in Columbus, Ohio. Columbus is used as a sample city, yet the aim of this research is to be transferable to other locations. The second objective is to…

  9. A preliminary numerical evaluation of a parallel algorithm for approximating the values and subgradients of the recourse function in a stochastic program with complete recourse

    SciTech Connect

    Lessor, K.S.

    1988-08-26

    The parallel algorithm of Ariyawansa, Sorensen, and Wets for approximating the values and subgradients of the recourse function in a stochastic program with complete recourse is implemented and timing results are reported for limited experimental trials. 14 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  10. Examining Practices of Staff Recruitment and Retention in Four High-Functioning Afterschool Programs: Extended Study from the National Afterschool Partnership Report. CRESST Report 769

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Denise; Cho, Jamie; Nam, Hannah H.; La Torre, Deborah; Oh, Christine; Harven, Aletha; Huber, Lindsay Perez; Rudo, Zena; Caverly, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    This study describes how staff qualifications, decisions on staffing procedures, and professional development opportunities support the recruitment and retention of quality staff members. Four high-functioning programs were identified. Qualitative procedures and instruments were designed to capture staff and parents' academic perspectives about…

  11. The Secret Agent Society Social Skills Program for Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Comparison of Two School Variants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaumont, Renae; Rotolone, Cassie; Sofronoff, Kate

    2015-01-01

    School is often considered an ideal setting for child social skills training due to the opportunities it provides for skills teaching, modeling, and practice. The current study evaluated the effectiveness of two variants of the Secret Agent Society social skills program for children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASD) in a…

  12. A simple tool for implementation of US Farm Bill Programs: Can a practice-based index predict soil function in organic and conventional farming systems?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nationally, the focus on soil quality and soil ecosystem function as a foundation for natural resource conservation is rising in importance. The 2002 Farm Bill’s Conservation Security Program (CSP) considers soil quality a key component for good land stewardship. Similarly, the draft Senate and Hous...

  13. Generating information-rich high-throughput experimental materials genomes using functional clustering via multitree genetic programming and information theory.

    PubMed

    Suram, Santosh K; Haber, Joel A; Jin, Jian; Gregoire, John M

    2015-04-13

    High-throughput experimental methodologies are capable of synthesizing, screening and characterizing vast arrays of combinatorial material libraries at a very rapid rate. These methodologies strategically employ tiered screening wherein the number of compositions screened decreases as the complexity, and very often the scientific information obtained from a screening experiment, increases. The algorithm used for down-selection of samples from higher throughput screening experiment to a lower throughput screening experiment is vital in achieving information-rich experimental materials genomes. The fundamental science of material discovery lies in the establishment of composition-structure-property relationships, motivating the development of advanced down-selection algorithms which consider the information value of the selected compositions, as opposed to simply selecting the best performing compositions from a high throughput experiment. Identification of property fields (composition regions with distinct composition-property relationships) in high throughput data enables down-selection algorithms to employ advanced selection strategies, such as the selection of representative compositions from each field or selection of compositions that span the composition space of the highest performing field. Such strategies would greatly enhance the generation of data-driven discoveries. We introduce an informatics-based clustering of composition-property functional relationships using a combination of information theory and multitree genetic programming concepts for identification of property fields in a composition library. We demonstrate our approach using a complex synthetic composition-property map for a 5 at. % step ternary library consisting of four distinct property fields and finally explore the application of this methodology for capturing relationships between composition and catalytic activity for the oxygen evolution reaction for 5429 catalyst compositions in a

  14. Holsteins Favor Heifers, Not Bulls: Biased Milk Production Programmed during Pregnancy as a Function of Fetal Sex

    PubMed Central

    Hinde, Katie; Carpenter, Abigail J.; Clay, John S.; Bradford, Barry J.

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian females pay high energetic costs for reproduction, the greatest of which is imposed by lactation. The synthesis of milk requires, in part, the mobilization of bodily reserves to nourish developing young. Numerous hypotheses have been advanced to predict how mothers will differentially invest in sons and daughters, however few studies have addressed sex-biased milk synthesis. Here we leverage the dairy cow model to investigate such phenomena. Using 2.39 million lactation records from 1.49 million dairy cows, we demonstrate that the sex of the fetus influences the capacity of the mammary gland to synthesize milk during lactation. Cows favor daughters, producing significantly more milk for daughters than for sons across lactation. Using a sub-sample of this dataset (N = 113,750 subjects) we further demonstrate that the effects of fetal sex interact dynamically across parities, whereby the sex of the fetus being gestated can enhance or diminish the production of milk during an established lactation. Moreover the sex of the fetus gestated on the first parity has persistent consequences for milk synthesis on the subsequent parity. Specifically, gestation of a daughter on the first parity increases milk production by ∼445 kg over the first two lactations. Our results identify a dramatic and sustained programming of mammary function by offspring in utero. Nutritional and endocrine conditions in utero are known to have pronounced and long-term effects on progeny, but the ways in which the progeny has sustained physiological effects on the dam have received little attention to date. PMID:24498270

  15. Recovery of functional capacity in severe trauma victims at one year after injury: association with trauma-related and hospital stay aspects.

    PubMed

    Padovani, Cauê; Da Silva, Janete Maria; Rotta, Bruna Peruzzo; Neto, Ruy De Camargo Pires; Fu, Carolina; Tanaka, Clarice

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the functional capacity of trauma survivors one year after hospital discharge and to identify associations with trauma- and hospital stay-related aspects in a developing country. [Subjects and Methods] This study included severe trauma patients (Injury Severity Score ≥16; ≥18 years old) who were admitted to an intensive care unit in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Hospital stay data were collected from the patients' records. Functional capacity was assessed using the Glasgow Outcome Scale and Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale one year after hospital discharge. Patients were asked if they had returned to work/school. [Results] Forty-nine patients completed follow-up. According to the Glasgow Outcome Scale data, most patients had moderate or mild/no dysfunction. The Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale showed that 60-70% of the subjects performed most activities independently. Multiple linear regression of the Glasgow score, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Disease Classification System II score, length of mechanical ventilation, and hospital length of stay revealed an association between the Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale and hospital length of stay. Overall, 32.6% of the subjects had returned to work/school. [Conclusion] Most severe trauma patients experienced functional recovery, although only one-third had returned to work/school one year after hospital discharge. Hospital length of stay was identified as a significant predictor of functional recovery. PMID:27313345

  16. Recovery of functional capacity in severe trauma victims at one year after injury: association with trauma-related and hospital stay aspects

    PubMed Central

    Padovani, Cauê; Da Silva, Janete Maria; Rotta, Bruna Peruzzo; Neto, Ruy De Camargo Pires; Fu, Carolina; Tanaka, Clarice

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the functional capacity of trauma survivors one year after hospital discharge and to identify associations with trauma- and hospital stay-related aspects in a developing country. [Subjects and Methods] This study included severe trauma patients (Injury Severity Score ≥16; ≥18 years old) who were admitted to an intensive care unit in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Hospital stay data were collected from the patients’ records. Functional capacity was assessed using the Glasgow Outcome Scale and Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale one year after hospital discharge. Patients were asked if they had returned to work/school. [Results] Forty-nine patients completed follow-up. According to the Glasgow Outcome Scale data, most patients had moderate or mild/no dysfunction. The Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale showed that 60–70% of the subjects performed most activities independently. Multiple linear regression of the Glasgow score, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Disease Classification System II score, length of mechanical ventilation, and hospital length of stay revealed an association between the Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale and hospital length of stay. Overall, 32.6% of the subjects had returned to work/school. [Conclusion] Most severe trauma patients experienced functional recovery, although only one-third had returned to work/school one year after hospital discharge. Hospital length of stay was identified as a significant predictor of functional recovery. PMID:27313345

  17. MOTIVATIONAL VARIABLES IN PROGRAMMED LEARNING. THE ROLE OF NEED ACHIEVEMENT, FEAR OF FAILURE, AND STUDENT ESTIMATE OF ACHIEVEMENT AS A FUNCTION OF PROGRAM DIFFICULTY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOORE, J. WILLIAM; AND OTHERS

    STUDENTS' LOSS OF INTEREST IN LEARNING AS THE NOVELTY OF PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION WEARS OFF SUGGESTED THIS STUDY OF MOTIVATION AND ABILITY AS RELATED TO LEARNING RATE. STEP SIZE, ITEM DIFFICULTY, AND PERSONALITY VARIABLES WERE CONSIDERED BEFORE HYPOTHESIZING THAT STUDENTS OF EQUAL ABILITY WHO ARE STRONGLY MOTIVATED TO ACHIEVE WILL PREFER MORE…

  18. A computer program to calculate zeroes, extrema, and interval integrals for the associated Legendre functions. [for estimation of bounds of truncation error in spherical harmonic expansion of geopotential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Payne, M. H.

    1973-01-01

    A computer program is described for the calculation of the zeroes of the associated Legendre functions, Pnm, and their derivatives, for the calculation of the extrema of Pnm and also the integral between pairs of successive zeroes. The program has been run for all n,m from (0,0) to (20,20) and selected cases beyond that for n up to 40. Up to (20,20), the program (written in double precision) retains nearly full accuracy, and indications are that up to (40,40) there is still sufficient precision (4-5 decimal digits for a 54-bit mantissa) for estimation of various bounds and errors involved in geopotential modelling, the purpose for which the program was written.

  19. Impacts of a Prekindergarten Program on Children's Mathematics, Language, Literacy, Executive Function, and Emotional Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiland, Christina; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2013-01-01

    Publicly funded prekindergarten programs have achieved small-to-large impacts on children's cognitive outcomes. The current study examined the impact of a prekindergarten program that implemented a coaching system and consistent literacy, language, and mathematics curricula on these and other nontargeted, essential components of school…

  20. Demonstration Training Program for Improving the Capacity of Primary Care Units to Function Within an HMO Setting. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Detroit Medical Foundation, MI.

    The Demonstration Training Program (DTP) undertaken by the Detroit Medical Foundation (DMF) was designed for Primary Care Unit staffs (PCUs) or Physician Corporations (PCs), area health center providers under contract to the Michigan Health Maintenance Organization Plans, Inc. (MHMOP). The major goals of the program were to design an appropriate…

  1. Development and Functionality of a Handheld Computer Program to Improve Fruit and Vegetable Intake among Low-Income Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nollen, Nicole L.; Hutcheson, Tresza; Carlson, Susan; Rapoff, Michael; Goggin, Kathy; Mayfield, Carlene; Ellerbeck, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Mobile technologies hold promise for improving diet and physical activity, but little attention is given to creating programs that adolescents like and will use. This study developed a personal digital assistant (PDA) program to promote increased intake of fruits and vegetables (FV) in predominately low-income, ethnic minority girls. This study…

  2. A Controlled and Retrospective Study of 144 Chronic Low Back Pain Patients to Evaluate the Effectiveness of an Intensive Functional Restoration Program in France

    PubMed Central

    Caby, Isabelle; Olivier, Nicolas; Janik, Frédérick; Vanvelcenaher, Jacques; Pelayo, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Study Design: A controlled and retrospective study of 144 chronic low back pain patients to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive functional restoration program in France. Objective: Evaluating the efficiency of an intensive, dynamic and multidisciplinary functional restoration program in patients with chronic low back pain (LBP), during 6 and 12 months follow up. Summary of background data: Chronic low back pain disease has a multifactor nature, involving physical, psychological professional and social factors. A functional restoration program (FRP) has been included in a multidisciplinary training program which provides an efficient therapeutic solution. However, the effectiveness of an FRP has not been yet established. Methods: 144 subjects (71 males, 73 females) with chronic low back pain were included in a functional restoration program. The FRP includes physiotherapy and occupational therapy interventions together with psychological counselling. Patients participated as in- or outpatients 6 h per day, 5 days a week over 5 weeks. Pain intensity, trunk flexibility, trunk strength, lifting ability, quality of life and return to work were recorded before, immediately after, and at 6 months and 12 months after the treatment period. Results: All outcome measures were significantly higher just after the FRP (144 patients) and at 6 and 12 months (from available data in 31 subjects) compared to pre-treatment values. This FRP for chronic low back pain maintained its benefits whatever the patient’s activities. Conclusions: The effects reflected on all outcome measures, both on short and long term follow-up. The multidisciplinary FRP for chronic low back pain patients durably stopped the de-conditioning syndrome and involved new life-style habits for the patient, daily pain management and a return to work. PMID:27417611

  3. The enhanced Aussie Optimism Positive Thinking Skills Program: The relationship between internalizing symptoms and family functioning in children aged 9–11 years old

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Patricia; Rooney, Rosanna M.; Kane, Robert T.; Hassan, Sharinaz; Nesa, Monique

    2015-01-01

    The family context plays a critical role in the health of the child. This was the first study to examine the usefulness of the General Functioning subscale of the Family Assessment Device (FAD-GF) in assessing family functioning and its relationship to internalizing symptoms in school-aged children aged between 9 and 11 years of age. Eight hundred and forty-seven year 4 and 5 students from 13 schools (607 intervention students, and 240 control students) participated in the Aussie Optimism Positive Thinking Skills Program (AO-PTS) – a universal school-based program targeting internalizing symptoms. Students rated how ‘healthy’ they perceived their family to be at pre-test and at 6-months follow-up. Although some aspects of validity and reliability could be improved, results indicated that perceptions of family functioning at pre-test were predictive of internalizing symptoms at the 6-months follow-up. The FAD-GF therefore showed promise as a potential measure of family functioning for children as young as 9 years old. Regardless of children’s pre-test levels of perceived family functioning, no intervention effects were found on the anxiety and depression scales; this finding suggests that child perceptions of family functioning may act as a general protective factor against internalizing symptomology. PMID:25983698

  4. Comparison of outcome predictions by the Glasgow coma scale and the Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score in the neurological and neurosurgical patients in the Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Khanal, Kishor; Bhandari, Sanjeeb Sudarshan; Shrestha, Ninadini; Acharya, Subhash Prasad; Marhatta, Moda Nath

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of level of consciousness is very important in predicting patient's outcome from neurological illness. Glasgow coma scale (GCS) is the most commonly used scale, and Full Outline of UnResponsiveness (FOUR) score is also recently validated as an alternative to GCS in the evaluation of the level of consciousness. We carried out a prospective study in 97 patients aged above 16 years. We measured GCS and FOUR score within 24 h of Intensive Care Unit admission. The mean GCS and the FOUR scores were lower among nonsurvivors than among the survivors and were statistically significant (P < 0.001). Discrimination for GCS and FOUR score was fair with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.79 and 0.82, respectively. The cutoff point with best Youden index for GCS and FOUR score was 6.5 each. Below the cutoff point, mortality was higher in both models (P < 0.001). The Hosmer-Lemeshow Chi-square coefficient test showed better calibration with FOUR score than GCS. A positive correlation was seen between the models with Spearman's correlation coefficient of 0.91 (P < 0.001).

  5. Model Stellar Atmospheres and Real Stellar Atmospheres and Status of the ATLAS12 Opacity Sampling Program and of New Programs for Rosseland and for Distribution Function Opacity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurucz, Robert L.

    1996-01-01

    I discuss errors in theory and in interpreting observations that are produced by the failure to consider resolution in space, time, and energy. I discuss convection in stellar model atmospheres and in stars. Large errors in abundances are possible such as the factor of ten error in the Li abundance for extreme Population II stars. Finally I discuss the variation of microturbulent velocity with depth, effective temperature, gravity, and abundance. These variations must be dealt with in computing models and grids and in any type of photometric calibration. I have also developed a new opacity-sampling version of my model atmosphere program called ATLAS12. It recognizes more than 1000 atomic and molecular species, each in up to 10 isotopic forms. It can treat all ions of the elements up through Zn and the first 5 ions of heavier elements up through Es. The elemental and isotopic abundances are treated as variables with depth. The fluxes predicted by ATLAS12 are not accurate in intermediate or narrow bandpass intervals because the sample size is too small. A special stripped version of the spectrum synthesis program SYNTHE is used to generate the surface flux for the converged model using the line data on CD-ROMs 1 and 15. ATLAS12 can be used to produce improved models for Am and Ap stars. It should be very useful for investigating diffusion effects in atmospheres. It can be used to model exciting stars for H II regions with abundances consistent with those of the H II region. These programs and line files will be distributed on CD-ROMs.

  6. An outdoor adventure program for young adults with cancer: positive effects on body image and psychosocial functioning.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Robin S; Lange, Whitney; Zebrack, Brad; Moulton, Samuel; Kosslyn, Stephen M

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the psychological effects of an outdoor adventure program on young adult cancer survivors (ages 18-39). The 6-day adventure program included personal instruction and supervision on the basics of kayaking, surfing, or climbing. Compared to a wait-list control group, participants who took part in the program for the first time had improved (relative to pretest) body image, self-compassion and self-esteem, and less depression and alienation. Participants who took part for the second time, though also helped by the program in similar ways, were no better off psychologically than participants who took part for the first time. Possible explanations for the positive effects and their apparent short duration are offered. PMID:24988227

  7. Effects of a combined strengthening, stretching and functional training program versus usual-care on gait biomechanics and foot function for diabetic neuropathy: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Polyneuropathy is a complication of diabetes mellitus that has been very challenging for clinicians. It results in high public health costs and has a huge impact on patients' quality of life. Preventive interventions are still the most important approach to avoid plantar ulceration and amputation, which is the most devastating endpoint of the disease. Some therapeutic interventions improve gait quality, confidence, and quality of life; however, there is no evidence yet of an effective physical therapy treatment for recovering musculoskeletal function and foot rollover during gait that could potentially redistribute plantar pressure and reduce the risk of ulcer formation. Methods/Design A randomised, controlled trial, with blind assessment, was designed to study the effect of a physiotherapy intervention on foot rollover during gait, range of motion, muscle strength and function of the foot and ankle, and balance confidence. The main outcome is plantar pressure during foot rollover, and the secondary outcomes are kinetic and kinematic parameters of gait, neuropathy signs and symptoms, foot and ankle range of motion and function, muscle strength, and balance confidence. The intervention is carried out for 12 weeks, twice a week, for 40-60 min each session. The follow-up period is 24 weeks from the baseline condition. Discussion Herein, we present a more comprehensive and specific physiotherapy approach for foot and ankle function, by choosing simple tasks, focusing on recovering range of motion, strength, and functionality of the joints most impaired by diabetic polyneuropathy. In addition, this intervention aims to transfer these peripheral gains to the functional and more complex task of foot rollover during gait, in order to reduce risk of ulceration. If it shows any benefit, this protocol can be used in clinical practice and can be indicated as complementary treatment for this disease. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01207284 PMID

  8. Variable patterns of programmed death-1 expression on fully functional memory T cells after spontaneous resolution of hepatitis C virus infection.

    PubMed

    Bowen, David G; Shoukry, Naglaa H; Grakoui, Arash; Fuller, Michael J; Cawthon, Andrew G; Dong, Christine; Hasselschwert, Dana L; Brasky, Kathleen M; Freeman, Gordon J; Seth, Nilufer P; Wucherpfennig, Kai W; Houghton, Michael; Walker, Christopher M

    2008-05-01

    The inhibitory receptor programmed death-1 (PD-1) is present on CD8(+) T cells in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV), but expression patterns in spontaneously resolving infections are incompletely characterized. Here we report that PD-1 was usually absent on memory CD8(+) T cells from chimpanzees with resolved infections, but sustained low-level expression was sometimes observed in the absence of apparent virus replication. PD-1-positive memory T cells expanded and displayed antiviral activity upon reinfection with HCV, indicating conserved function. This animal model should facilitate studies of whether PD-1 differentially influences effector and memory T-cell function in resolved versus persistent human infections. PMID:18337576

  9. Feasibility of a Combined Aerobic and Strength Training Program and Its Effects on Cognitive and Physical Function in Institutionalized Dementia Patients. A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Bossers, Willem J. R.; Scherder, Erik J. A.; Boersma, Froukje; Hortobágyi, Tibor; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We examined the feasibility of a combined aerobic and strength training program in institutionalized dementia patients and studied the effects on cognitive and physical function. Methods Thirty-three patients with dementia, recruited from one nursing home, participated in this non-randomized pilot study (25 women; age = 85.2±4.9 years; Mini Mental State Examination = 16.8±4.0). In phase 1 of the study, seventeen patients in the Exercise group (EG) received a combined aerobic and strength training program for six weeks, five times per week, 30 minutes per session, in an individually supervised format and successfully concluded the pre and posttests. In phase 2 of the study, sixteen patients in the Social group (SG) received social visits at the same frequency, duration, and format and successfully concluded the pre and posttests. Results Indices of feasibility showed that the recruitment and adherence rate, respectively were 46.2% and 86.3%. All EG patients completed the exercise program according to protocol without adverse events. After the six-week program, no significant differences on cognitive function tests were found between the EG and SG. There was a moderate effect size in favor for the EG for the Visual Memory Span Forward; a visual attention test. There were significant differences between groups in favor for the EG with moderate to large effects for the physical tests Walking Speed (p = .003), Six-Minute Walk Test (p = .031), and isometric quadriceps strength (p = .012). Conclusions The present pilot study showed that it is feasible to conduct a combined aerobic and strength training program in institutionalized patients with dementia. The selective cognitive visual attention improvements and more robust changes in motor function in favor of EG vs. SG could serve as a basis for large randomized clinical trials. Trial Registration trialregister.nl 1230 PMID:24844772

  10. The effects of senior brain health exercise program on basic physical fitness, cognitive function and BDNF of elderly women - a feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Eun-Bum

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was to investigate the impacts of senior brain heath exercise (SBHE) program for 12 weeks to basic active physical fitness, cognitive function and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in elderly women. [Methods] Subject of this study is total of 24 women in the age of 65-79 who can conduct normal daily activity and communication but have not participated in regular exercise in recent 6 months. The study groups were divided into an exercise group (EG, n=13) and a control group (CG, n=11). The exercise program was consisted of SBHE, and training frequency was 4 times weekly, of which training time was a total of 50 minutes each time in level of intensity of 9-14 by rating of perceived exertion (RPE). [Results] First, 12-week SBHE program has shown statistical increase in basic physical fitness in the EG comparing with the CG, such as lower body strength, upper body strength and aerobic endurance, but not in flexibility, agility and dynamic balance. Second, in the case of Mini-mental state examination Korean version (MMSE-K) and BDNF, it showed that there was a statistically significant increase in the EG comparing with the CG. [Conclusion] In this study, 12-week SBHE program has resulted in positive effect on change of basic physical fitness (strength and aerobic endurance), cognitive function and BDNF. If above program adds movements that can enhance flexibility, dynamic balance and agility, this can be practical exercise program to help seniors maintain overall healthy lifestyle. PMID:27508149

  11. Functional Health Literacy and Mental Health in Urban and Rural Mothers of Children Enrolled in Early Intervention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pizur-Barnekow, Kris; Doering, Jennifer; Cashin, Susan; Patrick, Timothy; Rhyner, Paula

    2010-01-01

    "Functional health literacy," a component of health literacy, refers to the ability to read and interpret medical information. The Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (S-TOFHLA) measures the ability to read and interpret medical information. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess and compare levels of maternal functional…

  12. A retrospective observational study of functional outcomes, length of stay, and discharge disposition after an inpatient stroke rehabilitation program in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Bindawas, Saad M.; Mawajdeh, Hussam; Vennu, Vishal; Alhaidary, Hisham

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Functional outcomes, length of stay (LOS), and discharge disposition have become frequent outcome measures among stroke patients after rehabilitation programs. To examine the trends of changes in functional outcomes, LOS, and discharge disposition in stroke patients discharged from an inpatient rehabilitation facility. All patients (n = 432) were admitted to a tertiary inpatient rehabilitation hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia with stroke diagnoses from November 2008 to December 2014. The functional independence measure (FIM) instrument used to assess the patient's functional status. The LOS was measured as the number of days the patients spent in the hospital from the day of admission to the day of discharge. The FIM efficiency was used to measure the patient's rehabilitation progress. All of the variables of the prospectively collected data were retrospectively analyzed. There were significant changes by years in the total FIM ranging from 23 to 29 (P < 0.001) and subscores: FIM motor ranging from 20 to 26 (P < 0.001); FIM cognitive ranging from 1.8 to 3 (P < 0.001). The mean LOS remained constant, from 52 days in 2011 to 40 days in 2013. The FIM efficiency was stable between years and ranged from 0.52 to 0.72. The rates of discharge (to home) were significantly unstable and ranged from 100% in 2010 and 2011 to 92% in 2013. Our results suggest that functional outcomes in patients with stroke have improved after an inpatient stroke rehabilitation program between 2008 and 2014 even with a constant LOS. Discharge disposition has remained unstable over this period. To improve the efficiency of the stroke rehabilitation program in Saudi Arabia, there is a need to decrease the LOS and emphasize a comprehensive interdisciplinary approach. PMID:27495066

  13. The Pullout Program Day a Week School for Gifted Children: Effects on Social-Emotional and Academic Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Meulen, Rachel T.; van der Bruggen, Corine O.; Spilt, Jantine L.; Verouden, Jaap; Berkhout, Maria; Bögels, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gifted children learn differently compared to their peers in several ways. However, their educational needs are often not met in regular schools, which may result in underachievement and social-emotional and behavioral problems. A pullout program, the "Day a Week School" (DWS), was offered to gifted children in 25 elementary…

  14. The Impact of Professionally Conducted Cultural Programs on the Physical Health, Mental Health, and Social Functioning of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Gene D.; Perlstein, Susan; Chapline, Jeff; Kelly, Jeanne; Firth, Kimberly M.; Simmens, Samuel

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to measure the impact of professionally conducted community-based cultural programs on the physical health, mental health, and social activities of individuals aged 65 and older. Design and Methods: Participants in the study were 166 healthy, ambulatory older adults from the Washington, DC, area. We assigned them…

  15. Disability, Functional Limitation, and Health Insurance Coverage: 1984/85. Data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, John M.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) conducted during 1984 and 1985 by the Bureau of the Census are displayed in tables and charts. Data are derived from disability questions which were divided into four groups. The first group asked about the ability of persons 15 years and older to perform such sensory and physical…

  16. Effectiveness of the Social-Emotional Prevention Program as a Function of Children's Baseline Risk Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefan, Catrinel A.; Miclea, Mircea

    2014-01-01

    We report here findings from a community-based multifaceted prevention program which was implemented concomitantly as a universal and indicated intervention. Screening of social competence development was used to select preschool children targeted by the indicated intervention (high risk), and by the universal intervention (moderate and low risk).…

  17. Does It "Want" or "Was It Programmed to..."? Kindergarten Children's Explanations of an Autonomous Robot's Adaptive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Sharona T.; Mioduser, David

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates young children's perspectives in explaining a self-regulating mobile robot, as they learn to program its behaviors from rules. We explore their descriptions of a robot in action to determine the nature of their explanatory frameworks: psychological or technological. We have also studied the role of an adult's intervention…

  18. Effects of Family Functioning and Parenting Style on Early Entrants' Academic Performance and Program Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huey, Erron L.; Sayler, Michael F.; Rinn, Anne N.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the predictive nature of parenting style and overall family environment on the academic performance and program completion of early college entrants. Furthermore, gender and family form were examined as possible moderators to these relationships. A total of 88 early college entrants participated in…

  19. 34 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - Standards for Audit of Governmental Organizations, Programs, Activities, and Functions (GAO)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... objectives of a particular program. 3. Previous involvement in a decisionmaking or management capacity in the... activities to be examined. 3. Denial of access to such sources of information as books, records, and... are involved either directly or indirectly in the government management process. To achieve...

  20. 34 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - Standards for Audit of Governmental Organizations, Programs, Activities, and Functions (GAO)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... objectives of a particular program. 3. Previous involvement in a decisionmaking or management capacity in the... activities to be examined. 3. Denial of access to such sources of information as books, records, and... are involved either directly or indirectly in the government management process. To achieve...

  1. 34 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - Standards for Audit of Governmental Organizations, Programs, Activities, and Functions (GAO)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... objectives of a particular program. 3. Previous involvement in a decisionmaking or management capacity in the... activities to be examined. 3. Denial of access to such sources of information as books, records, and... are involved either directly or indirectly in the government management process. To achieve...

  2. A Functional Approach to Integrated Assessment of Teacher Support and Student Discourse Development in an Elementary Chinese Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Jingzi; Mohan, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    How can foreign language education integrate the learning of language with learning of content, and culture on a systematic basis, when assessment typically focuses on language in isolation from meaning? Examining developmental data gathered over a three-year period from elementary students in a Chinese program in North America, we explore the…

  3. The Use of Computer-Assisted Home Exercises to Preserve Physical Function after a Vestibular Rehabilitation Program: A Randomized Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Smaerup, Michael; Laessoe, Uffe; Grönvall, Eric; Henriksen, Jens-Jacob; Damsgaard, Else Marie

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether elderly patients with vestibular dysfunction are able to preserve physical functional level, reduction in dizziness, and the patient's quality of life when assistive computer technology is used in comparison with printed instructions. Materials and Methods. Single-blind, randomized, controlled follow-up study. Fifty-seven elderly patients with chronic dizziness were randomly assigned to a computer-assisted home exercise program or to home exercises as described in printed instructions and followed for tree month after discharge from an outpatient clinic. Results. Both groups had maintained their high functional levels three months after finishing the outpatient rehabilitation. No statistically significant difference was found in outcome scores between the two groups. In spite of moderate compliance levels, the patients maintained their high functional level indicating that the elderly should not necessarily exercise for the first three months after termination of the training in the outpatient clinic. Conclusion. Elderly vestibular dysfunction patients exercising at home seem to maintain their functional level, level of dizziness, and quality of life three months following discharge from hospital. In this specific setup, no greater effect was found by introducing a computer-assisted training program, when compared to standard home training guided by printed instructions. This trial is registered with NCT01344408. PMID:26981283

  4. The scope of the conscience-based exemption in Section 4(1) of the Abortion Act 1967: Doogan and Wood v NHS Greater Glasgow Health Board [2013] CSIH 36.

    PubMed

    Neal, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Doogan is a judgment of the Inner House of the Scottish Court of Session in an action brought by two midwives ('petitioners' at first instance and 'reclaimers' on appeal) for judicial review of a decision by Greater Glasgow and Clyde Health Board ('respondents'). At issue in the litigation was the scope of the conscience-based exemption contained in section 4(1) of the Abortion Act 1967, which included consideration of where the burden of managing the exemption should fall. The court of first instance (Outer House) had held that section 4(1), which exempts people with a conscientious objection from having to 'participate in any treatment authorised by this Act', ought to be read in light of section 1, which was the authorising provision. On the analysis adopted by the Outer House, any activity which was not unlawful before the 1967 Act came into force, and which therefore did not require to be authorised by section 1, was not covered by section 4(1). Roles which consisted of 'supervision, delegation, and support' were held not to fall within the scope of section 4(1) for this reason. The Inner House rejected the argument that the scope of the exemption in section 4(1) must be coextensive with the scope of the authorisation in section 1, and held that section 4(1) covered the 'whole process of treatment' given for the purpose of terminating a pregnancy. For the Inner House, therefore, 'supervision, delegation, and support' of staff directly involved in the abortion process did constitute the kind of 'participation' that a person could be exempted from under section 4(1). Moreover, the court took the view that the reclaimers' interpretation of section 4(1) was also to be preferred in terms of its likely management consequences. The appeal succeeded, and the Health Board has begun the process of appealing to the UK Supreme Court. PMID:24448479

  5. Effectiveness of Home Exercise on Pain, Function, and Strength of Manual Wheelchair Users With Spinal Cord Injury: A High-Dose Shoulder Program With Telerehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Van Straaten, Meegan; Cloud, Beth A.; Morrow, Melissa M.; Ludewig, Paula M.; Zhao, Kristin D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To test the effectiveness of a high-dose home exercise/telerehabilitation program for manual wheelchair users who have a spinal cord injury (SCI) and determine whether the intervention would reduce pain and increase function, as we hypothesized. Design A pre-post trial with outcomes measured at 3 time points: baseline, postintervention (12wk), and follow-up (24+ weeks). Setting Subjects performed an exercise program at their homes using telerehabilitation for therapist monitoring of technique and exercise advancement. Baseline and postintervention data were collected at a motion analysis laboratory in a tertiary medical center. Participants A convenience sample of manual wheelchair users (N = 16, 3 women; average age, 41y; average time in a wheelchair, 16y) with shoulder pain (average pain duration, 9y) and mechanical impingement signs on physical examination. Interventions A 12-week home exercise program of rotator cuff and scapular stabilization exercises was given to each participant. The program included a high dose of 3 sets of 30 repetitions, 3 times weekly, and regular physical therapist supervision via videoconferencing. Main Outcome Measures Primary outcomes of pain and function were measured with the Wheelchair User's Shoulder Pain Index (WUSPI), Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) Index, and Shoulder Rating Questionnaire (SRQ). Secondary outcomes of strength were measured with isometric strength tests of scapulothoracic and glenohumeral muscles, and a static fatigue test of the lower trapezius. Results Pain was reduced and function improved after the intervention. There was a significant main effect for pain and function between the 3 time points based on the Friedman signed-ranked test, WUSPI (χ22 = 5.10, P = .014), DASH Index (χ22 = 5.41, P = .012), and SRQ (χ22 = 23.71, P ≤.001). Wilcoxon signed-rank tests demonstrated that isometric strength measurements of the serratus anterior and scapular retractors increased after the

  6. Development and functionality of a handheld computer program to improve fruit and vegetable intake among low-income youth.

    PubMed

    Nollen, Nicole L; Hutcheson, Tresza; Carlson, Susan; Rapoff, Michael; Goggin, Kathy; Mayfield, Carlene; Ellerbeck, Edward

    2013-04-01

    Mobile technologies hold promise for improving diet and physical activity, but little attention is given to creating programs that adolescents like and will use. This study developed a personal digital assistant (PDA) program to promote increased intake of fruits and vegetables (FV) in predominately low-income, ethnic minority girls. This study used a three-phase community-engaged process, including (i) engagement of a Student Advisory Board (SAB) to determine comfort with PDAs; (ii) early testing of Prototype I and rapid re-design by the SAB and (iii) feasibility testing of Prototype II in a new sample of girls. Phase 1 results showed that girls were comfortable with the PDA. Testing of Prototype I in Phase 2 showed that acceptability was mixed, with girls responding to 47.3% of the prompts. Girls wanted more reminders, accountability in monitoring FV, help in meeting daily goals and free music downloads based on program use. The PDA was reprogrammed and testing of Prototype II in Phase 3 demonstrated marked improvement in use (78.3%), increases in FV intake (1.8 ± 2.6 daily servings) and good overall satisfaction. Findings suggest that mobile technology designed with the early input of youth is a promising way to improve adolescent health behaviors. PMID:22949499

  7. Development and functionality of a handheld computer program to improve fruit and vegetable intake among low-income youth

    PubMed Central

    Nollen, Nicole L.; Hutcheson, Tresza; Carlson, Susan; Rapoff, Michael; Goggin, Kathy; Mayfield, Carlene; Ellerbeck, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Mobile technologies hold promise for improving diet and physical activity, but little attention is given to creating programs that adolescents like and will use. This study developed a personal digital assistant (PDA) program to promote increased intake of fruits and vegetables (FV) in predominately low-income, ethnic minority girls. This study used a three-phase community-engaged process, including (i) engagement of a Student Advisory Board (SAB) to determine comfort with PDAs; (ii) early testing of Prototype I and rapid re-design by the SAB and (iii) feasibility testing of Prototype II in a new sample of girls. Phase 1 results showed that girls were comfortable with the PDA. Testing of Prototype I in Phase 2 showed that acceptability was mixed, with girls responding to 47.3% of the prompts. Girls wanted more reminders, accountability in monitoring FV, help in meeting daily goals and free music downloads based on program use. The PDA was reprogrammed and testing of Prototype II in Phase 3 demonstrated marked improvement in use (78.3%), increases in FV intake (1.8 ± 2.6 daily servings) and good overall satisfaction. Findings suggest that mobile technology designed with the early input of youth is a promising way to improve adolescent health behaviors. PMID:22949499

  8. Evaluation design of a reactivation care program to prevent functional loss in hospitalised elderly: A cohort study including a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Elderly persons admitted to the hospital are at risk for hospital related functional loss. This evaluation aims to compare the effects of different levels of (integrated) health intervention care programs on preventing hospital related functional loss among elderly patients by comparing a new intervention program to two usual care programs. Methods/Design This study will include an effect, process and cost evaluation using a mixed methods design of quantitative and qualitative methods. Three hospitals in the Netherlands with different levels of integrated geriatric health care will be evaluated using a quasi-experimental study design. Data collection on outcomes will take place through a prospective cohort study, which will incorporate a nested randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effects of a stay at the centre for prevention and reactivation for patients with complex problems. The study population will consist of elderly persons (65 years or older) at risk for functional loss who are admitted to one of the three hospitals. Data is prospectively collected at time of hospital admission (T0), three months (T1), and twelve months (T2) after hospital admission. Patient and informal caregiver outcomes (e.g. health related quality of life, activities of daily living, burden of care, (re-) admission in hospital or nursing homes, mortality) as well as process measures (e.g. the cooperation and collaboration of multidisciplinary teams, patient and informal caregiver satisfaction with care) will be measured. A qualitative analysis will determine the fidelity of intervention implementation as well as provide further context and explanation for quantitative outcomes. Finally, costs will be determined from a societal viewpoint to allow for cost effectiveness calculations. Discussion It is anticipated that higher levels of integrated hospital health care for at risk elderly will result in prevention of loss of functioning and loss of quality of life after

  9. Introducing PROFESS 3.0: An advanced program for orbital-free density functional theory molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mohan; Xia, Junchao; Huang, Chen; Dieterich, Johannes M.; Hung, Linda; Shin, Ilgyou; Carter, Emily A.

    2015-05-01

    Orbital-free density functional theory (OFDFT) is a linear-scaling first-principles quantum mechanics method used to calculate the ground-state energy of a given system. Here we present a new version of PRinceton Orbital-Free Electronic Structure Software (PROFESS) with new features. First, PROFESS 3.0 provides a set of new kinetic energy density functionals (KEDFs) which are designed to model semiconductors or transition metals. Specifically, PROFESS 3.0 includes the Huang-Carter (HC) KEDF [1], a density decomposition method with fixed localized electronic density [2], the Wang-Govind-Carter (WGC) decomposition KEDF [3], and the Enhanced von Weizsäcker (EvW)-WGC KEDF [4]. Other major new functions are included, such as molecular dynamics with different statistical mechanical ensembles and spin-polarized density optimizers.

  10. Function analysis of the single-shell Tank Waste Retrieval Manipulator System. Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program

    SciTech Connect

    Draper, J.V.

    1993-08-01

    This document lists the functions likely to be performed by each proposed component of the Tank Waste Retrieval Manipulator System (TWRMS) and the user functions that must be performed to operate each component. While the information contained in this document is tentative because the systems are still evolving, it provides a foundation for task analysis and control room design efforts. These efforts will support the design of a test-bed control room in the near future and an operational control room later. The information in this document is based on specifications published for the TWRMS.

  11. SEASAT economic assessment. Volume 10: The SATIL 2 program (a program for the evaluation of the costs of an operational SEASAT system as a function of operational requirements and reliability. [computer programs for economic analysis and systems analysis of SEASAT satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The SATIL 2 computer program was developed to assist with the programmatic evaluation of alternative approaches to establishing and maintaining a specified mix of operational sensors on spacecraft in an operational SEASAT system. The program computes the probability distributions of events (i.e., number of launch attempts, number of spacecraft purchased, etc.), annual recurring cost, and present value of recurring cost. This is accomplished for the specific task of placing a desired mix of sensors in orbit in an optimal fashion in order to satisfy a specified sensor demand function. Flow charts are shown, and printouts of the programs are given.

  12. Long-term return to work after a functional restoration program for chronic low-back pain patients: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Poulain, Cécile; Kernéis, Solen; Rozenberg, Sylvie; Fautrel, Bruno; Bourgeois, Pierre; Foltz, Violaine

    2010-07-01

    Low-back pain is a major health and socio economic problem. Functional restoration programs (FRP) have been developed to promote the socio-professional reintegration of patients with important work absenteeism. The aim of this study was to determine the long-term effectiveness of FRP in a group of 105 chronic low-back pain patients and to determine the predictive factors of return to work. One hundred-and-five chronic LBP patients with over 1 month of work absenteeism were included in a FRP. Pain, professional status, quality of life, functional disability, psychological impact, and fear and avoidance beliefs were evaluated at baseline, after 1 year and at the end of follow-up. Main effectiveness criterion was return to work. Fifty-five percent of the patients returned to work after mean follow-up time of 3.5 years, compared with 9% of the patients at work at baseline. Quality of life, functional disability, psychological factors, and fear and avoidance beliefs were all significantly improved. Three predictive factors were found: younger age at the onset of low-back pain, practice of sports, and shorter duration of sick leave at baseline. FRP show positive results in terms of return to work for chronic LBP patients with prolonged work absenteeism. Efforts should be made to propose such programs at an earlier stage of the disease. PMID:20224867

  13. Effects of Tai Chi versus Proprioception Exercise Program on Neuromuscular Function of the Ankle in Elderly People: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; Wang, Xue-Qiang; Zheng, Jie-Jiao; Pan, Yu-Jian; Hua, Ying-Hui; Zhao, Shang-Min; Shen, Li-Yan; Fan, Shuai; Zhong, Jiu-Gen

    2012-01-01

    Background. Tai Chi is a traditional Chinese medicine exercise used for improving neuromuscular function. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Tai Chi versus proprioception exercise program on neuromuscular function of the ankle in elderly people. Methods. Sixty elderly subjects were randomly allocated into three groups of 20 subjects per group. For 16 consecutive weeks, subjects participated in Tai Chi, proprioception exercise, or no structured exercise. Primary outcome measures included joint position sense and muscle strength of ankle. Subjects completed a satisfaction questionnaire upon study completion in Tai Chi and proprioception groups. Results. (1) Both Tai Chi group and proprioception exercise group were significantly better than control group in joint position sense of ankle, and there were no significant differences in joint position sense of ankle between TC group and PE group. (2) There were no significant differences in muscle strength of ankle among groups. (3) Subjects expressed more satisfaction with Tai Chi than with proprioception exercise program. Conclusions. None of the outcome measures on neuromuscular function at the ankle showed significant change posttraining in the two structured exercise groups. However, the subjects expressed more interest in and satisfaction with Tai Chi than proprioception exercise. PMID:23346195

  14. Long-term return to work after a functional restoration program for chronic low-back pain patients: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Kernéis, Solen; Rozenberg, Sylvie; Fautrel, Bruno; Bourgeois, Pierre; Foltz, Violaine

    2010-01-01

    Low-back pain is a major health and socio economic problem. Functional restoration programs (FRP) have been developed to promote the socio-professional reintegration of patients with important work absenteeism. The aim of this study was to determine the long-term effectiveness of FRP in a group of 105 chronic low-back pain patients and to determine the predictive factors of return to work. One hundred-and-five chronic LBP patients with over 1 month of work absenteeism were included in a FRP. Pain, professional status, quality of life, functional disability, psychological impact, and fear and avoidance beliefs were evaluated at baseline, after 1 year and at the end of follow-up. Main effectiveness criterion was return to work. Fifty-five percent of the patients returned to work after mean follow-up time of 3.5 years, compared with 9% of the patients at work at baseline. Quality of life, functional disability, psychological factors, and fear and avoidance beliefs were all significantly improved. Three predictive factors were found: younger age at the onset of low-back pain, practice of sports, and shorter duration of sick leave at baseline. FRP show positive results in terms of return to work for chronic LBP patients with prolonged work absenteeism. Efforts should be made to propose such programs at an earlier stage of the disease. PMID:20224867

  15. Implementation and extension of the impulse transfer function method for future application to the space shuttle project. Volume 2: Program description and user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, G.

    1973-01-01

    The data processing procedures and the computer programs were developed to predict structural responses using the Impulse Transfer Function (ITF) method. There are three major steps in the process: (1) analog-to-digital (A-D) conversion of the test data to produce Phase I digital tapes (2) processing of the Phase I digital tapes to extract ITF's and storing them in a permanent data bank, and (3) predicting structural responses to a set of applied loads. The analog to digital conversion is performed by a standard package which will be described later in terms of the contents of the resulting Phase I digital tape. Two separate computer programs have been developed to perform the digital processing.

  16. A Preliminary Study of the Effects of an Arts Education Program on Executive Function, Behavior, and Brain Structure in a Sample of Nonclinical School-Aged Children.

    PubMed

    Park, Subin; Lee, Jong-Min; Baik, Young; Kim, Kihyun; Yun, Hyuk Jin; Kwon, Hunki; Jung, Yeon-Kyung; Kim, Bung-Nyun

    2015-11-01

    The authors examined the effects of arts education on cognition, behavior, and brain of children. Twenty-nine nonclinical children participated in a 15-week arts education program that was composed of either creative movement or musical arts. Children completed the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, clinical scales, and brain magnetic resonance imaging before and after the intervention. Following program completion, performances on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, the Children's Depression Inventory scores, and conduct disorder scores were significantly improved. Furthermore, cortical thickness in the left postcentral gyrus and superior parietal lobule were increased, and the mean diffusivity values in the right posterior corona radiate and superior longitudinal fasciculus were decreased. Positive correlations between changes in cognitive measurements and changes in cortical thickness were observed. This preliminary study suggests a positive effect of arts education on executive functions in association with brain changes. However, these findings must be interpreted with caution due to the noncomparative study design. PMID:25862737

  17. Effects of an Individually Tailored Web-Based Chronic Pain Management Program on Pain Severity, Psychological Health, and Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chun; Oberleitner, Lindsay; Schwartz, Steven; Williams, Amy M

    2013-01-01

    Background It is estimated that 30% of adults in the United States experience daily chronic pain. This results in a significant burden on the health care system, in particular primary care, and on the workplace. Chronic pain management with cognitive-behavioral psychological treatment is effective in reducing pain intensity and interference, health-related quality of life, mood, and return to work. However, the population of individuals with chronic pain far exceeds the population of therapists that can provide this care face-to-face. The use of tailored, Web-based interventions for the management of chronic pain could address limitations to access by virtue of its unlimited scalability. Objective To examine the effects of a tailored Web-based chronic pain management program on subjective pain, activity and work interference, quality of life and health, and stress. Methods Eligible participants accessed the online pain management program and informed consent via participating employer or health care benefit systems; program participants who completed baseline, 1-, and 6-month assessments were included in the study. Of the 645 participants, the mean age was 56.16 years (SD 12.83), most were female (447/645, 69.3%), and white (505/641, 78.8%). Frequent pain complaints were joint (249/645, 38.6%), back (218/645, 33.8%), and osteoarthritis (174/654, 27.0%). The online pain management program used evidence-based theories of cognitive behavioral intervention, motivational enhancement, and health behavior change to address self-management, coping, medical adherence, social support, comorbidities, and productivity. The program content was individually tailored on several relevant participant variables. Results Both pain intensity (mean 5.30, SD 2.46), and unpleasantness (mean 5.43, SD 2.52) decreased significantly from baseline to 1-month (mean 4.16, SD 2.69 and mean 4.24, 2.81, respectively) and 6-month (mean 3.78, SD 2.79 and mean 3.78, SD 2.79, respectively) assessments

  18. Developmental Programming: Exogenous Gonadotropin Treatment Rescues Ovulatory Function But Does Not Completely Normalize Ovarian Function in Sheep Treated Prenatally with Testosterone1

    PubMed Central

    Steckler, Teresa L.; Lee, James S.; Ye, Wen; Inskeep, E. Keith; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2008-01-01

    Prenatal testosterone treatment leads to LH excess as well as ovarian follicular and ovulatory defects in the adult. These disruptions may stem from LH excess, abnormal FSH input, compromised ovarian sensitivity to gonadotropins, or intrinsic ovarian defects. To determine if exogenous gonadotropins rescue ovarian and ovulatory function of testosterone-treated sheep, the release of endogenous LH and biopotent FSH in control and prenatal testosterone-treated sheep was blocked with a GnRH antagonist during the first two breeding seasons and with LH/FSH coadministered in a manner approximating natural follicular phase. An acidic mix of FSH was administered the first 36 h at 2-h intervals and a less acidic mix for the next 12 h at 1-h intervals (different FSH preparations were used each year), and ovulation was induced with hCG. Circulating FSH and estradiol responses to gonadotropins measured in 2-h samples differed between treatment groups in Year 1 but not in Year 2. Ovarian follicular distribution and number of corpora lutea (in ewes that ovulated) tracked by ultrasonography and luteal progesterone responses were similar between control and prenatal testosterone-treated females but differed between years. Furthermore, hCG administration induced large cystic and luteinized follicles in both groups of females in Year 2, although the growth rate differed between control and prenatal testosterone-treated females. Our findings provide evidence that 1) ovulatory response in prenatal testosterone-treated females can be rescued with exogenous gonadotropins, 2) resultant follicular response is dependent on the nature of gonadotropic input, and 3) an abnormal follicular milieu may underlie differences in developmental trajectory of cystic follicles in prenatal testosterone-treated females. PMID:18524978

  19. Patterns, Functions, and Algebra: Wired for Space. NASA Connect: Program 3 in the 2000-2001 Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA. Langley Research Center.

    This teaching unit is designed to help students in grades 5 to 8 explore the concepts of patterns, functions, and algebra in the context of propelling spacecraft. The units in the series have been developed to enhance and enrich mathematics, science, and technology education and to accommodate different teaching and learning styles. Each unit…

  20. Evaluation of the Magnitude of Differential Item Functioning in Polytomous Items. Program Statistics Research Technical Report No. 94-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwick, Rebecca; Thayer, Dorothy T.

    Several recent studies have investigated the application of statistical inference procedures to the analysis of differential item functioning (DIF) in test items that are scored on an ordinal scale. Mantel's extension of the Mantel-Haenszel test is a possible hypothesis-testing method for this purpose. The development of descriptive statistics for…

  1. Functions and Statistics: International Space Station: Up to Us. NASA Connect: Program 5 in the 2000-2001 Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA. Langley Research Center.

    This teaching unit is designed to help students in grades 5 to 8 explore the concepts of functions and statistics in the context of the International Space Station (ISS). The units in the series have been developed to enhance and enrich mathematics, science, and technology education and to accommodate different teaching and learning styles. Each…

  2. Effect of a Periodized Power Training Program on the Functional Performances and Contractile Properties of the Quadriceps in Sprinters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamandulis, Sigitas; Skurvydas, Albertas; Brazaitis, Marius; Stanislovaitis, Aleksas; Duchateau, Jacques; Stanislovaitiene, Jurate

    2012-01-01

    Our purpose was to compare the effect of a periodized preparation consisting of power endurance training and high-intensity power training on the contractile properties of the quadriceps muscle and functional performances in well trained male sprinters (n = 7). After 4 weeks of high-intensity power training, 60-m sprint running time improved by an…

  3. Snai2 and Snai3 transcriptionally regulate cellular fitness and functionality of T cell lineages through distinct gene programs.

    PubMed

    Pioli, Peter D; Whiteside, Sarah K; Weis, Janis J; Weis, John H

    2016-05-01

    T lymphocytes are essential contributors to the adaptive immune system and consist of multiple lineages that serve various effector and regulatory roles. As such, precise control of gene expression is essential to the proper development and function of these cells. Previously, we identified Snai2 and Snai3 as being essential regulators of immune tolerance partly due to the impaired function of CD4(+) regulatory T cells in Snai2/3 conditional double knockout mice. Here we extend those previous findings using a bone marrow transplantation model to provide an environmentally unbiased view of the molecular changes imparted onto various T lymphocyte populations once Snai2 and Snai3 are deleted. The data presented here demonstrate that Snai2 and Snai3 transcriptionally regulate the cellular fitness and functionality of not only CD4(+) regulatory T cells but effector CD8(α+) and CD4(+) conventional T cells as well. This is achieved through the modulation of gene sets unique to each cell type and includes transcriptional targets relevant to the survival and function of each T cell lineage. As such, Snai2 and Snai3 are essential regulators of T cell immunobiology. PMID:26831822

  4. 25 CFR 170.622 - What IRR programs, functions, services, and activities are subject to the self-governance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the agreement, are subject to the regulations in 25 CFR 1000 subpart K, including applicable... are subject to the self-governance construction regulations? 170.622 Section 170.622 Indians BUREAU OF..., functions, services, and activities are subject to the self-governance construction regulations? All...

  5. 25 CFR 170.622 - What IRR programs, functions, services, and activities are subject to the self-governance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the agreement, are subject to the regulations in 25 CFR 1000 subpart K, including applicable... are subject to the self-governance construction regulations? 170.622 Section 170.622 Indians BUREAU OF..., functions, services, and activities are subject to the self-governance construction regulations? All...

  6. 25 CFR 170.622 - What IRR programs, functions, services, and activities are subject to the self-governance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the agreement, are subject to the regulations in 25 CFR 1000 subpart K, including applicable... are subject to the self-governance construction regulations? 170.622 Section 170.622 Indians BUREAU OF..., functions, services, and activities are subject to the self-governance construction regulations? All...

  7. 25 CFR 170.622 - What IRR programs, functions, services, and activities are subject to the self-governance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the agreement, are subject to the regulations in 25 CFR 1000 subpart K, including applicable... are subject to the self-governance construction regulations? 170.622 Section 170.622 Indians BUREAU OF..., functions, services, and activities are subject to the self-governance construction regulations? All...

  8. Users manual for program ADMIT: Admittance and pressure transfer function developed for use on a PC computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, Wilbur C.

    1992-01-01

    The piping in a liquid rocket can assume complex configurations due to multiple tanks, multiple engines, and structures that must be piped around. The capability to handle some of these complex configurations have been incorporated into the ADMIT code. The capability to modify the input on line has been implemented. The configurations allowed include multiple tanks, multiple engines, the splitting of a pipe into unequal segments going to different (or the same) engines. This program will handle the following type elements: straight pipes, bends, inline accumulators, tuned stub accumulators, Helmholtz resonators, parallel resonators, pumps, split pipes, multiple tanks, and multiple engines.

  9. High-intensity functional exercise program and protein-enriched energy supplement for older persons dependent in activities of daily living: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rosendahl, Erik; Lindelöf, Nina; Littbrand, Håkan; Yifter-Lindgren, Elinor; Lundin-Olsson, Lillemor; Håglin, Lena; Gustafson, Yngve; Nyberg, Lars

    2006-01-01

    The aims of this randomised controlled trial were to determine if a high-intensity functional exercise program improves balance, gait ability, and lower-limb strength in older persons dependent in activities of daily living and if an intake of protein-enriched energy supplement immediately after the exercises increases the effects of the training. One hundred and ninety-one older persons dependent in activities of daily living, living in residential care facilities, and with a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score of ? 10 participated. They were randomised to a high-intensity functional exercise program or a control activity, which included 29 sessions over 3 months, as well as to protein-enriched energy supplement or placebo. Berg Balance Scale, self-paced and maximum gait speed, and one-repetition maximum in lower-limb strength were followed-up at three and six months and analysed by 2 x 2 factorial ANCOVA, using the intention-to-treat principle. At three months, the exercise group had improved significantly in self-paced gait speed compared with the control group (mean difference 0.04 m/s, p = 0.02). At six months, there were significant improvements favouring the exercise group for Berg Balance Scale (1.9 points, p = 0.05), self-paced gait speed (0.05 m/s, p = 0.009), and lower-limb strength (10.8 kg, p = 0.03). No interaction effects were seen between the exercise and nutrition interventions. In conclusion, a high-intensity functional exercise program has positive long-term effects in balance, gait ability, and lower-limb strength for older persons dependent in activities of daily living. An intake of protein-enriched energy supplement immediately after the exercises does not appear to increase the effects of the training. PMID:16764547

  10. Therapist turnover and new program sustainability in mental health clinics as a function of organizational culture, climate, and service structure.

    PubMed

    Glisson, Charles; Schoenwald, Sonja K; Kelleher, Kelly; Landsverk, John; Hoagwood, Kimberly Eaton; Mayberg, Stephen; Green, Philip

    2008-03-01

    The present study incorporates organizational theory and organizational characteristics in examining issues related to the successful implementation of mental health services. Following the theoretical foundations of socio-technical and cultural models of organizational effectiveness, organizational climate, culture, legal and service structures, and workforce characteristics are examined as correlates of therapist turnover and new program sustainability in a nationwide sample of mental health clinics. Results of General Linear Modeling (GLM) with the organization as the unit of analysis revealed that organizations with the best climates as measured by the Organizational Social Context (OSC) profiling system, had annual turnover rates (10%) that were less than half the rates found in organizations with the worst climates (22%). In addition, organizations with the best culture profiles sustained new treatment or service programs over twice as long (50 vs. 24 months) as organizations with the worst cultures. Finally, clinics with separate children's services units had higher turnover rates than clinics that served adults and children within the same unit. The findings suggest that strategies to support the implementation of new mental health treatments and services should attend to organizational culture and climate, and to the compatibility of organizational service structures with the demand characteristics of treatments. PMID:18080741

  11. "Braingame Brian": Toward an Executive Function Training Program with Game Elements for Children with ADHD and Cognitive Control Problems.

    PubMed

    Prins, Pier J M; Brink, Esther Ten; Dovis, Sebastiaan; Ponsioen, Albert; Geurts, Hilde M; de Vries, Marieke; van der Oord, Saskia

    2013-02-01

    In the area of childhood attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, there is an urgent need for new, innovative, and child-focused treatments. A computerized executive functioning training with game elements aimed at enhancing self-control was developed. The first results are promising, and the next steps involve replication with larger samples, evaluating transfer of training effects to daily life, and enhancing motivation through more gaming elements. PMID:26196554

  12. Impact of a mobile phone and web program on symptom and functional outcomes for people with mild-to-moderate depression, anxiety and stress: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mobile phone-based psychological interventions enable real time self-monitoring and self-management, and large-scale dissemination. However, few studies have focussed on mild-to-moderate symptoms where public health need is greatest, and none have targeted work and social functioning. This study reports outcomes of a CONSORT-compliant randomised controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate the efficacy of myCompass, a self-guided psychological treatment delivered via mobile phone and computer, designed to reduce mild-to-moderate depression, anxiety and stress, and improve work and social functioning. Method Community-based volunteers with mild-to-moderate depression, anxiety and/or stress (N = 720) were randomly assigned to the myCompass program, an attention control intervention, or to a waitlist condition for seven weeks. The interventions were fully automated, without any human input or guidance. Participants’ symptoms and functioning were assessed at baseline, post-intervention and 3-month follow-up, using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale. Results Retention rates at post-intervention and follow-up for the study sample were 72.1% (n = 449) and 48.6% (n = 350) respectively. The myCompass group showed significantly greater improvement in symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress and in work and social functioning relative to both control conditions at the end of the 7-week intervention phase (between-group effect sizes ranged from d = .22 to d = .55 based on the observed means). Symptom scores remained at near normal levels at 3-month follow-up. Participants in the attention control condition showed gradual symptom improvement during the post-intervention phase and their scores did not differ from the myCompass group at 3-month follow-up. Conclusions The myCompass program is an effective public health program, facilitating rapid improvements in symptoms and in work and social functioning for

  13. Study protocol: a randomised controlled trial of the effects of a multi-modal exercise program on cognition and physical functioning in older women

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Intervention studies testing the efficacy of cardiorespiratory exercise have shown some promise in terms of improving cognitive function in later life. Recent developments suggest that a multi-modal exercise intervention that includes motor as well as physical training and requires sustained attention and concentration, may better elicit the actual potency of exercise to enhance cognitive performance. This study will test the effect of a multi-modal exercise program, for older women, on cognitive and physical functioning. Methods/design This randomised controlled trial involves community dwelling women, without cognitive impairment, aged 65–75 years. Participants are randomised to exercise intervention or non-exercise control groups, for 16 weeks. The intervention consists of twice weekly, 60 minute, exercise classes incorporating aerobic, strength, balance, flexibility, co-ordination and agility training. Primary outcomes are measures of cognitive function and secondary outcomes include physical functioning and a neurocognitive biomarker (brain derived neurotrophic factor). Measures are taken at baseline and 16 weeks later and qualitative data related to the experience and acceptability of the program are collected from a sub-sample of the intervention group. Discussion If this randomised controlled trial demonstrates that multimodal exercise (that includes motor fitness training) can improve cognitive performance in later life, the benefits will be two-fold. First, an inexpensive, effective strategy will have been developed that could ameliorate the increased prevalence of age-related cognitive impairment predicted to accompany population ageing. Second, more robust evidence will have been provided about the mechanisms that link exercise to cognitive improvement allowing future research to be better focused and potentially more productive. Trial registration Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trial Registration Number: ANZCTR12612000451808 PMID

  14. Effect of a High-Intensity Exercise Program on Physical Function and Mental Health in Nursing Home Residents with Dementia: An Assessor Blinded Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Telenius, Elisabeth Wiken; Engedal, Knut; Bergland, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    Background Dementia is among the leading causes of functional loss and disability in older adults. Research has demonstrated that nursing home patients without dementia can improve their function in activities of daily living, strength, balance and mental well being by physical exercise. The evidence on effect of physical exercise among nursing home patients with dementia is scarce and ambiguous. Thus, the primary objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a high intensity functional exercise program on the performance of balance in nursing home residents with dementia. The secondary objective was to examine the effect of this exercise on muscle strength, mobility, activities of daily living, quality of life and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Design and Methods This single blinded randomized controlled trial was conducted among 170 persons with dementia living in nursing homes. Mean age was 86.7 years (SD = 7.4) and 74% were women. The participants were randomly allocated to an intervention (n = 87) or a control group (n = 83). The intervention consisted of intensive strengthening and balance exercises in small groups twice a week for 12 weeks. The control condition was leisure activities. Results The intervention group improved the score on Bergs Balance Scale by 2.9 points, which was significantly more than the control group who improved by 1.2 points (p = 0.02). Having exercised 12 times or more was significantly associated with improved strength after intervention (p<0.05). The level of apathy was lower in the exercise group after the intervention, compared to the control group (p = 0.048). Conclusion The results from our study indicate that a high intensity functional exercise program improved balance and muscle strength as well as reduced apathy in nursing home patients with dementia. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02262104 PMID:25974049

  15. ‘tripleint_cc’: A program for 2-centre variational leptonic Coulomb potential matrix elements using Hylleraas-type trial functions, with a performance optimization study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plummer, M.; Armour, E. A. G.; Todd, A. C.; Franklin, C. P.; Cooper, J. N.

    2009-12-01

    We present a program used to calculate intricate three-particle integrals for variational calculations of solutions to the leptonic Schrödinger equation with two nuclear centres in which inter-leptonic distances (electron-electron and positron-electron) are included directly in the trial functions. The program has been used so far in calculations of He-H¯ interactions and positron H 2 scattering, however the precisely defined integrals are applicable to other situations. We include a summary discussion of how the program has been optimized from a 'legacy'-type code to a more modern high-performance code with a performance improvement factor of up to 1000. Program summaryProgram title: tripleint.cc Catalogue identifier: AEEV_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEEV_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 12 829 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 91 798 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 95 (fixed format) Computer: Modern PC (tested on AMD processor) [1], IBM Power5 [2] Cray XT4 [3], similar Operating system: Red Hat Linux [1], IBM AIX [2], UNICOS [3] Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: Serial (multi-core shared memory may be needed for some large jobs) RAM: Dependent on parameter sizes and option to use intermediate I/O. Estimates for practical use: 0.5-2 GBytes (with intermediate I/O); 1-4 GBytes (all-memory: the preferred option). Classification: 2.4, 2.6, 2.7, 2.9, 16.5, 16.10, 20 Nature of problem: The 'tripleint.cc' code evaluates three-particle integrals needed in certain variational (in particular: Rayleigh-Ritz and generalized-Kohn) matrix elements for solution of the Schrödinger equation with two fixed centres (the solutions may then be used in subsequent dynamic

  16. KANTBP 2.0: New version of a program for computing energy levels, reaction matrix and radial wave functions in the coupled-channel hyperspherical adiabatic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuluunbaatar, O.; Gusev, A. A.; Vinitsky, S. I.; Abrashkevich, A. G.

    2008-11-01

    A FORTRAN 77 program for calculating energy values, reaction matrix and corresponding radial wave functions in a coupled-channel approximation of the hyperspherical adiabatic approach is presented. In this approach, a multi-dimensional Schrödinger equation is reduced to a system of the coupled second-order ordinary differential equations on a finite interval with homogeneous boundary conditions: (i) the Dirichlet, Neumann and third type at the left and right boundary points for continuous spectrum problem, (ii) the Dirichlet and Neumann type conditions at left boundary point and Dirichlet, Neumann and third type at the right boundary point for the discrete spectrum problem. The resulting system of radial equations containing the potential matrix elements and first-derivative coupling terms is solved using high-order accuracy approximations of the finite element method. As a test desk, the program is applied to the calculation of the reaction matrix and radial wave functions for 3D-model of a hydrogen-like atom in a homogeneous magnetic field. This version extends the previous version 1.0 of the KANTBP program [O. Chuluunbaatar, A.A. Gusev, A.G. Abrashkevich, A. Amaya-Tapia, M.S. Kaschiev, S.Y. Larsen, S.I. Vinitsky, Comput. Phys. Commun. 177 (2007) 649-675]. Program summaryProgram title: KANTBP Catalogue identifier: ADZH_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADZH_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 20 403 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 147 563 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: FORTRAN 77 Computer: Intel Xeon EM64T, Alpha 21264A, AMD Athlon MP, Pentium IV Xeon, Opteron 248, Intel Pentium IV Operating system: OC Linux, Unix AIX 5.3, SunOS 5.8, Solaris, Windows XP RAM: This depends on the

  17. The OutSMARTers Program for Children With ADHD: A Pilot Study on the Effects of Social Skills, Self-Regulation, and Executive Function Training.

    PubMed

    Hannesdottir, Dagmar Kristin; Ingvarsdottir, Ester; Bjornsson, Andri

    2014-02-01

    Objective: This study examined the effects of the OutSMARTers program on social skills, self-regulation, and executive functions compared with a Waitlist group and a parent training program. Method: Participants were 41 children with ADHD, aged 8 to 10 years. All groups were assessed with behavioral checklists and neuropsychological measures at baseline and post-treatment. The two treatment groups were reassessed with behavioral checklists after 3 months. Results: Findings revealed decreased ADHD symptoms, improved social skills, and better emotion regulation at post-treatment for the OutSMARTers compared with the Waitlist group on subjective measures. No differences were found on objective tasks or between the OutSMARTers and Parent groups after treatment but both treatment groups showed some improvement. In addition, most of the post-treatment changes were maintained for both groups 3 months later. Conclusion: The results indicate that the OutSMARTers program seems to benefit children with ADHD, but further research and treatment development is needed. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:24505061

  18. Measurement of functional capacity requirements to aid in development of an occupation-specific rehabilitation training program to help firefighters with cardiac disease safely return to work.

    PubMed

    Adams, Jenny; Roberts, Joanne; Simms, Kay; Cheng, Dunlei; Hartman, Julie; Bartlett, Charles

    2009-03-15

    We designed a study to measure the functional capacity requirements of firefighters to aid in the development of an occupation-specific training program in cardiac rehabilitation; 23 healthy male firefighters with no history of heart disease completed a fire and rescue obstacle course that simulated 7 common firefighting tasks. They wore complete personal protective equipment and portable metabolic instruments that included a data collection mask. We monitored each subject's oxygen consumption (VO(2)) and working heart rate, then calculated age-predicted maximum heart rates (220 - age) and training target heart rates (85% of age-predicted maximum heart rate). During performance of the obstacle course, the subjects' mean working heart rates and peak heart rates were higher than the calculated training target heart rates (t(22) = 5.69 [working vs target, p <0.001] and t(22) = 15.14 [peak vs target, p <0.001]). These findings, with mean results for peak VO(2) (3,447 ml/min) and metabolic equivalents (11.9 METs), show that our subjects' functional capacity greatly exceeded that typically attained by patients in traditional cardiac rehabilitation programs (5 to 8 METs). In conclusion, our results indicate the need for intense, occupation-specific cardiac rehabilitation training that will help firefighters safely return to work after a cardiac event. PMID:19268728

  19. Substance abuse prevention infrastructure: a survey-based study of the organizational structure and function of the D.A.R.E. program

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, Jeffrey C; Pinsky, Ilana; Killeya-Jones, Ley A; Sloboda, Zili; Dilascio, Tracey

    2006-01-01

    Background The only national drug abuse prevention delivery system that supports the rapid diffusion of new prevention strategies and includes uniform training and credentialing of instructors who are monitored for quality implementation of prevention programming is the Drug Abuse Resistance Education network (D.A.R.E.) linking community law enforcement to schools. Analysis of the organizational structure and function of D.A.R.E. provides an understanding of the essential parameters of this successful delivery system that can be used in the development of other types of national infrastructures for community-based prevention services. Information regarding organizational structure and function around funding issues, training, quality control and community relationships was gathered through telephone surveys with 50 state D.A.R.E. coordinators (including two major cities), focus groups with local D.A.R.E. officers and mentors, and interviews with national D.A.R.E. office staff. Results The surveys helped identify several strengths inherent in the D.A.R.E. program necessary for building a prevention infrastructure, including a well-defined organizational focus (D.A.R.E. America), uniform training and means for rapid dissemination (through its organized training structure), continuing education mechanisms (through the state and national conference and website), mechanisms for program monitoring and fidelity of implementation (formal and informal), branding and, for several states, predictable and consistent financing. Weaknesses of the program as currently structured include unstable funding and the failure to incorporate components for the continual upgrading of curricula reflecting research evidence and "principles of prevention". Conclusion The D.A.R.E. organization and service delivery network provides a framework for the rapid dissemination of evidence-based prevention strategies. The major strength of D.A.R.E. is its natural affiliation to local law enforcement

  20. On the Functional Capacity and Quality of Life of Patients with Acromegaly: Are They Candidates for Rehabilitation Programs?

    PubMed Central

    Guedes da Silva, Débora Pedroza; Guimarães, Fernando Silva; Dias, Cristina Márcia; Guimarães, Simone de Araujo; Kasuki, Leandro; Gadelha, Mônica Roberto; Camilo, Gustavo Bittencourt; Lopes, Agnaldo José

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] This study compared patients having active acromegaly with those having controlled acromegaly in terms of peripheral muscle strength, body composition, and functional capacity. We also examined the associations between these measures. [Methods] A total of 14 patients with active acromegaly, 12 patients with controlled acromegaly, and 12 healthy controls were subjected to isometric dynamometry, surface electromyography, electrical bioimpedance, and a six-minute walk test. [Results] The active acromegaly group exhibited significantly more fat-free mass than the control group. With respect to the peripheral muscle performance, the controlled acromegaly group presented a significantly lower electromyographic median frequency than the control group. The quadriceps maximum strength was significantly lower in the controlled acromegaly group than in the control group. The fat-free mass was significantly correlated with the quadriceps maximum strength. The global scores of the Acromegaly Quality of Life Questionnaire were significantly correlated with the six-minute walk distance. [Conclusion] Patients with acromegaly have more fat-free mass, less peripheral muscle strength, and greater fatigability than healthy control subjects. These findings depend on the degree of hormonal control. In acromegalic patients, peripheral muscle strength is related to body composition, and functional capacity is correlated with quality of life. PMID:24396219

  1. What Is the Glasgow Coma Scale?

    MedlinePlus

    ... 3:22pm Well done you. Look after yourself Mar 24th, 2016 6:48am Thank you for sharing!!! Mar 2nd, 2016 2:09am I am an RN ... surgery and that since he was already on life support that the likely ability of our son ...

  2. Low functional programming of renal AT{sub 2}R mediates the developmental origin of glomerulosclerosis in adult offspring induced by prenatal caffeine exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Ao, Ying; Sun, Zhaoxia; Hu, Shuangshuang; Zuo, Na; Li, Bin; Yang, Shuailong; Xia, Liping; Wu, Yong; Wang, Linlong; He, Zheng; Wang, Hui

    2015-09-01

    Our previous study has indicated that prenatal caffeine exposure (PCE) could induce intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) of offspring. Recent research suggested that IUGR is a risk factor for glomerulosclerosis. However, whether PCE could induce glomerulosclerosis and its underlying mechanisms remain unknown. This study aimed to demonstrate the induction to glomerulosclerosis in adult offspring by PCE and its intrauterine programming mechanisms. A rat model of IUGR was established by PCE, male fetuses and adult offspring at the age of postnatal week 24 were euthanized. The results revealed that the adult offspring kidneys in the PCE group exhibited glomerulosclerosis as well as interstitial fibrosis, accompanied by elevated levels of serum creatinine and urine protein. Renal angiotensin II receptor type 2 (AT{sub 2}R) gene expression in adult offspring was reduced by PCE, whereas the renal angiotensin II receptor type 1a (AT{sub 1a}R)/AT{sub 2}R expression ratio was increased. The fetal kidneys in the PCE group displayed an enlarged Bowman's space and a shrunken glomerular tuft, accompanied by a reduced cortex width and an increase in the nephrogenic zone/cortical zone ratio. Observation by electronic microscope revealed structural damage of podocytes; the reduced expression level of podocyte marker genes, nephrin and podocin, was also detected by q-PCR. Moreover, AT{sub 2}R gene and protein expressions in fetal kidneys were inhibited by PCE, associated with the repression of the gene expression of glial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF)/tyrosine kinase receptor (c-Ret) signaling pathway. These results demonstrated that PCE could induce dysplasia of fetal kidneys as well as glomerulosclerosis of adult offspring, and the low functional programming of renal AT{sub 2}R might mediate the developmental origin of adult glomerulosclerosis. - Highlights: • Prenatal caffeine exposure induces glomerulosclerosis in adult offspring. • Prenatal caffeine

  3. The use of an In House Scoring System Scale versus Glasgow Coma Scale in non-traumatic altered states of consciousness patients: can it be used for triaging patients in Southeast Asian developing countries?

    PubMed

    Maheswaran, M; Adnan, W A W; Ahmad, R; Ab Rahman, N H N; Naing, N N; Abdullah, J

    2007-11-01

    Non-traumatic Altered States of Consciousness (ASC) are a non-specific consequence of various etiologies, and are normally monitored by Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). The GCS gives varriable results among untrained emergency medicine personel in developing countries where English is not the first language. An In House Scoring System (IHSS) scale was made by the first author for the purpose of triaging so as to quickly asses patients when seen by medical personel. This IHSS scale was compared to the GCS to determine it's specificity and sensitivity in the accident and emergency department (ED) of Hospital University Sains Malaysia (HUSM). All patients with non-traumatic ASC were selected by purposive sampling according to pre-determined criteria. Patients were evaluated by the two systems, IHSS and GCS, by emergency physicians who were on call. Patient demographics, clinical features, investigations, treatment given and outcomes were collected and followed for a period of 14 days. A total of 221 patients with non-traumatic ASC were studied, 54.3% were males. The mean age of the patients was 56 years old. The mean overall GCS score on presentation to the ED was 10.3. The mean duration of ASC was 11.6 hours. One hundred thirty patients (58.8%) experienced ASC secondary to general or focal cerebral disorders. The mortality rate was 40.3% 2 weeks after the ED visit. Fifty-four point three percent of the patients were awake and considered to have good outcomes while 45.7% of the patients had poor outcomes (comatose or dead) 2 weeks after the ED visit. The mean overall GCS score, verbal and motor subscores as well as the IHSS had significantly decreased (worsened) after treatment in the ED. A poor IHSS scale, hypertension, current smoking, abnormal pupillary reflexes and acidosis were associated with a worse 2-week outcome. The mean age and WBC count was lower and the mean overall GCS score and eye, verbal and motor subscores were higher as well as those having a lower IHSS

  4. Programmed cell death 4 in bacterially-challenged Apostichopus japonicus: Molecular cloning, expression analysis and functional characterization.

    PubMed

    Lv, Zhimeng; Li, Chenghua; Shao, Yina; Zhang, Weiwei; Wang, Zhenhui; Wang, Haihong

    2016-07-01

    Programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) plays a crucial role in modulating cellular signals, mainly via TOLL cascades during the immune response. In the present study, a novel PDCD4 homologue gene (denoted as AjPDCD4) was cloned from the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus using RACE. The full-length AjPDCD4 cDNA comprised a 366bp 5'-UTR, a 418bp 3'-UTR, and a 1353bp open reading frame encoding a 450 amino acid residue protein with two typical MA3 domains. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that AjPDCD4 belonged to the invertebrate PDCD4 family. Spatial expression analysis indicated that AjPDCD4 mRNA transcripts are expressed at a high level in the tentacles and at a low level in muscle compared with coelomocytes. Vibrio splendidus challenge and LPS exposure could both significantly down-regulate AjPDCD4 mRNA expression. More importantly, we found that ultraviolet (UV)-induced ROS production and DNA damage were greatly repressed in AjPDCD4-knockdown coelomocytes. Meanwhile, the expression levels of the NF-kappa B homologue, p105, were synchronously up-regulated in the same conditions. All of these results indicated that AjPDCD4 is involved in modulating DNA damage and ROS production in sea cucumber, perhaps by affecting the TLR pathway. PMID:27262523

  5. Effect of a community-based Argentine tango dance program on functional balance and confidence in older adults.

    PubMed

    McKinley, Patricia; Jacobson, Allison; Leroux, Alain; Bednarczyk, Victoria; Rossignol, Michel; Fung, Joyce

    2008-10-01

    Tango-dancing and walking programs are compared in nondemented seniors at risk for falls. Fallers (N = 30) age 62-91 were randomly assigned to a 10-wk (40 hr, 2 hr 2x/wk) tango class or walk group. The Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) scale, sit-to-stand scores, and normal and fast walk were measured pre-, post-, and 1 month postintervention. Two-way repeated-measures ANOVAs indicated a significant main effect (p < .01) for time on all measures. Group and interaction effects for ABC led to improvement only in tango because of high baseline mean for the walk group. Clinical improvements measured using Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly scoring were greater for the tango group. From these preliminary results it is suggested that although both interventions are effective activities for increasing strength and walk speed, tango might result in greater improvements than walking in balance skills and in walking speed in the 10-wk intervention. The study needs to be repeated with a greater sample size to determine the effectiveness of walking on fear of falling. PMID:19033604

  6. Effects of a High-Intensity Functional Exercise Program on Dependence in Activities of Daily Living and Balance in Older Adults with Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Toots, Annika; Littbrand, Håkan; Lindelöf, Nina; Wiklund, Robert; Holmberg, Henrik; Nordström, Peter; Lundin-Olsson, Lillemor; Gustafson, Yngve; Rosendahl, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effects of a high-intensity functional exercise program on independence in activities of  daily living (ADLs) and balance in older people with dementia and whether exercise effects differed between dementia types. Design Cluster-randomized controlled trial: Umeå Dementia and Exercise (UMDEX) study. Setting Residential care facilities, Umeå, Sweden. Participants Individuals aged 65 and older with a dementia diagnosis, a Mini-Mental State Examination score of 10 or greater, and dependence in ADLs (N = 186). Intervention Ninety-three participants each were allocated to the high-intensity functional exercise program, comprising lower limb strength and balance exercises, and 93 to a seated control activity. Measurements Blinded assessors measured ADL independence using the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and Barthel Index (BI) and balance using the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) at baseline and 4 (directly after intervention completion) and 7 months. Results Linear mixed models showed no between-group effect on ADL independence at 4 (FIM=1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI)=−1.6–4.3; BI=0.6, 95% CI=−0.2–1.4) or 7 (FIM=0.8, 95% CI=−2.2–3.8; BI=0.6, 95% CI=−0.3–1.4) months. A significant between-group effect on balance favoring exercise was observed at 4 months (BBS=4.2, 95% CI=1.8–6.6). In interaction analyses, exercise effects differed significantly between dementia types. Positive between-group exercise effects were found in participants with non-Alzheimer's dementia according to the FIM at 7 months and BI and BBS at 4 and 7 months. Conclusion In older people with mild to moderate dementia living in residential care facilities, a 4-month high-intensity functional exercise program appears to slow decline in ADL independence and improve balance, albeit only in participants with non-Alzheimer's dementia. PMID:26782852

  7. Functional and Phylogenetic Analyses of a Conserved Regulatory Program in the Phloem of Minor Veins1[w

    PubMed Central

    Ayre, Brian G.; Blair, Jaime E.; Turgeon, Robert

    2003-01-01

    The minor-vein phloem of mature leaves is developmentally and physiologically distinct from the phloem in the rest of the vascular system. Phloem loading of transport sugars occurs in the minor veins, and consistent with this, galactinol synthase is expressed in the minor veins of melon (Cucumis melo) as part of the symplastic-loading mechanism that operates in this species. A galactinol synthase promoter from melon drives gene expression in the minor-vein companion cells of both transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and Arabidopsis. Neither of these plants use galactinol in the phloem-loading process, implying that the promoter responds to a minor-vein-specific regulatory cascade that is highly conserved across a broad range of eudicotyledons. Detailed analysis of this promoter by truncation and mutagenesis identified three closely coupled sequences that unambiguously modulate tissue specificity. These sequences cooperate in a combinatorial fashion: two promote expression throughout the vascular system of the plant, whereas the third functions to repress expression in the larger bundles. In a complementary approach, phylogenetic footprinting was used to obtain single-nucleotide resolution of conserved sites in orthologous promoters from diverse members of the Cucurbitaceae. This comparative analysis confirmed the importance of the closely coupled sites but also revealed other highly conserved sequences that may modulate promoter strength or contribute to expression patterns outside of the phloem. The conservation of this regulatory design among species that phloem load by different mechanisms supports a model for organismal development in which tissues and cell types are controlled by relatively ancient and conserved paradigms but expression of genes influencing final form and function are relatively plastic. PMID:14526110

  8. A Novel Function for Arabidopsis CYCLASE1 in Programmed Cell Death Revealed by Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ) Analysis of Extracellular Matrix Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Sarah J.; Kroon, Johan T. M.; Simon, William J.; Slabas, Antoni R.; Chivasa, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Programmed cell death is essential for plant development and stress adaptation. A detailed understanding of the signal transduction pathways that regulate plant programmed cell death requires identification of the underpinning protein networks. Here, we have used a protagonist and antagonist of programmed cell death triggered by fumonisin B1 as probes to identify key cell death regulatory proteins in Arabidopsis. Our hypothesis was that changes in the abundance of cell death-regulatory proteins induced by the protagonist should be blocked or attenuated by concurrent treatment with the antagonist. We focused on proteins present in the mobile phase of the extracellular matrix on the basis that they are important for cell–cell communications during growth and stress-adaptive responses. Salicylic acid, a plant hormone that promotes programmed cell death, and exogenous ATP, which can block fumonisin B1-induced cell death, were used to treat Arabidopsis cell suspension cultures prior to isobaric-tagged relative and absolute quantitation analysis of secreted proteins. A total of 33 proteins, whose response to salicylic acid was suppressed by ATP, were identified as putative cell death-regulatory proteins. Among these was CYCLASE1, which was selected for further analysis using reverse genetics. Plants in which CYCLASE1 gene expression was knocked out by insertion of a transfer-DNA sequence manifested dramatically increased cell death when exposed to fumonisin B1 or a bacterial pathogen that triggers the defensive hypersensitive cell death. Although pathogen inoculation altered CYCLASE1 gene expression, multiplication of bacterial pathogens was indistinguishable between wild type and CYCLASE1 knockout plants. However, remarkably severe chlorosis symptoms developed on gene knockout plants in response to inoculation with either a virulent bacterial pathogen or a disabled mutant that is incapable of causing disease in wild type plants. These results show that CYCLASE1, which

  9. The MSFC Program Control Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    It is the policy of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) that employees be given the opportunity to develop their individual skills and realize their full potential consistent with their selected career path and with the overall Center's needs and objectives. The MSFC Program Control Development Program has been designed to assist individuals who have selected Program Control or Program Analyst Program Control as a career path to achieve their ultimate career goals. Individuals selected to participate in the MSFC Program Control Development Program will be provided with development training in the various Program Control functional areas identified in the NASA Program Control Model. The purpose of the MSFC Program Control Development Program is to develop individual skills in the various Program Control functions by on-the-job and classroom instructional training on the various systems, tools, techniques, and processes utilized in these areas.

  10. Defining the Essential Function of Yeast Hsf1 Reveals a Compact Transcriptional Program for Maintaining Eukaryotic Proteostasis.

    PubMed

    Solís, Eric J; Pandey, Jai P; Zheng, Xu; Jin, Dexter X; Gupta, Piyush B; Airoldi, Edoardo M; Pincus, David; Denic, Vladimir

    2016-07-01

    Despite its eponymous association with the heat shock response, yeast heat shock factor 1 (Hsf1) is essential even at low temperatures. Here we show that engineered nuclear export of Hsf1 results in cytotoxicity associated with massive protein aggregation. Genome-wide analysis revealed that Hsf1 nuclear export immediately decreased basal transcription and mRNA expression of 18 genes, which predominately encode chaperones. Strikingly, rescuing basal expression of Hsp70 and Hsp90 chaperones enabled robust cell growth in the complete absence of Hsf1. With the exception of chaperone gene induction, the vast majority of the heat shock response was Hsf1 independent. By comparative analysis of mammalian cell lines, we found that only heat shock-induced but not basal expression of chaperones is dependent on the mammalian Hsf1 homolog (HSF1). Our work reveals that yeast chaperone gene expression is an essential housekeeping mechanism and provides a roadmap for defining the function of HSF1 as a driver of oncogenesis. PMID:27320198

  11. Human monocytes undergo functional re-programming during differentiation to dendritic cell mediated by human extravillous trophoblasts.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lei; Shao, Qianqian; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Lin; He, Ying; Wang, Lijie; Kong, Beihua; Qu, Xun

    2016-01-01

    Maternal immune adaptation is required for a successful pregnancy to avoid rejection of the fetal-placental unit. Dendritic cells within the decidual microenvironment lock in a tolerogenic profile. However, how these tolerogenic DCs are induced and the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study, we show that human extravillous trophoblasts redirect the monocyte-to-DC transition and induce regulatory dendritic cells. DCs differentiated from blood monocytes in the presence of human extravillous trophoblast cell line HTR-8/SVneo displayed a DC-SIGN(+)CD14(+)CD1a(-) phenotype, similar with decidual DCs. HTR8-conditioned DCs were unable to develop a fully mature phenotype in response to LPS, and altered the cytokine secretory profile significantly. Functionally, conditioned DCs poorly induced the proliferation and activation of allogeneic T cells, whereas promoted CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) Treg cells generation. Furthermore, the supernatant from DC and HTR-8/SVneo coculture system contained significant high amount of M-CSF and MCP-1. Using neutralizing antibodies, we discussed the role of M-CSF and MCP-1 during monocyte-to-DCs differentiation mediated by extravillous trophoblasts. Our data indicate that human extravillous trophoblasts play an important role in modulating the monocyte-to-DC differentiation through M-CSF and MCP-1, which facilitate the establishment of a tolerogenic microenvironment at the maternal-fetal interface. PMID:26857012

  12. Human monocytes undergo functional re-programming during differentiation to dendritic cell mediated by human extravillous trophoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lei; Shao, Qianqian; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Lin; He, Ying; Wang, Lijie; Kong, Beihua; Qu, Xun

    2016-01-01

    Maternal immune adaptation is required for a successful pregnancy to avoid rejection of the fetal–placental unit. Dendritic cells within the decidual microenvironment lock in a tolerogenic profile. However, how these tolerogenic DCs are induced and the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study, we show that human extravillous trophoblasts redirect the monocyte-to-DC transition and induce regulatory dendritic cells. DCs differentiated from blood monocytes in the presence of human extravillous trophoblast cell line HTR-8/SVneo displayed a DC-SIGN+CD14+CD1a− phenotype, similar with decidual DCs. HTR8-conditioned DCs were unable to develop a fully mature phenotype in response to LPS, and altered the cytokine secretory profile significantly. Functionally, conditioned DCs poorly induced the proliferation and activation of allogeneic T cells, whereas promoted CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Treg cells generation. Furthermore, the supernatant from DC and HTR-8/SVneo coculture system contained significant high amount of M-CSF and MCP-1. Using neutralizing antibodies, we discussed the role of M-CSF and MCP-1 during monocyte-to-DCs differentiation mediated by extravillous trophoblasts. Our data indicate that human extravillous trophoblasts play an important role in modulating the monocyte-to-DC differentiation through M-CSF and MCP-1, which facilitate the establishment of a tolerogenic microenvironment at the maternal–fetal interface. PMID:26857012

  13. Effects of a 12-hour neuromuscular electrical stimulation treatment program on the recovery of upper extremity function in sub-acute stroke patients: a randomized controlled pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Cui, Bao-Juan; Wang, Dao-Qing; Qiu, Jian-Qing; Huang, Lai-Gang; Zeng, Fan-Shuo; Zhang, Qi; Sun, Min; Liu, Ben-Ling; Sun, Qiang-San

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of a 12-hour neuromuscular electrical stimulation program in the evening hours on upper extremity function in sub-acute stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-five subjects were randomized to one of three groups: 12-hour neuromuscular electrical stimulation group (n=15), which received 12 hours of neuromuscular electrical stimulation and conventional rehabilitation for the affected upper extremity; neuromuscular electrical stimulation group (n=15), which received 30 min of neuromuscular electrical stimulation and conventional rehabilitation; and control group (n=15), which received conventional rehabilitation only. The Fugl-Meyer assessment, Action Research Arm Test, and modified Ashworth scale were used to evaluate the effects before and after intervention, and 4 weeks later. [Results] The improvement in the distal (wrist-hand) components of the Fugl-Meyer assessment and Action Research Arm Test in the 12-hour neuromuscular electrical stimulation group was more significant than that in the neuromuscular electrical stimulation group. No significant difference was found between the two groups in the proximal component (shoulder-elbow) of the Fugl-Meyer assessment. [Conclusion] The 12-hour neuromuscular electrical stimulation group achieved better improvement in upper extremity motor function, especially in the wrist-hand function. This alternative therapeutic approach is easily applicable and can be used in stroke patients during rest or sleep. PMID:26311975

  14. Using Program Theory To Replicate Successful Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hacsi, Timothy A.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the potential that program theory evaluation has to provide knowledge about the parts of a program that should be retained and the parts that can be changed or should be abandoned. Considers why program theory evaluation may be able to give some guidance about how a program should be changed to function in a new and different…

  15. A program for calculating photonic band structures, Green's functions and transmission/reflection coefficients using a non-orthogonal FDTD method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, A. J.; Pendry, J. B.

    2000-06-01

    In this paper we present an updated version of our ONYX program for calculating photonic band structures using a non-orthogonal finite difference time domain method. This new version employs the same transparent formalism as the first version with the same capabilities for calculating photonic band structures or causal Green's functions but also includes extra subroutines for the calculation of transmission and reflection coefficients. Both the electric and magnetic fields are placed onto a discrete lattice by approximating the spacial and temporal derivatives with finite differences. This results in discrete versions of Maxwell's equations which can be used to integrate the fields forwards in time. The time required for a calculation using this method scales linearly with the number of real space points used in the discretization so the technique is ideally suited to handling systems with large and complicated unit cells.

  16. KANTBP: A program for computing energy levels, reaction matrix and radial wave functions in the coupled-channel hyperspherical adiabatic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuluunbaatar, O.; Gusev, A. A.; Abrashkevich, A. G.; Amaya-Tapia, A.; Kaschiev, M. S.; Larsen, S. Y.; Vinitsky, S. I.

    2007-10-01

    A FORTRAN 77 program is presented which calculates energy values, reaction matrix and corresponding radial wave functions in a coupled-channel approximation of the hyperspherical adiabatic approach. In this approach, a multi-dimensional Schrödinger equation is reduced to a system of the coupled second-order ordinary differential equations on the finite interval with homogeneous boundary conditions of the third type. The resulting system of radial equations which contains the potential matrix elements and first-derivative coupling terms is solved using high-order accuracy approximations of the finite-element method. As a test desk, the program is applied to the calculation of the energy values and reaction matrix for an exactly solvable 2D-model of three identical particles on a line with pair zero-range potentials. Program summaryProgram title: KANTBP Catalogue identifier: ADZH_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADZH_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 4224 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 31 232 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: FORTRAN 77 Computer: Intel Xeon EM64T, Alpha 21264A, AMD Athlon MP, Pentium IV Xeon, Opteron 248, Intel Pentium IV Operating system: OC Linux, Unix AIX 5.3, SunOS 5.8, Solaris, Windows XP RAM: depends on (a) the number of differential equations; (b) the number and order of finite-elements; (c) the number of hyperradial points; and (d) the number of eigensolutions required. Test run requires 30 MB Classification: 2.1, 2.4 External routines: GAULEG and GAUSSJ [W.H. Press, B.F. Flanery, S.A. Teukolsky, W.T. Vetterley, Numerical Recipes: The Art of Scientific Computing, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1986] Nature of problem: In the hyperspherical adiabatic

  17. Effects of daily milk supplementation on improving the physical and mental function as well as school performance among children: results from a school feeding program

    PubMed Central

    Rahmani, Khadijeh; Djazayery, Abolghasem; Habibi, Mohsen Ibrahim; Heidari, Homa; Dorosti-Motlagh, Ahmad Reza; Pourshahriari, Mahsima; Azadbakht, Leila

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: School feeding programs are important interventions for improving the nutritional status of students. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of milk supplementation on physical, mental and school performance of students. METHODS: This case-control population-based intervention was conducted on 469 students from 4 schools in a medium socio-economic status region in Tehran. The schools were chosen by Iranian ministry of education and training and they were allocated in case and control groups randomly. All the students in the first to third classes in the intervention schools were daily consumed sterilized and homogenized milk for three months (250 ml each). Anthropometric measurements were done according to the standard methods. For evaluating the mental function, the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (CPM) and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children (verbal, non-verbal, total Intelligent Quotient) were conducted on students. School performance was assessed by grade-point averages of each student. RESULTS: The weight of children was significantly different between control and intervention group at the end of the study among girls (23.0 ± 3.8 vs. 23.8 ± 4.3 kg; p < 0.05). Psychological tests’ scores were significantly different between the control and the intervention groups (p < 0.05) at the end of the trial among boys. The grade-point average was significantly different at the end of the trial between the intervention and the control group among girls (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: School feeding programs focus on milk supplementation had beneficial effects on the physical function and school performances specifically among girls in Iran. PMID:22091261

  18. The maintenance of specific aspects of neuronal function and behavior is dependent on programmed cell death of adult-generated neurons in the dentate gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Woon Ryoung; Park, Ok-hee; Choi, Sukwoo; Choi, Se-Young; Park, Soon Kwon; Lee, Kea Joo; Rhyu, Im Joo; Kim, Hyun; Lee, Yeon Kyung; Kim, Hyun Taek; Oppenheim, Ronald W; Sun, Woong

    2009-01-01

    A considerable number of new neurons are generated daily in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the adult hippocampus, but only a subset of these survive, as many adult-generated neurons undergo programmed cell death (PCD). However, the significance of PCD in the adult brain for the functionality of DG circuits is not known. Here we examined the electrophysiological and behavioral characteristics of Bax-KO mice in which PCD of post-mitotic neurons is prevented. The continuous increase in DG cell numbers in Bax-KO mice, resulted in the readjustment of afferent and efferent synaptic connections, represented by age-dependent reductions in the dendritic arborization of DG neurons and in the synaptic contact ratio of mossy fibers (MF) with CA3 dendritic spines. These neuroanatomical changes were associated with reductions in synaptic transmission and reduced performance in a contextual fear memory task in 6-month old Bax-KO mice. These results suggest that the elimination of excess DG neurons via Bax-dependent PCD in the adult brain is required for the normal organization and function of the hippocampus. PMID:19519627

  19. Effects of a rapid-resisted elliptical training program on motor, cognitive and neurobehavioral functioning in adults with chronic traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Zampieri, Cris; Ge, Jie; Acevedo, Ana; Dsurney, John

    2016-01-01

    This small clinical trial utilized a novel rehabilitation strategy, rapid-resisted elliptical training, in an effort to increase motor, and thereby cognitive, processing speed in ambulatory individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). As an initial step, multimodal functional abilities were quantified and compared in 12 ambulatory adults with and 12 without TBI. After the baseline assessment, the group with TBI participated in an intensive 8-week daily exercise program using an elliptical trainer and was reassessed after completion and at an 8-week follow-up. The focus of training was on achieving a fast movement speed, and once the target was reached, resistance to motion was increased in small increments to increase intensity of muscle activation. Primary outcomes were: High-Level Mobility Assessment Tool (HiMAT), instrumented balance tests, dual-task (DT) performance and neurobehavioral questionnaires. The group with TBI had poorer movement excursion during balance tests and poorer dual-task (DT) performance. After training, balance reaction times improved and were correlated with gains in the HiMAT and DT. Sleep quality also improved and was correlated with improved depression and learning. This study illustrates how brain injury can affect multiple linked aspects of functioning and provides preliminary evidence that intensive rapid-resisted training has specific positive effects on dynamic balance and more generalized effects on sleep quality in TBI. PMID:27025506

  20. Effects of a rapid-resisted elliptical training program on motor, cognitive and neurobehavioral functioning in adults with chronic traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Damiano, Diane L; Zampieri, Cristiane; Ge, Jie; Acevedo, Ana; Dsurney, John

    2016-08-01

    This small clinical trial utilized a novel rehabilitation strategy, rapid-resisted elliptical training, in an effort to increase motor, and thereby cognitive, processing speed in ambulatory individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). As an initial step, multimodal functional abilities were quantified and compared in 12 ambulatory adults with and 12 without TBI. After the baseline assessment, the group with TBI participated in an intensive 8-week daily exercise program using an elliptical trainer and was reassessed after completion and at an 8-week follow-up. The focus of training was on achieving a fast movement speed, and once the target was reached, resistance to motion was increased in small increments to increase intensity of muscle activation. Primary outcomes were: High-Level Mobility Assessment Tool (HiMAT), instrumented balance tests, dual-task (DT) performance and neurobehavioral questionnaires. The group with TBI had poorer movement excursion during balance tests and poorer dual-task (DT) performance. After training, balance reaction times improved and were correlated with gains in the HiMAT and DT. Sleep quality also improved and was correlated with improved depression and learning. This study illustrates how brain injury can affect multiple linked aspects of functioning and provides preliminary evidence that intensive rapid-resisted training has specific positive effects on dynamic balance and more generalized effects on sleep quality in TBI. PMID:27025506