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Sample records for functional reach test

  1. Distance Reached in the Anteromedial Reach Test as a Function of Learning and Leg Length

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bent, Nicholas P.; Rushton, Alison B.; Wright, Chris C.; Batt, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    The Anteromedial Reach Test (ART) is a new outcome measure for assessing dynamic knee stability in anterior cruciate ligament-injured patients. The effect of learning and leg length on distance reached in the ART was examined. Thirty-two healthy volunteers performed 15 trials of the ART on each leg. There was a moderate correlation (r = 0.44-0.50)…

  2. Self-perceived and actual ability in the functional reach test in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Ryckewaert, Gilles; Luyat, Marion; Rambour, Melanie; Tard, Céline; Noël, Myriam; Defebvre, Luc; Delval, Arnaud

    2015-03-01

    Falls frequently occur during daily activities such as reaching for an object in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Misjudgment is also reported to be one of the circumstances that lead to falls. The functional reach test is an indicator of dynamic balance. The primary objective was to establish whether there is a difference between self-perceived and actual ability to perform the functional reach test in patients with PD who have never fallen. Three groups of participants (all with no history of falls) were studied: young adults, elderly adults and PD patients. The participants first estimated their maximum reaching distance (but without performing the action, i.e. as a motor imagery task) and then actually performed the functional reach test (i.e. as a motor task). No significant overestimation or underestimation was observed. The reaching distance was lower in PD than in the two other groups. There were no differences between PD patients and elderly adults in terms of the forward centre of pressure displacement. Seven PD patients reported a fall in the year following the experiment. The fallers had a longer history of disease. Finally, PD patients adequately estimated their ability in the functional reach test and did not adopt an "at risk" strategy and appeared to be quite conservative (as were healthy elderly adults) in their postural control behavior. Ability to estimate self-performance is preserved in PD patients with no clinical impairments of postural control although they are at risk of future falls. PMID:25600856

  3. Computerized Functional Reach Test to Measure Balance Stability in Elderly Patients With Neurological Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Scena, Silvio; Steindler, Roberto; Ceci, Moira; Zuccaro, Stefano Maria; Carmeli, Eli

    2016-01-01

    Background The ability to maintain static and dynamic balance is a prerequisite for safe walking and for obtaining functional mobility. For this reason, a reliable and valid means of screening for risk of falls is needed. The functional reach test (FRT) is used in many countries, yet it does not provide some kinematic parameters such as shoulder or pelvic girdles translation. The purpose was to analyze video records measuring of distance, velocity, time length, arm direction and girdles translation while doing FRT. Methods A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted where the above variables were correlated to the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) for mental status and the Tinetti balance assessment test, which have been validated, in order to computerize the FRT (cFRT) for elderly patients with neurological disorders. Eighty patients were tested and 54 were eligible to serve as experimental group. The patients underwent the MMSE, the Tinetti test and the FRT. LAB view software was used to record the FRT performances and to process the videos. The control group consisted of 51 healthy subjects who had been previously tested. Results The experimental group was not able to perform the tests as well as the healthy control subjects. The video camera provided valuable kinematic results such as bending down while performing the forward reach test. Conclusions Instead of manual measurement, we proposed to use a cheap with fair resolution web camera to accurately estimate the FRT. The kinematic parameters were correlated with Tinetti and MMSE scores. The performance values established in this study indicate that the cFRT is a reliable and valid assessment, which provides more accurate data than “manual” test about functional reach.

  4. Instrumented Functional Reach Test Differentiates Individuals at High Risk for Parkinson’s Disease from Controls

    PubMed Central

    Hasmann, Sandra E.; Berg, Daniela; Hobert, Markus A.; Weiss, David; Lindemann, Ulrich; Streffer, Johannes; Liepelt-Scarfone, Inga; Maetzler, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The functional reach (FR) test as a complex measure of balance including limits of stability has been proven to differentiate between patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and controls (CO). Recently, it has been shown that the instrumentation of the FR (iFR) with a wearable sensor may increase this diagnostic accuracy. This cross-sectional study aimed at investigating whether the iFR has the potential to differentiate individuals with high risk for PD (HRPD) from CO, as the delineation of such individuals would allow for, e.g., early neuromodulation. Thirteen PD patients, 13 CO, and 31 HRPD were investigated. HRPD was defined by presence of an enlarged area of hyperechogenicity in the mesencephalon on transcranial sonography and either one motor sign or two risk and prodromal markers of PD. All participants were asked to reach with their right arm forward as far as possible and hold this position for 10 s. During this period, sway parameters were assessed with an accelerometer (Dynaport, McRoberts) worn at the lower back. Extracted parameters that differed significantly between PD patients and CO in our cohort [FR distance (shorter in PD), anterior–posterior and mediolateral acceleration (both lower in PD)] as well as JERK, which has been shown to differentiate HRPD from CO and PD in a previous study, were included in a model, which was then used to differentiate HRPD from CO. The model yielded an area under the curve of 0.77, with a specificity of 85%, and a sensitivity of 74%. These results suggest that the iFR can contribute to an assessment panel focusing on the definition of HRPD individuals. PMID:25386137

  5. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability of an instrumented functional reaching task using wireless electromyographic sensors.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Rini; Hui-Chan, Christina W Y; Wang, Edward; Bhatt, Tanvi

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the electromyographic and accelerometric data sampled from the prime movers of the dominant arm during an antigravity, within-arm's length stand-reaching task without trunk restraint. Ten healthy young adults participated in two experimental sessions, approximately 7-10days apart. During each session, subjects performed 15 trials of both a flexion- and an abduction-reaching task. Surface EMG and acceleration using wireless sensors were sampled from the anterior and middle deltoid. Reliability was established using Cronbach's alpha, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC 2, k) and standard error of measurements (SEM) for electromyographic reaction time, burst duration and normalized amplitude along with peak acceleration. Results indicated high degrees of inter-trial and test-retest reliability for flexion (Cronbach's α range=0.92-0.99; ICC range=0.82-0.92) as well as abduction (Cronbach's α range=0.94-0.99; ICC range=0.81-0.94) reaching. The SEM associated with response variables for flexion and abduction ranged from 1.55-3.26% and 3.33-3.95% of means, respectively. Findings from this study revealed that electromyographic and accelerometric data collected from prime movers of the arm during the relatively functional stand-reaching task were highly reproducible. Given its high reliability and portability, the proposed test could have applications in clinical and laboratory settings to quantify upper limb function. PMID:25026882

  6. Postural optimization during functional reach while kneeling and standing

    PubMed Central

    Fujisawa, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Hiroto; Kawakami, Shingo; Murakami, Kenichi; Suzuki, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the validity of functional reach models by comparing actual values with estimated values. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight volunteers were included in this study (male: 14, female: 14, age: 21 ± 1 years, height: 166.8 ± 9.0 cm, and body mass: 60.1 ± 8.5 kg). The maximum forward fingertip position and joint angles were measured using the original equipment. In addition, the maximum forward fingertip position, shoulder joint angle, and knee or ankle joint angle were estimated using the functional reach model. [Results] The correlation coefficients between actual data and estimated data for the maximum forward fingertip position, shoulder joint angle, and ankle joint angle while standing were 0.93, 0.83, and 0.73, respectively. The correlation coefficients between actual data and estimated data for the maximum forward fingertip position, shoulder joint angle, and knee joint angle while kneeling were 0.86, 0.81, and 0.72, respectively. [Conclusion] The validity of both functional reach models in estimating optimal posture was confirmed. Therefore, the functional reach model is useful for evaluation of postural control and optimal postural control exercises.

  7. Integrated testing strategy (ITS) for bioaccumulation assessment under REACH.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Anna; Roncaglioni, Alessandra; Benfentati, Emilio; Nendza, Monika; Segner, Helmut; Fernández, Alberto; Kühne, Ralph; Franco, Antonio; Pauné, Eduard; Schüürmann, Gerrit

    2014-08-01

    REACH (registration, evaluation, authorisation and restriction of chemicals) regulation requires that all the chemicals produced or imported in Europe above 1 tonne/year are registered. To register a chemical, physicochemical, toxicological and ecotoxicological information needs to be reported in a dossier. REACH promotes the use of alternative methods to replace, refine and reduce the use of animal (eco)toxicity testing. Within the EU OSIRIS project, integrated testing strategies (ITSs) have been developed for the rational use of non-animal testing approaches in chemical hazard assessment. Here we present an ITS for evaluating the bioaccumulation potential of organic chemicals. The scheme includes the use of all available data (also the non-optimal ones), waiving schemes, analysis of physicochemical properties related to the end point and alternative methods (both in silico and in vitro). In vivo methods are used only as last resort. Using the ITS, in vivo testing could be waived for about 67% of the examined compounds, but bioaccumulation potential could be estimated on the basis of non-animal methods. The presented ITS is freely available through a web tool. PMID:24806447

  8. Liver Function Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... herbal supplements you are taking. What are normal ranges for liver function tests? Normal ranges for liver function tests can vary by age, ... other factors. Laboratory test results usually provide normal ranges for each liver function test with your results. ...

  9. Association between imagined and actual functional reach (FR): a comparison of young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Gabbard, Carl; Cordova, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the ability to mentally represent action using motor imagery declines with advanced age (>64 years). As the ability to represent action declines, the elderly may experience increasing difficulty with movement planning and execution. Here, we determined the association between estimation of reach via use of motor imagery and actual FR. Young adults (M=22 years) and older adults (M=66 years) estimated reach while standing with targets randomly presented in peripersonal (within actual reach) and extrapersonal (beyond reach) space. Imagined responses were compared to the individual's scaled maximum reach. FR, also while standing, was assessed using the standardized Functional Reach Test (FRT). Results for total score estimation accuracy showed that there was no difference for age; however, results for mean bias and distribution of error revealed that the older group underestimated while the younger group overestimated. In reference to FR, younger adults outperformed older adults (30 versus 14in.) and most prominent, only the younger group showed a significant relationship between estimation and FR. In addition to gaining insight to the effects of advanced age on the ability to mentally represent action and its association with movement execution, these results although preliminary, may have clinical implications based on the question of whether motor imagery training could improve movement estimations and how that might affect actual reach. PMID:23312569

  10. Liver Function Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... food, store energy, and remove poisons. Liver function tests are blood tests that check to see how well your liver ... hepatitis and cirrhosis. You may have liver function tests as part of a regular checkup. Or you ...

  11. Extraocular muscle function testing

    MedlinePlus

    Extraocular muscle function testing examines the function of the eye muscles. A health care provider observes the movement of ... evaluate weakness or other problem in the extraocular muscles. These problems may result in double vision or ...

  12. Functional Task Test (FTT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Peters, Brian T.; Rescheke, Millard F.; Wood, Scott; Lawrence, Emily; Koffman, Igor; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Spiering, Barry A.; Feeback, Daniel L.; Platts, Steven H.; Stenger, Michael B.; Lee, Stuart M.C.; Arzeno, Natalia; Feiveson, Alan H.; Ryder, Jeffrey; Garcia, Yamil; Guilliams, Mark E.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Functional Task Test (FTT), an interdisciplinary testing regimen that has been developed to evaluate astronaut postflight functional performance and related physiological changes. The objectives of the project are: (1) to develop a set of functional tasks that represent critical mission tasks for the Constellation Program, (2) determine the ability to perform these tasks after space flight, (3) Identify the key physiological factors that contribute to functional decrements and (4) Use this information to develop targeted countermeasures.

  13. Pulmonary Function Tests

    PubMed Central

    Ranu, Harpreet; Wilde, Michael; Madden, Brendan

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary function tests are valuable investigations in the management of patients with suspected or previously diagnosed respiratory disease. They aid diagnosis, help monitor response to treatment and can guide decisions regarding further treatment and intervention. The interpretation of pulmonary functions tests requires knowledge of respiratory physiology. In this review we describe investigations routinely used and discuss their clinical implications. PMID:22347750

  14. Platelet Function Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the clotting process in the body ( in vivo ). A person with normal platelet function test results may still experience excessive bleeding or inappropriate clotting during and after a surgery. Most samples for platelet function testing are only stable for a very short period ...

  15. Sperm function test

    PubMed Central

    Talwar, Pankaj; Hayatnagarkar, Suryakant

    2015-01-01

    With absolute normal semen analysis parameters it may not be necessary to shift to specialized tests early but in cases with borderline parameters or with history of fertilization failure in past it becomes necessary to do a battery of tests to evaluate different parameters of spermatozoa. Various sperm function tests are proposed and endorsed by different researchers in addition to the routine evaluation of fertility. These tests detect function of a certain part of spermatozoon and give insight on the events in fertilization of the oocyte. The sperms need to get nutrition from the seminal plasma in the form of fructose and citrate (this can be assessed by fructose qualitative and quantitative estimation, citrate estimation). They should be protected from the bad effects of pus cells and reactive oxygen species (ROS) (leukocyte detection test, ROS estimation). Their number should be in sufficient in terms of (count), structure normal to be able to fertilize eggs (semen morphology). Sperms should have intact and functioning membrane to survive harsh environment of vagina and uterine fluids (vitality and hypo-osmotic swelling test), should have good mitochondrial function to be able to provide energy (mitochondrial activity index test). They should also have satisfactory acrosome function to be able to burrow a hole in zona pellucida (acrosome intactness test, zona penetration test). Finally, they should have properly packed DNA in the nucleus to be able to transfer the male genes (nuclear chromatic decondensation test) to the oocyte during fertilization. PMID:26157295

  16. Sperm function test.

    PubMed

    Talwar, Pankaj; Hayatnagarkar, Suryakant

    2015-01-01

    With absolute normal semen analysis parameters it may not be necessary to shift to specialized tests early but in cases with borderline parameters or with history of fertilization failure in past it becomes necessary to do a battery of tests to evaluate different parameters of spermatozoa. Various sperm function tests are proposed and endorsed by different researchers in addition to the routine evaluation of fertility. These tests detect function of a certain part of spermatozoon and give insight on the events in fertilization of the oocyte. The sperms need to get nutrition from the seminal plasma in the form of fructose and citrate (this can be assessed by fructose qualitative and quantitative estimation, citrate estimation). They should be protected from the bad effects of pus cells and reactive oxygen species (ROS) (leukocyte detection test, ROS estimation). Their number should be in sufficient in terms of (count), structure normal to be able to fertilize eggs (semen morphology). Sperms should have intact and functioning membrane to survive harsh environment of vagina and uterine fluids (vitality and hypo-osmotic swelling test), should have good mitochondrial function to be able to provide energy (mitochondrial activity index test). They should also have satisfactory acrosome function to be able to burrow a hole in zona pellucida (acrosome intactness test, zona penetration test). Finally, they should have properly packed DNA in the nucleus to be able to transfer the male genes (nuclear chromatic decondensation test) to the oocyte during fertilization. PMID:26157295

  17. Validity of Alternative Cut-Off Scores for the Back-Saver Sit and Reach Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looney, Marilyn A.; Gilbert, Jennie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine if currently used FITNESSGRAM[R] cut-off scores for the Back Saver Sit and Reach Test had the best criterion-referenced validity evidence for 6-12 year old children. Secondary analyses of an existing data set focused on the passive straight leg raise and Back Saver Sit and Reach Test flexibility scores of…

  18. Effect of spatial target reaching training based on visual biofeedback on the upper extremity function of hemiplegic stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chang-Yong; Lee, Jung-Sun; Lee, Jong-Hun; Kim, Yang-Gu; Shin, A-Reum; Shim, Young-Hun; Ha, Hyun Kun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effect of spatial target reaching training (TRT) based on visual biofeedback (VB) on the upper extremity (UE) function of hemiplegic subjects. [Subjects and Methods] Forty subjects between six and eighteen months post-stroke were enrolled in this study. They were randomly allocated to an experimental group (EG, n=20) and a control group (CG, n=20). All subjects received an hour of routine therapy for stroke three times a week for four weeks. Subjects in EG received additional spatial TRT based on VB using a 2-dimensional motion capture analysis system. Both groups were tested at pre and post-intervention. The motor function of each subject’s UE was assessed using the Fugl-Meyer (FM) test of UE and the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT). The reaching speed, angle and maximum reach distance were recorded using the motion capture analysis system. The experimental data were analyzed using the paired and independent t-tests. [Results] The mean change scores of the FM Test of UE and WMFT show there was significantly more improvement at post-intervention in EG than in CG. Also, the speed and angle reached showed significantly more increase in the EG compared with the CG. [Conclusions] The findings indicate that UE motor recovery of hemiplegic stroke patients can be enhanced through the use of TRT based on VB. PMID:25995564

  19. Trunk-Rotation Differences at Maximal Reach of the Star Excursion Balance Test in Participants With Chronic Ankle Instability

    PubMed Central

    de la Motte, Sarah; Arnold, Brent L.; Ross, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Functional reach on the Star Excursion Balance Test is decreased in participants with chronic ankle instability (CAI). However, comprehensive 3-dimensional kinematics associated with these deficits have not been reported. Objective: To determine if lower extremity kinematics differed in CAI participants during anteromedial, medial, and posteromedial reach on the Star Excursion Balance Test. Design: Case-control study. Setting: Sports medicine research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty CAI participants (age = 24.15 ± 3.84 years, height = 168.95 ± 11.57 cm, mass = 68.95 ± 16.29 kg) and 20 uninjured participants (age = 25.65 ± 5.58 years, height = 170.14 ± 8.75 cm, mass = 69.89 ± 10.51 kg) with no history of ankle sprain. We operationally defined CAI as repeated episodes of ankle “giving way” or “rolling over” or both, regardless of neuromuscular deficits or pathologic laxity. All CAI participants scored ≤26 on the Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool. Intervention(s): Star Excursion Balance Test reaches in the anteromedial, medial, and posteromedial directions. The CAI participants used the unstable side as the stance leg. Control participants were sex, height, mass, and side matched to the CAI group. The 3-dimensional kinematics were assessed with a motion-capture system. Main Outcome Measure(s): Group differences on normalized reach distance, trunk, pelvis, and hip-, knee-, and ankle-joint angles at maximum Star Excursion Balance Test reach. Results: No reach-distance differences were detected between CAI and uninjured participants in any of the 3 reach directions. With anteromedial reach, trunk rotation (t1,38 = 3.06, P = .004), pelvic rotation (t1,38 = 3.17, P = .003), and hip flexion (t1,38 = 2.40, P = .002) were greater in CAI participants. With medial reach, trunk flexion (t1,38 = 6.39, P = .05) was greater than for uninjured participants. No differences were seen with posteromedial reach. Conclusions: We did not detect

  20. Multi-Joint Coordination of Functional Arm Reaching: Induced Position Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Whitall, Jill; Kepple, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    Functional arm reaching involves multilinked joints: shoulder, elbow, and wrist. We propose that induced position analysis is a useful analytical tool for multijoint coordination of arm reaching. This method was used to compute the contributions of the net joint moment to the hand position when reaching forward. We describe the method and give examples of validating this model with motion capture data. The shoulder and elbow were prime movers of the arm: both acted together with an “overshoot” and “undershoot” pattern respectively to move the hand forward into the final position. PMID:23645494

  1. Local tolerance testing under REACH: Accepted non-animal methods are not on equal footing with animal tests.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Ursula G; Hill, Erin H; Curren, Rodger D; Raabe, Hans A; Kolle, Susanne N; Teubner, Wera; Mehling, Annette; Landsiedel, Robert

    2016-07-01

    In general, no single non-animal method can cover the complexity of any given animal test. Therefore, fixed sets of in vitro (and in chemico) methods have been combined into testing strategies for skin and eye irritation and skin sensitisation testing, with pre-defined prediction models for substance classification. Many of these methods have been adopted as OECD test guidelines. Various testing strategies have been successfully validated in extensive in-house and inter-laboratory studies, but they have not yet received formal acceptance for substance classification. Therefore, under the European REACH Regulation, data from testing strategies can, in general, only be used in so-called weight-of-evidence approaches. While animal testing data generated under the specific REACH information requirements are per se sufficient, the sufficiency of weight-of-evidence approaches can be questioned under the REACH system, and further animal testing can be required. This constitutes an imbalance between the regulatory acceptance of data from approved non-animal methods and animal tests that is not justified on scientific grounds. To ensure that testing strategies for local tolerance testing truly serve to replace animal testing for the REACH registration 2018 deadline (when the majority of existing chemicals have to be registered), clarity on their regulatory acceptance as complete replacements is urgently required. PMID:27494627

  2. Cue Salience and Infant Perseverative Reaching: Tests of the Dynamic Field Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearfield, Melissa W.; Dineva, Evelina; Smith, Linda B.; Diedrich, Frederick J.; Thelen, Esther

    2009-01-01

    Skilled behavior requires a balance between previously successful behaviors and new behaviors appropriate to the present context. We describe a dynamic field model for understanding this balance in infant perseverative reaching. The model predictions are tested with regard to the interaction of two aspects of the typical perseverative reaching…

  3. The surface electromyographic evaluation of the Functional Reach in elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Maranesi, E; Fioretti, S; Ghetti, G G; Rabini, R A; Burattini, L; Mercante, O; Di Nardo, F

    2016-02-01

    This study proposes a comprehensive assessment of myoelectric activity of the main muscles involved in the Functional Reach (FR) test, in 24 elderly subjects. A specific protocol for the surface electromyography (sEMG) signal acquisition during FR-test was developed. Results show that anterior muscles activate following a caudo-cranial order. Tibialis Anterior (TA) is the first to be activated (-18.0±16.3% of the FR-period), together with Rectus Femoris (-10.4±17.9%). Then, Rectus Abdominis (19.7±24.7%) and Sternocleidomastoideus (19.9±15.6%) activate after the FR-start. Hamstrings, Soleus, and L4-level Erectores Spinae (posterior muscles) activate after the FR-start in this order (11.4±16.8%, 17.7±16.6%, and 35.2±29.0%, respectively) and remain active until the movement end. The analysis of the kinematic strategies adopted by subjects revealed an association between TA-activation patterns and two kinematic strategies (hip/mixed strategy), quantified by an increase (p<0.05) of TA-activity duration in subjects adopting the hip strategy (89.9±34.5) vs. subjects adopting the mixed strategy (27.0±16.8). This suggests that TA sEMG activity could be able to discriminate among kinematic strategies, providing different information on balance control. Thus, the present analysis represents the first attempt to quantify the sEMG activity during FR-test in elderly subjects, providing an early contribution in building a reference frame for balance assessment in clinical context. PMID:26752782

  4. Adrenal function testing.

    PubMed

    Dluhy, R G

    1978-12-01

    Glucocorticoid stimulation and suppression tests are essential to the definitive diagnosis of diseases of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, because they document abnormal physiologic control of hormonal secretion. Similarly, diseases of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis are diagnosed by mineralocorticoid stimulation and suppression testing. [Ed. Note: See Moore TJ, Williams GH: Adrenal causes of hypertension, in this issue.] Unlike tests of glucocorticoid function, testing of the renin-angiotension-aldosterone system is more complicated, because knowledge of posture and dietary sodium are necessary to interpret the results. However, measurement of the tropic hormone renin and plasma levels of aldosterone can be accurately made, allowing precise definition of this system. Errors are most commonly encountered when dynamic tests of cortisol output are performed in patients taking medications that may interfere with the assays or with the metabolism of the administered compounds, such as dexamethasone or metyrapone. Abnormal, spurious values may also be obtained in some individuals who do not have adrenocortical hyperfunction if they are very obese or if testing is performed in a setting of clinical stress. Careful attention to these pitfalls will avoid errors and allow the clinician to arrive at the correct diagnosis. PMID:216524

  5. Testing the concurrent validity of a naturalistic upper extremity reaching task.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, S Y; Hengge, C R

    2016-01-01

    Point-to-point reaching has been widely used to study upper extremity motor control. We have been developing a naturalistic reaching task that adds tool manipulation and object transport to this established paradigm. The purpose of this study was to determine the concurrent validity of a naturalistic reaching task in a sample of healthy adults. This task was compared to the criterion measure of standard point-to-point reaching. Twenty-eight adults performed unconstrained out-and-back movements in three different directions relative to constant start location along midline using their nondominant arm. In the naturalistic task, participants manipulated a tool to transport objects sequentially between physical targets anchored to the planar workspace. In the standard task, participants moved a digital cursor sequentially between virtual targets, veridical to the planar workspace. In both tasks, the primary measure of performance was trial time, which indicated the time to complete 15 reaches (five cycles of three reaches/target). Two other comparator tasks were also designed to test concurrent validity when components of the naturalistic task were added to the standard task. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients indicated minimal relationship between the naturalistic and standard tasks due to differences in progressive task difficulty. Accounting for this yielded a moderate linear relationship, indicating concurrent validity. The comparator tasks were also related to both the standard and naturalistic task. Thus, the principles of motor control and learning that have been established by the wealth of point-to-point reaching studies can still be applied to the naturalistic task to a certain extent. PMID:26438508

  6. Pediatric Arm Function Test

    PubMed Central

    Uswatte, Gitendra; Taub, Edward; Griffin, Angi; Rowe, Jan; Vogtle, Laura; Barman, Joydip

    2012-01-01

    Objective Although there are several validated upper-extremity measures in young children with cerebral palsy (CP), none primarily assess capacity to carry out actions and tasks with the more-affected arm. To address this need, we developed the Pediatric Arm Function Test (PAFT), which involves behavioral observation of how children use their more-affected arm during structured play in the laboratory or clinic. This paper evaluates the reliability and validity of the PAFT Functional Ability scale. Design In Study 1, 20 children between 2–8 years with a wide range of upper-extremity hemiparesis due to CP completed the PAFT on two occasions separated by three weeks. In Study 2, 41 children between 2–6 years with similar characteristics completed the PAFT and received a grade reflecting severity of more-affected arm motor impairment. Results In Study 1, the PAFT test-retest reliability correlation coefficient was 0.74. In Study 2, convergent validity was supported by a strong, inverse correlation (r = −0.6, p < .001) between PAFT scores and grade of impairment. Conclusions The PAFT Functional Ability scale is a reliable and valid measure of more-affected arm motor capacity in children with CP between 2–6 years. It can be employed to measure upper-extremity neurorehabilitation outcome. PMID:23103486

  7. Bathhouse distribution of HIV self-testing kits reaches diverse, high-risk population.

    PubMed

    Woods, William J; Lippman, Sheri A; Agnew, Emily; Carroll, Scott; Binson, Diane

    2016-03-01

    We distributed free OraQuick In-home HIV Test® kits to men at a gay bathhouse. Men were systematically selected to receive a coupon, which could be redeemed that night for an HIV self-testing kit. Those offered the coupon were asked to take an 11-item survey. About 181 men received coupons, of whom 92 (51%) accepted the coupon, and 61 (66%) men redeemed the coupon. Those who redeemed test kits and completed a survey (n = 53) were more ethnically diverse (χ(2) = 100.69, p < .01) than those receiving the coupon. More than half had not tested in the past 6 months (50%) or never tested (7%). Importantly, men who had never tested or who last tested more than 6 months ago were among those most likely to take the free test kit. We found bathhouse distribution could reach a population of men who have sex with men most in need of improved access to HIV testing. Future studies should consider means of improved follow-up and linkage to care for those who test positive. PMID:26883730

  8. Bathhouse distribution of HIV self-testing kits reaches diverse, high-risk population

    PubMed Central

    Woods, William J.; Lippman, Sheri A.; Agnew, Emily; Carroll, Scott; Binson, Diane

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We distributed free OraQuick In-home HIV Test® kits to men at a gay bathhouse. Men were systematically selected to receive a coupon, which could be redeemed that night for an HIV self-testing kit. Those offered the coupon were asked to take an 11-item survey. About 181 men received coupons, of whom 92 (51%) accepted the coupon, and 61 (66%) men redeemed the coupon. Those who redeemed test kits and completed a survey (n = 53) were more ethnically diverse (χ 2 = 100.69, p < .01) than those receiving the coupon. More than half had not tested in the past 6 months (50%) or never tested (7%). Importantly, men who had never tested or who last tested more than 6 months ago were among those most likely to take the free test kit. We found bathhouse distribution could reach a population of men who have sex with men most in need of improved access to HIV testing. Future studies should consider means of improved follow-up and linkage to care for those who test positive. PMID:26883730

  9. A comparison of two Shuttle launch and entry suits - Reach envelope, isokinetic strength, and treadmill tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schafer, Lauren E.; Rajulu, Sudhakar L.; Klute, Glenn K.

    1992-01-01

    A quantification has been conducted of any existing differences between the performance, in operational conditions, of the Space Shuttle crew Launch Entry Suit (LES) and the new Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES). While LES is a partial-pressure suit, the ACES system which is being considered as a replacement for LES is a full-pressure suit. Three tests have been conducted with six subjects to ascertain the suits' reach envelope, strength, and treadmill performance. No significant operational differences were found between the two suit designs.

  10. Optimizing the aquatic toxicity assessment under REACH through an integrated testing strategy (ITS).

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Anna; Roncaglioni, Alessandra; Benfenati, Emilio; Nendza, Monika; Segner, Helmut; Jeram, Sonja; Pauné, Eduard; Schüürmann, Gerrit

    2014-11-01

    To satisfy REACH requirements a high number of data on chemical of interest should be supplied to the European Chemicals Agency. To organize the various kinds of information and help the registrants to choose the best strategy to obtain the needed information limiting at the minimum the use of animal testing, integrated testing strategies (ITSs) schemes can be used. The present work deals with regulatory data requirements for assessing the hazards of chemicals to the aquatic pelagic environment. We present an ITS scheme for organizing and using the complex existing data available for aquatic toxicity assessment. An ITS to optimize the choice of the correct prediction strategy for aquatic pelagic toxicity is described. All existing information (like physico-chemical information), and all the alternative methods (like in silico, in vitro or the acute-to-chronic ratio) are considered. Moreover the weight of evidence approach to combine the available data is included. PMID:25262089

  11. Thyroid Function Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Irving T.

    1979-01-01

    Describes two tests, T-4 and T-3, for hypothyroid based on the binding of the hormones by proteins. The tests were performed in courses for physicians, clinical chemists, laboratory technicians, and undergraduate science students by the individuals involved and on their own sera. These tests are commercially available in kit form. (GA)

  12. Trunk muscles contribute as functional groups to directionality of reaching during stance.

    PubMed

    Stamenkovic, Alexander; Stapley, Paul J

    2016-04-01

    Muscle activity preceding the onset of voluntary movement has been shown to reduce centre of mass (CoM) displacement and stabilise the body during self-induced 'perturbations'. However, based on recent findings in the lower limb, where preparatory muscle activity creates the dynamics necessary for the initiation of movement, this study sought to investigate whether trunk musculature acted consistently to minimise the displacement of the CoM, or in contrast, contribute to the movement. While standing, nine healthy participants made single-step (point-to-point) reaching movements to 13 visual targets throughout a 180° range (target interval = 15°). Full-body kinematics and electromyographic activity from 'focal' arm and 'postural' trunk muscles were analysed for a preparatory phase of 250-ms preceding movement onset (termed pPA). Akin to lower limb findings, direction-specific patterns of anticipatory trunk muscle activity accompanied the onset of rotational kinematics and CoM acceleration in the direction of the desired target. When arranged in terms of peak activation, we found functionally relevant groupings aligned to either ipsi-, central or contra-lateral reaching directions. Contrary to traditional approaches, which focus on CoM stabilisation, this spatial recruitment was in favour of assisting initiation of movement. Such activity suggests that the central nervous system may rely on synergic patterns of muscle activation within an undistinguishable and shared focal/postural motor command for functional voluntary movements. PMID:26746311

  13. A rapid method to score stream reaches based on the overall performance of their main ecological functions.

    PubMed

    Rowe, David K; Parkyn, Stephanie; Quinn, John; Collier, Kevin; Hatton, Chris; Joy, Michael K; Maxted, John; Moore, Stephen

    2009-06-01

    A method was developed to score the ecological condition of first- to third-order stream reaches in the Auckland region of New Zealand based on the performance of their key ecological functions. Such a method is required by consultants and resource managers to quantify the reduction in ecological condition of a modified stream reach relative to its unmodified state. This is a fundamental precursor for the determination of fair environmental compensation for achieving no-net-loss in overall stream ecological value. Field testing and subsequent use of the method indicated that it provides a useful measure of ecological condition related to the performance of stream ecological functions. It is relatively simple to apply compared to a full ecological study, is quick to use, and allows identification of the degree of impairment of each of the key ecological functions. The scoring system was designed so that future improvements in the measurement of stream functions can be incorporated into it. Although the methodology was specifically designed for Auckland streams, the principles can be readily adapted to other regions and stream types. PMID:19434446

  14. Pulmonary Function Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... enters your body. The most common PFT’s are spirometry (spy-RAH-me-tree), diffusion studies and body ... on the day of your test. What is spirometry? Spirometry is one of the most commonly ordered ...

  15. Thyroid function tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... free T4 (the main thyroid hormone in your blood) TSH (the hormone from the pituitary gland that stimulates the thyroid to produce T4) T3 (also included sometimes) Other thyroid tests include: T3 resin uptake Thyroid scan

  16. The Performance of Left-Handed Participants on a Preferential Reaching Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mamolo, Carla M.; Roy, Eric A.; Bryden, Pamela J.; Rohr, Linda E.

    2005-01-01

    Previous research in our laboratory has examined the distribution of preferred hand (PH) reaches in working space with right-handed participants. In one study, we examined the effects of tool position and task demands on the frequency of PH reaches with right-handers (Mamolo, Roy, Bryden, & Rohr, 2004). We found that PH reaches were at a maximum…

  17. [Endothelial function test].

    PubMed

    Tomiyama, Hirofumi

    2015-11-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is thought to have pivotal roles for the development of hypertension, initiation/progression of hypertensive organ damages, and prognosis. In clinical setting, flow-mediated vasodilatation (FMD) of brachial artery is used as a marker of endothelial function. However, well-trained sonographer is needed to conduct FMD measurement, and therefore, FMD has not been fully standardized (i.e., the reference value of FMD has not been established). Even so, FMD predicts future cardiovascular events. Lifestyle modifications (i.e., smoking cessation, exercise, or weight loss) and antihypertensive medication provide beneficial effects on endothelial function. Thus, FMD have a potential as a useful surrogate marker for the management of hypertension. PMID:26619655

  18. Accuracy and Feasibility of Video Analysis for Assessing Hamstring Flexibility and Validity of the Sit-and-Reach Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mier, Constance M.

    2011-01-01

    The accuracy of video analysis of the passive straight-leg raise test (PSLR) and the validity of the sit-and-reach test (SR) were tested in 60 men and women. Computer software measured static hip-joint flexion accurately. High within-session reliability of the PSLR was demonstrated (R greater than 0.97). Test-retest (separate days) reliability for…

  19. Pulmonary Function Testing in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... are s pirometry and airway resistance tests . What is spirometry? Spirometry is the most common lung function test done. ... follow very specific instructions. Most children can do spirometry by age 6, though some preschoolers are able ...

  20. Sliding mode control of continuous time systems with reaching law based on exponential function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamorski, Piotr

    2015-11-01

    In this paper a pseudo-sliding mode control is proposed by introducing a continuous and smooth input signal in order to guarantee both chattering elimination and boundedness of sliding variable derivative in the presence of non-zero external disturbance. For this purpose, having fixed a suitable sliding manifold, a homogeneous differential equation describing the sliding variable evolution is considered. It is discussed later in this paper that the input signal formed on the basis of this equation provides asymptotic convergence of the sliding variable and its derivative to zero as well as the asymptotic stability of the non-linear system in the absence of external disturbance. The dynamics of the system affected by non-zero external disturbance make the state vector converge to domains in a vicinity of the origin at the exponential rate, as the norm of arbitrary trajectory is limited to decreasing exponential function. In order to expand the variety of controllers based on a reaching law and providing the above-mentioned properties, a certain class of functions is presented.

  1. Pilot study to test effectiveness of video game on reaching performance in stroke

    PubMed Central

    Acosta, Ana Maria; Dewald, Hendrik A.; Dewald, Jules P. A.

    2012-01-01

    Robotic systems currently used in upper-limb rehabilitation following stroke rely on some form of visual feedback as part of the intervention program. We evaluated the effect of a video game environment (air hockey) on reaching in stroke with various levels of arm support. We used the Arm Coordination Training 3D system to provide variable arm support and to control the hockey stick. We instructed seven subjects to reach to one of three targets covering the workspace of the impaired arm during the reaching task and to reach as far as possible while playing the video game. The results from this study showed that across subjects, support levels, and targets, the reaching distances achieved with the reaching task were greater than those covered with the video game. This held even after further restricting the mapped workspace of the arm to the area most affected by the flexion synergy (effectively forcing subjects to fight the synergy to reach the hockey puck). The results from this study highlight the importance of designing video games that include specific reaching targets in the workspace compromised by the expression of the flexion synergy. Such video games would also adapt the target location online as a subject’s success rate increases. PMID:21674392

  2. Pilot study to test effectiveness of video game on reaching performance in stroke.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Ana Maria; Dewald, Hendrik A; Dewald, Jules P A

    2011-01-01

    Robotic systems currently used in upper-limb rehabilitation following stroke rely on some form of visual feedback as part of the intervention program. We evaluated the effect of a video game environment (air hockey) on reaching in stroke with various levels of arm support. We used the Arm Coordination Training 3D system to provide variable arm support and to control the hockey stick. We instructed seven subjects to reach to one of three targets covering the workspace of the impaired arm during the reaching task and to reach as far as possible while playing the video game. The results from this study showed that across subjects, support levels, and targets, the reaching distances achieved with the reaching task were greater than those covered with the video game. This held even after further restricting the mapped workspace of the arm to the area most affected by the flexion synergy (effectively forcing subjects to fight the synergy to reach the hockey puck). The results from this study highlight the importance of designing video games that include specific reaching targets in the workspace compromised by the expression of the flexion synergy. Such video games would also adapt the target location online as a subject's success rate increases. PMID:21674392

  3. The Validity and Reliability of the Back Saver Sit-and-Reach Test in Middle School Girls and Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Patricia; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This study examined the validity and reliability of the Back Saver Sit-and-Reach test for middle school students. Students completed the test during physical education class. Results indicated that the test was moderately related to hamstring flexibility, but its relationship to lower back flexibility was quite low for both sexes. (SM)

  4. Tests of gastric neuromuscular function.

    PubMed

    Parkman, Henry P; Jones, Michael P

    2009-05-01

    Tests of gastric neuromuscular function are used to evaluate patients with symptoms referable to the upper digestive tract. These symptoms can be associated with alterations in the rates of gastric emptying, impaired accommodation, heightened gastric sensation, or alterations in gastric myoelectrical function and contractility. Management of gastric neuromuscular disorders requires an understanding of pathophysiology and treatment options as well as the appropriate use and interpretation of diagnostic tests. These tests include measures of gastric emptying; contractility; electrical activity; regional gastric motility of the fundus, antrum, and pylorus; and tests of sensation and compliance. Tests are also being developed to improve our understanding of the afferent sensory pathways from the stomach to the central nervous system that mediate gastric sensation in health and gastric disorders. This article reviews tests of gastric function and provides a basic description of the tests, the methodologies behind them, descriptions of the physiology that they assess, and their clinical utility. PMID:19293005

  5. [Responses of functional diversity of aquatic insect community to land use change in middle reach of Qiantang River, East China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lian-Bo; Liu, Dong-Xiao; Liu, Shuo-Ru; Zhang, Yong; Tong, Xiao-Li; Wang, Bei-Xin

    2013-10-01

    Based on the biological traits such as life history, resistance ability against environmental disturbance, and physiological characteristics of aquatic insects, and by using the fourth-corner statistical method, this paper studied the responses of the functional diversity of aquatic insect community to land use change in the middle reach of Qiantang River, Zhejiang Province of East China. For the test aquatic insect community, some of its biological traits were sensitive to land use change, and altered along human disturbance gradients as expected. With the increasing intensity of human disturbance, the maximal insect body length decreased gradually, the dominant respiration pattern evolved from gill respiration to tegument respiration, and the abundance of burrowers increased significantly. At the same time, the functional diversity measured as Rao's quadratic entropy was significantly higher in reference sites than in disturbed sites (P < 0.001), demonstrating that the changes in the functional diversity of the aquatic community were mainly induced by the land use change caused by human activities, which resulted in the decline of stream water quality and habitat quality and the variations of aquatic insect community composition and biological traits. The aquatic insect biological traits and functional diversity could be the potentially effective indicators in the stream health assessment in the future. PMID:24483092

  6. REPRODUCIBILITY OF THE MODIFIED STAR EXCURSION BALANCE TEST COMPOSITE AND SPECIFIC REACH DIRECTION SCORES

    PubMed Central

    van Lieshout, Remko; Reijneveld, Elja A.E.; van den Berg, Sandra M.; Haerkens, Gijs M.; Koenders, Niek H.; de Leeuw, Arina J.; van Oorsouw, Roel G.; Paap, Davy; Scheffer, Else; Weterings, Stijn

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background The mSEBT is a screening tool used to evaluate dynamic balance. Most research investigating measurement properties focused on intrarater reliability and was done in small samples. To know whether the mSEBT is useful to discriminate dynamic balance between persons and to evaluate changes in dynamic balance, more research into intra- and interrater reliability and smallest detectable change (synonymous with minimal detectable change) is needed. Purpose To estimate intra- and interrater reliability and smallest detectable change of the mSEBT in adults at risk for ankle sprain. Study Design Cross-sectional, test-retest design Methods Fifty-five healthy young adults participating in sports at risk for ankle sprain participated (mean ± SD age, 24.0 ± 2.9 years). Each participant performed three test sessions within one hour and was rated by two physical therapists (session 1, rater 1; session 2, rater 2; session 3, rater 1). Participants and raters were blinded for previous measurements. Normalized composite and reach direction scores for the right and left leg were collected. Analysis of variance was used to calculate intraclass correlation coefficient values for intra- and interrater reliability. Smallest detectable change values were calculated based on the standard error of measurement. Results Intra- and interrater reliability for both legs was good to excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient ranging from 0.87 to 0.94). The intrarater smallest detectable change for the composite score of the right leg was 7.2% and for the left 6.2%. The interrater smallest detectable change for the composite score of the right leg was 6.9% and for the left 5.0%. Conclusion The mSEBT is a reliable measurement instrument to discriminate dynamic balance between persons. Most smallest detectable change values of the mSEBT appear to be large. More research is needed to investigate if the mSEBT is usable for evaluative purposes. Level of Evidence Level 2

  7. Development of microgravity, full body functional reach envelope using 3-D computer graphic models and virtual reality technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, Patricia F.

    1994-01-01

    In microgravity conditions mobility is greatly enhanced and body stability is difficult to achieve. Because of these difficulties, optimum placement and accessibility of objects and controls can be critical to required tasks on board shuttle flights or on the proposed space station. Anthropometric measurement of the maximum reach of occupants of a microgravity environment provide knowledge about maximum functional placement for tasking situations. Calculations for a full body, functional reach envelope for microgravity environments are imperative. To this end, three dimensional computer modeled human figures, providing a method of anthropometric measurement, were used to locate the data points that define the full body, functional reach envelope. Virtual reality technology was utilized to enable an occupant of the microgravity environment to experience movement within the reach envelope while immersed in a simulated microgravity environment.

  8. The effect of an active vibration stimulus according to different shoulder joint angles on functional reach and stability of the shoulder joint

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Seong-Gil

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of an active vibration stimulus exercise according to shoulder joint angles on functional reach and stability of the shoulder joint. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty healthy male students participated in this study. Upper limb length of each subject was measured to obtain normalized measurement values. The exercise groups were as follows: group I (n=10, shoulder joint angle of 90°), group II (n=10, shoulder joint angle of 130°), and group III (n=10, shoulder joint angle of 180°). After warm-up, an active vibration stimulus was applied to the subjects with a Flexi-Bar. The Functional Reach Test and Y-balance test were conducted for measurement of shoulder stability. [Results] Analysis of covariance was conducted with values before the intervention as covariates to analyze the differences among the groups in the two tests. There were significant differences among the groups. According to Bonferroni post hoc comparison, group I showed greater improvement than group III in the Functional Reach Test, and group II showed greater improvement than group I and group III in the Y-balance test. [Conclusion] The effect of the exercise with different shoulder joint angles revealed that the shoulder joint has a certain effective joint angle for its functionality and stability. In addition, application of an active vibration stimulus with a Flexi-Bar can be a very effective tool for improvement of functionality and stability of the shoulder joint. PMID:27134352

  9. Evaluation of the integrated testing strategy for PNEC derivation under REACH.

    PubMed

    May, Martin; Drost, Wiebke; Germer, Sabine; Juffernholz, Tanja; Hahn, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    Species sensitivity evaluation represents an approach to avoid chronic toxicity testing of aquatic vertebrates in accordance with the animal welfare concept of the EU chemicals regulation. In this study a data set of chemicals is analysed for relative species sensitivity between Daphnia and fish in chronic testing to evaluate under what condition chronic fish tests can be waived without underestimating the environmental hazard. Chronic fish toxicity is covered in 84% of the evaluated substances by the chronic invertebrate test and an assessment factor of 50. Thus, animal testing can be avoided in environmental hazard assessment for many chemicals. Moreover, it is shown that species sensitivity in chronic testing is associated with species sensitivity in acute testing. The more sensitive species in chronic testing is predicted with a high probability if a species is >5x more sensitive in acute testing. If substances are comparable or more toxic to Daphnia in acute testing than to fish chronic fish toxicity is covered by the chronic Daphnia test and an assessment factor of 50 in about 95% of the evaluated cases. To provide decision support for the regulation of chemicals a categorization scheme on relative sensitivity comparison is presented. PMID:27103318

  10. Adapting the Get Yourself Tested Campaign to Reach Black and Latino Sexual-Minority Youth

    PubMed Central

    Garbers, Samantha; Friedman, Allison; Martinez, Omar; Scheinmann, Roberta; Bermudez, Dayana; Silva, Manel; Silverman, Jen; Chiasson, Mary Ann

    2016-01-01

    Background Culturally appropriate efforts are needed to increase sexually transmitted disease (STD) testing and care among Black and Latino sexual-minority youth, who are at high risk for STDs. Get Yourself Tested, a national testing campaign, has demonstrated success among youth, but it has yet to be assessed for relevance or impact among this population. Method This effort included (1) formative and materials-testing research through focus groups; (2) adaptation of existing Get Yourself Tested campaign materials to be more inclusive of Black and Latino sexual-minority youth; (3) a 3-month campaign in four venues of New York City, promoting STD testing at events and through mobile testing and online and social media platforms; (4) process evaluation of outreach activities; and (5) an outcome evaluation of testing at select campaign venues, using a preexperimental design. Results During the 3-month campaign period, the number of STD tests conducted at select campaign venues increased from a comparable 3-month baseline period. Although testing uptake through mobile vans remained low in absolute numbers, the van drew a high-prevalence sample, with positivity rates of 26.9% for chlamydia and 11.5% for gonorrhea. This article documents the process and lessons learned from adapting and implementing a local campaign for Black and Latino sexual-minority youth. PMID:27225216

  11. On the Generality of the "Sit and Reach" Test: An Analysis of Flexibility Data for an Aging Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shephard, Roy J.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This study examined head rotation, shoulder extension and rotation, ankle plantar and dorsiflexion, hip flexion, and sit and reach (SR) in 80 adults, aged 45-75, to identify flexibility factors. No single measurement indicates loss of flexibility at all joints, but SR tests are found to be more reliable than others. (SM)

  12. Effects of Tai Chi on a Functional Arm Reaching Task in Older Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Rini; Hui-Chan, Christina W; Bhatt, Tanvi

    2015-07-01

    This study quantified the effect of aging and the long-term practice of Tai Chi on upper limb movement control, indicated by performance outcome (temporal) and performance production (amplitude) measures, on a multiplanar stand-reaching (i.e., functional) task. Twelve Tai Chi practitioners (TCPs), 11 age-matched older nonpractitioners (ONPs), and 12 young subjects performed cued, flexion-reaching, and abduction-reaching tasks using a custom set-up. Surface EMG and acceleration data sampled from wireless sensors rendered performance outcome (reaction time, burst duration, time to peak, and movement time) and performance production (normalized EMG amplitude and peak acceleration) measures. Young subjects and TCPs demonstrated better performance outcome and performance production than ONPs. Relative-effect computations (i.e., the effect of Tai Chi expressed as a percentage of the effect of aging) showed that TCPs exhibited approximately 20-60% (flexion) and 20-100% (abduction) improvement in reaching task performance compared with ONPs. Tai Chi practitioners displayed better arm movement control than ONPs on a relatively challenging and functional stand-reaching task. PMID:25007862

  13. HIV Testing and Counselling in Colombia: Local Experience on Two Different Recruitment Strategies to Better Reach Low Socioeconomic Status Communities

    PubMed Central

    Galindo-Quintero, Jaime; Mueses-Marin, Hector Fabio; Montaño-Agudelo, David; Pinzón-Fernández, María Virginia; Tello-Bolívar, Inés Constanza; Alvarado-Llano, Beatriz Eugenia; Martinez-Cajas, Jorge Luis

    2014-01-01

    HIV testing rates remain very low in Colombia, with only 20% of individuals at risk ever tested. In order to tackle this issue, the Corporacion de Lucha Contra el Sida (CLS) has implemented a multidisciplinary, provider-initiated, population-based HIV testing/counselling strategy named BAFI. In this report, we describe the experience of CLS at reaching populations from low socioeconomic backgrounds in 2008-2009. Two different approaches were used: one led by CLS and local health care providers (BAFI-1) and the other by CLS and community leaders (BAFI-2). Both approaches included the following: consented HIV screening test, a demographic questionnaire, self-reported HIV knowledge and behaviour questionnaires, pre- and posttest counselling, confirmatory HIV tests, clinical follow-up, access to comprehensive care and antiretroviral treatment. A total of 2085 individuals were enrolled in BAFI-1 and 363 in BAFI-2. The effectiveness indicators for BAFI-1 and BAFI-2, respectively, were HIV positive-confirmed prevalence = 0.29% and 3.86%, return rate for confirmatory results = 62.5% and 93.7%, return rate for comprehensive care = 83.3% and 92.8%, and ART initiation rate = 20% and 76.9%. Although more people were reached with BAFI-1, the community-led BAFI-2 was more effective at reaching individuals with a higher prevalence of behavioural risk factors for HIV infection. PMID:24592330

  14. The GED Experience: Reaching Out to People. Final Evaluation Report of Iowa's Experimental GED Test Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartwig, John

    This report describes the structure, format, and processes of Iowa's General Educational Development (GED) test center structure and presents the results, conclusions, and recommendations from an evaluation of that structure. The major purposes of the evaluation were to assess the effectiveness of Iowa's new statewide GED structure, determine…

  15. GALACSI integration and functional tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Penna, P.; Ströbele, S.; Aller Carpentier, E.; Argomedo, J.; Arsenault, R.; Conzelmann, R. D.; Delabre, B.; Donaldson, R.; Duchateau, M.; Fedrigo, E.; Gago, F.; Hubin, N.; Quentin, J.; Jolley, P.; Kiekebusch, M.; Kirchbauer, J. P.; Klein, B.; Kolb, J.; Kuntschner, H.; Le Louarn, M.; Lizon, J. L.; Madec, P.-.; Manescau, A.; Mehrgan, L.; Sedghi, B.; Suarez Valles, M.; Soenke, C.; Tordo, S.; Vernet, J.; Zampieri, S.

    2014-07-01

    GALACSI is the Adaptive Optics (AO) modules of the ESO Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF) that will correct the wavefront delivered to the MUSE Integral Field Spectrograph. It will sense with four 40×40 subapertures Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors the AOF 4 Laser Guide Stars (LGS), acting on the 1170 voice-coils actuators of the Deformable Secondary Mirror (DSM). GALACSI has two operating modes: in Wide Field Mode (WFM), with the four LGS at 64" off axis, the collected energy in a 0.2"×0.2" pixel will be enhanced by a factor 2 at 750 nm over a Field of View (FoV) of 1'×1' using the Ground Layer AO (GLAO) technique. The other mode, the Narrow Field Mode (NFM), provides an enhanced wavefront correction (Strehl Ratio (SR) of 5% (goal 10%) at 650 nm) but in a smaller FoV (7.5"×7.5"), using Laser Tomography AO (LTAO), with the 4 LGS located closer, at 10" off axis. Before being shipped to Paranal, GALACSI will be first integrated and fully tested in stand-alone, and then moved to a dedicated AOF facility to be tested with the DSM in Europe. At present the module is fully assembled, its main functionalities have been implemented and verified, and AO system tests with the DSM are starting. We present here the main system features and the results of the internal functional tests of GALACSI.

  16. Reaching accuracies of Lambda/100 with the Three-Flat-Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittek, Steffen

    2013-04-01

    Flat surfaces and the determination of their surface characteristics are of major importance in industry. The absolute measurement of them is a great challenge however. A solution for the Three-Flat-Test was proposed by Kuechel. His solution relies on four normal measurements where the three flats are interferometrically measured in different permutations and one where the test-piece flat is rotated with respect to the reference flat. As the solution is not exact the quality of the result depends on the number of integration steps taken for the fifth measurement. Kuechel has shown that for a 640 x 480 pixel CCD array 20 rotations are sufficient. Using his algorithm a interferometric-measurement accuracy on the order of lambda/100 is likely. In the present work it could be shown that the algorithm works with both high and low frequency errors, here represented by fractal and Zernike surfaces respectively. In a first practical test the algorithm retrieved the wavefront errors of three ZYGO transmission flats. The three flats were given to have accuracies of A = lambda/15, B = lambda/15 and C= lambda/ 20. The application of the algorithm resulted in accuracies of Aa = lambda/ 39, Ba = lambda/ 42 and Ca = lambda/ 40. This implies that all surfaces could be more accurately determined than given by the manufacturer! A rotation stage which can be turned more precisely and transmission flats of known better quality are however expected to lead to the measurement of higher accuracies in the range of lambda/100. Hence this procedure is likely to allow for cheap and fast absolute calibration of transmission flats.

  17. Abnormality on Liver Function Test

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Children with abnormal liver function can often be seen in outpatient clinics or inpatients wards. Most of them have respiratory disease, or gastroenteritis by virus infection, accompanying fever. Occasionally, hepatitis by the viruses causing systemic infection may occur, and screening tests are required. In patients with jaundice, the tests for differential diagnosis and appropriate treatment are important. In the case of a child with hepatitis B virus infection vertically from a hepatitis B surface antigen positive mother, the importance of the recognition of immune clearance can't be overstressed, for the decision of time to begin treatment. Early diagnosis changes the fate of a child with Wilson disease. So, screening test for the disease should not be omitted. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which is mainly discovered in obese children, is a new strong candidate triggering abnormal liver function. Muscular dystrophy is a representative disease mimicking liver dysfunction. Although muscular dystrophy is a progressive disorder, and early diagnosis can't change the fate of patients, it will be better to avoid parent's blame for delayed diagnosis. PMID:24511518

  18. Platelet Function Tests in Bleeding Disorders.

    PubMed

    Lassila, Riitta

    2016-04-01

    Functional disorders of platelets can involve any aspect of platelet physiology, with many different effects or outcomes. These include platelet numbers (thrombocytosis or thrombocytopenia); changes in platelet production or destruction, or capture to the liver (Ashwell receptor); altered adhesion to vascular injury sites and/or influence on hemostasis and wound healing; and altered activation or receptor functions, shape change, spreading and release reactions, procoagulant and antifibrinolytic activity. Procoagulant membrane alterations, and generation of thrombin and fibrin, also affect platelet aggregation. The above parameters can all be studied, but standardization and quality control of assay methods have been limited despite several efforts. Only after a comprehensive clinical bleeding assessment, including family history, information on drug use affecting platelets, and exclusion of coagulation factor, and tissue deficits, should platelet function testing be undertaken to confirm an abnormality. Current diagnostic tools include blood cell counts, platelet characteristics according to the cell counter parameters, peripheral blood smear, exclusion of pseudothrombocytopenia, whole blood aggregometry (WBA) or light transmission aggregometry (LTA) in platelet-rich plasma, luminescence, platelet function analysis (PFA-100) for platelet adhesion and deposition to collagen cartridges under blood flow, and finally transmission electron microscopy to exclude rare structural defects leading to functional deficits. The most validated test panels are included in WBA, LTA, and PFA. Because platelets are isolated from their natural environment, many simplifications occur, as circulating blood and interaction with vascular wall are omitted in these assays. The target to reach a highly specific platelet disorder diagnosis in routine clinical management can be exhaustive, unless needed for genetic counseling. The elective overall assessment of platelet function disorder

  19. [Exercise test and respiratory muscle function test].

    PubMed

    Akashiba, Tsuneto

    2011-10-01

    Dyspnea on exertion is a chief complaint of patients with COPD, and it has a major effect on the quality of their lives. Dyspnea is, by definition, subjective, but objective approaches are needed for a comprehensive understanding of these patients' conditions. Thus, measuring changes in cardiopulmonary variables during exercise can be very helpful when evaluating patients with COPD. The main purpose of exercise testing is to evaluate exercise tolerance and to identify the factors limiting exercise. Although incremental exercise testing is ideal for these purposes, simple walking tests such as 6-minute walking test, are also useful. PMID:22073578

  20. Functional Task Test: Data Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromwell, Ronita

    2014-01-01

    After space flight there are changes in multiple physiological systems including: Cardiovascular function; Sensorimotor function; and Muscle function. How do changes in these physiological system impact astronaut functional performance?

  1. 14 CFR 35.40 - Functional test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Functional test. 35.40 Section 35.40... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.40 Functional test. The variable-pitch propeller system must be subjected to the applicable functional tests of this section. The same propeller system used...

  2. 14 CFR 35.40 - Functional test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Functional test. 35.40 Section 35.40... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.40 Functional test. The variable-pitch propeller system must be subjected to the applicable functional tests of this section. The same propeller system used...

  3. 14 CFR 35.40 - Functional test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Functional test. 35.40 Section 35.40... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.40 Functional test. The variable-pitch propeller system must be subjected to the applicable functional tests of this section. The same propeller system used...

  4. 14 CFR 35.40 - Functional test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the endurance test (§ 35.39) must be used in the functional tests and must be driven by a representative engine on a test stand or on an airplane. The propeller must complete these tests without evidence of failure or malfunction. This test may be combined with the endurance test for accumulation...

  5. Track/train dynamics test procedure transfer function test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vigil, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    A transfer function vibration test was made on an 80 ton open hopper freight car in an effort to obtain validation data on the car's nonlinear elastic model. Test configuration, handling, test facilities, test operations, and data acquisition/reduction activities necessary to meet the conditions of test requirements are given.

  6. What Are Lung Function Tests?

    MedlinePlus

    ... COPD How the Lungs Work Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Sarcoidosis Send a link to NHLBI to someone by ... caused by conditions such as pulmonary fibrosis and sarcoidosis (sar-koy-DOE-sis). Also, these tests might ...

  7. Functional Assays for Neurotoxicity Testing

    EPA Science Inventory

    Neurobehavioral and pathological evaluations of the nervous system are complementary components of basic research and toxicity testing of pharmaceutical and environmental chemicals. While neuropathological assessments provide insight as to cellular changes in neurons, behavioral ...

  8. Functional Assays for Neurotoxicity Testing*

    EPA Science Inventory

    Neurobehavioral and pathological evaluations of the nervous system are complementary components of basic research and toxicity testing of pharmaceutical and environmental chemicals. While neuropathological assessments provide insight as to cellular changes in neurons, behavioral ...

  9. HEALTH SIGNIFICANCE OF PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    As the sensitivity and precision of functional tests improves, we become increasingly able to measure responses to pollutant exposures with little, if any, demonstrable health significance. Proper interpretation of such functional responses generally requires an ability to evalua...

  10. Integrative fascial release and functional testing.

    PubMed

    Hammer, W

    2000-03-01

    Soft tissue techniques, including Integrative Myofascial Release (IFR) can be more effective if the area of treatment can be determined by functional testing. The patient's source of pain may not necessarily be located at the area of complaint and functional testing helps in pinpointing the source. Post-treatment functional testing will provide feedback to both the patient and the doctor as to whether the technique was effective. This paper will describe some typical functional tests and treatment using IFR of the posterior cervical/thoracolumbar fascia. PMID:17987166

  11. Iterative Evaluation in a Mobile Counseling and Testing Program to Reach People of Color at Risk for HIV--New Strategies Improve Program Acceptability, Effectiveness, and Evaluation Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spielberg, Freya; Kurth, Ann; Reidy, William; McKnight, Teka; Dikobe, Wame; Wilson, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This article highlights findings from an evaluation that explored the impact of mobile versus clinic-based testing, rapid versus central-lab based testing, incentives for testing, and the use of a computer counseling program to guide counseling and automate evaluation in a mobile program reaching people of color at risk for HIV. The program's…

  12. ELEFUNT. Tests of Fortran Elementary Functions

    SciTech Connect

    Cody, W.J.

    1980-03-14

    ELEFUNT is an aggressive test of one or more of the elementary function subroutines generally supplied with the support library accompanying a FORTRAN compiler. Functions tested are ALOG/ALOG10, ASIN/ACOS, ATAN, EXP, POWER, SIN/COS, SINH/COSH, SQRT, TAN/COTAN, and TANH.

  13. Dealing with Omitted and Not-Reached Items in Competence Tests: Evaluating Approaches Accounting for Missing Responses in Item Response Theory Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohl, Steffi; Gräfe, Linda; Rose, Norman

    2014-01-01

    Data from competence tests usually show a number of missing responses on test items due to both omitted and not-reached items. Different approaches for dealing with missing responses exist, and there are no clear guidelines on which of those to use. While classical approaches rely on an ignorable missing data mechanism, the most recently developed…

  14. Binomial test statistics using Psi functions

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, Kimiko o

    2007-01-01

    For the negative binomial model (probability generating function (p + 1 - pt){sup -k}) a logarithmic derivative is the Psi function difference {psi}(k + x) - {psi}(k); this and its derivatives lead to a test statistic to decide on the validity of a specified model. The test statistic uses a data base so there exists a comparison available between theory and application. Note that the test function is not dominated by outliers. Applications to (i) Fisher's tick data, (ii) accidents data, (iii) Weldon's dice data are included.

  15. PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTING IN SMALL LABORATORY MAMMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The lung is the primary organ likely to be exposed by inhalation studies and, therefore, measurement of changes in lung function are of particular interest to the pulmonary physiologist and toxicologist. Tests of pulmonary function have been developed which can be used with small...

  16. Comparison of clinical tests of olfactory function.

    PubMed

    Reden, J; Draf, C; Frank, R A; Hummel, T

    2016-04-01

    To assess olfactory function, various measures are used in clinical routine. In this study, the Sniff Magnitude Test (SMT), a test considering the sniff response to an odor, was applied to patients with olfactory dysfunction (n = 49) and to a control group without subjective olfaction disorder (n = 21). For comparison, the validated "Sniffin' Sticks" test battery, a psychophysical olfactory test consisting of tests for phenyl ethyl alcohol odor threshold, odor discrimination, and odor identification was performed. Analyses indicated that the SMT showed significant differences between patients and controls (p = 0.003). Furthermore, results from the SMT and the "Sniffin' Sticks" correlated significantly (p < 0.001). In conclusion, the SMT appears to be a useful addition to the battery of available clinical tests to assess olfactory function. PMID:26050222

  17. Reaching a Uniform Accuracy for Complex Molecular Systems: Long-Range-Corrected XYG3 Doubly Hybrid Density Functional.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Igor Ying; Xu, Xin

    2013-05-16

    An unbiased understanding of complex molecular systems from first-principles critically demands theoretical methods with uniform accuracy for diverse interactions with different natures covering short-, medium-, and long-range correlations. Among the state-of-the-art density functional approximations (DFAs), doubly hybrid (DH) DFAs (e.g., XYG3 in this Letter) provide a remarkable improvement over the conventional DFAs (e.g., B3LYP in this Letter). Even though XYG3 works quite well in many cases of noncovalent bonding interactions (NCIs), it is incomplete in describing the pure long-range dispersive interactions. Here, we address such concerns by adding a scaled long-range contribution from the second-order perturbation theory (PT2). The long-range-corrected XYG3 (lrc-XYG3) is proposed without reparameterizing the three parameters in the original XYG3. Due to its overall excellent performance for all testing sets constructed for various purposes, lrc-XYG3 is the recommended method, which is expected to provide a balanced description of diverse interactions in complex molecular systems. PMID:26282977

  18. Evaluation of abnormal liver function tests.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Swastik; Dhiman, Radha K; Limdi, Jimmy K

    2016-04-01

    Incidentally detected abnormality in liver function tests is a common situation encountered by physicians across all disciplines. Many of these patients do not have primary liver disease as most of the commonly performed markers are not specific for the liver and are affected by myriad factors unrelated to liver disease. Also, many of these tests like liver enzyme levels do not measure the function of the liver, but are markers of liver injury, which is broadly of two types: hepatocellular and cholestatic. A combination of a careful history and clinical examination along with interpretation of pattern of liver test abnormalities can often identify type and aetiology of liver disease, allowing for a targeted investigation approach. Severity of liver injury is best assessed by composite scores like the Model for End Stage Liver Disease rather than any single parameter. In this review, we discuss the interpretation of the routinely performed liver tests along with the indications and utility of quantitative tests. PMID:26842972

  19. Pulmonary function testing in small laboratory mammals.

    PubMed Central

    O'Neil, J J; Raub, J A

    1984-01-01

    The lung is the primary organ likely to be exposed by inhalation studies and, therefore, measurement of changes in lung function are of particular interest to the pulmonary physiologist and toxicologist. Tests of pulmonary function have been developed which can be used with small animals to measure spirometry (lung volumes), mechanics, distribution of ventilation, gas exchange or control of ventilation. These tests were designed on the basis of similar tests which are used in humans to diagnose and manage patients with lung disease. A major difference is that many of the measurements are performed in anesthetized animals, while human pulmonary function is usually measured in awake cooperating individuals. In addition, the measurement of respiratory events in small animals requires sensitive and rapidly responding equipment, because signals may be small and events can occur quickly. In general, the measurements described provide information on the change in normal lung function which results primarily from structural changes. These tests of pulmonary function can be repetitively and routinely accomplished and the results appear to be highly reproducible. Although some are quite sophisticated, many can be undertaken with relatively inexpensive equipment and provide useful information for toxicological testing. PMID:6434299

  20. Increasing the Reach of HIV Testing to Young Latino MSM: Results of a Pilot Study Integrating Outreach and Services

    PubMed Central

    Erausquin, Jennifer Toller; Duan, Naihua; Grusky, Oscar; Swanson, Aimee-Noelle; Kerrone, Dustin; Rudy, Ellen T.

    2015-01-01

    Background In the U.S., HIV infections are increasing among men who have sex with men (MSM), particularly young, racial/ethnic minority MSM. Objective To examine the feasibility of increasing HIV testing among young Latino MSM by integrating tailored outreach strategies with testing, counseling, and HIV medical services. Design Descriptive study comparing demographic characteristics, behaviors, and HIV test results of clients from the intervention period with clients who tested during other time periods. Results Clients in the intervention period were younger and more likely to be Latino than those in other time periods. In addition, clients who received outreach were more likely than those who did not receive outreach to report methamphetamine use, sex with an HIV-positive person, and sex with a sex worker. Conclusion Venue-based and selective media outreach, in combination with linking rapid testing to HIV care, may help overcome some of the barriers to testing among high-risk young Latino MSM. PMID:19648703

  1. An automated system for pulmonary function testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauldin, D. G.

    1974-01-01

    An experiment to quantitate pulmonary function was accepted for the space shuttle concept verification test. The single breath maneuver and the nitrogen washout are combined to reduce the test time. Parameters are defined from the forced vital capacity maneuvers. A spirometer measures the breath volume and a magnetic section mass spectrometer provides definition of gas composition. Mass spectrometer and spirometer data are analyzed by a PDP-81 digital computer.

  2. Track/train dynamics test report transfer function test. Volume 1: Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vigil, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    A description is presented of the transfer function test performed on an open hopper freight car loaded with 80 tons of coal. Test data and a post-test update of the requirements document and test procedure are presented. Included are a statement of the test objective, a description of the test configurations, test facilities, test methods, data acquisition/reduction operations, and a chronological test summary. An index to the data for the three test configurations (X, Y, and Z-axis tests) is presented along with test sequence, run number, test reference, and input parameters.

  3. Ecoregional, catchment, and reach-scale environmental factors shape functional-trait structure of stream fish assemblages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Patterns of association between functional traits and environmental gradients can improve understanding of species assemblage structure from local to regional scales, and therefore may be useful for natural resource management. We measured functional traits related to trophic ecology, habitat use, a...

  4. Gas Test Loop Functional and Technical Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Glen R. Longhurst; Soli T. Khericha; James L. Jones

    2004-09-01

    This document defines the technical and functional requirements for a gas test loop (GTL) to be constructed for the purpose of providing a high intensity fast-flux irradiation environment for developers of advanced concept nuclear reactors. This capability is needed to meet fuels and materials testing requirements of the designers of Generation IV (GEN IV) reactors and other programs within the purview of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). Space nuclear power development programs may also benefit by the services the GTL will offer. The overall GTL technical objective is to provide developers with the means for investigating and qualifying fuels and materials needed for advanced reactor concepts. The testing environment includes a fast-flux neutron spectrum of sufficient intensity to perform accelerated irradiation testing. Appropriate irradiation temperature, gaseous environment, test volume, diagnostics, and access and handling features are also needed. This document serves to identify those requirements as well as generic requirements applicable to any system of this kind.

  5. Variability of routine pulmonary function tests.

    PubMed Central

    Hruby, J; Butler, J

    1975-01-01

    Pulmonary function tests sometimes indicate a progressive deterioration and at other times a 'stepwise' worsening which may be followed by improvement. Interpretation depends on the extent of random or diurnal variations in function. Routing pulmonary function tests (VC, FEV1, FRC, and airway resistance (Raw)) were repeatedly measured in normal subjects, patients with stable irreversible airways obstruction, and patients with stable restrictive disease. In all groups there was a significant (P less than 0.001) diurnal variation in Raw, with high values in the morning, low values at noon, and rising values in the evening. The midday Raw values were about 80% of the highest daily values. The considerable random and diurnal variability seen in all tests is reflected in the range of high and low values (% of mean individual response) in individuals. The largest variation in an individual between measurements taken at two different times was 81% in Raw (range: 40% above to 41% below the mean). There was less variation in FEV1 (29%), FRC (62%), and VC (30%). Thus the finding of a stepwise change in function could reflect its natrual variability. When repeated studies are done to assess progress or the effects of therapy on disease, there are many factors, including the time of day at which the tests are performed, which should be standardized as far as possible. PMID:1198395

  6. Analysis of Draize eye irritation testing and its prediction by mining publicly available 2008-2014 REACH data.

    PubMed

    Luechtefeld, Thomas; Maertens, Alexandra; Russo, Daniel P; Rovida, Costanza; Zhu, Hao; Hartung, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Public data from ECHA online dossiers on 9,801 substances encompassing 326,749 experimental key studies and additional information on classification and labeling were made computable. Eye irritation hazard, for which the rabbit Draize eye test still represents the reference method, was analyzed. Dossiers contained 9,782 Draize eye studies on 3,420 unique substances, indicating frequent retesting of substances. This allowed assessment of the test's reproducibility test based on all substances tested more than once. There was a 10% chance of a non-irritant evaluation given after a prior severe-irritant result as given by UN GHS classification criteria. The most reproducible outcomes were the results negative (94% reproducible) and severe eye irritant (73% reproducible). To evaluate whether other GHS categorizations predict eye irritation we built a dataset of 5,629 substances (1,931 'irritant' and 3,698 'non-irritant'). The two best decision trees with up to three other GHS classifications resulted in balanced accuracies of 68% and 73%, i.e., in the rank order of the Draize rabbit eye test itself, but both use inhalation toxicity data ("May cause respiratory irritation"), which is not typically available. Next, a dataset of 929 substances with at least one Draize study was mapped to PubChem to compute chemical similarity using 2D conformational fingerprints and Tanimoto similarity. Using a minimum similarity of 0.7 and simple classification by the closest chemical neighbor resulted in balanced accuracy from 73% over 737 substances to 100% at a threshold of 0.975 over 41 substances. This represents a strong support of read-across and (Q)SAR approaches in this area. PMID:26863293

  7. Functional Performance Testing After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Abrams, Geoffrey D.; Harris, Joshua D.; Gupta, Anil K.; McCormick, Frank M.; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Verma, Nikhil N.; Cole, Brian J.; Bach, Bernard R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: When to allow an athlete to return to unrestricted sporting activity after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction remains controversial. Purpose: To report the results of functional performance testing reported in the literature for individuals at differing time points following ACL reconstruction and to examine differences between graft types. Study Design: Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: A systematic review of Medline, Scopus, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials was performed using PRISMA guidelines. Inclusion criteria were English-language studies that examined any functional rehabilitation test from 6 months to 2 years following ACL reconstruction. All patient-, limb-, and knee-specific demographics were extracted from included investigations. All functional rehabilitation tests were analyzed and compared when applicable. Results: The search term returned a total of 890 potential studies, with 88 meeting inclusion and exclusion criteria. A total of 4927 patients were included, of which 66% were male. The mean patient age was 26.5 ± 3.4 years. The predominant graft choices for reconstruction were bone–patellar tendon–bone (BPTB) autograft (59.8%) and hamstring autograft (37.9%). The most commonly reported functional tests were the hop tests. The results of these functional tests, as reported in the Limb Symmetry Index (LSI), improved with increasing time, with nearly all results greater than 90% at 1 year following primary ACL reconstruction. At 6 months postoperatively, a number of isokinetic strength measurements failed to reach 80% LSI, most commonly isokinetic knee extension testing in both BPTB and hamstring autograft groups. The knee flexion strength deficit was significantly less in the BPTB autograft group as compared with those having hamstring autograft at 1 year postoperatively, while no significant differences were found in isokinetic extension strength between the 2 groups. Conclusion: Hop

  8. Platelet function tests: a comparative review

    PubMed Central

    Paniccia, Rita; Priora, Raffaella; Alessandrello Liotta, Agatina; Abbate, Rosanna

    2015-01-01

    In physiological hemostasis a prompt recruitment of platelets on the vessel damage prevents the bleeding by the rapid formation of a platelet plug. Qualitative and/or quantitative platelet defects promote bleeding, whereas the high residual reactivity of platelets in patients on antiplatelet therapies moves forward thromboembolic complications. The biochemical mechanisms of the different phases of platelet activation – adhesion, shape change, release reaction, and aggregation – have been well delineated, whereas their complete translation into laboratory assays has not been so fulfilled. Laboratory tests of platelet function, such as bleeding time, light transmission platelet aggregation, lumiaggregometry, impedance aggregometry on whole blood, and platelet activation investigated by flow cytometry, are traditionally utilized for diagnosing hemostatic disorders and managing patients with platelet and hemostatic defects, but their use is still limited to specialized laboratories. To date, a point-of-care testing (POCT) dedicated to platelet function, using pertinent devices much simpler to use, has now become available (ie, PFA-100, VerifyNow System, Multiplate Electrode Aggregometry [MEA]). POCT includes new methodologies which may be used in critical clinical settings and also in general laboratories because they are rapid and easy to use, employing whole blood without the necessity of sample processing. Actually, these different platelet methodologies for the evaluation of inherited and acquired bleeding disorders and/or for monitoring antiplatelet therapies are spreading and the study of platelet function is strengthening. In this review, well-tried and innovative platelet function tests and their methodological features and clinical applications are considered. PMID:25733843

  9. Expanding the Reach of Participatory Risk Management: Testing an Online Decision-Aiding Framework for Informing Internally Consistent Choices.

    PubMed

    Bessette, Douglas L; Campbell-Arvai, Victoria; Arvai, Joseph

    2016-05-01

    This article presents research aimed at developing and testing an online, multistakeholder decision-aiding framework for informing multiattribute risk management choices associated with energy development and climate change. The framework was designed to provide necessary background information and facilitate internally consistent choices, or choices that are in line with users' prioritized objectives. In order to test different components of the decision-aiding framework, a six-part, 2 × 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted, yielding eight treatment scenarios. The three factors included: (1) whether or not users could construct their own alternatives; (2) the level of detail regarding the composition of alternatives users would evaluate; and (3) the way in which a final choice between users' own constructed (or highest-ranked) portfolio and an internally consistent portfolio was presented. Participants' self-reports revealed the framework was easy to use and providing an opportunity to develop one's own risk-management alternatives (Factor 1) led to the highest knowledge gains. Empirical measures showed the internal consistency of users' decisions across all treatments to be lower than expected and confirmed that providing information about alternatives' composition (Factor 2) resulted in the least internally consistent choices. At the same time, those users who did not develop their own alternatives and were not shown detailed information about the composition of alternatives believed their choices to be the most internally consistent. These results raise concerns about how the amount of information provided and the ability to construct alternatives may inversely affect users' real and perceived internal consistency. PMID:26381043

  10. Reaching across the abyss: recent advances in functional magnetic resonance imaging and their potential relevance to disorders of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Soddu, Andrea; Boly, Melanie; Nir, Yuval; Noirhomme, Quentin; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Demertzi, Athena; Arzi, Anat; Ovadia, Smadar; Stanziano, Mario; Papa, Michele; Laureys, Steven; Malach, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    Disorders of consciousness (DOC) raise profound scientific, clinical, ethical, and philosophical issues. Growing knowledge on fundamental principles of brain organization in healthy individuals offers new opportunities for a better understanding of residual brain function in DOCs. We here discuss new perspectives derived from a recently proposed scheme of brain organization underlying consciousness in healthy individuals. In this scheme, thalamo-cortical networks can be divided into two, often antagonistic, global systems: (i) a system of externally oriented, sensory-motor networks (the "extrinsic" system); and (ii) a system of inward-oriented networks (the "intrinsic" or default system). According to this framework, four distinct mental states would be possible that could be relevant for understanding DOCs. In normal healthy volunteers and locked-in syndrome patients, a state of high functionality of both the extrinsic and intrinsic or default systems is expected--associated with full awareness of environment and self. In this case, mental imagery tasks combined with fMRI can be used to detect covert awareness in patients that are unable to communicate. According to the framework, two complementary states of system imbalance are also possible, in which one system is in a hyperfunctional state, while the other is hypoactive. Extrinsic system hyperfunction is expected to lead to a state of total sensory-motor "absorption" or "lost self." In contrast, intrinsic or default system hyperfunction is expected to lead to a state of complete detachment from the external world. A state where both extrinsic and intrinsic systems are hypofunctional is predicted to lead to markedly impaired consciousness as seen in DOCs. Finally, we review the potential use of ultra-slow fluctuations in BOLD signal as a tool for assessing the functional integrity of extrinsic and intrinsic systems during "resting state" fMRI acquisitions. In particular, we discuss the potential provided by

  11. Uses of esophageal function testing: dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Yazaki, Etsuro; Woodland, Philip; Sifrim, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    Esophageal function testing should be used for differential diagnosis of dysphagia. Dysphagia can be the consequence of hypermotility or hypomotility of the muscles of the esophagus. Decreased esophageal or esophagogastric junction distensibility can provoke dysphagia. The most well established esophageal dysmotility is achalasia. Other motility disorders can also cause dysphagia. High-resolution manometry (HRM) is the gold standard investigation for esophageal motility disorders. Simultaneous measurement of HRM and intraluminal impedance can be useful to assess motility and bolus transit. Impedance planimetry measures distensibility of the esophageal body and gastroesophageal junction in patients with achalasia and eosinophilic esophagitis. PMID:25216909

  12. Functional Task Test: 2. Spaceflight-Induced Cardiovascular Change and Recovery During NASA's Functional Task Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Tiffany; Arzeno, Natalia M.; Stenger, Michael; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Platts, Steven H.

    2011-01-01

    The overall objective of the functional task test (FTT) is to correlate spaceflight-induced physiological adaptations with changes in performance of high priority exploration mission-critical tasks. This presentation will focus on the recovery from fall/stand test (RFST), which measures the cardiovascular response to the transition from the prone posture (simulated fall) to standing in normal gravity, as well as heart rate (HR) during 11 functional tasks. As such, this test describes some aspects of spaceflight-induced cardiovascular deconditioning and the course of recovery in Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) astronauts. The sensorimotor and neuromuscular components of the FTT are described in two separate abstracts: Functional Task Test 1 and 3.

  13. Integrated Locomotor Function Tests for Countermeasure Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Cohen, H. S.; Landsness, E. C.; Black, F. O.

    2005-01-01

    Following spaceflight crewmembers experience locomotor dysfunction due to inflight adaptive alterations in sensorimotor function. Countermeasures designed to mitigate these postflight gait alterations need to be assessed with a new generation of tests that evaluate the interaction of various sensorimotor sub-systems central to locomotor control. The goal of the present study was to develop new functional tests of locomotor control that could be used to test the efficacy of countermeasures. These tests were designed to simultaneously examine the function of multiple sensorimotor systems underlying the control of locomotion and be operationally relevant to the astronaut population. Traditionally, gaze stabilization has been studied almost exclusively in seated subjects performing target acquisition tasks requiring only the involvement of coordinated eye-head movements. However, activities like walking involve full-body movement and require coordination between lower limbs and the eye-head-trunk complex to achieve stabilized gaze during locomotion. Therefore the first goal of this study was to determine how the multiple, interdependent, full-body sensorimotor gaze stabilization subsystems are functionally coordinated during locomotion. In an earlier study we investigated how alteration in gaze tasking changes full-body locomotor control strategies. Subjects walked on a treadmill and either focused on a central point target or read numeral characters. We measured: temporal parameters of gait, full body sagittal plane segmental kinematics of the head, trunk, thigh, shank and foot, accelerations along the vertical axis at the head and the shank, and the vertical forces acting on the support surface. In comparison to the point target fixation condition, the results of the number reading task showed that compensatory head pitch movements increased, peak head acceleration was reduced and knee flexion at heel-strike was increased. In a more recent study we investigated the

  14. Reaching into Pictorial Spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volcic, Robert; Vishwanath, Dhanraj; Domini, Fulvio

    2014-02-01

    While binocular viewing of 2D pictures generates an impression of 3D objects and space, viewing a picture monocularly through an aperture produces a more compelling impression of depth and the feeling that the objects are "out there", almost touchable. Here, we asked observers to actually reach into pictorial space under both binocular- and monocular-aperture viewing. Images of natural scenes were presented at different physical distances via a mirror-system and their retinal size was kept constant. Targets that observers had to reach for in physical space were marked on the image plane, but at different pictorial depths. We measured the 3D position of the index finger at the end of each reach-to-point movement. Observers found the task intuitive. Reaching responses varied as a function of both pictorial depth and physical distance. Under binocular viewing, responses were mainly modulated by the different physical distances. Instead, under monocular viewing, responses were modulated by the different pictorial depths. Importantly, individual variations over time were minor, that is, observers conformed to a consistent pictorial space. Monocular viewing of 2D pictures thus produces a compelling experience of an immersive space and tangible solid objects that can be easily explored through motor actions.

  15. On testing of functionally equivalent components of fault-tolerant software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vouk, Mladen A.; Helsabeck, Michael L.; Tai, Kuo-Chung; Mcallister, David F.

    1986-01-01

    Six functionally equivalent programs were tested with specification based random and extremal/special value (ESV) test cases. Statement and branch coverage were used to measure and compare the attained testing effectiveness. It was observed that both measures reached a nearly steady state value after 25 to 75 random test cases. Coverage saturation curves appear to follow an exponential growth model. However, the steady state values for branch coverage of different components, but the same input cases, differed by as much as 22 percent. The effect is the result of the differences in the detailed structure of the components. Improvement in coverage provided by the random test data, after the ESV cases were executed, was only about 1 percent. Results indicate that extensive random testing can be a process of diminishing returns, and that in the FTS context functional ('black box') testing can provide a very uneven execution coverage of the functionally equivalent software, and therefore should be supplemented by structure based testing.

  16. Hanford tanks initiative test facility functions and requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Krieg, S.A., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-01

    This document presents the functions and requirements for a test facility for testing single-shell tank waste retrieval equipment and systems for the Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) project. This effort includes review of previous test facility functions and requirements and conducting a workshop to develop specific functions and requirements for HTI testing needs. Functions and requirements for testing future retrieval systems that follow HTI are also identified.

  17. Formal functional test designs with a test representation language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hops, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    The application of the category-partition method to the test design phase of hardware, software, or system test development is discussed. The method provides a formal framework for reducing the total number of possible test cases to a minimum logical subset for effective testing. An automatic tool and a formal language were developed to implement the method and produce the specification of test cases.

  18. Prognostic value of physical function tests: hand grip strength and six-minute walking test in elderly hospitalized patients

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Ponce, Esther; Hernández-Betancor, Iván; González-Reimers, Emilio; Hernández-Luis, Rubén; Martínez-Riera, Antonio; Santolaria, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    To discern if physical function test are better mortality predictors than muscle mass in elderly hospitalized patients, we analyzed the prognostic value of muscle mass malnutrition and compared it with physical muscle function tests, including the six-minute walking test (6MWT) and hand grip strength. We included the ankle brachial index (ABI) to assess arterial disease, related to muscle atrophy due to hypoperfusion. We also analyzed the relationship of ABI with malnutrition, physical function tests and survival. We studied 310 hospitalized patients older than 60 years. To assess nutritional status, we determined BMI, triceps skinfold and mid-arm muscle area; we performed a subjective nutritional assessment; and evaluated the degree of inflammatory stress. We assessed physical function by hand grip strength and 6MWT. We evaluated arterial disease by ABI. Forty-one patients died during hospitalization; 269 were discharged and followed for a mean 808 days, reaching a mortality of 49%. Muscle malnutrition was frequent and was related to mortality, but the best predictors were physical function tests: inability to perform the 6MWT and low handgrip strength. Function tests were closely related to each other and correlated with nutritional data. Reduced ABI was related to impaired nutritional status, physical function tests and mortality. PMID:25531922

  19. Evaluation of reach and grasp robot-assisted therapy suggests similar functional recovery patterns on proximal and distal arm segments in sub-acute hemiplegia.

    PubMed

    Loureiro, Rui C V; Harwin, William S; Lamperd, Robert; Collin, Christine

    2014-05-01

    This paper provides some additional evidence in support of the hypothesis that robot therapies are clinically beneficial in neurorehabilitation. Although only four subjects were included in the study, the design of the intervention and the measures were done so as to minimize bias. The results are presented as single case studies, and can only be interpreted as such due to the study size. The intensity of intervention was 16 h and the therapy philosophy (based on Carr and Shepherd) was that coordinated movements are preferable to joint based therapies, and that coordinating distal movements (in this case grasps) helps not only to recover function in these areas, but has greater value since the results are immediately transferable to daily skills such as reach and grasp movements. PMID:23744701

  20. Similar and functionally typical kinematic reaching parameters in 7- and 15-month-old in utero cocaine-exposed and unexposed infants.

    PubMed

    Tronick, E Z; Fetters, Linda; Olson, Karen L; Chen, Yuping

    2004-04-01

    This study examined the effects of intrauterine cocaine exposure on the reaches of 19 exposed and 15 unexposed infants at 7 and 15 months using kinematic measures. Infants sat at a table and reached for a rattle, a toy doll, and a chair. Videotaped reaches were digitized using the Peak Performance system. Kinematic movement variables were extracted (e.g., reach duration, peak velocity, movement units, path length) and ratios computed (e.g., path length divided by number of movement units). Regardless of exposure status, reaches of older infants were faster, more direct, had fewer movement units, and covered more distance with the first movement unit. Exposed infants covered more distance per movement unit than unexposed infants, but there were no other significant differences. Reaches of exposed and unexposed infants were essentially similar. Importantly, reach parameters for these high-risk infants were similar to reach parameters for infants at lower social and biological risk. PMID:15054885

  1. The alteration of profile analysis to accommodate testing functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, R. H.

    1979-01-01

    The development of a methodology was studied for testing differences among several pilot functions, where the data points represent averages at various frequencies. Topics discussed include: basic assumptions, hypothesis, profile analysis, alteration of profile analysis to accommodate testing functions, test and procedures, and power of tests.

  2. Europe reaches the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-11-01

    A complex package of tests on new technologies was successfully performed during the cruise to the Moon, while the spacecraft was getting ready for the scientific investigations which will come next. These technologies pave the way for future planetary missions. SMART-1 reached its closest point to the lunar surface so far - its first ‘perilune’ - at an altitude of about 5000 kilometres at 18:48 Central European Time (CET) on 15 November. Just hours before that, at 06:24 CET, SMART-1’s solar-electric propulsion system (or ‘ion engine’) was started up and is now being fired for the delicate manoeuvre that will stabilise the spacecraft in lunar orbit. During this crucial phase, the engine will run almost continuously for the next four days, and then for a series of shorter burns, allowing SMART-1 to reach its final operational orbit by making ever-decreasing loops around the Moon. By about mid-January, SMART-1 will be orbiting the Moon at altitudes between 300 kilometres (over the lunar south pole) and 3000 kilometres (over the lunar north pole), beginning its scientific observations. The main purpose of the first part of the SMART-1 mission, concluding with the arrival at the Moon, was to demonstrate new spacecraft technologies. In particular, the solar-electric propulsion system was tested over a long spiralling trip to the Moon of more than 84 million kilometres. This is a distance comparable to an interplanetary cruise. For the first time ever, gravity-assist manoeuvres, which use the gravitational pull of the approaching Moon, were performed by an electrically-propelled spacecraft. The success of this test is important to the prospects for future interplanetary missions using ion engines. SMART-1 has demonstrated new techniques for eventually achieving autonomous spacecraft navigation. The OBAN experiment tested navigation software on ground computers to determine the exact position and velocity of the spacecraft using images of celestial objects taken

  3. CBOs: Reaching the Hardest to Reach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BCEL Newsletter for the Business Community, 1986

    1986-01-01

    The agents most successful in reaching and teaching those most in need of basic skills instruction are the community-based organizations (CBOs). They come into being in response to social and economic problems faced by their constituents--disadvantaged minorities, the poor, the unemployed, and the alienated. Because of their close ties to the…

  4. OAIS Functional Model Conformance Test: A Proposed Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laughton, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a test for data centres, repositories and archives to determine OAIS functional model conformance. The test developed was carried out among the World Data Centre (WDC) member data centres. The method used to develop the OAIS functional model conformance test is discussed, along with the test…

  5. Functional Literacy in Schoolchildren. Definition and Criteria of Test Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bessemer, David W.; Spencer, Mary L.

    As part of the development of a functional literacy test for fourth through eigth grade children in Title I compensatory education programs, this report defines functional literacy for children and enumerates criteria for evaluating existing tests. Criteria for selection of a test include: (1) content, empirical, and construct validity; (2)…

  6. 20 CFR 718.103 - Pulmonary function tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (MVV) is reported, the results of such test shall be obtained independently rather than calculated from the results of the FEV1. (b) All pulmonary function test results submitted in connection with a claim... within 10% of each other shall be sufficient. Pulmonary function test results developed in...

  7. A Comparison of Statistical Significance Tests for Selecting Equating Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Tim

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the accuracies of nine previously proposed statistical significance tests for selecting identity, linear, and equipercentile equating functions in an equivalent groups equating design. The strategies included likelihood ratio tests for the loglinear models of tests' frequency distributions, regression tests, Kolmogorov-Smirnov…

  8. Reach Out to Enhance Wellness in Older Cancer Survivors (RENEW): Design, Methods and Recruitment Challenges of a Home-based Exercise and Diet Intervention to Improve Physical Function among Long-term Survivors of Breast, Prostate, and Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Denise Clutter; Morey, Miriam C.; Sloane, Richard; Stull, Valeda; Cohen, Harvey Jay; Peterson, Bercedis; Pieper, Carl; Hartman, Terryl J.; Miller, Paige E.; Mitchell, Diane C.; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    Objective Cure rates for cancer are increasing, especially for breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer. Despite positive trends in survivorship, a cancer diagnosis can trigger accelerated functional decline that can threaten independence, reduce quality-of-life and increase health care costs, especially among the elderly who comprise the majority of survivors. Lifestyle interventions may hold promise in reorienting functional decline in older cancer survivors, but few studies have been conducted. Method We describe the design and methods of a randomized controlled trial, RENEW (Reach out to ENhancE Wellness), that tests whether a home-based multi-behavior intervention focused on exercise, and including a low-saturated fat, plant-based diet, would improve physical functioning among 641 older, long-term (≥5 years post-diagnosis) survivors of breast, prostate, or colorectal cancer. Challenges to recruitment are examined. Results 20,015 cases were approached, and screened using a two-step screening process to assure eligibility. This population of long-term, elderly cancer survivors had lower rates of response (∼11%) and higher rates of ineligibility (∼70%) than our previous intervention studies conducted on adults with newly diagnosed cancer. Significantly higher response rates were noted among survivors who were white, younger, and more proximal to diagnosis and breast cancer survivors (p-values < 0.001). Conclusions Older cancer survivors represent a vulnerable population for whom lifestyle interventions may hold promise. RENEW may provide guidance in allocating limited resources in order to maximize recruitment efforts aimed at this needy, but hard-to-reach population. PMID:19117329

  9. Axial force measurement for esophageal function testing.

    PubMed

    Gravesen, Flemming H; Funch-Jensen, Peter; Gregersen, Hans; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr

    2009-01-14

    The esophagus serves to transport food and fluid from the pharynx to the stomach. Manometry has been the "golden standard" for the diagnosis of esophageal motility diseases for many decades. Hence, esophageal function is normally evaluated by means of manometry even though it reflects the squeeze force (force in radial direction) whereas the bolus moves along the length of esophagus in a distal direction. Force measurements in the longitudinal (axial) direction provide a more direct measure of esophageal transport function. The technique used to record axial force has developed from external force transducers over in-vivo strain gauges of various sizes to electrical impedance based measurements. The amplitude and duration of the axial force has been shown to be as reliable as manometry. Normal, as well as abnormal, manometric recordings occur with normal bolus transit, which have been documented using imaging modalities such as radiography and scintigraphy. This inconsistency using manometry has also been documented by axial force recordings. This underlines the lack of information when diagnostics are based on manometry alone. Increasing the volume of a bag mounted on a probe with combined axial force and manometry recordings showed that axial force amplitude increased by 130% in contrast to an increase of 30% using manometry. Using axial force in combination with manometry provides a more complete picture of esophageal motility, and the current paper outlines the advantages of using this method. PMID:19132762

  10. Testing the functional significance of tail streamers

    PubMed Central

    Evans, M. R.; Thomas, A. L. R.

    1997-01-01

    Studies of the evolution of elaborate ornaments have concentrated on their role in increasing attractiveness to mates. The classic examples of such sexually selected structures are the elongated tails of some bird species. Elongated tails can be divided into three categories: graduated tails, pin tails and streamers. There seems to be little debate about whether graduated and pin tails are ornaments; i.e. costly signals used in mate choice. However, in the case of streamers there is considerable discussion about their function. It has been suggested that tail streamers could be (i) entirely naturally selected, (ii) entirely sexually selected, (iii) partly naturally and partly sexually selected. The prime example of a species with tail streamers is the swallow (Hirundo rustica) in which both sexes have tail streamers. In this paper we discuss the aerodynamic consequences of different types of manipulation of the streamer and/or outer tail feather. We make qualitative predictions about the aerodynamic performance of swallows with manipulated tail streamers; these predictions differ depending on whether streamers have a naturally or sexually selected function. We demonstrate that these hypotheses can only be separated if tail streamers are shortened and changes in aerodynamic performance measured during turning flight.

  11. Significance tests for functional data with complex dependence structure

    PubMed Central

    Lahiri, Soumen N.; Carroll, Raymond J.

    2015-01-01

    We propose an L2-norm based global testing procedure for the null hypothesis that multiple group mean functions are equal, for functional data with complex dependence structure. Specifically, we consider the setting of functional data with a multilevel structure of the form groups–clusters or subjects–units, where the unit-level profiles are spatially correlated within the cluster, and the cluster-level data are independent. Orthogonal series expansions are used to approximate the group mean functions and the test statistic is estimated using the basis coefficients. The asymptotic null distribution of the test statistic is developed, under mild regularity conditions. To our knowledge this is the first work that studies hypothesis testing, when data have such complex multilevel functional and spatial structure. Two small-sample alternatives, including a novel block bootstrap for functional data, are proposed, and their performance is examined in simulation studies. The paper concludes with an illustration of a motivating experiment. PMID:26023253

  12. Coaching patients during pulmonary function testing: A practical guide.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Heidi J; Cheung, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary function tests are an important tool to assist in the diagnosis and management of patients with respiratory disease. Ensuring that the tests are of acceptable quality is vital. Acceptable pulmonary function test quality requires, among others, optimal patient performance. Optimal patient performance, in turn, requires adequate coaching from registered respiratory therapists (RRTs) and other pulmonary function laboratory personnel. The present article provides techniques and tips to help RRTs coach patients during testing. The authors briefly review the components of pulmonary function testing, then describe factors that may hinder a patient's performance, list common mistakes that patients make during testing, and provide tips that RRTs can use to help patients optimize their performance. PMID:26283871

  13. Memory Hazard Functions: A Vehicle for Theory Development and Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chechile, Richard A.

    2006-01-01

    A framework is developed to rigorously test an entire class of memory retention functions by examining hazard properties. Evidence is provided that the memory hazard function is not monotonically decreasing. Yet most of the proposals for retention functions, which have emerged from the psychological literature, imply that memory hazard is…

  14. A Generalized DIF Effect Variance Estimator for Measuring Unsigned Differential Test Functioning in Mixed Format Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penfield, Randall D.; Algina, James

    2006-01-01

    One approach to measuring unsigned differential test functioning is to estimate the variance of the differential item functioning (DIF) effect across the items of the test. This article proposes two estimators of the DIF effect variance for tests containing dichotomous and polytomous items. The proposed estimators are direct extensions of the…

  15. Effect of Multiple Testing Adjustment in Differential Item Functioning Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jihye; Oshima, T. C.

    2013-01-01

    In a typical differential item functioning (DIF) analysis, a significance test is conducted for each item. As a test consists of multiple items, such multiple testing may increase the possibility of making a Type I error at least once. The goal of this study was to investigate how to control a Type I error rate and power using adjustment…

  16. Smoke alarm tests may not adequately indicate smoke alarm function.

    PubMed

    Peek-Asa, Corinne; Yang, Jingzhen; Hamann, Cara; Young, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    Smoke alarms are one of the most promoted prevention strategies to reduce residential fire deaths, and they can reduce residential fire deaths by half. Smoke alarm function can be measured by two tests: the smoke alarm button test and the chemical smoke test. Using results from a randomized trial of smoke alarms, we compared smoke alarm response to the button test and the smoke test. The smoke alarms found in the study homes at baseline were tested, as well as study alarms placed into homes as part of the randomized trial. Study alarms were tested at 12 and 42 months postinstallation. The proportion of alarms that passed the button test but not the smoke test ranged from 0.5 to 5.8% of alarms; this result was found most frequently among ionization alarms with zinc or alkaline batteries. These alarms would indicate to the owner (through the button test) that the smoke alarm was working, but the alarm would not actually respond in the case of a fire (as demonstrated by failing the smoke test). The proportion of alarms that passed the smoke test but not the button test ranged from 1.0 to 3.0%. These alarms would appear nonfunctional to the owner (because the button test failed), even though the alarm would operate in response to a fire (as demonstrated by passing the smoke test). The general public is not aware of the potential for inaccuracy in smoke alarm tests, and burn professionals can advocate for enhanced testing methods. The optimal test to determine smoke alarm function is the chemical smoke test. PMID:21747329

  17. Platelet Function Tests: A Review of Progresses in Clinical Application

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jae-Lim; Li, Shuhua

    2014-01-01

    The major goal of traditional platelet function tests has been to screen and diagnose patients who present with bleeding problems. However, as the central role of platelets implicated in the etiology of arterial thrombotic diseases such as myocardial infarction and stroke became widely known, platelet function tests are now being promoted to monitor the efficacy of antiplatelet drugs and also to potentially identify patients at increased risk of thrombosis. Beyond hemostasis and thrombosis, an increasing number of studies indicate that platelets play an integral role in intercellular communication, are mediators of inflammation, and have immunomodulatory activity. As new potential biomarkers and technologies arrive at the horizon, platelet functions testing appears to take on a new aspect. This review article discusses currently available clinical application of platelet function tests, placing emphasis on essential characteristics. PMID:24895576

  18. A Semi-Automated Functional Test Data Analysis Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Peng; Haves, Philip; Kim, Moosung

    2005-05-01

    The growing interest in commissioning is creating a demand that will increasingly be met by mechanical contractors and less experienced commissioning agents. They will need tools to help them perform commissioning effectively and efficiently. The widespread availability of standardized procedures, accessible in the field, will allow commissioning to be specified with greater certainty as to what will be delivered, enhancing the acceptance and credibility of commissioning. In response, a functional test data analysis tool is being developed to analyze the data collected during functional tests for air-handling units. The functional test data analysis tool is designed to analyze test data, assess performance of the unit under test and identify the likely causes of the failure. The tool has a convenient user interface to facilitate manual entry of measurements made during a test. A graphical display shows the measured performance versus the expected performance, highlighting significant differences that indicate the unit is not able to pass the test. The tool is described as semiautomated because the measured data need to be entered manually, instead of being passed from the building control system automatically. However, the data analysis and visualization are fully automated. The tool is designed to be used by commissioning providers conducting functional tests as part of either new building commissioning or retro-commissioning, as well as building owners and operators interested in conducting routine tests periodically to check the performance of their HVAC systems.

  19. Safety and Function Test Report for the SWIFT Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Mendoza, I.; Hur, J.

    2013-01-01

    This test was conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Independent Testing project. This project was established to help reduce the barriers of wind energy expansion by providing independent testing results for small turbines. Three turbines where selected for testing at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) as a part of round two of the Small Wind Turbine Independent Testing project. Safety and Function testing is one of up to 5 tests that may be performed on the turbines. Other tests include power performance, duration, noise, and power quality. The results of the testing will provide the manufacturers with reports that may be used for small wind turbine certification.

  20. A Functional Test Platform for the Community Land Model

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yang; Thornton, Peter E; King, Anthony Wayne; Steed, Chad A; Gu, Lianhong; Schuchart, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    A functional test platform is presented to create direct linkages between site measurements and the process-based ecosystem model within the Community Earth System Models (CESM). The platform consists of three major parts: 1) interactive user interfaces, 2) functional test model and 3) observational datasets. It provides much needed integration interfaces for both field experimentalists and ecosystem modelers to improve the model s representation of ecosystem processes within the CESM framework without large software overhead.

  1. IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DISEASE USING PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract
    Pulmonary function testing is used routinely in human medicine to objectively define functional deficits in individuals with respiratory disease. Despite the fact that respiratory disease is a common problem in veterinary medicine, evaluation of the small animal pa...

  2. REACH. Electricity Units. Secondary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gene; Sappe, Hoyt

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of electricity. The instructional units focus on electricity fundamentals and electric motors. Each unit follows a typical format that includes a unit sheet,…

  3. REACH. Heating Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanfield, Carter; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized units in the area of heating. The instructional units focus on electric heating systems, gas heating systems, and oil burning systems. Each unit follows a typical format that includes a unit…

  4. REACH. Air Conditioning Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Joe; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

  5. Reaching for the Stars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roper-Davis, Sharon

    1999-01-01

    Describes "Reaching for the Stars," a program which develops teaming and mentoring skills in senior physics students. Phase 1 requires student pairs to design a rocket; Phase 2 pairs seniors with gifted second graders who build the rocket from written instructions; and in Phase 3, pairs of seniors create a children's storybook explaining one of…

  6. REACH. Major Appliance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Charles; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of major appliances. The instructional units focus on installation of appliances, troubleshooting washing machines, troubleshooting electric dryers,…

  7. REACH. Refrigeration Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Rufus; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of refrigeration. The instructional units focus on refrigeration fundamentals, tubing and pipe, refrigerants, troubleshooting, window air conditioning, and…

  8. "Brown's" Far Reaching Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinn, Philip C.

    2004-01-01

    Although the 1954 "Brown v. Board of Education" U.S. Supreme Court decision changed the face of American education forever, few individuals at that time could have fully realized its far-reaching implications. Certainly, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People Legal Director Thurgood Marshall in his arguments was focusing on…

  9. Reaching Your Fitness Goals

    MedlinePlus

    Everyday Fitness Ideas from the National Institute on Aging at NIH www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Reaching Your Fitness Goals You’ll begin to see results in ... longer, and more easily. As you increase your fitness level, you also might find that you need ...

  10. Reaching for the Stars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Dorothy Givens

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Mae Jemison is the world's first woman astronaut of color who continues to reach for the stars. Jemison was recently successful in leading a team that has secured a $500,000 federal grant to make interstellar space travel a reality. The Dorothy Jemison Foundation for Excellence (named after Jemison's mother) was selected in June by the Defense…

  11. SP-100 nuclear assembly test - Test assembly functional requirements and system arrangement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallas, T. T.; Gluck, Robert; Motwani, Kumar; Clay, Harold; O'Neill, Gerald

    This paper describes the functional requirements and the system that will be tested to validate the reactor, flight shield, and flight controller of the SP-100 Generic Flight System. The Nuclear Assembly Test consists of the test article (SP-100 reactor with control devices and the flight shield) and its supporting systems.

  12. An automated miniaturized Haploscope for testing binocular visual function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, T. A.; Williams, R. E.; Kuether, C. L.; Wyman-Cornsweet, D.

    1976-01-01

    A computer-controlled binocular vision testing device has been developed as one part of a system designed for NASA to test the vision of astronauts during spaceflight. The device, called the Mark III Haploscope, utilizes semi-automated psychophysical test procedures to measure visual acuity, stereopsis, phorias, fixation disparity and accommodation/convergence relationships. All tests are self-administered, yield quantitative data and may be used repeatedly without subject memorization. Future applications of this programmable, compact device include its use as a clinical instrument to perform routine eye examinations or vision screening, and as a research tool to examine the effects of environment or work-cycle upon visual function.

  13. Testing for cognitive function in animals in a regulatory context.

    PubMed

    Bushnell, Philip J

    2015-01-01

    Superior cognitive functions have allowed the human species to proliferate in a world of incredible biological diversity. Threats to these essential capacities cannot be ignored, and a strategy is needed to evaluate the hazard posed by exposure to chemical and other agents. Because people exposed to chemicals often complain about confusion and forgetfulness, it is commonly thought that cognitive functions should be sensitive indicators of adverse consequences of chemical exposure. For these reasons, complex tests of cognitive function have been developed and deployed in experimental animal laboratories for decades. However, the results of these tests are rarely used as points of departure for chemical risk assessments. Due to their high cost in time, animals, and equipment, the efficacy and utility of these tests need to be evaluated in relation to cheaper and faster whole-animal screening methods. This review examines evidence for the assertions that cognitive functions represent uniquely sensitive indicators of chemical exposure, and that animal models of these functions are necessary to detect and quantify the neurotoxicity of chemicals. Studies conducted since the early 1980s to compare these approaches to assess the neurotoxicity of chemicals are reviewed for both adult and perinatal exposures in experimental rodents. Forty-one studies of 35 chemicals were found that directly compared acute effects using complex tests (i.e., tests that require training animals) with acute effects using screening tests (i.e., tests that do not require training animals) in adult rodents. Complex tests detected effects of three substances (bitertanol, iso-amyl nitrite, and Pfiesteria toxin) that had no effect on screening tests; for an additional five chemicals (carbaryl, deltamethrin, methyl mercury, tetraethyl tin, and Isopar-C), complex tests identified effects at lower doses than did screening tests. Fewer comparable cases were found for developmental exposures: screening and

  14. Is chlamydia screening and testing in Britain reaching young adults at risk of infection? Findings from the third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3)

    PubMed Central

    Woodhall, Sarah C; Soldan, Kate; Sonnenberg, Pam; Mercer, Catherine H; Clifton, Soazig; Saunders, Pamela; da Silva, Filomeno; Alexander, Sarah; Wellings, Kaye; Tanton, Clare; Field, Nigel; Copas, Andrew J; Ison, Catherine A; Johnson, Anne M

    2016-01-01

    Background In the context of widespread opportunistic chlamydia screening among young adults, we aimed to quantify chlamydia testing and diagnosis among 16–24 year olds in Britain in relation to risk factors for prevalent chlamydia infection. Methods Using data from sexually experienced (≥1 lifetime sexual partner) 16-year-old to 24-year-old participants in Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (conducted 2010–2012), we explored socio-demographic and behavioural factors associated with prevalent chlamydia infection (detected in urine; n=1832), self-reported testing and self-reported diagnosis in the last year (both n=3115). Results Chlamydia prevalence was 3.1% (95% CI 2.2% to 4.3%) in women and 2.3% (1.5% to 3.4%) in men. A total of 12.3% of women and 5.3% men had a previous chlamydia diagnosis. Factors associated with prevalent infection were also associated with testing and diagnosis (eg, increasing numbers of sexual partners), with some exceptions. For example, chlamydia prevalence was higher in women living in more deprived areas, whereas testing was not. In men, prevalence was higher in 20–24 than 16–19 year olds but testing was lower. Thirty per cent of women and 53.7% of men with ≥2 new sexual partners in the last year had not recently tested. Conclusions In 2010–2012 in Britain, the proportion of young adults reporting chlamydia testing was generally higher in those reporting factors associated with chlamydia. However, many of those with risk factors had not been recently tested, leaving potential for undiagnosed infections. Greater screening and prevention efforts among individuals in deprived areas and those reporting risk factors for chlamydia may reduce undiagnosed prevalence and transmission. PMID:26290483

  15. Psychometric tests for assessment of brain function after solvent exposure.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, K; Jeppesen, H J; Sabroe, S

    1993-11-01

    Psychometric testing is a key issue in neuropsychological toxicology assessment. Evaluation of methods for assessing general intellectual impairment is necessary as conventional neurology has been shown to be insensitive to the neurotoxic effects of solvents and metals. This study presents an analysis of a psychometric test battery from an investigation of psycho-organic syndrome in a historical cohort of 96 metal degreasers with long-term exposure to solvents, particularly trichloroethylene. The neuropsychological test battery was a combination of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), Luria, and tests developed in Scandinavia. Linear regression analysis showed a significant dose-response relation between increasing cumulative solvent exposure and impaired psychometric test performance in 9 out of 15 tests. Multivariate analysis, however, suggests that much of the variance was due to confounding variables, especially age, and to a lesser degree, primary intellectual function and word blindness. After control for confounding factors the strongest association with solvent exposure occurred for the following three tests: acoustic-motor function, Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT), and the visual gestalt test. PMID:8266931

  16. Executive function on the Psychology Experiment Building Language tests.

    PubMed

    Piper, Brian J; Li, Victoria; Eiwaz, Massarra A; Kobel, Yuliyana V; Benice, Ted S; Chu, Alex M; Olsen, Reid H J; Rice, Douglas Z; Gray, Hilary M; Mueller, Shane T; Raber, Jacob

    2012-03-01

    The measurement of executive function has a long history in clinical and experimental neuropsychology. The goal of the present report was to determine the profile of behavior across the lifespan on four computerized measures of executive function contained in the recently developed Psychology Experiment Building Language (PEBL) test battery http://pebl.sourceforge.net/ and evaluate whether this pattern is comparable to data previously obtained with the non-PEBL versions of these tests. Participants (N = 1,223; ages, 5-89 years) completed the PEBL Trail Making Test (pTMT), the Wisconsin Card Sort Test (pWCST; Berg, Journal of General Psychology, 39, 15-22, 1948; Grant & Berg, Journal of Experimental Psychology, 38, 404-411, 1948), the Tower of London (pToL), or a time estimation task (Time-Wall). Age-related effects were found over all four tests, especially as age increased from young childhood through adulthood. For several tests and measures (including pToL and pTMT), age-related slowing was found as age increased in adulthood. Together, these findings indicate that the PEBL tests provide valid and versatile new research tools for measuring executive functions. PMID:21534005

  17. Pretoria Centre Reaches Out

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosman, Olivier

    2014-08-01

    On 5 July 2014 six members of the Pretoria Centre of ASSA braved the light pollution of one of the shopping malls in Centurion to reach out to shoppers a la John Dobson and to show them the moon, Mars and Saturn. Although the centre hosts regular monthly public observing evenings, it was felt that we should take astronomy to the people rather than wait for the people to come to us.

  18. [Diagnosis and examination for COPD. Pulmonary function tests].

    PubMed

    Kubota, Masaru

    2016-05-01

    Pulmonary function tests are essential for the diagnosis and management of COPD. It is important to understand the inspection method of tests and the interpretation of test results. The presence of a post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC<0.70 confirms the presence of persistent airflow limitation and the diagnosis of COPD. On the other hand, the classification of severity of airflow limitation in COPD is based on %FEV1. In COPD patients, as airflow limitation worsens gas trapping and static hyperinflation occurs. These changes can be documented by lung volume measurement as increases in functional residual capacity, residual volume and total lung capacity. Measurement of diffusing capacity (DLco) provides information on the functional impact of emphysema in COPD. PMID:27254943

  19. SP-100 nuclear assembly test: Test assembly functional requirements and system arrangement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallas, T. Ted; Gluck, Robert; Motwani, Kumar; Clay, Harold; O'Neill, Gerald

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the functional requirements and the system that will be tested to validate the reactor, flight shield, and flight controller of the SP-100 Generic Flight System (GFS). The Nuclear Assembly Test (NAT) consists of the test article (SP-100 reactor with control devices and the flight shield) and its supporting systems. The NAT test assembly is being designed by GE. Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) is designing the test cell and vacuum vessel system that will contain the NAT test assembly (Renkey et al. 1989). Preliminary design reviews have been completed and the final design is under way.

  20. Hydrologic data from test wells and low-flow investigations in the middle reach of the Eagle River valley, Alaska; 1980-81

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deeter, Gary; George, R.S.

    1982-01-01

    Test wells and low-flow investigations in the Eagle River valley , Alaska, were used to evaluate the feasibility of developing ground water for a public supply. Aquifers capable of supplying large yield wells were not indicated in any of the drilling areas. The data include: results of low-flow seepage investigations at 22 river sites; geologic materials logs of eight test wells; water-quality data from two observation wells, two springs, and two river sites; and water level and temperature information for the observation wells and streams. (USGS)

  1. Increased Uptake of HCV Testing through a Community-Based Educational Intervention in Difficult-to-Reach People Who Inject Drugs: Results from the ANRS-AERLI Study

    PubMed Central

    Roux, Perrine; Rojas Castro, Daniela; Ndiaye, Khadim; Debrus, Marie; Protopopescu, Camélia; Le Gall, Jean-Marie; Haas, Aurélie; Mora, Marion; Spire, Bruno; Suzan-Monti, Marie; Carrieri, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Aims The community-based AERLI intervention provided training and education to people who inject drugs (PWID) about HIV and HCV transmission risk reduction, with a focus on drug injecting practices, other injection-related complications, and access to HIV and HCV testing and care. We hypothesized that in such a population where HCV prevalence is very high and where few know their HCV serostatus, AERLI would lead to increased HCV testing. Methods The national multisite intervention study ANRS-AERLI consisted in assessing the impact of an injection-centered face-to-face educational session offered in volunteer harm reduction (HR) centers (“with intervention”) compared with standard HR centers (“without intervention”). The study included 271 PWID interviewed on three occasions: enrolment, 6 and 12 months. Participants in the intervention group received at least one face-to-face educational session during the first 6 months. Measurements The primary outcome of this analysis was reporting to have been tested for HCV during the previous 6 months. Statistical analyses used a two-step Heckman approach to account for bias arising from the non-randomized clustering design. This approach identified factors associated with HCV testing during the previous 6 months. Findings Of the 271 participants, 127 and 144 were enrolled in the control and intervention groups, respectively. Of the latter, 113 received at least one educational session. For the present analysis, we selected 114 and 88 participants eligible for HCV testing in the control and intervention groups, respectively. In the intervention group, 44% of participants reported having being tested for HCV during the previous 6 months at enrolment and 85% at 6 months or 12 months. In the control group, these percentages were 51% at enrolment and 78% at 12 months. Multivariable analyses showed that participants who received at least one educational session during follow-up were more likely to report HCV testing

  2. [Problems of lung function testing in the laboratory].

    PubMed

    Tojo, Naoko

    2006-08-01

    Spirometry is indispensable for the screening test of general respiratory function, and measurements of lung volume and diffusing capacity play an important role in the assessment of disease severity, functional disability, disease activity and response to treatment. Pulmonary function testing requires cooperation between the subjects and the examiner, and the results obtained depend on technical as well as personal factors. In order to diminish the variability of results and improve measurement accuracy, the Japan Respiratory Society published the first guidelines on the standardization of spirometry and diffusing capacity for both technical and clinical staff in 2004. It is therefore essential to distribute the guidelines to both laboratory personnel and general physicians. Furthermore, training workshops are mandatory to improve their understanding of the basics of lung function testing. Recently, there has been increasing interest in noninvasive methods of lung function testing without requiring the patient's cooperation during spontaneous breathing. Three alternative techniques, i.e. the negative expiratory pressure (NEP) method to detect expiratory flow limitation, impulse oscillation system (IOS) to measure respiratory system resistance (Rrs) and reactance (Xrs), and interruption resistance (Rint) to measure respiratory resistance have been introduced. Further study is required to determine the advantage of these methods. PMID:16989403

  3. Pulmonary function testing: custom programs for manual equipment.

    PubMed

    Petrini, M F

    1984-01-01

    Pulmonary Function Laboratories with manual equipment can expedite calculations and make them more accurate by using a programmable calculator that will compute functions and predictive equations. However, a custom-made set of programs is better than calculator libraries available from the manufacturer. With custom-made programs, calculations remain as the staff is used to receiving them, programs can be stored in the memory and called independently and only those tests used routinely need to be available. PMID:6546910

  4. Reach Out to Enhance Wellness Home-Based Diet-Exercise Intervention Promotes Reproducible and Sustainable Long-Term Improvements in Health Behaviors, Body Weight, and Physical Functioning in Older, Overweight/Obese Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Morey, Miriam C.; Sloane, Richard; Snyder, Denise C.; Miller, Paige E.; Hartman, Terryl J.; Cohen, Harvey J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Diet and exercise interventions have been tested in cancer survivors as a means to reduce late effects and comorbidity, but few have assessed adherence and health outcomes long term. Methods Between July 2005 and May 2007, the Reach Out to Enhance Wellness (RENEW) trial accrued 641 locoregionally staged, long-term (≥ 5 years from diagnosis) colorectal, breast, and prostate cancer survivors in the United States (21 states), Canada, and the United Kingdom. All participants were sedentary (< 150 minutes of physical activity [PA] a week), overweight or obese (body mass index, 25 to 40 kg/m2), and over age 65 years. The trial tested a diet-exercise intervention delivered via mailed print materials and telephone counseling. RENEW used a wait-list control, cross-over design (ie, participants received the year-long intervention immediately or after a 1-year delay), which allowed the opportunity to assess program efficacy (previously reported primary outcome), durability, and reproducibility (reported herein). Measures included diet quality (DQ), PA, BMI, and physical function (PF). Results No significant relapse was observed in the immediate-intervention arm for DQ, PA, and BMI; however, rates of functional decline increased when the intervention ceased. From year 1 to year 2, significant improvements were observed in the delayed-intervention arm; mean change scores in behaviors and BMI and PF slopes were as follows: DQ score, 5.2 (95% CI, 3.4 to 7.0); PA, 45.8 min/wk (95% CI, 26.9 to 64.6 min/wk); BMI, −0.56 (95% CI, −0.75 to −0.36); and Short Form-36 PF, −1.02 versus −5.52 (P < .001 for all measures). Overall, both arms experienced significant improvements in DQ, PA, and BMI from baseline to 2-year follow-up (P < .001). Conclusion Older cancer survivors respond favorably to lifestyle interventions and make durable changes in DQ and PA that contribute to sustained weight loss. These changes positively reorient functional decline trajectories during

  5. Outcomes of Anatomical versus Functional Testing for Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Pamela S.; Hoffmann, Udo; Patel, Manesh R.; Mark, Daniel B.; Al-Khalidi, Hussein R.; Cavanaugh, Brendan; Cole, Jason; Dolor, Rowena J.; Fordyce, Christopher B.; Huang, Megan; Khan, Muhammad Akram; Kosinski, Andrzej S.; Krucoff, Mitchell W.; Malhotra, Vinay; Picard, Michael H.; Udelson, James E.; Velazquez, Eric J.; Yow, Eric; Cooper, Lawton S.; Lee, Kerry L.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Many patients have symptoms suggestive of coronary artery disease (CAD) and are often evaluated with the use of diagnostic testing, although there are limited data from randomized trials to guide care. METHODS We randomly assigned 10,003 symptomatic patients to a strategy of initial anatomical testing with the use of coronary computed tomographic angiography (CTA) or to functional testing (exercise electrocardiography, nuclear stress testing, or stress echocardiography). The composite primary end point was death, myocardial infarction, hospitalization for unstable angina, or major procedural complication. Secondary end points included invasive cardiac catheterization that did not show obstructive CAD and radiation exposure. RESULTS The mean age of the patients was 60.8±8.3 years, 52.7% were women, and 87.7% had chest pain or dyspnea on exertion. The mean pretest likelihood of obstructive CAD was 53.3±21.4%. Over a median follow-up period of 25 months, a primary end-point event occurred in 164 of 4996 patients in the CTA group (3.3%) and in 151 of 5007 (3.0%) in the functional-testing group (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 0.83 to 1.29; P = 0.75). CTA was associated with fewer catheterizations showing no obstructive CAD than was functional testing (3.4% vs. 4.3%, P = 0.02), although more patients in the CTA group underwent catheterization within 90 days after randomization (12.2% vs. 8.1%). The median cumulative radiation exposure per patient was lower in the CTA group than in the functional-testing group (10.0 mSv vs. 11.3 mSv), but 32.6% of the patients in the functional-testing group had no exposure, so the overall exposure was higher in the CTA group (mean, 12.0 mSv vs. 10.1 mSv; P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS In symptomatic patients with suspected CAD who required noninvasive testing, a strategy of initial CTA, as compared with functional testing, did not improve clinical outcomes over a median follow-up of 2 years. (Funded by the

  6. Repeated mobility testing for later artificial visual function evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velikay-Parel, M.; Ivastinovic, D.; Koch, M.; Hornig, R.; Dagnelie, G.; Richard, G.; Langmann, A.

    2007-03-01

    The study investigates the utility of a newly designed mobility test for repeated testing of visual function in patients with severe visual impairment and future application in evaluating functional progress in patients with artificial vision. Ten subjects divided into three groups based on visual acuity (VA) ranging from light perception to 20/200 and reduced visual field (VF) were included in the study. The mobility test consisted of using a set of four different but structurally similar and relatively short mazes having a constant number of obstacles of various sizes. The subjects, divided into three groups by acuity, passed through each course several times. In general, the patients with better VA had a larger extent of VF. Average speed and number of contacts were recorded as measures of performance. The average passing times of the groups through the courses were significantly different (p = 0.03), which was influenced by VA and VF. There was no significant difference in average number of contacts between the groups (p = 0.15). The mobility test proved to be appropriate for gaining statistically relevant results in repeated individual testing of patients with severe vision impairment. Results show promise for use this mobility test as a tool for assessing visual function of patients undergoing implantation of a visual prosthesis for artificial vision.

  7. GROUND-WATER MODEL TESTING: SYSTEMATIC EVALUATION AND TESTING OF CODE FUNCTIONALITY AND PERFORMANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effective use of ground-water simulation codes as management decision tools requires the establishment of their functionality, performance characteristics, and applicability to the problem at hand. This is accomplished through application of a systematic code-testing protocol and...

  8. [Eosin Y-water test for sperm function examination].

    PubMed

    Zha, Shu-wei; Lü, Nian-qing; Xu, Hao-qin

    2015-06-01

    Based on the principles of the in vitro staining technique, hypotonic swelling test, and water test, the Eosin Y-water test method was developed to simultaneously detect the integrity of the sperm head and tail and sperm membrane structure and function. As a widely used method in clinical laboratories in China, the Eosin Y-water test is methodologically characterized by three advantages. Firstly, both the sperm head and tail can be detected at the same time, which allows easy and comprehensive assessment of membrane damage in different parts of sperm. Secondly, distilled water is used instead of the usual formula solution to simplify and standardize the test by eliminating any potential effects on the water molecules through the sperm membrane due to different osmotic pressure or different sugar proportions and electrolyte solutions. Thirdly, the test takes less time and thus can be repeated before and after treatment. This article focuses on the fundamental principles and modification of the Eosin Y-water test and its application in sperm function examination and routine semen analysis for male infertility, assessment of the quality of sperm retrieved by testicular fine needle aspiration, semen cryopreservation program development, and evaluation of sperm membrane integrity after microwave radiation. PMID:26242051

  9. The Functional Task Test (FTT): An Interdisciplinary Testing Protocol to Investigate the Factors Underlying Changes in Astronaut Functional Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Lawrence, E. L.; Arzeno, N. M.; Buxton, R. E.; Feiveson, A. H.; Kofman, I. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Platts. S. H.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Reschke, M. F.; Ryder, J. W.; Spiering, B. A.; Stenger, M. B.; Taylor, L. C.; Wood, S. J.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to space flight causes adaptations in multiple physiological systems including changes in sensorimotor, cardiovascular, and neuromuscular systems. These changes may affect a crewmember s ability to perform critical mission tasks immediately after landing on a planetary surface. The overall goal of this project is to determine the effects of space flight on functional tests that are representative of high priority exploration mission tasks and to identify the key underlying physiological factors that contribute to decrements in performance. To achieve this goal we developed an interdisciplinary testing protocol (Functional Task Test, FTT) that evaluates both astronaut functional performance and related physiological changes. Functional tests include ladder climbing, hatch opening, jump down, manual manipulation of objects and tool use, seat egress and obstacle avoidance, recovery from a fall and object translation tasks. Physiological measures include assessments of postural and gait control, dynamic visual acuity, fine motor control, plasma volume, orthostatic intolerance, upper- and lower-body muscle strength, power, endurance, control, and neuromuscular drive. Crewmembers perform this integrated test protocol before and after short (Shuttle) and long-duration (ISS) space flight. Data are collected on two sessions before flight, on landing day (Shuttle only) and 1, 6 and 30 days after landing. Preliminary results from both Shuttle and ISS crewmembers indicate decrement in performance of the functional tasks after both short and long-duration space flight. On-going data collection continues to improve the statistical power required to map changes in functional task performance to alterations in physiological systems. The information obtained from this study will be used to design and implement countermeasures that specifically target the physiological systems most responsible for the altered functional performance associated with space flight.

  10. Frequency importance functions for a feature recognition test material.

    PubMed

    Duggirala, V; Studebaker, G A; Pavlovic, C V; Sherbecoe, R L

    1988-06-01

    The relative importance of different parts of the auditory spectrum to recognition of the Diagnostic Rhyme Test (DRT) and its six speech feature subtests was determined. Three normal hearing subjects were tested twice in each of 70 experimental conditions. The analytical procedures of French and Steinberg [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 19, 90-119 (1947)] were applied to the data to derive frequency importance functions for each of the DRT subtests and the test as a whole over the frequency range 178-8912 Hz. For the DRT as a whole, the low frequencies were found to be more important than is the case for nonsense syllables. Importance functions for the feature subtests also differed from those for nonsense syllables and from each other as well. These results suggest that test materials loaded with different proportions of particular phonemes have different frequency importance functions. Comparison of the results with those from other studies suggests that importance functions depend to a degree on the available response options as well. PMID:3411027

  11. Executive Function in Preschool Children: Test-Retest Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Danielle M.; Schaefer, Catherine; Pang, Karen; Carlson, Stephanie M.

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that executive function (EF) may distinguish between children who are well- or ill-prepared for kindergarten; however, little is known about the test-retest reliability of measures of EF for children. We aimed to establish a battery of EF measures that are sensitive to both development and individual differences across the…

  12. Testing for Differential Item Functioning with Measures of Partial Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Carol M.

    2009-01-01

    Differential item functioning (DIF) occurs when an item on a test or questionnaire has different measurement properties for one group of people versus another, irrespective of mean differences on the construct. There are many methods available for DIF assessment. The present article is focused on indices of partial association. A family of average…

  13. Advances in the Detection of Differentially Functioning Test Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hambleton, Ronald K.; And Others

    The development and evaluation of methods for detecting potentially biased items or differentially functioning items (DIF) represent a critical area of research for psychometricians because of the negative impact of biased items on test validity. A summary is provided of the authors' 12 years of research at the University of Massachusetts…

  14. Testing anatomically specified hypotheses in functional imaging using cytoarchitectonic maps.

    PubMed

    Eickhoff, Simon B; Heim, Stefan; Zilles, Karl; Amunts, Katrin

    2006-08-15

    The statistical inference on functional imaging data is severely complicated by the embedded multiple testing problem. Defining a region of interest (ROI) where the activation is hypothesized a priori helps to circumvent this problem, since in this case the inference is restricted to fewer simultaneous tests, rendering it more sensitive. Cytoarchitectonic maps obtained from postmortem brains provide objective, a priori ROIs that can be used to test anatomically specified hypotheses about the localization of functional activations. We here analyzed three methods for the definition of ROIs based on probabilistic cytoarchitectonic maps. (1) ROIs defined by the volume assigned to a cytoarchitectonic area in the summary map of all areas (maximum probability map, MPM), (2) ROIs based on thresholding the individual probabilistic maps and (3) spherical ROIs build around the cytoarchitectonic center of gravity. The quality with which the thus defined ROIs represented the respective cytoarchitectonic areas as well as their sensitivity for detecting functional activations was subsequently statistically evaluated. Our data showed that the MPM method yields ROIs, which reflect most adequately the underlying anatomical hypotheses. These maps also show a high degree of sensitivity in the statistical analysis. We thus propose the use of MPMs for the definition of ROIs. In combination with thresholding based on the Gaussian random field theory, these ROIs can then be applied to test anatomically specified hypotheses in functional neuroimaging studies. PMID:16781166

  15. Using Operational Analysis to Improve Access to Pulmonary Function Testing.

    PubMed

    Ip, Ada; Asamoah-Barnieh, Raymond; Bischak, Diane P; Davidson, Warren J; Flemons, W Ward; Pendharkar, Sachin R

    2016-01-01

    Background. Timely pulmonary function testing is crucial to improving diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary diseases. Perceptions of poor access at an academic pulmonary function laboratory prompted analysis of system demand and capacity to identify factors contributing to poor access. Methods. Surveys and interviews identified stakeholder perspectives on operational processes and access challenges. Retrospective data on testing demand and resource capacity was analyzed to understand utilization of testing resources. Results. Qualitative analysis demonstrated that stakeholder groups had discrepant views on access and capacity in the laboratory. Mean daily resource utilization was 0.64 (SD 0.15), with monthly average utilization consistently less than 0.75. Reserved testing slots for subspecialty clinics were poorly utilized, leaving many testing slots unfilled. When subspecialty demand exceeded number of reserved slots, there was sufficient capacity in the pulmonary function schedule to accommodate added demand. Findings were shared with stakeholders and influenced scheduling process improvements. Conclusion. This study highlights the importance of operational data to identify causes of poor access, guide system decision-making, and determine effects of improvement initiatives in a variety of healthcare settings. Importantly, simple operational analysis can help to improve efficiency of health systems with little or no added financial investment. PMID:27445545

  16. Using Operational Analysis to Improve Access to Pulmonary Function Testing

    PubMed Central

    Ip, Ada; Asamoah-Barnieh, Raymond; Bischak, Diane P.; Davidson, Warren J.; Flemons, W. Ward; Pendharkar, Sachin R.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Timely pulmonary function testing is crucial to improving diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary diseases. Perceptions of poor access at an academic pulmonary function laboratory prompted analysis of system demand and capacity to identify factors contributing to poor access. Methods. Surveys and interviews identified stakeholder perspectives on operational processes and access challenges. Retrospective data on testing demand and resource capacity was analyzed to understand utilization of testing resources. Results. Qualitative analysis demonstrated that stakeholder groups had discrepant views on access and capacity in the laboratory. Mean daily resource utilization was 0.64 (SD 0.15), with monthly average utilization consistently less than 0.75. Reserved testing slots for subspecialty clinics were poorly utilized, leaving many testing slots unfilled. When subspecialty demand exceeded number of reserved slots, there was sufficient capacity in the pulmonary function schedule to accommodate added demand. Findings were shared with stakeholders and influenced scheduling process improvements. Conclusion. This study highlights the importance of operational data to identify causes of poor access, guide system decision-making, and determine effects of improvement initiatives in a variety of healthcare settings. Importantly, simple operational analysis can help to improve efficiency of health systems with little or no added financial investment. PMID:27445545

  17. The Importance of Functional Tests in Personalized Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Widmer, R. Jay; Lerman, Amir

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the most prevalent disease mainly in the Western society and becoming the leading cause of death worldwide. Standard methods by which healthcare providers screen for cardiovascular disease have only minimally reduced the burden of disease while exponentially increasing costs. As such, more specific and individualized methods for functionally assessing cardiovascular threats are needed to identify properly those at greatest risk, and appropriately treat these patients so as to avoid a fate such as heart attack, stroke, or death. Currently, endothelial function testing—in both the coronary and peripheral circulation—is well established as being associated with the disease process and future cardiovascular events. Improving such testing can lead to a reduction in the risk of future events. Combining this functional assessment of vascular fitness with other, more personalized, testing methods should serve to identify those at the greatest risk of cardiovascular disease earlier and subsequently reduce the affliction of such diseases worldwide. PMID:23908864

  18. Multiple-Group Noncompensatory Differential Item Functioning in Raju's Differential Functioning of Items and Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oshima, T. C.; Wright, Keith; White, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Raju, van der Linden, and Fleer (1995) introduced a framework for differential functioning of items and tests (DFIT) for unidimensional dichotomous models. Since then, DFIT has been shown to be a quite versatile framework as it can handle polytomous as well as multidimensional models both at the item and test levels. However, DFIT is still limited…

  19. [Neurological lower torso function test. A new assessment].

    PubMed

    Merkert, J; Butz, S; Nieczaj, R; Steinhagen-Thiessen, E; Eckardt, R

    2013-02-01

    The neurological lower torso function test was developed in addition to the Berg Balance Scale as an assessment for diagnosis and follow-up of lower torso stability and functioning in neurological patients, used for example in subjects in the early rehabilitation phase or still showing low motoric recovery after suffering a stroke. Due to the ground effect for changes in severely affected neurological patients, other tests currently available do not provide an adequate level of sensitivity. The neurological function test was integrated into the study "Combined whole body vibration and balance training using Vibrosphere" with 66 inpatient/partial inpatient neurological subjects ≥ 60 years. Based on six tasks, a qualitative assessment of the selective function of movement and posture tone of the lower extremity, the muscular system around the hip, and the lower torso are performed. Analogous to the Berg Balance Scale, a 5 point scale is used. It shows a high degree of reliability and responsiveness and can be performed with little effort of time and personnel. PMID:22733479

  20. Progress in standardizing and harmonizing thyroid function tests.

    PubMed

    Faix, James D; Miller, W Greg

    2016-09-01

    Iodine is an essential component of thyroid hormone. Because thyroid hormone synthesis is affected by iodine deficiency on the one hand and by excess iodine intake on the other, thyroid function biomarkers may be useful for assessing iodine status and studying the effects of iodine supplementation. However, reference intervals for some of the most useful thyroid function biomarkers, including serum concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), and thyroglobulin, vary widely due to variability in the commercially available immunoassays for these tests. Recognizing the need for standardization of thyroid function testing, the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine established a working group, later restructured as the Committee for Standardization of Thyroid Function Tests, to examine its feasibility. The committee has established a conventional reference measurement procedure for FT4 and an approach to harmonization of results for TSH. Panels of single-donation human blood specimens that span the measuring interval of the immunoassays were used to assess the performance of commercially available immunoassays and form the basis for their recalibration. Recalibration of the manufacturers' methods for both FT4 and TSH has shown that the variability among immunoassays can be successfully eliminated for euthyroid individuals as well as for patients with thyroid disease. The committee is not investigating the standardization of thyroglobulin at the present time. PMID:27534642

  1. A fully automated, quantitative test of upper limb function.

    PubMed

    Prochazka, Arthur; Kowalczewski, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The Rehabilitation Joystick for Computerized Exercise (ReJoyce, Rehabtronics Inc., Edmonton, Alberta, Canada), is a workstation on which participants exercise dexterous movement tasks in the guise of computer games. The system incorporates the ReJoyce Arm and Hand Function Test (RAHFT). Here the authors evaluate the RAHFT against the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT) and the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA). All 3 tests were performed in 36 separate sessions in 13 tetraplegic individuals. Concurrent and criterion validities of the RAHFT were supported by a high level of correlation with the ARAT (r2 = .88). Regarding responsiveness, the effect size of the RAHFT at week 6 of 1 hr/day exercise training was 1.8. Regarding reliability, the mean test-retest difference in RAHFT baseline scores was 0.67% ± 3.6%, which was not statistically significant. The RAHFT showed less ceiling effect than either ARAT or FMA. These data help validate the RAHFT as a quantitative, automated alternative to the ARAT and FMA. The RAHFT is the first comprehensive test of arm and dexterous hand function that does not depend on human judgment. It offers a standardized, quantitative outcome evaluation, which can be performed not only in the clinic, but also in the participant's home, administered by a remote therapist over the Internet. PMID:25575220

  2. Validation of Cardiovascular Parameters During NASA's Functional Task Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arzeno, N. M.; Stenger, M. B.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Platts, Steven H.

    2008-01-01

    Microgravity-induced physiological changes, including cardiovascular deconditioning may impair crewmembers f capabilities during exploration missions on the Moon and Mars. The Functional Task Test (FTT), which will be used to assess task performance in short and long duration astronauts, consists of 7 functional tests to evaluate crewmembers f ability to perform activities to be conducted in a partial-gravity environment or following an emergency landing on Earth. The Recovery from Fall/Stand Test (RFST) tests both the subject fs ability to get up from a prone position and orthostatic intolerance. PURPOSE: Crewmembers have never become presyncopal in the first 3 min of quiet stand, yet it is unknown whether 3 min is long enough to cause similar heart rate fluctuations to a 5-min stand. The purpose of this study was to validate and test the reliability of heart rate variability (HRV) analysis of a 3-min quiet stand. METHODS: To determine the validity of using 3 vs. 5-min of standing to assess HRV, 7 healthy subjects remained in a prone position for 2 min, stood up quickly and stood quietly for 6 min. ECG and continuous blood pressure data were recorded. Mean R-R interval and spectral HRV were measured in minutes 0-3 and 0-5 following the heart rate transient due to standing. Significant differences between the segments were determined by a paired t-test. To determine the reliability of the 3-min stand test, 13 healthy subjects completed 3 trials of the complete FTT on separate days, including the RFST with a 3-min stand test. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed on the HRV measures. RESULTS: Spectral HRV measures reflecting autonomic activity were not different (p>0.05) during the 0-3 and 0-5 min segment (mean R-R interval: 738+/-74 ms, 728+/-69 ms; low frequency to high frequency ratio: 6.5+/-2.2, 7.7+/-2.7; normalized high frequency: 0.19+/-0.03, 0.18+/-0.04). The average coefficient of variation for mean R-R interval, systolic and diastolic blood pressures

  3. Calibrating Reach Distance to Visual Targets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mon-Williams, Mark; Bingham, Geoffrey P.

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigated the calibration of reach distance by gradually distorting the haptic feedback obtained when participants grasped visible target objects. The authors found that the modified relationship between visually specified distance and reach distance could be captured by a straight-line mapping function. Thus, the relation could be…

  4. Reaching Beyond The Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Mariah; Rosenthal, L.; Gaughan, A.; Hopkins, E.

    2014-01-01

    Strawbridge Observatory at Haverford College is home to a undergraduate-led public observing program. Our program holds ~once monthly public events throughout the academic year that take advantage of eyepiece observing on our 16-inch and 12-inch telescopes as well as of the classroom, library, and projection system. These resources allow us to organize a variety of astronomy related activities that are engaging for individuals of all ages: accessible student talks, current film screenings and even arts and crafts for the families who attend with young children. These events aim to spark curiosity in others about scientific discovery and about the remarkable nature of the world in which we live. In addition to exciting local families about astronomy, this program has excited Haverford students from a range of disciplines about both science and education. Being entirely student led means that we are able to take the initiative in planning, coordinating and running all events, fostering an atmosphere of collaboration, experimentation and commitment amongst our volunteers. Additionally, this program is one of the few at Haverford that regularly reaches beyond the campus walls to promote and build relationships with the outside community. In light of this, our program presents a distinctive and enlightening opportunity for student volunteers: we get to use our scientific backgrounds to educate a general audience, while also learning from them about how to communicate and inspire in others the excitement we feel about the subject of astronomy. The work on this project has been supported by NSF AST-1151462.

  5. Optimization of a parallel permutation testing function for the SPRINT R package.

    PubMed

    Petrou, Savvas; Sloan, Terence M; Mewissen, Muriel; Forster, Thorsten; Piotrowski, Michal; Dobrzelecki, Bartosz; Ghazal, Peter; Trew, Arthur; Hill, Jon

    2011-12-10

    The statistical language R and its Bioconductor package are favoured by many biostatisticians for processing microarray data. The amount of data produced by some analyses has reached the limits of many common bioinformatics computing infrastructures. High Performance Computing systems offer a solution to this issue. The Simple Parallel R Interface (SPRINT) is a package that provides biostatisticians with easy access to High Performance Computing systems and allows the addition of parallelized functions to R. Previous work has established that the SPRINT implementation of an R permutation testing function has close to optimal scaling on up to 512 processors on a supercomputer. Access to supercomputers, however, is not always possible, and so the work presented here compares the performance of the SPRINT implementation on a supercomputer with benchmarks on a range of platforms including cloud resources and a common desktop machine with multiprocessing capabilities. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23335858

  6. Optimization of a parallel permutation testing function for the SPRINT R package

    PubMed Central

    Petrou, Savvas; Sloan, Terence M; Mewissen, Muriel; Forster, Thorsten; Piotrowski, Michal; Dobrzelecki, Bartosz; Ghazal, Peter; Trew, Arthur; Hill, Jon

    2011-01-01

    The statistical language R and its Bioconductor package are favoured by many biostatisticians for processing microarray data. The amount of data produced by some analyses has reached the limits of many common bioinformatics computing infrastructures. High Performance Computing systems offer a solution to this issue. The Simple Parallel R Interface (SPRINT) is a package that provides biostatisticians with easy access to High Performance Computing systems and allows the addition of parallelized functions to R. Previous work has established that the SPRINT implementation of an R permutation testing function has close to optimal scaling on up to 512 processors on a supercomputer. Access to supercomputers, however, is not always possible, and so the work presented here compares the performance of the SPRINT implementation on a supercomputer with benchmarks on a range of platforms including cloud resources and a common desktop machine with multiprocessing capabilities. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23335858

  7. Pheochromocytoma with Markedly Abnormal Liver Function Tests and Severe Leukocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Eun, Chai Ryoung; Ahn, Jae Hee; Seo, Ji A

    2014-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a rare neuroendocrine tumor arising from the medulla of the adrenal glands, which causes an overproduction of catecholamines. The common symptoms are headache, palpitations, and sweating; however, various other clinical manifestations might also be present. Accurate diagnosis of pheochromocytoma is important because surgical treatment is usually successful, and associated clinical problems are reversible if treated early. A 49-year-old man with a history of uncontrolled hypertension and diabetes mellitus presented with chest pain, fever, and sweating. His liver function tests and white blood cell counts were markedly increased and his echocardiography results suggested stress-induced cardiomyopathy. His abdominal computed tomography showed a 5×5-cm-sized tumor in the left adrenal gland, and laboratory tests confirmed catecholamine overproduction. After surgical resection of the left adrenal gland, his liver function tests and white blood cell counts normalized, and echocardiography showed normal cardiac function. Moreover, his previous antihypertensive regimen was deescalated, and his previously uncontrolled blood glucose levels normalized without medication. PMID:24741459

  8. Test experience effects in longitudinal comparisons of adult cognitive functioning.

    PubMed

    Salthouse, Timothy

    2015-09-01

    It is widely recognized that experience with cognitive tests can influence estimates of cognitive change. Prior research has estimated experience effects at the level of groups by comparing the performance of a group of participants tested for the second time with the performance of a different group of participants at the same age tested for the first time. This twice-minus-once-tested method was adapted in the current study to derive estimates of test experience at the level of individual participants. Among the major findings were that experience estimates were smaller at older ages, with measures of vocabulary and speed compared to measures of memory, reasoning, and spatial visualization, and with longer intervals between the first and second occasion. Although relations of overall cognitive ability with test experience effects were weak, there were significant correlations among the experience estimates in different cognitive domains. These results imply that at least in adulthood, simple measures of cognitive change likely underestimate maturational influences on cognitive functioning, and to a greater extent in young adults than in older adults. PMID:26098579

  9. Pulmonary function tests in children with beta-thalassemia major.

    PubMed

    Abu-Ekteish, F M; Al-Rimawi, H S; Al-Ali, M K; Shehabi, I M

    2007-01-01

    Lung function abnormality is a known complication of thalassemia, but the results of studies in pulmonary function have been inconsistent. This study was conducted to describe the type of lung impairment in thalassemic children. Pulmonary function tests were conducted in 40 children with beta-thalassemia major, 23 males and 17 females. Tests included spirometry, total lung capacity (TLC), single breath diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DL(CO)) and arterial blood gases. Serum ferritin level was measured in all children to study its relationship to lung function impairment. A predominantly restrictive pattern was seen in 14 patients (35%). These patients had a significant reduction in RV, FVC, TLC and PEF with an FEV1/FVC ratio of more than 75%. Obstructive airway disease was found in six patients (15%), with an FEV1/FVC ratio less than 75%, increased RV and reduced FEF(25%-75%). Impairment of diffusion was found in 10 patients (25%), with DL(CO) reduced to less than 80% of the predicted value. Arterial blood gases results showed that no patient was hypoxic. No correlation was found between the severity of restrictive or obstructive disease and the serum ferritin level. There was a significant linear correlation between age and serum ferritin level (P < 0.019). Patients with thalassemia have a predominantly restrictive lung dysfunction pattern. This may be due to pulmonary parenchymal pathology, although the reason for the obstructive pattern seen in a small proportion of patients remains obscure. PMID:17416149

  10. Sensitivity and specificity of the functional hallux limitus test to predict foot function.

    PubMed

    Payne, Craig; Chuter, Vivienne; Miller, Kathryn

    2002-05-01

    Functional hallux limitus is an underrecognized entity that generally does not produce symptoms but can result in a variety of compensatory mechanisms that can produce symptoms. Clinically, hallux limitus can be determined by assessing the range of motion available at the first metatarsophalangeal joint while the first ray is prevented from plantarflexing. The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of this clinical test to predict abnormal excessive midtarsal joint function during gait. A total of 86 feet were examined for functional hallux limitus and abnormal pronation of the midtarsal joint during late midstance. The test had a sensitivity of 0.72 and a specificity of 0.66, suggesting that clinicians should consider functional hallux limitus when there is late midstance pronation of the midtarsal joint during gait. PMID:12015407

  11. Functional testing of hepatocytes following their recovery from cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Innes, G K; Fuller, B J; Hobbs, K E

    1988-02-01

    Various tests of function have been suggested for assessing hepatocytes recovered from cryopreservation. In this study we have investigated hepatocyte attachment during tissue culture and cellular density in order to assess function and compared them with two classical dye exposure tests. The ability of hepatocytes to exclude trypan blue dye (TB) and metabolize fluorescein diacetate (FDA) was demonstrated. In populations of freshly prepared hepatocytes 88.07% were able to exclude TB and 87.31% were able to metabolize FDA. However in populations of hepatocytes recovered after cryopreservation using 1.5 M dimethyl sulfoxide as cryoprotectant only 33.44% were able to exclude TB and 31.59% able to metabolize FDA. Both of these tests gave the same estimate of functional ability. Density gradient centrifugation of hepatocytes on Percoll 400 (Pharmacia, Uppsala, Sweden) separated two populations of hepatocytes; one (density ca.1.07 g/ml Percoll) in which most of the cells were able to exclude TB and the second (density ca. 1.02 g/ml Percoll) in which they were stained blue. The dense population was highly enriched in dye-excluding hepatocytes: freshly prepared hepatocytes, 92.4%, and cryopreserved hepatocytes, 88.66%. When samples of these cells (2 x 10(6) dye-excluding cells per dish) were tested for their ability to attach to tissue culture dishes only 17.28% of the cryopreserved hepatocytes were able to attach compared to 55.28% of the freshly prepared cells. We conclude that cryopreservation of hepatocytes produces a population of cells which are not metabolically identical to a population of freshly prepared hepatocytes even though they appear to have the same buoyant density and dye-excluding capabilities.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3349809

  12. Conduct disorder and cognitive functioning: testing three causal hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Schonfeld, I S; Shaffer, D; O'Connor, P; Portnoy, S

    1988-08-01

    The sample consisted of black adolescents who were members of the Columbia-Presbyterian chapter of the Collaborative Perinatal Project from birth to age 7. At age 17, subjects and their parents were administered a battery of instruments that included standardized psychiatric diagnostic interviews as part of a call-back study. Results from least-squares and logistic regression analyses were compatible with the hypothesis that deficiencies in cognitive functioning are causally related to adolescent conduct disorder as defined by DSM III. The results suggested that the relation of cognitive functioning to psychiatric status appears to be specific to conduct disorders. The results were incompatible with a "third" variable hypothesis (third factors included neurological status and environmental disadvantage) and the hypothesis that conduct problems lead to deficits in cognitive functioning. The 3 most (and equally) important factors in accounting for age-17 conduct disorder were cognitive functioning, parent psychopathology, and early aggression. A closer look at the data tentatively suggested that a broad deficiency in acculturational learning, rather than narrowly focused social cognitive differences or native endowment, constitutes a key element in the link between cognitive functioning and conduct disorder. Test bias was ruled out as a possible explanation for the results. PMID:3168633

  13. Synthetic Protocells to Mimic and Test Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jian; Sigworth, Fred J.

    2010-01-01

    Synthetic protocells provide a new means to probe, mimic and deconstruct cell behavior; they are a powerful tool to quantify cell behavior and a useful platform to explore nanomedicine. Protocells are not simple particles; they mimic cell design and typically consist of a stabilized lipid bilayer with membrane proteins. With a finite number of well characterized components, protocells can be designed to maximize useful outputs. Energy conversion in cells is an intriguing output; many natural cells convert transmembrane ion gradients into electricity by membrane-protein regulated ion transport. Here, a synthetic cell system comprising two droplets separated by a lipid bilayer is described that functions as a biological battery. The factors that affect its electrogenic performance are explained and predicted by coupling equations of the electrodes, transport proteins and membrane behavior. We show that the output of such biological batteries can reach an energy density of 6.9 × 106 J·m−3 which is ≈ 5 % of the volumetric energy density of a lead-acid battery. The configuration with maximum power density has an energy conversion efficiency of 10 %. PMID:20217710

  14. Synthetic protocells to mimic and test cell function.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Sigworth, Fred J; LaVan, David A

    2010-01-01

    Synthetic protocells provide a new means to probe, mimic and deconstruct cell behavior; they are a powerful tool to quantify cell behavior and a useful platform to explore nanomedicine. Protocells are not simple particles; they mimic cell design and typically consist of a stabilized lipid bilayer with membrane proteins. With a finite number of well characterized components, protocells can be designed to maximize useful outputs. Energy conversion in cells is an intriguing output; many natural cells convert transmembrane ion gradients into electricity by membrane-protein regulated ion transport. Here, a synthetic cell system comprising two droplets separated by a lipid bilayer is described that functions as a biological battery. The factors that affect its electrogenic performance are explained and predicted by coupling equations of the electrodes, transport proteins and membrane behavior. We show that the output of such biological batteries can reach an energy density of 6.9 x 10(6) J m(-3), which is approximately 5% of the volumetric energy density of a lead-acid battery. The configuration with maximum power density has an energy conversion efficiency of 10%. PMID:20217710

  15. Functional redundancy as a tool for bioassessment: A test using riparian vegetation.

    PubMed

    Bruno, D; Gutiérrez-Cánovas, C; Velasco, J; Sánchez-Fernández, D

    2016-10-01

    There is an urgent need to track how natural systems are responding to global change in order to better guide management efforts. Traditionally, taxonomically based metrics have been used as indicators of ecosystem integrity and conservation status. However, functional approaches offer promising advantages that can improve bioassessment performance. In this study, we aim to test the applicability of functional redundancy (FR), a functional feature related to the stability, resistance and resilience of ecosystems, as a tool for bioassessment, looking at woody riparian communities in particular. We used linear mixed-effect models to investigate the response of FR and other traditional biomonitoring indices to natural (drought duration) and anthropogenic stress gradients (flow regulation and agriculture) in a Mediterranean basin. Such indices include species richness, a taxonomic index, and the Riparian Quality Index, which is an index of ecological status. Then, we explored the ability of FR and the other indices to discriminate between different intensities of human alteration. FR showed higher explanatory capacity in response to multiple stressors, although we found significant negative relationships between all the biological indices (taxonomic, functional and ecological quality) and stress gradients. In addition, FR was the most accurate index to discriminate among different categories of human alteration in both perennial and intermittent river reaches, which allowed us to set threshold values to identify undisturbed (reference condition), moderately disturbed and highly disturbed reaches in the two types of river. Using these thresholds and the best-fitting model, we generated a map of human impact on the functional redundancy of riparian communities for all the stretches of the river network. Our results demonstrate that FR presents clear advantages over traditional methods, which suggests that it should be part of the biomonitoring toolbox used for

  16. Validation of Cardiovascular Parameters during NASA's Functional Task Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arzeno, N. M.; Stenger, M. B.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Platts, S. H.

    2009-01-01

    Microgravity exposure causes physiological deconditioning and impairs crewmember task performance. The Functional Task Test (FTT) is designed to correlate these physiological changes to performance in a series of operationally-relevant tasks. One of these, the Recovery from Fall/Stand Test (RFST), tests both the ability to recover from a prone position and cardiovascular responses to orthostasis. PURPOSE: Three minutes were chosen for the duration of this test, yet it is unknown if this is long enough to induce cardiovascular responses similar to the operational 5 min stand test. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of heart rate variability (HRV) analysis of a 3 min stand and to examine the effect of spaceflight on these measures. METHODS: To determine the validity of using 3 vs. 5 min of standing to assess HRV, ECG was collected from 7 healthy subjects who participated in a 6 min RFST. Mean R-R interval (RR) and spectral HRV were measured in minutes 0-3 and 0-5 following the heart rate transient due to standing. Significant differences between the segments were determined by a paired t-test. To determine the reliability of the 3-min stand test, 13 healthy subjects completed 3 trials of the FTT on separate days, including the RFST with a 3 min stand. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed on the HRV measures. One crewmember completed the FTT before a 14-day mission, on landing day (R+0) and one (R+1) day after returning to Earth. RESULTS VALIDITY: HRV measures reflecting autonomic activity were not significantly different during the 0-3 and 0-5 min segments. RELIABILITY: The average coefficient of variation for RR, systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressures during the RFST were less than 8% for the 3 sessions. ANOVA results yielded a greater inter-subject variability (p<0.006) than inter-session variability (p>0.05) for HRV in the RFST. SPACEFLIGHT: Lower RR and higher SBP were observed on R+0 in rest and stand. On R+1

  17. Development of additional tasks for the executive function performance test.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Bridget; Baum, Carolyn; Moore, Jennifer; Ehrlich-Jones, Linda; Spoeri, Susan; Doherty, Meghan; Wolf, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The Executive Function Performance Test (EFPT) is a reliable and valid performance-based assessment of executive function for people with stroke. The objective of this study was to enhance the clinical utility of the EFPT by developing and testing additional tasks for the EFPT in the Alternate EFPT (aEFPT). METHOD. We performed a cross-sectional study with poststroke participants (n = 25) and healthy control participants (n = 25). All participants completed a neuropsychological assessment battery and both the EFPT and the aEFPT. RESULTS. No statistically significant differences were found between the EFPT and the aEFPT when examining total scores, construct scores, and two overall task scores. Correlations between the aEFPT and the neuropsychological measures were adequate to strong (r2s = .59-.83). CONCLUSION. The aEFPT tasks are comparable to the original EFPT tasks, providing occupational therapy practitioners with additional tasks that can be used clinically to identify performance-based executive function deficits in people with stroke. PMID:25397771

  18. Study on Noncontact Pulmonary Function Test Using Pattern Light Projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Hirooki; Koshiji, Kohji

    The pulmonary function test by spirometer is generally conducted. The test subjects, especially children, women and older people, feel uncomfortable as the mouthpiece and nasal plug must be attached to the face of them. We have studied the nonrestraint pulmonary function test using the dot matrix pattern projection in order to decrease the burden to the examinee. In our proposed system, the pattern light projector illuminates the thorax with the dot matrix pattern light. And the CCD camera takes a series of images of the dot matrix pattern. The three dimensional shape of the thorax surface can be calculated by the distribution of light dots. And the respiratory waveform is calculated by the time-series change of the three dimensional shape. The respiratory waveform of our system was similar to one of spirometer. Therefore, we clarified that our proposed system can equivalently measure the respiration with spirometer. And we compared the volume change of the three dimensional shape calculated by our system with the expired tidal volume measured by the expiration gas analyzer. And we examined the relationship between the expired tidal volume and the volume change of the thorax surface.

  19. Assessment of pulmonary function tests in cardiac patients.

    PubMed

    El-Sobkey, Salwa B; Gomaa, Magdi

    2011-04-01

    This study was aimed to assess the pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in cardiac patients; with ischemic or rheumatic heart diseases as well as in patients who underwent coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) or valvular procedures. For the forty eligible participants, the pulmonary function was measured using the spirometry test before and after the cardiac surgery. Data collection sheet was used for the patient's demographic and intra-operative information. Cardiac diseases and surgeries had restrictive negative impact on PFTs. Before surgery, vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), ratio between FEV1 and FVC, and maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) recorded lower values for rheumatic patients than ischemic patients (P values were 0.01, 0.005, 0.0001, 0.031, and 0.035, respectively). Moreover, patients who underwent valvular surgery had lower PFTs than patients who underwent CABG with significant differences for VC, FVC, FEV1, and MVV tests (P values were 0.043, 0.011, 0.040, and 0.020, respectively). No definite causative factor appeared to be responsible for those results although mechanical deficiency and incisional chest pain caused by cardiac surgery are doubtful. More comprehensive investigation is required to resolve the case. PMID:23960642

  20. Mirror versus parallel bimanual reaching

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In spite of their importance to everyday function, tasks that require both hands to work together such as lifting and carrying large objects have not been well studied and the full potential of how new technology might facilitate recovery remains unknown. Methods To help identify the best modes for self-teleoperated bimanual training, we used an advanced haptic/graphic environment to compare several modes of practice. In a 2-by-2 study, we compared mirror vs. parallel reaching movements, and also compared veridical display to one that transforms the right hand’s cursor to the opposite side, reducing the area that the visual system has to monitor. Twenty healthy, right-handed subjects (5 in each group) practiced 200 movements. We hypothesized that parallel reaching movements would be the best performing, and attending to one visual area would reduce the task difficulty. Results The two-way comparison revealed that mirror movement times took an average 1.24 s longer to complete than parallel. Surprisingly, subjects’ movement times moving to one target (attending to one visual area) also took an average of 1.66 s longer than subjects moving to two targets. For both hands, there was also a significant interaction effect, revealing the lowest errors for parallel movements moving to two targets (p < 0.001). This was the only group that began and maintained low errors throughout training. Conclusion Combined with other evidence, these results suggest that the most intuitive reaching performance can be observed with parallel movements with a veridical display (moving to two separate targets). These results point to the expected levels of challenge for these bimanual training modes, which could be used to advise therapy choices in self-neurorehabilitation. PMID:23837908

  1. Autonomic function testing aboard the ISS using “PNEUMOCARD”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baevsky, R. M.; Funtova, I. I.; Diedrich, A.; Chernikova, A. G.; Drescher, J.; Baranov, V. M.; Tank, J.

    2009-10-01

    Investigations of blood pressure, heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV) during long term space flights on board the "ISS" have shown characteristic changes of autonomic cardiovascular control. Therefore, alterations of the autonomic nervous system occurring during spaceflight may be responsible for in- and post-flight disturbances. The device "Pneumocard" was developed to further investigate autonomic cardiovascular and respiratory function aboard the ISS. The hard-software diagnostic complex "Pneumocard" was used during in-flight experiment aboard ISS for autonomic function testing. ECG, photoplethysmography, respiration, transthoracic bioimpedance and seismocardiography were assessed in one male cosmonaut (flight lengths six month). Recordings were made prior to the flight, late during flight, and post-flight during spontaneous respiration and controlled respiration at different rates. HR remained stable during flight. The values were comparable to supine measurements on earth. Respiratory frequency and blood pressure decreased during flight. Post flight HR and BP values increased compared to in-flight data exceeding pre-flight values. Cardiac time intervals did not change dramatically during flight. Pulse wave transit time decreased during flight. The maximum of the first time derivative of the impedance cardiogram, which is highly correlated with stroke volume was not reduced in-flight. Our results demonstrate that autonomic function testing aboard the ISS using "Pneumocard" is feasible and generates data of good quality. Despite the decrease in BP, pulse wave transit time was found reduced in space as shown earlier. However, cardiac output did not decrease profoundly in the investigated cosmonaut. Autonomic testing during space flight detects individual changes in cardiovascular control and may add important information to standard medical control. The recent plans to support a flight to Mars, makes these kinds of observations all the more relevant

  2. Pulmonary function testing and pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Bernstrand, Cecilia; Cederlund, Kerstin; Henter, Jan-Inge

    2007-09-01

    In a long-term single-center follow-up (median 16-years), we studied high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and pulmonary function testing (PFT) in pulmonary LCH. Diffusing capacity corrected for alveolar volume (K(CO)) and total lung capacity (TLC) were significantly decreased (P=0.016 and P=0.030, respectively) in patients with extensive HRCT abnormalities. Patients with late stage disease on HRCT had increased forced expiratory volume (FEV1.0)(P=0.037) and vital capacity (VC)(P=0.036). Disease monitoring is important in pulmonary LCH, and since PFT with diffusing capacity provides a measurement of the current lung function, it may be a valuable tool in monitoring pulmonary LCH, and a good complement to imaging. PMID:16317743

  3. Characterization of tests of functional recovery after median and ulnar nerve injury and repair in the rat forelimb.

    PubMed

    Galtrey, Clare M; Fawcett, James W

    2007-03-01

    The majority of human peripheral nerve injuries occur in the upper limb but the majority of studies in the rat are performed in the hindlimb. The upper and lower limbs differ in dexterity and control by supraspinal systems, so an upper limb model is a better representation of the common form of human injury. The purpose of this study was to further develop a rat model involving lesions of the median and ulnar nerves. To produce different degrees of misdirection of axons following nerve repair, we studied nerve crush, cut and repair of the two nerves, and cut and repair with crossover. Assessment of functional recovery was performed using a battery of motor and sensory tests: the staircase test, which assesses skilled forepaw reaching; grip strength meter, which assesses grip strength; pawprint analysis, which assesses toe spread and print length; horizontal ladder, which assesses forepaw placement during skilled locomotion; modified Randall-Selitto device and electronic von Frey probes, which assess fine touch; and cold probes, which assess temperature sensation. All tests revealed deficits in forepaw function after nerve injury except the print length and modified Randall-Selitto device. The time course of functional recovery was observed over 15 weeks. The final degree of functional recovery achieved was related to the misdirection of axon regeneration. The tests that most clearly revealed the effects of axon misdirection on function were the skilled paw reaching and grip strength tests. The lesion model and functional tests that we have developed will be useful in testing therapeutic strategies for treating the consequences of inaccurate axon regeneration following peripheral nerve injury in humans. PMID:17374098

  4. Use of the argon aiming beam in visual function testing.

    PubMed

    Kelley, J S

    1978-12-01

    The aiming beam of the argon laser photocoagulator can be a useful tool in visual function testing. Applied with the slit lamp delivery system and fundus contact lens, it clearly documents the size of the blind spot surrounding the optic nerve head and the normal area of nonfunctional retina in the periphery. The size of pathologic field defects can be recorded on fundus photographs or retinal drawings by an observer. Safety precautions must be taken to protect all patients from excessive laser energy. PMID:736394

  5. Pulmonary physiology: future directions for lung function testing in COPD.

    PubMed

    Brusasco, Vito; Barisione, Giovanni; Crimi, Emanuele

    2015-02-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a term that encompasses different pathological conditions having excessive airflow limitation in common. A wide body of knowledge has been accumulated over the last century explaining the mechanisms by which airway (chronic bronchitis) and parenchymal (emphysema) diseases lead to an indistinguishable spirometric abnormality. Although the definition of emphysema is anatomical, early studies showed that its presence can be inferred with good approximation from measurements of lung mechanics and gas exchange, in addition to simple spirometry. Studies using tests of ventilation distribution showed that abnormalities are present in smokers with normal spirometry, although these tests were not predictive of development of COPD. At the beginning of the third millennium, new documents and guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of COPD were developed, in which the functional diagnosis of COPD was restricted, for the sake of simplicity, to simple spirometry. In recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in separating bronchitic from emphysematous phenotype of COPD. For this purpose, high-resolution computed tomography scanning has been added to diagnostic work-up. At the same time, methods for lung function testing have been refined and seem promising for detection of early small airways abnormalities. Among them are the forced oscillation technique and the nitrogen phase III slope analysis of the multiple-breath washout test, which may provide information on ventilation inhomogeneity. Moreover, the combined assessment of diffusing capacity for nitric oxide and carbon monoxide may be more sensitive than the latter alone for partitioning diffusive components at parenchymal level. PMID:25257934

  6. Oncolytic virotherapy reaches adolescence.

    PubMed

    Hammill, Adrienne M; Conner, Joseph; Cripe, Timothy P

    2010-12-15

    Lytic viruses kill cells as a consequence of their normal replication life cycle. The idea of harnessing viruses to kill cancer cells arose over a century ago, before viruses were even discovered, from medical case reports of infections associated with cancer remissions. Since then, there has been no shortage of hype, hope, or fear regarding the prospect of oncolytic virotherapy for cancer. Early developments in the field included encouraging antitumor efficacy both in animal studies in the 1920s-1940s and in human clinical trials in the 1950s-1970s. Despite its long-standing history, oncolytic virotherapy was an idea ahead of its time. Without needed advances in molecular biology, virology, immunology, and clinical research ethics, early clinical trials resulted in infectious complications and were fraught with controversial research conduct, so that enthusiasm in the medical community waned. Oncolytic virotherapy is now experiencing a major growth spurt, having sustained numerous laboratory advances and undergone multiple encouraging adult clinical trials, and is now witnessing the emergence of pediatric trials. Here we review the history and salient biology of the field, including preclinical and clinical data, with a special emphasis on those agents now being tested in pediatric cancer patients. PMID:20734404

  7. TRL - A FORMAL TEST REPRESENTATION LANGUAGE AND TOOL FOR FUNCTIONAL TEST DESIGNS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hops, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    A Formal Test Representation Language and Tool for Functional Test Designs (TRL) is an automatic tool and a formal language that is used to implement the Category-Partition Method and produce the specification of test cases in the testing phase of software development. The Category-Partition Method is particularly useful in defining the inputs, outputs and purpose of the test design phase and combines the benefits of choosing normal cases with error exposing properties. Traceability can be maintained quite easily by creating a test design for each objective in the test plan. The effort to transform the test cases into procedures is simplified by using an automatic tool to create the cases based on the test design. The method allows the rapid elimination of undesired test cases from consideration, and easy review of test designs by peer groups. The first step in the category-partition method is functional decomposition, in which the specification and/or requirements are decomposed into functional units that can be tested independently. A secondary purpose of this step is to identify the parameters that affect the behavior of the system for each functional unit. The second step, category analysis, carries the work done in the previous step further by determining the properties or sub-properties of the parameters that would make the system behave in different ways. The designer should analyze the requirements to determine the features or categories of each parameter and how the system may behave if the category were to vary its value. If the parameter undergoing refinement is a data-item, then categories of this data-item may be any of its attributes, such as type, size, value, units, frequency of change, or source. After all the categories for the parameters of the functional unit have been determined, the next step is to partition each category's range space into mutually exclusive values that the category can assume. In choosing partition values, all possible kinds

  8. Highly adaptive tests for group differences in brain functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Junghi; Pan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and other technologies have been offering evidence and insights showing that altered brain functional networks are associated with neurological illnesses such as Alzheimer's disease. Exploring brain networks of clinical populations compared to those of controls would be a key inquiry to reveal underlying neurological processes related to such illnesses. For such a purpose, group-level inference is a necessary first step in order to establish whether there are any genuinely disrupted brain subnetworks. Such an analysis is also challenging due to the high dimensionality of the parameters in a network model and high noise levels in neuroimaging data. We are still in the early stage of method development as highlighted by Varoquaux and Craddock (2013) that "there is currently no unique solution, but a spectrum of related methods and analytical strategies" to learn and compare brain connectivity. In practice the important issue of how to choose several critical parameters in estimating a network, such as what association measure to use and what is the sparsity of the estimated network, has not been carefully addressed, largely because the answers are unknown yet. For example, even though the choice of tuning parameters in model estimation has been extensively discussed in the literature, as to be shown here, an optimal choice of a parameter for network estimation may not be optimal in the current context of hypothesis testing. Arbitrarily choosing or mis-specifying such parameters may lead to extremely low-powered tests. Here we develop highly adaptive tests to detect group differences in brain connectivity while accounting for unknown optimal choices of some tuning parameters. The proposed tests combine statistical evidence against a null hypothesis from multiple sources across a range of plausible tuning parameter values reflecting uncertainty with the unknown truth. These highly adaptive tests are not only

  9. Highly adaptive tests for group differences in brain functional connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Junghi; Pan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and other technologies have been offering evidence and insights showing that altered brain functional networks are associated with neurological illnesses such as Alzheimer's disease. Exploring brain networks of clinical populations compared to those of controls would be a key inquiry to reveal underlying neurological processes related to such illnesses. For such a purpose, group-level inference is a necessary first step in order to establish whether there are any genuinely disrupted brain subnetworks. Such an analysis is also challenging due to the high dimensionality of the parameters in a network model and high noise levels in neuroimaging data. We are still in the early stage of method development as highlighted by Varoquaux and Craddock (2013) that “there is currently no unique solution, but a spectrum of related methods and analytical strategies” to learn and compare brain connectivity. In practice the important issue of how to choose several critical parameters in estimating a network, such as what association measure to use and what is the sparsity of the estimated network, has not been carefully addressed, largely because the answers are unknown yet. For example, even though the choice of tuning parameters in model estimation has been extensively discussed in the literature, as to be shown here, an optimal choice of a parameter for network estimation may not be optimal in the current context of hypothesis testing. Arbitrarily choosing or mis-specifying such parameters may lead to extremely low-powered tests. Here we develop highly adaptive tests to detect group differences in brain connectivity while accounting for unknown optimal choices of some tuning parameters. The proposed tests combine statistical evidence against a null hypothesis from multiple sources across a range of plausible tuning parameter values reflecting uncertainty with the unknown truth. These highly adaptive tests are not

  10. Validation of a Computerized test of Functional Capacity.

    PubMed

    Keefe, Richard S E; Davis, Vicki G; Atkins, Alexandra S; Vaughan, Adam; Patterson, Tom; Narasimhan, Meera; Harvey, Philip D

    2016-08-01

    Regulatory guidance for schizophrenia cognition clinical trials requires that the assessment of cognitive change is accompanied by a functionally meaningful endpoint. However, currently available measures are challenged by resistance to change, psychometric weaknesses, and for interview-based assessments, dependence upon the presence of an informant. The aims of the current study were to: 1) assess the validity, sensitivity, and reliability of the Virtual Reality Functional Capacity Assessment Tool (VRFCAT) as a measure of functional capacity; 2) determine the association between performance on the VRFCAT and performance on the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB); and 3) compare the metrics of the VRFCAT with the UCSD Performance-based Skills Assessment (UPSA). 167 patients with schizophrenia and 166 healthy controls completed the VRFCAT, UPSA, and the MCCB at baseline. The VRFCAT and UPSA were completed again at follow-up. The VRFCAT, MCCB, and UPSA were very sensitive to impairment in schizophrenia (d=1.16 to 1.22). High test-retest reliability was demonstrated for VRFCAT total completion time and the UPSA total score in patients (ICC=0.81 and 0.78, respectively). The UPSA demonstrated significant practice effects in patients (d=0.35), while the VRFCAT did not (d=-0.04). VRFCAT total completion time was correlated with both UPSA (r=-0.56, p<0.0001 for patients and -0.58, p<0.0001 for controls) and MCCB Composite (r=-0.57, p<0.0001 for patients and -0.68, p<0.0001 for controls). The VRFCAT is a highly reliable and sensitive measure of functional capacity with associations to the UPSA and MCCB. These results provide encouraging support for a computerized functional capacity assessment for use in schizophrenia. PMID:27091656

  11. Linking transient storage parameters to exchange mechanisms and reach characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morén, Ida; Wörman, Anders; Riml, Joakim

    2015-04-01

    A traditional way of investigating transient storage zones in streams and rivers comprises the performance of tracer tests. The information gained from the tests however, is in many ways limited by the geomorphological and hydraulic local conditions under which the test was performed. Consequently, there is a need for more general information about how reach characteristics and combined exchange mechanisms affect transient storage retention that can be expressed by scaling factors between physical, measurable parameters and the integrated total retention in a reach. A large number of tracer tests have been performed in a wide variety of reaches around the world and in this project we are taking advantage of already collected data as well as new tracer test performed within the study, to quantitatively evaluate how different geomorphic and hydraulic conditions affect the retention of solutes in rivers. By advancing existing physically based models on the local-scale with the combinations of exchange mechanisms we theoretically describe the relative magnitude of exchange mechanisms, and combinations of these, under specific hydraulic conditions and show how exchange parameters associated with different mechanisms are correlated physically. Both hyporheic transient storage zones (HTS) and surface transient storage zones (STS) are considered. Combined vertical exchange with the HTS can be evaluated by superimposing the velocity fields associated with stream features of different size described mathematically by harmonic functions, while exchange with other zones can be treated as independent and after evaluating the relative importance of the associated exchange parameters it can be added to the vertical exchange to obtain the total integrated retention. Based on the tracer tests, each tested reach is characterised in terms of its geomorphologic and hydraulic features and related statistically to reach-scale parameters evaluated from the tests with a longitudinal

  12. SOFIA Telescope Functional Integration and Performance Test Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waddell, P.; Haas, M. R.; Dunham, E. W.; Bremers, E.; Harms, F.; Keas, P. J.; Lattner, K.; Lillienthal, D.; Meyer, A. W.; Wolf, J.

    2004-12-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a 2.7-m telescope installed in a Boeing 747SP. Collaborators developing the SOFIA telescope and observatory completed an intense period of activation between mid-June and mid-August, 2004. The integration activities included a preliminary modal survey; alignment of the Wide Field, Fine Field, and Focal Plane Imagers; installation of the secondary and tertiary mirrors; and their alignment relative to the primary mirror. Once these preliminaries were completed, SOFIA was rolled out of its hangar for a series of ground-based, on-sky tests using HIPO, the first science instrument to be installed on the telescope. First light was achieved observing Polaris on August 18, 2004. The on-sky test period encompassed 12 nights in late August and early September and included telescope step function response and first-order pointing control, image quality and optical tracking stability measurements, evaluation of the tracking imagers, gravity deformation studies, gyro alignment and bias rate measurement and correction, and performance tests of the secondary mirror Focus Centering Mechanism and Tilt Chopping Mechanism. It also included tests of the complete telescope command set, including Image Quality Compensation (IQC), quasi-static Flexible Body Compensation (FBC), reference frame transformations and trajectory estimation algorithms. This poster summarizes the results and describes the expected performance of SOFIA at the start of science observations. SOFIA is jointly funded by NASA and DLR and is managed by USRA and DSI. The successful, on-schedule completion of these tests involved close coordination by these three parties, CSA Engineering, CSEM, Kayser-Threde, L-3 Communications, Lowell Observatory, MAN-Technologies, Orbital Sciences, and others.

  13. Reaching for the Unreachable: Reorganization of Reaching with Walking

    PubMed Central

    Grzyb, Beata J.; Smith, Linda B.; del Pobil, Angel P.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research suggests that reaching and walking behaviors may be linked developmentally as reaching changes at the onset of walking. Here we report new evidence on an apparent loss of the distinction between the reachable and nonreachable distances as children start walking. The experiment compared nonwalkers, walkers with help, and independent walkers in a reaching task to targets at varying distances. Reaching attempts, contact, leaning, and communication behaviors were recorded. Most of the children reached for the unreachable objects the first time it was presented. Nonwalkers, however, reached less on the subsequent trials showing clear adjustment of their reaching decisions with the failures. On the contrary, walkers consistently attempted reaches to targets at unreachable distances. We suggest that these reaching errors may result from inappropriate integration of reaching and locomotor actions, attention control and near/far visual space. We propose a reward-mediated model implemented on a NAO humanoid robot that replicates the main results from our study showing an increase in reaching attempts to nonreachable distances after the onset of walking. PMID:26110046

  14. Infection control in the pulmonary function test laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Rasam, Shweta Amol; Apte, Komalkirti Keshavkiran; Salvi, Sundeep Santosh

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary function testing plays a crucial role in the diagnostic evaluation of patients with lung diseases. Cases of cross infection acquired from the pulmonary function laboratory, although rare, have been reported from various countries. It is therefore imperative to identify the risks and potential organisms implicated in cross infections in a pulmonary function test (PFT) laboratory and implement better and more effective infection control procedures, which will help in preventing cross infections. The infrastructure, the daily patient flow, and the prevalent disinfection techniques used in a PFT laboratory, all play a significant role in transmission of infections. Simple measures to tackle the cross infection potential in a PFT laboratory can help reduce this risk to a bare minimum. Use of specialized techniques and equipment can also be of much use in a set up that has a high turnover of patients. This review aims at creating awareness about the possible pathogens and situations commonly encountered in a PFT laboratory. We have attempted to suggest some relevant and useful infection control measures with regard to disinfection, sterilization, and patient planning and segregation to help minimize the risk of cross infections in a PFT laboratory. The review also highlights the lacuna in the current scenario of PFT laboratories in India and the need to develop newer and better methods of infection control, which will be more user-friendly and cost effective. Further studies to study the possible pathogens in a PFT laboratory and evaluate the prevalent infection control strategies will be needed to enable us to draw more precious conclusions, which can lead to more relevant, contextual recommendations for cross infections control in PFT lab in India. PMID:26180386

  15. Functional toxicology: tools to advance the future of toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Gaytán, Brandon D; Vulpe, Chris D

    2014-01-01

    The increased presence of chemical contaminants in the environment is an undeniable concern to human health and ecosystems. Historically, by relying heavily upon costly and laborious animal-based toxicity assays, the field of toxicology has often neglected examinations of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of toxicity for the majority of compounds-information that, if available, would strengthen risk assessment analyses. Functional toxicology, where cells or organisms with gene deletions or depleted proteins are used to assess genetic requirements for chemical tolerance, can advance the field of toxicity testing by contributing data regarding chemical mechanisms of toxicity. Functional toxicology can be accomplished using available genetic tools in yeasts, other fungi and bacteria, and eukaryotes of increased complexity, including zebrafish, fruit flies, rodents, and human cell lines. Underscored is the value of using less complex systems such as yeasts to direct further studies in more complex systems such as human cell lines. Functional techniques can yield (1) novel insights into chemical toxicity; (2) pathways and mechanisms deserving of further study; and (3) candidate human toxicant susceptibility or resistance genes. PMID:24847352

  16. Functional toxicology: tools to advance the future of toxicity testing

    PubMed Central

    Gaytán, Brandon D.; Vulpe, Chris D.

    2014-01-01

    The increased presence of chemical contaminants in the environment is an undeniable concern to human health and ecosystems. Historically, by relying heavily upon costly and laborious animal-based toxicity assays, the field of toxicology has often neglected examinations of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of toxicity for the majority of compounds—information that, if available, would strengthen risk assessment analyses. Functional toxicology, where cells or organisms with gene deletions or depleted proteins are used to assess genetic requirements for chemical tolerance, can advance the field of toxicity testing by contributing data regarding chemical mechanisms of toxicity. Functional toxicology can be accomplished using available genetic tools in yeasts, other fungi and bacteria, and eukaryotes of increased complexity, including zebrafish, fruit flies, rodents, and human cell lines. Underscored is the value of using less complex systems such as yeasts to direct further studies in more complex systems such as human cell lines. Functional techniques can yield (1) novel insights into chemical toxicity; (2) pathways and mechanisms deserving of further study; and (3) candidate human toxicant susceptibility or resistance genes. PMID:24847352

  17. Updates on Functional Characterization of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia – The Contribution of Lung Function Testing

    PubMed Central

    Greenough, Anne; Pahuja, Anoop

    2015-01-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a chronic lung disease that predominantly affects prematurely born infants. Initially, BPD was described in infants who had suffered severe respiratory failure and required high pressure, mechanical ventilation with high concentrations of supplementary oxygen. Now, it also occurs in very prematurely born infants who initially had minimal or even no signs of lung disease. These differences impact the nature of the lung function abnormalities suffered by “BPD” infants, which are also influenced by the criteria used to diagnose BPD and the oxygen saturation level used to determine the supplementary oxygen requirement. Key also to interpreting lung function data in this population is whether appropriate lung function tests have been used and in an adequately sized population to make meaningful conclusions. It should also be emphasized that BPD is a poor predictor of long-term respiratory morbidity. Bearing in mind those caveats, studies have consistently demonstrated that infants who develop BPD have low compliance and functional residual capacities and raised resistances in the neonatal period. There is, however, no agreement with regard to which early lung function measurement predicts the development of BPD, likely reflecting different techniques were used in different populations in often underpowered studies. During infancy, lung function generally improves, but importantly airflow limitation persists and small airway function appears to decline. Improvements in lung function following administration of diuretics or bronchodilators have not translated into long-term improvements in respiratory outcomes. By contrast, early differences in lung function related to different ventilation modes have led to investigation and demonstration that prophylactic, neonatal high-frequency oscillation appears to protect small airway function. PMID:26131449

  18. Olfactory functioning in early multiple sclerosis: Sniffin’ Sticks Test study

    PubMed Central

    Batur Caglayan, Hale Z; Irkec, Ceyla; Nazliel, Bijen; Akyol Gurses, Aslı; Capraz, Irem

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies have shown that olfactory functioning is affected by multiple sclerosis (MS). This study assessed the level of the olfactory impairment in early MS by using the Sniffin’ Sticks Test. Methods This study included 30 patients with MS and 30 healthy controls. We collected demographic and clinical data from participants and administered the Sniffin’ Sticks Test. Results We found no differences between the MS and control groups in odor discrimination, odor identification, and threshold discrimination identification scores, but odor threshold (OT) scores were higher in the control group than in the MS group (P=0.49). In addition, we did not find any correlation between MS patients’ olfactory test scores and their scores on the Mini–Mental State Examination (MMSE), Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), disease duration, history of optic neuritis, or being on immunomodulatory therapy. Conclusion In recent studies, odor threshold impairment seemed to be the most striking finding in patients with MS. Although the present study found a mild alteration in odor threshold, olfactory dysfunction appears to be a consequence of neurodegeneration in the higher order olfactory brain regions, which is thought to be a time-dependent process. PMID:27621629

  19. Functional Task Test: 1. Sensorimotor changes Associated with Postflight Alterations in Astronaut Functional Task Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Arzeno, N. H.; Buxton, R. E.; Feiveson, A. H.; Kofman, I. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Miller, C. A.; Mulavara, A. P.; Platts, S. H.; Peters, B. T.; Phillips, T.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Reschke, M. F.; Ryder, J. W.; Spiering, B. A.; Stenger, M. B.; Taylor, L. C.; Wickwire, P. J.; Wood, S. J.

    2011-01-01

    Space flight is known to cause alterations in multiple physiological systems including changes in sensorimotor, cardiovascular, and neuromuscular systems. These changes may affect a crewmember s ability to perform critical mission tasks immediately after landing on a planetary surface. The overall goal of this project is to determine the effects of space flight on functional tests that are representative of high priority exploration mission tasks and to identify the key underlying physiological factors that contribute to decrements in performance. This presentation will focus on the sensorimotor contributions to postflight functional performance.

  20. The Database for Reaching Experiments and Models

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Ben; Kording, Konrad

    2013-01-01

    Reaching is one of the central experimental paradigms in the field of motor control, and many computational models of reaching have been published. While most of these models try to explain subject data (such as movement kinematics, reaching performance, forces, etc.) from only a single experiment, distinct experiments often share experimental conditions and record similar kinematics. This suggests that reaching models could be applied to (and falsified by) multiple experiments. However, using multiple datasets is difficult because experimental data formats vary widely. Standardizing data formats promises to enable scientists to test model predictions against many experiments and to compare experimental results across labs. Here we report on the development of a new resource available to scientists: a database of reaching called the Database for Reaching Experiments And Models (DREAM). DREAM collects both experimental datasets and models and facilitates their comparison by standardizing formats. The DREAM project promises to be useful for experimentalists who want to understand how their data relates to models, for modelers who want to test their theories, and for educators who want to help students better understand reaching experiments, models, and data analysis. PMID:24244351

  1. The nylon column dye test: a possible screening test of phagocyte function.

    PubMed

    Segal, A W; Peters, T J

    1975-12-01

    1. A simple quantitative test has been developed to investigate phagocyte function. 2. This test is performed by the addition of Nitroblue Tetrazolium to whole blood, followed by the isolation of leucocytes on a column of nylon wool. Dye reduction by phagocytes is apparent as a blue coloration of the column due to the formation of formazan. The formazan can be extracted from the column and measured spectrophotometrically. 3. The formation of formazan was found to be directly related to the number of phagocytes in blood. 4. Two patients with chronic granulomatous disease gave abnormal results, suggesting that the test procedure may be of value as a screening procedure for this disease. PMID:1106938

  2. Abnormal thyroid function tests in children on ethionamide treatment.

    PubMed

    Thee, S; Zöllner, E W; Willemse, M; Hesseling, A C; Magdorf, K; Schaaf, H S

    2011-09-01

    Ethionamide (ETH) treatment may cause hypothyroidism. Clinical data, serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (fT4) levels were retrospectively assessed in 137 children receiving anti-tuberculosis treatment including ETH. Abnormal thyroid function tests (TFTs) were recorded in 79 (58%) children: elevated serum TSH and suppressed fT4 (n = 30), isolated elevated serum TSH (n = 20), isolated low serum fT4 (n = 28) and isolated low TSH (n = 1). The risk for biochemical hypothyroidism was higher for children on regimens including para-aminosalicylic acid and in human immunodeficiency virus infected children. TFT abnormalities are frequent in children on ETH and are mainly due to primary hypothyroidism or euthyroid sick syndrome. PMID:21943844

  3. Functional assessment in older adults: should we use timed up and go or gait speed test?

    PubMed

    Kubicki, Alexandre

    2014-08-01

    In order to assess functional skills of older adults, both timed up and go (TUG) test and gait speed (GS) test are well validated concerning their predictive capacities. However, the question remains unclear which one of these tests represents better the whole physical performance of older adults. The aim of this study is to determine the more representative test, between TUG and GS, of the whole motor control quality. To study links between locomotion capacities and arm function, we measured, in a population of frail aged patients, the locomotion tests and the mean arm maximal velocity developed during a speed-accuracy trade-off. This arm movement consisted in reaching the hand toward a target in a virtual game scene. We plotted the different couples of variables obtained on graphs, and calculate Pearson correlation coefficients between each couple. The Pearson correlation between GS and hand maximal velocity was significant (r=0.495; p=0.046). Interestingly, we found a non significant Pearson correlation between timed up and go score (TUG) and hand maximal velocity (r=-0.139; p=0.243). Our results suggest that GS score is more representative of the whole motor ability of frail patients than the TUG. We propose that the relative complexity of the TUG motor sequence could be involved in this difference. For a few patients with motor automatisms deficiencies, this motor sequence complexity could leads to a dual task perturbation. In this way, we conclude that GS should be preferred over the TUG with older adults. PMID:24933540

  4. A NEW CLINICAL MUSCLE FUNCTION TEST FOR ASSESSMENT OF HIP EXTERNAL ROTATION STRENGTH: AUGUSTSSON STRENGTH TEST

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction Dynamic clinical tests of hip strength applicable on patients, non–athletes and athletes alike, are lacking. The aim of this study was therefore to develop and evaluate the reliability of a dynamic muscle function test of hip external rotation strength, using a novel device. A second aim was to determine if gender differences exist in absolute and relative hip strength using the new test. Methods Fifty–three healthy sport science students (34 women and 19 men) were tested for hip external rotation strength using a device that consisted of a strap connected in series with an elastic resistance band loop, and a measuring tape connected in parallel with the elastic resistance band. The test was carried out with the subject side lying, positioned in 45 ° of hip flexion and the knees flexed to 90 ° with the device firmly fastened proximally across the knees. The subject then exerted maximal concentric hip external rotation force against the device thereby extending the elastic resistance band. The displacement achieved by the subject was documented by the tape measure and the corresponding force production was calculated. Both right and left hip strength was measured. Fifteen of the subjects were tested on repeated occasions to evaluate test–retest reliability. Results No significant test–retest differences were observed. Intra–class correlation coefficients ranged 0.93–0.94 and coefficients of variation 2.76–4.60%. In absolute values, men were significantly stronger in hip external rotation than women (right side 13.2 vs 11.0 kg, p = 0.001, left side 13.2 vs 11.5 kg, p = 0.002). There were no significant differences in hip external rotation strength normalized for body weight (BW) between men and women (right side 0.17 kg/BW vs 0.17 kg/BW, p = 0.675, left side 0.17 kg/BW vs 0.18 kg/BW, p = 0.156). Conclusions The new muscle function test showed high reliability and thus could be useful for measuring dynamic hip

  5. Design and functional tests of variable SFQ pulse number multiplier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, J.; Tanaka, T.; Moriya, M.; Kobayashi, T.; Mizugaki, Y.; Maezawa, M.

    2011-11-01

    For establishing a new generation of ac voltage standards, digital-to-analog converters (DACs) based on rapid single flux quantum (RSFQ) technology, which enable synthesis of arbitrary waveforms with fundamental accuracy, are developed. An RSFQ-DAC consists of three main subsystems: a pulse-number multiplier (PNM), a pulse distributor (PD) and voltage multipliers (VMs). Conventional RSFQ-DACs generate arbitrary voltages by switching a binary array of the VM cells. In this paper, we propose a Variable-PNM for a new RSFQ-DAC based on frequency modulation. The output voltage is determined by the multiplication factor m of the Variable-PNM that consists of a ring oscillator, an n-bit counter and a decoder. We designed a 2-bit Variable-PNM using the CONNECT cell library. The circuit was fabricated using the ISTEC Nb standard process (STP2). We have confirmed the correct functionalities for 2-, 4-, 6- and 8-fold multiplication in functional testing at low speed.

  6. Above-Level Test Item Functioning across Examinee Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warne, Russell T.; Doty, Kristine J.; Malbica, Anne Marie; Angeles, Victor R.; Innes, Scott; Hall, Jared; Masterson-Nixon, Kelli

    2016-01-01

    "Above-level testing" (also called "above-grade testing," "out-of-level testing," and "off-level testing") is the practice of administering to a child a test that is designed for an examinee population that is older or in a more advanced grade. Above-level testing is frequently used to help educators design…

  7. Deep Bed Adsorption Testing using Silver-Functionalized Aerogel

    SciTech Connect

    Nick Soelberg; Tony Watson

    2012-06-01

    Nuclear fission results in the production of fission products and activation products, some of which tend to be volatile during used fuel reprocessing and evolve in gaseous species into the reprocessing facility off-gas systems. Analyses have shown that I129, due to its radioactivity, high potential mobility in the environment, and high longevity (half life of 15.7 million years), can require control efficiencies of up to 1,000x or higher to meet regulatory emission limits. Two Aerogel sorption tests that have been performed this fiscal year. The maximum iodine decontamination factor (DF) was measured to be over 10,000, above the 1,000-10,000 target DF range. The mass transfer zone may be as short as 0.5 inches under the sorption conditions of the first test. Only a small fraction of the iodine sorbed on Bed 1 was desorbed during the purge periods. The silver-functionalized Aerogel appears to have potential to be a very effective and efficient iodine sorbent.

  8. Multiloop Integral System Test (MIST): MIST Facility Functional Specification

    SciTech Connect

    Habib, T F; Koksal, C G; Moskal, T E; Rush, G C; Gloudemans, J R

    1991-04-01

    The Multiloop Integral System Test (MIST) is part of a multiphase program started in 1983 to address small-break loss-of-coolant accidents (SBLOCAs) specific to Babcock and Wilcox designed plants. MIST is sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Babcock Wilcox Owners Group, the Electric Power Research Institute, and Babcock and Wilcox. The unique features of the Babcock and Wilcox design, specifically the hot leg U-bends and steam generators, prevented the use of existing integral system data or existing integral facilities to address the thermal-hydraulic SBLOCA questions. MIST was specifically designed and constructed for this program, and an existing facility -- the Once Through Integral System (OTIS) -- was also used. Data from MIST and OTIS are used to benchmark the adequacy of system codes, such as RELAP5 and TRAC, for predicting abnormal plant transients. The MIST Functional Specification documents as-built design features, dimensions, instrumentation, and test approach. It also presents the scaling basis for the facility and serves to define the scope of work for the facility design and construction. 13 refs., 112 figs., 38 tabs.

  9. Quark Hadron duality tests on polarized structure functions using CLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Tony Forest

    2004-06-02

    Inclusive electron-nucleon scattering data from Jefferson Lab's Hall B has been analyzed to test quark-hadron duality for the polarized structure function g1(x,Q{sup 2}) over a Q{sup 2} range from 0.2 to 3.5 GeV{sup 2}/c{sup 2}. Incident polarized electron beam energies of 1.6 and 5.7 GeV were scattered by polarized {sup 15}NH{sub 3} and {sup 15}ND{sub 3} targets. The measurements of g1(x,Q{sup 2}) in the resonance region appear to be equivalent to a fit of g1(x,Q{sup 2}) in the deep inelastic scattering region at high Q{sup 2}. A quantitative test comparing the ratio of first moment in the resonance region to the first moment in the deep inelastic region is consistent with unity when Q{sup 2} > 2.0 GeV{sup 2}/c{sup 2} but substantially departs from unity when Q{sup 2} < 1.0 GeV{sup 2}/c{sup 2}.

  10. Developing a Causal Model from Liver Function Test Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inada, Masanori; Terano, Takao

    As Active Mining is a new concept among data mining and/or knowledge discovery in databases communities, in order to validate the effectiveness, it is important to carry out empirical studies using practical data. Based on the concept of Active User Reaction, this paper develops a causal model from liver function test data in a medical domain. To develop the model, we have set a problem to predict the values of ICG (indocyanine green) test from given observation data and experts' background knowledge. We therefore employ a framework of meta-learning and structural equation modeling. In this paper meta-learning means learning about mined results from multiple data-mining techniques. Structural equation modeling enables us to describe flexible models from background knowledge. The construction of the causal model contains two phases: meta-learning and the model building. The meta-learning phase utilizes both the linear regression and the neural network as data mining techniques, then examines the predictability on the given data set. Mining models are n-folded learned from the training data set. Each of the prediction accuracy of the mining models is compared using with the testing data. On the model building phase, we use structural equation modeling to develop a causal model based on results of meta-learning and background knowledge. We again compare the accuracy of the causal model with each of the mining models. Consequently we have developed the causal model, which is comprehensible and have good predictive performance, via the meta-learning phase. Through the empirical study, we have got the conclusion that the framework of meta-learning is effective in data mining in a difficult medical domain.

  11. Bradykinesia-Akinesia Incoordination Test: Validating an Online Keyboard Test of Upper Limb Function

    PubMed Central

    Noyce, Alastair J.; Nagy, Anna; Acharya, Shami; Hadavi, Shahrzad; Bestwick, Jonathan P.; Fearnley, Julian; Lees, Andrew J.; Giovannoni, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    Background The Bradykinesia Akinesia Incoordination (BRAIN) test is a computer keyboard-tapping task that was developed for use in assessing the effect of symptomatic treatment on motor function in Parkinson's disease (PD). An online version has now been designed for use in a wider clinical context and the research setting. Methods Validation of the online BRAIN test was undertaken in 58 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and 93 age-matched, non-neurological controls. Kinesia scores (KS30, number of key taps in 30 seconds), akinesia times (AT30, mean dwell time on each key in milliseconds), incoordination scores (IS30, variance of travelling time between key presses) and dysmetria scores (DS30, accuracy of key presses) were compared between groups. These parameters were correlated against total motor scores and sub-scores from the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). Results Mean KS30, AT30 and IS30 were significantly different between PD patients and controls (p≤0.0001). Sensitivity for 85% specificity was 50% for KS30, 40% for AT30 and 29% for IS30. KS30, AT30 and IS30 correlated significantly with UPDRS total motor scores (r = −0.53, r = 0.27 and r = 0.28 respectively) and motor UPDRS sub-scores. The reliability of KS30, AT30 and DS30 was good on repeated testing. Conclusions The BRAIN test is a reliable, convenient test of upper limb motor function that can be used routinely in the outpatient clinic, at home and in clinical trials. In addition, it can be used as an objective longitudinal measurement of emerging motor dysfunction for the prediction of PD in at-risk cohorts. PMID:24781810

  12. Electrochemical immunosensor for detection of epidermal growth factor reaching lower detection limit: toward oxidized glutathione as a more efficient blocking reagent for the antibody functionalized silver nanoparticles and antigen interaction.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuqing; Liu, Kangyu; Wang, Chao; Li, Linbo; Liu, Yuxin

    2015-08-18

    Blocking reagent is of vital importance for an immunosensor because it ensures the antifouling of the sensing interface and thus selective determination of the target. This Letter investigates a small inactive peptide, oxidized glutathione (GSSG), to replace the commonly used bovine serum albumin (BSA) as blocking reagent for immunosensor fabrication to lower the detection limit of electrochemical immunosensors. The EGF (epidermal growth factor) detection as an example is used here to compare the blocking effects from GSSG and BSA, respectively. The relatively big size of BSA sterically hinders EGF and antibody functionalized silver nanoparticles (Ab-AgNPs) binding. By comparison, GSSG cannot hinder EGF and Ab-AgNPs binding since it is much smaller than EGF, verified by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results. The established GSSG blocking-based immunosensor for EGF reaches a very low detection limit of 0.01 pM, exhibits wide linearity range between 0.1 pM and 0.1 μM and is more sensitive than the BSA blocking strategy. The proposed GSSG-blocking strategy in the immunoassay paves an attractive platform for other biomolecules to reach a lower detection limit. PMID:26204199

  13. Laboratory of Caribbean Brain Research Organization in the decade of the brain midpoint. Results in reaching behavior--interferences of subcortical motor centers, neurotransmitter blocking and brain function modeling.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Mesa, N; Antón, M; Arza-Marqués, M; Aneiros-Riba, R; Groning-Roque, E

    1996-01-01

    CARIBRO was founded in response to the United Nations declaration that the 1990s be designated the Decade of the Brain. The Program of Action is: 1. Annual meetings; 2. Training courses of the Caribbean School of Neurosciences; 3. Network scientific programs; 4. Fellowship programs; and 5. Dissemination of information on neuroscience. In the same program, a CARIBRO Laboratory was created in one of the Medical Faculties of Havana with the aim to teach students from the Caribbean in neuroscience research. As part of this program, we have been working in lateralized motor functions. Preliminary results in rats show that reaching acquisition allows classification of the animals as right-handed (40%), left-handed (40%), and ambidextrous (20%). Electrolytic lesion of caudate nucleus or amygdala impairs lateralized response. Contralateral lesions increase reaching attempts. Ipsilateral lesions to the preferred forepaw do not affect the reaction. The results remain the same 10, 20, and 90 d after the interference. Pharmacological experiments showed that trihexiphenidil (0.1 mg/kg i.p.) induced handedness reversion in 50% if the animals, whereas haloperidol (1 mg/kg i.p.) produced immobility, tremor, and autonomic symptoms. This effect remained the same in young as well as in old animals. We are also working on mathematical modelation. In this sense, preliminary reports about a model for synaptic modification in the framework of the Fukushima hypothesis is discussed. PMID:8871967

  14. Measurement of global functional performance in patients with rheumatoid arthritis using rheumatology function tests

    PubMed Central

    Escalante, Agustín; Haas, Roy W; del Rincón, Inmaculada

    2004-01-01

    Outcome assessment in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) includes measurement of physical function. We derived a scale to quantify global physical function in RA, using three performance-based rheumatology function tests (RFTs). We measured grip strength, walking velocity, and shirt button speed in consecutive RA patients attending scheduled appointments at six rheumatology clinics, repeating these measurements after a median interval of 1 year. We extracted the underlying latent variable using principal component factor analysis. We used the Bayesian information criterion to assess the global physical function scale's cross-sectional fit to criterion standards. The criteria were joint tenderness, swelling, and deformity, pain, physical disability, current work status, and vital status at 6 years after study enrolment. We computed Guyatt's responsiveness statistic for improvement according to the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) definition. Baseline functional performance data were available for 777 patients, and follow-up data were available for 681. Mean ± standard deviation for each RFT at baseline were: grip strength, 14 ± 10 kg; walking velocity, 194 ± 82 ft/min; and shirt button speed, 7.1 ± 3.8 buttons/min. Grip strength and walking velocity departed significantly from normality. The three RFTs loaded strongly on a single factor that explained ≥70% of their combined variance. We rescaled the factor to vary from 0 to 100. Its mean ± standard deviation was 41 ± 20, with a normal distribution. The new global scale had a stronger fit than the primary RFT to most of the criterion standards. It correlated more strongly with physical disability at follow-up and was more responsive to improvement defined according to the ACR20 and ACR50 definitions. We conclude that a performance-based physical function scale extracted from three RFTs has acceptable distributional and measurement properties and is responsive to clinically meaningful change. It

  15. 33 CFR 157.12f - Workshop functional test requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... simulated input signals of ppm, flow rate, and speed are varied; (3) A check that the alarm is activated when the input signals are varied to exceed the discharge limits contained in § 157.37(a)(3) and (4... reached; and (5) A check that the alarm is activated when each one of the input signals is varied...

  16. An Efficient Functional Test Generation Method For Processors Using Genetic Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudec, Ján; Gramatová, Elena

    2015-07-01

    The paper presents a new functional test generation method for processors testing based on genetic algorithms and evolutionary strategies. The tests are generated over an instruction set architecture and a processor description. Such functional tests belong to the software-oriented testing. Quality of the tests is evaluated by code coverage of the processor description using simulation. The presented test generation method uses VHDL models of processors and the professional simulator ModelSim. The rules, parameters and fitness functions were defined for various genetic algorithms used in automatic test generation. Functionality and effectiveness were evaluated using the RISC type processor DP32.

  17. Compensatory arm reaching strategies after stroke: Induced position analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Waller, Sandy McCombe; Kepple, Tom; Whitall, Jill

    2013-01-01

    After stroke, movement patterns of the upper limb (UL) during functional arm reaching change to accommodate altered constraints. These compensatory movement control strategies do not, however, have a one-to-one mapping with posttraining outcomes. In this study, we quantify arm movement control strategies in unilateral and bilateral reaching tasks using induced position analysis. In addition, we assess how those strategies are associated with UL residual impairments and with functional improvement after a specific bilateral arm training intervention. Twelve individuals with chronic stroke were measured while reaching to a box as part of their pre- and posttesting assessments. Other measurements included the Fugl-Meyer Upper Extremity Assessment (FM), Modified Wolf Motor Function Test (WT), and the University of Maryland Arm Questionnaire for Stroke (UMAQS). We identified arm control strategies that did not differ between unilateral and bilateral tasks but did differ by FM impairment level and by predicted gains in WT but not UMAQS. Increased shoulder relative to elbow moment contribution was associated with less impairment and greater gains of speed in functional tasks. These results suggest that one goal of training to achieve better outcomes may be to decrease the abnormal coupling of the shoulder and elbow. PMID:23516085

  18. Pitfalls in the measurement and interpretation of thyroid function tests.

    PubMed

    Koulouri, Olympia; Moran, Carla; Halsall, David; Chatterjee, Krishna; Gurnell, Mark

    2013-12-01

    Thyroid function tests (TFTs) are amongst the most commonly requested laboratory investigations in both primary and secondary care. Fortunately, most TFTs are straightforward to interpret and confirm the clinical impression of euthyroidism, hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism. However, in an important subgroup of patients the results of TFTs can seem confusing, either by virtue of being discordant with the clinical picture or because they appear incongruent with each other [e.g. raised thyroid hormones (TH), but with non-suppressed thyrotropin (TSH); raised TSH, but with normal TH]. In such cases, it is important first to revisit the clinical context, and to consider potential confounding factors, including alterations in normal physiology (e.g. pregnancy), intercurrent (non-thyroidal) illness, and medication usage (e.g. thyroxine, amiodarone, heparin). Once these have been excluded, laboratory artefacts in commonly used TSH or TH immunoassays should be screened for, thus avoiding unnecessary further investigation and/or treatment in cases where there is assay interference. In the remainder, consideration should be given to screening for rare genetic and acquired disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis [e.g. resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH), thyrotropinoma (TSHoma)]. Here, we discuss the main pitfalls in the measurement and interpretation of TFTs, and propose a structured algorithm for the investigation and management of patients with anomalous/discordant TFTs. PMID:24275187

  19. Evaluation of strategy for testing thyroid function applied to hypothyroidism.

    PubMed Central

    Corns, C M; Miller, A L

    1986-01-01

    A strategy for testing thyroid function with discretionary assay of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) following initial measurement of total plasma thyroxine (tT4) was retrospectively evaluated in relation to the diagnosis of primary hypothyroidism. Over a two year period 14 641 tT4 assays were done and 6887 TSH assays, of which 29% were initiated in the laboratory. The percentage of raised TSH values (over 5 mU/1) was similar to those for clinician and pathologist initiated requests (23.2% and 23.6%). Some TSH requests (1620) were cancelled; when 212 of these were subsequently analysed the TSH value was raised in 5.7% The incidence of raised TSH values in 188 patients with a tT4 below 100 nmol/1 (7.8 micrograms/100 ml), in whom TSH was not requested, was 5.3% Most of these raised TSH results could be readily explained by information available to the requesting clinician but not given on the request form. PMID:3082940

  20. Newton force from wave function collapse: speculation and test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diósi, Lajos

    2014-04-01

    The Diosi-Penrose model of quantum-classical boundary postulates gravity-related spontaneous wave function collapse of massive degrees of freedom. The decoherence effects of the collapses are in principle detectable if not masked by the overwhelming environmental decoherence. But the DP (or any other, like GRW, CSL) spontaneous collapses are not detectable themselves, they are merely the redundant formalism of spontaneous decoherence. To let DP collapses become testable physics, recently we extended the DP model and proposed that DP collapses are responsible for the emergence of the Newton gravitational force between massive objects. We identified the collapse rate, possibly of the order of 1/ms, with the rate of emergence of the Newton force. A simple heuristic emergence (delay) time was added to the Newton law of gravity. This non-relativistic delay is in peaceful coexistence with Einstein's relativistic theory of gravitation, at least no experimental evidence has so far surfaced against it. We derive new predictions of such a 'lazy' Newton law that will enable decisive laboratory tests with available technologies. The simple equation of 'lazy' Newton law deserves theoretical and experimental studies in itself, independently of the underlying quantum foundational considerations.

  1. Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killoran, James, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    This journal issue addresses the issue of testing in the social studies classroom. The first article, "The Role of Testing" (Bragaw), focuses on the need for tests to reflect the objectives of the study completed. The varying functions of pop quizzes, weekly tests, and unit tests are explored. "Testing Thinking Processes" (Killoran, Zimmer, and…

  2. Pulmonary Function Testing After Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy to the Lung

    SciTech Connect

    Bishawi, Muath; Kim, Bong; Moore, William H.; Bilfinger, Thomas V.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Surgical resection remains the standard of care for operable early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, some patients are not fit for surgery because of comorbidites such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and other medical conditions. We aimed to evaluate pulmonary function and tumor volume before and after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for patients with and without COPD in early-stage lung cancer. Methods and Materials: A review of prospectively collected data of Stage I and II lung cancers, all treated with SBRT, was performed. The total SBRT treatment was 60 Gy administered in three 20 Gy fractions. The patients were analyzed based on their COPD status, using their pretreatment pulmonary function test cutoffs as established by the American Thoracic Society guidelines (forced expiratory volume [FEV]% {<=}50% predicted, FEV%/forced vital capacity [FVC]% {<=}70%). Changes in tumor volume were also assessed by computed tomography. Results: Of a total of 30 patients with Stage I and II lung cancer, there were 7 patients in the COPD group (4 men, 3 women), and 23 in t he No-COPD group (9 men, 14 women). At a mean follow-up time of 4 months, for the COPD and No-COPD patients, pretreatment and posttreatment FEV% was similar: 39 {+-} 5 vs. 40 {+-} 9 (p = 0.4) and 77 {+-} 0.5 vs. 73 {+-} 24 (p = 0.9), respectively. The diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DL{sub CO}) did significantly increase for the No-COPD group after SBRT treatment: 60 {+-} 24 vs. 69 {+-} 22 (p = 0.022); however, DL{sub CO} was unchanged for the COPD group: 49 {+-} 13 vs. 50 {+-} 14 (p = 0.8). Although pretreatment tumor volume was comparable for both groups, tumor volume significantly shrank in the No-COPD group from 19 {+-} 24 to 9 {+-} 16 (p < 0.001), and there was a trend in the COPD patients from 12 {+-} 9 to 6 {+-} 5 (p = 0.06). Conclusion: SBRT did not seem to have an effect on FEV{sub 1} and FVC, but it shrank tumor volume and

  3. Functional imaging of an alcohol-Implicit Association Test (IAT)

    PubMed Central

    Ames, Susan L.; Grenard, Jerry L.; He, Qinghua; Stacy, Alan W.; Wong, Savio W.; Xiao, Lin; Xue, Gui; Bechara, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    This research assessed activation in neural substrates involved in implicit associative processes through the imaging (functional magnetic resonance imaging) of an alcohol-Implicit Association Test (IAT) focused on positive outcomes of alcohol use. Comparisons involved 17 heavy and 19 light drinkers, ranging in age from 18 to 22, during compatible and incompatible association task trials. Behaviorally, a significant IAT effect was found with heavy drinkers showing stronger positive implicit associations toward alcohol use than light drinkers. Imaging data revealed heavy drinkers showed greater activity during compatible trials relative to incompatible trials in the left putamen and insula while no significant difference in activity between conditions was found in the light drinkers. Light drinkers showed significantly more activity in the left orbital frontal cortex during both compatible and incompatible trials than heavy drinkers, and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was engaged more in both light and heavy drinkers during incompatible trials relative to compatible trials. Further, within-group analyses showed significant amygdala activity along with the putamen and insula among heavy drinkers during compatible trials relative to incompatible trials. These results are consistent with a dual process framework of appetitive behaviors proposing that (1) implicit associations underlying habit are mediated through neural circuitry dependent on the striatum, and (2) controlled behaviors are mediated through neural circuitry more dependent on the prefrontal cortex. This is the first study to evaluate the neural mechanisms elicited by an alcohol-IAT, providing an additional step toward increasing understanding of associative habit processes and their regulatory influence over addictive behaviors. PMID:23822813

  4. Prediction of functional aerobic capacity without exercise testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, A. S.; Blair, S. N.; Mahar, M. T.; Wier, L. T.; Ross, R. M.; Stuteville, J. E.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop functional aerobic capacity prediction models without using exercise tests (N-Ex) and to compare the accuracy with Astrand single-stage submaximal prediction methods. The data of 2,009 subjects (9.7% female) were randomly divided into validation (N = 1,543) and cross-validation (N = 466) samples. The validation sample was used to develop two N-Ex models to estimate VO2peak. Gender, age, body composition, and self-report activity were used to develop two N-Ex prediction models. One model estimated percent fat from skinfolds (N-Ex %fat) and the other used body mass index (N-Ex BMI) to represent body composition. The multiple correlations for the developed models were R = 0.81 (SE = 5.3 ml.kg-1.min-1) and R = 0.78 (SE = 5.6 ml.kg-1.min-1). This accuracy was confirmed when applied to the cross-validation sample. The N-Ex models were more accurate than what was obtained from VO2peak estimated from the Astrand prediction models. The SEs of the Astrand models ranged from 5.5-9.7 ml.kg-1.min-1. The N-Ex models were cross-validated on 59 men on hypertensive medication and 71 men who were found to have a positive exercise ECG. The SEs of the N-Ex models ranged from 4.6-5.4 ml.kg-1.min-1 with these subjects.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  5. Cholesteryl octanoate breath test. Preliminary studies on a new noninvasive test of human pancreatic exocrine function.

    PubMed

    Cole, S G; Rossi, S; Stern, A; Hofmann, A F

    1987-12-01

    A new breath test for noninvasive assessment of pancreatic exocrine function in humans was developed. The test is based on the hydrolysis of cholesteryl-[1-14C]octanoate by pancreatic carboxyl ester lipase (cholesterol esterase) with subsequent absorption and hepatic metabolism of the liberated octanoate to 14CO2. The rate at which 14CO2 appears in breath appeared to be proportional to the rate of hydrolysis. The substrate is administered as a gum acacia stabilized emulsion of vegetable oil (18 g) containing cholesteryl octanoate (2 g; 4.4 microCi) dispersed in a 500-ml isotonic meal. Tests were performed in 6 healthy volunteers and 11 patients with pancreatic disease with varying degrees of steatorrhea. In healthy subjects, 14CO2 output was rapid with peak output occurring at 60-90 min in all subjects; cumulative output in 4 h averaged 30%. Duplicate studies indicated that the time-course of 14CO2 recovery was reproducible. The pattern of 14CO2 output in patients with pancreatic disease varied widely. Patients without steatorrhea (fecal fat less than or equal to 7 g/day) or with mild steatorrhea (fecal fat 7-11 g/day) had normal or near normal patterns of 14CO2 output, whereas patients with moderate or severe steatorrhea (fecal fat greater than 11 g/day) expired 14CO2 at a rate one-third to one-tenth that of the healthy volunteers. Addition of pancreatic enzyme supplementation to the test meal increased 14CO2 output in 6 of 6 patients with moderate or severe steatorrhea, suggesting that the activity of pancreatic carboxyl ester lipase was rate limiting in these patients. In an additional study in a healthy volunteer, 14CO2 and 13CO2 were measured simultaneously in breath after ingestion of a test meal containing cholesteryl-[1-13C]octanoate and 14C-octanoate. 14CO2 was expired more rapidly than 13CO2, suggesting that hydrolysis of the substrate may also be rate limiting in healthy volunteers. These studies indicate that severe pancreatic exocrine dysfunction can

  6. Test Experience Effects in Longitudinal Comparisons of Adult Cognitive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salthouse, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    It is widely recognized that experience with cognitive tests can influence estimates of cognitive change. Prior research has estimated experience effects at the level of groups by comparing the performance of a group of participants tested for the second time with the performance of a different group of participants at the same age tested for the…

  7. Reaching ignition in the tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Furth, H.P.

    1985-06-01

    This review covers the following areas: (1) the physics of burning plasmas, (2) plasma physics requirements for reaching ignition, (3) design studies for ignition devices, and (4) prospects for an ignition project. (MOW)

  8. Improvement of hand function using different surfaces and identification of difficult movement post stroke in the Box and Block Test.

    PubMed

    Slota, Gregory P; Enders, Leah R; Seo, Na Jin

    2014-07-01

    This study determined the impact of changing block surfaces on hand function, as well as identified particularly time-consuming movement components post stroke, measured by the Box and Block Test (BBT). Eight chronic stroke survivors and eight age- and gender-matched control subjects participated in this study. The BBT score (number of blocks moved) and time for seven movement components were compared for three different block surfaces (wood, paper, and rubber). The rubber blocks improved BBT scores 8% (compared to all other conditions) not only for control subjects but also for the paretic and non-paretic hands of stroke survivors, by reducing movement time for finger closing and contact-to-lift. Modifying daily objects' surfaces with rubber could help stroke survivors' hand function. The paretic hand displayed notably slower movement for contact-to-lift, transport-release, reach before barrier, and reach after barrier suggesting that therapies may focus on goal directed reaching and object grasping/releasing. PMID:24239565

  9. Test Review: Barkley Deficits in Executive Functioning Scale (BDEFS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allee-Smith, Paula J.; Winters, Rebecca R.; Drake, Amanda; Joslin, Amanda K.

    2013-01-01

    The Barkley Deficits in Executive Functioning Scale (BDEFS), authored by Russell A. Barkley and published by Guilford in 2011, is an individually administered assessment tool that may be used to evaluate adults ages 18 to 81. The purpose of this measure is to screen those who may be experiencing executive functioning (EF) deficits in…

  10. Raju's Differential Functioning of Items and Tests (DFIT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oshima, T. C.; Morris, S. B.

    2008-01-01

    Nambury S. Raju (1937-2005) developed two model-based indices for differential item functioning (DIF) during his prolific career in psychometrics. Both methods, Raju's area measures (Raju, 1988) and Raju's DFIT (Raju, van der Linden, & Fleer, 1995), are based on quantifying the gap between item characteristic functions (ICFs). This approach…

  11. Effector selection precedes reach planning in the dorsal parietofrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Cieslak, Matthew; Grafton, Scott T.

    2012-01-01

    Experimental evidence and computational modeling suggest that target selection for reaching is associated with the parallel encoding of multiple movement plans in the dorsomedial posterior parietal cortex (dmPPC) and the caudal part of the dorsal premotor cortex (PMdc). We tested the hypothesis that a similar mechanism also accounts for arm selection for unimanual reaching, with simultaneous and separate motor goal representations for the left and right arms existing in the right and left parietofrontal cortex, respectively. We recorded simultaneous electroencephalograms and functional MRI and studied a condition in which subjects had to select the appropriate arm for reaching based on the color of an appearing visuospatial target, contrasting it to a condition in which they had full knowledge of the arm to be used before target onset. We showed that irrespective of whether subjects had to select the arm or not, activity in dmPPC and PMdc was only observed contralateral to the reaching arm after target onset. Furthermore, the latency of activation in these regions was significantly delayed when arm selection had to be achieved during movement planning. Together, these results demonstrate that effector selection is not achieved through the simultaneous specification of motor goals tied to the two arms in bilateral parietofrontal cortex, but suggest that a motor goal is formed in these regions only after an arm is selected for action. PMID:22457458

  12. Mental Test Performance as a Function of Various Scoring Cutoffs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quereshi, M. Y.; Veeser, William R.

    1970-01-01

    Investigates the influence of various scoring cutoffs on mental test performance as measured by the Michell General Ability Test (MGAT) and develops a rationale for selecting the optimum cutoff based on raw scores, internal consistency, stability, parallel-form reliability and concurrent validity estimates. (MB)

  13. Testing and Functions of the J2X Gas Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    The Ares I, NASA s new solid rocket based crew launch vehicle, is a two stage in line rocket that has made its waytothe forefront of NASA s endeavors. The Ares I s Upper Stage (US) will be propelled by a J-2X engine which is fueled by liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen. The J-2X is a variation based on two of its predecessor s, the J-2 and J-2S engines. ET50 is providing the design support for hardware required to run tests on the J-2X Gas Generator (GG) that increases the delivery pressure of the supplied combustion fuels that the engine burns. The test area will be running a series of tests using different lengths and curved segments of pipe and different sized nozzles to determine the configuration that best satisfies the thrust, heat, and stability requirements for the engine. I have had to research the configurations that are being tested and gain an understanding of the purpose of the tests. I then had to research the parts that would be used in the test configurations. I was taken to see parts similar to the ones used in the test configurations and was allowed to review drawings and dimensions used for those parts. My job over this summer has been to use the knowledge I have gained to design, model, and create drawings for the un-fabricated parts that are necessary for the J-2X Workhorse Gas Generator Phase IIcTest.

  14. Holographic elements for modulation transfer function testing of detector arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducharme, Alfred D.; Boreman, Glenn D.

    1995-08-01

    A holographic technique is presented that increases the flux-transfer efficiency of laser speckle generation by a factor of 100 over the integrating sphere method. This makes a wider range of low-power lasers usable for the speckle MTF test, method, and increases the number of wavelengths at which the test can be applied.

  15. Performance on the Star Excursion Balance Test predicts functional turnout angle in pre-pubescent female dancers.

    PubMed

    Filipa, Alyson R; Smith, Teresa R; Paterno, Mark V; Ford, Kevin R; Hewett, Timothy E

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a predictive relationship between performance on the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) and functional turnout angle (FTA) in prepubescent female dancers. Ten dance students, ages 5 to 9 years (mean: 7.3 years), were recruited for this study. The SEBT required the subject to reach in the anterior, posterior-medial, and posteriorlateral directions with her free-limb foot while standing on the reference limb. A composite reach score was determined by calculating the sum of distance reached in the three directions and normalizing to leg length. The FTA was assessed in first position by measuring the angle of bisection between the second and third metatarsals and the midpoint of the calcaneus. Linear regression was used to determine if there was a predictive relationship between performance on the SEBT and FTA in this cohort. The subjects demonstrated a mean FTA of 90.3° ± 17.7°. Composite reach on the dominant limb normalized to leg length (81.4 ± 11.1%) during the SEBT was a significant predictor of FTA (r(2) = 0.49, p = 0.02), while performance on the non-dominant limb (81.9 ± 10.8%) indicated a trend toward a predictive association (r(2) = 0.35, p = 0.07). A decreased composite reach score was predictive of decreased FTA. These measurements may serve as an important screening tool for identifying dancers at risk for lower extremity injury. PMID:24565332

  16. 33 CFR 157.12f - Workshop functional test requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... switching functions interconnecting with other parts of the system; and (4) A check for correct reading at... simulated input signals of ppm, flow rate, and speed are varied; (3) A check that the alarm is...

  17. The Functional Test for Agility Performance is a Reliable Quick Decision-Making Test for Skilled Water Polo Players

    PubMed Central

    Tucher, Guilherme; de Souza Castro, Flávio Antônio; da Silva, António José Rocha Martins; Garrido, Nuno Domingos

    2015-01-01

    The reliability of the Functional Test for Agility Performance has only been evaluated in water polo players in a small group of novice athletes. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of the Functional Test for Agility Performance in skilled water polo players. Forty-two athletes (17.81 ± 3.24 years old) with a minimum of 5 years of competitive experience (7.05 ± 2.84 years) and playing at the national or international level were evaluated. The Functional Test for Agility Performance is characterized as a specific open decision-making test where a tested player moves as quickly as possible in accordance to a pass made by another player. The time spent in the test was measured by two experienced coaches. Descriptive statistics, repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), 95% limit of agreement (LOA), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and standard error of measurements (SEM) were used for data analysis. Athletes completed the Functional Test for Agility Performance in 4.15 0.47 s. The ICC value was 0.87 (95% IC = 0.80–0.92). The SEM varied between 0.24 and 0.38 s. The LOA was 1.20 s and the CV average considering each individual trial was 6%. The Functional Test for Agility Performance was shown to be a reliable quick decision-making test for skilled water polo players. PMID:26240659

  18. Functional Testing Protocols for Commercial Building Efficiency Baseline Modeling Software

    SciTech Connect

    Jump, David; Price, Phillip N.; Granderson, Jessica; Sohn, Michael

    2013-09-06

    This document describes procedures for testing and validating proprietary baseline energy modeling software accuracy in predicting energy use over the period of interest, such as a month or a year. The procedures are designed according to the methodology used for public domain baselining software in another LBNL report that was (like the present report) prepared for Pacific Gas and Electric Company: ?Commercial Building Energy Baseline Modeling Software: Performance Metrics and Method Testing with Open Source Models and Implications for Proprietary Software Testing Protocols? (referred to here as the ?Model Analysis Report?). The test procedure focuses on the quality of the software?s predictions rather than on the specific algorithms used to predict energy use. In this way the software vendor is not required to divulge or share proprietary information about how their software works, while enabling stakeholders to assess its performance.

  19. An Effect Size Measure for Raju's Differential Functioning for Items and Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Keith D.; Oshima, T. C.

    2015-01-01

    This study established an effect size measure for differential functioning for items and tests' noncompensatory differential item functioning (NCDIF). The Mantel-Haenszel parameter served as the benchmark for developing NCDIF's effect size measure for reporting moderate and large differential item functioning in test items. The effect size of…

  20. Spermatogonial stem cell transplantation into Rhesus testes regenerates spermatogenesis producing functional sperm

    PubMed Central

    Hermann, Brian P.; Sukhwani, Meena; Winkler, Felicity; Pascarella, Julia N.; Peters, Karen A.; Sheng, Yi; Valli, Hanna; Rodriguez, Mario; Ezzelarab, Mohamed; Dargo, Gina; Peterson, Kim; Masterson, Keith; Ramsey, Cathy; Ward, Thea; Lienesch, Maura; Volk, Angie; Cooper, David K.; Thomson, Angus W.; Kiss, Joseph E.; Penedo, Maria Cecilia T.; Schatten, Gerald P.; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat; Orwig, Kyle E.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) maintain spermatogenesis throughout a man’s life and may have application for treating some cases of male infertility, including those caused by chemotherapy before puberty. We performed autologous and allogeneic SSC transplantations into the testes of 18 adult and 5 prepubertal recipient macaques that were rendered infertile with alkylating chemotherapy. After autologous transplant, the donor genotype from lentivirus-marked SSCs was evident in the ejaculated sperm of 9/12 adult and 3/5 prepubertal recipients after they reached maturity. Allogeneic transplant led to donor-recipient chimerism in sperm from 2/6 adult recipients. Ejaculated sperm from one recipient transplanted with allogeneic donor SSCs were injected into 85 rhesus oocytes via intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Eighty-one oocytes were fertilized, producing embryos ranging from 4-cell to blastocyst with donor paternal origin confirmed in 7/81 embryos. This demonstration of functional donor spermatogenesis following SSC transplantation in primates is an important milestone for informed clinical translation. PMID:23122294

  1. The Impact of Variability of Item Parameter Estimators on Test Information Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jinming

    2012-01-01

    The impact of uncertainty about item parameters on test information functions is investigated. The information function of a test is one of the most important tools in item response theory (IRT). Inaccuracy in the estimation of test information can have substantial consequences on data analyses based on IRT. In this article, the major part (called…

  2. REACH. Residential Electrical Wiring Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansley, Jimmy; Ennis, Mike

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of residential electrical wiring. The instructional units focus on grounded outlets, service entrance, and blueprint reading. Each unit follows a typical format…

  3. Project REACH Administrator's Manual. PRAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piuma, Chesca; And Others

    The final volume in a series on Project REACH (Regular Education for All Children with Handicaps) is addressed to administrators involved in integrating severely disabled students into regular public schools. The manual is intended as a trouble-shooting tool with information on background theories and specific strategies. An introductory chapter…

  4. PNW RIVER REACH FILE DOCUMENTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with Federal and state agencies, and NW Indian Tribes has produced a 1:100,000-scale River Reach data layer for the Pacific Northwest that will serve water-resource management applications for the next decade or more. The Pacific N...

  5. Reaching the "iBored"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauleke, Debra S.; Herrmann, Kathleen E.

    2010-01-01

    As teachers, they are always looking for creative ways to engage their students. They start the school year determined to bring to the classroom creative projects that generate student interest and foster critical thinking skills. Reaching today's Gen M student is challenging and changing the way they teach. The idea of using music to teach…

  6. Reaching All Students with Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuevas, Gilbert, Ed.; Driscoll, Mark, Ed.

    The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics'"Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics" and "Professional Standards for Teaching Mathematics" reflect the belief that all students can learn a significant core of high-quality mathematics. Recognizing the magnitude of the task of reaching all students, this book was put together…

  7. Visuomotor transformations: early cortical mechanisms of reaching.

    PubMed

    Caminiti, R; Ferraina, S; Mayer, A B

    1998-12-01

    Recent studies of visually guided reaching in monkeys support the hypothesis that the visuomotor transformations underlying arm movements to spatial targets involve a parallel mechanism that simultaneously engages functionally related frontal and parietal areas linked by reciprocal cortico-cortical connections. The neurons in these areas possess similar combinations of response properties. The multimodal combinatorial properties of these neurons and the gradient architecture of the parietofrontal network emerge as a potential substrate to link the different sensory and motor signals that arise during reaching behavior into common hybrid reference frames. This convergent combinatorial process is evident at early stages of visual information processing in the occipito-parietal cortex, suggesting the existence of re-entrant motor influences on cortical areas once believed to have only visual functions. PMID:9914239

  8. Testing for Cognitive Function in Animals in a Regulatory Context

    EPA Science Inventory

    Superior cognitive functions have allowed the human species to dominate a world of incredible biological diversity. Threats to these essential capacities cannot be ignored, and a strategy is needed to evaluate the hazard posed by exposure to chemical and other agents. Because peo...

  9. A new guide for commissioning air handling systems: Using a model functional test

    SciTech Connect

    Haasl, Tudi; Sellers, David; Friedman, Hannah; Piette, Mary Ann; Bourassa, Norman; Gillespie, Ken

    2002-05-01

    Functional tests are a set of detailed instructions for building commissioning that demand extensive HVAC system knowledge to write and perform. Understanding the energy use implications and theory behind the test procedures, estimating the costs and benefits of doing a particular test, implementing the tests correctly, and resolving problems require years of field experience. As part of a large research project now underway, a practical guide is being developed that communicates this knowledge. This paper presents the components and intended use of the Functional Testing Guide and Model Functional Test for Air Handling Systems. A series of model functional tests, starting at the outdoor air intake section and proceeding through the air handling unit, distribution system, and terminal equipment and ending at the exhaust air discharge point, are provided for many commonly installed air handling system configurations. The model functional tests contain advice for tailoring the test procedures to specific system configurations, desirable and undesirable testing outcomes, a calculation appendix, references to other resources, and examples of completed test forms. The guide is an educational resource, with background information that clarifies the principles behind testing configurations and results. The functional tests have been selected from an extensive commissioning test protocol library compiled by Pacific Gas and Electric in 2001. The guide also includes a design guideline for the selection of control and monitoring points and a design intent documentation form.

  10. Parietal Reach Region Encodes Reach Depth Using Retinal Disparity and Vergence Angle Signals

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Rajan; Musallam, Sam; Andersen, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    Performing a visually guided reach requires the ability to perceive the egocentric distance of a target in three-dimensional space. Previous studies have shown that the parietal reach region (PRR) encodes the two-dimensional location of frontoparallel targets in an eye-centered reference frame. To investigate how a reach target is represented in three dimensions, we recorded the spiking activity of PRR neurons from two rhesus macaques trained to fixate and perform memory reaches to targets at different depths. Reach and fixation targets were configured to explore whether neural activity directly reflects egocentric distance as the amplitude of the required motor command, which is the absolute depth of the target, or rather the relative depth of the target with reference to fixation depth. We show that planning activity in PRR represents the depth of the reach target as a function of disparity and fixation depth, the spatial parameters important for encoding the depth of a reach goal in an eye centered reference frame. The strength of modulation by disparity is maintained across fixation depth. Fixation depth gain modulates disparity tuning while preserving the location of peak tuning features in PRR neurons. The results show that individual PRR neurons code depth with respect to the fixation point, that is, in eye centered coordinates. However, because the activity is gain modulated by vergence angle, the absolute depth can be decoded from the population activity. PMID:19439678

  11. Diagnosing and monitoring diabetic macular edema: structural and functional tests.

    PubMed

    Midena, Edoardo; Vujosevic, Stela

    2015-10-01

    Diabetic macular edema remains a major cause of visual impairment in adults despite the use of intensive glycemic control, photocoagulation therapy and new intravitreal drugs in the treatment of this disease. Although early diagnosis and treatment lead to better results, we still have patients who become legally blind. Therefore, better structural and functional characterization of this disease is necessary in order to customize treatment. PMID:22618128

  12. Definition et mesure des fonctions langagieres (The Definition and Testing of Language Functions)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savard, Jean-Guy

    1978-01-01

    Defining course objectives and testing these objectives are inseparable components of the education process. The development of a model using eleven language functions as the basis for testing communication in a second language is described. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  13. Environmental Degradation, Disproportionality, and the Double Diversion: Reaching out, Reaching ahead, and Reaching beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freudenburg, William R.

    2006-01-01

    Rather than seeking ivory-tower isolation, members of the Rural Sociological Society have always been distinguished by a willingness to work with specialists from a broad range of disciplines, and to work on some of the world's most challenging problems. What is less commonly recognized is that the willingness to reach beyond disciplinary…

  14. Records Reaching Recording Data Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gresik, G. W. L.; Siebe, S.; Drewello, R.

    2013-07-01

    The goal of RECORDS (Reaching Recording Data Technologies) is the digital capturing of buildings and cultural heritage objects in hard-to-reach areas and the combination of data. It is achieved by using a modified crane from film industry, which is able to carry different measuring systems. The low-vibration measurement should be guaranteed by a gyroscopic controlled advice that has been , developed for the project. The data were achieved by using digital photography, UV-fluorescence photography, infrared reflectography, infrared thermography and shearography. Also a terrestrial 3D laser scanner and a light stripe topography scanner have been used The combination of the recorded data should ensure a complementary analysis of monuments and buildings.

  15. Neural Correlates of Reach Errors

    PubMed Central

    Hashambhoy, Yasmin; Rane, Tushar; Shadmehr, Reza

    2005-01-01

    Reach errors may be broadly classified into errors arising from unpredictable changes in target location, called target errors, and errors arising from miscalibration of internal models, called execution errors. Execution errors may be caused by miscalibration of dynamics (e.g.. when a force field alters limb dynamics) or by miscalibration of kinematics (e.g., when prisms alter visual feedback). While all types of errors lead to similar online corrections, we found that the motor system showed strong trial-by-trial adaptation in response to random execution errors but not in response to random target errors. We used fMRI and a compatible robot to study brain regions involved in processing each kind of error. Both kinematic and dynamic execution errors activated regions along the central and the post-central sulci and in lobules V, VI, and VIII of the cerebellum, making these areas possible sites of plastic changes in internal models for reaching. Only activity related to kinematic errors extended into parietal area 5. These results are inconsistent with the idea that kinematics and dynamics of reaching are computed in separate neural entities. In contrast, only target errors caused increased activity in the striatum and the posterior superior parietal lobule. The cerebellum and motor cortex were as strongly activated as with execution errors. These findings indicate a neural and behavioral dissociation between errors that lead to switching of behavioral goals, and errors that lead to adaptation of internal models of limb dynamics and kinematics. PMID:16251440

  16. The Sandia MEMS Passive Shock Sensor : FY08 testing for functionality, model validation, and technology readiness.

    SciTech Connect

    Walraven, Jeremy Allen; Blecke, Jill; Baker, Michael Sean; Clemens, Rebecca C.; Mitchell, John Anthony; Brake, Matthew Robert; Epp, David S.; Wittwer, Jonathan W.

    2008-10-01

    This report summarizes the functional, model validation, and technology readiness testing of the Sandia MEMS Passive Shock Sensor in FY08. Functional testing of a large number of revision 4 parts showed robust and consistent performance. Model validation testing helped tune the models to match data well and identified several areas for future investigation related to high frequency sensitivity and thermal effects. Finally, technology readiness testing demonstrated the integrated elements of the sensor under realistic environments.

  17. A Test in Context: Neprilysin: Function, Inhibition, and Biomarker.

    PubMed

    Bayes-Genis, Antoni; Barallat, Jaume; Richards, A Mark

    2016-08-01

    Neprilysin is a zinc-dependent endopeptidase. It is ubiquitous in distribution and promiscuous in function, with >50 putative peptide substrates with varying levels of in vitro and/or in vivo evidence of functional relevance. In the first part of this review, we discuss the genetic, structural, substrate, and pathophysiological aspects of neprilysin. We incorporate information provided by genetically modified models, as well as pre-clinical and clinical data from investigations of synthetic neprilysin inhibitors. We next highlight the value of neprilysin as a biotarget and weigh the clinical benefits of synthetic neprilysin inhibitors, either alone or in combination with antagonists of the renin-angiotensin system. Finally, we provide evidence about soluble neprilysin as a biomarker surrogate in patients with heart failure and identify important gaps that require further research before soluble neprilysin is used clinically. In sum, neprilysin is a versatile, veteran player returning yet again to center stage after an eventful career spanning >40 years. PMID:27491909

  18. Functional Testing of the Space Station Plasma Contactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J.; Hamley, John A.; Sarver-Verhey, Timothy R.; Soulas, George C.

    1995-01-01

    A plasma contactor system has been baselined for the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) to control the electrical potentials of surfaces to eliminate/mitigate damaging interactions with the space environment. The system represents a dual-use technology which is a direct outgrowth of the NASA electric propulsion program and, in particular, the technology development effort on ion thruster systems. The plasma contactor subsystems include a hollow cathode assembly, a power electronics unit, and an expellant management unit. Under a pre-flight development program these subsystems are being developed to the level of maturity appropriate for transfer to U.S. industry for final development. Development efforts for the hollow cathode assembly include design selection and refinement, validating its required lifetime, and quantifying the cathode performance and interface specifications. To date, cathode components have demonstrated over 10,000 hours lifetime, and a hollow cathode assembly has demonstrated over 3,000 ignitions. Additionally, preliminary integration testing of a hollow cathode assembly with a breadboard power electronics unit has been completed. This paper discusses test results and the development status of the plasma contactor subsystems for ISSA, and in particular, the hollow cathode assembly.

  19. W-charge asymmetry at CDF, tests of structure functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budd, H. S.

    1994-09-01

    The charge asymmetry of W-bosons produced in p(bar p) collisions has been measured using 19,039 W (yields) e(nu) and W (yields) (mu)(nu) decays recorded by the CDF detector during the 1992-93 Tevatron collider run. The asymmetry is sensitive to the slope of the proton's d/u quark distribution ratio down to x less than 0.01 at Q(sup 2) (approx) M(sub W, sup 2), where nonperturbative QCD effects are minimal. Of recent parton distribution functions, those of Martin, Roberts and Stirling are favored over those of the CTEQ collaboration. This difference is seen even though both sets agree, at the level of the nuclear shadowing corrections, with the recent NMC measurements of F(sub 2, sup (mu)n)/F(sub 2, sup (mu)p).

  20. W-charge asymmetry at CDF, tests of structure functions

    SciTech Connect

    Budd, H.S.

    1994-09-01

    The charge asymmetry of W-bosons produced in p{bar p} collisions has been measured using 19,039 W {yields} e{nu} and W {yields} {mu}{nu} decays recorded by the CDF detector during the 1992-93 Tevatron collider run. The asymmetry is sensitive to the slope of the proton`s d/u quark distribution ratio down to x < 0.01 at Q{sup 2} {approx} M{sub W}{sup 2}, where nonperturbative QCD effects are minimal. Of recent parton distribution functions, those of Martin, Roberts and Stirling are favored over those of the CTEQ collaboration. This difference is seen even though both sets agree, at the level of the nuclear shadowing corrections, with the recent NMC measurements of F{sub 2}{sup {mu}n}/F{sub 2}{sup {mu}p}.

  1. W Lepton Charge Asymmetry - Test of Structure Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Qun

    1996-05-01

    The lepton charge asymmetry as a function of lepton rapidity |y_l| has been measured at √s=1.8 TeV, using the W decays to electrons and muons recorded by the CDF detector during the 1992-93 run (≈ 20 pb-1 of integrated luminosity), and the 1994-95 run (≈ 90 pb-1). The asymmetry is sensitive to the ratio of the d to u quark momentum distributions in the proton. The measurement probes the quark distributions to x<0.01 at Q^2 ≈ M_W^2, where nonperturbative effects are minimal. These precise data provide discrimination between sets of modern parton distributions. It is found that the most recent parton distributions, which included the 1992-93 W asymmetry data in their fits (MRSA and CTEQ3M) are in better agreement with the more precise data from the 1994-95 run.

  2. Test of structure functions using leptons with CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, M.; CDF Collaboration

    1993-11-01

    The charge asymmetry as a function of lepton rapidity, A(yl), has been measured at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV for {vert_bar}yl{vert_bar} < 1.8, using the W decays to electrons and muons recorded by CDF during the 1992--1993 run of the Tevatron Collider. The luminosity used, approximately 20 pb{sup {minus}1}, and detector improvements have lead to a six fold increase in statistics making discrimination between sets of parton distributions possible. Our data favors the most recent parton distributions and demonstrates the value of collider data in the measurement of the proton`s structure. In addition, the Drell-Yan cross section has been measured using 4.13 pb{sup {minus}1} of dielectron and 2.77 pb{sup {minus}1} of dimuon data taken during the 1988--1989 run. These measurements probe the quark distributions to x < 0.01 at high Q{sup 2} where nonperturbative effects are minimal.

  3. 49 CFR 40.127 - What are the MRO's functions in reviewing negative test results?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the MRO's functions in reviewing negative test results? 40.127 Section 40.127 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES... Verification Process § 40.127 What are the MRO's functions in reviewing negative test results? As the MRO,...

  4. The Development of a Criterion-Referenced Functional Literacy Test for Miami-Dade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skellings, Louise Noah

    In recognition of the trend toward functional illiteracy, this study developed and evaluated a criterion-referenced functional literacy test for use in diagnosis and evaluation of Miami-Dade Community College English students. The instrument was pilot-tested on 135 composition students in the fall of 1976, then revised after item analysis and…

  5. Domain-specific functional software testing: A progress report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nonnenmann, Uwe

    1992-01-01

    Software Engineering is a knowledge intensive activity that involves defining, designing, developing, and maintaining software systems. In order to build effective systems to support Software Engineering activities, Artificial Intelligence techniques are needed. The application of Artificial Intelligence technology to Software Engineering is called Knowledge-based Software Engineering (KBSE). The goal of KBSE is to change the software life cycle such that software maintenance and evolution occur by modifying the specifications and then rederiving the implementation rather than by directly modifying the implementation. The use of domain knowledge in developing KBSE systems is crucial. Our work is mainly related to one area of KBSE that is called automatic specification acquisition. One example is the WATSON prototype on which our current work is based. WATSON is an automatic programming system for formalizing specifications for telephone switching software mainly restricted to POTS, i.e., plain old telephone service. Our current approach differentiates itself from other approaches in two antagonistic ways. On the one hand, we address a large and complex real-world problem instead of a 'toy domain' as in many research prototypes. On the other hand, to allow such scaling, we had to relax the ambitious goal of complete automatic programming, to the easier task of automatic testing.

  6. ALMA telescope reaches new heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-09-01

    The ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array) astronomical observatory has taken another step forward - and upwards. One of its state-of-the-art antennas was carried for the first time to the 5000m plateau of Chajnantor, in the Chilean Andes, on the back of a custom-built giant transporter. The antenna, which weighs about 100 tons and has a diameter of 12 metres, was transported up to the high-altitude Array Operations Site, where the extremely dry and rarefied air is ideal for ALMA's observations of the Universe. The conditions at the Array Operations Site on Chajnantor, while excellent for astronomy, are also very harsh. Only half as much oxygen is available as at sea level, making it very difficult to work there. This is why ALMA's antennas are assembled and tested at the lower 2900 m altitude of the ALMA Operations Support Facility. It was from this relatively hospitable base camp that the ALMA antenna began its journey to the high Chajnantor site. "This is an important moment for ALMA. We are very happy that the first transport of an antenna to the high site went flawlessly. This achievement was only possible through contributions from all international ALMA partners: this particular antenna is provided by Japan, the heavy-lift transporter by Europe, and the receiving electronics inside the antenna by North America, Europe, and Asia", said Wolfgang Wild, European ALMA Project Manager. The trip began when one of the two ALMA transporters, named Otto, lifted the antenna onto its back. It then carried its heavy load along the 28 km road from the Operations Support Facility up to the Array Operations Site. While the transporter is capable of speeds of up to 12 km/hour when carrying an antenna, this first journey was made more slowly to ensure that everything worked as expected, taking about seven hours. The ALMA antennas are the most advanced submillimetre-wavelength antennas ever made. They are designed to operate fully exposed in the harsh conditions

  7. ALMA Telescope Reaches New Heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-09-01

    The ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array) astronomical observatory took another step forward and upward, as one of its state-of-the-art antennas was carried for the first time to Chile's 16,500-foot-high plateau of Chajnantor on the back of a giant, custom-built transporter. The 40-foot-diameter antenna, weighing about 100 tons, was moved to ALMA's high-altitude Array Operations Site, where the extremely dry and rarefied air is ideal for observing the Universe. The conditions at the Array Operations Site on Chajnantor, while excellent for astronomy, are also very harsh. Only about half as much oxygen is available as at sea level, making it very difficult to work there. This is why ALMA's antennas are assembled and tested at the lower 9,500-foot altitude of the ALMA Operations Support Facility (OSF). It was from this relatively hospitable base camp that the ALMA antenna began its journey to the high Chajnantor site. "The successful transport of the first ALMA Antenna to the high site marks the start of the next phase of the project. Now that we are starting to move the ALMA antennas to the high site, the real work begins and the exciting part is just beginning," said Adrian Russell, North American ALMA Project Manager. The antenna's trip began when one of the two ALMA transporters lifted the antenna onto its back, carrying its heavy load along the 17-mile road from the Operations Support Facility up to the Array Operations Site. While the transporter is capable of speeds of up to 8 miles per hour when carrying an antenna, this first journey was made more slowly to ensure that everything worked as expected, taking about seven hours. The ALMA antennas use state-of-the-art technology, and are the most advanced submillimeter-wavelength antennas ever made. They are designed to operate fully exposed in the harsh conditions of the Array Operations Site, to survive strong winds and extreme temperatures, to point precisely enough that they could pick out a golf

  8. Simultaneous Neural Control of Simple Reaching and Grasping with the Modular Prosthetic Limb using Intracranial EEG

    PubMed Central

    Fifer, Matthew S.; Hotson, Guy; Wester, Brock A.; McMullen, David; Wang, Yujing; Johannes, Matthew S.; Katyal, Kapil D.; Helder, John B.; Para, Matthew P.; Vogelstein, R. Jacob; Anderson, William S.; Thakor, Nitish V.; Crone, Nathan E.

    2014-01-01

    Intracranial electroencephalographic (iEEG) signals from two human subjects were used to achieve simultaneous neural control of reaching and grasping movements with the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Lab (JHU/APL) Modular Prosthetic Limb (MPL), a dexterous robotic prosthetic arm. We performed functional mapping of high gamma activity while the subject made reaching and grasping movements to identify task-selective electrodes. Independent, online control of reaching and grasping was then achieved using high gamma activity from a small subset of electrodes with a model trained on short blocks of reaching and grasping with no further adaptation. Classification accuracy did not decline (p<0.05, one-way ANOVA) over three blocks of testing in either subject. Mean classification accuracy during independently executed overt reach and grasp movements for (Subject 1, Subject 2) were (0.85, 0.81) and (0.80, 0.96) respectively, and during simultaneous execution they were (0.83, 0.88) and (0.58, 0.88) respectively. Our models leveraged knowledge of the subject's individual functional neuroanatomy for reaching and grasping movements, allowing rapid acquisition of control in a time-sensitive clinical setting. We demonstrate the potential feasibility of verifying functionally meaningful iEEG-based control of the MPL prior to chronic implantation, during which additional capabilities of the MPL might be exploited with further training. PMID:24235276

  9. A real-life, ecologically valid test of executive functioning: the executive secretarial task.

    PubMed

    Lamberts, Kirsten F; Evans, Jonathan J; Spikman, Jacoba M

    2010-01-01

    A major goal of neuropsychological assessment is predicting a person's level of functioning in daily life. Making predictions about everyday executive functioning based on tests is problematic because of the contrast between demands made in the test environment and demands made in everyday life (Shallice & Burgess, 1991). As executive functions play an important role in independent functioning, tests with robust psychometric properties and ecologically validity are needed. We developed the Executive Secretarial Task (EST) and assessed 92 participants: 35 brain-injured patients and 57 controls. Analyses showed the EST is sensitive to executive problems and has concurrent and ecological validity. PMID:19408184

  10. High-throughput functional testing of ENCODE segmentation predictions

    PubMed Central

    Kwasnieski, Jamie C.; Fiore, Christopher; Chaudhari, Hemangi G.

    2014-01-01

    The histone modification state of genomic regions is hypothesized to reflect the regulatory activity of the underlying genomic DNA. Based on this hypothesis, the ENCODE Project Consortium measured the status of multiple histone modifications across the genome in several cell types and used these data to segment the genome into regions with different predicted regulatory activities. We measured the cis-regulatory activity of more than 2000 of these predictions in the K562 leukemia cell line. We tested genomic segments predicted to be Enhancers, Weak Enhancers, or Repressed elements in K562 cells, along with other sequences predicted to be Enhancers specific to the H1 human embryonic stem cell line (H1-hESC). Both Enhancer and Weak Enhancer sequences in K562 cells were more active than negative controls, although surprisingly, Weak Enhancer segmentations drove expression higher than did Enhancer segmentations. Lower levels of the covalent histone modifications H3K36me3 and H3K27ac, thought to mark active enhancers and transcribed gene bodies, associate with higher expression and partly explain the higher activity of Weak Enhancers over Enhancer predictions. While DNase I hypersensitivity (HS) is a good predictor of active sequences in our assay, transcription factor (TF) binding models need to be included in order to accurately identify highly expressed sequences. Overall, our results show that a significant fraction (∼26%) of the ENCODE enhancer predictions have regulatory activity, suggesting that histone modification states can reflect the cis-regulatory activity of sequences in the genome, but that specific sequence preferences, such as TF-binding sites, are the causal determinants of cis-regulatory activity. PMID:25035418

  11. Quantum tests for the linearity and permutation invariance of Boolean functions

    SciTech Connect

    Hillery, Mark; Andersson, Erika

    2011-12-15

    The goal in function property testing is to determine whether a black-box Boolean function has a certain property or is {epsilon}-far from having that property. The performance of the algorithm is judged by how many calls need to be made to the black box in order to determine, with high probability, which of the two alternatives is the case. Here we present two quantum algorithms, the first to determine whether the function is linear and the second to determine whether it is symmetric (invariant under permutations of the arguments). Both require order {epsilon}{sup -2/3} calls to the oracle, which is better than known classical algorithms. In addition, in the case of linearity testing, if the function is linear, the quantum algorithm identifies which linear function it is. The linearity test combines the Bernstein-Vazirani algorithm and amplitude amplification, while the test to determine whether a function is symmetric uses projective measurements and amplitude amplification.

  12. Incidence of Pneumothorax in Patients With Lymphangioleiomyomatosis Undergoing Pulmonary Function and Exercise Testing.

    PubMed

    Taveira-DaSilva, Angelo M; Julien-Williams, Patricia; Jones, Amanda M; Moss, Joel

    2016-07-01

    Because pneumothorax is frequent in lymphangioleiomyomatosis, patients have expressed concerns regarding the risk of pneumothorax associated with pulmonary function or exercise testing. Indeed, pneumothorax has been reported in patients with lung disease after both of these tests. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of pneumothorax in patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis during admissions to the National Institutes of Health Clinical Research Center between 1995 and 2015. Medical records were reviewed to identify patients who had a pneumothorax during their stay at the National Institutes of Health. A total of 691 patients underwent 4,523 pulmonary function tests and 1,900 exercise tests. Three patients developed pneumothorax after pulmonary function tests and/or exercise tests. The incidence of pneumothorax associated with lung function testing was 0.14 to 0.29 of 100 patients or 0.02 to 0.04 of 100 tests. The incidence of pneumothorax in patients undergoing exercise testing was 0.14 to 0.28 of 100 patients or 0.05 to 0.10 of 100 tests. The risk of pneumothorax associated with pulmonary function or exercise testing in patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis is low. PMID:27396798

  13. PEP Run Report for Simulant Shakedown/Functional Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Josephson, Gary B.; Geeting, John GH; Bredt, Ofelia P.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Guzman-Leong, Consuelo E.; Kurath, Dean E.; Sevigny, Gary J.

    2009-12-29

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed, and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, "Undemonstrated Leaching Processes." The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing. Two operating scenarios are currently being evaluated for the ultrafiltration process (UFP) and leaching operations. The first scenario has caustic leaching performed in the UFP-2 ultrafiltration feed vessels (i.e., vessel UFP-VSL-T02A in the PEP; and vessels UFP-VSL-00002A and B in the WTP PTF). The second scenario has caustic leaching conducted in the UFP-1 ultrafiltration feed preparation vessels (i.e., vessels UFP-VSL-T01A and B in the PEP; vessels UFP-VSL-00001A and B in the WTP PTF). In both scenarios, 19-M sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH, caustic) is added to the waste slurry in the vessels to leach solid aluminum compounds (e.g., gibbsite, boehmite). Caustic addition is followed by a heating step that uses direct injection of steam to accelerate the leach process. Following the caustic leach, the vessel contents are cooled using vessel cooling jackets and/or external heat exchangers. The main difference between the two scenarios is that for leaching in UFP-1, the 19-M NaOH is added to un-concentrated waste slurry (3-8 wt% solids), while for leaching in UFP-2, the slurry is concentrated to nominally 20 wt% solids using cross-flow ultrafiltration

  14. Maximum tolerated volume in drinking tests with water and a nutritional beverage for the diagnosis of functional dyspepsia

    PubMed Central

    Montaño-Loza, Aldo; Schmulson, Max; Zepeda-Gómez, Sergio; Remes-Troche, Jose Maria; Valdovinos-Diaz, Miguel Angel

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Recently, drinking load tests with water or nutritional beverages have been proposed as diagnostic tools for functional dyspepsia (FD), therefore we sought to reproduce if these tests can discriminate between FD patients and controls in a Mexican population. METHODS: Twenty FD-Rome II patients were matched by age and gender with 20 healthy controls. All underwent both drinking tests at a 15 mL/min rate, randomly, 7 d apart. Every 5 min within each test, four symptoms were evaluated (satiety, bloating, nausea and pain) by Likert scales. Maximum tolerated volume (MTV) was defined as the ingested volume when a score of 5 was reached for any symptom or when the test had to be stopped because the patients could not tolerate more volume. Sensitivity and specificity were analyzed. RESULTS: FD patients had higher symptom scores for both tests compared to controls (water: t = 4.1, P = 0.001<0.01; Nutren®: t = 5.2, P = 0.001<0.01). The MTV for water and Nutren® were significantly lower in FD (water: 1014±288 vs 1749±275 mL; t = 7.9, P = 0.001<0.01; Nutren®: 652±168 vs 1278±286 mL; t = 6.7, P = 0.001<0.01). With the volume tolerated by the controls, the percentile 10 was determined as the lower limit for tolerance. Sensitivity and specificity were 0.90, 0.95 for water and 0.95, 0.95 for Nutren® tests. CONCLUSION: A drinking test with water or a nutritional beverage can discriminate between FD patients and healthy subjects in Mexico, with high sensitivity and specificity. These tests could be used as objective, noninvasive, and safe diagnostic approaches for FD patients. PMID:15918201

  15. 49 CFR 1546.407 - Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... who perform screening functions. 1546.407 Section 1546.407 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... Carrier Conducts Screening § 1546.407 Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening functions. (a) Training required. Before performing screening functions, an individual must...

  16. 49 CFR 1544.407 - Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... who perform screening functions. 1544.407 Section 1544.407 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... Qualifications When the Aircraft Operator Performs Screening § 1544.407 Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening functions. (a) Training required. Before performing screening functions,...

  17. Tests of Functional Adult Literacy: An Evaluation of Currently Available Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nafziger, Dean H.; And Others

    Currently available measures of functional literacy for adults are reviewed and evaluated. This report concentrates on tests that are referenced to literary skills important to an adequately functioning adult, such as life skills, coping skills, etc. Because functional literacy has frequently been defined in terms of a grade level equivalent or…

  18. INTERPRETATIONS AND LIMITATION OF PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTING IN SMALL LABORATORY ANIMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pulmonary function tests are tools available to the researcher and clinician to evaluate the ability of the lung to perform its essential function of gas exchange. o meet this principal function, the lung needs to operate efficiently with minimal mechanical work as well as provid...

  19. [Interpretation and use of routine pulmonary function tests: Spirometry, static lung volumes, lung diffusion, arterial blood gas, methacholine challenge test and 6-minute walk test].

    PubMed

    Bokov, P; Delclaux, C

    2016-02-01

    Resting pulmonary function tests (PFT) include the assessment of ventilatory capacity: spirometry (forced expiratory flows and mobilisable volumes) and static volume assessment, notably using body plethysmography. Spirometry allows the potential definition of obstructive defect, while static volume assessment allows the potential definition of restrictive defect (decrease in total lung capacity) and thoracic hyperinflation (increase in static volumes). It must be kept in mind that this evaluation is incomplete and that an assessment of ventilatory demand is often warranted, especially when facing dyspnoea: evaluation of arterial blood gas (searching for respiratory insufficiency) and measurement of the transfer coefficient of the lung, allowing with the measurement of alveolar volume to calculate the diffusing capacity of the lung for CO (DLCO: assessment of alveolar-capillary wall and capillary blood volume). All these pulmonary function tests have been the subject of an Americano-European Task force (standardisation of lung function testing) published in 2005, and translated in French in 2007. Interpretative strategies for lung function tests have been recommended, which define abnormal lung function tests using the 5th and 95th percentiles of predicted values (lower and upper limits of normal values). Thus, these recommendations need to be implemented in all pulmonary function test units. A methacholine challenge test will only be performed in the presence of an intermediate pre-test probability for asthma (diagnostic uncertainty), which is an infrequent setting. The most convenient exertional test is the 6-minute walk test that allows the assessment of walking performance, the search for arterial desaturation and the quantification of dyspnoea complaint. PMID:26657268

  20. Identifying Differential Item Functioning in Multi-Stage Computer Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gierl, Mark J.; Lai, Hollis; Li, Johnson

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of CATSIB (Computer Adaptive Testing-Simultaneous Item Bias Test) for detecting differential item functioning (DIF) when items in the matching and studied subtest are administered adaptively in the context of a realistic multi-stage adaptive test (MST). MST was simulated using a 4-item…

  1. The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and the Cognitive Assessment of Prefrontal Executive Functions: A Critical Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyhus, Erika; Barcelo, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    For over four decades the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) has been one of the most distinctive tests of prefrontal function. Clinical research and recent brain imaging have brought into question the validity and specificity of this test as a marker of frontal dysfunction. Clinical studies with neurological patients have confirmed that, in its…

  2. Web services and model-data comparison for the Functional Test Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krassovski, Misha; Wang, Dali

    2015-04-01

    Web services and model-data comparison for the Functional Test Platform. The realistic representation of key biogeophysical and biogeochemical function is the fundamental on process based ecosystem models. A Functional Test Platform is designed to create direct linkages between site measurements and process-based ecosystem model within the Community Earth System Models (CESM). The platform consists of three major parts: 1) interactive user interfaces, 2) functional test models and 3) observational datasets. The purpose of the observational datasets is to provide an interactive search and visualization capability for direct model-data comparison. The proposed presentation is going to show how web services can be used to feed model-data comparison using AmeriFlux data collection provided by Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) and the way it is coupled with Functional Test Platform for the Community Land Model.

  3. To develop behavioral tests of vestibular functioning in the Wistar rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nielson, H. C.

    1980-01-01

    Two tests of vestibular functioning in the rat were developed. The first test was the water maze. In the water maze the rat does not have the normal proprioceptive feedback from its limbs to help it maintain its orientation, and must rely primarily on the sensory input from its visual and vestibular systems. By altering lighting conditions and visual cues the vestibular functioning without visual cues was assessed. Whether there was visual compensation for some vestibular dysfunction was determined. The second test measured vestibular functioning of the rat's behavior on a parallel swing. In this test the rat's postural adjustments while swinging on the swing with the otoliths being stimulated were assessed. Less success was achieved in developing the parallel swing as a test of vestibular functioning than with the water maze. The major problem was incorrect initial assumptions of what the rat's probable behavior on the parallel swing would be.

  4. Injury History, Sex, and Performance on the Functional Movement Screen and Y Balance Test

    PubMed Central

    Chimera, Nicole J.; Smith, Craig A.; Warren, Meghan

    2015-01-01

    Context: Research is limited regarding the effects of injury or surgery history and sex on the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and Y Balance Test (YBT). Objective: To determine if injury or surgery history or sex affected results on the FMS and YBT. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Athletic training facilities. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 200 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I female (n = 92; age = 20.0 ± 1.4 years, body mass index = 22.8 ± 3.1 kg/m2) and male (n = 108; age = 20.0 ± 1.5 years, body mass index = 27.0 ± 4.6 kg/m2) athletes were screened; 170 completed the FMS, and 190 completed the YBT. Intervention(s): A self-reported questionnaire identified injury or surgery history and sex. The FMS assessed movement during the patterns of deep squat, hurdle step, in-line lunge, shoulder mobility, impingement-clearing test, straight-leg raise, trunk stability push-up, press-up clearing test, rotary stability, and posterior-rocking clearing test. The YBT assessed balance while participants reached in anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral directions. Main Outcome Measure(s): The FMS composite score (CS; range, 0–21) and movement pattern score (range, 0–3), the YBT CS (% lower extremity length), and YBT anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral asymmetry (difference between limbs in centimeters). Independent-samples t tests established differences in mean FMS CS, YBT CS, and YBT asymmetry. The Mann-Whitney U test identified differences in FMS movement patterns. Results: We found lower overall FMS CSs for the following injuries or surgeries: hip (injured = 12.7 ± 3.1, uninjured = 14.4 ± 2.3; P = .005), elbow (injured = 12.1 ± 2.8, uninjured = 14.3 ± 2.4; P = .02), and hand (injured = 12.3 ± 2.9, uninjured = 14.3 ± 2.3; P = .006) injuries and shoulder surgery (surgery = 12.0 ± 1.0, no surgery = 14.3 ± 2.4; P < .001). We observed worse FMS movement pattern performance for knee surgery (rotary stability: P

  5. Olefins and chemical regulation in Europe: REACH.

    PubMed

    Penman, Mike; Banton, Marcy; Erler, Steffen; Moore, Nigel; Semmler, Klaus

    2015-11-01

    REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals) is the European Union's chemical regulation for the management of risk to human health and the environment (European Chemicals Agency, 2006). This regulation entered into force in June 2007 and required manufacturers and importers to register substances produced in annual quantities of 1000 tonnes or more by December 2010, with further deadlines for lower tonnages in 2013 and 2018. Depending on the type of registration, required information included the substance's identification, the hazards of the substance, the potential exposure arising from the manufacture or import, the identified uses of the substance, and the operational conditions and risk management measures applied or recommended to downstream users. Among the content developed to support this information were Derived No-Effect Levels or Derived Minimal Effect Levels (DNELs/DMELs) for human health hazard assessment, Predicted No Effect Concentrations (PNECs) for environmental hazard assessment, and exposure scenarios for exposure and risk assessment. Once registered, substances may undergo evaluation by the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) or Member State authorities and be subject to requests for additional information or testing as well as additional risk reduction measures. To manage the REACH registration and related activities for the European olefins and aromatics industry, the Lower Olefins and Aromatics REACH Consortium was formed in 2008 with administrative and technical support provided by Penman Consulting. A total of 135 substances are managed by this group including 26 individual chemical registrations (e.g. benzene, 1,3-butadiene) and 13 categories consisting of 5-26 substances. This presentation will describe the content of selected registrations prepared for 2010 in addition to the significant post-2010 activities. Beyond REACH, content of the registrations may also be relevant to other European activities, for

  6. Test methods and custom hardware for functional testing of a high speed GaAs DRAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Michael P.

    1993-09-01

    The goal of this project is to produce a digital circuit operating near a frequency of 250 MHz to test a new experimental gallium arsenide (GaAs) dynamic random access memory (DRAM). This thesis presents the design of the digital circuit using 'off-the-shelf' emitter coupled logic (ECL) and the design of a six layer printed circuit test fixture. The use of ECL is illustrated including general design rules, high speed design considerations, and basic transmission line theory. Finally, the design is laid out and simulated using commercially available computer aided design (CAD) and computer aided manufacturing (CAM) tools. Examples and shortcomings of schematic capture, logic simulation, PCB design, and auto-routing are discussed as applicable to fabrication of the final product.

  7. The Synthesis of Structural Responses Using Experimentally Measured Frequency Response Functions and Field Test Data

    SciTech Connect

    CAP,JEROME S.; NELSON,CURTIS F.

    2000-11-17

    This paper presents an analysis technique used to generate the structural response at locations not measured during the ejection of a captive-carried store. The ejection shock event is complicated by the fact that forces may be imparted to the store at eight distinct locations. The technique derives forcing functions by combining the initial field test data for a limited number of measurement locations with Frequency Response Functions (FRFs) measured using a traditional modal-type impact (tap) test at the same locations. The derived forcing functions were then used with tap test FRFs measured at additional locations of interest to produce the desired response data.

  8. Functional and structural failure mode overpressurization tests of 1:4-scale prestressed concrete containment vessel model.

    SciTech Connect

    Costello, James F. (United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC); Shibata, Satoru (Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation, Tokyo, Japan); Hessheimer, Michael F.

    2003-02-01

    A 1:4-scale model of a prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV), representative of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) plant in Japan, was constructed by NUPEC at Sandia National Laboratories from January 1997 through June, 2000. Concurrently, Sandia instrumented the model with nearly 1500 transducers to measure strain, displacement and forces in the model from prestressing through the pressure testing. The limit state test of the PCCV model, culminating in functional failure (i.e. leakage by cracking and liner tearing) was conducted in September, 2000 at Sandia National Laboratories. After inspecting the model and the data after the limit state test, it became clear that, other than liner tearing and leakage, structural damage was limited to concrete cracking and the overall structural response (displacements, rebar and tendon strains, etc.) was only slightly beyond yield. (Global hoop strains at the mid-height of the cylinder only reached 0.4%, approximately twice the yield strain in steel.) In order to provide additional structural response data, for comparison with inelastic response conditions, the PCCV model filled nearly full with water and pressurized to 3.6 times the design pressure, when a catastrophic rupture occurred preceded only briefly by successive tensile failure of several hoop tendons. This paper summarizes the results of these tests.

  9. Infants' Predictive Reaching for Moving Objects in the Dark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robin, Daniel J.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Thirteen infants were presented with a moving object under two lighting conditions to investigate the role of vision in early reaching. Infants were tested twice, at 5 and 7.5 months of age. The results suggest that proprioceptive feedback and sight of the target allowed for successful reaching with limited visual information, even in relatively…

  10. Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Guoxing; Mühlenbernd, Holger; Kenney, Mitchell; Li, Guixin; Zentgraf, Thomas; Zhang, Shuang

    2015-05-01

    Surfaces covered by ultrathin plasmonic structures—so-called metasurfaces—have recently been shown to be capable of completely controlling the phase of light, representing a new paradigm for the design of innovative optical elements such as ultrathin flat lenses, directional couplers for surface plasmon polaritons and wave plate vortex beam generation. Among the various types of metasurfaces, geometric metasurfaces, which consist of an array of plasmonic nanorods with spatially varying orientations, have shown superior phase control due to the geometric nature of their phase profile. Metasurfaces have recently been used to make computer-generated holograms, but the hologram efficiency remained too low at visible wavelengths for practical purposes. Here, we report the design and realization of a geometric metasurface hologram reaching diffraction efficiencies of 80% at 825 nm and a broad bandwidth between 630 nm and 1,050 nm. The 16-level-phase computer-generated hologram demonstrated here combines the advantages of a geometric metasurface for the superior control of the phase profile and of reflectarrays for achieving high polarization conversion efficiency. Specifically, the design of the hologram integrates a ground metal plane with a geometric metasurface that enhances the conversion efficiency between the two circular polarization states, leading to high diffraction efficiency without complicating the fabrication process. Because of these advantages, our strategy could be viable for various practical holographic applications.

  11. Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guoxing; Mühlenbernd, Holger; Kenney, Mitchell; Li, Guixin; Zentgraf, Thomas; Zhang, Shuang

    2015-04-01

    Surfaces covered by ultrathin plasmonic structures--so-called metasurfaces--have recently been shown to be capable of completely controlling the phase of light, representing a new paradigm for the design of innovative optical elements such as ultrathin flat lenses, directional couplers for surface plasmon polaritons and wave plate vortex beam generation. Among the various types of metasurfaces, geometric metasurfaces, which consist of an array of plasmonic nanorods with spatially varying orientations, have shown superior phase control due to the geometric nature of their phase profile. Metasurfaces have recently been used to make computer-generated holograms, but the hologram efficiency remained too low at visible wavelengths for practical purposes. Here, we report the design and realization of a geometric metasurface hologram reaching diffraction efficiencies of 80% at 825 nm and a broad bandwidth between 630 nm and 1,050 nm. The 16-level-phase computer-generated hologram demonstrated here combines the advantages of a geometric metasurface for the superior control of the phase profile and of reflectarrays for achieving high polarization conversion efficiency. Specifically, the design of the hologram integrates a ground metal plane with a geometric metasurface that enhances the conversion efficiency between the two circular polarization states, leading to high diffraction efficiency without complicating the fabrication process. Because of these advantages, our strategy could be viable for various practical holographic applications. PMID:25705870

  12. Reaching for the red planet

    PubMed

    David, L

    1996-05-01

    The distant shores of Mars were reached by numerous U.S. and Russian spacecraft throughout the 1960s to mid 1970s. Nearly 20 years have passed since those successful missions which orbited and landed on the Martian surface. Two Soviet probes headed for the planet in July, 1988, but later failed. In August 1993, the U.S. Mars Observer suddenly went silent just three days before it was to enter orbit around the planet and was never heard from again. In late 1996, there will be renewed activity on the launch pads with three probes departing for the red planet: 1) The U.S. Mars Global Surveyor will be launched in November on a Delta II rocket and will orbit the planet for global mapping purposes; 2) Russia's Mars '96 mission, scheduled to fly in November on a Proton launcher, consists of an orbiter, two small stations which will land on the Martian surface, and two penetrators that will plow into the terrain; and finally, 3) a U.S. Discovery-class spacecraft, the Mars Pathfinder, has a December launch date atop a Delta II booster. The mission features a lander and a microrover that will travel short distances over Martian territory. These missions usher in a new phase of Mars exploration, setting the stage for an unprecedented volley of spacecraft that will orbit around, land on, drive across, and perhaps fly at low altitudes over the planet. PMID:11538726

  13. Distributed analysis functional testing using GangaRobot in the ATLAS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legger, Federica; ATLAS Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    Automated distributed analysis tests are necessary to ensure smooth operations of the ATLAS grid resources. The HammerCloud framework allows for easy definition, submission and monitoring of grid test applications. Both functional and stress test applications can be defined in HammerCloud. Stress tests are large-scale tests meant to verify the behaviour of sites under heavy load. Functional tests are light user applications running at each site with high frequency, to ensure that the site functionalities are available at all times. Success or failure rates of these tests jobs are individually monitored. Test definitions and results are stored in a database and made available to users and site administrators through a web interface. In this work we present the recent developments of the GangaRobot framework. GangaRobot monitors the outcome of functional tests, creates a blacklist of sites failing the tests, and exports the results to the ATLAS Site Status Board (SSB) and to the Service Availability Monitor (SAM), providing on the one hand a fast way to identify systematic or temporary site failures, and on the other hand allowing for an effective distribution of the work load on the available resources.

  14. GIRAFFE Reaches towards the Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-07-01

    "First Light" of New Powerful Spectrograph at the VLT Summary The first observations of stellar spectra have just been performed with the new GIRAFFE multi-object spectrograph on the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the Paranal Observatory in Chile. This milestone event was achieved in the early morning of July 3, 2002. It signifies another important step towards the full implementation of the extremely powerful Fibre Large Array Multi-Element Spectrograph (FLAMES) , one of the main instruments for the ESO VLT. This project is co-ordinated by ESO and incorporates many complex components that have been constructed at various research institutions in Europe and Australia. The GIRAFFE spectrograph provides unique possibilities for detailed observations of the properties of individual stars located in our Milky Way galaxy ( PR 16b/02 ) as well as in other galaxies of the Local Group. PR Photo 16a/02 : A series of stellar spectra recorded by GIRAFFE during "First Light" . PR Photo 16b/02 : Details of some of these stellar spectra . FLAMES and GIRAFFE ESO PR Photo 16a/02 ESO PR Photo 16a/02 [Preview - JPEG: 756 x 400 pix - 363k] [Normal - JPEG: 1511 x 800 pix - 1.2M] ESO PR Photo 16b/02 ESO PR Photo 16b/02 [Preview - JPEG: 461 x 400 pix - 196k] [Normal - JPEG: 921 x 800 pix - 606k] Caption : PR Photo 16a/02 : "First Light" test observation with the GIRAFFE spectrograph of about 50 high-quality spectra (10 min exposure at spectral resolution 7,000) of stars in the Milky Way disk, in the early morning of July 3, 2002. The stars have magnitudes of 12 - 16 and are all of solar type. The photo shows part of the image recorded with a 2000 x 4000 pixel CCD detector at the focal plane of the spectrograph. Each stellar spectrum is seen as one vertical line - some of the absorption lines can be seen as dark horizontal features. PR Photo 16b/02 shows a small part of this image. The three strong absorption lines that are visible as horizontal, dark lines in the lower part of the

  15. Wind Turbine Safety and Function Test Report for the ARE 442 Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    van Dam, J.; Baker, D.; Jager, D.

    2010-02-01

    This test was conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Independent Testing project. This project was established to help reduce the barriers of wind energy expansion by providing independent testing results for small turbines. In total, four turbines were tested at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) as a part of this project. Safety and function testing is one of up to five tests that were performed on the turbines, including power performance, duration, noise, and power quality tests. Test results provide manufacturers with reports that can be used for small wind turbine certification. The test equipment includes an ARE 442 wind turbine mounted on a 100-ft free-standing lattice tower. The system was installed by the NWTC Site Operations group with guidance and assistance from Abundant Renewable Energy.

  16. Safety and Function Test Report for the Viryd CS8 Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Roadman, J.; Murphy, M.; van Dam, J.

    2013-10-01

    This test was conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Independent Testing project. This project was established to help reduce the barriers of wind energy expansion by providing independent testing results for small turbines. Several turbines were selected for testing at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) as a part of the Small Wind Turbine Independent Testing project. Safety and function testing is one of up to five tests that may be performed on the turbines. Other tests include duration, power performance, acoustic noise, and power quality. Viryd Technologies, Inc. of Austin, Texas, was the recipient of the DOE grant and provided the turbine for testing.

  17. Wind Turbine Safety and Function Test Report for the Mariah Windspire Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Huskey, A.; Bowen, A.; Jager, D.

    2010-07-01

    This test was conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Independent Testing project. This project was established to help reduce the barriers to wind energy expansion by providing independent testing results for small wind turbines (SWT). In total, five turbines were tested at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) as a part of this project. Safety and function testing is one of up to five tests performed on the turbines, including power performance, duration, noise, and power-quality tests. NWTC testing results provide manufacturers with reports that may be used to meet part of small wind turbine certification requirements. The test equipment includes a Mariah Windspire wind turbine mounted on a monopole tower. L&E Machine manufactured the turbine in the United States. The inverter was manufactured separately by Technology Driven Products in the United States. The system was installed by the NWTC site operations group with guidance and assistance from Mariah Power.

  18. The cold face test: a non-baroreflex mediated test of cardiac vagal function.

    PubMed

    Khurana, Ramesh K; Wu, Roger

    2006-06-01

    Application of cold to the face evokes potent bradycardia and a pressor response, similar to the diving reflex. However, the role of the baroreceptors in this response is unclear. Ten healthy controls and two patients with baroreflex impairment were recruited. A cold face test (CFT) was induced by the application of three cold packs (0.5 degrees C) to the face. Heart rate (ECG), blood pressure (Finapres) and skin temperature (forehead electrode) were recorded continuously. All data were analyzed using unpaired Students t-tests, and expressed as mean +/- SD. In all controls, CFT induced bradycardia. The mean onset latency was 5.6 +/- 4.6 s, and the maximal bradycardia was seen at 35.8 +/- 15.8 s. Systolic blood pressure increased in eight controls, with a mean onset latency of 18.8 +/- 16.6 s and a peak rise at 38.7 +/- 22.7 s. In the controls, bradycardia preceded the pressor response. The heart rate and blood pressure changes during CFT had a longer latency than baroreflex evoked responses. Moreover, one subject had bradycardia despite a fall in blood pressure. The two patients had abnormal Valsalva ratios and no change in heart rate during tilt, indicating impairment of the baroreflex. However, both their heart rate and blood pressure responses to CFT were normal. These data are further evidence of the limited role of the baroreflex in the autonomic responses to CFT. They suggest that the CFT may be of use in assessing the integrity of the efferent cardiovascular autonomic pathways in patients with suspected baroreflex impairment. PMID:16491317

  19. An integrative method for testing form–function linkages and reconstructed evolutionary pathways of masticatory specialization

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Z. Jack; Flynn, John J.

    2015-01-01

    Morphology serves as a ubiquitous proxy in macroevolutionary studies to identify potential adaptive processes and patterns. Inferences of functional significance of phenotypes or their evolution are overwhelmingly based on data from living taxa. Yet, correspondence between form and function has been tested in only a few model species, and those linkages are highly complex. The lack of explicit methodologies to integrate form and function analyses within a deep-time and phylogenetic context weakens inferences of adaptive morphological evolution, by invoking but not testing form–function linkages. Here, we provide a novel approach to test mechanical properties at reconstructed ancestral nodes/taxa and the strength and direction of evolutionary pathways in feeding biomechanics, in a case study of carnivorous mammals. Using biomechanical profile comparisons that provide functional signals for the separation of feeding morphologies, we demonstrate, using experimental optimization criteria on estimation of strength and direction of functional changes on a phylogeny, that convergence in mechanical properties and degree of evolutionary optimization can be decoupled. This integrative approach is broadly applicable to other clades, by using quantitative data and model-based tests to evaluate interpretations of function from morphology and functional explanations for observed macroevolutionary pathways. PMID:25994295

  20. Executive Functions as Endophenotypes in ADHD: Evidence from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Battery (CANTAB)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Shang, Chi-Yung

    2010-01-01

    Background: Little is known about executive functions among unaffected siblings of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and there is lack of such information from non-Western countries. We examined verbal and nonverbal executive functions in adolescents with ADHD, unaffected siblings and controls to test whether executive…

  1. An integrative method for testing form-function linkages and reconstructed evolutionary pathways of masticatory specialization.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Z Jack; Flynn, John J

    2015-06-01

    Morphology serves as a ubiquitous proxy in macroevolutionary studies to identify potential adaptive processes and patterns. Inferences of functional significance of phenotypes or their evolution are overwhelmingly based on data from living taxa. Yet, correspondence between form and function has been tested in only a few model species, and those linkages are highly complex. The lack of explicit methodologies to integrate form and function analyses within a deep-time and phylogenetic context weakens inferences of adaptive morphological evolution, by invoking but not testing form-function linkages. Here, we provide a novel approach to test mechanical properties at reconstructed ancestral nodes/taxa and the strength and direction of evolutionary pathways in feeding biomechanics, in a case study of carnivorous mammals. Using biomechanical profile comparisons that provide functional signals for the separation of feeding morphologies, we demonstrate, using experimental optimization criteria on estimation of strength and direction of functional changes on a phylogeny, that convergence in mechanical properties and degree of evolutionary optimization can be decoupled. This integrative approach is broadly applicable to other clades, by using quantitative data and model-based tests to evaluate interpretations of function from morphology and functional explanations for observed macroevolutionary pathways. PMID:25994295

  2. Wind Turbine Generator System Safety and Function Test Report for the Entegrity EW50 Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.; Huskey, A.; Jager, D.; Hur, J.

    2012-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of a safety and function test that NREL conducted on the Entegrity EW50 wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commissions' (IEC) standard, Wind Turbine Generator System Part 2: Design requirements for small wind turbines, IEC 61400-2 Ed.2.0, 2006-03.

  3. Wind Turbine Generator System Safety and Function Test Report for the Ventera VT10 Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.; Huskey, A.; Jager, D.; Hur, J.

    2012-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of a safety and function test that NREL conducted on the Ventera VT10 wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commissions' (IEC) standard, Wind Turbine Generator System Part 2: Design requirements for small wind turbines, IEC 61400-2 Ed.2.0, 2006-03.

  4. Speed and Accuracy on Tests of Executive Function in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Robert M.; Baribeau, Jacinthe; Milovan, Denise L.; O'Connor, Kieron

    2004-01-01

    Slowness in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been attributed to intrusive thoughts or meticulousness. Recent research suggests that slowness in OCD may be particularly evident on tests of executive function subserved by frontostriatal circuitry. In the present study, the speed and accuracy of responding on neuropsychological tests of…

  5. 49 CFR 40.127 - What are the MRO's functions in reviewing negative test results?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What are the MRO's functions in reviewing negative test results? 40.127 Section 40.127 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Medical Review Officers and the Verification Process § 40.127 What are the...

  6. Comparing Methods of Assessing Differential Item Functioning in a Computerized Adaptive Testing Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lei, Pui-Wa; Chen, Shu-Ying; Yu, Lan

    2006-01-01

    Mantel-Haenszel and SIBTEST, which have known difficulty in detecting non-unidirectional differential item functioning (DIF), have been adapted with some success for computerized adaptive testing (CAT). This study adapts logistic regression (LR) and the item-response-theory-likelihood-ratio test (IRT-LRT), capable of detecting both unidirectional…

  7. Power and Sample Size Calculations for Logistic Regression Tests for Differential Item Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Zhushan

    2014-01-01

    Logistic regression is a popular method for detecting uniform and nonuniform differential item functioning (DIF) effects. Theoretical formulas for the power and sample size calculations are derived for likelihood ratio tests and Wald tests based on the asymptotic distribution of the maximum likelihood estimators for the logistic regression model.…

  8. Reference values for the Y Balance Test and the lower extremity functional scale in young healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Alnahdi, Ali H; Alderaa, Asma A; Aldali, Ali Z; Alsobayel, Hana

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to establish gender-specific reference values for the Y Balance Test (YBT) and the Arabic version of the Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS-Ar) in healthy young adults in Saudi Arabia, and to examine gender differences in the YBT and LEFS-Ar values. [Subjects and Methods] Healthy young adults (31 females, 30 males) completed the YBT and LEFS-Ar in 1 test session. Descriptive statistical analysis (mean, standard deviation, 95% confidence interval) was used to compute the YBT and LEFS-Ar reference values. Independent t-tests were used to examine gender differences in the YBT and LEFS-Ar values. [Results] Gender-specific reference values were obtained for the right, left, dominant, and non-dominant leg as well as for the average performance of both the legs. males showed greater YBT normalized reach distances than females did in the anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral directions; furthermore, males showed higher YBT composite scores than females did. However, the LEFS-Ar values did not differ between males and females. [Conclusion] Gender-specific reference values were obtained for the YBT and LEFS-Ar in healthy young adults in Saudi Arabia. males performed better than females did in the YBT. However, no gender differences were noted in LEFS-Ar. PMID:26834380

  9. Reference values for the Y Balance Test and the lower extremity functional scale in young healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Alnahdi, Ali H; Alderaa, Asma A; Aldali, Ali Z; Alsobayel, Hana

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to establish gender-specific reference values for the Y Balance Test (YBT) and the Arabic version of the Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS-Ar) in healthy young adults in Saudi Arabia, and to examine gender differences in the YBT and LEFS-Ar values. [Subjects and Methods] Healthy young adults (31 females, 30 males) completed the YBT and LEFS-Ar in 1 test session. Descriptive statistical analysis (mean, standard deviation, 95% confidence interval) was used to compute the YBT and LEFS-Ar reference values. Independent t-tests were used to examine gender differences in the YBT and LEFS-Ar values. [Results] Gender-specific reference values were obtained for the right, left, dominant, and non-dominant leg as well as for the average performance of both the legs. males showed greater YBT normalized reach distances than females did in the anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral directions; furthermore, males showed higher YBT composite scores than females did. However, the LEFS-Ar values did not differ between males and females. [Conclusion] Gender-specific reference values were obtained for the YBT and LEFS-Ar in healthy young adults in Saudi Arabia. males performed better than females did in the YBT. However, no gender differences were noted in LEFS-Ar. PMID:26834380

  10. Influence of Functional Knee Bracing on the Isokinetic and Functional Tests of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Deficient Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mortaza, Niyousha; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan; Jamshidi, Ali Ashraf; Razjouyan, Javad

    2013-01-01

    Use of functional knee braces has been suggested to provide protection and to improve kinetic performance of the knee in Anterior cruciate ligament(ACL)-injured patients. However, many athletes might refrain from wearing the braces because of the fear of performance hindrance in the playing field. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of three functional knee brace/sleeves upon the isokinetic and functional performance of ACL-deficient and healthy subjects. Six anterior cruciate ligament deficient (29.0±5.3 yrs., 175.2±5.4 cm, and 73.0±10.0 kg) and six healthy male subjects (27.2±3.7 yrs., 176.4±6.4 cm, and 70.3±6.9 kg) were selected. The effect of a custom-made functional knee brace, and two neoprene knee sleeves, one with four metal supports and one without support were examined via the use of isokinetic and functional tests in four sets (non-braced,wearing functional knee brace,and wearing the sleeves). Cross-over hop and single leg vertical jump test were performed and jump height, and hop distance were recorded. Peak torque to body weight ratio and average power in two isokinetic velocities(60°.s−1,180°.s−1) were recorded and the brace/sleeves effect was calculated as the changes in peak torque measured in the brace/sleeves conditions, expressed as a percentage of peak torque measured in non-braced condition. Frequency content of the isokinetic torque-time curves was also analyzed. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare the measured values in four test conditions within each control and ACL-deficient group,and Mann-Whitney U test was used for the comparison between the two groups. No significant differences in peak torque, average power, torque-time curve frequency content, vertical-jump and hop measurements were found within the experimental and the non-braced conditions (p>0.05). Although the examined functional knee brace/sleeves had no significant effect on the knee muscle performance, there have been some enhancement regarding

  11. Riparian Vegetation Mapping Along the Hanford Reach

    SciTech Connect

    FOGWELL, T.W.

    2003-07-11

    During the biological survey and inventory of the Hanford Site conducted in the mid-1990s (1995 and 1996), preliminary surveys of the riparian vegetation were conducted along the Hanford Reach. These preliminary data were reported to The Nature Conservancy (TNC), but were not included in any TNC reports to DOE or stakeholders. During the latter part of FY2001, PNNL contracted with SEE Botanical, the parties that performed the original surveys in the mid 1990s, to complete the data summaries and mapping associated with the earlier survey data. Those data sets were delivered to PNNL and the riparian mapping by vegetation type for the Hanford Reach is being digitized during the first quarter of FY2002. These mapping efforts provide the information necessary to create subsequent spatial data layers to describe the riparian zone according to plant functional types (trees, shrubs, grasses, sedges, forbs). Quantification of the riparian zone by vegetation types is important to a number of DOE'S priority issues including modeling contaminant transport and uptake in the near-riverine environment and the determination of ecological risk. This work included the identification of vegetative zones along the Reach by changes in dominant plant species covering the shoreline from just to the north of the 300 Area to China Bar near Vernita. Dominant and indicator species included Agropyron dasytachyudA. smithii, Apocynum cannabinum, Aristida longiseta, Artemisia campestris ssp. borealis var scouleriana, Artemisa dracunculus, Artemisia lindleyana, Artemisia tridentata, Bromus tectorum, Chrysothamnus nauseosus, Coreopsis atkinsoniana. Eleocharis palustris, Elymus cinereus, Equisetum hyemale, Eriogonum compositum, Juniperus trichocarpa, Phalaris arundinacea, Poa compressa. Salk exigua, Scirpus acutus, Solidago occidentalis, Sporobolus asper,and Sporobolus cryptandrus. This letter report documents the data received, the processing by PNNL staff, and additional data gathered in FY2002

  12. Editorial: Functional testing in the assessment of return to sports after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Luning; Fan, Jing; Gill, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    The paper entitled “Functional testing differences in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction patients released versus not released to return to sport” published in the American Journal of Sports Medicine (AJSM) assessed Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and the Lower Quarter Y Balance Test (YBT-LQ) as possible objective tools for evaluating a patient’s readiness to return to sports after ACL reconstruction. The results suggest that many patients clinically cleared continue to have measurable function deficits and that both FMS and YBT-LQ may be used as additional tools for return to sports clearance. PMID:26539442

  13. The Application of Normal Stress Reduction Function in Tilt Tests for Different Block Shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Gratchev, Ivan; Hein, Maw; Balasubramaniam, Arumugam

    2016-08-01

    This paper focuses on the influence of the shapes of rock cores, which control the sliding or toppling behaviours in tilt tests for the estimation of rock joint roughness coefficients (JRC). When the JRC values are estimated by performing tilt tests, the values are directly proportional to the basic friction of the rock material and the applied normal stress on the sliding planes. Normal stress obviously varies with the shape of the sliding block, and the basic friction angle is also affected by the sample shapes in tilt tests. In this study, the shapes of core blocks are classified into three representative shapes and those are created using plaster. Using the various shaped artificial cores, a set of tilt tests is carried out to identify the shape influences on the normal stress and the basic friction angle in tilt tests. The test results propose a normal stress reduction function to estimate the normal stress for tilt tests according to the sample shapes based on Barton's empirical equation. The proposed normal stress reduction functions are verified by tilt tests using artificial plaster joints and real rock joint sets. The plaster joint sets are well matched and cast in detailed printed moulds using a 3D printing technique. With the application of the functions, the obtained JRC values from the tilt tests using the plaster samples and the natural rock samples are distributed within a reasonable JRC range when compared with the measured values.

  14. Molecular Assessment of Bacterial Community Dynamics and Functional End Points during Sediment Bioaccumulation Tests.

    PubMed

    Diepens, Noël J; Dimitrov, Mauricio R; Koelmans, Albert A; Smidt, Hauke

    2015-11-17

    Whole sediment toxicity tests play an important role in environmental risk assessment of organic chemicals. It is not clear, however, to what extent changing microbial community composition and associated functions affect sediment test results. We assessed the development of bacterial communities in artificial sediment during a 28 day bioaccumulation test with polychlorinated biphenyls, chlorpyrifos, and four marine benthic invertebrates. DGGE and 454-pyrosequencing of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes were used to characterize bacterial community composition. Abundance of total bacteria and selected genes encoding enzymes involved in important microbially mediated ecosystem functions were measured by qPCR. Community composition and diversity responded most to the time course of the experiment, whereas organic matter (OM) content showed a low but significant effect on community composition, biodiversity and two functional genes tested. Moreover, OM content had a higher influence on bacterial community composition than invertebrate species. Medium OM content led to the highest gene abundance and is preferred for standard testing. Our results also indicated that a pre-equilibration period is essential for growth and stabilization of the bacterial community. The observed changes in microbial community composition and functional gene abundance may imply actual changes in such functions during tests, with consequences for exposure and toxicity assessment. PMID:26466173

  15. Mass reach scaling for future hadron colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, Thomas G.

    2015-04-01

    The primary goal of any future hadron collider is to discover new physics (NP) associated with a high mass scale, , beyond the range of the LHC. In order to maintain the same relative mass reach for rate-limited NP, , as increases, Richter recently reminded us that the required integrated luminosity obtainable at future hadron colliders (FHC) must grow rapidly, , in the limit of naive scaling. This would imply, e.g., a 50-fold increase in the required integrated luminosity when going from the 14 TeV LHC to a FHC with TeV, an increase that would prove quite challenging on many different fronts. In this paper we point out, due to the scaling violations associated with the evolution of the parton density functions (PDFs) and the running of the strong coupling, , that the actual luminosity necessary in order to maintain any fixed value of the relative mass reach is somewhat greater than this scaling result indicates. However, the actual values of the required luminosity scaling are found to be dependent upon the detailed nature of the NP being considered. Here we elucidate this point explicitly by employing several specific benchmark examples of possible NP scenarios and briefly discuss the (relatively weak) search impact in each case if these luminosity goals are not met.

  16. Cognitive Functioning Predicts Driver Safety On Road-Tests 1 and 2 Years Later

    PubMed Central

    Aksan, Nazan; Anderson, Steven W.; Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Johnson, Amy M.; Uc, Ergun Y.; Rizzo, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Our ability to predict aging related declines in driving performance from off-road assessments have clinical practice and social policy implications. OBJECTIVES 1) To describe longitudinal changes in mean-level and evaluate rank-order stability in potential predictors of driving safety (visual sensory, motor, visual attention, and cognitive functioning) and safety errors during an 18-mile on-road-drive-test among older adults. 2) To evaluate the relative predictive power of earlier visual sensory, motor, visual attention, and cognitive functioning on future safety errors controlling for earlier driving capacity. DESIGN A three-year longitudinal observational study; SETTING A large teaching hospital in the Mid-West; PARTICIPANTS 111 neurologically normal older adults (60 to 89 years at baseline); MEASUREMENTS Safety errors based on video review of a standard 18-mile on-road driving test served as the outcome measure. Comprehensive battery of tests on the predictor side included visual sensory functioning, motor functioning, cognitive functioning, and a measure of Useful Field of View. RESULTS Longitudinal changes in mean-levels of safety errors and cognitive functioning were small from year-to-year. Relative rank-order stability between consecutive assessments was moderate in overall safety errors, it was moderate to strong in visual attention and cognitive functioning. While prospective bivariate correlations ranged from fair to moderate between safety errors and predictors, only functioning in the cognitive domain predicted future driver performance one and two-years later in multivariate analyses. CONCLUSION Normative aging related declines in driver performance as assessed by on-road tests emerge slowly. The findings clearly demonstrated that even in the presence conservative controls, such as previous driving ability, age, visual sensory and motor functioning, cognitive functioning predicted future driving performance on-road one and two-years later

  17. Perceptual classes established with forced-choice primary generalization tests and transfer of function.

    PubMed Central

    Reeve, K F; Fields, L

    2001-01-01

    In Experiment 1, 20 college students learned two identity conditional discriminations using squares that differed in interior-fill percentage (called Fill23 and Fill77). A two-choice generalization test was then presented with number of test trials varied across groups of subjects. The test samples were 19 squares that ranged in fill value from 23% to 77%; the comparisons were squares with Fill23 and Fill77. The resulting gradients did not vary as a function of number of test trials. When the generalization test was repeated with a third comparison, "neither," the ranges of fill values that occasioned the exclusive selection of Fill23 or Fill77 were direct functions of the number of prior two-choice generalization trials. Finally, a disriminability test revealed that Fill23 and Fill77 were disciminable from the intermediate fill values. In Experiment 2, perceptual classes were established with 5 new students using 760 forced-choice generalization test trials. The student were then trained to select a different glyph in the presence of Fill23 and Fill77, followed by a three-choice generalization test in which the 19 fill stimuli served as samples and the two glyphs served as comparisons. The gradients ovelapped with those previously obtained during the three-choice generalization test that used Fill23 and Fill77 as comparisons. Finally, a discriminability test showed that many adjacent stimuli along thc fill dimension were discriminable from each other. Together, the results of both experiments suggest that ranges of fill-based stimuli functioned as members of perceptual classes, and each class also functioned as a transfer network for a new selection-based response. PMID:11516117

  18. Testing functional trait-based mechanisms underpinning plant responses to grazing and linkages to ecosystem functioning in grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, S. X.; Li, W. H.; Lan, Z. C.; Ren, H. Y.; Wang, K. B.; Bai, Y. F.

    2014-09-01

    Abundant evidence has shown that grazing alters plant functional traits, ecological strategies, community structure, and ecosystem functioning of grasslands. Few studies, however, have examined how plant responses to grazing are mediated by resource availability and functional group identity. We test functional trait-based mechanisms underlying the responses of different life forms to grazing and linkages to ecosystem functioning along a soil moisture gradient in the Inner Mongolia grassland. A principal component analysis (PCA) based on 9 traits × 276 species matrix showed that the plant size spectrum (i.e., individual biomass), leaf economics spectrum (leaf N content and leaf density), and light competition spectrum (height and stem-leaf biomass ratio) distinguished plant species responses to grazing. The three life forms exhibited differential strategies as indicated by trait responses to grazing. The annuals and biennials adopted grazing-tolerant strategies associated with high growth rate, reflected by high leaf N content and specific leaf area. The perennial grasses exhibited grazing-tolerant strategies associated with great regrowth capacity and high palatability scores, whereas perennial forbs showed grazing-avoidant strategies with short stature and low palatability scores. In addition, the dominant perennial bunchgrasses exhibited mixed tolerance-resistance strategies to grazing and mixed acquisitive-conservative strategies in resource utilization. Grazing increased the relative abundance of perennial forbs with low palatability in the wet and fertile meadow, but it promoted perennial grasses with high palatability in the dry and infertile typical steppe. Our findings suggest that the effects of grazing on plant functional traits are dependent on both the abiotic (e.g., soil moisture) and biotic (e.g., plant functional group identity and composition) factors. Grazing-induced shifts in functional group composition are largely dependent on resource

  19. Functional test generation for digital circuits described with a declarative language: LUSTRE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almahrous, Mazen

    1990-08-01

    A functional approach to the test generation problem starting from a high level description is proposed. The circuit tested is modeled, using the LUSTRE high level data flow description language. The different LUSTRE primitives are translated to a SATAN format graph in order to evaluate the testability of the circuit and to generate test sequences. Another method of testing the complex circuits comprising an operative part and a control part is defined. It consists of checking experiments for the control part observed through the operative part. It was applied to the automata generated from a LUSTRE description of the circuit.

  20. Ground Test of the Urine Processing Assembly for Accelerations and Transfer Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houston, Janice; Almond, Deborah F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the ground test of the urine processing assembly for accelerations and transfer functions. Details are given on the test setup, test data, data analysis, analytical results, and microgravity assessment. The conclusions of the tests include the following: (1) the single input/multiple output method is useful if the data is acquired by tri-axial accelerometers and inputs can be considered uncorrelated; (2) tying coherence with the matrix yields higher confidence in results; (3) the WRS#2 rack ORUs need to be isolated; (4) and future work includes a plan for characterizing performance of isolation materials.

  1. Testing Group Differences in Brain Functional Connectivity: Using Correlations or Partial Correlations?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Junghi; Wozniak, Jeffrey R.; Mueller, Bryon A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging allows one to study brain functional connectivity, partly motivated by evidence that patients with complex disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, may have altered functional brain connectivity patterns as compared with healthy subjects. A functional connectivity network describes statistical associations of the neural activities among distinct and distant brain regions. Recently, there is a major interest in group-level functional network analysis; however, there is a relative lack of studies on statistical inference, such as significance testing for group comparisons. In particular, it is still debatable which statistic should be used to measure pairwise associations as the connectivity weights. Many functional connectivity studies have used either (full or marginal) correlations or partial correlations for pairwise associations. This article investigates the performance of using either correlations or partial correlations for testing group differences in brain connectivity, and how sparsity levels and topological structures of the connectivity would influence statistical power to detect group differences. Our results suggest that, in general, testing group differences in networks deviates from estimating networks. For example, high regularization in both covariance matrices and precision matrices may lead to higher statistical power; in particular, optimally selected regularization (e.g., by cross-validation or even at the true sparsity level) on the precision matrices with small estimation errors may have low power. Most importantly, and perhaps surprisingly, using either correlations or partial correlations may give very different testing results, depending on which of the covariance matrices and the precision matrices are sparse. Specifically, if the precision matrices are sparse, presumably and arguably a reasonable assumption, then using correlations often yields much higher powered and more

  2. Inhibition of contralateral premotor cortex delays visually guided reaching movements in men but not in women.

    PubMed

    Gorbet, Diana J; Staines, W Richard

    2011-07-01

    The premotor-parietal network for preparation of visually guided reaching demonstrates activity mainly contralateral to the reaching arm in men but bilaterally in women. These sex differences are most prominent in the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd); however, the functional implications of these differences remain unclear. Therefore, in the experiments described here, we used continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) to test hypotheses regarding the roles of PMd both contralateral and ipsilateral to the reaching arm in men and in women. Inhibitory cTBS of the ipsilateral PMd did not have a significant effect on reaction time in either men or women. However, cTBS of the contralateral PMd resulted in a slowed mean reaction time in men but not in women. Movement times were unaffected by stimulation applied to either hemisphere. These results suggest the presence of sex differences in processing within the left PMd during visually guided reaching movements using the right arm. Further, when taken together, the results suggest that ipsilateral PMd activity in women may not be functionally necessary for reaching movements. Rather, this ipsilateral activity may provide a protective redundancy that can compensate for decreased activity from the contralateral PMd. The observation of sex differences in reaction times but not in movement times following cTBS to the contralateral hemisphere suggests that these sex differences are more strongly associated with movement planning than with motor execution. PMID:21607701

  3. Anatomical correlates of recovery in single pellet reaching in spinal cord injured rats.

    PubMed

    Hurd, C; Weishaupt, N; Fouad, K

    2013-09-01

    Modeling spinal cord injury (SCI) in animals is challenging because an appropriate combination of lesion location, lesion severity and behavioral testing is essential to analyze recovery of motor function. For particular tests such as single pellet reaching, the contribution of individual descending tracts to recovery has been investigated using specific tract ablation or graded lesions. However, it has not been established whether single pellet reaching is sufficiently sensitive for assessing the efficacy of treatments for cervical SCI (e.g., one of the currently most successful treatment approaches: rehabilitative training). To address this issue, we trained adult rats in single pellet reaching before and after a cervical (C4) spinal lesion. Animals with lesions of increasing severity were grouped into categories based on damage to anatomical structures such as the corticospinal tract (CST) and the rubrospinal tract (RST), two descending motor tracts that have been implicated in fine motor control of the forelimb. We related lesion extent to spontaneous recovery and plasticity-promoting post injury training and found that reaching performance was not correlated with lesion size or the extent of CST or RST injury. Interestingly, the dorsolateral quadrant (DLQ) lesion category, in which the unilateral dorsal CST and most of the unilateral RST are lesioned, was the only category that showed a clear effect of plasticity-promoting treatment (i.e., training), indicating its usefulness as a lesion model for this testing paradigm. The DLQ lesion likely strikes a balance between tissue sparing and functional impairment and is, therefore, best suited to maximize the potential to observe treatment effects of plasticity-promoting treatments using single pellet reaching. Because of the specific lesion size that is necessary to observe treatment effects, the single pellet skilled reaching task can be considered a stringent behavioral test and therefore may be useful for

  4. The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and the cognitive assessment of prefrontal executive functions: a critical update.

    PubMed

    Nyhus, Erika; Barceló, Francisco

    2009-12-01

    For over four decades the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) has been one of the most distinctive tests of prefrontal function. Clinical research and recent brain imaging have brought into question the validity and specificity of this test as a marker of frontal dysfunction. Clinical studies with neurological patients have confirmed that, in its traditional form, the WCST fails to discriminate between frontal and non-frontal lesions. In addition, functional brain imaging studies show rapid and widespread activation across frontal and non-frontal brain regions during WCST performance. These studies suggest that the concept of an anatomically pure test of prefrontal function is not only empirically unattainable, but also theoretically inaccurate. The aim of the present review is to examine the causes of these criticisms and to resolve them by incorporating new methodological and conceptual advances in order to improve the construct validity of WCST scores and their relationship to prefrontal executive functions. We conclude that these objectives can be achieved by drawing on theory-guided experimental design, and on precise spatial and temporal sampling of brain activity, and then exemplify this using an integrative model of prefrontal function [i.e., Miller, E. K. (2000). The prefrontal cortex and cognitive control. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 1, 59-65.] combined with the formal information theoretical approach to cognitive control [Koechlin, E., & Summerfield, C. (2007). An information theoretical approach to prefrontal executive function. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 11, 229-235.]. PMID:19375839

  5. Assessment of neurobehavioral function with computerized tests in a population of hispanic adolescents working in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Rohlman, D S; Bailey, S R; Anger, W K; McCauley, L

    2001-01-01

    In recent years there has been heightened concern over the potential of occupational or environmental exposures to affect neurological function in children and adolescents. The current study was designed to develop computerized tests to effectively assess neurobehavioral function in Hispanic adolescents working in agriculture and to evaluate those tests in Hispanic youths working in agriculture and in a non-agricultural group. After exclusions, 96 adolescents currently working in agriculture (AG) and 51 adolescents currently non-migratory and not working in agriculture (Non-AG) were tested. Neurobehavioral tests were selected from the computerized Behavioral Assessment and Research System. AG test performance was significantly below Non-AG performance on the cognitive tests. However, educational and cultural differences between the AG and Non-AG groups may explain this difference. Repeat testing of the AG group revealed substantially improved performance, further supporting educational or cultural differences as an explanation for the group differences. Together, these results expose the limitations in case-control or cross-sectional designs for testing migrant worker populations in the United States. Longitudinal or cross-sectional designs with repeat testing offer more promise and may be essential for drawing accurate conclusions in migrant worker groups where there are no truly equivalent comparison or control groups. PMID:11161647

  6. Reliability and validity of the sideways step test and its correlation with motor function after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Eva Y.F.; Fong, Shirley S.M.; Tse, Mimi M.Y.; Tam, Eric W.C.; Ng, Shamay SM; So, Billy C.L.

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the intra-rater, inter-rater and test-retest reliability of the sideways step test (SST), its correlation with other indicators of stroke-specific impairment, and the cut-off count best discriminating subjects with stroke from their healthy counterparts. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-three subjects with chronic stroke and 41 healthy subjects older than 50 years participated in this study. The SST was administered along with the Fugl-Meyer motor assessment for the lower extremities (FMA-LE), the five-times sit to stand (5TSTS) test, the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), the movement velocity (MVL) by the limits of stability (LOS) test, the ten-metre walk (10mW) test, the timed “Up and Go” (TUG) test and the Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) scale. [Results] The SST showed good to excellent intra-rater, inter-rater and test-retest reliability. The SST counts correlated with 5TSTS times, 10mW times, TUG times, and the FMA-LE and BBS scores. SST counts of 11 for the paretic leg and 14 for the non-paretic leg were found to distinguish the healthy adults from subjects with stroke. [Conclusion] The sideways step test is a reliable clinical test, which correlates with the functional strength, gait speed, and functional balance of people with chronic stroke. PMID:26180332

  7. Functional Task Test: 3. Skeletal Muscle Performance Adaptations to Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Jeffrey W.; Wickwire, P. J.; Buxton, R. E.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Ploutz-Snyder, L.

    2011-01-01

    The functional task test is a multi-disciplinary study investigating how space-flight induced changes to physiological systems impacts functional task performance. Impairment of neuromuscular function would be expected to negatively affect functional performance of crewmembers following exposure to microgravity. This presentation reports the results for muscle performance testing in crewmembers. Functional task performance will be presented in the abstract "Functional Task Test 1: sensory motor adaptations associated with postflight alternations in astronaut functional task performance." METHODS: Muscle performance measures were obtained in crewmembers before and after short-duration space flight aboard the Space Shuttle and long-duration International Space Station (ISS) missions. The battery of muscle performance tests included leg press and bench press measures of isometric force, isotonic power and total work. Knee extension was used for the measurement of central activation and maximal isometric force. Upper and lower body force steadiness control were measured on the bench press and knee extension machine, respectively. Tests were implemented 60 and 30 days before launch, on landing day (Shuttle crew only), and 6, 10 and 30 days after landing. Seven Space Shuttle crew and four ISS crew have completed the muscle performance testing to date. RESULTS: Preliminary results for Space Shuttle crew reveal significant reductions in the leg press performance metrics of maximal isometric force, power and total work on R+0 (p<0.05). Bench press total work was also significantly impaired, although maximal isometric force and power were not significantly affected. No changes were noted for measurements of central activation or force steadiness. Results for ISS crew were not analyzed due to the current small sample size. DISCUSSION: Significant reductions in lower body muscle performance metrics were observed in returning Shuttle crew and these adaptations are likely

  8. Development and Demonstration of Multidimensional IRT-Based Internal Measures of Differential Functioning of Items and Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oshima, T. C.; Raju, Nambury S. Rajo; Flowers, Claudia P.

    1997-01-01

    Defines and demonstrates a framework for studying differential item functioning and differential test functioning for tests that are intended to be multidimensional. The procedure, which is illustrated with simulated data, is an extension of the unidimensional differential functioning of items and tests approach (N. Raju, W. van der Linden, and P.…

  9. Chronic behavioral testing after focal ischemia in the mouse: functional recovery and the effects of gender.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoling; Blizzard, Kathleen K; Zeng, Zhiyuan; DeVries, A Courtney; Hurn, Patricia D; McCullough, Louise D

    2004-05-01

    Several useful behavioral tests exist for measuring behavioral recovery after ischemia in higher-order animals and rats. With the increasing use of mice in focal stroke research, simple, reliable, and reproducible behavioral testing has become a priority. As neuroprotective agents are tested, long-term outcome must be assessed, especially in studies focused on neuronal plasticity and regeneration after ischemia. Our laboratory and others have previously shown that estrogen (E2) is neuroprotective in rodent stroke paradigms. We examined a battery of behavioral tests in male and female mice subjected to 90 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) to determine the most sensitive tests for detecting sensorimotor dysfunction after stroke, and to determine the functional significance of E2-mediated neuroprotection. Only two tests, the corner test and the cylinder test, were able to differentiate between groups (sham and stroke) after several days of repeated testing. The cylinder test was sensitive to the neuroprotective/neurorestorative effects of E2, but 2 weeks after stroke, the cylinder test was unable to distinguish between sham and stroke animals treated with E2. In contrast, the corner test was able to differentiate stroke and sham animals even 6 weeks after stroke, but did not distinguish animals treated with E2 vs. vehicle. These tests provide a simple, rapid, reliable assessment of sensorimotor dysfunction in the mouse after focal ischemia. Hormonal status influences speed of recovery on cylinder testing in animals of both genders. This suggests that a short battery of tests including the neurological score, cylinder, and corner test may be adequate to rapidly and repeatedly assess sensorimotor dysfunction in mice of both genders. PMID:15081592

  10. Optic ataxia: from Balint's syndrome to the parietal reach region.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Richard A; Andersen, Kristen N; Hwang, Eun Jung; Hauschild, Markus

    2014-03-01

    Optic ataxia is a high-order deficit in reaching to visual goals that occurs with posterior parietal cortex (PPC) lesions. It is a component of Balint's syndrome that also includes attentional and gaze disorders. Aspects of optic ataxia are misreaching in the contralesional visual field, difficulty preshaping the hand for grasping, and an inability to correct reaches online. Recent research in nonhuman primates (NHPs) suggests that many aspects of Balint's syndrome and optic ataxia are a result of damage to specific functional modules for reaching, saccades, grasp, attention, and state estimation. The deficits from large lesions in humans are probably composite effects from damage to combinations of these functional modules. Interactions between these modules, either within posterior parietal cortex or downstream within frontal cortex, may account for more complex behaviors such as hand-eye coordination and reach-to-grasp. PMID:24607223

  11. Reach tracking reveals dissociable processes underlying cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Erb, Christopher D; Moher, Jeff; Sobel, David M; Song, Joo-Hyun

    2016-07-01

    The current study uses reach tracking to investigate how cognitive control is implemented during online performance of the Stroop task (Experiment 1) and the Eriksen flanker task (Experiment 2). We demonstrate that two of the measures afforded by reach tracking, initiation time and reach curvature, capture distinct patterns of effects that have been linked to dissociable processes underlying cognitive control in electrophysiology and functional neuroimaging research. Our results suggest that initiation time reflects a response threshold adjustment process involving the inhibition of motor output, while reach curvature reflects the degree of co-activation between response alternatives registered by a monitoring process over the course of a trial. In addition to shedding new light on fundamental questions concerning how these processes contribute to the cognitive control of behavior, these results present a framework for future research to investigate how these processes function across different tasks, develop across the lifespan, and differ among individuals. PMID:27045465

  12. Tests of pancreatic exocrine function - clinical significance in pancreatic and non-pancreatic disorders.

    PubMed

    Keller, Jutta; Aghdassi, Ali Alexander; Lerch, Markus M; Mayerle, Julia V; Layer, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The pancreas functions as the main factory for digestive enzymes and therefore enables food utilisation. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, partial or complete loss of digestive enzyme synthesis, occurs primarily in disorders directly affecting pancreatic tissue integrity. However, other disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, such as coeliac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome or gastric resection can either mimic or cause pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. The overt clinical symptoms of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency are steatorrhoea and maldigestion, which frequently become apparent in advanced stages. Several direct and indirect function tests are available for assessment of pancreatic function but until today diagnosis of excretory insufficiency is difficult as in mild impairment clinically available function tests show limitations of diagnostic accuracy. This review focuses on diagnosis of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency in pancreatic and non-pancreatic disorders. PMID:19505669

  13. Abnormal Liver Function Tests in an Anorexia Nervosa Patient and an Atypical Manifestation of Refeeding Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Vootla, Vamshidhar R.; Daniel, Myrta

    2015-01-01

    Refeeding syndrome is defined as electrolyte and fluid abnormalities that occur in significantly malnourished patients when they are refed orally, enterally, or parenterally. The principal manifestations include hypophosphatemia, hypokalemia, vitamin deficiencies, volume overload and edema. This can affect multiple organ systems, such as the cardiovascular, pulmonary, or neurological systems, secondary to the above-mentioned abnormalities. Rarely, patients may develop gastrointestinal symptoms and show abnormal liver function test results. We report the case of a 52-year-old woman with anorexia nervosa who developed refeeding syndrome and simultaneous elevations of liver function test results, which normalized upon the resolution of the refeeding syndrome. PMID:26351414

  14. Deranged liver function tests in pregnancy: the importance of postnatal follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Sophia; Girling, Joanna C

    2009-01-01

    We report an asymptomatic 40-year-old woman with persistently deranged liver function tests found incidentally in the first trimester of her second pregnancy. No cause was apparent clinically, serologically or with imaging studies until a new finding of hepatomegaly led to a repeat ultrasound scan six weeks following delivery. A mass in the region of the common hepatic duct was confirmed to be a cholangiocarcinoma, with vascular invasion precluding curative surgical resection. This case highlights the need for close vigilance of patients with unexplained and persistently abnormal liver function tests, antenatally and postdelivery.

  15. Measuring individuals' response quality in self-administered psychological tests: an introduction to Gendre's functional method

    PubMed Central

    Dupuis, Marc; Meier, Emanuele; Capel, Roland; Gendre, Francis

    2015-01-01

    The functional method is a new test theory using a new scoring method that assumes complexity in test structure, and thus takes into account every correlation between factors and items. The main specificity of the functional method is to model test scores by multiple regression instead of estimating them by using simplistic sums of points. In order to proceed, the functional method requires the creation of hyperspherical measurement space, in which item responses are expressed by their correlation with orthogonal factors. This method has three main qualities. First, measures are expressed in the absolute metric of correlations; therefore, items, scales and persons are expressed in the same measurement space using the same single metric. Second, factors are systematically orthogonal and without errors, which is optimal in order to predict other outcomes. Such predictions can be performed to estimate how one would answer to other tests, or even to model one's response strategy if it was perfectly coherent. Third, the functional method provides measures of individuals' response validity (i.e., control indices). Herein, we propose a standard procedure in order to identify whether test results are interpretable and to exclude invalid results caused by various response biases based on control indices. PMID:26136693

  16. It Might Not Make a Big DIF: Improved Differential Test Functioning Statistics That Account for Sampling Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalmers, R. Philip; Counsell, Alyssa; Flora, David B.

    2016-01-01

    Differential test functioning, or DTF, occurs when one or more items in a test demonstrate differential item functioning (DIF) and the aggregate of these effects are witnessed at the test level. In many applications, DTF can be more important than DIF when the overall effects of DIF at the test level can be quantified. However, optimal statistical…

  17. ROLE OF YOGA ON CARDIC AUTONOMIC FUNCTION TESTS AND COGNITION IN TYPE 2 DIABETES

    PubMed Central

    Rajani, Santhakumari Nagothu; Indla, Yogananda Reddy; Archana, R; Rajesh, P

    2016-01-01

    According to International Diabetic Federation, type 2 diabetic population is on the rise globally and cognitive decline is one of the complications seen in type 2 diabetes. The present study is aimed at exploring the role of regular practice of yoga on cognition in type 2 diabetes and also to study the relation between the cognition and functional status of autonomic nervous system by considering the Cardiac Autonomic (CAN) function tests. Ten type 2 diabetic subjects of both the sex, aged between 35-55 years, who practiced yoga for a period of six months at Yogi Vemana Yoga Research Institute were recruited as test group. Age and sex matched ten type 2 diabetic subjects were recruited as control group; both the group subjects are on oral hypoglycemic agents. Glycosylated hemoglobin concentration was estimated with Bio-Rad instrument, cognition was assessed with Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised battery and Cardiac autonomic function tests were also conducted. Unpaired student t test was performed and p<0.05 is considered statistically significant. The mean HbA1c concentration in control and test group subjects is 7.8±1.84 and 6.9±0.4% (p=0.03) respectively. Mean cognitive scores in test and control group subjects are 93±4.5 and 85±4.0 (p=0.008) respectively. CAN test results didn't showed any significance between the test and control group. But CAN functions are affected in both the groups. Regular practice of yoga in combination with oral hypoglycemic agents has a positive effect on cognition in type 2 diabetes. PMID:27390720

  18. The use of a battery of tracking tests in the quantitative evaluation of neurological function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Repa, B. S.; Albers, J. W.; Potvin, A. R.; Tourtellotte, W. W.

    1972-01-01

    A tracking test battery has been applied in a drug trail designed to compare the efficacy of L-DOPA and amantadine to that of L-DOPA and placebo in the treatment of 28 patients with Parkinson's disease. The drug trial provided an ideal opportunity for objectively evaluating the usefulness of tracking tests in assessing changes in neurologic function. Evaluating changes in patient performance resulting from disease progression and controlled clinical trials is of great importance in establishing effective treatment programs.

  19. Exercise testing in severe emphysema: association with quality of life and lung function.

    PubMed

    Brown, Cynthia D; Benditt, Joshua O; Sciurba, Frank C; Lee, Shing M; Criner, Gerard J; Mosenifar, Zab; Shade, David M; Slivka, William A; Wise, Robert A

    2008-04-01

    Six-minute walk testing (6MWT) and cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) are used to evaluate impairment in emphysema. However, the extent of impairment in these tests as well as the correlation of these tests with each other and lung function in advanced emphysema is not well characterized. During screening for the National Emphysema Treatment Trial, maximum ergometer CPX and 6MWT were performed in 1,218 individuals with severe COPD with an average FEV(1) of 26.9 +/- 7.1 % predicted. Predicted values for 6MWT and CPX were calculated from reference equations. Correlation coefficients and multivariable regression models were used to determine the association between lung function, quality of life (QOL) scores, and exercise measures. The two forms of exercise testing were correlated with each other (r = 0.57, p < 0.0001). However, the impairment of performance on CPX was greater than on the 6MWT (27.6 +/- 16.8 vs. 67.9 +/- 18.9 % predicted). Both exercise tests had similar correlation with measures of QOL, but maximum exercise capacity was better correlated with lung function measures than 6-minute walk distance. After adjustment, 6MWD had a slightly greater association with total SGRQ score than maximal exercise (effect size 0.37 +/- 0.04 vs. 0.25 +/- 0.03 %predicted/unit). Despite advanced emphysema, patients are able to maintain 6MWD to a greater degree than maximum exercise capacity. Moreover, the 6MWT may be a better test of functional capacity given its greater association with QOL measures whereas CPX is a better test of physiologic impairment. PMID:18415810

  20. The Social Reach: 8-Month-Olds Reach for Unobtainable Objects in the Presence of Another Person.

    PubMed

    Ramenzoni, Verónica C; Liszkowski, Ulf

    2016-09-01

    Linguistic communication builds on prelinguistic communicative gestures, but the ontogenetic origins and complexities of these prelinguistic gestures are not well known. The current study tested whether 8-month-olds, who do not yet point communicatively, use instrumental actions for communicative purposes. In two experiments, infants reached for objects when another person was present and when no one else was present; the distance to the objects was varied. When alone, the infants reached for objects within their action boundaries and refrained from reaching for objects out of their action boundaries; thus, they knew about their individual action efficiency. However, when a parent (Experiment 1) or a less familiar person (Experiment 2) sat next to them, the infants selectively increased their reaching for out-of-reach objects. The findings reveal that before they communicate explicitly through pointing gestures, infants use instrumental actions with the apparent expectation that a partner will adopt and complete their goals. PMID:27481910

  1. Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility Corrosion Test Report (Phase 1)

    SciTech Connect

    Carlos, W. C.; Fritz, R. L.

    1993-12-27

    This report documents the results of the corrosion tests that were performed to aid in the selection of the construction materials for multi-function waste tanks to be built in the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site. Two alloys were tested: 304L and Alloy 20 austenitic stainless steel. The test media were aqueous solutions formulated to represent the extreme of the chemical compositions of waste to be stored in the tanks. The results summerized by alloy are as follows: For 304L the tests showed no stress-corrosion cracking in any of the nine test solutions. The tests showed pitting in on of the solutions. There were no indications of any weld heat-tint corrosion, nor any sign of preferential corrosion in the welded areas. For Alloy 20 the tests showed no general, pitting, or stress-corrosion cracking. One crevice corrosion coupon cracked at the web between a hole and the edge of the coupon in one of the solutions. Mechanical tests showed some possible crack extension in the same solution. Because of the failure of both alloys to meet test acceptance criteria, the tank waste chemistry will have to be restricted or an alternative alloy tested.

  2. Tests of executive functioning predict scores on the MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale.

    PubMed

    Deckel, A W

    1999-02-01

    1. Previous work reported that tests of executive functioning (EF) predict the risk of alcoholism in subject populations selected for a "high density" of a family history of alcoholism and/or the presence of sociopathic traits. The current experiment examined the ability of EF tests to predict the risk of alcoholism, as measured by the MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale (MAC), in outpatient subjects referred to a general neuropsychological testing service. 2. Sixty-eight male and female subjects referred for neuropsychological testing were assessed for their past drinking histories and administered the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised, the Trails (Part B) Test, and the MAC. Principal Components analysis (PCA) reduced the number of EF tests to two measures, including one that loaded on the WCST, and one that loaded on the Similarities, Picture Arrangement, and Trails tests. Multiple hierarchical regression first removed the variance from demographic variables, alcohol consumption, and verbal (i.e., Vocabulary) and non-verbal (i.e., Block Design) IQ, and then entered the executive functioning factors into the prediction of the MAC. 3. Seventy-six percent of the subjects were classified as either light, infrequent, or non-drinkers on the Quantity-Frequency-Variability scale. The factor derived from the WCST on PCA significantly added to the prediction of risk on the MAC (p = .0063), as did scores on Block Design (p = .033). Relatively more impaired scores on the WCST factor and Block Design were predictive of higher scores on the MAC. The other factors were not associated with MAC scores. 4. These results support the hypothesis that decrements in EF are associated with risk factors for alcoholism, even in populations where the density of alcoholic behaviors are not unusually high. When taken in conjunction with other findings, these results implicate EF test scores, and prefrontal brain functioning, in the neurobiology of the risk for

  3. Functional Equivalence Acceptance Testing of FUN3D for Entry Descent and Landing Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.; Wood, William A.; Kleb, William L.; Alter, Stephen J.; Glass, Christopher E.; Padilla, Jose F.; Hammond, Dana P.; White, Jeffery A.

    2013-01-01

    The functional equivalence of the unstructured grid code FUN3D to the the structured grid code LAURA (Langley Aerothermodynamic Upwind Relaxation Algorithm) is documented for applications of interest to the Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) community. Examples from an existing suite of regression tests are used to demonstrate the functional equivalence, encompassing various thermochemical models and vehicle configurations. Algorithm modifications required for the node-based unstructured grid code (FUN3D) to reproduce functionality of the cell-centered structured code (LAURA) are also documented. Challenges associated with computation on tetrahedral grids versus computation on structured-grid derived hexahedral systems are discussed.

  4. Test-Retest Reliability and Convergent Validity of a Computer Based Hand Function Test Protocol in People with Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Srikesavan, Cynthia S.; Shay, Barbara; Szturm, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: A computer based hand function assessment tool has been developed to provide a standardized method for quantifying task performance during manipulations of common objects/tools/utensils with diverse physical properties and grip/grasp requirements for handling. The study objectives were to determine test-retest reliability and convergent validity of the test protocol in people with arthritis. Methods: Three different object manipulation tasks were evaluated twice in forty people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or hand osteoarthritis (HOA). Each object was instrumented with a motion sensor and moved in concert with a computer generated visual target. Self-reported joint pain and stiffness levels were recorded before and after each task. Task performance was determined by comparing the object movement with the computer target motion. This was correlated with grip strength, nine hole peg test, Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) questionnaire, and the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) scores. Results: The test protocol indicated moderate to high test-retest reliability of performance measures for three manipulation tasks, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) ranging between 0.5 to 0.84, p<0.05. Strength of association between task performance measures with self- reported activity/participation composite scores was low to moderate (Spearman rho <0.7). Low correlations (Spearman rho < 0.4) were observed between task performance measures and grip strength; and between three objects’ performance measures. Significant reduction in pain and joint stiffness (p<0.05) was observed after performing each task. Conclusion: The study presents initial evidence on the test retest reliability and convergent validity of a computer based hand function assessment protocol in people with rheumatoid arthritis or hand osteoarthritis. The novel tool objectively measures overall task performance during a variety of object manipulation tasks done by tracking a

  5. Functional linear models to test for differences in prairie wetland hydraulic gradients

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greenwood, Mark C.; Sojda, Richard S.; Preston, Todd M.

    2010-01-01

    Functional data analysis provides a framework for analyzing multiple time series measured frequently in time, treating each series as a continuous function of time. Functional linear models are used to test for effects on hydraulic gradient functional responses collected from three types of land use in Northeastern Montana at fourteen locations. Penalized regression-splines are used to estimate the underlying continuous functions based on the discretely recorded (over time) gradient measurements. Permutation methods are used to assess the statistical significance of effects. A method for accommodating missing observations in each time series is described. Hydraulic gradients may be an initial and fundamental ecosystem process that responds to climate change. We suggest other potential uses of these methods for detecting evidence of climate change.

  6. A Semi-automated Commissioning Tool for VAV Air Handling Units:Functional Test Analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Haves, Philip; Kim, Moosung; Najafi, Massieh; Xu, Peng

    2007-01-01

    A software tool that automates the analysis of functional tests for air-handling units is described. The tool compares the performance observed during manual tests with the performance predicted by simple models of the components under test that are configured using design and of information catalog data. Significant differences between observed and expected performance indicate the presence faults. Fault diagnosis is performed by analyzing the variation of these differences with operating points using expert rules and fuzzy inferencing. The tool has a convenient user interface to facilitate manual entry of measurements made during a test. A graphical display compares the measured and expected performance, highlighting significant differences that indicate the presence of faults. The tool is designed to be used by commissioning providers conducting functional tests as part of either new building commissioning or retrocommissioning as well as by building owners and operators conducting routine tests to check the performance of their HVAC systems. This paper describes the input data requirements of the tool, the software structure, and the graphical interface and summarizes the development and testing process used.

  7. Differential item functioning analysis of the Vanderbilt Expertise Test for cars.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woo-Yeol; Cho, Sun-Joo; McGugin, Rankin W; Van Gulick, Ana Beth; Gauthier, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    The Vanderbilt Expertise Test for cars (VETcar) is a test of visual learning for contemporary car models. We used item response theory to assess the VETcar and in particular used differential item functioning (DIF) analysis to ask if the test functions the same way in laboratory versus online settings and for different groups based on age and gender. An exploratory factor analysis found evidence of multidimensionality in the VETcar, although a single dimension was deemed sufficient to capture the recognition ability measured by the test. We selected a unidimensional three-parameter logistic item response model to examine item characteristics and subject abilities. The VETcar had satisfactory internal consistency. A substantial number of items showed DIF at a medium effect size for test setting and for age group, whereas gender DIF was negligible. Because online subjects were on average older than those tested in the lab, we focused on the age groups to conduct a multigroup item response theory analysis. This revealed that most items on the test favored the younger group. DIF could be more the rule than the exception when measuring performance with familiar object categories, therefore posing a challenge for the measurement of either domain-general visual abilities or category-specific knowledge. PMID:26418499

  8. Differential item functioning analysis of the Vanderbilt Expertise Test for cars

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Woo-Yeol; Cho, Sun-Joo; McGugin, Rankin W.; Van Gulick, Ana Beth; Gauthier, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    The Vanderbilt Expertise Test for cars (VETcar) is a test of visual learning for contemporary car models. We used item response theory to assess the VETcar and in particular used differential item functioning (DIF) analysis to ask if the test functions the same way in laboratory versus online settings and for different groups based on age and gender. An exploratory factor analysis found evidence of multidimensionality in the VETcar, although a single dimension was deemed sufficient to capture the recognition ability measured by the test. We selected a unidimensional three-parameter logistic item response model to examine item characteristics and subject abilities. The VETcar had satisfactory internal consistency. A substantial number of items showed DIF at a medium effect size for test setting and for age group, whereas gender DIF was negligible. Because online subjects were on average older than those tested in the lab, we focused on the age groups to conduct a multigroup item response theory analysis. This revealed that most items on the test favored the younger group. DIF could be more the rule than the exception when measuring performance with familiar object categories, therefore posing a challenge for the measurement of either domain-general visual abilities or category-specific knowledge. PMID:26418499

  9. Retronasal testing of olfactory function: an investigation and comparison in seven countries.

    PubMed

    Croy, Ilona; Hoffmann, Heike; Philpott, Carl; Rombaux, Philippe; Welge-Luessen, Antje; Vodicka, Jan; Konstantinidis, Iordanis; Morera, Eduardo; Hummel, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Flavor perception is to a large extent determined by olfaction, and persons who lost their sense of smell consequently complain about strongly reduced enjoyment of food. The retronasal olfactory function is especially important for flavor appreciation. The aim of this study was to compare retronasal function across different cultures and to develop a test that is applicable across cultures. Identification of 39 retronasal applied odor probes was tested in a total of 518 participants of seven countries; 292 of them were healthy, and 226 exhibited a smell disorder. A retest was performed with 224 of the healthy participants. Furthermore, all participants were tested for orthonasal threshold, identification, and discrimination ability. Significant cultural differences in identification ability were found in 92% of the probes. The 20 probes that could be identified above chance in healthy participants of all countries and that could differentiate between patients and controls were selected for the final retronasal test. This test was well able to differentiate between controls and patients in different countries and showed a good coherence with the orthonasal test (r = 0.80) and a good retest-reliability (r = 0.76). Furthermore, it is age-independent. The strong cultural differences observed in retronasal identification underline the necessity to develop a culturally independent instrument. This retronasal test is easy to apply and can be used across different countries for diagnostics and clinical research. PMID:23999595

  10. Region-Based Association Test for Familial Data under Functional Linear Models.

    PubMed

    Svishcheva, Gulnara R; Belonogova, Nadezhda M; Axenovich, Tatiana I

    2015-01-01

    Region-based association analysis is a more powerful tool for gene mapping than testing of individual genetic variants, particularly for rare genetic variants. The most powerful methods for regional mapping are based on the functional data analysis approach, which assumes that the regional genome of an individual may be considered as a continuous stochastic function that contains information about both linkage and linkage disequilibrium. Here, we extend this powerful approach, earlier applied only to independent samples, to the samples of related individuals. To this end, we additionally include a random polygene effects in functional linear model used for testing association between quantitative traits and multiple genetic variants in the region. We compare the statistical power of different methods using Genetic Analysis Workshop 17 mini-exome family data and a wide range of simulation scenarios. Our method increases the power of regional association analysis of quantitative traits compared with burden-based and kernel-based methods for the majority of the scenarios. In addition, we estimate the statistical power of our method using regions with small number of genetic variants, and show that our method retains its advantage over burden-based and kernel-based methods in this case as well. The new method is implemented as the R-function 'famFLM' using two types of basis functions: the B-spline and Fourier bases. We compare the properties of the new method using models that differ from each other in the type of their function basis. The models based on the Fourier basis functions have an advantage in terms of speed and power over the models that use the B-spline basis functions and those that combine B-spline and Fourier basis functions. The 'famFLM' function is distributed under GPLv3 license and is freely available at http://mga.bionet.nsc.ru/soft/famFLM/. PMID:26111046

  11. Functional and dynamics testing of the flexible solar array for the communications technology satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, T. D.; Buckingham, R.; Vigneron, F. R.

    1975-01-01

    The test objectives, test methods, thermal environmental simulations, and test results are described, for a series of combined dynamic, thermal, and vacuum environmental tests on a Deployable Solar Array for the Communications Technology Satellite. Six major resonant structural modes were observed over an excitation range of 0.1-1.0 Hz. Corresponding modal damping factors were found to be between 0.001 and 0.01. Variation of temperature environments between -125 C and 42 C did not significantly affect the characteristics of the fundamental modes, but did influence some of the higher modes. Superharmonic response behavior was observed. The tests also verified functional mechanical performance of the solar array under thermal and vacuum conditions.

  12. Memory in myasthenia gravis: neuropsychological tests of central cholinergic function before and after effective immunologic treatment.

    PubMed

    Glennerster, A; Palace, J; Warburton, D; Oxbury, S; Newsom-Davis, J

    1996-04-01

    There are reports of central cholinergic deficits in myasthenia gravis (MG) describing impaired performance on a variety of tests of memory with varying benefits from plasmapheresis. We tested 11 patients with symptomatic MG at the start of a trial of immunosuppressive treatment (prednisolone plus azathioprine or placebo) and again when in remission. The tests included the Logical Memory and Design Reproduction parts of the Wechsler Memory Scale, the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Peterson-Peterson task, and an auditory vigilance task. Muscle strength improved significantly over the period of treatment, but overall performance on tests of memory or attention did not. These results fail to substantiate reports of functionally significant and reversible central deficits in myasthenia gravis. PMID:8780106

  13. Executive Functioning in Normal Aging: A Study of Action Planning Using the Zoo Map Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allain, P.; Nicoleau, S.; Pinon, K.; Etcharry-Bouyx, F.; Barre, J.; Berrut, G.; Dubas, F.; Gall, D.L.

    2005-01-01

    A particularly important aspect of executive functioning involves the ability to form and carry out complex plans, that is to say planning. This study aimed to investigate planning in 18 older and 16 younger normal participants using an ecological planning subtask derived from the Behavioural Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome test battery,…

  14. Genetic Influences on Cognitive Function Using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Jamie J.; MacGregor, Alex J.; Cherkas, Lynn F.; Spector, Tim D.

    2006-01-01

    The genetic relationship between intelligence and components of cognition remains controversial. Conflicting results may be a function of the limited number of methods used in experimental evaluation. The current study is the first to use CANTAB (The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery). This is a battery of validated computerised…

  15. Potential Sources of Differential Item Functioning in the Adaptation of Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elosua, Paula; Lopez-Jauregui, Alicia

    2007-01-01

    This report shows a classification of differential item functioning (DIF) sources that have an effect on the adaptation of tests. This classification is based on linguistic and cultural criteria. Four general DIF sources are distinguished: cultural relevance, translation problems, morph syntactical differences, and semantic differences. The…

  16. Emotional-volitional components of operator reliability. [sensorimotor function testing under stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mileryan, Y. A.

    1975-01-01

    Sensorimotor function testing in a tracking task under stressfull working conditions established a psychological characterization for a successful aviation pilot: Motivation significantly increased the reliability and effectiveness of their work. Their acitivities were aimed at suppressing weariness and the feeling of fear caused by the stress factors; they showed patience, endurance, persistence, and a capacity for lengthy volitional efforts.

  17. Investigating Gender Differential Item Functioning across Countries and Test Languages for PISA Science Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le, Luc T.

    2009-01-01

    This study uses PISA cycle 3 field trial data to investigate the relationships between gender differential item functioning (DIF) across countries and test languages for science items and their formats and the four other dimensions defined in PISA framework: focus, context, competency, and scientific knowledge. The data used were collected from 60…

  18. Implications of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) for Test Development and Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Janet F.; Benson, Nicholas; Oakland, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Implications of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) on the development and use of tests in school settings are enumerated. We predict increased demand for behavioural assessments that consider a person's activities, participation and person-environment interactions, including measures that: (a) address…

  19. Cardio-Pulmonary Function Testing. Continuing Education Curriculum for Respiratory Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint Paul Technical Vocational Inst., MN.

    Compiled from interviews with personnel in pulmonary function testing (PFT) laboratories in the Minneapolis/St. Paul area, this competency-based curriculum guide is intended to provide a knowledge of PFT for persons who provide respiratory care. The guide contains 20 sections covering the following topics: vital capacity, flow measurements,…

  20. Detecting and Analyzing Differential Item Functioning in an Essay Test Using the Partial Credit Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steven; Walker-Bartnick, Leslie

    A procedure was developed to detect differential item functioning (DIF) in a standardized essay test using the Partial Credit Model, the general polychotomous form of the Rasch model. Using a panel of experts in the writing process, hypothesized explanations for DIF at some score points were developed. Data for the study included averaged…

  1. Effect of Mindfulness Meditation on Perceived Stress Scores and Autonomic Function Tests of Pregnant Indian Women

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Reena; Kohli, Sangeeta; Batra, Swaraj

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Various pregnancy complications like hypertension, preeclampsia have been strongly correlated with maternal stress. One of the connecting links between pregnancy complications and maternal stress is mind-body intervention which can be part of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM). Biologic measures of stress during pregnancy may get reduced by such interventions. Aim To evaluate the effect of Mindfulness meditation on perceived stress scores and autonomic function tests of pregnant Indian women. Materials and Methods Pregnant Indian women of 12 weeks gestation were randomised to two treatment groups: Test group with Mindfulness meditation and control group with their usual obstetric care. The effect of Mindfulness meditation on perceived stress scores and cardiac sympathetic functions and parasympathetic functions (Heart rate variation with respiration, lying to standing ratio, standing to lying ratio and respiratory rate) were evaluated on pregnant Indian women. Results There was a significant decrease in perceived stress scores, a significant decrease of blood pressure response to cold pressor test and a significant increase in heart rate variability in the test group (p< 0.05, significant) which indicates that mindfulness meditation is a powerful modulator of the sympathetic nervous system and can thereby reduce the day-to-day perceived stress in pregnant women. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that mindfulness meditation improves parasympathetic functions in pregnant women and is a powerful modulator of the sympathetic nervous system during pregnancy. PMID:27190795

  2. Nuclear Technology. Course 30: Mechanical Inspection. Module 30-2, Pump Functional Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasel, Ed; Espy, John

    This second in a series of eight modules for a course titled Mechanical Inspection describes typical pump functional tests which are performed after pump installation and prior to release of the plant for unrestricted power operation. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module…

  3. PuFT: Computer-Assisted Program for Pulmonary Function Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Joseph

    1983-01-01

    PuFT computer program (Microsoft Basic) is designed to help in understanding/interpreting pulmonary function tests (PFT). The program provides predicted values for common PFT after entry of patient data, calculates/plots graph simulating force vital capacity (FVC), and allows observations of effects on predicted PFT values and FVC curve when…

  4. Testing for Nonuniform Differential Item Functioning with Multiple Indicator Multiple Cause Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Carol M.; Grimm, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    In extant literature, multiple indicator multiple cause (MIMIC) models have been presented for identifying items that display uniform differential item functioning (DIF) only, not nonuniform DIF. This article addresses, for apparently the first time, the use of MIMIC models for testing both uniform and nonuniform DIF with categorical indicators. A…

  5. Analysis of 1982-83 Maryland Functional Mathematics Test (MFMT) Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myerberg, N. James; And Others.

    While the seventh and ninth grade Maryland Functional Mathematics Tests (MFMT) appear valid and well constructed, the 65 percent passing rate for Montgomery County Public Schools' ninth grade students raises questions about the 81 percent passing score set for the MFMT. This standard is far stiffer than the 59 percent set for the Maryland…

  6. Exploring Population Sensitivity of Linking Functions across Three Law School Admission Test Administrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Mei; Holland, Paul W.

    2008-01-01

    The simplified version of the Dorans and Holland (2000) measure of population invariance, the root mean square difference (RMSD), is used to explore the degree of dependence of linking functions on the Law School Admission Test (LSAT) subpopulations defined by examinees' gender, ethnic background, geographic region, law school application status,…

  7. Studying Differential Item Functioning via Latent Variable Modeling: A Note on a Multiple-Testing Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raykov, Tenko; Marcoulides, George A.; Lee, Chun-Lung; Chang, Chi

    2013-01-01

    This note is concerned with a latent variable modeling approach for the study of differential item functioning in a multigroup setting. A multiple-testing procedure that can be used to evaluate group differences in response probabilities on individual items is discussed. The method is readily employed when the aim is also to locate possible…

  8. Poor Vision, Functioning, and Depressive Symptoms: A Test of the Activity Restriction Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bookwala, Jamila; Lawson, Brendan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study tested the applicability of the activity restriction model of depressed affect to the context of poor vision in late life. This model hypothesizes that late-life stressors contribute to poorer mental health not only directly but also indirectly by restricting routine everyday functioning. Method: We used data from a national…

  9. High-Stakes Tests for Students with Specific Learning Disabilities: Disability-Based Differential Item Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anjorin, Idayatou

    2009-01-01

    Students with learning disabilities are increasingly included in state accountability systems. The purpose of this study was to investigate disability-based differential item functioning (DIF) on a statewide high-stakes mathematics test administered in the Spring of 2003 to all students seeking a high-school diploma in one state in the eastern…

  10. Reach-Scale Channel Adjustments to Channel Network Geometry in Mountain Bedrock Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plitzuweit, S. J.; Springer, G. S.

    2008-12-01

    Channel network geometry (CNG) is a critical determinant of hydrological response and may significantly affect incision processes within the Appalachian Plateau near Richwood, West Virginia. The Williams, Cherry, and Cranberry Rivers share drainage divides and their lower reaches flow atop resistant, quartz-rich sandstones. The lower two-thirds of the Cranberry and Williams Rivers display linear profiles atop the sandstones; whereas the Cherry is concave upwards atop the sandstones. Because lithologies and geological structures are similar among the watersheds, we tested whether differences in CNGs explain the profile shapes and reach-scale channel properties. Specifically, we quantified CNG by calculating reach- specific area-distance functions using DEMs. The area-distance functions were then converted into synthetic hydrographs to model hydrological responses. The Cherry River exhibits a classic dendritic drainage pattern, producing peaked hydrographs and low interval transit times. The Cranberry River displays a trellis-like drainage pattern, which produces attenuated hydrographs and high interval transit times. The upstream reaches of the Williams River have a dendritic drainage pattern, but the lower two-thirds of the watershed transitions into an elongated basin with trellis-like CNG. Reach gradients are steeper in the lower reaches of the Williams and Cranberry Rivers where hydrographs are attenuated. In contrast, peaked hydrographs within the Cherry River are associated with lower reach gradients despite resistant sandstone channel beds. Trellis-like CNG may restrict the ability of downstream reaches within the Williams and Cranberry Rivers to achieve the critical discharge needed to cause incision during floods (all other things being equal). If so, increased reach gradients may be hydraulic adjustments that compensate for comparatively low discharges. We are now applying the synthetic hydrographs to HEC-RAS flow models generated from field channel

  11. Testing and teaching functional versus generic skills in early childhood education in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baine, David

    1987-06-01

    This paper critiques a number of pre-academic and readiness tasks commonly found in tests and curricula used in early childhood education in North America and Europe and frequently adopted in developing countries. Some of the tasks discussed are: putting pegs in a pegboard, reproducing bead patterns, and completing picture puzzles. Evidence is presented to challenge a number of commonly held assumptions associated with these tasks: a) that the `generic skills' acquired when children learn these tasks are prerequisite to learning higher level skills, b) that the skills acquired will generalize to the performance of more functional activities, c) that handicapped children should be taught skills corresponding to their mental age level, and d) that handicapped children in developing countries should be tested and taught skills that are frequently found in the tests and curricula of normal functioning children in North America and Europe. Although much of the evidence cited has been available for some time, it has not generally influenced testing and teaching practices in developing countries. The tragic result is that very limited economic and manpower resources are often wasted on the use of ineffective methods. The final section of the paper describes recently developed methods of conducting ecological inventories for designing ecologically valid tests and curricula of functional skills in developing countries.

  12. Monitoring Cognitive Functioning: Psychometric Properties of the Brief Test of Adult Cognition by Telephone (BTACT)

    PubMed Central

    Lachman, Margie E.; Agrigoroaei, Stefan; Tun, Patricia A.; Weaver, Suzanne L.

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of cognitive functioning is an important component of telephone surveys of health. Previous cognitive telephone batteries have been limited in scope with a primary focus on dementia screening. The Brief Test of Adult Cognition by Telephone (BTACT) assesses multiple dimensions central for effective functioning across adulthood: episodic memory, working memory, reasoning, verbal fluency, and executive function. The BTACT is the first instrument which includes measures of processing speed, reaction time, and task switching/inhibitory control for use over the telephone. We administered the battery to a national sample (N = 4,268), aged 32 to 84, from the study of Midlife in the United States and examined age, education and sex differences, reliability, and factor structure. We found good evidence for construct validity with a subsample tested in person. Implications of the findings are considered for efficient neuropsychological assessment and monitoring changes in cognitive aging, for clinical and research applications by telephone or in person. PMID:24322011

  13. The Mid-Term Changes of Pulmonary Function Tests After Phrenic Nerve Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Yavari, Masoud; Hassanpour, Seyed Esmail; Khodayari, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: In the restoration of elbow flexion, the phrenic nerve has proven to be a good donor, but considering the role of the phrenic nerve in respiratory function, we cannot disregard the potential dangers of this method. Objectives: In the current study, we reviewed the results of pulmonary function tests (PFT) in four patients who underwent phrenic nerve transfer. Patients and Methods: We reviewed the results of serial spirometry tests, which were performed before and after phrenic nerve transfer surgery. Results: All patients regained Biceps power to M3 strength or above. None of our patients experienced pulmonary problems or respiratory complaints, but a significant reduction of spirometric parameters occurred after surgery. Conclusions: This study highlights the close link between the role of the phrenic nerve and pulmonary function, such that the use of this nerve as a transfer donor leads to spirometric impairments. PMID:27148498

  14. Water Load Test in Childhood Functional Abdominal Pain: No Relation to Food Intake and Nutritional Status.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Roberto Koity Fujihara; Soares, Ana Cristina Fontenele; Speridião, Patricia da Graça Leite; de Morais, Mauro Batista

    2015-09-01

    This cross-sectional study evaluates the relations between the water load test in childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders with food intake and nutritional status. Patients with functional dyspepsia required a lower maximum water intake to produce fullness (n = 11, median = 380 mL) than patients with irritable bowel syndrome (n = 10, median = 695 mL) or functional abdominal pain (n = 10, median = 670 mL) (P < 0.05). Among patients who ingested ≤560 mL (n = 17) or >560 mL (n = 14) in the water load test, there was no relation between the maximum drinking capacity and food intake, body mass index, or height. PMID:26317680

  15. A system for the functional testing and simulation of custom and semicustom VLSI chips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, E. M.; Deutsch, L. J.

    1986-01-01

    A system for the functional testing and simulation of custom and semicustom very large scale integrated (VLSI) chips that are designed using the integrated UNIX-based computer-aided design (CAD) system is described. The testing and simulation system consists of two parts. One of these is a special purpose hardware device that is capable of controlling the digital imputs and outputs on a custom chip. This device, the Digital Microcircuit Functionality Tester (DMFT) system, can be operated by itself or in conjunction with the VAX host computer on the CAD system. The DMFT is integrated into a microprobe station so that these signals can be injected or read from nodes inside the chip, as well as at the pins. The second part of the system is a software package that is installed on the VAX. This software package, logic, includes a full-screen editor for developing chip test sequences and drivers for both the DMFT and the esim logic simulator.

  16. Speed and accuracy on tests of executive function in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Roth, Robert M; Baribeau, Jacinthe; Milovan, Denise L; O'Connor, Kieron

    2004-04-01

    Slowness in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been attributed to intrusive thoughts or meticulousness. Recent research suggests that slowness in OCD may be particularly evident on tests of executive function subserved by frontostriatal circuitry. In the present study, the speed and accuracy of responding on neuropsychological tests of executive functions and psychomotor speed were investigated in 27 non-depressed, unmedicated adults with OCD and 27 healthy controls. The only group difference was that patients took significantly longer to copy a complex geometric design than controls. This finding was unrelated to residual depression or overall OCD symptom severity. Results suggest that slowness in OCD may be most apparent on executive tests requiring self-initiated organizational strategies, consistent with frontostriatal abnormality. PMID:15050790

  17. Reliability of a Test Battery Designed for Quickly and Safely Assessing Diverse Indices of Neuromuscular Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiering, Barry A.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Bentley, Jason, R.; Buxton, Roxanne E.; Lawrence, Emily L.; Sinka, Joseph; Guilliams, Mark E.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2010-01-01

    Spaceflight affects nearly every physiological system. Spaceflight-induced alterations in physiological function translate to decrements in functional performance. Purpose: To develop a test battery for quickly and safely assessing diverse indices of neuromuscular performance. I. Quickly: Battery of tests can be completed in approx.30-40 min. II. Safely: a) No eccentric muscle actions or impact forces. b) Tests present little challenge to postural stability. III. Diverse indices: a) Strength: Excellent reliability (ICC = 0.99) b) Central activation: Very good reliability (ICC = 0.87) c) Power: Excellent reliability (ICC = 0.99) d) Endurance: Total work has excellent reliability (ICC = 0.99) e) Force steadiness: Poor reliability (ICC = 0.20 - 0.60) National

  18. Hypothesis testing in functional linear regression models with Neyman's truncation and wavelet thresholding for longitudinal data.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaowei; Nie, Kun

    2008-03-15

    Longitudinal data sets in biomedical research often consist of large numbers of repeated measures. In many cases, the trajectories do not look globally linear or polynomial, making it difficult to summarize the data or test hypotheses using standard longitudinal data analysis based on various linear models. An alternative approach is to apply the approaches of functional data analysis, which directly target the continuous nonlinear curves underlying discretely sampled repeated measures. For the purposes of data exploration, many functional data analysis strategies have been developed based on various schemes of smoothing, but fewer options are available for making causal inferences regarding predictor-outcome relationships, a common task seen in hypothesis-driven medical studies. To compare groups of curves, two testing strategies with good power have been proposed for high-dimensional analysis of variance: the Fourier-based adaptive Neyman test and the wavelet-based thresholding test. Using a smoking cessation clinical trial data set, this paper demonstrates how to extend the strategies for hypothesis testing into the framework of functional linear regression models (FLRMs) with continuous functional responses and categorical or continuous scalar predictors. The analysis procedure consists of three steps: first, apply the Fourier or wavelet transform to the original repeated measures; then fit a multivariate linear model in the transformed domain; and finally, test the regression coefficients using either adaptive Neyman or thresholding statistics. Since a FLRM can be viewed as a natural extension of the traditional multiple linear regression model, the development of this model and computational tools should enhance the capacity of medical statistics for longitudinal data. PMID:17610294

  19. A test battery of child development for examining functional vision (ABCDEFV).

    PubMed

    Atkinson, J; Anker, S; Rae, S; Hughes, C; Braddick, O

    2002-12-01

    A battery of 22 tests is described, intended to give an integrated assessment of children's functional visual capacities between birth and four years of age. As well as sensory visual measures such as acuity, visual fields and stereopsis, the battery is intended to tap a range of perceptual, motor, spatial and cognitive aspects of visual function. Tests have been drawn from practice in ophthalmology and orthoptics, vision research, paediatric neurology, and developmental psychology to give an overall view of children's visual competences for guidance in diagnosis, further investigation, management and rehabilitation of children with developmental disorders. 'Core vision tests' require no motoric capacities beyond saccadic eye movements or linguistic skills and so assess basic visual capacities in children of any age. 'Additional tests' have age-specific requirements and are designed to pinpoint specific deficits in the perceptual, visuo-motor and spatio-cognitive domains. Normative data are reported on nine age groups between 0-6 weeks and 31-36 months, each including 32-43 typically developing children. Pass/fail criteria for each test are defined. These data allow the selection of a subset of tests for each age group which are passed by at least 85% of normally developing children, and so are appropriate for defining normal development. The normalized battery has been applied to a range of at-risk and clinical groups. Aspects of children's visual performance are discussed in relation to neurobiological models of visual development. PMID:12660850

  20. DVA as a Diagnostic Test for Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Scott J.; Appelbaum, Meghan

    2010-01-01

    The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) stabilizes vision on earth-fixed targets by eliciting eyes movements in response to changes in head position. How well the eyes perform this task can be functionally measured by the dynamic visual acuity (DVA) test. We designed a passive, horizontal DVA test to specifically study the acuity and reaction time when looking in different target locations. Visual acuity was compared among 12 subjects using a standard Landolt C wall chart, a computerized static (no rotation) acuity test and dynamic acuity test while oscillating at 0.8 Hz (+/-60 deg/s). In addition, five trials with yaw oscillation randomly presented a visual target in one of nine different locations with the size and presentation duration of the visual target varying across trials. The results showed a significant difference between the static and dynamic threshold acuities as well as a significant difference between the visual targets presented in the horizontal plane versus those in the vertical plane when comparing accuracy of vision and reaction time of the response. Visual acuity increased proportional to the size of the visual target and increased between 150 and 300 msec duration. We conclude that dynamic visual acuity varies with target location, with acuity optimized for targets in the plane of rotation. This DVA test could be used as a functional diagnostic test for visual-vestibular and neuro-cognitive impairments by assessing both accuracy and reaction time to acquire visual targets.

  1. Prediction of glass durability as a function of glass composition and test conditions: Thermodynamics and kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C M

    1988-01-01

    The long-term durability of nuclear waste glasses can be predicted by comparing their performance to natural and ancient glasses. Glass durability is a function of the kinetic and thermodynamic stability of glass in solution. The relationship between the kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of glass durability can be understood when the relative contributions of glass composition and imposed test conditions are delineated. Glass durability has been shown to be a function of the thermodynamic hydration free energy which can be calculated from the glass composition. Hydration thermodynamics also furnishes a quantitative frame of reference to understand how various test parameters affect glass durability. Linear relationships have been determined between the logarithmic extent of hydration and the calculated hydration free energy for several different test geometries. Different test conditions result in different kinetic reactivity parameters such as the exposed glass surface area (SA), the leachant solution volume (V), and the length of time that the glass is in the leachant (t). Leachate concentrations are known to be a function of the kinetic test parameter (SAV)t. The relative durabilities of glasses, including pure silica, obsidians, nuclear waste glasses, medieval window glasses, and frit glasses define a plane in three dimensional ..delta..G/sub hyd/-concentration-(SAV)t space. At constant kinetic conditions, e.g., test geometry and test duration, the three dimensional plane is intersected at constant (SAV)t and the ..delta..G/sub hyd/-concentration plots have similar slopes. The slope represents the natural logarithm of the theoretical slope, (12.303 RT), for the rate of glass dissolution. 53 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Functional assessment of the ex vivo vocal folds through biomechanical testing: A review.

    PubMed

    Dion, Gregory R; Jeswani, Seema; Roof, Scott; Fritz, Mark; Coelho, Paulo G; Sobieraj, Michael; Amin, Milan R; Branski, Ryan C

    2016-07-01

    The human vocal folds are complex structures made up of distinct layers that vary in cellular and extracellular composition. The mechanical properties of vocal fold tissue are fundamental to the study of both the acoustics and biomechanics of voice production. To date, quantitative methods have been applied to characterize the vocal fold tissue in both normal and pathologic conditions. This review describes, summarizes, and discusses the most commonly employed methods for vocal fold biomechanical testing. Force-elongation, torsional parallel plate rheometry, simple-shear parallel plate rheometry, linear skin rheometry, and indentation are the most frequently employed biomechanical tests for vocal fold tissues and each provide material properties data that can be used to compare native tissue to diseased or treated tissue. Force-elongation testing is clinically useful, as it allows for functional unit testing, while rheometry provides physiologically relevant shear data, and nanoindentation permits micrometer scale testing across different areas of the vocal fold as well as whole organ testing. Thoughtful selection of the testing technique during experimental design to evaluate a hypothesis is critical to optimize biomechanical testing of vocal fold tissues. PMID:27127075

  3. Visual information throughout a reach determines endpoint precision.

    PubMed

    Ma-Wyatt, Anna; McKee, Suzanne P

    2007-05-01

    People make rapid, goal-directed movements to interact with their environment. Because these movements have consequences, it is important to be able to control them with a high level of precision and accuracy. Our hypothesis is that vision guides rapid hand movements, thereby enhancing their accuracy and precision. To test this idea, we asked observers to point to a briefly presented target (110 ms). We measured the impact of visual information on endpoint precision by using a shutter to close off view of the hand 50, 110 and 250 ms into the reach. We found that precision was degraded if the view of the hand was restricted at any time during the reach, despite the fact that the target disappeared long before the reach was completed. We therefore conclude that vision keeps the hand on the planned trajectory. We then investigated the effects of a perturbation of target position during the reach. For these experiments, the target remained visible until the reach was completed. The target position was shifted at 110, 180 or 250 ms into the reach. Early shifts in target position were easily compensated for, but late shifts led to a shift in the mean position of the endpoints; observers pointed to the center of the two locations, as a kind of best bet on the position of the target. Visual information is used to guide the hand throughout a reach and has a significant impact on endpoint precision. PMID:17109109

  4. Proprioceptive Body Illusions Modulate the Visual Perception of Reaching Distance

    PubMed Central

    Petroni, Agustin; Carbajal, M. Julia; Sigman, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    The neurobiology of reaching has been extensively studied in human and non-human primates. However, the mechanisms that allow a subject to decide—without engaging in explicit action—whether an object is reachable are not fully understood. Some studies conclude that decisions near the reach limit depend on motor simulations of the reaching movement. Others have shown that the body schema plays a role in explicit and implicit distance estimation, especially after motor practice with a tool. In this study we evaluate the causal role of multisensory body representations in the perception of reachable space. We reasoned that if body schema is used to estimate reach, an illusion of the finger size induced by proprioceptive stimulation should propagate to the perception of reaching distances. To test this hypothesis we induced a proprioceptive illusion of extension or shrinkage of the right index finger while participants judged a series of LEDs as reachable or non-reachable without actual movement. Our results show that reach distance estimation depends on the illusory perceived size of the finger: illusory elongation produced a shift of reaching distance away from the body whereas illusory shrinkage produced the opposite effect. Combining these results with previous findings, we suggest that deciding if a target is reachable requires an integration of body inputs in high order multisensory parietal areas that engage in movement simulations through connections with frontal premotor areas. PMID:26110274

  5. Differential Item Functioning (DIF) among Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners (ELLs) in State Science Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilich, Maria O.

    Psychometricians and test developers evaluate standardized tests for potential bias against groups of test-takers by using differential item functioning (DIF). English language learners (ELLs) are a diverse group of students whose native language is not English. While they are still learning the English language, they must take their standardized tests for their school subjects, including science, in English. In this study, linguistic complexity was examined as a possible source of DIF that may result in test scores that confound science knowledge with a lack of English proficiency among ELLs. Two years of fifth-grade state science tests were analyzed for evidence of DIF using two DIF methods, Simultaneous Item Bias Test (SIBTest) and logistic regression. The tests presented a unique challenge in that the test items were grouped together into testlets---groups of items referring to a scientific scenario to measure knowledge of different science content or skills. Very large samples of 10, 256 students in 2006 and 13,571 students in 2007 were examined. Half of each sample was composed of Spanish-speaking ELLs; the balance was comprised of native English speakers. The two DIF methods were in agreement about the items that favored non-ELLs and the items that favored ELLs. Logistic regression effect sizes were all negligible, while SIBTest flagged items with low to high DIF. A decrease in socioeconomic status and Spanish-speaking ELL diversity may have led to inconsistent SIBTest effect sizes for items used in both testing years. The DIF results for the testlets suggested that ELLs lacked sufficient opportunity to learn science content. The DIF results further suggest that those constructed response test items requiring the student to draw a conclusion about a scientific investigation or to plan a new investigation tended to favor ELLs.

  6. ESO telbib: Linking In and Reaching Out

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grothkopf, U.; Meakins, S.

    2015-04-01

    Measuring an observatory's research output is an integral part of its science operations. Like many other observatories, ESO tracks scholarly papers that use observational data from ESO facilities and uses state-of-the-art tools to create, maintain, and further develop the Telescope Bibliography database (telbib). While telbib started out as a stand-alone tool mostly used to compile lists of papers, it has by now developed into a multi-faceted, interlinked system. The core of the telbib database is links between scientific papers and observational data generated by the La Silla Paranal Observatory residing in the ESO archive. This functionality has also been deployed for ALMA data. In addition, telbib reaches out to several other systems, including ESO press releases, the NASA ADS Abstract Service, databases at the CDS Strasbourg, and impact scores at Altmetric.com. We illustrate these features to show how the interconnected telbib system enhances the content of the database as well as the user experience.

  7. LOWER EXTREMITY FUNCTIONAL TESTS AND RISK OF INJURY IN DIVISION III COLLEGIATE ATHLETES

    PubMed Central

    Heiderscheit, Bryan C.; Manske, Robert C.; Niemuth, Paul E.; Rauh, Mitchell J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Background: Functional tests have been used primarily to assess an athlete's fitness or readiness to return to sport. The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to determine the ability of the standing long jump (SLJ) test, the single‐leg hop (SLH) for distance test, and the lower extremity functional test (LEFT) as preseason screening tools to identify collegiate athletes who may be at increased risk for a time‐loss sports‐related low back or lower extremity injury. Methods: A total of 193 Division III athletes from 15 university teams (110 females, age 19.1 ± 1.1 y; 83 males, age 19.5 ± 1.3 y) were tested prior to their sports seasons. Athletes performed the functional tests in the following sequence: SLJ, SLH, LEFT. The athletes were then prospectively followed during their sports season for occurrence of low back or LE injury. Results: Female athletes who completed the LEFT in $118 s were 6 times more likely (OR=6.4, 95% CI: 1.3, 31.7) to sustain a thigh or knee injury. Male athletes who completed the LEFT in #100 s were more likely to experience a time‐loss injury to the low back or LE (OR=3.2, 95% CI: 1.1, 9.5) or a foot or ankle injury (OR=6.7, 95% CI: 1.5, 29.7) than male athletes who completed the LEFT in 101 s or more. Female athletes with a greater than 10% side‐to‐side asymmetry between SLH distances had a 4‐fold increase in foot or ankle injury (cut point: >10%; OR=4.4, 95% CI: 1.2, 15.4). Male athletes with SLH distances (either leg) at least 75% of their height had at least a 3‐fold increase (OR=3.6, 95% CI: 1.2, 11.2 for the right LE; OR=3.6, 95% CI: 1.2, 11.2 for left LE) in low back or LE injury. Conclusions: The LEFT and the SLH tests appear useful in identifying Division III athletes at risk for a low back or lower extremity sports injury. Thus, these tests warrant further consideration as preparticipatory screening examination tools for sport injury in this population. Clinical Relevance: The single‐leg hop for

  8. Thyroid function tests during first-trimester of pregnancy: a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Mansourian, Azad R

    2010-07-15

    This literature review was conducted to summarize the main points of maternal thyroid function tests, with particular attention in the first trimester of pregnancy which accompanied with significant biochemical and metabolic alteration. The evaluation of thyroid function of either hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism should be assessed by determination of serum Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH), Thyroxine (T4), Triiodothyronine (T3), Iodine and Thyroid Autoantibodies. Glomerular filtration rate is increased during pregnancy; therefor iodine deficiency should be evaluated during the pregnancy to prevent hypothyroidism. The role which can be played by Human Chronic Gonadotropin (hCG) on stimulating the thyroid gland to become over-active was investigated. Serum level ofthyroglobulin (Tg) and Thyroxin Binding Globulin (TBG) should be assessed for proper assessments of thyroid gland during pregnancy. Thyroid function tests during first-trimester of pregnancy and particularly the reference interval for thyroid function tests for pregnant women in each region has to be established, to prevent mis-diagnosis and irreversible mental and physical adverse affect for growing fetus. PMID:21848058

  9. A function approximation approach to anomaly detection in propulsion system test data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehead, Bruce A.; Hoyt, W. A.

    1993-06-01

    Ground test data from propulsion systems such as the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) can be automatically screened for anomalies by a neural network. The neural network screens data after being trained with nominal data only. Given the values of 14 measurements reflecting external influences on the SSME at a given time, the neural network predicts the expected nominal value of a desired engine parameter at that time. We compared the ability of three different function-approximation techniques to perform this nominal value prediction: a novel neural network architecture based on Gaussian bar basis functions, a conventional back propagation neural network, and linear regression. These three techniques were tested with real data from six SSME ground tests containing two anomalies. The basis function network trained more rapidly than back propagation. It yielded nominal predictions with, a tight enough confidence interval to distinguish anomalous deviations from the nominal fluctuations in an engine parameter. Since the function-approximation approach requires nominal training data only, it is capable of detecting unknown classes of anomalies for which training data is not available.

  10. A function approximation approach to anomaly detection in propulsion system test data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehead, Bruce A.; Hoyt, W. A.

    1993-01-01

    Ground test data from propulsion systems such as the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) can be automatically screened for anomalies by a neural network. The neural network screens data after being trained with nominal data only. Given the values of 14 measurements reflecting external influences on the SSME at a given time, the neural network predicts the expected nominal value of a desired engine parameter at that time. We compared the ability of three different function-approximation techniques to perform this nominal value prediction: a novel neural network architecture based on Gaussian bar basis functions, a conventional back propagation neural network, and linear regression. These three techniques were tested with real data from six SSME ground tests containing two anomalies. The basis function network trained more rapidly than back propagation. It yielded nominal predictions with, a tight enough confidence interval to distinguish anomalous deviations from the nominal fluctuations in an engine parameter. Since the function-approximation approach requires nominal training data only, it is capable of detecting unknown classes of anomalies for which training data is not available.

  11. Preliminary study of Internet addiction and cognitive function in adolescents based on IQ tests.

    PubMed

    Park, Min-Hyeon; Park, E-Jin; Choi, Jeewook; Chai, Sukhi; Lee, Ji-Han; Lee, Chul; Kim, Dai-Jin

    2011-12-30

    The potential relationship between Internet addiction and certain cognitive function problems has been suggested by several studies. However, few or no studies have examined the differences in cognitive functioning between persons addicted to the Internet and persons not addicted using a standard neuropsychological test. This study screened 253 middle school students and 389 high school students for Internet addiction and compared 59 Internet-addicted students with 43 non-addicted students using an IQ test. The Internet-addicted group had comprehension sub-item scores that were significantly lower than those of the non-addicted group. As the comprehension item reflects ethical judgement and reality testing, there may be a relationship between Internet addiction and weak social intelligence. Earlier onset of Internet addiction and longer addiction duration were associated with lower participant performance in areas related to attention. As this study is a cross-sectional study, it is not clear whether the persons who display weak cognitive functioning are susceptible to Internet addiction or if Internet addiction causes cognitive problems. However, as brain development remains active during adolescence, the possibility that Internet addiction adversely affects the cognitive functioning of adolescents cannot be ruled out. PMID:21899895

  12. An objective measure of physical function of elderly outpatients. The Physical Performance Test.

    PubMed

    Reuben, D B; Siu, A L

    1990-10-01

    Direct observation of physical function has the advantage of providing an objective, quantifiable measure of functional capabilities. We have developed the Physical Performance Test (PPT), which assesses multiple domains of physical function using observed performance of tasks that simulate activities of daily living of various degrees of difficulty. Two versions are presented: a nine-item scale that includes writing a sentence, simulated eating, turning 360 degrees, putting on and removing a jacket, lifting a book and putting it on a shelf, picking up a penny from the floor, a 50-foot walk test, and climbing stairs (scored as two items); and a seven-item scale that does not include stairs. The PPT can be completed in less than 10 minutes and requires only a few simple props. We then tested the validity of PPT using 183 subjects (mean age, 79 years) in six settings including four clinical practices (one of Parkinson's disease patients), a board-and-care home, and a senior citizens' apartment. The PPT was reliable (Cronbach's alpha = 0.87 and 0.79, interrater reliability = 0.99 and 0.93 for the nine-item and seven-item tests, respectively) and demonstrated concurrent validity with self-reported measures of physical function. Scores on the PPT for both scales were highly correlated (.50 to .80) with modified Rosow-Breslau, Instrumental and Basic Activities of Daily Living scales, and Tinetti gait score. Scores on the PPT were more moderately correlated with self-reported health status, cognitive status, and mental health (.24 to .47), and negatively with age (-.24 and -.18). Thus, the PPT also demonstrated construct validity. The PPT is a promising objective measurement of physical function, but its clinical and research value for screening, monitoring, and prediction will have to be determined. PMID:2229864

  13. The Effects of Test Order and Nodal Distance on the Emergence and Stability of Derived Discriminative Stimulus Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne; Dymond, Simon

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of equivalence test order and nodal distance on the emergence and stability of derived discriminative stimulus functions. Participants in 1 group were exposed to a transfer of functions test following a symmetry and equivalence test, another group of participants completed a symmetry and equivalence test…

  14. Parallel Explicit and Implicit Control of Reaching

    PubMed Central

    Mazzoni, Pietro; Wexler, Nancy S.

    2009-01-01

    Background Human movement can be guided automatically (implicit control) or attentively (explicit control). Explicit control may be engaged when learning a new movement, while implicit control enables simultaneous execution of multiple actions. Explicit and implicit control can often be assigned arbitrarily: we can simultaneously drive a car and tune the radio, seamlessly allocating implicit or explicit control to either action. This flexibility suggests that sensorimotor signals, including those that encode spatially overlapping perception and behavior, can be accurately segregated to explicit and implicit control processes. Methodology/Principal Findings We tested human subjects' ability to segregate sensorimotor signals to parallel control processes by requiring dual (explicit and implicit) control of the same reaching movement and testing for interference between these processes. Healthy control subjects were able to engage dual explicit and implicit motor control without degradation of performance compared to explicit or implicit control alone. We then asked whether segregation of explicit and implicit motor control can be selectively disrupted by studying dual-control performance in subjects with no clinically manifest neurologic deficits in the presymptomatic stage of Huntington's disease (HD). These subjects performed successfully under either explicit or implicit control alone, but were impaired in the dual-control condition. Conclusion/Significance The human nervous system can exert dual control on a single action, and is therefore able to accurately segregate sensorimotor signals to explicit and implicit control. The impairment observed in the presymptomatic stage of HD points to a possible crucial contribution of the striatum to the segregation of sensorimotor signals to multiple control processes. PMID:19847295

  15. Real-time evaluation of a noninvasive neuroprosthetic interface for control of reach.

    PubMed

    Corbett, Elaine A; Körding, Konrad P; Perreault, Eric J

    2013-07-01

    Injuries of the cervical spinal cord can interrupt the neural pathways controlling the muscles of the arm, resulting in complete or partial paralysis. For individuals unable to reach due to high-level injuries, neuroprostheses can restore some of the lost function. Natural, multidimensional control of neuroprosthetic devices for reaching remains a challenge. Electromyograms (EMGs) from muscles that remain under voluntary control can be used to communicate intended reach trajectories, but when the number of available muscles is limited control can be difficult and unintuitive. We combined shoulder EMGs with target estimates obtained from gaze. Natural gaze data were integrated with EMG during closed-loop robotic control of the arm, using a probabilistic mixture model. We tested the approach with two different sets of EMGs, as might be available to subjects with C4- and C5-level spinal cord injuries. Incorporating gaze greatly improved control of reaching, particularly when there were few EMG signals. We found that subjects naturally adapted their eye-movement precision as we varied the set of available EMGs, attaining accurate performance in both tested conditions. The system performs a near-optimal combination of both physiological signals, making control more intuitive and allowing a natural trajectory that reduces the burden on the user. PMID:23529107

  16. Flexor carpi ulnaris transfer for radial nerve palsy: functional testing of long-term results.

    PubMed

    Raskin, K B; Wilgis, E F

    1995-09-01

    Controversy persists over the use of the flexor carpi ulnaris for transfer to the extensor digitorum communis in the treatment of radial nerve palsy. Six patients with complete, irreparable radial nerve palsies were treated in part with the flexor carpi ulnaris to extensor digitorum communis tendon transfer (standard transfers: pronator teres to extensor carpi radialis brevis, flexor carpi ulnaris to extensor digitorum communis, and palmaris longus to the rerouted extensor pollicis longus) and were functionally tested for long-term results. The average follow-up time was 8 years (range, 3-15). A control group was comprised of 10 volunteers of similar demographics. This study evaluates the long-term functional recovery in three categories: range of motion, dynamic power of wrist motion, and functional ability as determined by work simulation techniques. The activities simulated were swinging a hammer, sawing wood, tightening screws, and using pliers. A functional range of motion was maintained in all patients, and the power of wrist motion was sufficient to perform all activities of daily living. The work simulation testing revealed no significant difference between the tendon transfer patients and control group with respect to hand dominance and normal variance. All patients were able to perform the simulated work with the same variance in power as the control group. Despite the obvious anatomic loss, wrist function is not significantly impaired after flexor carpi ulnaris tendon transfer for radial nerve palsy. PMID:8522738

  17. Inter-rater reliability of three standardized functional tests in patients with low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Tidstrand, Johan; Horneij, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Background Of all patients with low back pain, 85% are diagnosed as "non-specific lumbar pain". Lumbar instability has been described as one specific diagnosis which several authors have described as delayed muscular responses, impaired postural control as well as impaired muscular coordination among these patients. This has mostly been measured and evaluated in a laboratory setting. There are few standardized and evaluated functional tests, examining functional muscular coordination which are also applicable in the non-laboratory setting. In ordinary clinical work, tests of functional muscular coordination should be easy to apply. The aim of this present study was to therefore standardize and examine the inter-rater reliability of three functional tests of muscular functional coordination of the lumbar spine in patients with low back pain. Methods Nineteen consecutive individuals, ten men and nine women were included. (Mean age 42 years, SD ± 12 yrs). Two independent examiners assessed three tests: "single limb stance", "sitting on a Bobath ball with one leg lifted" and "unilateral pelvic lift" on the same occasion. The standardization procedure took altered positions of the spine or pelvis and compensatory movements of the free extremities into account. The inter-rater reliability was analyzed by Cohen's kappa coefficient (κ) and by percentage agreement. Results The inter-rater reliability for the right and the left leg respectively was: for the single limb stance very good (κ: 0.88–1.0), for sitting on a Bobath ball good (κ: 0.79) and very good (κ: 0.88) and for the unilateral pelvic lift: good (κ: 0.61) and moderate (κ: 0.47). Conclusion The present study showed good to very good inter-rater reliability for two standardized tests, that is, the single-limb stance and sitting on a Bobath-ball with one leg lifted. Inter-rater reliability for the unilateral pelvic lift test was moderate to good. Validation of the tests in their ability to evaluate lumbar

  18. Always Connected, but Hard to Reach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rishi, Raju

    2007-01-01

    Students seem to be always connected through their computers, personal digital assistants (PDAs), or mobile phones, making it easy to reach them--if you are a peer. For colleges and universities, reaching students with timely and relevant information often proves a challenge. With rapid changes in both technology and social practices, what should…

  19. School Furniture Dimensions: Standing and Reaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education and Science, London (England).

    Performance of school children in regard to their standing and reach postures are described with dimensions given on the limits of their performance only. The facts of task performances are presented for the following tasks--(1) seeing into a shelf, (2) reaching into a shelf, (3) drawing on a vertical surface, (4) sitting or standing while…

  20. Thyroid Function Testing in Pregnancy and Thyroid Disease: Trimester-specific Reference Intervals

    PubMed Central

    Soldin, Offie P.

    2013-01-01

    During pregnancy the thyroid is hyperstimulated, resulting in changes in thyroid hormone concentrations. Accurate assessment of thyroid function during pregnancy is critical, for both the initiation of thyroid hormone therapy, and for the adjustment of thyroid hormone dose in those already receiving thyroid hormone. Trimester-specific intervals are especially important during pregnancy when thyroid insufficiency may be associated with adverse obstetric outcome and fetal neurodevelopmental deficits. Gestational age-specific reference intervals are now available for thyroid function tests. Knowing the expected normal changes in hormone concentrations throughout pregnancy allows individualized supplementation when necessary. PMID:16418685

  1. Association between preseason functional tests and injuries in youth football: a prospective follow-up.

    PubMed

    Frisch, A; Urhausen, A; Seil, R; Croisier, J L; Windal, T; Theisen, D

    2011-12-01

    This prospective cohort study aimed at identifying player-related risk factors for injuries in youth football as determined by extensive preseasonal screening. All male U15-U19 players from a regional football school (season 2007-2008; n = 67) underwent preseason evaluations assessing physical fatigue, emotional stress and injury history (questionnaire), anthropometric variables, general joint laxity (Beighton score), lower limb coordination (functional hop tests), aerobic fitness (shuttle run test), strength of knee extensor and flexor muscles (isokinetic tests), static and dynamic balance (force plate tests), and explosive strength (jump tests on force plate). Football exposure and all football-related injuries (n = 163) were recorded during the entire subsequent season (44 weeks). Total injury incidence was 10.4 injuries/1000  h and was higher in competition than in training [relative risk = 3.3; CI(95%) (2.39; 4.54); P < 0.001]. Lower limb injuries were most frequent (87%). Acute contact injuries represented 37%, while intrinsic (noncontact and chronic) injuries amounted to 63%. Of all the variables tested, only physical fatigue was significantly associated with injury, as revealed by univariate and multivariate analyses. The same result was observed when considering only intrinsic injuries as outcome. A single preseason test session may be of limited interest in the framework of an injury prevention strategy. PMID:22017708

  2. Binary pseudorandom test standard to determine the modulation transfer function of optical microscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacey, Ian; Anderson, Erik H.; Artemiev, Nikolay A.; Babin, Sergey; Cabrini, Stefano; Calafiore, Guiseppe; Chan, Elaine R.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Peroz, Christophe; Takacs, Peter Z.; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.

    2015-09-01

    This work reports on the development of a binary pseudo-random test sample optimized to calibrate the MTF of optical microscopes. The sample consists of a number of 1-D and 2-D patterns, with different minimum sizes of spatial artifacts from 300 nm to 2 microns. We describe the mathematical background, fabrication process, data acquisition and analysis procedure to return spatial frequency based instrument calibration. We show that the developed samples satisfy the characteristics of a test standard: functionality, ease of specification and fabrication, reproducibility, and low sensitivity to manufacturing error.

  3. A Monte Carlo Examination of the Sensitivity of the Differential Functioning of Items and Tests Framework for Tests of Measurement Invariance with Likert Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meade, Adam W.; Lautenschlager, Gary J.; Johnson, Emily C.

    2007-01-01

    This article highlights issues associated with the use of the differential functioning of items and tests (DFIT) methodology for assessing measurement invariance (or differential functioning) with Likert-type data. Monte Carlo analyses indicate relatively low sensitivity of the DFIT methodology for identifying differential item functioning (DIF)…

  4. The Use of Dynamic Visual Acuity as a Functional Test of Gaze Stabilization Following Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, B. T.; Mulavara, A. P.; Brady, R.; Miller, C. A.; Richards, J. T.; Warren, L. E.; Cohen, H. S.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2006-01-01

    After prolonged exposure to a given gravitational environment the transition to another is accompanied by adaptations in the sensorimotor subsystems, including the vestibular system. Variation in the adaptation time course of these subsystems, and the functional redundancies that exist between them make it difficult to accurately assess the functional capacity and physical limitations of astro/cosmonauts using tests on individual subsystems. While isolated tests of subsystem performance may be the only means to address where interventions are required, direct measures of performance may be more suitable for assessing the operational consequences of incomplete adaptation to changes in the gravitational environment. A test of dynamic visual acuity (DVA) is currently being used in the JSC Neurosciences Laboratory as part of a series of measures to assess the efficacy of a countermeasure to mitigate postflight locomotor dysfunction. In the current protocol, subjects visual acuity is determined using Landolt ring optotypes presented sequentially on a computer display. Visual acuity assessments are made both while standing and while walking at 1.8 m/s on a motorized treadmill. The use of a psychophysical threshold detection algorithm reduces the required number of optotype presentations and the results can be presented immediately after the test. The difference between the walking and standing acuity measures provides a metric of the change in the subject s ability to maintain gaze fixation on the visual target while walking. This functional consequence is observable regardless of the underlying subsystem most responsible for the change. Data from 15 cosmo/astronauts have been collected following long-duration (approx. 6 months) stays in space using a visual target viewing distance of 4.0 meters. An investigation of the group mean shows a change in DVA soon after the flight that asymptotes back to baseline approximately one week following their return to earth. The

  5. Full monitoring for long-reach TWDM passive optical networks.

    PubMed

    Cen, Min; Chen, Jiajia; Moeyaert, Véronique; Mégret, Patrice; Wuilpart, Marc

    2016-07-11

    This paper presents a novel and simple fiber monitoring system based on multi-wavelength transmission-reflection analysis for long-reach time and wavelength division multiplexing passive optical networks. For the first time, the full localization functionality of long-reach passive optical networks is possible with the proposed monitoring scheme, including supporting fault detection, identification, and localization in both feeder and distribution fiber segments. By measuring the transmitted and reflected/backscattered optical powers launched by an unmodulated continuous-wave optical source, the proposed solution is able to supervise the network with good spatial accuracy, a high detection speed and a low impact on data traffic. Both the theoretical analysis and experimental validation show that the proposed scheme is capable of providing an accurate fault monitoring functionality for long-reach time and wavelength division multiplexing passive optical networks. PMID:27410849

  6. Development of a Test to Evaluate Olfactory Function in a Pediatric Population

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Pamela; Mennella, Julie A.; Maute, Christopher; Castor, Sara M.; Silva-Garcia, Aleida; Slotkin, Jerry; Grindle, Christopher R.; Parkes, William; Pribitkin, Edmund A.; Reilly, James S.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis This study evaluated two versions of a test for olfactory function to determine suitability for use in a pediatric population. Study Design Cross-sectional cohort study. Method In phase 1, 369 children (ages 3–17 years) and 277 adults (parents) were tested. Children began with identification and familiarity judgments to pictures representing target odors and distractors. Odors were administered via a six-item scratch and sniff test. Each answer sheet contained the correct odor source and three distractors. In phase 2, 50 children (ages 3–4 years) and 43 adults were given a revised version with eight odors judged more representative of the source and familiar to children. Results Both completion time and identification accuracy in phase 1 improved with age. Accuracy of children 5 years old and above equaled adults for two of the three best odors. In phase 2, adults' accuracy significantly improved relative to phase 1 (92% vs. 68%), and exceeded that of 4 year olds for four of eight odors and 3 year olds for seven of eight odors. Conclusions Children as young as 3 years of age can perform olfactory testing, but take longer than do older children and adults (7.44 vs. 5.66 vs. 3.71 minutes). Identification accuracy also increases as a function of age. The current six-item National Institutes of Health Toolbox Odor Identification Test is a brief, easily conducted test for evaluating olfactory ability. Collection of normative data for children of all ages and adults is needed to determine the clinical utility of the test and its interpretations for pathological conditions. PMID:22024835

  7. Recent advances in the modulation transfer function testing of detector arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducharme, Alfred D.

    2008-08-01

    The increased complexity of imaging sensors and total number of discrete detector sites has challenged traditional testing methods. The importance of reliable modulation transfer function testing of imaging sensors with high uncertainty has consequently grown more difficult. In this paper we demonstrate the design of an aperture for the generation of laser speckle with a flat power spectrum covering a wide-band of the measurement spatial frequency range. This aperture allows for the measurement of modulation transfer function (MTF) from zero to twice the Nyquist frequency of a twodimensional detector array. This design mitigates many of the measurement issues inherent in other aperture designs. The MTF measurement of a charge-coupled device (CCD) detector array is used to demonstrate the measurement technique and illustrate the advantages of the new aperture design.

  8. Testing Fundamental Particle Physics with the Galactic White Dwarf Luminosity Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller Bertolami, M. M.; Melendez, B. E.; Althaus, L. G.; Isern, J.

    2015-06-01

    Recent determinations of the white dwarf luminosity function (WDLF) from very large surveys have extended our knowledge of the WDLF to very high luminosities. It has been shown that the shape of the luminosity function of white dwarfs (WDLF) is a powerful tool to test the possible properties and existence of fundamental weakly interacting subelectronvolt particles. This, together with the availability of new full evolutionary white dwarf models that are reliable at high luminosities, have opened the possibility of testing particle emission in the core of very hot white dwarfs. We use the available WDLFs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the SuperCOSMOS Sky Survey to constrain the values of the neutrino magnetic dipole moment (μν) and the axion-electron coupling constant (gae) of DFSZ-axions.

  9. Point-of-care platelet function tests: detection of platelet inhibition induced by nonopioid analgesic drugs.

    PubMed

    Scharbert, Gisela; Gebhardt, Kristina; Sow, Zacharia; Duris, Monika; Deusch, Engelbert; Kozek-Langenecker, Sibylle

    2007-12-01

    Detection of platelet inhibition is of clinical relevance in the preinterventional risk-benefit assessment in chronic low-back-pain patients scheduled for invasive pain therapy. We evaluated the sensitivity of various point-of-care platelet function tests for the detection of platelet inhibition induced by nonopioid analgesic drugs. After Institutional Review Board approval and informed consent, citrated whole blood from 40 patients with chronic unspecific low back pain was investigated before and 30 min after intravenous infusion of the study medication consisting of diclofenac 75 mg (plus orphenadrin 30 mg; Neodolpasse; Fresenius Kabi Austria GmbH, Austria), parecoxib 40 mg (Dynastat; Pharmacia Europe EEIG, UK), paracetamol 1 g (Perfalgan; Bieffe Medital S.P.A., Italy), or normal saline in a randomized, cross-over, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. Platelet function was assessed using the PFA-100 platelet function analyzer and thromboelastometry, as well as impedance aggregometry (in the last 17 patients recruited after it became commercially available). Sensitivity for detecting diclofenac-induced platelet inhibition was 85% for the PFA-100 using epinephrine as agonist and 94% for arachidonic acid-induced impedance aggregometry. ADP-induced platelet function tests, as well as cytochalasin D-modified thromboelastometry were unreliable. All tests had a low incidence of false-positive test results after normal saline. Paracetamol and parecoxib had no significant platelet inhibiting effect. The PFA-100 using epinephrine as agonist and arachidonic acid-induced impedance aggregometry are recommended for the detection of cyclooxygenase-I-inhibiting effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as diclofenac. Our findings confirm that a single rescue dose of paracetamol and parecoxib has no antiplatelet effect. PMID:17982319

  10. Eddy current nondestructive testing device for measuring variable characteristics of a sample utilizing Walsh functions

    DOEpatents

    Libby, Hugo L.; Hildebrand, Bernard P.

    1978-01-01

    An eddy current testing device for measuring variable characteristics of a sample generates a signal which varies with variations in such characteristics. A signal expander samples at least a portion of this generated signal and expands the sampled signal on a selected basis of square waves or Walsh functions to produce a plurality of signal components representative of the sampled signal. A network combines these components to provide a display of at least one of the characteristics of the sample.

  11. A test of multiple hypotheses for the function of call sharing in female budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus

    PubMed Central

    Young, Anna M.; Cordier, Breanne; Mundry, Roger; Wright, Timothy F.

    2014-01-01

    In many social species group, members share acoustically similar calls. Functional hypotheses have been proposed for call sharing, but previous studies have been limited by an inability to distinguish among these hypotheses. We examined the function of vocal sharing in female budgerigars with a two-part experimental design that allowed us to distinguish between two functional hypotheses. The social association hypothesis proposes that shared calls help animals mediate affiliative and aggressive interactions, while the password hypothesis proposes that shared calls allow animals to distinguish group identity and exclude nonmembers. We also tested the labeling hypothesis, a mechanistic explanation which proposes that shared calls are used to address specific individuals within the sender–receiver relationship. We tested the social association hypothesis by creating four–member flocks of unfamiliar female budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) and then monitoring the birds’ calls, social behaviors, and stress levels via fecal glucocorticoid metabolites. We tested the password hypothesis by moving immigrants into established social groups. To test the labeling hypothesis, we conducted additional recording sessions in which individuals were paired with different group members. The social association hypothesis was supported by the development of multiple shared call types in each cage and a correlation between the number of shared call types and the number of aggressive interactions between pairs of birds. We also found support for calls serving as a labeling mechanism using discriminant function analysis with a permutation procedure. Our results did not support the password hypothesis, as there was no difference in stress or directed behaviors between immigrant and control birds. PMID:24860236

  12. Neurointerventional Stenting and Antiplatelet Function Testing: To Do or Not to Do?

    PubMed Central

    Kass-Hout, Tareq; Alderazi, Yazan J.; Amuluru, Krishna; Jin, Peter; Ayala, Carlos; Prestigiacomo, Charles; Gandhi, Chirag D.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Platelet function testing in neurointerventional (NI) procedures is still controversial. We compared the clinical outcomes between antiplatelet responders and nonresponders based on the results of the VerifyNow (VN) testing method. Methods This is a retrospective single-center analysis of all consecutive patients who underwent NI stenting procedures from January 2007 through July 2013 and had documented preprocedural aspirin (ASA) and clopidogrel VN assays. Patients were divided into two groups based on their responsiveness to antiplatelet. Baseline characteristics, good functional outcome measured by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 90 days, combined procedural complication rate defined as postprocedural stroke, in-stent thrombosis, and intraoperative rupture were compared between the two groups. Results Our cohort included 37 patients: 26 were in the responder group (RG) and 11 were in the nonresponder group (NRG). Baseline characteristics were similar between the two groups. Even though the combined complication rate was similar between the two groups [NRG: 2/11 (18%) vs. RG: 2/26 (7%); p = 0.33], there was a trend for a higher rate of good functional outcome (90-day mRS: 0-2) in the RG (22/22, 100%) as compared to the NRG (8/10, 80%) (p = 0.0907). Conclusion Overall, utilizing the VN antiplatelet function testing did not significantly change the clinical outcome after the NI procedures. Larger randomized trials are warranted to provide a better understanding of the utility of the antiplatelet testing in NI stenting procedures. PMID:26279665

  13. Latent Class Analysis of Differential Item Functioning on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Mi-young Lee; Cohen, Allan S.; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the use of latent class analysis for the detection of differences in item functioning on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Third Edition (PPVT-III). A two-class solution for a latent class model appeared to be defined in part by ability because Class 1 was lower in ability than Class 2 on both the PPVT-III and the…

  14. Assessing Late Cardiopulmonary Function in Patients with Repaired Tetralogy of Fallot Using Exercise Cardiopulmonary Function Test and Cardiac Magnetic Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ming-Chun; Chen, Chun-An; Chiu, Hsin-Hui; Chen, Ssu-Yuan; Wang, Jou-Kou; Lin, Ming-Tai; Chiu, Shuenn-Nan; Lu, Chun-Wei; Huang, Shu-Chien; Wu, Mei-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) usually experience progressive right ventricle (RV) dysfunction due to pulmonary regurgitation (PR). This could further worsen the cardiopulmonary function. This study aimed to compare the changes in patient exercise cardiopulmonary test and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, and consider the implication of these changes. Methods Our study examined repaired TOF patients who underwent cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) to obtain maximal (peak oxygen consumption, peak VO2) and submaximal parameters (oxygen uptake efficiency plateau, oxygen uptake efficiency plateau (OUEP), and ratio of minute ventilation to carbon dioxide production, VE/VCO2 slope). Additionally, the hemodynamic status was assessed by using cardiac magnetic resonance. Criteria for exclusion included TOF patients with pulmonary atresia, atrioventricular septal defect, or absence of pulmonary valve syndrome. Results We enrolled 158 patients whose mean age at repair was 7.8 ± 9.1 years (range 0.1-49.2 years) and the mean patient age at CPET was 29.5 ± 12.2 years (range 7.0-57.0 years). Severe PR (PR fraction ≥ 40%) in 53 patients, moderate in 55, and mild (PR fraction < 20%) in 50 patients were noted. The mean RV end-diastolic volume index (RVEDVi) was 113 ± 35 ml/m2, with 7 patients observed to have a RVEDVi > 163 ml/m2. The mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was 63 ± 8%, left ventricular end-diastolic volume index (LVEDVi) was 65 ± 12 ml/m2, and LVESVi was 25 ± 14 ml/m2. CPET revealed significantly decreased peak VO2 (68.5 ± 14.4% of predicted), and fair OUEP (90.3 ± 14.1% of predicted) and VE/VCO2 slope (27.1 ± 5.3). PR fraction and age at repair were negatively correlated with maximal and submaximal exercise indicators (peak VO2 and OUEP). Left ventricular (LV) function and size were positively correlated with peak VO2 and OUEP. Conclusions The results of CPET showed that patients with repaired TOF had a low

  15. Regional lung function determined by electrical impedance tomography during bronchodilator reversibility testing in patients with asthma.

    PubMed

    Frerichs, I; Zhao, Z; Becher, T; Zabel, P; Weiler, N; Vogt, B

    2016-06-01

    The measurement of rapid regional lung volume changes by electrical impedance tomography (EIT) could determine regional lung function in patients with obstructive lung diseases during pulmonary function testing (PFT). EIT examinations carried out before and after bronchodilator reversibility testing could detect the presence of spatial and temporal ventilation heterogeneities and analyse their changes in response to inhaled bronchodilator on the regional level. We examined seven patients suffering from chronic asthma (49  ±  19 years, mean age  ±  SD) using EIT at a scan rate of 33 images s(-1) during tidal breathing and PFT with forced full expiration. The patients were studied before and 5, 10 and 20 min after bronchodilator inhalation. Seven age- and sex-matched human subjects with no lung disease history served as a control study group. The spatial heterogeneity of lung function measures was quantified by the global inhomogeneity indices calculated from the pixel values of tidal volume, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), peak flow and forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of FVC as well as histograms of pixel FEV1/FVC values. Temporal heterogeneity was assessed using the pixel values of expiration times needed to exhale 75% and 90% of pixel FVC. Regional lung function was more homogeneous in the healthy subjects than in the patients with asthma. Spatial and temporal ventilation distribution improved in the patients with asthma after the bronchodilator administration as evidenced mainly by the histograms of pixel FEV1/FVC values and pixel expiration times. The examination of regional lung function using EIT enables the assessment of spatial and temporal heterogeneity of ventilation distribution during bronchodilator reversibility testing. EIT may become a new tool in PFT, allowing the estimation of the natural disease progression and therapy effects on the regional and not only global level. PMID

  16. Triplet correlation functions in the Lennard-Jones fluid: Tests against molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeil, William J.; Madden, William G.; Haymet, A. D. J.; Rice, Stuart A.

    1983-01-01

    A recent theory of Haymet, Rice, and Madden (HRM) for the pair and triplet correlation functions is tested at liquid state densities against new molecular dynamics results for the Lennard-Jones (12,6) fluid. The HRM integral equation, based on the Born-Green equation and a topological reduction of the diagrammatic expansion of the triplet correlation function, has been solved for a high temperature state (T*=2.74, ρ*=0.80) and is found to give triplet correlation functions in good agreement with the molecular dynamics results. For a lower-temperature state (T*=0.73, ρ*=0.85), where numerical difficulties have thus far frustrated attempts to obtain a self-consistent solution of the HRM integral equation, direct tests of the HRM closure are made using molecular dynamics pair correlation functions to evaluate the diagrams. Although some striking qualitative features of the triplet correlations are correctly described by the HRM closure for this low-temperature state, the HRM approach is not in quantitative agreement with the molecular dynamics results. Test calculations indicate that the principle source of these errors is the neglect of important higher-order diagrams for the triplet correlation function. A reorganization of the diagrammatic series is suggested which may identify the most important of these neglected diagrams. Additional computer simulation results are also reported for the purely repulsive Weeks-Chandler-Andersen (WCA) ``reference'' fluid and for the underlying hard sphere fluid. The similarity of the pair structures of these fluids, noted by WCA, is also found to hold with high accuracy for the triplet structures. It is suggested that these similarities may be exploited in applying the methods of HRM to the hard sphere fluid.

  17. Effectiveness of interventions to reduce ordering of thyroid function tests: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Rebecca; Rogers, Morwenna; Fleming, Simon; Patterson, Anthea; Hamilton, William Trevor; Heaton, Janet; Vaidya, Bijay; Hyde, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of behaviour changing interventions targeting ordering of thyroid function tests. Design Systematic review. Data sources MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Database up to May 2015. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies We included studies evaluating the effectiveness of behaviour change interventions aiming to reduce ordering of thyroid function tests. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomised controlled studies and before and after studies were included. There were no language restrictions. Study appraisal and synthesis methods 2 reviewers independently screened all records identified by the electronic searches and reviewed the full text of any deemed potentially relevant. Study details were extracted from the included papers and their methodological quality assessed independently using a validated tool. Disagreements were resolved through discussion and arbitration by a third reviewer. Meta-analysis was not used. Results 27 studies (28 papers) were included. They evaluated a range of interventions including guidelines/protocols, changes to funding policy, education, decision aids, reminders and audit/feedback; often intervention types were combined. The most common outcome measured was the rate of test ordering, but the effect on appropriateness, test ordering patterns and cost were also measured. 4 studies were RCTs. The majority of the studies were of poor or moderate methodological quality. The interventions were variable and poorly reported. Only 4 studies reported unsuccessful interventions but there was no clear pattern to link effect and intervention type or other characteristics. Conclusions The results suggest that behaviour change interventions are effective particularly in reducing the volume of thyroid function tests. However, due to the poor methodological quality and reporting of the studies, the likely presence of publication bias and the questionable relevance of some interventions to current

  18. Macular sub-layer thinning and association with pulmonary function tests in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Simonett, Joseph M; Huang, Russell; Siddique, Nailah; Farsiu, Sina; Siddique, Teepu; Volpe, Nicholas J; Fawzi, Amani A

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a complex neurodegenerative disorder that may have anterior visual pathway involvement. In this study, we compare the macular structure of patients with ALS to healthy controls, and examine correlations between macular sub-layer thickness measurements and pulmonary function tests and disease duration. ALS patients underwent optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging to obtain macular cube scans of the right eye. Macular cube OCT data from age-matched healthy subjects were provided by the OCT reading center. Semi-automated retinal segmentation software was used to quantify macular sub-layers. Pulmonary function tests and time since symptom onset were collected retrospectively from the electronic medical records of ALS patients. Macular retinal nerve fiber layer was significantly thinner in ALS patients compared to healthy controls (P < 0.05). Total macular and other sub-layer thicknesses were not reduced in the ALS cohort. Macular retinal nerve fiber layer thickness positively correlated with forced vital capacity % predicted and forced expiratory volume in 1 second % predicted (P < 0.05). In conclusion, analysis of OCT measurements supports the involvement of the anterior visual pathway in ALS. Subtle structural thinning in the macular retinal nerve fiber layer correlates with pulmonary function tests. PMID:27383525

  19. Ultrasound Assessment of Endothelial Function: A Technical Guideline of the Flow-mediated Dilation Test.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Miguelez, Paula; Seigler, Nichole; Harris, Ryan A

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the primary cause of mortality and a major cause of disability worldwide. The dysfunction of the vascular endothelium is a pathological condition characterized mainly by a disruption in the balance between vasodilator and vasoconstrictor substances and is proposed to play an important role in the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Therefore, a precise evaluation of endothelial function in humans represents an important tool that could help better understand the etiology of multiple cardio-centric pathologies. Over the past twenty-five years, many methodological approaches have been developed to provide an assessment of endothelial function in humans. Introduced in 1989, the FMD test incorporates a forearm occlusion and subsequent reactive hyperemia that promotes nitric oxide production and vasodilation of the brachial artery. The FMD test is now the most widely utilized, non-invasive, ultrasonic assessment of endothelial function in humans and has been associated with future cardiovascular events. Although the FMD test could have clinical utility, it is a physiological assessment that has inherited several confounding factors that need to be considered. This article describes a standardized protocol for determining FMD including the recommended methodology to help minimize the physiological and technical issues and improve the precision and reproducibility of the assessment. PMID:27167596

  20. Cortical areas related to performance of WAIS Digit Symbol Test: a functional imaging study.

    PubMed

    Usui, Nobuo; Haji, Tomoki; Maruyama, Masakazu; Katsuyama, Narumi; Uchida, Shinya; Hozawa, Atsushi; Omori, Kahoru; Tsuji, Ichiro; Kawashima, Ryuta; Taira, Masato

    2009-09-29

    Many neuropsychological studies have shown that the Digit Symbol Test (DST) of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) is useful for screening for dysfunctions of the brain. However, it remains unclear which brain areas are actually involved in the performance of DST and what brain functions are used for executing this test. In this study, we examined the cortical areas related to cognitive aspects of DST using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and determined executive brain functions involved in this test on the basis of fMRI results. Eleven healthy young adults (mean=21.6 years) performed a modified DST (mDST) task and its control task, which required a simple graphomotor response during fMRI data acquisition. The direct comparison of brain activations between the mDST task and the control task revealed greater activations in a fronto-parietal cortical network, including the bilateral inferior frontal sulci, left middle frontal gyrus (close to the frontal eye field) and left posterior parietal cortex. These activations are interpreted as reflecting the visual search process and/or the updating process of working memory during the mDST task execution. Furthermore, we found a positive correlation between the number of correct responses and activations in the bilateral inferior frontal regions, suggesting that these prefrontal areas have a crucial role in the performance of DST in a healthy young adult population. PMID:19631255

  1. Transfer function approach for artificial tracer test interpretation in karstic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labat, D.; Mangin, A.

    2015-10-01

    A karstic formation consists in a three-dimensional hydrological system which involves horizontal and vertical, diphasic or saturated water transfers characterised by a large range of velocity. These subsurface flow processes correspond to various water pathways through fractured, fissured, and underground streams or conduits leading to a nonlinear global behaviour of the system. An efficient way of investigating of a karstic system behaviour consists in the injection of artificial tracer tests at loss points and in careful analysis of the recovery tracer fluxes at one or several outlets of the systems. These injections are also an efficient way of providing hypotheses on characteristic time of contaminant transfer in these type of aquifers. Here, we propose a Laplace-transform transfer function of the Residence Time Distribution function that allows to discriminate between a quick-flow advection-dominated component and a slow-flow advection-dispersion/dominated component in the artificial tracer transfer in the system. We apply this transfer function on five high resolution sampling rate artificial tracer tests operated on the Baget system in the Pyrenees (France) in order to illustrate the advantages and limitations of this approach. We provide then an interpretation of the relationship between tracer test recovery shape and karstic system organisation between inlet and outlet site.

  2. Macular sub-layer thinning and association with pulmonary function tests in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Simonett, Joseph M.; Huang, Russell; Siddique, Nailah; Farsiu, Sina; Siddique, Teepu; Volpe, Nicholas J.; Fawzi, Amani A.

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a complex neurodegenerative disorder that may have anterior visual pathway involvement. In this study, we compare the macular structure of patients with ALS to healthy controls, and examine correlations between macular sub-layer thickness measurements and pulmonary function tests and disease duration. ALS patients underwent optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging to obtain macular cube scans of the right eye. Macular cube OCT data from age-matched healthy subjects were provided by the OCT reading center. Semi-automated retinal segmentation software was used to quantify macular sub-layers. Pulmonary function tests and time since symptom onset were collected retrospectively from the electronic medical records of ALS patients. Macular retinal nerve fiber layer was significantly thinner in ALS patients compared to healthy controls (P < 0.05). Total macular and other sub-layer thicknesses were not reduced in the ALS cohort. Macular retinal nerve fiber layer thickness positively correlated with forced vital capacity % predicted and forced expiratory volume in 1 second % predicted (P < 0.05). In conclusion, analysis of OCT measurements supports the involvement of the anterior visual pathway in ALS. Subtle structural thinning in the macular retinal nerve fiber layer correlates with pulmonary function tests. PMID:27383525

  3. Quantitative assessment of upper limb motor function in Multiple Sclerosis using an instrumented Action Research Arm Test

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Arm impairment in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is commonly assessed with clinical scales, such as Action Research Arm Test (ARAT) which evaluates the ability to handle and transport smaller and larger objects. ARAT provides a complete upper limb assessment, as it considers both proximal arm and hand, but suffers from subjectivity and poor sensitivity to mild impairment. In this study an instrumented ARAT is proposed to overcome these limitations and supplement the assessment of arm function in MS. Methods ARAT was executed by 12 healthy volunteers and 21 MS subjects wearing a single inertial sensor on the wrist. Accelerometers and gyroscopes signals were used to calculate the duration of each task and its sub-phases (reaching, manipulation, transport, release and return). A jerk index was computed to quantify movement smoothness. For each parameter, z-scores were calculated to analyze the deviation from normative data. MS subjects were clinically assessed with ARAT score, Nine-Hole Peg test (9HPT) and Fahn Tremor Rating Scale (FTRS). Results ARAT tasks executed by MS patients were significantly slower (duration increase: 70%) and less smooth (jerk increase: 16%) with respect to controls. These anomalies were mainly related to manipulation, transport and release sub-movements, with the former showing the greatest alterations. A statistically significant decrease in movement velocity and smoothness was also noticed in patients with normal ARAT score. Z-scores related to duration and jerk were strongly correlated with ARAT rating (r < -0.80, p < 0.001) and 9HPT (r < -0.75, p < 0.001) and were significantly different among MS sub-groups with different levels of arm impairments (p < 0.001). Moreover, Z-score related to manipulation-phase jerk was significantly correlated with the FTRS rating of intention tremor (r = 0.84, p < 0.001). Conclusions The present study showed that the proposed method is able to discriminate between control

  4. Pulmonary function tests in the preoperative evaluation of lung cancer surgery candidates. A review of guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Skoczyński, Szymon; Pierzchała, Władysław

    2014-01-01

    Before planned surgical treatment of lung cancer, the patient's respiratory system function should be evaluated. According to the current guidelines, the assessment should start with measurements of FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 second) and DLco (carbon monoxide lung diffusion capacity). Pneumonectomy is possible when FEV1 and DLco are > 80% of the predicted value (p.v.). If either of these parameters is < 80%, an exercise test with VO2 max (oxygen consumption during maximal exercise) measurement should be performed. When VO2 max is < 35 % p.v. or < 10 ml/kg/min, resection is associated with high risk. If VO2 max is in the range of 35-75% p.v. or 10-20 ml/kg/min, the postoperative values of FEV1 and DLco (ppoFEV1, ppoDLco) should be determined. The exercise test with VO2 max measurement may be replaced with other tests such as the shuttle walk test and the stair climbing test. The distance covered during the shuttle walk test should be > 400 m. Patients considered for lobectomy should be able to climb 3 flights of stairs (12 m) and for pneumonectomy 5 flights of stairs (22 m). PMID:26336435

  5. Abnormal ventilation scans in middle-aged smokers. Comparison with tests of overall lung function

    SciTech Connect

    Barter, S.J.; Cunningham, D.A.; Lavender, J.P.; Gibellino, F.; Connellan, S.J.; Pride, N.B.

    1985-07-01

    The uniformity of regional ventilation during tidal breathing has been assessed using continuous inhalation of krypton-81m in 43 male, lifelong nonsmokers and 46 male, current cigarette smokers (mean daily consumption 24.1 cigarettes/day) between 44 and 61 yr of age and with mild or no respiratory symptoms. All subjects had normal chest radiographs. The results of the ventilation scans were compared with tests of overall lung function (spirometry, maximal expiratory flow-volume curves, and single-breath N2 test). Diffuse abnormalities of the ventilation scan were found in 19 (41%) of the 46 smokers but in none of the nonsmokers. Focal abnormalities were found in 7 smokers and 3 nonsmokers. Smokers showed the expected abnormalities in overall lung function (reduced FEV1 and VC, increased single-breath N2 slope, and closing volume), but in individual smokers there was only a weak relation between the severity of abnormality of overall lung function and an abnormal ventilation scan. Abnormal scans could be found when overall lung function was normal and were not invariably found when significant abnormalities in FEV1/VC or N2 slope were present. There was no relation between the presence of chronic expectoration and an abnormal scan. The prognostic significance of an abnormal ventilation scan in such smokers remains to be established.

  6. Blood lead levels of the battery and exhaust workers and their pulmonary function tests.

    PubMed

    Bagci, C; Bozkurt, A I; Cakmak, E A; Can, S; Cengiz, B

    2004-06-01

    In an attempt to understand the impact of inhaled lead on the pulmonary functions, we assessed the blood lead levels and pulmonary functions of the battery and exhaust workers who are potential candidates for lead inhalation. The hospital staff served as control group. The measurements of lead levels were performed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) were performed using a portable spirometer. The blood lead levels of the battery workers, exhaust workers and controls were found to be 36.83, 26.94 and 14.81 microg/dl, respectively. The values of the workers were significantly higher than the controls (p < 0.001). The lead levels of the battery workers were also significantly higher than the exhaust workers (p < 0.001). PFT results (maximum voluntary ventilation, forced expiration flow and first forced expiration volume values of the workers) were significantly worse than the controls, and their pulmonary function test results were consistent with restrictive problems in the airways. PMID:15311556

  7. Test-retest reliability of graph metrics of resting state MRI functional brain networks: A review.

    PubMed

    Andellini, Martina; Cannatà, Vittorio; Gazzellini, Simone; Bernardi, Bruno; Napolitano, Antonio

    2015-09-30

    The employment of graph theory to analyze spontaneous fluctuations in resting state BOLD fMRI data has become a dominant theme in brain imaging studies and neuroscience. Analysis of resting state functional brain networks based on graph theory has proven to be a powerful tool to quantitatively characterize functional architecture of the brain and it has provided a new platform to explore the overall structure of local and global functional connectivity in the brain. Due to its increased use and possible expansion to clinical use, it is essential that the reliability of such a technique is very strongly assessed. In this review, we explore the outcome of recent studies in network reliability which apply graph theory to analyze connectome resting state networks. Therefore, we investigate which preprocessing steps may affect reproducibility the most. In order to investigate network reliability, we compared the test-retest (TRT) reliability of functional data of published neuroimaging studies with different preprocessing steps. In particular we tested influence of global signal regression, correlation metric choice, binary versus weighted link definition, frequency band selection and length of time-series. Statistical analysis shows that only frequency band selection and length of time-series seem to affect TRT reliability. Our results highlight the importance of the choice of the preprocessing steps to achieve more reproducible measurements. PMID:26072249

  8. Using computational fluid dynamics to test functional and ecological hypotheses in fossil taxa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Imran

    2016-04-01

    Reconstructing how ancient organisms moved and fed is a major focus of study in palaeontology. Traditionally, this has been hampered by a lack of objective data on the functional morphology of extinct species, especially those without a clear modern analogue. However, cutting-edge techniques for characterizing specimens digitally and in three dimensions, coupled with state-of-the-art computer models, now provide a robust framework for testing functional and ecological hypotheses even in problematic fossil taxa. One such approach is computational fluid dynamics (CFD), a method for simulating fluid flows around objects that has primarily been applied to complex engineering-design problems. Here, I will present three case studies of CFD applied to fossil taxa, spanning a range of specimen sizes, taxonomic groups and geological ages. First, I will show how CFD enabled a rigorous test of hypothesized feeding modes in an enigmatic Ediacaran organism with three-fold symmetry, revealing previously unappreciated complexity of pre-Cambrian ecosystems. Second, I will show how CFD was used to evaluate hydrodynamic performance and feeding in Cambrian stem-group echinoderms, shedding light on the probable feeding strategy of the latest common ancestor of all deuterostomes. Third, I will show how CFD allowed us to explore the link between form and function in Mesozoic ichthyosaurs. These case studies serve to demonstrate the enormous potential of CFD for addressing long-standing hypotheses for a variety of fossil taxa, opening up an exciting new avenue in palaeontological studies of functional morphology.

  9. A Simple Behavioral Assay for Testing Visual Function in Xenopus laevis

    PubMed Central

    Viczian, Andrea S.; Zuber, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of the visual function in the tadpoles of the frog, Xenopus laevis, allows screening for blindness in live animals. The optokinetic response is a vision-based, reflexive behavior that has been observed in all vertebrates tested. Tadpole eyes are small so the tail flip response was used as alternative measure, which requires a trained technician to record the subtle response. We developed an alternative behavior assay based on the fact that tadpoles prefer to swim on the white side of a tank when placed in a tank with both black and white sides. The assay presented here is an inexpensive, simple alternative that creates a response that is easily measured. The setup consists of a tripod, webcam and nested testing tanks, readily available in most Xenopus laboratories. This article includes a movie showing the behavior of tadpoles, before and after severing the optic nerve. In order to test the function of one eye, we also include representative results of a tadpole in which each eye underwent retinal axotomy on consecutive days. Future studies could develop an automated version of this assay for testing the vision of many tadpoles at once. PMID:24962702

  10. Using speech sounds to test functional spectral resolution in listeners with cochlear implants

    PubMed Central

    Winn, Matthew B.; Litovsky, Ruth Y.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, spectral properties of speech sounds were used to test functional spectral resolution in people who use cochlear implants (CIs). Specifically, perception of the /ba/-/da/ contrast was tested using two spectral cues: Formant transitions (a fine-resolution cue) and spectral tilt (a coarse-resolution cue). Higher weighting of the formant cues was used as an index of better spectral cue perception. Participants included 19 CI listeners and 10 listeners with normal hearing (NH), for whom spectral resolution was explicitly controlled using a noise vocoder with variable carrier filter widths to simulate electrical current spread. Perceptual weighting of the two cues was modeled with mixed-effects logistic regression, and was found to systematically vary with spectral resolution. The use of formant cues was greatest for NH listeners for unprocessed speech, and declined in the two vocoded conditions. Compared to NH listeners, CI listeners relied less on formant transitions, and more on spectral tilt. Cue-weighting results showed moderately good correspondence with word recognition scores. The current approach to testing functional spectral resolution uses auditory cues that are known to be important for speech categorization, and can thus potentially serve as the basis upon which CI processing strategies and innovations are tested. PMID:25786954

  11. A simple behavioral assay for testing visual function in Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Viczian, Andrea S; Zuber, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of the visual function in the tadpoles of the frog, Xenopus laevis, allows screening for blindness in live animals. The optokinetic response is a vision-based, reflexive behavior that has been observed in all vertebrates tested. Tadpole eyes are small so the tail flip response was used as alternative measure, which requires a trained technician to record the subtle response. We developed an alternative behavior assay based on the fact that tadpoles prefer to swim on the white side of a tank when placed in a tank with both black and white sides. The assay presented here is an inexpensive, simple alternative that creates a response that is easily measured. The setup consists of a tripod, webcam and nested testing tanks, readily available in most Xenopus laboratories. This article includes a movie showing the behavior of tadpoles, before and after severing the optic nerve. In order to test the function of one eye, we also include representative results of a tadpole in which each eye underwent retinal axotomy on consecutive days. Future studies could develop an automated version of this assay for testing the vision of many tadpoles at once. PMID:24962702

  12. A hierarchical Bayesian approach to adaptive vision testing: A case study with the contrast sensitivity function

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Hairong; Kim, Woojae; Hou, Fang; Lesmes, Luis Andres; Pitt, Mark A.; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Myung, Jay I.

    2016-01-01

    Measurement efficiency is of concern when a large number of observations are required to obtain reliable estimates for parametric models of vision. The standard entropy-based Bayesian adaptive testing procedures addressed the issue by selecting the most informative stimulus in sequential experimental trials. Noninformative, diffuse priors were commonly used in those tests. Hierarchical adaptive design optimization (HADO; Kim, Pitt, Lu, Steyvers, & Myung, 2014) further improves the efficiency of the standard Bayesian adaptive testing procedures by constructing an informative prior using data from observers who have already participated in the experiment. The present study represents an empirical validation of HADO in estimating the human contrast sensitivity function. The results show that HADO significantly improves the accuracy and precision of parameter estimates, and therefore requires many fewer observations to obtain reliable inference about contrast sensitivity, compared to the method of quick contrast sensitivity function (Lesmes, Lu, Baek, & Albright, 2010), which uses the standard Bayesian procedure. The improvement with HADO was maintained even when the prior was constructed from heterogeneous populations or a relatively small number of observers. These results of this case study support the conclusion that HADO can be used in Bayesian adaptive testing by replacing noninformative, diffuse priors with statistically justified informative priors without introducing unwanted bias. PMID:27105061

  13. Development of an aerosol dispersion test to detect early changes in lung function

    SciTech Connect

    McCawley, M.; Lippmann, M.

    1988-07-01

    The dispersion of a 0.5 micron aerosol bolus during tidal breathing differs significantly (p less than 0.0001) between a group of smokers (with approximately 20 pack-years average exposure) and a comparable group of nonsmokers. Their mean differences in standard respiratory function indexes from spirometry (forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), mean forced expiratory flow during the middle half of the FVC (FEF25-75)) were smaller and not statistically significant. The test is simple to perform and may be done as quickly as spirometry but without using a forced exhalation. Comparison of the coefficients of variation for the dispersion test and FEV1 indicate that the aerosol dispersion test may be useful in epidemiologic investigations either by reducing the required population size or increasing the level of confidence.

  14. Application of modified profile analysis to function testing of simulated CTOL transport touchdown-performance data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, R. V.; Mckissick, B. T.

    1979-01-01

    The modification to the methodology of profile analysis to accommodate the testing of differences between two functions with a single test, rather than multiple tests at various values of the abscissa, is described and demonstrated for two sets of simulation-performance data. The first application was to a flight-simulation comparison of pilot-vehicle performance with a three-element refractive display to performance with a more widely used beam-splitter-reflective-mirror display system. The results demonstrate that the refractive system for out-the-window scene display provides equivalent performance to the reflective system. The second application demonstrates the detection of significant differences by modified profile-analysis procedures. This application compares the effects of two sets of pitch-axis force-feel characteristics on the sink rate at touchdown performance utilizing the refractive system. This experiment demonstrates the dependence of simulator sink-rate performance on force-feel characteristics.

  15. [Validity of diagnostic methods for kidney function tests in the cat].

    PubMed

    Meyer-Lindenberg, A; Westhoff, A; Wohlsein, P; Nolte, I

    1996-08-01

    The diagnosis of kidney disease is difficult in the stage of compensation and impossible based solely on the routinely performed laboratory tests on blood and urine. For this reason, more sensitive methods are required. In the present study, three special techniques are compared with regard to their validity in the early diagnosis of kidney disease in the cat: 1. the molecular-weight related separation of urine proteins with the sodium-dodecyl-sulfate-polyacrylamide-gradient gel electrophoresis (SDS-page) in the PhastSystem, 2. measurement of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) with the renalyzer PRX90 using an iodine containing contrast medium and 3. kidney scintigraphy. The results of this comparison demonstrate that these procedures are important adjuncts to common laboratory investigations in the testing of renal function. The SDS-page allows an early qualitative assessment on alterations of specific functional compartments of the kidney. However, it is not possible with this method alone to evaluate the degree of renal disturbance and it does not give information concerning the severity of renal functional impairment. Measurement of the GFR is also a valuable procedure which gives a quantitative result on the global renal function within a few hours. It is of special importance when subclinically disturbed kidney function is present. In the cat however it is until now not possible to give a correct prognosis in high grade nephropathies. Only scintigraphy allows unilateral assessment of renal function, which is most important in cats with morphologically altered kidneys, such as kidney cysts, hydronephrosis or tumours. PMID:9012026

  16. Adrenal Function Testing Following Hormone Therapy for Infantile Spasms: Case Series and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Mytinger, John R.; Bowden, Sasigarn A.

    2015-01-01

    Prednisolone and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) are “hormone” therapies for infantile spasms. There is limited data on the occurrence of decreased adrenal reserve or signs of clinical adrenal insufficiency after hormone therapy. This is a retrospective medical record review of patients referred to our Infantile Spasms Program. Our standardized infantile spasms management guideline began in September 2012 and initially included a post-hormone laboratory assessment of adrenal function. Medical records were assessed for hormone treatments, adrenal function testing, and signs of adrenal insufficiency. Forty-two patients who received one or both hormone therapies met inclusion criteria. A post-hormone laboratory assessment of adrenal function was done in 14 patients. Of these 14 patients, 2 had an abnormal laboratory assessment of adrenal function, both by adrenal stimulation testing – one after ACTH and one after prednisolone. One patient received hydrocortisone replacement and the other received stress dose hydrocortisone as needed; neither patient developed signs of adrenal insufficiency. Another patient treated with both types of hormone therapy in tandem, who did not have a post-hormone laboratory assessment, developed signs of mild adrenal insufficiency and required replacement hydrocortisone. Our study suggests that adrenal suppression can occur after modern hormone therapy regimens. We found two patients with abnormal adrenal function testing after hormone therapy and another patient with signs adrenal insufficiency. Given the seriousness of adrenal crisis, caregiver education on the signs of adrenal insufficiency is critical. Greater vigilance may be indicated in patients receiving both types of hormone therapy in tandem. Although a routine post-hormone laboratory assessment of adrenal function may not be feasible in all patients, replacement or stress dose hydrocortisone is necessary for all patients with suspected adrenal insufficiency. PMID

  17. West Valley Demonstration Project vitrification process equipment Functional and Checkout Testing of Systems (FACTS)

    SciTech Connect

    Carl, D.E.; Paul, J.; Foran, J.M.; Brooks, R.

    1990-09-30

    The Vitrification Facility (VF) at the West Valley Demonstration Project was designed to convert stored radioactive waste into a stable glass for disposal in a federal repository. The Functional and Checkout Testing of Systems (FACTS) program was conducted from 1984 to 1989. During this time new equipment and processes were developed, installed, and implemented. Thirty-seven FACTS tests were conducted, and approximately 150,000 kg of glass were made by using nonradioactive materials to simulate the radioactive waste. By contrast, the planned radioactive operation is expected to produce approximately 500,000 kg of glass. The FACTS program demonstrated the effectiveness of equipment and procedures in the vitrification system, and the ability of the VF to produce quality glass on schedule. FACTS testing also provided data to validate the WVNS waste glass qualification method and verify that the product glass would meet federal repository acceptance requirements. The system was built and performed to standards which would have enabled it to be used in radioactive service. As a result, much of the VF tested, such as the civil construction, feed mixing and holding vessels, and the off-gas scrubber, will be converted for radioactive operation. The melter was still in good condition after being at temperature for fifty-eight of the sixty months of FACTS. However, the melter exceeded its recommended design life and will be replaced with a similar melter. Components that were not designed for remote operation and maintenance will be replaced with remote-use items. The FACTS testing was accomplished with no significant worker injury or environmental releases. During the last FACTS run, the VF processes approximated the remote-handling system that will be used in radioactive operations. Following this run the VF was disassembled for conversion to a radioactive process. Functional and checkout testing of new components will be performed prior to radioactive operation.

  18. Influence of specific training on spatio-temporal parameters at the onset of goal-directed reaching in infants: a controlled trial*

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Andréa B.; Woollacott, Marjorie; Tudella, Eloisa

    2013-01-01

    Background There is evidence that long-term experience can promote functional changes in infants. However, much remains unknown about how a short-term experience affects performance of a task. Objective This study aims to investigate the influence of a single training session at the onset of goal-directed reaching on the spatio-temporal parameters of reaching and whether there are differences in the effects of training across different reaching positions. Method Thirty-three infants were divided into three groups: 1) a control group; 2) a group that was reach trained in a reclined position; and 3) a group trained in the supine position. The infants were submitted to two assessments (pre- and post-training) in two testing positions (supine and reclined at 45°). Results The short-duration training sessions were effective in promoting shorter reaches in the specific position in which the training was conducted. Training in the reclined position was associated with shorter and faster reaches upon assessment in the reclined position. Conclusions A few minutes of reach training are effective in facilitating reaching behavior in infants at the onset of reaching. The improvements in reaching were specific to the position in which the infants were trained. PMID:24072228

  19. Clinical Validation of 4-Dimensional Computed Tomography Ventilation With Pulmonary Function Test Data

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, Douglas; Schubert, Leah; Diot, Quentin; Castillo, Richard; Castillo, Edward; Guerrero, Thomas; Martel, Mary K.; Linderman, Derek; Gaspar, Laurie E.; Miften, Moyed; Kavanagh, Brian D.; Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: A new form of functional imaging has been proposed in the form of 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) ventilation. Because 4DCTs are acquired as part of routine care for lung cancer patients, calculating ventilation maps from 4DCTs provides spatial lung function information without added dosimetric or monetary cost to the patient. Before 4DCT-ventilation is implemented it needs to be clinically validated. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) provide a clinically established way of evaluating lung function. The purpose of our work was to perform a clinical validation by comparing 4DCT-ventilation metrics with PFT data. Methods and Materials: Ninety-eight lung cancer patients with pretreatment 4DCT and PFT data were included in the study. Pulmonary function test metrics used to diagnose obstructive lung disease were recorded: forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and FEV1/forced vital capacity. Four-dimensional CT data sets and spatial registration were used to compute 4DCT-ventilation images using a density change–based and a Jacobian-based model. The ventilation maps were reduced to single metrics intended to reflect the degree of ventilation obstruction. Specifically, we computed the coefficient of variation (SD/mean), ventilation V20 (volume of lung ≤20% ventilation), and correlated the ventilation metrics with PFT data. Regression analysis was used to determine whether 4DCT ventilation data could predict for normal versus abnormal lung function using PFT thresholds. Results: Correlation coefficients comparing 4DCT-ventilation with PFT data ranged from 0.63 to 0.72, with the best agreement between FEV1 and coefficient of variation. Four-dimensional CT ventilation metrics were able to significantly delineate between clinically normal versus abnormal PFT results. Conclusions: Validation of 4DCT ventilation with clinically relevant metrics is essential. We demonstrate good global agreement between PFTs and 4DCT-ventilation, indicating that 4DCT

  20. Reaching the Overlooked Student in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esslinger, Keri; Esslinger, Travis; Bagshaw, Jarad

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the use of live action role-playing, or "LARPing," as a non-traditional activity that has the potential to reach students who are not interested in traditional physical education.

  1. Utilization of Modified NFL Combine Testing to Identify Functional Deficits in Athletes Following ACL Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    MYER, GREGORY D.; SCHMITT, LAURA C.; BRENT, JENSEN L.; FORD, KEVIN R.; BARBER FOSS, KIM D.; SCHERER, BRADLEY J.; HEIDT, ROBERT S.; DIVINE, JON G.; HEWETT, TIMOTHY E.

    2012-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN Case control. OBJECTIVES To use modified NFL Combine testing methodology to test for functional deficits in athletes following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction following return to sport. BACKGROUND There is a need to develop objective, performance-based, on-field assessment methods designed to identify potential lower extremity performance deficits and related impairments in this population. METHODS Eighteen patients (mean ± SD age, 16.9 ± 2.1 years; height, 170.0 ± 8.7 cm; body mass, 71.9 ± 21.8 kg) who returned to their sport within a year following ACL reconstruction (95% CI: 7.8 to 11.9 months from surgery) participated (ACLR group). These individuals were asked to bring 1 or 2 teammates to serve as control participants, who were matched for sex, sport, and age (n = 20; mean ± SD age, 16.9 ± 1.1 years; height, 169.7 ± 8.4 cm; body mass, 70.1 ± 20.7 kg). Functional performance was tested using the broad jump, vertical jump, modified long shuttle, modified pro shuttle, modified agility T-test, timed hop, triple hop, single hop, and crossover hop tests. A 1-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to evaluate group differences for dependent performance variables. RESULTS The functional performance measurements of skills requiring bilateral involvement of both lower extremities showed no group differences between the ACLR and control groups (P>.05). An overall group difference (P = .006) was observed for the combined limb symmetry index (LSI) measures. However, the modified double-limb performance tasks (long shuttle, modified agility T-test, and pro shuttle) were not, independently, sufficiently sensitive to detect limb deficits in individuals with ACL reconstruction. Conversely, the LSI on the distance measures of the single-limb performance tasks all provided moderate to large effect sizes to differentiate between the ACLR and control groups, as the individuals who had ACL reconstruction demonstrated involved

  2. Indices of cognitive function measured in rugby union players using a computer-based test battery.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Luke A; Minahan, Clare L

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the intra- and inter-day reliability of cognitive performance using a computer-based test battery in team-sport athletes. Eighteen elite male rugby union players (age: 19 ± 0.5 years) performed three experimental trials (T1, T2 and T3) of the test battery: T1 and T2 on the same day and T3, on the following day, 24 h later. The test battery comprised of four cognitive tests assessing the cognitive domains of executive function (Groton Maze Learning Task), psychomotor function (Detection Task), vigilance (Identification Task), visual learning and memory (One Card Learning Task). The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for the Detection Task, the Identification Task and the One Card Learning Task performance variables ranged from 0.75 to 0.92 when comparing T1 to T2 to assess intraday reliability, and 0.76 to 0.83 when comparing T1 and T3 to assess inter-day reliability. The ICCs for the Groton Maze Learning Task intra- and inter-day reliability were 0.67 and 0.57, respectively. We concluded that the Detection Task, the Identification Task and the One Card Learning Task are reliable measures of psychomotor function, vigilance, visual learning and memory in rugby union players. The reliability of the Groton Maze Learning Task is questionable (mean coefficient of variation (CV) = 19.4%) and, therefore, results should be interpreted with caution. PMID:26756946

  3. Innovative quantitative testing of hand function in Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Alberti, Maria A; Mori, Laura; Francini, Luca; Poggi, Ilaria; Monti Bragadin, Margherita; Bellone, Emilia; Grandis, Marina; Maggi, Giovanni; Reni, Lizia; Sormani, Maria P; Tacchino, Andrea; Padua, Luca; Prada, Valeria; Bove, Marco; Schenone, Angelo

    2015-12-01

    To describe a new test to quantitatively evaluate hand function in patients affected by Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy (CMT). The sensor-engineered glove test (SEGT) was applied to CMT patients (N: 26) and compared with a cohort of healthy controls (HC, N: 26). CMT patients were further divided into subjects with clinically normal (group 1) or impaired hand (group 2) function. The SEGT parameters evaluated were touch duration, inter-tapping interval, and movement rate parameters of two different sequences: finger tapping (FT) and index-medium-ring-little (IMRL) performed at self-paced mode (SPM) and maximum velocity (MV). Hand function and strength were assessed by the 9-hole peg test (9HPT) and dynamometry. Disability of patients was measured by the CMT neuropathy score. CMT patients had significantly worst performances at SEGT than controls regarding the rate of execution of both FT (at MV) and IMRL sequences (at SPM and MV). The rate parameter at MV in IMRL sequence showed a significant trend of decreasing in its average between HC (n: 26, rate = 3.08 ± 0.52 Hz), group 1 (n: 9, rate = 2.64 ± 0.66 Hz) and group 2 (n: 17, rate = 2.19 ± 0.45 Hz) (p for trend <0.001). No correlations were found with either 9HPT, dynamometry, electrophysiology, and the CMT neuropathy score. The SEGT test is sensitive to show hand dysfunction in CMT patients, with and without clinically impaired hands. PMID:26456943

  4. Physiologic Dysfunction Scores and Cognitive Function Test Performance in United States Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kobrosly, Roni W; Seplaki, Christopher L; Jones, Courtney M; van Wijngaarden, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between a measure of cumulative physiologic dysfunction and specific domains of cognitive function. Methods We examined a summary score measuring physiological dysfunction, a multisystem measure of the body’s ability to effectively adapt to physical and psychological demands, in relation to cognitive function deficits in a population of 4511 adults aged 20 to 59 who participated in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988–1994). Measures of cognitive function comprised three domains: working memory, visuomotor speed, and perceptual-motor speed. ‘Physiologic dysfunction’ scores summarizing measures of cardiovascular, immunologic, kidney, and liver function were explored. We used multiple linear regression models to estimate associations between cognitive function measures and physiological dysfunction scores, adjusting for socioeconomic factors, test conditions, and self-reported health factors. Results We noted a dose-response relationship between physiologic dysfunction and working memory (coefficient = 0.207, 95% CI = (0.066, 0.348), p < 0.0001) that persisted after adjustment for all covariates (p = 0.03). We did not observe any significant relationships between dysfunction scores and visuomotor (p = 0.37) or perceptual-motor ability (p = 0.33). Conclusions Our findings suggest that multisystem physiologic dysfunction is associated with working memory. Future longitudinal studies are needed to clarify the underlying mechanisms and explore the persistency of this association into later life. We suggest that such studies should incorporate physiologic data, neuroendocrine parameters, and a wide range of specific cognitive domains. PMID:22155941

  5. Testing Adaptive Hypotheses of Convergence with Functional Landscapes: A Case Study of Bone-Cracking Hypercarnivores

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Zhijie Jack

    2013-01-01

    Morphological convergence is a well documented phenomenon in mammals, and adaptive explanations are commonly employed to infer similar functions for convergent characteristics. I present a study that adopts aspects of theoretical morphology and engineering optimization to test hypotheses about adaptive convergent evolution. Bone-cracking ecomorphologies in Carnivora were used as a case study. Previous research has shown that skull deepening and widening are major evolutionary patterns in convergent bone-cracking canids and hyaenids. A simple two-dimensional design space, with skull width-to-length and depth-to-length ratios as variables, was used to examine optimized shapes for two functional properties: mechanical advantage (MA) and strain energy (SE). Functionality of theoretical skull shapes was studied using finite element analysis (FEA) and visualized as functional landscapes. The distribution of actual skull shapes in the landscape showed a convergent trend of plesiomorphically low-MA and moderate-SE skulls evolving towards higher-MA and moderate-SE skulls; this is corroborated by FEA of 13 actual specimens. Nevertheless, regions exist in the landscape where high-MA and lower-SE shapes are not represented by existing species; their vacancy is observed even at higher taxonomic levels. Results highlight the interaction of biomechanical and non-biomechanical factors in constraining general skull dimensions to localized functional optima through evolution. PMID:23734244

  6. Stress ventricular function test in conscious, nonthoracotomised dogs to assess cardiac drug efficacy.

    PubMed

    French, W J; Averill, W; Ung, S; Laks, M M

    1985-01-01

    The measurement of left ventricular (LV) function is frequently performed in unconscious or thoracotomised animals in the resting state; these conditions may seriously affect the basal haemodynamic state. To assess myocardial function in conscious animals, a technique was developed to place a catheter across the atrial septum into the left ventricle without a thoracotomy. A stress ventricular function test (SVFT) was performed by raising the systemic blood pressure with methoxamine in the conscious dog. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the SVFT in the detection of a decrease in ventricular function, a SVFT was performed before and after the acute infusion of verapamil to determine resting and reserve LV function. A slope relating systolic aortic pressure to the LV end-diastolic pressure was obtained in 10 dogs using a low dose (0.005) and in four dogs a high dose (0.01 microgram X kg-1 X min-1) verapamil (V). The mean slope before V was 3.6 +/- 1.2 and after 2.0 +/- 0.92 (p less than 0.001). The day-to-day variability of the SVFT was less than 22% (coefficient of variability). The SVFT is a sensitive, reproducible method to assess resting and increased or decreased myocardial contractility and is useful in selecting appropriate doses of cardiac drugs to determine their effect on the myocardium during acute and chronic infusion studies in the conscious, nonthoracotomised dog. PMID:3986853

  7. Functional integrity of the interrenal tissue of yellow perch from contaminated sites tested in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Girard, C.; Brodeur, J.C.; Hontela, A.

    1995-12-31

    The normal activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-interrenal axis (HPI axis) in response to capture is disrupted in fish subjected to life-long exposure to heavy metals, PCBs and PAHs. The ability to increase plasma cortisol in yellow perch (Perca flavescens) from sites contaminated by heavy metals and organic compounds, and from a reference site was assessed by the Capture stress test and by the ACTH Challenge test, a new standardized in vivo method designed for field studies. The effects of seasonal factors, such as temperature and gonadal maturity on these tests were investigated. Measures of liver and muscle glycogen and histopathology were made to further characterize the biochemical and structural changes that may occur along with hormonal changes. The Capture stress test showed that an acute source of stress induced a lower cortisol response in fish from the highly contaminated site compared to the reference site, revealing a functional impairment of the HPI axis. The ACTH Challenge test showed that the hormonal responsiveness of the cortisol-secreting interrenal tissue, stimulated by a standard dose of ACTH injected i.p., was lower in fish from the highly contaminated site than the reference site. Spring is the season during which the impairment was the most evident. The possibility of using the reduced capacity of feral fish to respond to a standardized ACTH Challenge as an early bioindicator of toxic stress is discussed.

  8. An investigation of retronasal testing of olfactory function in a Turkish population

    PubMed Central

    Salihoglu, Murat; Altundag, Aytug; Cayonu, Melih; Tekeli, Hakan

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was: (1) to perform a preliminary study for the validation of “retronasal olfactory testing” in the Turkish population to find the best way to evaluate smell and taste disorders in Turkey; (2) to determine if cultural differences make application of the test more difficult; and (3) to determine the flavors that participants had not yet tasted by using the survey method. Material/Methods The study included 330 volunteers. Orthonasal olfactory function was assessed psycho-physically using the “Sniffin’ Sticks” olfactory test. Retronasal olfaction was assessed using a collection of 20 available food powders applied to the oral cavity. Also, all participants filled in a questionnaire of 50 items about the flavors they had not tasted before. Results The mean age of the participants was 26±7.3 years. Participants were divided into 3 groups according to the “Sniffin’ Sticks” test results: anosmia, hyposmia, and normosmia groups. Differences in retronasal olfaction scores were significant among the 3 groups. Conclusions The retronasal olfactory test appeared to perform well, but modifications of odorized powders or granules and distracters used in the retronasal olfactory test, taking into account Turkish cultural differences, is likely to improve its performance. PMID:24704823

  9. Cognitive Test Performance in Relation to Health and Function in 12 European Countries: The SHARE Study

    PubMed Central

    Sterniczuk, Roxanne; Theou, Olga; Rusak, Benjamin; Rockwood, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Background Even subtle impairments on cognitive test scores can be associated with future cognitive decline and dementia. We assayed the relationships between test score impairment and adverse outcomes. Methods Secondary analyses were performed on data from non-institutionalized participants, 50+ years of age (N = 30,038), from 12 countries taking part in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) longitudinal study on aging. At baseline, participants’ cognition was tested using verbal fluency, immediate recall, and delayed recall tasks. Results Greater levels of cognitive impairment at baseline were strongly associated with future poor health outcomes and functional impairment. Controlling for age, sex and education, those with 1 (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.34–1.87) or ≥ 2 (OR = 2.59, 95% CI = 2.17–3.09) impaired tests at baseline were more likely to die after an average of 40 months compared to individuals with no impairments. After selecting for participants who reported the absence of dementia initially, those with ≥ 2 cognitive impairments at baseline (OR = 3.34, 95% CI = 2.27–4.92) were more likely to report dementia at follow-up compared to those with no impairment. Conclusions People with impaired cognitive test scores at baseline are at greater risk to die or develop dementia within four years than their less impaired or unimpaired counterparts. PMID:26495048

  10. Lung function and six-minute walk test performance in individuals with sickle cell disease

    PubMed Central

    Ohara, Daniela G.; Ruas, Gualberto; Walsh, Isabel A. P.; Castro, Shamyr S.; Jamami, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Background Sickle Cell Disease (SCD), which is characterized by a mutation in the gene encoding beta hemoglobin, causes bodily dysfunctions such as impaired pulmonary function and reduced functional capacity. Objective To assess changes in pulmonary function and functional capacity in patients with SCD and to identify the relationships between these variables. Method We evaluated sociodemographic, anthropometric, lung function (spirometry), respiratory (manovacuometer), peripheral muscle strength (Handgrip strength - HS) and functional capacity (i.e., the six-minute walk test) parameters in 21 individuals with SCD (average age of 29±6 years). Shapiro-Wilk, paired Student's, Wilcoxon, Pearson and Spearman correlation tests were used for statistical analyses, and the significance threshold was set at p<0.05. Results A total of 47.6% of the study subjects exhibited an altered ventilation pattern, 42.8% had a restrictive ventilatory pattern (RVP) and 4.8% exhibited a mixed ventilatory pattern (MVP). The observed maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) values were below the predicted values for women (64 cmH2O), and the maximum expiratory pressure (MEP) values, HS values and distance walked during the 6MWT were below the predicted values for both men (103 cmH2O, 39 Kgf and 447 m, respectively) and women (64 cmH2O; 27 Kgf; 405 m, respectively). Positive correlations were observed between maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) and MEP (r=0.4; p=0.046); MVV and BMI (r=0.6; p=0.003); and between HS and MIP (r=0.7; p=0.001), MEP (r=0.6; p=0.002), MVV (r=0.5; p=0.015), distance walked in the 6MWT (r=0.4; p=0.038) and BMI (r=0.6; p=0.004). Conclusions SCD promoted changes in lung function and functional capacity, including RVPs and a reduction in the distance walked in the 6MWT when compared to the predictions. In addition, significant correlations between the variables were observed. PMID:24675916

  11. Functional Unit Testing: An Idea for Evaluating Ideas in Terrestrial Biogeochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, A. W.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Thornton, P. E.; Wang, D.; Warren, J.

    2014-12-01

    Experimental observations of terrestrial biogeochemistry are often made at the scale of leaves and the rhizosphere or at spatial scales finer than that of the entire ecosystem. Classic examples include measurements of leaf-level photosynthesis and of soil respiration using soil chambers. Field experiments are often designed to test hypotheses at these finer scales or to test larger scale hypotheses linked to those finer-scale processes. In turn, functional representations of processes within a model are themselves scale-dependent hypotheses. They may be hypotheses that are broadly supported by experimental results or they may be more tentative. In either case, there is a need to evaluate the finer-scale hypotheses within the context of the model's integrated representation of larger-scale higher-level behavior. For example, model results can indicate how a hypothesized process at the scale of fine roots might be expressed at the scale of whole stand evapotranspiration. These results can then inform the design of experiments and observations best suited for capturing that multi-scale behavior and dependency. However, it is often extremely difficult to extract results of finer scale hypotheses (functions) from fully integrated large-scale ecosystem models. Accordingly, we have developed a framework for extracting individual process representations from the Community Land Model (CLM) into modular units for functional testing. These modules encapsulate fine-scale hypotheses about terrestrial biogeochemistry. Results can be generated quickly with these modules and compared directly with the experimental observations at the appropriate scale. Alternative hypotheses can be quickly implemented and evaluated. We illustrate this concept with results from CLM and the Partitioning in Trees and Soils loblolly pine field experiment. Our findings suggest deficits in the model's hypothesized relationship between photosynthesis and temperature and suggest a focus in subsequent

  12. Platelet function tests, independent of platelet count, are associated with bleeding severity in ITP

    PubMed Central

    Grace, Rachael F.; Gerrits, Anja J.; Berny-Lang, Michelle A.; Brown, Travis; Carmichael, Sabrina L.; Neufeld, Ellis J.; Michelson, Alan D.

    2015-01-01

    Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) patients with similarly low platelet counts differ in their tendency to bleed. To determine if differences in platelet function in ITP patients account for this variation in bleeding tendency, we conducted a single-center, cross-sectional study of pediatric patients with ITP. Bleeding severity (assessed by standardized bleeding score) and platelet function (assessed by whole blood flow cytometry) with and without agonist stimulation was evaluated in 57 ITP patients (median age, 9.9 years). After adjustment for platelet count, higher levels of thrombin receptor activating peptide (TRAP)-stimulated percent P-selectin- and activated glycoprotein (GP)IIb-IIIa–positive platelets were significantly associated with a lower bleeding score, whereas higher levels of immature platelet fraction (IPF), TRAP-stimulated platelet surface CD42b, unstimulated platelet surface P-selectin, and platelet forward light scatter (FSC) were associated with a higher bleeding score. Thus, platelet function tests related to platelet age (IPF, FSC) and activation through the protease activated receptor 1 (PAR1) thrombin receptor (TRAP-stimulated P-selectin, activated GPIIb-IIIa, and CD42b), independent of platelet count, are associated with concurrent bleeding severity in ITP. These tests may be useful markers of future bleeding risk in ITP. PMID:26138687

  13. Link functions in multi-locus genetic models: implications for testing, prediction, and interpretation.

    PubMed

    Clayton, David

    2012-05-01

    "Complex" diseases are, by definition, influenced by multiple causes, both genetic and environmental, and statistical work on the joint action of multiple risk factors has, for more than 40 years, been dominated by the generalized linear model (GLM). In genetics, models for dichotomous traits have traditionally been approached via the model of an underlying, normally distributed, liability. This corresponds to the GLM with binomial errors and a probit link function. Elsewhere in epidemiology, however, the logistic regression model, a GLM with logit link function, has been the tool of choice, largely because of its convenient properties in case-control studies. The choice of link function has usually been dictated by mathematical convenience, but it has some important implications in (a) the choice of association test statistic in the presence of existing strong risk factors, (b) the ability to predict disease from genotype given its heritability, and (c) the definition, and interpretation of epistasis (or epistacy). These issues are reviewed, and a new association test proposed. PMID:22508388

  14. REACH coarse-grained biomolecular simulation: transferability between different protein structural classes.

    PubMed

    Moritsugu, Kei; Smith, Jeremy C

    2008-08-01

    Coarse graining of protein interactions provides a means of simulating large biological systems. The REACH (Realistic Extension Algorithm via Covariance Hessian) coarse-graining method, in which the force constants of a residue-scale elastic network model are calculated from the variance-covariance matrix obtained from atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, involves direct mapping between scales without the need for iterative optimization. Here, the transferability of the REACH force field is examined between protein molecules of different structural classes. As test cases, myoglobin (all alpha), plastocyanin (all beta), and dihydrofolate reductase (alpha/beta) are taken. The force constants derived are found to be closely similar in all three proteins. An MD version of REACH is presented, and low-temperature coarse-grained (CG) REACH MD simulations of the three proteins are compared with atomistic MD results. The mean-square fluctuations of the atomistic MD are well reproduced by the CGMD. Model functions for the CG interactions, derived by averaging over the three proteins, are also shown to produce fluctuations in good agreement with the atomistic MD. The results indicate that, similarly to the use of atomistic force fields, it is now possible to use a single, generic REACH force field for all protein studies, without having first to derive parameters from atomistic MD simulation for each individual system studied. The REACH method is thus likely to be a reliable way of determining spatiotemporal motion of a variety of proteins without the need for expensive computation of long atomistic MD simulations. PMID:18469078

  15. Techniques and Methods for Testing the Postural Function in Healthy and Pathological Subjects.

    PubMed

    Paillard, Thierry; Noé, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    The different techniques and methods employed as well as the different quantitative and qualitative variables measured in order to objectify postural control are often chosen without taking into account the population studied, the objective of the postural test, and the environmental conditions. For these reasons, the aim of this review was to present and justify the different testing techniques and methods with their different quantitative and qualitative variables to make it possible to precisely evaluate each sensory, central, and motor component of the postural function according to the experiment protocol under consideration. The main practical and technological methods and techniques used in evaluating postural control were explained and justified according to the experimental protocol defined. The main postural conditions (postural stance, visual condition, balance condition, and test duration) were also analyzed. Moreover, the mechanistic exploration of the postural function often requires implementing disturbing postural conditions by using motor disturbance (mechanical disturbance), sensory stimulation (sensory manipulation), and/or cognitive disturbance (cognitive task associated with maintaining postural balance) protocols. Each type of disturbance was tackled in order to facilitate understanding of subtle postural control mechanisms and the means to explore them. PMID:26640800

  16. A multi-functional testing instrument for heat assisted magnetic recording media

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, H. Z. Chen, Y. J.; Leong, S. H.; An, C. W.; Ye, K. D.; Hu, J. F.; Yin, M. J.

    2014-05-07

    With recent developments in heat assisted magnetic recording (HAMR), characterization of HAMR media is becoming very important. We present a multi-functional instrument for testing HAMR media, which integrates HAMR writing, reading, and a micro-magneto-optic Kerr effect (μ-MOKE) testing function. A potential application of the present instrument is to make temperature dependent magnetic property measurement using a pump-probe configuration. In the measurement, the media is heated up by a heating (intense) beam while a testing (weak) beam is overlapped with the heating beam for MOKE measurement. By heating the media with different heating beam power, magnetic measurements by MOKE at different temperatures can be performed. Compared to traditional existing tools such as the vibrating sample magnetometer, the present instrument provides localized and efficient heating at the measurement spot. The integration of HAMR writing and μ-MOKE system can also facilitate a localized full investigation of the magnetic media by potential correlation of HAMR head independent write/read performance to localized magnetic properties.

  17. Disruption of NHE8 expression impairs Leydig cell function in the testes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hua; Chen, Huacong; Li, Jing; Zhao, Yang; Ghishan, Fayez K

    2015-02-15

    Multiple sodium/hydrogen exchanger (NHE) isoforms are expressed in the testes, and they play various roles in cell volume regulation, intracellular pH regulation, and fluid absorption. NHE8, the most recently characterized NHE family member, is detected in the Leydig cells in humans and mice in great abundance by immunohistochemistry in the current study. Male mice lacking NHE8 expression were infertile. Despite having intact male reproductive organs, male NHE8-/- mice have smaller testes and lacked spermatozoon in the seminiferous tubules and the epididymis. At the age of 39 wk, few spermogonia were seen in the testis in NHE8-/- mice. Although male NHE8-/- mice have normal serum levels of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone, serum testosterone level was significantly reduced. These mice have decreased expression of luteinizing hormone receptor in the testes. In NHE8 small-interfering RNA-transfected mouse Leydig cells (MLTC-1), silencing of NHE8 decreased the expression of luteinizing hormone receptor by ∼70%. Moreover, loss of NHE8 function in Leydig cells resulted in disorganized luteinizing hormone receptor membrane distribution. Therefore, male infertility in NHE8-/- mice is at least partially due to the disruption of luteinizing hormone receptor distribution and consequent low testosterone production, which leads to Sertoli cell dysfunction. Our work identified a novel role of NHE8 in male fertility through its effect on modifying luteinizing hormone receptor function. PMID:25472965

  18. Techniques and Methods for Testing the Postural Function in Healthy and Pathological Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Paillard, Thierry; Noé, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    The different techniques and methods employed as well as the different quantitative and qualitative variables measured in order to objectify postural control are often chosen without taking into account the population studied, the objective of the postural test, and the environmental conditions. For these reasons, the aim of this review was to present and justify the different testing techniques and methods with their different quantitative and qualitative variables to make it possible to precisely evaluate each sensory, central, and motor component of the postural function according to the experiment protocol under consideration. The main practical and technological methods and techniques used in evaluating postural control were explained and justified according to the experimental protocol defined. The main postural conditions (postural stance, visual condition, balance condition, and test duration) were also analyzed. Moreover, the mechanistic exploration of the postural function often requires implementing disturbing postural conditions by using motor disturbance (mechanical disturbance), sensory stimulation (sensory manipulation), and/or cognitive disturbance (cognitive task associated with maintaining postural balance) protocols. Each type of disturbance was tackled in order to facilitate understanding of subtle postural control mechanisms and the means to explore them. PMID:26640800

  19. ESA's Venus Express to reach final destination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-04-01

    burn, at 09:45 (CEST), Venus Express will disappear behind the planet and will not be visible from Earth. This is known as its ‘occultation’ period. The spacecraft will re-emerge from behind Venus’s disc some ten minutes later. So, even with the low gain antenna’s signal, it will only be visible during the first half of the burn and the last six minutes. Receiving the spacecraft signal after the occultation period will be the first positive sign of successful orbit insertion. 11 April, h 11:13 (CEST), re-establish communication with Earth. At the end of the burn, Venus Express still has to perform a few automatic operations. These re-orient the solar panels towards the sun and one of the high gain antennas (the smaller High Gain Antenna 2) towards Earth. If everything goes as expected, at 11:13 the spacecraft should be able to establish its first communication link with ESA’s Cebreros ground station near Madrid. Over the next few hours, it will send much-awaited information about its state of health. Information about its actual trajectory will be available from ESOC’s flight dynamics team around 12:30 (CEST). 12 to 13 April 2006, full reactivation starts. During the 24 hours following orbital capture, time will be devoted to reactivating all spacecraft functions, including all internal monitoring capacity. By the morning of the 13th, the larger ‘High Gain Antenna 1, hitherto unused, will be oriented and fed by the transmitter to communicate with Earth. The two high gain antennas, located on different sides of the spacecraft, will be used alternately during the mission, to avoid exposure to the sun of critical equipment on the outside. Reaching final orbit A series of further manoeuvres and many more days will be required to settle Venus Express into its final orbit. The preliminary nine-day orbit is elliptical, ranging from 350 000 kilometres at its furthest point from the planet (apocentre) to less than 400 kilometres at its closest (pericentre). During

  20. Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification Hydrogeomorphic Reach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Charles M.; Ramirez, Mary F.; Heatwole, Danelle W.; Burke, Jennifer L.; Simenstad, Charles A.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Marcoe, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Estuarine ecosystems are controlled by a variety of processes that operate at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Understanding the hierarchical nature of these processes will aid in prioritization of restoration efforts. This hierarchical Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification (henceforth "Classification") of the Columbia River estuary is a spatial database of the tidally-influenced reaches of the lower Columbia River, the tidally affected parts of its tributaries, and the landforms that make up their floodplains for the 230 kilometers between the Pacific Ocean and Bonneville Dam. This work is a collaborative effort between University of Washington School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences (henceforth "UW"), U.S. Geological Survey (henceforth "USGS"), and the Lower Columbia Estuary Partnership (henceforth "EP"). Consideration of geomorphologic processes will improve the understanding of controlling physical factors that drive ecosystem evolution along the tidal Columbia River. The Classification is organized around six hierarchical levels, progressing from the coarsest, regional scale to the finest, localized scale: (1) Ecosystem Province; (2) Ecoregion; (3) Hydrogeomorphic Reach; (4) Ecosystem Complex; (5) Geomorphic Catena; and (6) Primary Cover Class. For Levels 4 and 5, we mapped landforms within the Holocene floodplain primarily by visual interpretation of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) topography supplemented with aerial photographs, Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) soils data, and historical maps. Mapped landforms are classified as to their current geomorphic function, the inferred process regime that formed them, and anthropogenic modification. Channels were classified primarily by a set of depth-based rules and geometric relationships. Classification Level 5 floodplain landforms ("geomorphic catenae") were further classified based on multivariate analysis of land-cover within the mapped landform area and attributed as "sub

  1. 49 CFR 40.347 - What functions may C/TPAs perform with respect to administering testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What functions may C/TPAs perform with respect to administering testing? 40.347 Section 40.347 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES... Agents § 40.347 What functions may C/TPAs perform with respect to administering testing? As a...

  2. 49 CFR 40.347 - What functions may C/TPAs perform with respect to administering testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What functions may C/TPAs perform with respect to administering testing? 40.347 Section 40.347 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES... Agents § 40.347 What functions may C/TPAs perform with respect to administering testing? As a...

  3. 49 CFR 40.347 - What functions may C/TPAs perform with respect to administering testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What functions may C/TPAs perform with respect to administering testing? 40.347 Section 40.347 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES... Agents § 40.347 What functions may C/TPAs perform with respect to administering testing? As a...

  4. 49 CFR 40.347 - What functions may C/TPAs perform with respect to administering testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What functions may C/TPAs perform with respect to administering testing? 40.347 Section 40.347 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES... Agents § 40.347 What functions may C/TPAs perform with respect to administering testing? As a...

  5. 49 CFR 40.347 - What functions may C/TPAs perform with respect to administering testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What functions may C/TPAs perform with respect to administering testing? 40.347 Section 40.347 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES... Agents § 40.347 What functions may C/TPAs perform with respect to administering testing? As a...

  6. Source Time Functions of the Dprk Announced Nuclear TESTS of 2006, 2009 and 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziolkowski, A.

    2014-12-01

    The concept of source scaling is used to determine the source time functions of the three announced nuclear tests of 2006, 2009 and 2013 of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK). Two explosions at essentially the same source location, but at different times, have scaled source time functions. In an x-y plot of these functions, the ground motion axis (y) and the time axis (x) scale by the same factor, which is the cube-root of the energy ratio. The seismograms from these two events, measured at a given seismometer, share the same path effect, or Earth impulse response. The two seismograms and the scaling law provide three equations that can be solved for the three principal unknowns: the two source time functions and the Earth impulse response. This concept is applied to seismograms recorded at Mudanjiang (MDJ) for the three DPRK events, using two novel steps. First, the spectral ratio of the two source time functions is calculated in the time domain directly from the seismograms. Second, the scale factor is calculated directly from the data. The energy partition is independent of event size. So the ratio of the energies of the P-waves, for example, is equal to the ratio of the source energies. The ratio of the energies of the Pn phase was computed for the 2009 and 2013 events. The scaling factor is the cube-root of this ratio. The source time functions of the 2009 and 2013 events were recovered using the two seismograms and the scaling law, and the seismograms were deconvolved for these source time functions to recover the Earth impulse response. If everything is done correctly the recovered Earth impulse response should be the same for each event. I show that the recovered impulse responses for the 2009 and 2013 events are nearly identical. Presuming the DPRK test site to be in granite, relative reduced displacement potentials for the three events give yields of 0.11, 1.98 and 7.11 kt, with errors up to 46 %.

  7. Functionally Enhanced Human Stem Cell Derived Hepatocytes in Galactosylated Cellulosic Sponges for Hepatotoxicity Testing.

    PubMed

    Tasnim, Farah; Toh, Yi-Chin; Qu, Yinghua; Li, Huan; Phan, Derek; Narmada, Balakrishnan C; Ananthanarayanan, Abhishek; Mittal, Nikhil; Meng, Ryan Q; Yu, Hanry

    2016-06-01

    Pluripotent stem cell derived hepatocyte-like cells (hPSC-HLCs) are an attractive alternative to primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) used in applications ranging from therapeutics to drug safety testing studies. It would be critical to improve and maintain mature hepatocyte functions of the hPSC-HLCs, especially for long-term studies. If 3D culture systems were to be used for such purposes, it would be important that the system can support formation and maintenance of optimal-sized spheroids for long periods of time, and can also be directly deployed in liver drug testing assays. We report the use of 3-dimensional (3D) cellulosic scaffold system for the culture of hPSC-HLCs. The scaffold has a macroporous network which helps to control the formation and maintenance of the spheroids for weeks. Our results show that culturing hPSC-HLCs in 3D cellulosic scaffolds increases functionality, as demonstrated by improved urea production and hepatic marker expression. In addition, hPSC-HLCs in the scaffolds exhibit a more mature phenotype, as shown by enhanced cytochrome P450 activity and induction. This enables the system to show a higher sensitivity to hepatotoxicants and a higher degree of similarity to PHHs when compared to conventional 2D systems. These results suggest that 3D cellulosic scaffolds are ideal for the long-term cultures needed to mature hPSC-HLCs. The mature hPSC-HLCs with improved cellular function can be continually maintained in the scaffolds and directly used for hepatotoxicity assays, making this system highly attractive for drug testing applications. PMID:27157693

  8. High-Resolution Time-Frequency Spectrum-Based Lung Function Test from a Smartphone Microphone.

    PubMed

    Thap, Tharoeun; Chung, Heewon; Jeong, Changwon; Hwang, Ki-Eun; Kim, Hak-Ryul; Yoon, Kwon-Ha; Lee, Jinseok

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a smartphone-based lung function test, developed to estimate lung function parameters using a high-resolution time-frequency spectrum from a smartphone built-in microphone is presented. A method of estimation of the forced expiratory volume in 1 s divided by forced vital capacity (FEV₁/FVC) based on the variable frequency complex demodulation method (VFCDM) is first proposed. We evaluated our proposed method on 26 subjects, including 13 healthy subjects and 13 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, by comparing with the parameters clinically obtained from pulmonary function tests (PFTs). For the healthy subjects, we found that an absolute error (AE) and a root mean squared error (RMSE) of the FEV₁/FVC ratio were 4.49% ± 3.38% and 5.54%, respectively. For the COPD patients, we found that AE and RMSE from COPD patients were 10.30% ± 10.59% and 14.48%, respectively. For both groups, we compared the results using the continuous wavelet transform (CWT) and short-time Fourier transform (STFT), and found that VFCDM was superior to CWT and STFT. Further, to estimate other parameters, including forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV₁), and peak expiratory flow (PEF), regression analysis was conducted to establish a linear transformation. However, the parameters FVC, FEV1, and PEF had correlation factor r values of 0.323, 0.275, and -0.257, respectively, while FEV₁/FVC had an r value of 0.814. The results obtained suggest that only the FEV1/FVC ratio can be accurately estimated from a smartphone built-in microphone. The other parameters, including FVC, FEV1, and PEF, were subjective and dependent on the subject's familiarization with the test and performance of forced exhalation toward the microphone. PMID:27548164

  9. Functional Flight Test Report for Positive Systems' ADAR System 5500 Sensor SN8 Linear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, Tom (Technical Monitor); Blonski, Slawomir; Macey, Kimberly; Schera, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    This report describes results of the functional flight test conducted with the Positive Systems' ADAR 5500 sensor system (serial number 8, linear configuration) near Winslow, Arizona on June 30 and July 1, 1999. The in-flight test is one component of the NASA Scientific Data Purchase (SDP) Validation and Verification (V&V) process. It allows to measure characteristics of the entire sensor system affected by both performance of the sensor during a flight and post-flight image processing. The following characteristics were analyzed: changes of dark digital numbers (DN's), radiometric linearity, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), spatial resolution, and geolocation accuracy. The measured characteristics were compared with the image product specifications defined in the Positive Systems' SDP contract. Dependence of the dark DN's on several factors was analyzed, but no significant correlation was found. However, the observed changes in dark DN's were relatively small, which justifies usage of a constant value in the dark DN subtraction procedure during post-processing. Dependence of measured at-sensor, in-band radiance (in arbitrary units) on measured in-band ground reflectance is very well described by a linear function - The sensor fulfills the linearity requirement. Measured SNR values lower than the contract specifications, but accuracy of that test was possibly affected by non-uniformity of the employed gray-scale panels. The SNR values are generally sufficiently high for most applications. SNR can also be improved during standard flights by using longer exposure times. Full width at half maximum (FWHM) of an edge response derived line spread function was used as a measure of spatial resolution. FWHM was generally smaller than twice the ground sample distance (GSD), in agreement with the contract specifications. Accuracy of the geolocation information, which is provided for the particular images in a metadata file, was found to meet contract requirements as well.

  10. Lung function testing in COPD: when everything is not so simple

    PubMed Central

    Barisione, Giovanni; Brusasco, Claudia; Garlaschi, Alessandro; Crimi, Emanuele; Brusasco, Vito

    2014-01-01

    Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema is a condition occurring mainly in male smokers, presenting different lung mechanics and gas exchange abnormalities than emphysema or pulmonary fibrosis alone. We report the case of an elderly man, former heavy smoker, who presented with progressive exertional dyspnea for 1 year. Lung function tests showed near normal spirometry and lung volumes but marked reduction of diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide and even more nitric oxide. The arterial partial pressure of oxygen was reduced with a markedly increased alveolar-to-arterial difference. High-resolution computed tomography of the chest showed a pattern consistent with upper lobe emphysema and lower lobe pulmonary fibrosis. In conclusion, this case report confirms the limitations of a simplistic approach to lung function in the diagnosis of symptomatic smokers. PMID:25530864

  11. Compositions, Functions, and Testing of Friction Brake Materials and Their Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, PJ

    2001-10-22

    The purpose of this report is to present a survey of commercial brake materials and additives, and to indicate their typical properties and functions, especially as regards their use in heavy trucks. Most truck pad and shoe materials described here were designed to wear against cast iron. Brake material test methods are also briefly described. This report does not address issues associated with the fabrication and manufacturing of brake materials. Since there are literally thousands of brake material additives, and their combinations are nearly limitless, it is impractical to list them all here. Rather, an attempt has been made to capture the primary constituents and their functions. An Appendix contains thermo-physical properties of some current and potential brake materials.

  12. Flight Controllability Limits and Related Human Transfer Functions as Determined from Simulator and Flight Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Lawrence W., Jr.; Day, Richard E.

    1961-01-01

    A simulator study and flight tests were performed to determine the levels of static stability and damping necessary to enable a pilot to control the longitudinal and lateral-directional dynamics of a vehicle for short periods of time. Although a basic set of aerodynamic characteristics was used, the study was conducted so that the results would be applicable to a wide range of flight conditions and configurations. Novel piloting techniques were found which enabled the pilot to control the vehicle at conditions that were otherwise uncontrollable. The influence of several critical factors in altering the controllability limits was also investigated. Several human transfer functions were used which gave fairly good representations of the controllability limits determined experimentally for the short-period longitudinal, directional, and lateral modes. A transfer function with approximately the same gain and phase angle as the pilot at the controlling frequencies along the controllability limits was also derived.

  13. Estimation of automobile-driver describing function from highway tests using the double steering wheel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delp, P.; Crossman, E. R. F. W.; Szostak, H.

    1972-01-01

    The automobile-driver describing function for lateral position control was estimated for three subjects from frequency response analysis of straight road test results. The measurement procedure employed an instrumented full size sedan with known steering response characteristics, and equipped with a lateral lane position measuring device based on video detection of white stripe lane markings. Forcing functions were inserted through a servo driven double steering wheel coupling the driver to the steering system proper. Random appearing, Gaussian, and transient time functions were used. The quasi-linear models fitted to the random appearing input frequency response characterized the driver as compensating for lateral position error in a proportional, derivative, and integral manner. Similar parameters were fitted to the Gabor transformed frequency response of the driver to transient functions. A fourth term corresponding to response to lateral acceleration was determined by matching the time response histories of the model to the experimental results. The time histories show evidence of pulse-like nonlinear behavior during extended response to step transients which appear as high frequency remnant power.

  14. Pose prediction and virtual screening performance of GOLD scoring functions in a standardized test.

    PubMed

    Liebeschuetz, John W; Cole, Jason C; Korb, Oliver

    2012-06-01

    The performance of all four GOLD scoring functions has been evaluated for pose prediction and virtual screening under the standardized conditions of the comparative docking and scoring experiment reported in this Edition. Excellent pose prediction and good virtual screening performance was demonstrated using unmodified protein models and default parameter settings. The best performing scoring function for both pose prediction and virtual screening was demonstrated to be the recently introduced scoring function ChemPLP. We conclude that existing docking programs already perform close to optimally in the cognate pose prediction experiments currently carried out and that more stringent pose prediction tests should be used in the future. These should employ cross-docking sets. Evaluation of virtual screening performance remains problematic and much remains to be done to improve the usefulness of publically available active and decoy sets for virtual screening. Finally we suggest that, for certain target/scoring function combinations, good enrichment may sometimes be a consequence of 2D property recognition rather than a modelling of the correct 3D interactions. PMID:22371207

  15. Development of a New Method for Platelet Function Test and Its Shearing Condition in Microfludic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hoyoon; Kim, Gyehyu; Choi, Seawhan; Shin, Sehyun; Korea University Department of Mechanical Engineering Team

    2015-11-01

    Platelet is a crucial blood cell on hemostasis. As platelet exposed to high shear stress, it can be activated showing morphological and functional changes to stop bleeding. When platelet is abnormal, there is high risk of cardiovascular diseases. Thus, quick and precise assay for platelet function is important in clinical treatment. In this study, we design a microfluidic system, which can test platelet function exposed with the stimulation of shear and agonists. The microfluidic system consists of three parts: 1) a shear mechanism with rotating stirrer; 2) multiple microchannels to flow samples and to stop; 3) camera-interfaced migration distance(MD) analyzing system. When sheared blood is driven by pressure through the microchannel, shear-activated platelets adhere to a collagen-coated surface, causing blood flow to significantly slow and eventually stop. As the micro-stirrer speed increases, MD decreases exponentially at first, but it increases beyond a critical rpm after all. These results are coincident with data measured by FACS flowcytometry. These results imply that the present system could quantitatively measure the degree of activation, aggregation and adhesion of platelets and that blood MD is potent index for measuring the shear-dependence of platelet function.

  16. Optical test-benches for multiple source wavefront propagation and spatiotemporal point-spread function emulation.

    PubMed

    Weddell, Stephen J; Lambert, Andrew J

    2014-12-10

    Precise measurement of aberrations within an optical system is essential to mitigate combined effects of user-generated aberrations for the study of anisoplanatic imaging using optical test benches. The optical system point spread function (PSF) is first defined, and methods to minimize the effects of the optical system are discussed. User-derived aberrations, in the form of low-order Zernike ensembles, are introduced using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator (LC-SLM), and dynamic phase maps are used to study the spatiotemporal PSF. A versatile optical test bench is described, where the Shack Hartmann and curvature wavefront sensors are used to emulate the effects of wavefront propagation over time from two independent sources. PMID:25608061

  17. Thyroid function testing in eastern Nepal and the impact of CME on subsequent requests.

    PubMed

    Baral, N; Koner, B C; Lamsal, M; Niraula, I; Dhungel, S

    2001-07-01

    This study reveals 1 year's experience of the introduction of thyroid function tests (TFT) in B P Koirala Institute of Health Sciences (BPKIHS), a Medical University situated in eastern Nepal. These were performed on theadvice of doctors working in this region. The rational TFT advice by the medical practitioners was evaluated according to how closely the advice was in line with the algorithms recommended in the textbooks. Only about 14% of the TFT advice followed some rational strategy. A retrospective analysis showed that rational TFT advice could have reduced the cost of a TFT investigation to 43.11% without altering the patient management and disease outcome. Continuing medical education (CME) lectures arranged for a limited number of doctors were found to improve the quality of the subsequentTFT advising pattern. This emphasizes the importance of CME while introducing a costly laboratory test panel (e.g.TFT, lipid profile) needing a strategic approach. PMID:11444339

  18. Study and application of a high-pressure water jet multi-functional flow test system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Huaizhong; Li, Gensheng; Huang, Zhongwei; Li, Jingbin; Zhang, Yi

    2015-12-01

    As the exploration and development of oil and gas focus more and more on deeper formation, hydraulic issues such as high-pressure water jet rock breaking, wellbore multiphase flow law, cuttings carrying efficiency, and hydraulic fracturing technique during the drilling and completion process have become the key points. To accomplish related researches, a high-pressure water jet multi-functional flow test system was designed. The following novel researches are carried out: study of high-pressure water jet characteristics under confining pressure, wellbore multiphase flow regime, hydraulic pressure properties of down hole tools during jet fracturing and pulsed cavitation jet drilling, and deflector's friction in radial jet drilling. The validity and feasibility of the experimental results provided by the system with various test modules have proved its importance in the research of the high-pressure water jet and well completion technology.

  19. Study and application of a high-pressure water jet multi-functional flow test system.

    PubMed

    Shi, Huaizhong; Li, Gensheng; Huang, Zhongwei; Li, Jingbin; Zhang, Yi

    2015-12-01

    As the exploration and development of oil and gas focus more and more on deeper formation, hydraulic issues such as high-pressure water jet rock breaking, wellbore multiphase flow law, cuttings carrying efficiency, and hydraulic fracturing technique during the drilling and completion process have become the key points. To accomplish related researches, a high-pressure water jet multi-functional flow test system was designed. The following novel researches are carried out: study of high-pressure water jet characteristics under confining pressure, wellbore multiphase flow regime, hydraulic pressure properties of down hole tools during jet fracturing and pulsed cavitation jet drilling, and deflector's friction in radial jet drilling. The validity and feasibility of the experimental results provided by the system with various test modules have proved its importance in the research of the high-pressure water jet and well completion technology. PMID:26724077

  20. A systematic review of lung function testing in asthmatic young children.

    PubMed

    Ioan, Iulia; Varechova, Silvia; Marchal, François; Pleşca, Doina-Anca

    2015-01-01

    Asthma diagnosis is difficult in young children being mainly based on clinical signs and parents' history, which is sometimes difficult to obtain. Lung function testing may improve asthma diagnosis by objectively assessing its main features, airway obstruction, spontaneously reversible or after use of a bronchodilator drug, ventilation inhomogeneity during an acute bronchoconstriction and airway hyperresponsiveness. In young children that cannot cope with classical tests, it is important to use and develop simple, short lasting methods, made in spontaneous ventilation without active cooperation. Such techniques are a measurement of respiratory resistance by forced oscillations or the interrupter technique, of specific airway resistance by plethysmography and capnography. All these parameters are sensitive to the presence of an airway obstruction and to a bronchodilator or bronchoconstrictor agent, but their cutoff values in differentiating between asthmatic and healthy children as well as their specific indications in asthma management remain to be established. PMID:26506667

  1. Evolutionary function of dreams: A test of the threat simulation theory in recurrent dreams.

    PubMed

    Zadra, Antonio; Desjardins, Sophie; Marcotte, Eric

    2006-06-01

    proposed an intriguing and detailed evolutionary theory of dreams which stipulates that the biological function of dreaming is to simulate threatening events and to rehearse threat avoidance behaviors. The goal of the present study was to test this theory using a sample of 212 recurrent dreams that was scored using a slightly expanded version of the DreamThreat rating scale. Six of the eight hypotheses tested were supported. Among the positive findings, 66% of the recurrent dream reports contained one or more threats, the threats tended to be dangerous and aimed at the dreamer, and when facing a threat, the dreamer tended to take defensive or evasive actions that were possible and reasonable. However, less than 15% of the recurrent dreams depicted realistic and probable situations critical for one's physical survival or reproductive success and the dreamer rarely succeeded in fleeing the threat despite important and appropriate efforts. The findings thus provide mixed support for the threat simulation theory. PMID:16720254

  2. Technique of Functional and Motility Test: How to Perform Antroduodenal Manometry

    PubMed Central

    Patcharatrakul, Tanisa

    2013-01-01

    Antroduodenal manometry is one of the methods to evaluate stomach and duodenal motility. This test is a valuable diagnostic tool for gastrointestinal motility disorders especially small intestinal pseudo-obstruction which is difficult to make definite diagnosis by clinical manifestations or radiologic findings. Manometric findings that have no evidence of mechanical obstruction and suggestive of pseudo-obstruction with neuropathy or myopathy can avoid unnecessary surgery and the treatment can be directly targeted. Moreover, among patients who have clinically suspected small intestinal pseudo-obstruction but with normal manometric findings, the alternative diagnosis including psychiatric disorder or other organic disease should be considered. The application of this test to the patients with functional gastrointestinal symptoms especially to find the association of motor abnormalities to the symptom has less impressive yield. Antroduodenal manometry is now readily available only in some tertiary care centers. The aim of this review is to describe the antroduodenal manometry technique, interpretation and clinical utility. PMID:23875108

  3. Functional Testing and Evaluation of Actiwatch Spectrum Devices for Launch on STS-133/ULF5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rollins, Selisa F.; Humbert, Scott; Tysdal, Jessica A.

    2010-01-01

    The Actiwatch Spectrum (AWS) is a wrist-worn device that may be used for obtaining ground or on-orbit light exposure patterns and movement data. The objective of this project was to prepare AWS devices for launch on STS-133/ULF5 by a means of implementing functional tests and engineering evaluations. The data obtained from these tests and evaluations served as a means for detecting any plausible issues that the AWS may encounter while on-orbit. Subsequent steps after detecting anomalies with AWS devices encompassed identifying their root causes and taking the steps needed to mitigate them. As a result of this study, the overall success of sleep/wake research studies for STS-133/ULF5 and future missions will be enhanced.

  4. Manufacturing, Structure Control, and Functional Testing of Ti-Nb-Based SMA for Medical Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokoshkin, S.; Brailovski, V.; Dubinskiy, S.; Zhukova, Y.; Sheremetyev, V.; Konopatsky, A.; Inaekyan, K.

    2016-06-01

    This paper focuses on the development and characterization of Ni-free shape memory alloys, more specifically, Ti-Nb-based alloys for biomedical applications. It starts by describing the smelting technology used to produce small and medium size ingots of selected compositions. Thermomechanical treatments: structure interrelations are discussed next. Finally, the results of their mechanical, electrochemical, and in vitro cytotoxicity testing are presented to allow a general assessment of the mechanical, chemical, and biological aspects of compatibility of these alloys, and of the methods to control their functional properties.

  5. The use of a tracking test battery in the quantitative evaluation of neurological function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Repa, B. S.

    1973-01-01

    A number of tracking tasks that have proven useful to control engineers and psychologists measuring skilled performance have been evaluated for clinical use. Normal subjects as well as patients with previous diagnoses of Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and cerebral palsy were used in the evaluation. The tests that were studied included step tracking, random tracking, and critical tracking. The results of the present experiments encourage the continued use of tracking tasks as assessment precedures in a clinical environment. They have proven to be reliable, valid, and sensitive measures of neurological function.

  6. Acoustic emission monitoring of hot functional testing: Watts Bar Unit 1 Nuclear Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hutton, P.H.; Dawson, J.F.; Friesel, M.A.; Harris, J.C.; Pappas, R.A.

    1984-06-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) monitoring of selected pressure boundary areas at TVA's Watts Bar, Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant during hot functional preservice testing is described in this report. The report deals with background, methodology, and results. The work discussed here is a major milestone in a program supported by NRC to develop and demonstrate application of AE monitoring for continuous surveillance of reactor pressure boundaries to detect and evaluate growing flaws. The subject work demonstrated that anticipated problem areas can be overcome. Work is continuing toward AE monitoring during reactor operation.

  7. Synthesis of nanodiamond derivatives carrying amino functions and quantification by a modified Kaiser test

    PubMed Central

    Jarre, Gerald; Heyer, Steffen; Memmel, Elisabeth; Meinhardt, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Summary Nanodiamonds functionalized with different organic moieties carrying terminal amino groups have been synthesized. These include conjugates generated by Diels–Alder reactions of ortho-quinodimethanes formed in situ from pyrazine and 5,6-dihydrocyclobuta[d]pyrimidine derivatives. For the quantification of primary amino groups a modified photometric assay based on the Kaiser test has been developed and validated for different types of aminated nanodiamond. The results correspond well to values obtained by thermogravimetry. The method represents an alternative wet-chemical quantification method in cases where other techniques like elemental analysis fail due to unfavourable combustion behaviour of the analyte or other impediments. PMID:25550737

  8. Manufacturing, Structure Control, and Functional Testing of Ti-Nb-Based SMA for Medical Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokoshkin, S.; Brailovski, V.; Dubinskiy, S.; Zhukova, Y.; Sheremetyev, V.; Konopatsky, A.; Inaekyan, K.

    2016-03-01

    This paper focuses on the development and characterization of Ni-free shape memory alloys, more specifically, Ti-Nb-based alloys for biomedical applications. It starts by describing the smelting technology used to produce small and medium size ingots of selected compositions. Thermomechanical treatments: structure interrelations are discussed next. Finally, the results of their mechanical, electrochemical, and in vitro cytotoxicity testing are presented to allow a general assessment of the mechanical, chemical, and biological aspects of compatibility of these alloys, and of the methods to control their functional properties.

  9. Testing peatland water-table depth transfer functions using high-resolution hydrological monitoring data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swindles, Graeme T.; Holden, Joseph; Raby, Cassandra L.; Turner, T. Edward; Blundell, Antony; Charman, Dan J.; Menberu, Meseret Walle; Kløve, Bjørn

    2015-07-01

    Transfer functions are now commonly used to reconstruct past environmental variability from palaeoecological data. However, such approaches need to be critically appraised. Testate amoeba-based transfer functions are an established method for the quantitative reconstruction of past water-table variations in peatlands, and have been applied to research questions in palaeoclimatology, peatland ecohydrology and archaeology. We analysed automatically-logged peatland water-table data from dipwells located in England, Wales and Finland and a suite of three year, one year and summer water-table statistics were calculated from each location. Surface moss samples were extracted from beside each dipwell and the testate amoebae community composition was determined. Two published transfer functions were applied to the testate-amoeba data for prediction of water-table depth (England and Europe). Our results show that estimated water-table depths based on the testate amoeba community reflect directional changes, but that they are poor representations of the real mean or median water-table magnitudes for the study sites. We suggest that although testate amoeba-based reconstructions can be used to identify past shifts in peat hydrology, they cannot currently be used to establish precise hydrological baselines such as those needed to inform management and restoration of peatlands. One approach to avoid confusion with contemporary water-table determinations is to use residuals or standardised values for peatland water-table reconstructions. We contend that our test of transfer functions against independent instrumental data sets may be more powerful than relying on statistical testing alone.

  10. Specialized sperm function tests in varicocele and the future of andrology laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Majzoub, Ahmad; Esteves, Sandro C; Gosálvez, Jaime; Agarwal, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Varicocele is a common medical condition entangled with many controversies. Though it is highly prevalent in men with infertility, still it marks its presence in males who do have normal fertility. Determining which patients are negatively affected by varicocele would enable clinicians to better select those men who benefitted the most from surgery. Since conventional semen analysis has been limited in its ability to evaluate the negative effects of varicocele on fertility, a multitude of specialized laboratory tests have emerged. In this review, we examine the role and significance of specialized sperm function tests with regards to varicocele. Among the various tests, analysis of sperm DNA fragmentation and measurements of oxidative stress markers provide an independent measure of fertility in men with varicocele. These diagnostic modalities have both diagnostic and prognostic information complementary to, but distinct from conventional sperm parameters. Test results can guide management and aid in monitoring intervention outcomes. Proteomics, metabolomics, and genomics are areas; though still developing, holding promise to revolutionize our understanding of reproductive physiology, including varicocele. PMID:26780873

  11. Memory-guided reaching in a patient with visual hemiagnosia.

    PubMed

    Cornelsen, Sonja; Rennig, Johannes; Himmelbach, Marc

    2016-06-01

    The two-visual-systems hypothesis (TVSH) postulates that memory-guided movements rely on intact functions of the ventral stream. Its particular importance for memory-guided actions was initially inferred from behavioral dissociations in the well-known patient DF. Despite of rather accurate reaching and grasping movements to visible targets, she demonstrated grossly impaired memory-guided grasping as much as impaired memory-guided reaching. These dissociations were later complemented by apparently reversed dissociations in patients with dorsal damage and optic ataxia. However, grasping studies in DF and optic ataxia patients differed with respect to the retinotopic position of target objects, questioning the interpretation of the respective findings as a double dissociation. In contrast, the findings for reaching errors in both types of patients came from similar peripheral target presentations. However, new data on brain structural changes and visuomotor deficits in DF also questioned the validity of a double dissociation in reaching. A severe visuospatial short-term memory deficit in DF further questioned the specificity of her memory-guided reaching deficit. Therefore, we compared movement accuracy in visually-guided and memory-guided reaching in a new patient who suffered a confined unilateral damage to the ventral visual system due to stroke. Our results indeed support previous descriptions of memory-guided movements' inaccuracies in DF. Furthermore, our data suggest that recently discovered optic-ataxia like misreaching in DF is most likely caused by her parieto-occipital and not by her ventral stream damage. Finally, multiple visuospatial memory measurements in HWS suggest that inaccuracies in memory-guided reaching tasks in patients with ventral damage cannot be explained by visuospatial short-term memory or perceptual deficits, but by a specific deficit in visuomotor processing. PMID:27085893

  12. Testing the Jacob's ladder of density functionals for electronic structure and magnetism of rutile VO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Bing; Sun, Jianwei; Ruzsinszky, Adrienn; Perdew, John P.

    2014-08-01

    We employ semilocal density functionals [local spin-density approximation (LSDA), Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) generalized gradient approximation (GGA), and meta-GGAs)], LSDA plus Hubbard U (LSDA+U) theory, a nonlocal range-separated Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof hybrid functional (HSE06), and the random-phase approximation (RPA) to assess their performances for the ground-state magnetism and electronic structure of a strongly correlated metal, rutile VO2. Using recent quantum Monte Carlo results as the benchmark, all tested semilocal and hybrid functionals as well as the RPA (with PBE inputs) predict the correct magnetic ground states for rutile VO2. The observed paramagnetism could arise from temperature-disordered local spin moments or from the thermal destruction of these moments. All semilocal functionals also give the correct ground-state metallicity for rutile VO2. However, in the ferromagnetic (FM) and antiferromagnetic (AFM) phases, LSDA+U and HSE06 incorrectly predict rutile VO2 to be a Mott-Hubbard insulator. For the computed electronic structures of FM and AFM phases, we find that the Tao-Perdew-Staroverov-Scuseria (TPSS) and revised TPSS (revTPSS) meta-GGAs give strong 2p-3d hybridizations, resulting in a depopulation of the 2p bands of O atoms, in comparison with other tested meta-GGAs. The regularized TPSS (regTPSS) and meta-GGAs made simple, i.e., MGGA_MS0 and MGGA_MS2, which are free of the spurious order-of-limits problem of TPSS and revTPSS, give electronic states close to those of the PBE GGA and LSDA. In comparison to experiment, semilocal functionals predict better equilibrium cell volumes for rutile VO2 in FM and AFM states than in the spin-unpolarized state. For meta-GGAs, a monotonic decrease of the exchange enhancement factor Fx(s,α) with α for small s, as in the MGGA_MS functionals, leads to large (probably too large) local magnetic moments in spin-polarized states.

  13. Clinical validation of 4DCT-ventilation with pulmonary function test data

    PubMed Central

    Brennen, Douglas; Schubert, Leah; Diot, Quentin; Castillo, Richard; Castillo, Edward; Guerrero, Thomas; Martel, Mary K.; Linderman, Derek; Gaspar, Laurie E.; Miften, Moyed; Kavanagh, Brian D.; Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy

    2015-01-01

    Purpose A new form of functional imaging has been proposed in the form of 4DCT-ventilation. Because 4DCTs are acquired as part of routine care for lung cancer patients, calculating ventilation maps from 4DCTs provides spatial lung function information without added dosimetric or monetary cost to the patient. Before 4DCT-ventilation is implemented it needs to be clinically validated. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) provide a clinically established way of evaluating lung function. The purpose of our work was to perform a clinical validation by comparing 4DCT-ventilation metrics with PFT data. Methods and Materials Ninety-eight lung cancer patients with pre-treatment 4DCT and PFT data were included in the study. PFT metrics used to diagnose obstructive lung disease were recorded: forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and FEV1/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC). 4DCT data sets and spatial registration were used to compute 4DCT-ventilation images using a density-change based and a Jacobian-based model. The ventilation maps were reduced to single metrics intended to reflect the degree of ventilation obstruction. Specifically, we computed the coefficient of variation (CoV) (standard deviation/mean), ventilation V20 (volume of lung ≤20% ventilation), and correlated the ventilation metrics with PFT data. Regression analysis was used to determine whether 4DCT-ventilation data could predict for normal versus abnormal lung function using PFT thresholds. Results Correlation coefficients comparing 4DCT-ventilation to PFT data ranged from 0.63–0.72 with the best agreement between FEV1 and CoV. 4DCT-ventilation metrics were able to significantly delineate between clinically normal versus abnormal PFT results. Conclusions Validation of 4DCT-ventilation with clinically relevant metrics is essential. We demonstrate good global agreement between PFTs and 4DCT-ventilation, indicating that 4DCT ventilation provides a reliable assessment of lung function. 4DCT-ventilation enables

  14. Test functions for three-dimensional control-volume mixed finite-element methods on irregular grids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naff, R.L.; Russell, T.F.; Wilson, J.D.

    2000-01-01

    Numerical methods based on unstructured grids, with irregular cells, usually require discrete shape functions to approximate the distribution of quantities across cells. For control-volume mixed finite-element methods, vector shape functions are used to approximate the distribution of velocities across cells and vector test functions are used to minimize the error associated with the numerical approximation scheme. For a logically cubic mesh, the lowest-order shape functions are chosen in a natural way to conserve intercell fluxes that vary linearly in logical space. Vector test functions, while somewhat restricted by the mapping into the logical reference cube, admit a wider class of possibilities. Ideally, an error minimization procedure to select the test function from an acceptable class of candidates would be the best procedure. Lacking such a procedure, we first investigate the effect of possible test functions on the pressure distribution over the control volume; specifically, we look for test functions that allow for the elimination of intermediate pressures on cell faces. From these results, we select three forms for the test function for use in a control-volume mixed method code and subject them to an error analysis for different forms of grid irregularity; errors are reported in terms of the discrete L2 norm of the velocity error. Of these three forms, one appears to produce optimal results for most forms of grid irregularity.

  15. Order Effects on Neuropsychological Test Performance of Normal, Learning Disabled and Low Functioning Children: A Cross-Cultural Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akande, Adebowale

    2000-01-01

    Investigated possible priming effect of two neuropsychological tests, the Booklet Category Test (BCT) and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Obtained counterbalanced order effects on like-aged sample of 63 South African elementary school students (normally- achieving, low-functioning, learning-disabled). Found a significant effect of set-shifting…

  16. Effectiveness of Combining Statistical Tests and Effect Sizes When Using Logistic Discriminant Function Regression to Detect Differential Item Functioning for Polytomous Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gómez-Benito, Juana; Hidalgo, Maria Dolores; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this article was to find an optimal decision rule for identifying polytomous items with large or moderate amounts of differential functioning. The effectiveness of combining statistical tests with effect size measures was assessed using logistic discriminant function analysis and two effect size measures: R[superscript 2] and…

  17. International Space Station Urine Monitoring System Functional Integration and Science Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, Branelle R.; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to microgravity during human spaceflight needs to be better understood as the human exploration of space requires longer duration missions. It is known that long term exposure to microgravity causes bone loss. Measuring the calcium and other metabolic byproducts in a crew member s urine can evaluate the effectiveness of bone loss countermeasures. The International Space Station (ISS) Urine Monitoring System (UMS) is an automated urine collection device designed to collect urine, separate the urine and air, measure the void volume, and allow for syringe sampling. Accurate measuring and minimal cross-contamination is essential to determine bone loss and the effectiveness of countermeasures. The ISS UMS provides minimal cross-contamination (<0.7 mL urine) and has volume accuracy of 2% between 100 to 1000 mL urine voids. Designed to provide a non-invasive means to collect urine samples from crew members, the ISS UMS operates in-line with the Node 3 Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC). The ISS UMS has undergone modifications required to interface with the WHC, including material changes, science algorithm improvements, and software platform revisions. Integrated functional testing was performed to determine the pressure drop, air flow rate, and the maximum amount of fluid capable of being discharged from the UMS to the WHC. This paper will detail the results of the science and the functional integration tests.

  18. A study on quantifying COPD severity by combining pulmonary function tests and CT image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimura, Yukitaka; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Honma, Hirotoshi; Takabatake, Hirotsugu; Mori, Masaki; Natori, Hiroshi; Mori, Kensaku

    2011-03-01

    This paper describes a novel method that can evaluate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) severity by combining measurements of pulmonary function tests and measurements obtained from CT image analysis. There is no cure for COPD. However, with regular medical care and consistent patient compliance with treatments and lifestyle changes, the symptoms of COPD can be minimized and progression of the disease can be slowed. Therefore, many diagnosis methods based on CT image analysis have been proposed for quantifying COPD. Most of diagnosis methods for COPD extract the lesions as low-attenuation areas (LAA) by thresholding and evaluate the COPD severity by calculating the LAA in the lung (LAA%). However, COPD is usually the result of a combination of two conditions, emphysema and chronic obstructive bronchitis. Therefore, the previous methods based on only LAA% do not work well. The proposed method utilizes both of information including the measurements of pulmonary function tests and the results of the chest CT image analysis to evaluate the COPD severity. In this paper, we utilize a multi-class AdaBoost to combine both of information and classify the COPD severity into five stages automatically. The experimental results revealed that the accuracy rate of the proposed method was 88.9% (resubstitution scheme) and 64.4% (leave-one-out scheme).

  19. Pulmonary function tests and impulse oscillometry in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients’ offspring

    PubMed Central

    Amra, Babak; Borougeni, Victoria Beigi; Golshan, Mohammad; Soltaninejad, Forogh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies have showed an increased prevalence of airflow obstruction in first degree relatives of individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Considering no specific research had evaluated airway resistance in offspring of patients with severe COPD, we utilized a spirometry and a impulse oscillometry (IO) to evaluate this population. Materials and Methods: In this case control study, from November 2011 to July 2012, we consecutively evaluated 54 offsprings of severe COPD patients (case group) admitted in the pulmonary ward, affiliated to the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and control group. Pulmonary function tests and the IO were obtained for both groups. Student's t-test was used for inter-group comparisons, and P values below 0.05 were taken as significant. Results: Abnormal increased airway resistance was seen in cases in comparison with controls (R5 Hz [46.29%, P = 0.01], R25 Hz [42.59%, P < 0.001]). Also, considering the spirometry, case group had pulmonary function parameters less than control group (forced vital capacity [FVC]; P = 0.02, forced expiratory volume in 1st s; P < 0.001, forced expiratory flow (FEF) 25-75; P < 0.001, FEF 25-75/FVC; P < 0.001) but they were in normal range. Conclusion: This study demonstrated increased airway resistance among the severe COPD offsprings. The IO may be a sensitive tool for detection of high risk subjects in families with COPD. PMID:26622261

  20. Navigational memory functional magnetic resonance imaging: a test for concussion in children.

    PubMed

    Saluja, Rajeet Singh; Chen, Jen-Kai; Gagnon, Isabelle J; Keightley, Michelle; Ptito, Alain

    2015-05-15

    Concussions are high incidence injuries with potentially devastating consequences. Youths are at risk because of a higher threat of repeated injury, and cumulative effects of concussions exist, making accurate diagnosis and follow-up essential. This study examines a navigational memory functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) task to determine whether activation differences exist between children with concussion and uninjured controls. Fifty adolescents were recruited-35 controls and 15 with concussion. All subjects underwent structural and fMRI testing using our navigational memory task, and a battery of neuropsychological testing. The activation patterns of the 15 subjects with concussion were compared with those of 15 age and sex-matched controls. Subtraction and regression analyses were performed using the matched controls along with scatter-plots using means and 95% quantiles of the 35 controls. While no differences were seen with neuropsychological testing or task performance, subjects with concussion had significantly diminished activation in the retrosplenial, thalamic, and parahippocampal areas bilaterally, along with the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and left precuneus. Interestingly, they had increased activation in the left hippocampus and right middle temporal gyrus. Regression analysis demonstrated negative correlations between activation and post-concussive symptoms in the left premotor cortex, superior and inferior parietal lobules, and parahippocampal gyrus. Subjects with concussion show both diminished and increased activation in specific cerebral regions, differentiating them from controls. This is one of the first studies to look at such a task using fMRI and its applicability in testing for concussion in children. These findings support navigational memory fMRI as a potential objective test for concussions. PMID:25270364