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1

Generation of functional eggs and sperm from cryopreserved whole testes.  

PubMed

The conservation of endangered fish is of critical importance. Cryobanking could provide an effective backup measure for use in conjunction with the conservation of natural populations; however, methodology for cryopreservation of fish eggs and embryos has not yet been developed. The present study established a methodology capable of deriving functional eggs and sperm from frozen type A spermatogonia (ASGs). Whole testes taken from rainbow trout were slowly frozen in a cryomedium, and the viability of ASGs within these testes did not decrease over a 728-d freezing period. Frozen-thawed ASGs that were intraperitoneally transplanted into sterile triploid hatchlings migrated toward, and were incorporated into, recipient genital ridges. Transplantability of ASGs did not decrease after as much as 939 d of cryopreservation. Nearly half of triploid recipients produced functional eggs or sperm derived from the frozen ASGs and displayed high fecundity. Fertilization of resultant gametes resulted in the successful production of normal, frozen ASG-derived offspring. Feasibility and simplicity of this methodology will call for an immediate application for real conservation of endangered wild salmonids. PMID:23319620

Lee, Seungki; Iwasaki, Yoshiko; Shikina, Shinya; Yoshizaki, Goro

2013-01-29

2

Semen analysis in 21st century medicine: the need for sperm function testing  

PubMed Central

Sperm function testing, once commonly performed for the infertile couple before employing assisted reproductive technology (ART), has fallen out of favour in many reproductive medicine centers throughout the world. Indeed, the most recent addition of the 'World Health Organisation (WHO) Laboratory Manual for the Examination and Processing of Human Semen' now groups many of these procedures into a section termed Research Procedures. In large part, this reflects the current clinical practice of bypassing the in-depth evaluation of the male partner, while assuming that if a spermatozoon can be found for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), it must be a healthy cell capable of achieving fertilization. Nevertheless, sperm function testing can provide valuable clinical insights into defects causing male infertility. Admittedly, in some cases, functional sperm deficiencies can be overcome using an ART. In other cases, couples will be empowered by the knowledge of the cause of their infertility, and for some couples, perhaps even the likelihood of ICSI success (relative to the spermatozoa). The knowledge allows them to make truly informed reproductive decisions, including (perhaps) the decision to seek donor insemination, to adopt or to remain childless. Knowledge of the cause of their infertility may provide closure for couples and a sense of confidence regarding their choice of reproductive treatment.

Lamb, Dolores J.

2010-01-01

3

The shape of the sperm midpiece in intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection relates sperm centrosomal function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To evaluate whether the morphology of the sperm midpiece observed by high magnification microscopy relates to sperm centrosomal\\u000a function.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Sperm selected by conventional microscopy were defined as controls. By high magnification microscopy, sperm with straight\\u000a midpieces were defined as Group 1, while those with tapering midpieces were defined as Group 2. Heterologous ICSI of human\\u000a sperm into bovine oocytes was

Tomohisa Ugajin; Yukihiro Terada; Hisataka Hasegawa; Hiroshi Nabeshima; Kichiya Suzuki; Nobuo Yaegashi

2010-01-01

4

Maturation antigen of the mouse sperm flagellum. I. Analysis of its secretion, association with sperm, and function.  

PubMed

We report here recent findings on the sperm maturation antigen SMA4, which is secreted by holocrine cells of the distal caput epididymis and binds to the flagellar surface of mouse sperm during epididymal transit. Washed sperm from the caput and corpus epididymides of mice were examined by immunofluorescence and SDS-PAGE using wheat germ agglutinin, which binds specifically to SMA4 as a primary probe. Results indicate that sperm first exhibit WGA reactivity on their flagellae in the region of the distal caput, and that the appearance of WGA receptors is due to the binding of a 54-Kd glycoprotein (SMA4) to the cell surface. Extracts of epididymis containing SMA4 were tested for their ability to bind to the surfaces of caput and corpus sperm. Caput sperm surfaces bound SMA4 in a temperature-independent manner, and binding occurred in the presence of enzyme inhibitors, suggesting a nonenzymatic process. Biochemical studies revealed that SMA4 contains disulfide bonds which stabilize it on the sperm surface and restrict its mobility. Terminal carbohydrate residues of the molecule are sialic acids. The addition of SMA4 to caput sperm flagellae prevented tail-to-tail agglutination, normally seen when caput sperm are diluted into saline; and SMA4 was able to disperse clumps of agglutinated caput sperm. The data suggest that a primary function of SMA4 is to prevent tail-to-tail agglutination of sperm during storage in the epididymis. PMID:3279744

Feuchter, F A; Tabet, A J; Green, M F

1988-01-01

5

Hypercholesterolemia Impaired Sperm Functionality in Rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypercholesterolemia represents a high risk factor for frequent diseases and it has also been associated with poor semen quality that may lead to male infertility. The aim of this study was to analyze semen and sperm function in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Twelve adult White New Zealand male rabbits were fed ad libitum a control diet or a diet supplemented with

Tania E. Saez Lancellotti; Paola V. Boarelli; Maria E. Cabrillana; Marisa A. Clementi; Leandro S. Espínola; Jose L. Cid Barría; Amanda E. Vincenti; Analia G. Santi; Miguel W. Fornés; Colin Combs

2010-01-01

6

Relationship between in vitro sperm functional tests and in vivo fertility of rams following cervical artificial insemination of ewes with frozen-thawed semen.  

PubMed

Several procedures have been proposed to assess structural and functional characteristics of cryopreserved ram semen but none so far have yielded consistent relationships with in vivo fertility. The objectives of this study were to evaluate several sperm function tests as potential markers of in vivo ram fertility (determined by pregnancy rate in ewes) using frozen-thawed semen. In experiment 1, frozen-thawed straws (n=3 per ram) of semen from three high and three low fertility rams were assessed using fluorescent microscopy for (1) progressive motility, (2) viability and, (3) acrosomal status. In experiment 2, frozen-thawed straws (n=3 per ram) of semen from 18 rams of known fertility were analysed using either computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) for eight motion characteristics or flow cytometric staining for: (1) viability and acrosomal status, (2) plasma membrane status and capacitation-like changes, and (3) live cells following an osmotic resistance test (ORT). In experiment 3, platelet-activating factor (PAF) was isolated from straws (n=2 per ram) of semen using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and quantified using HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry for 18 rams. In experiment 1, no association was found between motility, viability (% live) or acrosomal status (% damaged, % intact and % reacted) and in vivo fertility. In experiment 2, no correlation was found between motility (CASA), viability (% live), acrosomal status (% live, % live intact and % reacted), capacitation status (% capacitated, % non-capacitated), plasma membrane stability (% dead) and % live cells following ORT and ram in vivo fertility. In experiment 3, there was no relationship between PAF content in spermatozoa and ram fertility. In conclusion, we were unable to relate the in vivo fertility of rams with in vitro functional tests of their frozen-thawed semen and suggest that the fertility of a given semen sample cannot easily be quantified using available in vitro tests. PMID:18248736

O' Meara, C M; Hanrahan, J P; Prathalingam, N S; Owen, J S; Donovan, A; Fair, S; Ward, F; Wade, M; Evans, A C O; Lonergan, P

2008-03-01

7

Ejaculate economics: testing the effects of male sexual history on the trade-off between sperm and immune function in Australian crickets.  

PubMed

Trade-offs between investment into male sexual traits and immune function provide the foundation for some of the most prominent models of sexual selection. Post-copulatory sexual selection on the male ejaculate is intense, and therefore trade-offs should occur between investment into the ejaculate and the immune system. Examples of such trade-offs exist, including that between sperm quality and immunity in the Australian cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus. Here, we explore the dynamics of this trade-off, examining the effects that increased levels of sexual interaction have on the viability of a male's sperm across time, and the concomitant effects on immune function. Males were assigned to a treatment, whereby they cohabited with females that were sexually immature, sexually mature but incapable of copulation, or sexually mature and capable of copulation. Sperm viability of each male was then assessed at two time points: six and 13 days into the treatment, and immune function at day 13. Sperm viability decreased across the time points, but only for males exposed to treatment classes involving sexually mature females. This decrease was similar in magnitude across both sexually mature classes, indicating that costs to the expression of high sperm viability are incurred largely through levels of pre-copulatory investment. Males exposed to immature females produced sperm of low viability at both time points. Although we confirmed a weak negative association between sperm viability and lytic activity (a measure of immune response to bacterial infection) at day 13, this relationship was not altered across the mating treatment. Our results highlight that sperm viability is a labile trait, costly to produce, and subject to strategic allocation in these crickets. PMID:22253916

Dowling, Damian K; Simmons, Leigh W

2012-01-01

8

Protective function of alpha-lipoic acid on sperm motility and mitochondrial function during goat sperm-mediated gene transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sperm-mediated gene transfer is a promising technology to generate transgenic animals, but the incubation of the sperm cell with target gene plasmids often impairs the sperm motility and mitochondrial function. Alpha-lipoic acid is one of the beneficial antioxidants, which has been used to protect many types of cells from impairment of their function. The objective of this study was to

Huiming Ma; Fusheng Quan; Dongmei Chen; Yanling Zheng; Bowei Zhang; Yongsheng Wang; Yong Zhang

2011-01-01

9

Toluidine blue cytometry test for sperm DNA conformation: comparison with the flow cytometric sperm chromatin structure and TUNEL assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Sperm DNA integrity (SDI) is an important factor in the prognosis of male fertility. Here we compare the toluidine blue (TB) image cytometry test, recently proposed by us for SDI assessment, with two other tests—the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) and the terminal nick-end labelling (TUNEL) assay. METHODS: Sperm samples from 35 men were evaluated for standard sperm parameters

J. Erenpreiss; K. Jepson; A. Giwercman; I. Tsarev; M. Spano

2004-01-01

10

Effects of cryoprotectant treatments on bovine sperm function and osmolyte content  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis that addition and removal of cryoprotectants to and from spermatozoa would initiate regulatory volume decrease, and lead to osmolyte loss and reduced sperm function, was tested. Common cryoprotectants, in the absence of freezing and thawing, affected bovine ejaculated spermatozoa by lowering their total and progressive motility in medium, reducing their migration through surrogate cervical mucus, damaging sperm head

Erif E. M. Setyawan; Trevor G. Cooper; Dyah A. Widiasih; Aris Junaidi; Ching-Hei Yeung

2009-01-01

11

21 CFR 866.5800 - Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system. 866...Systems § 866.5800 Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system. (a) Identification. A seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system...

2009-04-01

12

21 CFR 866.5800 - Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system. 866...Systems § 866.5800 Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system. (a) Identification. A seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system...

2010-04-01

13

Increased Aneuploidy Rate in Sperm With Fragmented DNA as Determined by the Sperm Chromatin Dispersion (SCD) Test and FISH Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies suggest that sperm DNA fragmen- tation may be associated with aneuploidy. However, currently available tests have not made it possible to simultaneously perform DNA fragmentation and chromosomal analyses on the same sperm cell. The recently introduced sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) test allows users to determine this relationship. Semen samples from 16 males, including 4 fertile donors, 7 normozoospermic,

LOURDES MURIEL; VICENTE GOYANES; ENRIQUE SEGRELLES; JAIME GOSALVEZ; JUAN G. ALVAREZ; JOSELUIS FERNANDEZ

2007-01-01

14

Effect of oxamic analogues on functional mice sperm parameters.  

PubMed

Abstract The present study evaluates the effect of oxamate derivatives (N-ethyl, N-propyl, N-butyl oxamates) on functional murine sperm parameters, towards a new male non-hormonal contraceptive. These derivatives are selective inhibitors of lactate dehydrogenase-C4 (LDH-C4). LDH-C4 is a sperm-specific enzyme that plays an important role in ATP production for maintaining progressive motility as well as to induce capacitation and hyperactivation. The results demonstrate that all oxamate derivatives selectively inhibited LDH-C4 in mouse sperm extracts. The IC50 values for hexokinase and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase were at least an order of magnitude greater than LDH-C4 IC50 values. Prodrugs of oxamate derivatives assayed on sperm cells diminished normal sperm motility parameters, acrosome reaction, and cell viability in a concentration dependent manner. Also, we performed in vivo studies to determine the potential toxicity and possible contraceptive ability of these inhibitors. Mouse sperm were more sensitive to the N-butyl oxamate ethyl ester (NBOXet). Furthermore, results showed that NBOXet was of a low toxicity substance that diminished the total and progressive motility as well as the kinematic parameters of sperm cells. Data from in vitro and in vivo studies showed that N-butyl oxamate and its prodrug, are selective inhibitors of sperm LDH-C4, has low toxicity, and inhibits sperm progressive motility, offering some of the desirable characteristics of a male contraceptive: effect, low toxicity, and selectivity. PMID:24654556

Cordero-Martínez, Joaquín; Aguirre-Alvarado, Charmina; Wong, Carlos; Rodríguez-Páez, Lorena

2014-08-01

15

Stability, delivery and functions of human sperm RNAs at fertilization  

PubMed Central

Increasing attention has focused on the significance of RNA in sperm, in light of its contribution to the birth and long-term health of a child, role in sperm function and diagnostic potential. As the composition of sperm RNA is in flux, assigning specific roles to individual RNAs presents a significant challenge. For the first time RNA-seq was used to characterize the population of coding and non-coding transcripts in human sperm. Examining RNA representation as a function of multiple methods of library preparation revealed unique features indicative of very specific and stage-dependent maturation and regulation of sperm RNA, illuminating their various transitional roles. Correlation of sperm transcript abundance with epigenetic marks suggested roles for these elements in the pre- and post-fertilization genome. Several classes of non-coding RNAs including lncRNAs, CARs, pri-miRNAs, novel elements and mRNAs have been identified which, based on factors including relative abundance, integrity in sperm, available knockout data of embryonic effect and presence or absence in the unfertilized human oocyte, are likely to be essential male factors critical to early post-fertilization development. The diverse and unique attributes of sperm transcripts that were revealed provides the first detailed analysis of the biology and anticipated clinical significance of spermatozoal RNAs.

Sendler, Edward; Johnson, Graham D.; Mao, Shihong; Goodrich, Robert J.; Diamond, Michael P.; Hauser, Russ; Krawetz, Stephen A.

2013-01-01

16

Applications of a microfabricated device for evaluating sperm function.  

PubMed

Mesoscale structures (microns dimensions, nL-pL volumes) have been designed and fabricated in silicon for use in various analytical tasks. We studied sperm motility and performed sperm selection in channels (80 microns wide x 20 microns deep), branching structures (40 microns wide x 20 microns deep, eight bifurcations), and channels containing barriers (7 microns feature size). Sperm-cervical mucus and sperm-hyaluronic acid interactions were assessed by using appropriate microchannel-chamber structures filled with either cervical mucus or hyaluronic acid. Simultaneous assessment of the potency of different spermicides (e.g., nonoxynol-9, C13G) and spermicide concentrations was achieved with structures comprising chambers containing spermicide connected via channels to a central chamber into which semen was introduced. Semen was also tested for the presence of sperm-specific antibodies by using microchannels filled with human anti-IgG antibody-coated microbeads. PMID:8375079

Kricka, L J; Nozaki, O; Heyner, S; Garside, W T; Wilding, P

1993-09-01

17

The occurrence of sperm antibodies in human reproduction. I. Comparative new and improved test methods for sperm antibody detection.  

PubMed

The four essential methods for sperm antibody detection are considered and evaluated. The micro-sperm-agglutination and micro-sperm-immobilization tests have been improved and optimized. Quantitative estimation of sperm antibodies was made by an immunoelectrophoresis technique after separation of antibodies from the sera and genital tract secretions by affinity chromatography. Antibodies were typed by line-rocket immunoelectrophoresis. The pathologic errors of the modified tests were found to be small and the biologic errors were tolerable. Satisfactory results were achieved for sperm antibodies belonging to IgA and IgM, but not for other immunoglobulins. PMID:6986085

Mettler, L; Shirwani, D; Gradl, T

1980-01-01

18

Evaluation of the effect of a cervical cap device on sperm functional characteristics in vitro.  

PubMed

Intracervical insemination continues to be employed for homologous and donor insemination in natural and stimulated cycles. Efficacy studies for potential fertility involve in vivo assessment; however, in vitro testing of particular sperm function(s) critically involved in fertilization is an important component of such evaluation. We report here on the in vitro evaluation of the effects of the silicone Veos cervical cap (Veos, London, UK) on sperm function. Donor semen was exposed to the Veos cervical cap or a sterile 15-cc centrifuge tube (control), or treated with the spermicide nonoxynol-9 (5 mg x ml(-1) in saline) for 4 h at 37 degrees C and 5% CO2 in water-saturated air. After exposure, motility characteristics, both in semen and in spermatozoa processed by standard swim-up procedure, cervical mucus penetration and sperm-zona pellucida interaction using the hemizona assay were assessed. Results indicated that exposure to the Veos cervical cap had no effect on either sperm motility characteristics or sperm-zona pellucida interaction. A small but significant difference was observed for cervical mucus penetration (P = 0.05); however, for both the control and treated groups, vanguard spermatozoa exceeded manufacturer's guidelines for a normal test, a penetration distance of > or = 30 mm. As expected, nonoxynol-9 was a potent inhibitor of sperm function. Lack of adverse effects on in vitro spermatozoa functional characteristics after exposure to the silicone Veos cervical cap supports its addition to the repertoire of fertility treatment modalities when cervical insemination is indicated. PMID:11472332

Mahony, M C

2001-07-01

19

Not All Sperm Are Equal: Functional Mitochondria Characterize a Subpopulation of Human Sperm with Better Fertilization Potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human sperm samples are very heterogeneous and include a low amount of truly functional gametes. Distinct strategies have been developed to characterize and isolate this specific subpopulation. In this study we have used fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence-activated cell sorting to determine if mitochondrial function, as assessed using mitochondrial-sensitive probes, could be employed as a criterion to obtain more functional sperm

Ana Paula Sousa; Alexandra Amaral; Marta Baptista; Renata Tavares; Pedro Caballero Campo; Pedro Caballero Peregrín; Albertina Freitas; Artur Paiva; Teresa Almeida-Santos; João Ramalho-Santos; Hugh Clarke

2011-01-01

20

The hemizona assay for assessment of sperm function.  

PubMed

The hemizona assay (HZA) has been developed as a diagnostic test for the tight binding of human spermatozoa to the human zona pellucida to predict fertilization potential. In this homologous bioassay, the two matching hemizona halves are functionally equal surfaces allowing controlled comparison of binding from a fertile control versus a test sample, with reproducible measurements of sperm binding obtained from a single oocyte. Oocytes from different sources (surplus from IVF treatment or recovered from ovarian tissue) are salt-stored and used after microbisection. Extensive clinical data have demonstrated excellent predictive power of the HZA for the outcomes of intrauterine insemination and IVF, and therefore the assay has relevance in the clinical diagnostic setting in infertility. PMID:22992906

Oehninger, Sergio; Morshedi, Mahmood; Franken, Daniel

2013-01-01

21

Characterisation of a subpopulation of sperm with massive nuclear damage, as recognised with the sperm chromatin dispersion test.  

PubMed

Assessment of human sperm DNA fragmentation by the sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) test is based on the detection of haloes of spreading DNA loops after sequential DNA denaturing and protamine removal. After the SCD test, sperm without DNA fragmentation show chromatin haloes emerging from the central nuclear core, while sperm containing fragmented DNA present small or no haloes. The nuclear degraded sperm are recognised as a differentiated category within the sperm with fragmented DNA, whose cores appear irregularly and/or faintly stained. This subpopulation is more prevalent in patients with varicocele. Protein staining with 2.7-dibrom-4-hydroxy-mercury-fluorescein demonstrated that degraded sperm intensely lose nuclear core proteins after the SCD processing. Moreover, degraded sperm are 65% more faintly labelled for DNA breaks after in situ nick translation (ISNT) on average, due to extensive DNA loss. A two-dimensional comet assay under sequential neutral and alkaline conditions demonstrated that degraded sperm contain both massive double- and single-strand DNA breaks. The degraded sperm appear as a subpopulation with stronger nuclear damage, affecting both DNA and protein fractions, possibly due to intense intratesticular oxidative stress, what could explain its higher proportion in patients with varicocele. PMID:23710631

Gosálvez, J; Rodríguez-Predreira, M; Mosquera, A; López-Fernández, C; Esteves, S C; Agarwal, A; Fernández, J L

2014-08-01

22

Evaluation of sperm functional attributes in relation to in vitro sperm-zona pellucida binding ability and cleavage rate in assessing frozen thawed buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) semen quality.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate sperm functional attributes in relation to in vitro sperm-zona binding ability and cleavage rate in assessing frozen thawed buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) semen quality. Frozen-thawed forty-eight ejaculates from eight Surti buffalo bulls (six ejaculates/bull) obtained by artificial vagina were used. Frozen semen from each bull was thawed, pooled, and subjected for sperm functional (six replicates) and in vitro fertilization (four replicates) tests. The progressive forward motility, plasmalemma functional integrity assessed by fluorogenic [6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate (CFDA), and propidium iodide (PI)], hypoosmotic swelling (HOS), and hypoosmotic swelling-Giemsa (HOS-G) test, mitochondrial membrane potential, sperm nuclear morphology, the number of sperm bound to zona and cleavage rate differed significantly (P<0.05) between bulls. When the animals were grouped based on cleavage rate (group I, >40% cleavage rate, n=5, and group II, <40% cleavage rate, n=3), in vitro fertility parameters and all the sperm functional attributes except sperm nuclear morphology differed significantly (P<0.05). The proportions of sperm with functional plasmalemma in the tail and intact acrosome assessed by HOS-G test (25.33, range: 17.48-40.27) were significantly (P<0.001) lower than the functional plasmalemma in the tail assessed by HOS test (39.80, range: 27.85-54.67). The number of sperm bound to zona had significant correlations with the mitochondrial membrane potential (r=0.90, P<0.01) and plasmalemma integrity (fluorogenic, r=0.74 and HOS, r=0.79, P<0.05) and HOS-G, r=0.87, P<0.01). The cleavage rate had significant (P<0.05) correlations with the mitochondrial membrane potential (r=0.70) and plasmalemma integrity measured by HOS-G test (r=0.68). The present study indicates that these attributes could represent important determinants of buffalo sperm quality influencing cleavage rate. PMID:17576042

Selvaraju, S; Ravindra, J P; Ghosh, J; Gupta, P S P; Suresh, K P

2008-07-01

23

Ubiquitination Regulates the Morphogenesis and Function of Sperm Organelles  

PubMed Central

It is now understood that protein ubiquitination has diverse cellular functions in eukaryotes. The molecular mechanism and physiological significance of ubiquitin-mediated processes have been extensively studied in yeast, Drosophila and mammalian somatic cells. Moreover, an increasing number of studies have emphasized the importance of ubiquitination in spermatogenesis and fertilization. The dysfunction of various ubiquitin systems results in impaired sperm development with abnormal organelle morphology and function, which in turn is highly associated with male infertility. This review will focus on the emerging roles of ubiquitination in biogenesis, function and stability of sperm organelles in mammals.

Nakamura, Nobuhiro

2013-01-01

24

Thawing and processing of cryopreserved bovine spermatozoa at various temperatures and their effects on sperm viability, osmotic shock and sperm membrane functional integrity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of thawing and processing temperatures on post-thaw sperm viability, occurrence of osmotic shock and sperm membrane functional status. The occurrence of osmotic shock, characterized by increased spermatozoa with coiled tails, eventually results in reduced sperm viability and sperm membrane integrity. The effects of different thawing temperatures were assessed by thawing

J. R. Correa; M. C. Rodriguez; D. J. Patterson; P. M. Zavos

1996-01-01

25

Human sperm centrosomal function during fertilization, a novel assessment for male sterility.  

PubMed

In human fertilization, the sperm introduces the centrosome-the microtubule organizing center-and microtubules are organized within the inseminated egg from the sperm centrosome. These microtubules form a radial array, the sperm aster, the functioning of which is essential for pronuclear movement for the union of the male and female genomes. We established functional assay for human sperm centrosomal function, by using heterologus ICSI system with bovine and rabbit eggs. After human sperm incorporation into mammalian egg, we observed that the sperm aster was organized from sperm centrosome, and the sperm aster enlarged as the sperm nuclei underwent pronuclear formation. The normal human sperm aster formation rate at 6 h post-ICSI were 60.0% in bovine egg and 36.1% in rabbit egg, respectively. However, sperm aster formation rate following heterologus ICSI into bovine eggs with teratozoospermia (globozoospermia, dysplasia of fibrous sheath) were low. These data indicate that human sperm centrosomal function is low in abnormal shaped sperm. Wherus, elucidation of human sperm centrosomal function can lead us to find a new type of failure in "post ICSI events in fertilization". PMID:16035502

Terada, Yukihiro

2004-12-01

26

Assessment of sperm function parameters and DNA fragmentation in ejaculated alpaca sperm (Lama pacos) by flow cytometry.  

PubMed

Flow cytometry has been shown to be an accurate and highly reproducible tool for the analysis of sperm function. The main objective of this study was to assess sperm function parameters in ejaculated alpaca sperm by flow cytometry. Semen samples were collected from six alpaca males and processed for flow cytometric analysis of sperm viability and plasma membrane integrity using SYBR-14?PI staining; acrosomal membrane integrity using FITC-conjugated Pisum Sativum Agglutinin?PI labelling; mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) by staining with JC-1 and DNA Fragmentation Index (DFI) by TUNEL. The results indicate that the mean value for sperm viability was 57 ± 8 %. Spermatozoa with intact acrosome membrane was 87.9 ± 5%, and viable sperm with intact acrosomal membrane was 46.8 ± 9%, high mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) was detected in 66.32 ± 9.51% of spermatozoa and mean DFI value was 0.91 ± 0.9%. The DFI was inversely correlated with high ??m (p = 0.04; r = -0.41) and with plasma membrane integrity (p = 0.01; r = -0.47). To our knowledge, this is the first report of the assessment on the same sample of several parameters of sperm function in ejaculated alpaca sperm by flow cytometry. PMID:23082871

Cheuquemán, C; Merino, O; Giojalas, L; Von Baer, A; Sánchez, R; Risopatrón, J

2013-06-01

27

Stallion Sperm Transcriptome Comprises Functionally Coherent Coding and Regulatory RNAs as Revealed by Microarray Analysis and RNA-seq  

PubMed Central

Mature mammalian sperm contain a complex population of RNAs some of which might regulate spermatogenesis while others probably play a role in fertilization and early development. Due to this limited knowledge, the biological functions of sperm RNAs remain enigmatic. Here we report the first characterization of the global transcriptome of the sperm of fertile stallions. The findings improved understanding of the biological significance of sperm RNAs which in turn will allow the discovery of sperm-based biomarkers for stallion fertility. The stallion sperm transcriptome was interrogated by analyzing sperm and testes RNA on a 21,000-element equine whole-genome oligoarray and by RNA-seq. Microarray analysis revealed 6,761 transcripts in the sperm, of which 165 were sperm-enriched, and 155 were differentially expressed between the sperm and testes. Next, 70 million raw reads were generated by RNA-seq of which 50% could be aligned with the horse reference genome. A total of 19,257 sequence tags were mapped to all horse chromosomes and the mitochondrial genome. The highest density of mapped transcripts was in gene-rich ECA11, 12 and 13, and the lowest in gene-poor ECA9 and X; 7 gene transcripts originated from ECAY. Structural annotation aligned sperm transcripts with 4,504 known horse and/or human genes, rRNAs and 82 miRNAs, whereas 13,354 sequence tags remained anonymous. The data were aligned with selected equine gene models to identify additional exons and splice variants. Gene Ontology annotations showed that sperm transcripts were associated with molecular processes (chemoattractant-activated signal transduction, ion transport) and cellular components (membranes and vesicles) related to known sperm functions at fertilization, while some messenger and micro RNAs might be critical for early development. The findings suggest that the rich repertoire of coding and non-coding RNAs in stallion sperm is not a random remnant from spermatogenesis in testes but a selectively retained and functionally coherent collection of RNAs.

Das, Pranab J.; McCarthy, Fiona; Vishnoi, Monika; Paria, Nandina; Gresham, Cathy; Li, Gang; Kachroo, Priyanka; Sudderth, A. Kendrick; Teague, Sheila; Love, Charles C.; Varner, Dickson D.; Chowdhary, Bhanu P.; Raudsepp, Terje

2013-01-01

28

Effects of cryoprotectant treatments on bovine sperm function and osmolyte content.  

PubMed

The hypothesis that addition and removal of cryoprotectants to and from spermatozoa would initiate regulatory volume decrease, and lead to osmolyte loss and reduced sperm function, was tested. Common cryoprotectants, in the absence of freezing and thawing, affected bovine ejaculated spermatozoa by lowering their total and progressive motility in medium, reducing their migration through surrogate cervical mucus, damaging sperm head membranes and inducing sperm tail coiling. Sperm function was slightly better maintained after cryoprotectants were added and removed in multiple small steps rather than in a single step. The intracellular content of the polyol osmolytes, D-sorbitol and myo-inositol, exceeded that of the zwitterion osmolytes, L-carnitine and L-glutamate. Certain cryoprotectants reduced intracellular L-carnitine and L-glutamate concentration but not that of myo-inositol or D-sorbitol. Multistep treatments with some cryoprotectants had advantages over one-step treatments in mucus penetration depending on the original amount of intracellular carnitine and glutamate in the spermatozoa. Overall, sperm quality was best maintained by multistep treatment with glycerol and propanediols that were associated with decreased intracellular glutamate concentration. Bovine spermatozoa seem to use glutamate to regulate cryoprotectant-induced cell swelling. PMID:19668223

Setyawan, Erif E M; Cooper, Trevor G; Widiasih, Dyah A; Junaidi, Aris; Yeung, Ching-Hei

2009-09-01

29

The impact of testicular and accessory sex gland function on sperm chromatin integrity as assessed by the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) provides an objective assessment of sperm chromatin integrity, which is essential for normal sperm function. SCSA is valuable as a fertility marker in epidemiological studies and in the clinical situation. Little is known about the impact of testicular and post-testicular function on SCSA parameters. METHODS: Ejaculates from 278 military conscripts of median age

J. Richthoff; M. Spano; Y. L. Giwercman; B. Frohm; K. Jepson; J. Malm; S. Elzanaty; M. Stridsberg; A. Giwercman

2002-01-01

30

Morphology and function of the reproductive tract of the spider crab Libinia spinosa (Crustacea, Brachyura, Majoidea): pattern of sperm storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Morphology and function of the male reproductive tract, female spermatheca and patterns of sperm storage were assessed in the crab Libinia spinosa using histological methods. Testes are characterized by the presence of peripheral spermatogonia and different sequences of sperm maturity. Spermatophores begin to be packed in the last portion. The vas deferens consists of three sections: anterior, with undeveloped spermatophores and free sperm; median, with well-developed spermatophores; and posterior with granular secretions. Female spermathecae are of the ventral type, with a velum separating dorsal and ventral chambers. Live individuals were kept in the laboratory and arranged in pairs. An experiment was conducted toward the end of the reproductive season, in which males with the right gonopod excised were placed with receptive females. After mating, females were killed and the spermathecae dissected for histological study and observation of the pattern of sperm storage. Spermatozoa were found forming discrete sperm packages. New ejaculates can fill the entire spermatheca or be restricted to the ventral chamber; sperm are rounded, with a distinguishable acrosomal core. Old ejaculates are restricted to the dorsal chamber and are of irregular shape and larger size; an acrosomal core was not distinguishable. The secretions produced by the glandular epithelium of the dorsal chamber of the spermathecae are likely to have a role in the removal of dead sperm.

Sal Moyano, M. P.; Gavio, M. A.; Cuartas, E. I.

2010-09-01

31

Proteomic and functional analysis of human sperm detergent resistant membranes.  

PubMed

Mammalian spermatozoa attain the ability to fertilize an oocyte as they negotiate the female reproductive tract. This acquisition of functional competence is preceded by an intricate cascade of biochemical and functional changes collectively known as "capacitation." Among the universal correlates of the capacitation process is a remarkable remodeling of the lipid and protein architecture of the sperm plasma membrane. While the mechanisms that underpin this dynamic reorganization remain enigmatic, emerging evidence has raised the prospect that it may be coordinated, in part, by specialized membrane microdomains, or rafts. In the present study we have demonstrated that human spermatozoa express recognized markers of membrane rafts. Further, upon depletion of membrane cholesterol through either physiological (capacitation) or pharmacological (methyl-?-cyclodextrin) intervention, these membrane rafts appear to undergo a polarized redistribution to the peri-acrosomal region of the sperm head. This finding encourages speculation that membrane rafts represent platforms for the organization of proteins involved in sperm-oocyte interactions. Support for this notion rests with the demonstration that membrane rafts isolated on the basis of their biochemical composition in the form of detergent resistant membranes (DRMs), possess the ability to adhere to homologous zona pellucidae. Furthermore a comprehensive proteomic analysis of the DRMs identified a number of proteins known for their affinity for the zona pellucida in addition to other candidates putatively involved in the mediation of downstream binding and/or fusion with the oolemma. Collectively these data afford novel insights into the subcellular localization and potential functions of membrane rafts in human spermatozoa. PMID:21792924

Nixon, Brett; Mitchell, Lisa A; Anderson, Amanda L; McLaughlin, Eileen A; O'bryan, Moira K; Aitken, R John

2011-10-01

32

K+ and Cl? Channels and Transporters in Sperm Function  

PubMed Central

To succeed in fertilization, spermatozoa must decode environmental cues which require a set of ion channels. Recent findings have revealed that K+ and Cl? channels participate in some of the main sperm functions. This work reviews the evidence indicating the involvement of K+ and Cl? channels in motility, maturation, and the acrosome reaction, and the advancement in identifying their molecular identity and modes of regulation. Improving our insight on how these channels operate will strengthen our ability to surmount some infertility problems, improve animal breeding, preserve biodiversity, and develop selective and secure male contraceptives.

Santi, C.M.; Orta, G.; Salkoff, L.

2013-01-01

33

Relative testis size and sperm morphometry across mammals: no evidence for an association between sperm competition and sperm length.  

PubMed Central

Understanding why there is extensive variation in sperm form and function across taxa has been a challenge because sperm are specialized cells operating at a microscopic level in a complex environment. This comparative study collates published data to determine whether the evolution of sperm morphometry (sperm total length and separate component dimensions) is associated with sperm competition (when different males' sperm mix and compete for a female's ova) across 83 mammalian species. We use relative testes mass as an indicator of the intensity of sperm competition across taxa: relative investment into testes is widely accepted to predict the level of sperm competition that a species or population endures. Although we found evidence for positive associations between relative testes mass (controlling for allometry) and sperm morphometry across 83 mammalian species, these relationships were phylogenetically dependent. When we appropriately controlled for phylogenetic association using multiple regression within a phylogenetic framework, there was no relationship between relative testes mass and sperm length across mammals. Furthermore, we found no evidence for associations between relative testes mass and sperm head, mid-piece or flagellar lengths, nor was there a relationship with mid-piece or mitochondrial volumes. Results, therefore, indicate that sperm competition does not select for longer or shorter sperm across mammals, and alternative forces selecting on sperm form and function are discussed.

Gage, Matthew J G; Freckleton, Robert P

2003-01-01

34

Evaluation of Human Sperm Function After Repeated Freezing and Thawing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sperm storage via freezing has been useful for men who have difficulty masturbating during assisted reproductive tech- nology (ART) programs and before impotency caused by chemo- therapy, vasectomy, and other procedures. Studies were undertaken to evaluate the extent of cryoinjury to sperm after repeated freezing and thawing. The results showed that normozoospermic and oligo- zoospermic sperm survived after 3 repeated

ENOKA BANDULARATNE; ARIFF BONGSO

2002-01-01

35

Effect of polyvinylpyrrolidone on sperm function and early embryonic development following intracytoplasmic sperm injection in human assisted reproduction.  

PubMed

The objective here was to review the effects of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) upon sperm function and embryonic development in humans. PVP has been used successfully in intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) to facilitate the handling and immobilization of sperm for both domestic animals and humans. In our previous reports, PVP solution exists locally in embryos injected during the early developmental period, and also exerts influence over the developmental capacity of such embryos. In other reports, PVP causes significant damage to sperm membranes that can be detected by transmission electron microscopy, and has been associated with chromosomal abnormalities in pregnancy derived from ICSI embryos. In some Japanese clinics, PVP-free media has been used for sperm immobilization in order to optimise safety. Consequently, it is strongly suggested that the success rate of fertilization and clinical pregnancy could be improved by using PVP-free solution for human ICSI. In conclusion, our interpretation of the available data is to perform ICSI without PVP or select a lower concentration of PVP solution in order to reduce safety for pregnancy and children born via ICSI. PMID:23483084

Kato, Yoku; Nagao, Yoshikazu

2012-10-01

36

Effects of tributyltin on epididymal function and sperm maturation in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of tributyltin (TBT) on sperm parameters and epididymal function were investigated following oral doses of 0.5, 5 and 50?g\\/kg every 3 days for 45 days to male KM mouse. The TBT-treated groups showed a significant decrease in sperm counts and a significant increase in sperm abnormality both in a dose-dependent manner. The expression of matrilysin (MMP7) transcript in

Feihuan Yan; Yufang Chen; Zhenghong Zuo; Yixin Chen; Zengming Yang; Chonggang Wang

2009-01-01

37

Reproductive function of the male obese Zucker rats: alteration in sperm production and sperm DNA damage.  

PubMed

Obesity has been considered a public health issue in many countries and is of increasing concern for authorities over the past 6 years. The Zucker rat is a good experimental model for obesity and diabetes studies due to its metabolic characteristics that are similar to those developed by humans. A total of 12 obese Zucker rats and their lean littermates were killed in pubertal and young adult phases for assessing organ weights (testis and epididymis), testicular histomorphometric and stereological analyses, daily sperm production, and transit time in the epididymis. Sperm integrity was also investigated in the adult animals using the Comet assay. Alterations in organ weights, seminiferous epithelium architecture, sperm production, and transit time were noticed in the pubertal fatty rats. The volume density of the lymphatic space was decreased in both the ages. Adult animals had a significant increase in the extent of damage found in sperm DNA. Our results show for the first time that leptin receptor deficiency compromises sperm production during puberty and that genetic obese Zucker rats have increased sperm DNA fragmentation. PMID:23800399

Vendramini, V; Cedenho, A P; Miraglia, S M; Spaine, D M

2014-02-01

38

Measurement of epididymal sperm motility as a test variable in the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several environmental contaminants, notably dibromochloropropane (Whorton et al. 1977) and kepone (Taylor et al. 1978; Cannon et al. 1978) have been implicated in sperm deficiencies among occupationally exposed males. These incidents emphasize the need for adequate testing of chemicals for effects on the male reproductive system. Although important in clinical diagnosis, the evaluation of sperm motility has not been used

Ralph E. Linder; Lillian F. Strader; W. Keith McElroy

1986-01-01

39

Correlation Between Human Sperm Swelling in Hypoosmotic Medium (Hypoosmotic Swelling Test) and In Vitro Fertilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human ejaculates (n = 83) were analyzed for standard sperm parameters (concentration, motility, and morphol- ogy), as well as for the ability of the spermatozoa to react (swell) in a hypoosmotic medium (Jeyendran et al, 1984). Subsequently, the fertilizing capacity of the spermatozoa was tested by their ability to fertilize human oocytes in vitro. Although the sperm concentration was adjusted

H. VAN DER VEN; RAJASINGAM S. JEYENDRAN; SAFAA ALHASANI; MARIANO PEREZ-PELAEZ; KLAUS DIEDRICH; LOURENS J. D. ZANEVELD

40

Boar seminal plasma exosomes: effect on sperm function and protein identification by sequencing.  

PubMed

Mammalian seminal plasma contains membranous vesicles (exosomes), with a high content of cholesterol and sphingomyelin and a complex protein composition. Their physiological role is uncertain because sperm stabilization and activation effects have been reported. To analyze a putative modulatory role for semen exosomes on sperm activity in the boar, the effects of these vesicles on several sperm functional parameters were examined. Additionally, boar exosome proteins were sequenced and their incorporation into sperm was explored. Boar sperm were incubated under conditions that induce capacitation, manifested as increased tyrosine phosphorylation, cholesterol loss and greater fluidity in apical membranes, and the ability to undergo the lysophosphatidylcholine-induced acrosome reaction. After establishing this cluster of capacitation-dependent functional parameters, the effect produced by exosomes when present during or after sperm capacitation was analyzed. Exosomes inhibited the capacitation-dependent cholesterol efflux and fluidity increase in apical membranes, and the disappearance of a 14-kD phosphorylated polypeptide. In contrast, the acrosome reaction (spontaneous and lysophosphatidylcholine-induced) was not affected, and sperm binding to the oocyte zona pellucida was reduced only when vesicles were present during gamete coincubation. Liposomes with a lipid composition similar to that present in exosomes mimicked these effects, except the one on zona pellucida binding. Interaction between exosomes and sperm was confirmed by transfer of aminopeptidase activity. In addition, the major exosome protein, identified as actin, appeared to associate with sperm after coincubation. Exosome composition had a predominance for structural proteins (actin, plastin, ezrin, and condensin), enzymes, and several porcine seminal plasma-specific polypeptides (e.g., spermadhesins). Transfer of proteins from exosome to sperm and their ability to block cholesterol efflux supports a direct interaction between these vesicles and sperm, whereas inhibition of some capacitation-dependent features suggests a stabilizing function for exosomes in boar semen. PMID:23489476

Piehl, Lidia L; Fischman, M Laura; Hellman, Ulf; Cisale, Humberto; Miranda, Patricia V

2013-04-15

41

21 CFR 866.5800 - Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5800 Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test...

2013-04-01

42

Choline Dehydrogenase Polymorphism rs12676 Is a Functional Variation and Is Associated with Changes in Human Sperm Cell Function  

PubMed Central

Approximately 15% of couples are affected by infertility and up to half of these cases arise from male factor infertility. Unidentified genetic aberrations such as chromosomal deletions, translocations and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may be the underlying cause of many cases of idiopathic male infertility. Deletion of the choline dehydrogenase (Chdh) gene in mice results in decreased male fertility due to diminished sperm motility; sperm from Chdh?/? males have decreased ATP concentrations likely stemming from abnormal sperm mitochondrial morphology and function in these cells. Several SNPs have been identified in the human CHDH gene that may result in altered CHDH enzymatic activity. rs12676 (G233T), a non-synonymous SNP located in the CHDH coding region, is associated with increased susceptibility to dietary choline deficiency and risk of breast cancer. We now report evidence that this SNP is also associated with altered sperm motility patterns and dysmorphic mitochondrial structure in sperm. Sperm produced by men who are GT or TT for rs12676 have 40% and 73% lower ATP concentrations, respectively, in their sperm. rs12676 is associated with decreased CHDH protein in sperm and hepatocytes. A second SNP located in the coding region of IL17BR, rs1025689, is linked to altered sperm motility characteristics and changes in choline metabolite concentrations in sperm.

Johnson, Amy R.; Lao, Sai; Wang, Tongwen; Galanko, Joseph A.; Zeisel, Steven H.

2012-01-01

43

Choline dehydrogenase polymorphism rs12676 is a functional variation and is associated with changes in human sperm cell function.  

PubMed

Approximately 15% of couples are affected by infertility and up to half of these cases arise from male factor infertility. Unidentified genetic aberrations such as chromosomal deletions, translocations and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may be the underlying cause of many cases of idiopathic male infertility. Deletion of the choline dehydrogenase (Chdh) gene in mice results in decreased male fertility due to diminished sperm motility; sperm from Chdh(-/-) males have decreased ATP concentrations likely stemming from abnormal sperm mitochondrial morphology and function in these cells. Several SNPs have been identified in the human CHDH gene that may result in altered CHDH enzymatic activity. rs12676 (G233T), a non-synonymous SNP located in the CHDH coding region, is associated with increased susceptibility to dietary choline deficiency and risk of breast cancer. We now report evidence that this SNP is also associated with altered sperm motility patterns and dysmorphic mitochondrial structure in sperm. Sperm produced by men who are GT or TT for rs12676 have 40% and 73% lower ATP concentrations, respectively, in their sperm. rs12676 is associated with decreased CHDH protein in sperm and hepatocytes. A second SNP located in the coding region of IL17BR, rs1025689, is linked to altered sperm motility characteristics and changes in choline metabolite concentrations in sperm. PMID:22558321

Johnson, Amy R; Lao, Sai; Wang, Tongwen; Galanko, Joseph A; Zeisel, Steven H

2012-01-01

44

Glucose and fructose as functional modulators of overall dog, but not boar sperm function.  

PubMed

The main aim of the present work was to test the effects of glucose and fructose on the phosphorylation levels of proteins linked to the control of overall sperm function in two species with very different metabolic characteristics, dog and boar. Incubation of dog spermatozoa with 10mM glucose increased serine phosphorylation of proteins related to cell cycle and signal transduction including cyclins B and E, Cdk2, Cdk6, Cdc6, PYK2, c-kit, Raf-1, TRK and several protein phosphatases. Incubation of dog spermatozoa with 10mM fructose decreased serine phosphorylation levels of cyclins B and D3, Cdk1/Cdc2, Cdk2, Cdk6, Akt, PI3 kinase, ERK-1 and protein kinase C. Incubation of boar spermatozoa with glucose or fructose did not modify any of the phosphorylation patterns studied. Given that one important difference between dog and boar spermatozoa is the presence of glucokinase (GK) in dog but not in boar, GK-transfected COS7 cells were incubated with either 10mM glucose or 10mM fructose. Incubation of GK-transfected cells with fructose decreased serine phosphorylation of cyclin A, ERK-2 and Hsp-70. In contrast, incubation of control COS7 cells with fructose increased serine phosphorylation of Cdk6, Cdk1/Cdc2, protein kinase C and Hsp-70. Incubation with glucose did not induce any significant effect. Our results indicate that monosaccharides act as signalling compounds in dog spermatozoa after ejaculation through changes in the phosphorylation levels of specific proteins. One of the factors that may be related to the action of sugars is the equilibrium of the total sperm hexokinase activity, in which the presence or absence of GK appears to be relevant. PMID:21426864

Fernández-Novell, J M; Ballester, J; Altirriba, J; Ramió-Lluch, L; Barberà, A; Gomis, R; Guinovart, J J; Rodríguez-Gil, J E

2011-01-01

45

Comparison of sperm motility test methods (except computer-assisted sperm analysis) in rats under the condition of alfa-chlorohydrin treatment--collaborative investigation.  

PubMed

A comparison among rat sperm motility test methods including percent of motile sperm (% Motile), scoring method (Scoring), Ishii's method, Progressive Motility Test (PMT) and Sperm Quality Analyzer (SQA), was conducted using data gathered from eleven laboratories. As a unified study design, mature male rats were orally treated daily for approximately 1 week with alpha-chlorohydrin (ACH), which is known to affect the sperm motility at the epididymis, at dose levels of 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg, and then subjected to more than two test methods for sperm motility in each laboratory. Scoring (4 or 5 grades), Ishii's method, PMT and SQA showed high sensitivity for the detection of the effects of ACH, which were not considered to be inferior to a computer-assisted sperm analyzer (CASA). Longer incubation time before testing was considered to contribute to detecting the effects of ACH. In particular, we realized that Scoring was a favorable method even if the demerit of poor objectivity was allowed for. Percent Motile showed lower sensitivity than other test methods. The differences in sensitivity between % Motile and other methods were considered to be based on whether the defects of progressive motion could be detected. Although % Motile cannot clearly judge whether immotile sperm are dead or alive, the value is a great help for the interpretation of the result from other methods. Based on the characters for detectability, objectivity and efficiency, the most suitable method of sperm motility should be selected according to the purpose of the toxicity study. PMID:11201175

Mineshima, H; Fujioka, M; Furukawa, M; Ikeda, T; Kinoshita, K; Koida, M; Kondoh, K; Ozawa, S; Oi, A; Ohyama, N; Takahashi, H; Tanaka, R

2000-12-01

46

Human lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) rescues mouse Ldhc-null sperm function.  

PubMed

By targeted disruption of the lactate dehydrogenase c (Ldhc) gene, we demonstrated that spermatozoa require Ldhc for capacitation, motility, and fertilizing capacity. Ldhc expression is restricted to the developing germ cells that, however, are apparently not compromised by the lack of the LDHC isozyme. Because LDHC is abundant in spermatozoa that utilize aerobic glycolysis for energy requirements, its main function was presumed to be the interconversion of pyruvate to lactate with the concomitant oxidation/reduction of NADH to NAD(+). We found that sperm without LDHC were still able to convert lactate to pyruvate as mediated by LDHA that is tightly bound to the fibrous sheath. It was assumed that the level of glycolysis was insufficient to power motility and the subsequent fertilizing capacity of the mutated sperm. To investigate whether LDHC possesses certain unique characteristics essential for fertility, human LDHA was introduced as a transgene to Ldhc-null mice. We report here that the exogenous LDHA rescued the phenotype of the Ldhc-null males. Sperm from the LDHA transgenic males with the Ldhc deletion (LDHA(+)/Ldhc(-/-)) are motile, capable of protein tyrosine phosphorylation, and able to fertilize, thus restoring these properties to LDHC-null sperm. However, the lactate and ATP levels in the rescued sperm did not differ significantly from sperm lacking LDHC. We suggest that it is the localization of the transgene to the sperm cytosol that is mainly responsible for restoration of sperm function and fertility. PMID:23467744

Tang, Huanghui; Duan, Chongwen; Bleher, Reiner; Goldberg, Erwin

2013-04-01

47

Human Lactate Dehydrogenase A (LDHA) Rescues Mouse Ldhc-Null Sperm Function1  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT By targeted disruption of the lactate dehydrogenase c (Ldhc) gene, we demonstrated that spermatozoa require Ldhc for capacitation, motility, and fertilizing capacity. Ldhc expression is restricted to the developing germ cells that, however, are apparently not compromised by the lack of the LDHC isozyme. Because LDHC is abundant in spermatozoa that utilize aerobic glycolysis for energy requirements, its main function was presumed to be the interconversion of pyruvate to lactate with the concomitant oxidation/reduction of NADH to NAD+. We found that sperm without LDHC were still able to convert lactate to pyruvate as mediated by LDHA that is tightly bound to the fibrous sheath. It was assumed that the level of glycolysis was insufficient to power motility and the subsequent fertilizing capacity of the mutated sperm. To investigate whether LDHC possesses certain unique characteristics essential for fertility, human LDHA was introduced as a transgene to Ldhc-null mice. We report here that the exogenous LDHA rescued the phenotype of the Ldhc-null males. Sperm from the LDHA transgenic males with the Ldhc deletion (LDHA+/Ldhc?/?) are motile, capable of protein tyrosine phosphorylation, and able to fertilize, thus restoring these properties to LDHC-null sperm. However, the lactate and ATP levels in the rescued sperm did not differ significantly from sperm lacking LDHC. We suggest that it is the localization of the transgene to the sperm cytosol that is mainly responsible for restoration of sperm function and fertility.

Tang, Huanghui; Duan, Chongwen; Bleher, Reiner; Goldberg, Erwin

2013-01-01

48

Evaluation of Zona Pellucida Function for Sperm Penetration During In Vitro Fertilization in Pigs  

PubMed Central

Abstract In porcine oocytes, the function of the zona pellucida (ZP) with regard to sperm penetration or prevention of polyspermy is not well understood. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the ZP on sperm penetration during in vitro fertilization (IVF). We collected in vitro-matured oocytes with a first polar body (ZP+ oocytes). Some of them were freed from the ZP (ZP? oocytes) by two treatments (pronase and mechanical pipetting), and the effects of these treatments on sperm penetration parameters (sperm penetration rate and numbers of penetrated sperm per oocyte) were evaluated. There was no evident difference in the parameters between the two groups. Secondly, we compared the sperm penetration parameters of ZP+ and ZP? oocytes using frozen-thawed epididymal spermatozoa from four boars. Sperm penetration into ZP+ oocytes was found to be accelerated relative to ZP? oocytes. Thirdly, we evaluated the sperm penetration of ZP+ and ZP? oocytes at 1?10 h after IVF (3 h gamete co-incubation). The proportions of oocytes penetrated by sperm increased significantly with time in both groups; however, the number of penetrated sperm per oocyte did not increase in ZP? oocytes. Finally, we performed IVF using ZP? oocytes divided into control (3 h) and prolonged gamete co-incubation (5 h) groups. Greater numbers of sperm penetrated in the 5 h group than in the control group. These results suggest that the ZP and oolemma are not competent factors for prevention of polyspermy in our present porcine IVF system. However, it appears that ZP removal is one of the possibilities for reducing polyspermic penetration in vitro in pigs.

TANIHARA, Fuminori; NAKAI, Michiko; KANEKO, Hiroyuki; NOGUCHI, Junko; OTOI, Takeshige; KIKUCHI, Kazuhiro

2013-01-01

49

METHOD OF SPERM COLLECTION SIGNIFICANTLY INFLUENCES SPERM MOTION PARAMETERS FOLLOWING ETHANE DIMETHANESULPHONATE ADMINISTRATION IN THE RAT  

EPA Science Inventory

Sperm motion analysis following exposure to a reproductive toxicant is one means of evaluating the functional integrity of the testes and epididymis. n this study we sought to determine whether the method used to collect sperm from the proximal cauda epididymidis, where sperm are...

50

Premature Sperm Activation and Defective Spermatogenesis Caused by Loss of spe-46 Function in Caenorhabditis elegans  

PubMed Central

Given limited resources for motility, sperm cell activation must be precisely timed to ensure the greatest likelihood of fertilization. Like those of most species, the sperm of C. elegans become active only after encountering an external signaling molecule. Activation coincides with spermiogenesis, the final step in spermatogenesis, when the spherical spermatid undergoes wholesale reorganization to produce a pseudopod. Here, we describe a gene involved in sperm activation, spe-46. This gene was identified in a suppressor screen of spe-27(it132ts), a sperm-expressed gene whose product functions in the transduction of the spermatid activation signal. While spe-27(it132ts) worms are sterile at 25°C, the spe-46(hc197)I; spe-27(it132ts)IV double mutants regain partial fertility. Single nucleotide polymorphism mapping, whole genome sequencing, and transformation rescue were employed to identify the spe-46 coding sequence. It encodes a protein with seven predicted transmembrane domains but with no other predicted functional domains or homology outside of nematodes. Expression is limited to spermatogenic tissue, and a transcriptional GFP fusion shows expression corresponds with the onset of the pachytene stage of meiosis. The spe-46(hc197) mutation bypasses the need for the activation signal; mutant sperm activate prematurely without an activation signal in males, and mutant males are sterile. In an otherwise wild-type genome, the spe-46(hc197) mutation induces a sperm defective phenotype. In addition to premature activation, spe-46(hc197) sperm exhibit numerous defects including aneuploidy, vacuolization, protruding spikes, and precocious fusion of membranous organelles. Hemizygous worms [spe-46(hc197)/mnDf111] are effectively sterile. Thus, spe-46 appears to be involved in the regulation of spermatid activation during spermiogenesis, with the null phenotype being an absence of functional sperm and hypomorphic phenotypes being premature spermatid activation and numerous sperm cell defects.

Liau, Wei-Siang; Nasri, Ubaydah; Elmatari, Daniel; Rothman, Jason; LaMunyon, Craig W.

2013-01-01

51

Absence of estrogen receptor alpha leads to physiological alterations in the mouse epididymis and consequent defects in sperm function.  

PubMed

Male mice deficient in ESR1 (ERalpha) (Esr1KO mice) are infertile, and sperm recovered from the cauda epididymis exhibit reduced motility and fail to fertilize eggs in vitro. These effects on sperm appear to result from defective epididymal function and not a direct effect on spermatogenesis, as Esr1KO germ cells transplanted into wild-type testes yield normal offspring. We hypothesized that the previously described defect in efferent duct fluid reabsorption would lead to alterations in the epididymal fluid milieu, which would negatively impact sperm function. Analysis of the epididymal fluid revealed that the Esr1KO maintains a higher luminal pH throughout the epididymis, confirming an inability of the efferent ducts and/or epididymis to properly acidify the luminal contents. Subsequent studies showed that these abnormalities were not the result of global defects in epididymal function since protein secretion by the Esr1KO epididymis appeared normal as judged by SDS-PAGE of total secreted proteins and by immunoblotting of candidate secreted proteins. To gain insight into the basis of the aberrant fluid homeostasis in the Esr1KO epididymis, the expression of several enzymes and transporters known to be involved in acid/base regulation were analyzed. The levels of SLC9A3 (NHE3) as well as carbonic anhydrase XIV and SLC4A4 (NBC1) were all reduced in the proximal portion of the Esr1KO epididymis, while other components appeared unaffected, including other ion transporters and ATP6V0A1 (V-ATPase). The altered luminal milieu of the Esr1KO epididymis was shown to lead to a corresponding increase in the intracellular pH of Esr1KO sperm, relative to sperm from control animals. Since pH and bicarbonate ions are critical regulators of sperm cAMP levels and motility, we attempted to bypass the abnormal luminal and intracellular environment by supplementing sperm with exogenous cAMP. This treatment rescued all defective motility parameters, as assayed by CASA, further showing that motility defects are not intrinsic to the sperm but, rather, result from the abnormal epididymal milieu. PMID:20130267

Joseph, Avenel; Hess, Rex A; Schaeffer, David J; Ko, CheMyong; Hudgin-Spivey, Susan; Chambon, Pierre; Shur, Barry D

2010-05-01

52

Comparison of the Sperm Quality Analyzer IIC variables with the computer-aided sperm analysis estimates.  

PubMed

Sperm Quality Analyzer (SQA) IIC, an upgrade version, is an inexpensive device and provides a quantitative estimation of sperm motility, whereas the use of computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) provides high precision and provision of quantitative data on sperm kinetics. The aim of the present study was to evaluate if the SQA IIC variables correlated with the CASA estimates. Semen quality analysis of 71 fresh semen samples was performed using SQA IIC and CASA. Total sperm concentration, percentage of progressively motile sperm, percentage of normal morphology, motile sperm concentration, sperm motility index (SMI) and functional sperm count (FSC) determinations were performed using SQA IIC. Sperm concentration, sperm motility, and sperm motion variables including amplitude of lateral head displacement (ALH), beat cross frequency (BCF), curvilinear velocity (VCL), straight line velocity (VSL), average path velocity (VAP), linearity (LIN=VSL/VCL), and straightness (STR=VSL/VAP) were evaluated simultaneously on the same semen samples using CASA. The sperm characteristics were compared between SQA IIC and CASA. There were significant correlations of sperm concentration (r=0.634, p < 0.0001), sperm motility (r=0.697, p < 0.0001), and motile sperm concentration (r=0.757, p < 0.0001) between the two devices. Both SMI and FSC significantly correlated with eight CASA estimates, including sperm concentration, sperm motility, motile sperm concentration, ALH, VCL, VSL, VAP, and Rapid. SQA IIC is simple and easy to use. Moreover, the SQA IIC variables well correlated with the CASA estimates. As a screening test for semen quality, SQA IIC is considered as useful in the management of male infertility. PMID:11869377

Suzuki, Tatsuya; Shibahara, Hiroaki; Tsunoda, Hiromichi; Hirano, Yuki; Taneichi, Akiyo; Obara, Hiromi; Takamizawa, Satoru; Sato, Ikuo

2002-02-01

53

Mammalian sperm proteins are rapidly evolving: evidence of positive selection in functionally diverse genes.  

PubMed

A growing number of genes involved in sex and reproduction have been demonstrated to be rapidly evolving. Here, we show that genes expressed solely in spermatozoa represent a highly diverged subset among mouse and human tissue-specific orthologs. The average rate of nonsynonymous substitutions per site (K(a)) is significantly higher in sperm proteins (mean K(a) = 0.18; N = 35) than in proteins expressed specifically in all other tissues (mean K(a) = 0.074; N = 473). No differences, however, are found in the synonymous substitution rate (K(s)) between tissues, suggesting that selective forces, and not mutation rate, explain the high rate of replacement substitutions in sperm proteins. Four out of 19 sperm-specific genes with characterized function demonstrated evidence of strong positive Darwinian selection, including a protein involved in gene regulation, Protamine-1 (PRM1), a protein involved in glycolysis, GAPDS, and two egg-binding proteins, Adam-2 precursor (ADAM2) and sperm-adhesion molecule-1 (SAM1). These results demonstrate the rapid evolution of sperm-specific genes and highlight the molecular action of sexual selection on a variety of characters involved in mammalian sperm function. PMID:12411606

Torgerson, Dara G; Kulathinal, Rob J; Singh, Rama S

2002-11-01

54

Effects of antiepileptic drugs on reproductive endocrine function, sexual function and sperm parameters in Chinese Han men with epilepsy.  

PubMed

The effects of the antiepileptic drugs sodium valproate (VPA) and levetiracetam (LEV) on reproductive endocrine function, sexual function, and spermatozoa were explored, together with their possible etiological mechanisms, in Chinese Han men with epilepsy. Following VPA treatment (n=32), luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone levels were significantly lower than in controls (n=30). The bioactive testosterone/luteinizing hormone ratio and the prolactin level were significantly elevated in the VPA treatment group. There were no significant differences in these hormones between the LEV treatment (n=20) and control groups. The rates of sperm morphologic abnormality (head, body, and tail) were significantly higher in the VPA treatment group than the control group but did not differ significantly between the LEV treatment and control groups. The sperm motility rate was significantly lower in the VPA treatment group (grade A sperm motility rate <25%, grade A+B sperm motility rate <50%) than in controls, as well as in the LEV treatment group (grade A sperm motility rate <25%). Patients in the VPA and LEV treatment groups had lower scores on questions 1, 2 and 3 of a simplified International Index of Erectile Function Scale than controls, but no significant difference on questions 4 or 5. The total International Index of Erectile Function Scale scores were significantly lower in the VPA and LEV treatment groups. We conclude that treatment with VPA adversely affects reproductive endocrine function, sperm parameters and sexual function to varying degrees in Chinese men with epilepsy. PMID:23938015

Xiaotian, Xu; Hengzhong, Zhang; Yao, Xu; Zhipan, Zhao; Daoliang, Xu; Yumei, Wu

2013-11-01

55

High-precision tracking of sperm swimming fine structure provides strong test of resistive force theory.  

PubMed

The shape of the flagellar beat determines the path along which a sperm cell swims. If the flagellum bends periodically about a curved mean shape then the sperm will follow a path with non-zero curvature. To test a simple hydrodynamic theory of flagellar propulsion known as resistive force theory, we conducted high-precision measurements of the head and flagellum motions during circular swimming of bull spermatozoa near a surface. We found that the fine structure of sperm swimming represented by the rapid wiggling of the sperm head around an averaged path is, to high accuracy, accounted for by resistive force theory and results from balancing forces and torques generated by the beating flagellum. We determined the anisotropy ratio between the normal and tangential hydrodynamic friction coefficients of the flagellum to be 1.81+/-0.07 (mean+/-s.d.). On time scales longer than the flagellar beat cycle, sperm cells followed circular paths of non-zero curvature. Our data show that path curvature is approximately equal to twice the average curvature of the flagellum, consistent with quantitative predictions of resistive force theory. Hence, this theory accurately predicts the complex trajectories of sperm cells from the detailed shape of their flagellar beat across different time scales. PMID:20348333

Friedrich, B M; Riedel-Kruse, I H; Howard, J; Jülicher, F

2010-04-01

56

Physiology and endocrinology symposium: evidence that oviduct secretions influence sperm function: a retrospective view for livestock.  

PubMed

The mammalian oviduct has long been recognized as an organ essential for successful reproduction. Bovine, ovine, porcine, and equine animal models have offered clear advantages for oviduct study related to gamete physiology, fertilization, and early embryonic development. Livestock species are amenable to surgical alteration of the reproductive tract, estrous cycle manipulation, gamete cryopreservation, and AI, as well as in vitro fertilization and embryo production. Although most reproductive technology developed for livestock was intended to benefit production animal agriculture, these techniques are a treasure trove of tools for researchers to better understand how the oviduct influences gamete function. Oviduct secretions obtained from in vitro tissue cultures or via indwelling oviduct catheters have been used for analyses to define the protein, lipid, carbohydrate, enzyme, and electrolyte compositions of the secretions during the estrous cycle or in response to hormone treatment. Oviduct secretions or components purified from them have also been used in in vitro assays to assess their ability to bind to sperm, influence sperm viability, motility, sperm capacitation, the acrosome reaction, sperm-egg binding, and egg penetration, as well as subsequent embryonic development. Compelling data have emerged which show that the composition of secretions differs during the estrous cycle and that their composition differs whether they originate from the ampullary or isthmic regions of the oviduct. These differences in composition are functionally relevant and associated with different responses by sperm. Evidence indicatess that oviduct-specific glycoproteins, glycosaminoglycans, carbohydrates, norepinepherine, catecholamines, heat-shock protein, and osteopontin are components of the oviductal milieu that have the capacity to modulate sperm function. Future research on the livestock oviduct will likely define the role that oviduct secretions have in modulating sperm function and how these modifications ultimately affect fertilization and embryo development. PMID:20935135

Killian, G

2011-05-01

57

Tripeptidyl peptidase II regulates sperm function by modulating intracellular Ca(2+) stores via the ryanodine receptor.  

PubMed

Recent studies have identified Ca(2+) stores in sperm cells; however, it is not clear whether these Ca(2+) stores are functional and how they are mobilized. Here, in vitro and in vivo, we determined that tripeptidyl peptidase II antagonists strongly activated the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway that drives sperm capacitation-associated protein tyrosine phosphorylation. We demonstrated that in the absence of Ca(2+), TPIII antagonists elevated the intracellular Ca(2+) levels in sperm, resulting in a marked improvement in sperm movement, capacitation, acrosome reaction, and the in vitro fertilizing ability. This antagonist-induced release of intracellular Ca(2+) could be blocked by the inhibitors of ryanodine receptors (RyRs) which are the main intracellular Ca(2+) channels responsible for releasing stored Ca(2+). Consistent with these results, indirect immunofluorescence assay using anti-RyR antibodies further validated the presence of RyR3 in the acrosomal region of mature sperm. Thus, TPPII can regulate sperm maturation by modulating intracellular Ca(2+) stores via the type 3 RyR. PMID:23818952

Zhou, Yuchuan; Ru, Yanfei; Wang, Chunmei; Wang, Shoulin; Zhou, Zuomin; Zhang, Yonglian

2013-01-01

58

Cytotoxic Effects of Benzene Metabolites on Human Sperm Function: An In Vitro Study  

PubMed Central

In recent years, individuals are rampantly exposed to vapours of benzene, through paint, plastic, petroleum industries, fuel exhaust, and tobacco smoke. Hence the present investigation was directed towards determining the effect of benzene metabolites, namely, phenol-hydroquinone and catechol, on the motility, viability, and nuclear integrity of the human spermatozoa. From the results obtained it was clear that exposure to phenol-hydroquinone caused a significant decline in both, sperm motility and viability. Exposure to a phenol-hydroquinone (Phase I) microenvironment may therefore inhibit metabolically active enzymes, thus impeding ATP production, and in turn lowers sperm motility and viability. In addition, the present study also revealed that both metabolites of benzene caused significant denaturation of sperm nuclear DNA. Hence, exposure to phenol-hydroquinone in vitro could have resulted in generation of free radicals and altered membrane function, which is reflected by a decline in the motility, viability, and loss of sperm nuclear DNA integrity. In Phase II, the exposure of human sperm in vitro to varied concentrations of catechol caused only insignificant changes in sperm motility and viability as compared to those observed on exposure to phenol-hydroquinone. Hence, exposure to catechol appeared to have less toxic effects than those of phenol-hydroquinone.

Mandani, Priyanka; Desai, Ketki; Highland, Hyacinth

2013-01-01

59

Cytotoxic effects of benzene metabolites on human sperm function: an in vitro study.  

PubMed

In recent years, individuals are rampantly exposed to vapours of benzene, through paint, plastic, petroleum industries, fuel exhaust, and tobacco smoke. Hence the present investigation was directed towards determining the effect of benzene metabolites, namely, phenol-hydroquinone and catechol, on the motility, viability, and nuclear integrity of the human spermatozoa. From the results obtained it was clear that exposure to phenol-hydroquinone caused a significant decline in both, sperm motility and viability. Exposure to a phenol-hydroquinone (Phase I) microenvironment may therefore inhibit metabolically active enzymes, thus impeding ATP production, and in turn lowers sperm motility and viability. In addition, the present study also revealed that both metabolites of benzene caused significant denaturation of sperm nuclear DNA. Hence, exposure to phenol-hydroquinone in vitro could have resulted in generation of free radicals and altered membrane function, which is reflected by a decline in the motility, viability, and loss of sperm nuclear DNA integrity. In Phase II, the exposure of human sperm in vitro to varied concentrations of catechol caused only insignificant changes in sperm motility and viability as compared to those observed on exposure to phenol-hydroquinone. Hence, exposure to catechol appeared to have less toxic effects than those of phenol-hydroquinone. PMID:24416599

Mandani, Priyanka; Desai, Ketki; Highland, Hyacinth

2013-01-01

60

Sperm parameters and epididymis function in transgenic rats overexpressing the Ca2+-binding protein regucalcin: a hidden role for Ca2+ in sperm maturation?  

PubMed

Sperm undergo maturation acquiring progressive motility and the ability to fertilize oocytes through exposure to the components of the epididymal fluid (EF). Although the establishment of a calcium (Ca(2+)) gradient along the epididymis has been described, its direct effects on epididymal function remain poorly explored. Regucalcin (RGN) is a Ca(2+)-binding protein, regulating the activity of Ca(2+)-channels and Ca(2+)-ATPase, for which a role in male reproductive function has been suggested. This study aimed at comparing the morphology, assessed by histological analysis, and function of epididymis, by analysis of sperm parameters, antioxidant potential and Ca(2+) fluxes, between transgenic rats overexpressing RGN (Tg-RGN) and their wild-type littermates. Tg-RGN animals displayed an altered morphology of epididymis and lower sperm counts and motility. Tissue incubation with (45)Ca(2+) showed also that epididymis of Tg-RGN displayed a diminished rate of Ca(2+)-influx, indicating unbalanced Ca(2+) concentrations in the epididymal lumen. Sperm viability and the frequency of normal sperm, determined by the one-step eosin-nigrosin staining technique and the Diff-Quik staining method, respectively, were higher in Tg-RGN. Moreover, sperm of Tg-RGN rats showed a diminished incidence of tail defects. Western blot analysis demonstrated the presence of RGN in EF as well as its higher expression in the corpus region. The results presented herein demonstrated the importance of maintaining Ca(2+)-levels in the epididymal lumen and suggest a role for RGN in sperm maturation. Overall, a new insight into the molecular mechanisms driving epididymal sperm maturation was obtained, which could be relevant to development of better approaches in male infertility treatment and contraception. PMID:23615721

Correia, S; Oliveira, P F; Guerreiro, P M; Lopes, G; Alves, M G; Canário, A V M; Cavaco, J E; Socorro, Sílvia

2013-09-01

61

Testes mass, but not sperm length, increases with higher levels of polyandry in an ancient sex model.  

PubMed

There is strong evidence that polyandrous taxa have evolved relatively larger testes than monogamous relatives. Sperm size may either increase or decrease across species with the risk or intensity of sperm competition. Scorpions represent an ancient direct mode with spermatophore-mediated sperm transfer and are particularly well suited for studies in sperm competition. This work aims to analyze for the first time the variables affecting testes mass, ejaculate volume and sperm length, according with their levels of polyandry, in species belonging to the Neotropical family Bothriuridae. Variables influencing testes mass and sperm length were obtained by model selection analysis using corrected Akaike Information Criterion. Testes mass varied greatly among the seven species analyzed, ranging from 1.6±1.1 mg in Timogenes dorbignyi to 16.3±4.5 mg in Brachistosternus pentheri with an average of 8.4±5.0 mg in all the species. The relationship between testes mass and body mass was not significant. Body allocation in testes mass, taken as Gonadosomatic Index, was high in Bothriurus cordubensis and Brachistosternus ferrugineus and low in Timogenes species. The best-fitting model for testes mass considered only polyandry as predictor with a positive influence. Model selection showed that body mass influenced sperm length negatively but after correcting for body mass, none of the variables analyzed explained sperm length. Both body mass and testes mass influenced spermatophore volume positively. There was a strong phylogenetic effect on the model containing testes mass. As predicted by the sperm competition theory and according to what happens in other arthropods, testes mass increased in species with higher levels of sperm competition, and influenced positively spermatophore volume, but data was not conclusive for sperm length. PMID:24736525

Vrech, David E; Olivero, Paola A; Mattoni, Camilo I; Peretti, Alfredo V

2014-01-01

62

Testes Mass, but Not Sperm Length, Increases with Higher Levels of Polyandry in an Ancient Sex Model  

PubMed Central

There is strong evidence that polyandrous taxa have evolved relatively larger testes than monogamous relatives. Sperm size may either increase or decrease across species with the risk or intensity of sperm competition. Scorpions represent an ancient direct mode with spermatophore-mediated sperm transfer and are particularly well suited for studies in sperm competition. This work aims to analyze for the first time the variables affecting testes mass, ejaculate volume and sperm length, according with their levels of polyandry, in species belonging to the Neotropical family Bothriuridae. Variables influencing testes mass and sperm length were obtained by model selection analysis using corrected Akaike Information Criterion. Testes mass varied greatly among the seven species analyzed, ranging from 1.6±1.1 mg in Timogenes dorbignyi to 16.3±4.5 mg in Brachistosternus pentheri with an average of 8.4±5.0 mg in all the species. The relationship between testes mass and body mass was not significant. Body allocation in testes mass, taken as Gonadosomatic Index, was high in Bothriurus cordubensis and Brachistosternus ferrugineus and low in Timogenes species. The best-fitting model for testes mass considered only polyandry as predictor with a positive influence. Model selection showed that body mass influenced sperm length negatively but after correcting for body mass, none of the variables analyzed explained sperm length. Both body mass and testes mass influenced spermatophore volume positively. There was a strong phylogenetic effect on the model containing testes mass. As predicted by the sperm competition theory and according to what happens in other arthropods, testes mass increased in species with higher levels of sperm competition, and influenced positively spermatophore volume, but data was not conclusive for sperm length.

Vrech, David E.; Olivero, Paola A.; Mattoni, Camilo I.; Peretti, Alfredo V.

2014-01-01

63

Reactive oxygen species and sperm function--in sickness and in health.  

PubMed

The ability of spermatozoa to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been appreciated since the 1940s. It is a universal property of mature spermatozoa from all mammalian species and a major contributor to the oxidative stress responsible for defective sperm function. The mechanisms by which oxidative stress limits the functional competence of mammalian spermatozoa involve the peroxidation of lipids, the induction of oxidative DNA damage, and the formation of protein adducts. ROS production in these cells involves electron leakage from the sperm mitochondria, triggered by a multitude of factors that impede electron flow along the electron transport chain. The net result of mitochondrial ROS generation is to damage these organelles and initiate an intrinsic apoptotic cascade, as a consequence of which spermatozoa lose their motility, DNA integrity, and vitality. This pathway of programmed senescence also results in the exteriorization of phosphatidylserine, which may facilitate the silent phagocytosis of these cells in the aftermath of insemination, in turn influencing the female tract immune response to sperm antigens and future fertility. Despite the vulnerability of sperm to oxidative stress, it is also clear that normal sperm function depends on low levels of ROS generation in order to promote the signal transduction pathways associated with capacitation. Modulators of ROS generation by spermatozoa may therefore have clinical utility in regulating the fertilizing capacity of these cells and preventing the development of antisperm immunity. Achievement of these objectives will require a systematic evaluation of pro- and antioxidant strategies in vivo and in vitro. PMID:22879525

Aitken, R John; Jones, Keith T; Robertson, Sarah A

2012-01-01

64

Clinical and Consumer Trial Performance of a Sensitive Immunodiagnostic Home Test That Qualitatively Detects Low Concentrations of Sperm Following Vasectomy  

PubMed Central

Purpose Compliance with post-vasectomy semen analysis could be improved with the availability of a simple, rapid and accurate home test. SpermCheck Vasectomy®, a highly sensitive lateral flow immunochromatographic diagnostic device, was designed to detect extreme oligospermia or azoospermia in men after vasectomy. We report the results of clinical and consumer testing of SpermCheck. Materials and Methods A prospective, noncomparative observational study assessed the ability of SpermCheck Vasectomy to predict post-vasectomy sperm counts obtained using a hemacytometer procedure based on standard World Health Organization methodology. Consumer studies evaluated ease of use. Results A cohort of 144 post-vasectomy semen samples was tested in the clinical trial. SpermCheck was 96% accurate in predicting whether sperm counts were greater or less than a threshold of 250,000 sperm per ml, a level associated with little or no risk of pregnancy. Sensitivity was 93% (95% CI 79% to 98%) and specificity was 97% (91% to 99%). The positive predictive value of the test was 93% (79% to 98%), and most importantly the negative predictive value was 97% (91% to 99%). The test gave a positive result 100% of the time at sperm concentrations of 385,000/ml or greater. Consumer studies with 109 lay volunteers showed that SpermCheck was easy to use. Volunteers obtained the correct or expected test result in every case and the correct response rate on a 20 question survey about the test was 97%. Conclusions SpermCheck Vasectomy, a simple and reliable immunodiagnostic test that can provide evidence of vasectomy success or failure, offers a useful alternative to improve compliance with post-vasectomy sperm monitoring. It is currently the only Food and Drug Administration approved test for this purpose.

Klotz, Kenneth L.; Coppola, Michael A.; Labrecque, Michel; Brugh, Victor M.; Ramsey, Kim; Kim, Kyung-ah; Conaway, Mark R.; Howards, Stuart S.; Flickinger, Charles J.; Herr, John C.

2009-01-01

65

Flow cytometry for the assessment of animal sperm integrity and functionality: state of the art  

PubMed Central

Flow cytometry is now a recognized methodology within animal spermatology, and has moved from being a research tool to become routine in the assessment of animal semen destined to breeding. The availability of ‘bench-top' flow cytometers and of newer and versatile markers for cell structure and function had allowed the instrumentation to measure more sperm parameters, from viability to reactiveness when exposed to exogenous stimuli, and to increase our capabilities to sort spermatozoa for potential fertilizing capacity, or chromosomal sex. The present review summarizes the state of the art regarding flow cytometry applied to animal andrology, albeit keeping an open comparative intent. It critically evaluates the present and future capabilities of flow cytometry for the diagnostics of potential fertility and for the development of current reproductive technologies such as sperm freezing, sperm selection and sperm sorting. The flow cytometry methods will probably further revolutionize our understanding of the sperm physiology and their functionality, and will undoubtedly extend its application in isolating many uncharacterized features of spermatozoa. However, continuous follow-up of the methods is a necessity owing to technical developments and the complexity of mapping spermatozoa.

Hossain, Md. Sharoare; Johannisson, Anders; Wallgren, Margareta; Nagy, Szabolcs; Siqueira, Amanda Pimenta; Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto

2011-01-01

66

Impact of obesity on male fertility, sperm function and molecular composition  

PubMed Central

Male obesity in reproductive-age men has nearly tripled in the past 30 y and coincides with an increase in male infertility worldwide. There is now emerging evidence that male obesity impacts negatively on male reproductive potential not only reducing sperm quality, but in particular altering the physical and molecular structure of germ cells in the testes and ultimately mature sperm. Recent data has shown that male obesity also impairs offspring metabolic and reproductive health suggesting that paternal health cues are transmitted to the next generation with the mediator mostly likely occurring via the sperm. Interestingly the molecular profile of germ cells in the testes and sperm from obese males is altered with changes to epigenetic modifiers. The increasing prevalence of male obesity calls for better public health awareness at the time of conception, with a better understanding of the molecular mechanism involved during spermatogenesis required along with the potential of interventions in reversing these deleterious effects. This review will focus on how male obesity affects fertility and sperm quality with a focus on proposed mechanisms and the potential reversibility of these adverse effects.

Palmer, Nicole O.; Bakos, Hassan W.; Fullston, Tod; Lane, Michelle

2012-01-01

67

A common mutation in the defensin DEFB126 causes impaired sperm function and subfertility.  

PubMed

A glycosylated polypeptide, ?-defensin 126 (DEFB126), derived from the epididymis and adsorbed onto the sperm surface, has been implicated in immunoprotection and efficient movement of sperm in mucosal fluids of the female reproductive tract. Here, we report a sequence variant in DEFB126 that has a two-nucleotide deletion in the open reading frame, which generates an abnormal mRNA. The allele frequency of this variant sequence was high in both a European (0.47) and a Chinese (0.45) population cohort. Binding of the Agaricus bisporus lectin to the sperm surface glycocalyx was significantly lower in men with the homozygous variant (del/del) genotype than in those with either a del/wt or a wt/wt genotype, suggesting an altered sperm glycocalyx with fewer O-linked oligosaccharides in del/del men. Moreover, sperm from del/del carriers exhibited an 84% reduction in the rate of penetration of a hyaluronic acid gel, a surrogate for cervical mucus, compared to the other genotypes. This reduction in sperm performance in hyaluronic acid gels was not a result of decreased progressive motility (average curvilinear velocity) or morphological deficits. Nevertheless, DEFB126 genotype and lectin binding were correlated with sperm performance in the penetration assays. In a prospective cohort study of newly married couples who were trying to conceive by natural means, couples were less likely to become pregnant and took longer to achieve a live birth if the male partner was homozygous for the variant sequence. This common sequence variation in DEFB126, and its apparent effect of impaired reproductive function, will allow a better understanding, clinical evaluation, and possibly treatment of human infertility. PMID:21775668

Tollner, Theodore L; Venners, Scott A; Hollox, Edward J; Yudin, Ashley I; Liu, Xue; Tang, Genfu; Xing, Houxun; Kays, Robert J; Lau, Tsang; Overstreet, James W; Xu, Xiping; Bevins, Charles L; Cherr, Gary N

2011-07-20

68

Methyl-parathion decreases sperm function and fertilization capacity after targeting spermatocytes and maturing spermatozoa  

SciTech Connect

Paternal germline exposure to organophosphorous pesticides (OP) has been associated with reproductive failures and adverse effects in the offspring. Methyl parathion (Me-Pa), a worldwide-used OP, has reproductive adverse effects and is genotoxic to sperm. Oxidative damage has been involved in the genotoxic and reproductive effects of OP. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of Me-Pa on spermatozoa function and ability to fertilize. Male mice were exposed to Me-Pa (20 mg/kg bw, i.p.) and spermatozoa from epididymis-vas deferens were collected at 7 or 28 days post-treatment (dpt) to assess the effects on maturing spermatozoa and spermatocytes, respectively. DNA damage was evaluated by nick translation (NT-positive cells) and SCSA (percentDFI); lipoperoxidation (LPO) by malondialdehyde production; sperm function by spontaneous- and induced-acrosome reactions (AR); mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) by using the JC-1 flurochrome; and, fertilization ability by an in vitro assay and in vivo mating. Results showed alterations in DNA integrity (percentDFI and NT-positive cells) at 7 and 28 dpt, in addition to decreased sperm quality and a decrease in induced-AR; reduced MMP and LPO was observed only at 7 dpt. We found negative correlations between LPO and all sperm alterations. Altered sperm functional parameters were associated with reduced fertilization rates at both times, evaluated either in vitro or in vivo. These results show that Me-Pa exposure of maturing spermatozoa and spermatocytes affects many sperm functional parameters that result in a decreased fertilizing capacity. Oxidative stress seems to be a likely mechanism ofthe detrimental effects of Me-Pa in male germ cells.

Pina-Guzman, Belem; Sanchez-Gutierrez, M.; Marchetti, Francesco; Hernandez-Ochoa, I.; Solis-Heredia, M.J .; Quintanilla-Vega, B.

2009-05-03

69

A Common Mutation in DEFB126 Causes Impaired Sperm Function and Subfertility  

PubMed Central

A glycosylated polypeptide, ?-defensin 126 (DEFB126), derived from the epididymis and adsorbed onto the sperm surface, has been implicated in immunoprotection and efficient movement of sperm in mucosal fluids of the female reproductive tract. Here, we report a sequence variant in DEFB126 that has a 2-nucleotide deletion in the open reading frame, which generates a non-stop mRNA. The allele frequency of this variant sequence is high in both a European (0.47) and a Chinese (0.45) population cohort. Binding of the Agaricus bisporus lectin to the sperm surface glycocalyx was significantly lower in men with the homozygous variant (del/del) genotype than in those with either a del/wt or wt/wt genotype, suggesting an altered sperm glycocalyx with fewer O-linked oligosaccharides in del/del men. Moreover, sperm from the del/del donors exhibited an 84% reduction in the rate of penetration of a hyaluronic acid (HA) gel, a surrogate for cervical mucus, compared to the other genotypes. This reduction in sperm performance in HA gels was not a result of decreased progressive motility (average curvilinear velocity) or morphological deficits. However, DEFB126 genotype and lectin binding were highly correlated with performance in the penetration assays. In a prospective cohort study of newly married couples who were trying to conceive by natural means, couples were less likely to become pregnant and took longer to achieve a live birth if the male partner was homozygous for the variant sequence. This common sequence variation in DEFB126, and its apparent cause of impaired reproductive function, provides an opportunity to better understand, clinically evaluate, and possibly treat human infertility.

Tollner, Theodore L.; Venners, Scott A.; Hollox, Edward J.; Yudin, Ashley I.; Liu, Xue; Tang, Genfu; Xing, Houxun; Kays, Robert J.; Lau, Tsang; Overstreet, James W.; Xu, Xiping; Bevins, Charles L.; Cherr, Gary N.

2013-01-01

70

Semen Quality and Sperm Function Loss by Hypercholesterolemic Diet Was Recovered by Addition of Olive Oil to Diet in Rabbit  

PubMed Central

Fat increment (0.05% cholesterol, chol) in standard diet promoted a significant increase in serum and sperm membrane chol, which ultimately altered membrane-coupled sperm specific functions: osmotic resistance, acrosomal reaction, and sperm capacitation in White New Zealand rabbits. These changes were also associated with a reduction in motility percentage and appearance of abnormal sperm morphology. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of dietary olive oil (OO, 7% v/w) administration to several male hypercholesterolemic rabbits (hypercholesterolemic rabbits, HCR) with altered fertility parameters. These HCR males were achieved by feeding normal rabbits with a high-fat diet (0.05% chol). HCR were associated with a modest non-significant increase in body weight (standard diet, 4.08±0.17 Kg, versus high-fat diet, 4.37±0.24 Kg). Hypercholesterolemic rabbits presented a marked decrease in semen volume, sperm cell count, and percentage of sperm motility, associated with a significant increase in sperm cell abnormalities. Moreover, sperm capacitation measured by the characteristic phosphorylated protein pattern in and induced acrosomal reaction were also altered suggesting sperm dysfunction. However, the administration of OO (for 16 weeks) to rabbits that were fed with 50% of the high-fat diet normalized serum chol. Curiously, OO supply succeeded to attenuate the seminal and sperm alterations observed in HCR group. Administration of OO alone did not cause any significant changes in above mentioned parameters. These data suggest that OO administration to HCR male rabbits recovers the loss of semen quality and sperm functionality.

Romero, Aida A.; Funes, Abi K.; Cid-Barria, Macarena; Cabrillana, Maria E.; Monclus, Maria A.; Simon, Layla; Vicenti, Amanda E.; Fornes, Miguel W.

2013-01-01

71

Semen quality and sperm function loss by hypercholesterolemic diet was recovered by addition of olive oil to diet in rabbit.  

PubMed

Fat increment (0.05% cholesterol, chol) in standard diet promoted a significant increase in serum and sperm membrane chol, which ultimately altered membrane-coupled sperm specific functions: osmotic resistance, acrosomal reaction, and sperm capacitation in White New Zealand rabbits. These changes were also associated with a reduction in motility percentage and appearance of abnormal sperm morphology. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of dietary olive oil (OO, 7% v/w) administration to several male hypercholesterolemic rabbits (hypercholesterolemic rabbits, HCR) with altered fertility parameters. These HCR males were achieved by feeding normal rabbits with a high-fat diet (0.05% chol). HCR were associated with a modest non-significant increase in body weight (standard diet, 4.08±0.17 Kg, versus high-fat diet, 4.37±0.24 Kg). Hypercholesterolemic rabbits presented a marked decrease in semen volume, sperm cell count, and percentage of sperm motility, associated with a significant increase in sperm cell abnormalities. Moreover, sperm capacitation measured by the characteristic phosphorylated protein pattern in and induced acrosomal reaction were also altered suggesting sperm dysfunction. However, the administration of OO (for 16 weeks) to rabbits that were fed with 50% of the high-fat diet normalized serum chol. Curiously, OO supply succeeded to attenuate the seminal and sperm alterations observed in HCR group. Administration of OO alone did not cause any significant changes in above mentioned parameters. These data suggest that OO administration to HCR male rabbits recovers the loss of semen quality and sperm functionality. PMID:23326331

Saez Lancellotti, Tania E; Boarelli, Paola V; Romero, Aida A; Funes, Abi K; Cid-Barria, Macarena; Cabrillana, María E; Monclus, María A; Simón, Layla; Vicenti, Amanda E; Fornés, Miguel W

2013-01-01

72

Human sperm competition: ejaculate adjustment by males and the function of masturbation (1993)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sperm competition theory argues that the number of sperm inseminated into a female by a male is a trade-off between two opposing pressures. On the one hand, the risk that sperm may find themselves in competition with the sperm from another male favours the male inseminating more sperm. On the other hand, ejaculates are costly to produce and males are

R. Robin Baker; Mark A. Bellis

73

Multivariate analysis of male reproductive function in Inpp5b?/? mice reveals heterogeneity in defects in fertility, sperm-egg membrane interaction and proteolytic cleavage of sperm ADAMs  

PubMed Central

Past work indicated that sperm from mice deficient in the inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase Inpp5b have reduced ability to fertilize eggs in vitro and reduced epididymal proteolytic processing of the sperm protein A Disintegrin and A Metalloprotease 2 (ADAM2). On the basis of these data, our central working hypothesis was that reduced ADAM cleavage would correlate with reduced sperm–egg binding and fusion and in turn with reduced male fertility in Inpp5b?/? mice. Multiple endpoints of reproductive functions [mating trials, in vitro fertilization (IVF) assays and ADAM2 and ADAM3 cleavage] were investigated on a male-by-male basis, with pair-wise correlation analysis used to assess the relationships between these various parameters. Motile sperm from Inpp5b?/? mice showed significantly reduced fertilization of zona pellucida-free eggs due to reduced binding to the egg plasma membrane and subsequent fusion. Localization of a mouse sperm protein required for gamete fusion, IZUMO1, appears normal in Inpp5b-null sperm. To our surprise and differing from previous reports, we found that ADAM cleavage was only modestly impaired in numerous Inpp5b-null males and varied between individual animals. Performance in mating trials also differed from past reports. The pair-wise correlation analysis revealed that ADAM2 and ADAM3 cleavage was positively correlated, suggesting that processing of these proteins occurs by related/identical mechanisms, but otherwise, there were few correlations between the reproductive endpoints examined here. Nevertheless, this work provides detailed analysis of the Inpp5b?/? phenotype and also a blueprint for multivariate analysis to examine relationships between molecular characteristics and in vitro and in vivo physiological functions.

Marcello, Matthew R.; Evans, Janice P.

2010-01-01

74

Multivariate analysis of male reproductive function in Inpp5b-/- mice reveals heterogeneity in defects in fertility, sperm-egg membrane interaction and proteolytic cleavage of sperm ADAMs.  

PubMed

Past work indicated that sperm from mice deficient in the inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase Inpp5b have reduced ability to fertilize eggs in vitro and reduced epididymal proteolytic processing of the sperm protein A Disintegrin and A Metalloprotease 2 (ADAM2). On the basis of these data, our central working hypothesis was that reduced ADAM cleavage would correlate with reduced sperm-egg binding and fusion and in turn with reduced male fertility in Inpp5b(-/-) mice. Multiple endpoints of reproductive functions [mating trials, in vitro fertilization (IVF) assays and ADAM2 and ADAM3 cleavage] were investigated on a male-by-male basis, with pair-wise correlation analysis used to assess the relationships between these various parameters. Motile sperm from Inpp5b(-/-) mice showed significantly reduced fertilization of zona pellucida-free eggs due to reduced binding to the egg plasma membrane and subsequent fusion. Localization of a mouse sperm protein required for gamete fusion, IZUMO1, appears normal in Inpp5b-null sperm. To our surprise and differing from previous reports, we found that ADAM cleavage was only modestly impaired in numerous Inpp5b-null males and varied between individual animals. Performance in mating trials also differed from past reports. The pair-wise correlation analysis revealed that ADAM2 and ADAM3 cleavage was positively correlated, suggesting that processing of these proteins occurs by related/identical mechanisms, but otherwise, there were few correlations between the reproductive endpoints examined here. Nevertheless, this work provides detailed analysis of the Inpp5b(-/-) phenotype and also a blueprint for multivariate analysis to examine relationships between molecular characteristics and in vitro and in vivo physiological functions. PMID:20403911

Marcello, Matthew R; Evans, Janice P

2010-07-01

75

Variation in paternity in the field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus: no detectable influence of sperm numbers or sperm length  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent attention has focused on the role that sperm competition may play in the evolution of sperm morphology. Theoretical analyses predict increased sperm size, decreased sperm size, and no change in sperm size in response to sperm competition, depending on the assumptions made concerning the life history and function of sperm. However, although there is good evidence that sperm morphology

Leigh W. Simmons; Julie Wernham; Francisco Garci´a-Gonza´lez; Dan Kamien

2003-01-01

76

Integrated and independent evolution of heteromorphic sperm types.  

PubMed

Sperm are a simple cell type with few components, yet they exhibit tremendous between-species morphological variation in those components thought to reflect selection in different fertilization environments. However, within a species, sperm components are expected to be selected to be functionally integrated for optimal fertilization of eggs. Here, we take advantage of within-species variation in sperm form and function to test whether sperm components are functionally and genetically integrated both within and between sperm morphologies using a quantitative genetics approach. Drosophila pseudoobscura males produce two sperm types with different functions but which positively interact together in the same fertilization environment; the long eusperm fertilizes eggs and the short parasperm appear to protect eusperm from a hostile female reproductive tract. Our analysis found that all sperm traits were heritable, but short sperm components exhibited evolvabilities 10 times that of long sperm components. Genetic correlations indicated functional integration within, but not between, sperm morphs. These results suggest that sperm, despite sharing a common developmental process, can become developmentally and functionally non-integrated, evolving into separate modules with the potential for rapid and independent responses to selection. PMID:24004938

Moore, Allen J; Bacigalupe, Leonardo D; Snook, Rhonda R

2013-10-22

77

Proteomics in the study of the sperm cell composition, differentiation and function.  

PubMed

A first step in the characterization of cellular functions is the identification of the proteins involved. The spermatozoon is an accessible cell that is particularly suited for analysis and indeed it was one of the first cells from which proteins were identified. An important advance in the identification of the protein composition of the spermatozoa was accomplished in the past using electrophoresis separation methods and protein sequencing with the Edmman procedure. However the recent developments in mass spectrometry have boosted the potential for the identification and study of sperm proteins. Catalogs of thousands of spermatozoan proteins in human and in model species are becoming available setting up the basis for subsequent research, diagnostic applications and development of specific treatments. The present article reviews the available scientific publications dealing with the composition and function of the sperm cell using a mass spectrometry proteomic approach. PMID:18543863

Oliva, Rafael; Martínez-Heredia, Juan; Estanyol, Josep Maria

2008-01-01

78

Capacitation-dependent reorganization of microdomains in the apical sperm head plasma membrane: Functional relationship with zona binding and the zona-induced acrosome reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

For sperm to successfully fertilize an oocyte, it needs to pass through certain steps prior to, during and after initial recognition of the zona pellucida (ZP). During capacitation, the surface of the sperm head becomes remodelled, priming it to bind to the ZP and subsequently to undergo the ZP-induced acrosome reaction. During capacitation, sperm ZP-binding proteins are ordered in functional

A. Boerke; P. S. Tsai; N. Garcia-Gil; I. A. Brewis; B. M. Gadella

2008-01-01

79

Effect of oviductal proteins on sperm functions and lipid peroxidation levels during cryopreservation in buffaloes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was undertaken to find out the effect of addition of oviductal proteins on sperm functions and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels in buffaloes. Oviductal flushings were collected from apparently healthy buffalo genital tracts (nonluteal and luteal stage of estrous cycle), centrifuged (3000rpm; 30min), filtered (0.2?m) and frozen at ?20°C. The proteins in pooled nonluteal and luteal oviductal fluid were

A. Kumaresan; M. R. Ansari; Abhishek Garg; Meena Kataria

2006-01-01

80

Boar sperm functionality is related to ?-tocopherol content after freezing-thawing.  

PubMed

Boar spermatozoa are sensitive to oxidative damage produced during cryopreservation. Our aim was to evaluate the participation of different antioxidants in the improvement of cryopreserved boar sperm functionality. Spermatozoa frozen with 200 ?g ml(-1) ?-tocopherol, 0.5 mm 17?-oestradiol or seminal plasma were used to evaluate sperm parameters and capacitation-like changes. The 17?-oestradiol and ?-tocopherol concentrations were assessed by RIA and HPLC respectively. Motility was improved but lipid peroxidation and capacitation-like changes were diminished (P < 0.05) in antioxidant samples. A significant increase in 17?-oestradiol concentration was detected in 17?-oestradiol or seminal plasma samples. Alpha-tocopherol content increased in ?-tocopherol, 17?-oestradiol or seminal plasma samples, obtaining the lowest level in the ?-tocopherol ones. The 17?-oestradiol or seminal plasma components may be acting in the regeneration of the ?-tocopherol antioxidant capacity. The ?-tocopherol concentration may be conditioning the cryopreserved boar sperm functionality. The addition of antioxidants could be useful to reduce oxidative stress, thus improving the functionality of cryopreserved boar spermatozoa. PMID:21486419

Breininger, E; Descalzo, A; Rossetti, L; Abramovich, D; Beconi, M T

2011-12-01

81

Expansion and functional diversification of a leucyl aminopeptidase family that encodes the major protein constituents of Drosophila sperm  

PubMed Central

Background The evolutionary diversification of gene families through gene creation (and loss) is a dynamic process believed to be critical to the evolution of functional novelty. Previous identification of a closely related family of eight annotated metalloprotease genes of the M17 Merops family in the Drosophila sperm proteome (termed, Sperm-LeucylAminoPeptidases, S-LAPs 1-8) led us to hypothesize that this gene family may have experienced such a diversification during insect evolution. Results To assess putative functional activities of S-LAPs, we (i) demonstrated that all S-LAPs are specifically expressed in the testis, (ii) confirmed their presence in sperm by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, (iii) determined that they represent a major portion of the total protein in sperm and (iv) identified aminopeptidase enzymatic activity in sperm extracts using LAP-specific substrates. Functionally significant divergence at the canonical M17 active site indicates that the largest phylogenetic group of S-LAPs lost catalytic activity and likely acquired novel, as yet undetermined, functions in sperm prior to the expansion of the gene family. Conclusions Comparative genomic and phylogenetic analyses revealed the dramatic expansion of the S-LAP gene family during Drosophila evolution and copy number heterogeneity in the genomes of related insects. This finding, in conjunction with the loss of catalytic activity and potential neofunctionalization amongst some family members, extends empirical support for pervasive "revolving door" turnover in the evolution of reproductive gene family composition and function.

2011-01-01

82

Acridine Orange Test for Assessment of Human Sperm DNA Integrity  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Acridine orange test (AOT) is a simple microscopic procedure based on acid conditions to denaturant DNA followed by staining\\u000a with acridine orange. The AOT measures the metachromatic shift of AO fluorescence from green (native DNA) to red (denatured\\u000a DNA). Acridine Orange fluoresce green when it binds to native DNA and red when it binds to the fragmented DNA. Many authors

Alex C. Varghese; C. Fischer-Hammadeh; M. E. Hammadeh

83

Postnatal exposure of the male mouse to 2,2',3,3',4,4',5,5',6,6'-decabrominated diphenyl ether: decreased epididymal sperm functions without alterations in DNA content and histology in testis.  

PubMed

2,2',3,3',4,4',5,5',6,6'-Decabrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE 209) is the second most used brominated flame retardant (BFRs) in constructed materials because it is considered less toxic than others, though other fire retardants, some congeners of PBDE 209, are reported to be toxic. This combined the fact that PBDE 209 has been found in high levels in human milk, blood, indoor environments as well as in foodstuffs has led us in this study attempt to find out whether PBDE 209, also known as decaBDE and decabrominated diphenyl oxide (DBDPO), has an adverse effect on this histology of testes and sperm in CD-1 male mice. The mice we studied were divided into groups and gavaged with 10, 100, 500 and 1500 mg/kg PBDE 209 in corn oil per day between postnatal Days 21 and 70. On Day 71, the mice were anesthetized and sperm function, testis DNA content, and histopathology were studied. We found in the 500- and 1500-mg/kg/day groups that neonatal exposure to PBDE 209 reduced sperm epididymal sperm mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), reduced amplitude of the lateral head displacement (ALH) and induced the generation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the sperm of sexually mature male mice, without affecting the sperm count, motility, morphology, curvilinear velocity (VCL), angular progressive velocity (VAP), straight-line velocity (VSL), beat-cross frequency (BCF), sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA), superoxide anion (O2-*) generation, DNA content in testis cells, or testicular histopathology. ALH was positively associated with an increase in MMP and negatively associated with generation of sperm H2O2. The reduction of MMP was negatively associated with an increase in generation of sperm H2O2. The presence of the relationships between sperm ALH, MMP, and generation of H2O2 indicate toxic action possibly resulting from PBDE 209-induced oxidative stress. In conclusion, this is the first study to report the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) for sperm function to be 500 mg/kg of PBDE 209 in male mice. Decreased epididymal sperm MMP and ALH as well as induced generation of sperm H2O2 were some of the most serious effects of postnatal PBDE 209 exposure. Future investigations should be performed to study the effects of prenatal exposure of PBDE 209 and the mechanism behind PBDE 209-related oxidative stress in the fetal and pubertal stages of development. PMID:16713668

Tseng, Li-Ho; Lee, Chia-Wei; Pan, Min-Hsiung; Tsai, Shinn-Shong; Li, Mei-Hui; Chen, Jenq-Renn; Lay, Jiunn-Jyi; Hsu, Ping-Chi

2006-07-01

84

Role of Posttranslational Modifications in C. elegans and Ascaris Spermatogenesis and Sperm Function.  

PubMed

Generally, spermatogenesis and sperm function involve widespread posttranslational modification of regulatory proteins in many different species. Nematode spermatogenesis has been studied in detail, mostly by genetic/molecular genetic techniques in the free-living Caenorhabditis elegans and by biochemistry/cell biology in the pig parasite Ascaris suum. Like other nematodes, both of these species produce sperm that use a form of amoeboid motility termed crawling, and many aspects of spermatogenesis are likely to be similar in both species. Consequently, work in these two nematode species has been largely complementary. Work in C. elegans has identified a number of spermatogenesis-defective genes and, so far, 12 encode enzymes that are implicated as catalysts of posttranslational protein modification. Crawling motility involves extension of a single pseudopod and this process is powered by a unique cytoskeleton composed of Major Sperm Protein (MSP) and accessory proteins, instead of the more widely observed actin. In Ascaris, pseudopod extension and crawling motility can be reconstituted in vitro, and biochemical studies have begun to reveal how posttranslational protein modifications, including phosphorylation, dephosphorylation and proteolysis, participate in these processes. PMID:25030766

Miao, Long; L'Hernault, Steven W

2014-01-01

85

KIF3A is essential for sperm tail formation and manchette function.  

PubMed

KIF3A motor protein is responsible for intraflagellar transport, which is required for protein delivery during axoneme formation in ciliated cells. The function of KIF3A during spermatogenesis is not known. In this study, we show that depletion of KIF3A causes severe impairments in sperm tail formation and interestingly, it also affects manchette organization and the shaping of sperm heads. Our results demonstrate the analogy between the mechanisms governing the formation of cilia in somatic cells and the formation of spermatozoa-specific flagella. Furthermore, this study reveals KIF3A as an important regulator of spermatogenesis and emphasizes the crucial role of KIF3A in maintaining male fertility. We also identified several novel interacting partners for KIF3A, including meiosis-specific nuclear structural protein 1 (MNS1) that colocalizes with KIF3A in the manchette and principal piece of the sperm tail. This study highlights the essential role of KIF3A-mediated microtubular transport in the development of spermatozoa and male fertility. PMID:23831641

Lehti, Mari S; Kotaja, Noora; Sironen, Anu

2013-09-01

86

Reproductive effects of two neonicotinoid insecticides on mouse sperm function and early embryonic development in vitro.  

PubMed

Acetamiprid (ACE) and imidacloprid (IMI) are two major members in the family of neonicotinoid pesticides, which are synthesized with a higher selectivity to insects. The present study determined and compared in vitro effects of ACE, IMI and nicotine on mammalian reproduction by using an integrated testing strategy for reproductive toxicology, which covered sperm quality, sperm penetration into oocytes and preimplantation embryonic development. Direct chemical exposure (500 µM or 5 mM) on spermatozoa during capacitation was performed, and in vitro fertilization (IVF) process, zygotes and 2-cell embryos were respectively incubated with chemical-supplemented medium until blastocyst formation to evaluate the reproductive toxicity of these chemicals and monitor the stages mainly affected. Generally, treatment of 500 µM or 5 mM chemicals for 30 min did not change sperm motility and DNA integrity significantly but the fertilization ability in in vitro fertilization (IVF) process, indicating that IVF process could detect and distinguish subtle effect of spermatozoa exposed to different chemicals. Culture experiment in the presence of chemicals in medium showed that fertilization process and zygotes are adversely affected by direct exposure of chemicals (P<0.05), in an order of nicotine>IMI>ACE, whereas developmental progression of 2-cell stage embryos was similar to controls (P>0.05). These findings unveiled the hazardous effects of neonicotinoid pesticides exposure on mammalian sperm fertilization ability as well as embryonic development, raising the concerns that neonicotinoid pesticides may pose reproductive risks on human reproductive health, especially in professional populations. PMID:23922925

Gu, Yi-Hua; Li, Yan; Huang, Xue-Feng; Zheng, Ju-Fen; Yang, Jun; Diao, Hua; Yuan, Yao; Xu, Yan; Liu, Miao; Shi, Hui-Juan; Xu, Wen-Ping

2013-01-01

87

Pulmonary function tests  

MedlinePLUS

... of breath Measure whether exposure to chemicals at work affects lung function Check lung function before someone has surgery It ... the meaning of your specific test results. Different measurements ... tests include: Diffusion capacity to carbon monoxide (DLCO) ...

88

Ovarian Fluid Mediates the Temporal Decline in Sperm Viability in a Fish with Sperm Storage  

PubMed Central

A loss of sperm viability and functionality during sperm transfer and storage within the female reproductive tract can have important fitness implications by disrupting fertilization and impairing offspring development and survival. Consequently, mechanisms that mitigate the temporal decline in sperm function are likely to be important targets of selection. In many species, ovarian fluid is known to regulate and maintain sperm quality. In this paper, we use the guppy Poecilia reticulata, a highly polyandrous freshwater fish exhibiting internal fertilization and sperm storage, to determine whether ovarian fluid (OF) influences the decline in sperm viability (the proportion of live sperm in the ejaculate) over time and whether any observed effects depend on male sexual ornamentation. To address these questions we used a paired experimental design in which ejaculates from individual males were tested in vitro both in presence and absence of OF. Our results revealed that the temporal decline in sperm viability was significantly reduced in the presence of OF compared to a saline control. This finding raises the intriguing possibility that OF may play a role in mediating the decline in sperm quality due to the deleterious effects of sperm ageing, although other possible explanations for this observation are discussed. Interestingly, we also show that the age-related decline in sperm viability was contingent on male sexual ornamentation; males with relatively high levels of iridescence (indicating higher sexual attractiveness) exhibited a more pronounced decline in sperm viability over time than their less ornamented counterparts. This latter finding offers possible insights into the functional basis for the previously observed trade-off between these key components of pre- and postcopulatory sexual selection.

Gasparini, Clelia; Evans, Jonathan P.

2013-01-01

89

The effect of glycosaminoglycan enzymes and proteases on the viscosity of alpaca seminal plasma and sperm function.  

PubMed

In order to advance the development of cryopreservation and other assisted reproductive technologies in camelids it is necessary to eliminate the viscous component of the seminal plasma without impairing sperm function. It has been postulated that glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) or proteoglycans are responsible for this viscosity. This study investigated the effect of the GAG enzymes hyaluronidase, chondroitinase ABC and keratanase and the proteases papain and proteinase K on seminal plasma viscosity and sperm function in order to aid identification of the cause of seminal plasma viscosity and propose methods for the reduction of viscosity. Sperm motility, DNA integrity, acrosome integrity and viability were assessed during 2h incubation. All enzymes reduced seminal plasma viscosity compared to control (P<0.001) although papain was most effective, completely eliminating viscosity within 30 min of treatment. Sperm motility and DNA integrity was not affected by enzyme treatment. The proportion of viable, acrosome intact sperm was reduced in all enzyme treated samples except those treated with papain (P<0.001). These findings suggest that proteins, not GAGs are the main cause of alpaca seminal plasma viscosity. Papain treatment of alpaca semen may be a suitable technique for reduction of seminal plasma viscosity prior to sperm cryopreservation. PMID:23537479

Kershaw-Young, C M; Stuart, C; Evans, G; Maxwell, W M C

2013-05-01

90

Effects of freeze-drying on cytology, ultrastructure, DNA fragmentation, and fertilizing ability of bovine sperm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freeze-drying sperm is an alternative to cryopreservation. Although sperm from various species has been freeze-dried, there are few reports for bovine sperm. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of various freeze-drying media on the structural and functional components of bovine sperm. The media tested were composed of TCM 199 with Hanks salts supplemented with

C. F. Martins; S. N. Báo; M. N. Dode; G. A. Correa; R. Rumpf

2007-01-01

91

Mutations in a novel locus on mouse chromosome 11 resulting in male infertility associated with defects in microtubule assembly and sperm tail function.  

PubMed

Traditional gene knock-out approaches using homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells are routinely used to provide functional information about genes involved in reproduction. In the present study, we examined a novel approach using N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) together with a balancer chromosome mating strategy to identify new loci with functional roles in male fertility. Our genetic strategy is a forward-genetic approach; thus, our phenotypic investigation begins with the discovery of an abnormal phenotype without previous knowledge of the mutant locus. We isolated eight recessive mutations on chromosome 11 that resulted in male or female infertility from a screen of 184 founder pedigrees from ENU-treated males. After testing the six male infertile and two female infertile mutations for their ability to complement, we found that three independent recessive male infertile mutations failed to complement each other. The male infertility was associated with reduced epididymal sperm count, a block in late-spermatid differentiation, and increased apoptosis. Furthermore, the three male infertile mutants had severe defects in epididymal sperm morphology associated with incorrect microtubule assembly. Electron microscopy revealed unique defects in sperm head and tail morphology for each of the three alleles. One allele had an abnormal manchette assembly of the sperm head. The other two alleles had different abnormalities in the 9+2 patterning of the microtubules in the sperm tail axoneme, with one containing only five of the microtubule doublets and the other containing an extra doublet. The isolation of this allelic series identifies a new locus on mouse chromosome 11 that is required for spermiogenesis and male fertility. PMID:14711786

Clark, Amander T; Firozi, Karen; Justice, Monica J

2004-05-01

92

How is plasminogen/plasmin system contributing to regulate sperm entry into the oocyte?  

PubMed

Plasminogen is present in the oviduct, on the zona pellucida (ZP) and on oolemma, and reduces the number of sperm penetrating the oocyte during in vitro fertilization in pig and cow. It is unknown how this reduction occurs. We tested whether plasminogen (1) changed the ZP resistance to enzymatic digestion thus making the passage of the spermatozoa across it difficult; (2) reduced the sperm functionality, assessed by sperm viability, motility, spontaneous acrosome reaction and membrane lipid disorder; or (3) affected the sperm-ZP binding before or after sperm-ZP interaction. The mechanism by which plasminogen/plasmin system contributes to regulate sperm entry into the oocyte is not inducing a ZP hardening or a decrease in sperm functionality but detaching more than 50% of sperm bound to the ZP. It is suggested that the fertilizing spermatozoon activates plasminogen into plasmin at the oocyte surface and that plasmin removes additional spermatozoa attached to the ZP. PMID:23420828

Grullón, Luis A; Gadea, Joaquín; Mondéjar, Irene; Matás, Carmen; Romar, Raquel; Coy, Pilar

2013-09-01

93

Pulmonary Function Tests  

MedlinePLUS

... the technician know. Pulmonary function tests (PFT’s) are breathing tests to find out how well you move air in and out of your lungs and how well oxygen enters your body. The most common PFT’s are ...

94

Functional Task Test (FTT)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the Functional Task Test (FTT), an interdisciplinary testing regimen that has been developed to evaluate astronaut postflight functional performance and related physiological changes. The objectives of the project are: (1) to develop a set of functional tasks that represent critical mission tasks for the Constellation Program, (2) determine the ability to perform these tasks after space flight, (3) Identify the key physiological factors that contribute to functional decrements and (4) Use this information to develop targeted countermeasures.

Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Peters, Brian T.; Rescheke, Millard F.; Wood, Scott; Lawrence, Emily; Koffman, Igor; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Spiering, Barry A.; Feeback, Daniel L.; Platts, Steven H.; Stenger, Michael B.; Lee, Stuart M.C.; Arzeno, Natalia; Feiveson, Alan H.; Ryder, Jeffrey; Garcia, Yamil; Guilliams, Mark E.

2009-01-01

95

Thyroid Function Tests  

MedlinePLUS

... T4 TSH Thyroid 2 Thyroid Tests Why do health care providers perform thyroid tests? Health care providers perform thyroid tests to assess how well ... at www.endocrine.niddk.nih.gov. What blood tests do health care providers use to check a person’s thyroid function? ...

96

Functional characterization of a mouse testicular olfactory receptor and its role in chemosensing and in regulation of sperm motility.  

PubMed

Although a subset of the olfactory receptor (OR) gene family is expressed in testis, neither their developmental profile nor their physiological functions have been fully characterized. Here, we show that MOR23 (a mouse OR expressed in the olfactory epithelium and testis) functions as a chemosensing receptor in mouse germ cells. In situ hybridization showed that MOR23 was expressed in round spermatids during stages VI-VIII of spermatogenesis. Lyral, a cognate ligand of MOR23, caused an increase in intracellular Ca2+ in a fraction of spermatogenic cells and spermatozoa. We also generated transgenic mice that express high levels of MOR23 in the testis and examined the response of their germ cells to lyral. The results provided evidence that lyral-induced Ca2+ increases were indeed mediated by MOR23. In a sperm accumulation assay, spermatozoa migrated towards an increasing gradient of lyral. Tracking and sperm flagellar analyses suggest that Ca2+ increases caused by MOR23 activation lead to modulation of flagellar configuration, resulting in chemotaxis. By contrast, a gradient of a cAMP analog or K8.6 solution, which elicit Ca2+ influx in spermatozoa, did not cause sperm accumulation, indicating that chemosensing and regulation of sperm motility was due to an OR-mediated local Ca2+ increase. The present studies indicate that mouse testicular ORs might play a role in chemoreception during sperm-egg communication and thereby regulate fertilization. PMID:15522887

Fukuda, Nanaho; Yomogida, Kentaro; Okabe, Masaru; Touhara, Kazushige

2004-11-15

97

Glass wool filtration of bull cryopreserved semen: a rapid and effective method to obtain a high percentage of functional sperm.  

PubMed

Frozen-thawed bull sperm are widely used in assisted reproductive technologies, but cryopreservation negatively affects semen quality. Several sperm selection techniques have been developed to separate motile sperm from non-motile cells. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the glass wool column filtration to select functional sperm from frozen-thawed bull semen samples. Frozen semen from six Holstein bulls was thawed and filtered through a glass wool column, followed by assessment of routine and functional sperm parameters. In a set of experiments, sperm aliquots were also processed by swim up to compare both selection methods. Samples recovered in the glass wool filtrate had high percentages of viable (94 ± 3%, mean ± SD), progressively motile (89 ± 4%), acrosome-intact (98 ± 1%), and non-capacitated (80 ± 10%) sperm; these values were higher (P < 0.05) than those obtained after performing the swim up procedure. Moreover, the glass wool filtration yielded 67 ± 19% motile cells, in comparison with 18 ± 8% obtained with swim up (P < 0.05), calculated as the concentration of progressively motile cells selected relative to their concentration in the sample before the selection procedure. Glass wool-filtered sperm were able to undergo capacitation-related events, based on the increase in the percentage of cells classified as capacitated by CTC staining (B-pattern) after incubation with heparin (50 ± 5%) in comparison with control conditions with no heparin (17 ± 4%) or heparin + glucose (16 ± 2%; P < 0.05). Moreover, they underwent acrosomal exocytosis in response to pharmacologic (calcium ionophore A23187 and lysophosphatidylcholine) and physiological (follicular fluid) stimuli, and they fertilized in vitro matured cumulus-oocyte complexes and denuded oocytes (two-cell embryos: 72 ± 4% and 52 ± 6%, respectively). We conclude that glass wool filtration is a low-cost, simple, and highly effective procedure to select functionally competent sperm for reproductive technologies in the bull, which may be useful for other domestic and farm animals, as well as for endangered species. PMID:22537998

Arzondo, M M; Caballero, J N; Marín-Briggiler, C I; Dalvit, G; Cetica, P D; Vazquez-Levin, M H

2012-07-01

98

Sperm DNA fragmentation in boars is delayed or abolished by using sperm extenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The semen quality of seven young adult boars was assessed for percentages of sperm motility, normal acrosomes, abnormal sperm, cells positive to sHOST (short Hipoosmotic Swelling Test), HPNA cells (sHOST Positive with Normal Acrosome cells) and the percentage of sperm heads, which exhibited DNA fragmentation using the Sperm Chromatin Dispersion test (SCD). These parameters were analysed in sperm samples both

Begoña Pérez-Llano; María Enciso; Pedro García-Casado; Rubén Sala; Jaime Gosálvez

2006-01-01

99

Pancreatic exocrine function testing  

SciTech Connect

It is important to understand which pancreatic function tests are available and how to interpret them when evaluating patients with malabsorption. Available direct tests are the secretin stimulation test, the Lundh test meal, and measurement of serum or fecal enzymes. Indirect tests assess pancreatic exocrine function by measuring the effect of pancreatic secretion on various nutrients. These include triglycerides labeled with carbon 14, cobalamin labeled with cobalt 57 and cobalt 58, and para-aminobenzoic acid bound to a dipeptide. Of all these tests the secretin stimulation test is the most accurate and reliable if done by experienced personnel. However, the indirect tests are simpler to do and appear to be comparable to the secretin test at detecting pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. These indirect tests are becoming clinically available and clinicians should familiarize themselves with the strengths and weaknesses of each.

Goff, J.S.

1981-11-01

100

Pulmonary Function Tests  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary function tests are valuable investigations in the management of patients with suspected or previously diagnosed respiratory disease. They aid diagnosis, help monitor response to treatment and can guide decisions regarding further treatment and intervention. The interpretation of pulmonary functions tests requires knowledge of respiratory physiology. In this review we describe investigations routinely used and discuss their clinical implications.

Ranu, Harpreet; Wilde, Michael; Madden, Brendan

2011-01-01

101

Use of Sperm Enzymes to Detect Genotoxic Agents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The sperm enzyme test (SET) system consists of a series of histochemical assays that can be used to assess the functionality of sperm. The objective of this research was to determine the usefulness of the SET system in evaluation of germ cell damage which...

L. C. Ginsberg G. Ficsor W. C. Keller B. M. Llewellyn

1984-01-01

102

Prenatal testing in ICSI pregnancies: incidence of chromosomal anomalies in 1586 karyotypes and relation to sperm parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Prenatal testing was offered in all pregnancies obtained after ICSI with ejaculated or non- ejaculated sperm as part of the evaluation of the safety of ICSI. METHODS: Between 1990 and 2001, a chorionic villus sampling (CVS) or amniocentesis was offered for multiple or singleton pregnancies respectively during a genetic counselling session for all couples applying for ICSI. ICSI was

Maryse Bonduelle; Elvire Van Assche; Hubert Joris; Kathelijn Keymolen; Paul Devroey; AndreVan Steirteghem; Inge Liebaers

103

Patch clamp studies of human sperm under physiological ionic conditions reveal three functionally and pharmacologically distinct cation channels.  

PubMed

Whilst fertilizing capacity depends upon a K(+) conductance (GK) that allows the spermatozoon membrane potential (Vm) to be held at a negative value, the characteristics of this conductance in human sperm are virtually unknown. We therefore studied the biophysical/pharmacological properties of the K(+) conductance in spermatozoa from normal donors held under voltage/current clamp in the whole cell recording configuration. Our standard recording conditions were designed to maintain quasi-physiological, Na(+), K(+) and Cl(-) gradients. Experiments that explored the effects of ionic substitution/ion channel blockers upon membrane current/potential showed that resting Vm was dependent upon a hyperpolarizing K(+) current that flowed via channels that displayed only weak voltage dependence and limited (?7-fold) K(+) versus Na(+) selectivity. This conductance was blocked by quinidine (0.3 mM), bupivacaine (3 mM) and clofilium (50 µM), NNC55-0396 (2 µM) and mibefradil (30 µM), but not by 4-aminopyridine (2 mM, 4-AP). Progesterone had no effect upon the hyperpolarizing K(+) current. Repolarization after a test depolarization consistently evoked a transient inward 'tail current' (ITail) that flowed via a second population of ion channels with poor (?3-fold) K(+) versus Na(+) selectivity. The activity of these channels was increased by quinidine, 4-AP and progesterone. Vm in human sperm is therefore dependent upon a hyperpolarizing K(+) current that flows via channels that most closely resemble those encoded by Slo3. Although 0.5 µM progesterone had no effect upon these channels, this hormone did activate the pharmacologically distinct channels that mediate ITail. In conclusion, this study reveals three functionally and pharmacologically distinct cation channels: Ik, ITail, ICatSper. PMID:24442342

Mansell, S A; Publicover, S J; Barratt, C L R; Wilson, S M

2014-05-01

104

Evolution of sperm morphology in anurans: insights into the roles of mating system and spawning location  

PubMed Central

Background The degree of postcopulatory sexual selection, comprising variable degrees of sperm competition and cryptic female choice, is an important evolutionary force to influence sperm form and function. Here we investigated the effects of mating system and spawning location on the evolution of sperm morphology in 67 species of Chinese anurans. We also examined how relative testes size as an indicator of the level of sperm competition affected variation in sperm morphology across a subset of 29 species. Results We found a significant association of mating system and spawning location with sperm morphology. However, when removing the effects of body mass or absolute testes mass for species for which such data were available, this effect became non-significant. Consistent with predictions from sperm competition theory, we found a positive correlation between sperm morphology and relative testes size after taking phylogeny into account. Conclusions Our findings suggest that sexual selection in Chinese anurans favors longer sperm when the level of sperm competition is high. Pre-copulatory male-male competition and spawning location, on the other hand, do not affect the evolution of sperm morphology after taking body mass and absolute testes mass into account.

2014-01-01

105

Origin, localization and binding abilities of boar DQH sperm surface protein tested by specific monoclonal antibodies.  

PubMed

Seminal plasma proteins bind the sperm surface at ejaculation and may modulate several aspects of sperm activity during reproduction. DQH sperm surface protein, present in boar seminal plasma, shows affinity to phoshorylcholine, acidic polysaccharides, oviductal epithelium and zona pellucida glycoproteins. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against DQH protein were prepared and used for determination of the DQH protein origin in boar reproductive organs, its localization on boar spermatozoa, and for investigation of its binding abilities in the porcine oviduct and to the zona pellucida of the oocyte. The mRNA transcript of DQH protein was found in seminal vesicles and not in the testis, epididymis and prostate. Its translated products were immunodetected by MAbs in seminal vesicle extract and fluid, in seminal vesicle tissue sections and on the membrane-associated acrosomal part of ejaculated spermatozoa. These results confirm the ability of DQH protein to bind the sperm surface at ejaculation and to participate in formation of the sperm reservoir in the porcine oviduct. Moreover, monoclonal antibodies reduced binding of sperm to oocytes and proved the role of DQH protein in the sperm-zona pellucida primary binding. PMID:17270277

Manásková, P; Peknicová, J; Elzeinová, F; Tichá, M; Jonáková, V

2007-06-01

106

An environmentally relevant organochlorine mixture impairs sperm function and embryo development in the porcine model.  

PubMed

We evaluated the effects of an environmentally relevant mixture of more than 15 organochlorines on the development of pig oocytes and sperm during in vitro fertilization (IVF). Oocytes were cocultured with sperm in IVF medium containing increasing concentrations of an organochlorine mixture, similar to that found in women of highly exposed populations. Exposure to the organochlorine mixture diminished oocyte penetration rates and polyspermy in a linear manner. The mixture did not affect rates of cleavage nor development to multicell embryos. However, rates of development to the blastocyst stage were lower at the highest concentration at which oocyte penetration was observed. The same experiment was performed using oocytes that were preexposed during in vitro maturation. This greater exposure to the mixture also reduced penetration in a dose-response manner and affected polyspermy. Frozen-thawed pig sperm were also cultured in IVF medium containing the same organochlorine concentrations. Sperm motility parameters were immediately reduced in a dose-dependent manner by the organochlorines, followed by diminished viability 2 h later. From these results, it appears that reduced sperm quality would account for decreases in fertilization, polyspermy, and blastocyst formation. These results suggest that exposing porcine oocytes and sperm to an environmentally pertinent organochlorine mixture in vitro disrupts the oocyte block to polyspermy, sperm fertility, and further embryonic development, and supports recent concerns that such pollutants harm reproductive health in humans and other species. PMID:12080002

Campagna, Céline; Guillemette, Christine; Paradis, René; Sirard, Marc-André; Ayotte, Pierre; Bailey, Janice L

2002-07-01

107

Human Sperm Bioassay for Reprotoxicity Testing in Embryo Culture Media: Some Practical Considerations in Reducing the Assay Time  

PubMed Central

Human sperm assay (HSA) is a preferred in house quality control and proficiency test (PT) practiced in fertility laboratories. HSA is performed over varying durations, apparently without following set criteria. To better understand the assay time required for reprotoxicity testing in embryo culture media, we compared American-Association-of-Bioanalysts-(AAB-) administered HSA data to our own assay performed using PT samples obtained from AAB. Participating laboratories were required to culture sperm for 48 hours to determine media acceptability. Conclusions drawn from 48- and 24-hour observations were the same, suggesting that HSA could identify reprotoxic media in less time than required by AAB. Our assay revealed that changes in motility grade in adulterated media are significantly different from those in control media. Furthermore, grade changes can be identified earlier than differences in motility loss between samples. Analyzing motility and motility quality together provides a method for establishing an optimal time for HSA.

Hossain, Amjad; Aryal, Subhash; Osuampke, Collin; Phelps, John

2010-01-01

108

Structural evolution of CatSper1 in rodents is influenced by sperm competition, with effects on sperm swimming velocity  

PubMed Central

Background Competition between spermatozoa from rival males for success in fertilization (i.e., sperm competition) is an important selective force driving the evolution of male reproductive traits and promoting positive selection in genes related to reproductive function. Positive selection has been identified in reproductive proteins showing rapid divergence at nucleotide level. Other mutations, such as insertions and deletions (indels), also occur in protein-coding sequences. These structural changes, which exist in reproductive genes and result in length variation in coded proteins, could also be subjected to positive selection and be under the influence of sperm competition. Catsper1 is one such reproductive gene coding for a germ-line specific voltage-gated calcium channel essential for sperm motility and fertilization. Positive selection appears to promote fixation of indels in the N-terminal region of CatSper1 in mammalian species. However, it is not known which selective forces underlie these changes and their implications for sperm function. Results We tested if length variation in the N-terminal region of CatSper1 is influenced by sperm competition intensity in a group of closely related rodent species of the subfamily Murinae. Our results revealed a negative correlation between sequence length of CatSper1 and relative testes mass, a very good proxy of sperm competition levels. Since CatSper1 is important for sperm flagellar motility, we examined if length variation in the N-terminus of CatSper1 is linked to changes in sperm swimming velocity. We found a negative correlation between CatSper1 length and several sperm velocity parameters. Conclusions Altogether, our results suggest that sperm competition selects for a shortening of the intracellular region of CatSper1 which, in turn, enhances sperm swimming velocity, an essential and adaptive trait for fertilization success.

2014-01-01

109

Procedure for bovine ICSI, not sperm freeze-drying, impairs the function of the microtubule-organizing center.  

PubMed

This study was designed to investigate whether freeze-dried (FD) bull spermatozoa maintained the function of the microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) after rehydration and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). In a preliminary attempt, the cleavage and blastocyst formation rates in FD-ICSI zygotes (36 and 1%, respectively) were found to be considerably lower than those in control ICSI zygotes (67 and 21%, respectively) or in IVF zygotes (78 and 43%, respectively). An alkaline comet assay indicated that the DNA fragmentation index (length of comet tail % DNA liberated) was not significantly different between fresh and FD spermatozoa. In the main experiment, formation of sperm-asters in the FD-ICSI oocytes 7 h postinsemination occurred at a similar rate when compared with the control ICSI oocytes (41 vs. 49%). Among the oocytes exhibiting sperm aster formation, the extent of microtubule network assembly was comparable between the FD-ICSI and control ICSI groups. However, the MTOC of the ICSI oocytes was not as functional as that of IVF oocytes in terms of the aster formation rate (97%) and the fluorescent intensity of the microtubule network (2.0 folds). These results suggest that the freeze-drying process per se had no adverse effect on maintaining the MTOC function in bull spermatozoa. PMID:21325738

Hara, Hiromasa; Abdalla, Hany; Morita, Hiroshi; Kuwayama, Masashige; Hirabayashi, Masumi; Hochi, Shinichi

2011-06-01

110

Detection of germ cell genotoxic potential of carbon disulphide using sperm head shape abnormality test.  

PubMed

1. Adult male albino rats (CF Strain) were administered i.p. CS2 dissolved in cotton seed oil at doses of 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg b. wt. for a period of 60 days. Effect of CS2 on epididymis, adrenal weight, sperm count and sperm head shape abnormality was studied. 2. Epididymal weight remained unaltered in 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg CS2 treated groups, whereas in highest dose of CS2 treated (200 mg/kg) group a non-significant reduction in epididymis weight was observed. A slight increase in adrenal weight was observed in lower doses groups (25 and 50 mg/kg) while a considerable decrease in adrenal weight was noted in highest dose (200 mg/kg) of CS2 treated group in the present study. 3. An increase in sperm head shape abnormality and decrease in sperm count was observed in all the CS2 treated groups. However, the changes were statistically significant only after higher dose of CS2 treatment as compared to control. 4. This study suggests that CS2 may have the potential to induce adverse effects on male reproductive system of rats. Sperm head shape abnormality assay used in this study also elicits germ cell genotoxic potential of carbon disulphide. PMID:10627660

Kumar, S; Patel, K G; Gautam, A K; Agarwal, K; Shah, B A; Saiyed, H N

1999-12-01

111

Testing the limits of Rodent Sperm Analysis: azoospermia in an otherwise healthy wild rodent population.  

PubMed

By comparing the sperm parameters of small rodents trapped at contaminated terrestrial sites and nearby habitat-matched noncontaminated locations, the patent-pending Rodent Sperm Analysis (RSA) method provides a direct health status appraisal for the maximally chemical-exposed mammalian ecological receptor in the wild. RSA outcomes have consistently allowed for as definitive determinations of receptor health as are possible at the present time, thereby streamlining the ecological risk assessment (ERA) process. Here, we describe the unanticipated discovery, at a contaminated US EPA Superfund National Priorities List site, of a population of Hispid cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus), with a high percentage of adult males lacking sperm entirely (azoospermia). In light of the RSA method's role in streamlining ERAs and in bringing contaminated Superfund-type site investigations to closure, we consider the consequences of the discovery. The two matters specifically discussed are (1) the computation of a population's average sperm count where azoospermia is present and (2) the merits of the RSA method and its sperm parameter thresholds-for-effect when azoospermia is masked in an otherwise apparently healthy rodent population. PMID:18437443

Tannenbaum, Lawrence V; Thran, Brandolyn H; Willams, Keith J

2009-01-01

112

Testing human sperm chemotaxis: how to detect biased motion in population assays.  

PubMed

Biased motion of motile cells in a concentration gradient of a chemoattractant is frequently studied on the population level. This approach has been particularly employed in human sperm chemotactic assays, where the fraction of responsive cells is low and detection of biased motion depends on subtle differences. In these assays, statistical measures such as population odds ratios of swimming directions can be employed to infer chemotactic performance. Here, we report on an improved method to assess statistical significance of experimentally determined odds ratios and discuss the strong impact of data correlations that arise from the directional persistence of sperm swimming. PMID:22412947

Armon, Leah; Caplan, S Roy; Eisenbach, Michael; Friedrich, Benjamin M

2012-01-01

113

Comparative in vitro spermicidal activity of chelating agents and synergistic effect with nonoxynol-9 on human sperm functionality.  

PubMed

Nonoxynol-9 (N-9), a nonionic surfactant, exerts both spermicidal and anti-viral activities and is the most widely used spermicide. Although N-9 has been regarded as an efficient spermicidal agent for barrier contraception, it has been reported to cause vaginal irritation and allergic vaginitis, and its spermicidal action in the vaginal mucus may be limited. To address these problems, the spermicidal activity of several chelating agents against human semen and their synergistic effect on the spermicidal activity of N-9 were evaluated using computer-assisted semen analysis and a cervical mucus penetration test. Carbopol 934P, chosen as a polymer base for dispersion of N-9 and chelating agent, was also evaluated for its potential spermicidal activity. Chelating agents, such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), ethylene bis(oxyethylenenitrilo)tetraacetic acid, and gramicidin, had spermicidal activity against human sperm at the tested concentration range and exerted spermicidal activity within mucus, impeding sperm penetration to the extended cervical space. A synergistic effect was shown between N-9 and EDTA on sperm motility. In dose-response curves, 0.1% EDTA significantly increased binding affinity constant and spermicidal potency of N-9 and reduced the concentration of N-9 at which 50% of the maximum response was observed from 144.5 to 66.4 (micrograms/mL). A synergistic effect was also shown between EDTA and carbopol 934P polymer on inhibition of sperm penetration through the cervical mucus. Therefore, EDTA can be used as a supplementary agent and potentiator for N-9. Development of a carbopol 934P-based drug delivery system for dual controlled release of N-9 in combination with chelating agents seems to be a promising approach for increasing the efficacy of fertility control. PMID:8926592

Lee, C H; Bagdon, R; Chien, Y W

1996-01-01

114

The presence and function of dopamine type 2 receptors in boar sperm: a possible role for dopamine in viability, capacitation, and modulation of sperm motility.  

PubMed

Several studies have shown that dopamine and other catecholamines are present in oviduct luminal fluid. We recently reported that dopamine type 2 receptors (DRD2) are present in a wide range of mammalian sperm, suggesting a role for dopaminergic signaling in events such as fertilization, capacitation, and sperm motility. In the present study, we used Western blot analysis to show that boar sperm express DRD2 and that their activation with dopamine (100 nM) has a positive effect on cell viability that can be correlated with AKT/PKB phosphorylation. Bromocriptine (100 nM) and dopamine (100 nM and 10 muM) increased tyrosine phosphorylation during the capacitation period. Immunofluorescence analysis indicated that DRD2 localization is dynamic and depends on the capacitation stage, colocalizing with tyrosine phosphorylated proteins in the acrosome and midpiece region of capacitated boar sperm. This association was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation analysis. We also showed that bromocriptine (100 nM) and low-concentration dopamine (100 nM and 10 muM) increased total and progressive motility of sperm. However, high concentrations of dopamine (1 mM) decreased tyrosine phosphorylation and motility in in vitro sperm capacitation assays. This can be explained by the presence of the dopamine transporters (DAT, official symbol SLC6A3) in sperm, as demonstrated by Western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry. Taken together, our results support the idea that dopamine may have a fundamental role during sperm capacitation and motility in situ in the female upper reproductive tract. PMID:19074002

Ramírez, Alfredo R; Castro, Maite A; Angulo, Constanza; Ramió, Laura; Rivera, M Montserrat; Torres, Mauricio; Rigau, Teresa; Rodríguez-Gil, Joan E; Concha, Ilona I

2009-04-01

115

Sperm quality improvement after date seed oil in vitro supplementation in spontaneous and induced oxidative stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vitro supplementation with date seed oil (DSO) can protect spermatozoa against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-mediated damage and can improve sperm function, possibly owing to antioxidant properties. We tested the antioxidant effects of DSO on human sperm motility, sperm viability, reacted acrosome and lipid peroxidation assessed in vitro after H2O2-mediated oxidative damage in spermatozoa. Sixteen patients (mean age: 35 years; range:

Ben A. Fatma; Chakroun F. Nozha; Dammak Ines; Attia Hamadi; Hentati Basma; Ammar K. Leila

2009-01-01

116

Addition of Tempol in semen cryopreservation medium improves the post-thaw sperm function.  

PubMed

Abstract Despite extensive research carried out for optimization and commercialization of sperm cryopreservation media, percentage of motility and viability remain low following cryopreservation. These adverse effects have been partially ascribed to reactive oxygen species (ROS) production during cryopreservation. Therefore, we proposed that addition of a cell permeable antioxidant like Tempol, with superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic action, may overcome these effects in an optimized commercially available cryo-protective medium. Therefore, semen samples were cryopreserved in the presence or absence of Tempol. A concentration of 5??M Tempol was defined as optimal since it significantly improved motility and viability post thawing and reduced DNA fragmented sperm. In addition, percentage of ROS positive sperm was reduced. These effects of Tempol can be attributed to cell permeability characteristic and ability to reduce superoxide production both at intra- and extra-cellular levels. Tempol may hold the potential for clinical applications. PMID:24702585

Bateni, Zahra; Azadi, Leila; Tavalaee, Marziyeh; Kiani-Esfahani, Abbas; Fazilati, Mohammad; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein

2014-08-01

117

Accumulation of transcripts in the mature human sperm nucleus: implication of the haploid genome in a functional role.  

PubMed

The existence of sperm-specific transcripts has been suggested by a number of studies performed both in man and rodents but their origin and role are not yet elucidated. For evaluating the functional significance of these mRNAs, transcripts coding for proteins expressed during spermiogenesis or potentially implicated in the early steps of zygote development, have been searched in human testis and sperm cells by RT-PCR. Furthermore their localization in spermatozoa has been checked by in situ hybridization. Our results confirm the presence of basic nucleoproteins (Transition proteins 1 and 2, Protamines 1 and 2) spermatozoal transcripts which probably represent remnants of previous transcription. They also reveal the existence of sperm specific mRNAs coding for the transcription factor Stat 4, the cyclin B1 and for the testicular isozyme of the angiotensin converting enzyme ACE. On the contrary, mRNAs coding for the heat shock protein Hsp 70 have been found in testis but not in spermatozoa. The possible roles of these transcripts either during the fertilization process or in zygote are discussed. PMID:11732576

Siffroi, J P; Dadoune, J P

2001-01-01

118

Exposure to Environmentally Relevant Concentrations of Genistein during Activation Does Not Affect Sperm Motility in the Fighting Fish Betta splendens  

PubMed Central

Sperm collected from male fighting fish Betta splendens were activated in control water, water containing the ion-channel blocker gadolinium (a putative positive control), or water containing the isoflavone phytoestrogen genistein to determine the effects of acute genistein exposure on male reproductive function. Computer-assisted sperm analysis was used to quantify the proportion of sperm that were motile and the swimming velocity of those sperm. The highest concentration of gadolinium (100??M) tested was effective at reducing sperm motility and velocity, but neither concentration of genistein tested (3.7?nM or 3.7??M) significantly affected these sperm parameters. Our findings suggest that acute exposure to waterborne phytoestrogens during activation does not reduce the motility of fish sperm.

Clotfelter, Ethan D.; Gendelman, Hannah K.

2014-01-01

119

Exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of genistein during activation does not affect sperm motility in the fighting fish Betta splendens.  

PubMed

Sperm collected from male fighting fish Betta splendens were activated in control water, water containing the ion-channel blocker gadolinium (a putative positive control), or water containing the isoflavone phytoestrogen genistein to determine the effects of acute genistein exposure on male reproductive function. Computer-assisted sperm analysis was used to quantify the proportion of sperm that were motile and the swimming velocity of those sperm. The highest concentration of gadolinium (100 ? M) tested was effective at reducing sperm motility and velocity, but neither concentration of genistein tested (3.7 nM or 3.7 ? M) significantly affected these sperm parameters. Our findings suggest that acute exposure to waterborne phytoestrogens during activation does not reduce the motility of fish sperm. PMID:24516856

Clotfelter, Ethan D; Gendelman, Hannah K

2014-01-01

120

Bull sperm as a potential model system for cytotoxicity testing in vitro.  

PubMed

The possibility of using frozen/thawed bovine sperm as a model system for cytotoxicity was explored using progressive motility (EC(50)), ATP content (ATP(50)) and cell death (CD(50)) as endpoints. ATP content and motility of sperm were relatively constant after 15 min in culture, enabling measurements to be made over the following 30 min. ATP content was lower in an 'extender' (1.4 x 10(-16) mol/sperm) than in the final diluent (2.3 x 10(-16) mol/sperm), which was Eagle's minimum essential medium (MEM) containing 5% (v/v) foetal calf serum. Nonylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol (nonoxynol-9), Gynol II((c)) containing 2% (v/w) of this surfactant, and dl-propranolol were the toxicants chosen for the evaluation. There was little difference between the three endpoints for Gynol II((c)) and nonoxynol-9 but the former caused a relatively greater effect on motility. dl-Propranolol (ATP(50) 1.39 mg/ml) was considerably less toxic than nonoxynol-9 (ATP(50) 53 mug/ml) but its CD(50) could not be measured for technical reasons. Results with Gynol II((c)) suggested that the effectiveness of the active ingredient of this compound, nonoxynol-9, was reduced by the excipients. It has been claimed that this compound causes membrane ultrastructural damage but, at 75 mug/ml, no disruption was observed under the scanning electron microscope. Measurement of sperm ATP content is the preferred assessment for cytotoxicity because it is automated and can give clues to the mechanism of toxic action. PMID:20702283

Kemp, R B; Beck, N F; Meredith, R W; Gamble, S H

1990-01-01

121

Mitochondrial fusion protein MFN2 interacts with the mitostatin-related protein MNS1 required for mouse sperm flagellar structure and function  

PubMed Central

Background Cilia and the sperm flagellum share many structural properties. Meiosis-specific nuclear structural 1 (MNS1) is a recently characterized protein that is abundantly expressed in post-meiotic spermatids and is required for proper flagellar and motile cilia formation. To explore the possible functions of MNS1, we performed a BLAST search and determined it is homologous to the conserved domain pfam13868, exemplified by mitostatin. This protein interacts with mitofusin 2 (MFN2), a protein that participates in regulating mitochondrial associations to subcellular organelles. We hypothesized that an association between MFN2 and MNS1 in the sperm is involved in flagellar biogenesis and function. Results In the studies reported here, MFN2 was found in murine reproductive and somatic tissues high in ciliary content while MNS1 was present as two closely migrating bands in reproductive tissues. Interestingly, mitostatin was also present in reproductive tissues. Similar to Mns1 and mitostatin, Mfn2 was expressed in the testis as detected by RT-PCR. In addition, Mfn2 and Mns1 decreased in expression from pachytene spermatocytes to condensing spermatids as assessed by quantitative RT-PCR. Co-immunoprecipitation demonstrated an association between MFN2 and MNS1 in spermatogenic cells. Indirect immunofluorescence indicated that MFN2 and MNS1 co-localized to the sperm flagellum in freshly collected cauda epididymal sperm. MFN2 associated with the midpiece while MNS1 was present throughout the sperm tail in caput and cauda epididymal sperm. In spermatogenic cells, MFN2 was seen in the mitochondria, and MNS1 was present throughout the cell cytoplasm. MFN2 and MNS1 were present in detergent-resistant flagellar structures of the sperm. Conclusions These results demonstrate that MFN2 and MNS1 are present in spermatogenic cells and are an integral part of the sperm flagellum, indicating they play a role in flagellar biogenesis and/or function.

2014-01-01

122

Human sperm competition: ejaculate manipulation by females and a function for the female orgasm (1993)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioural ecologists view monogamy as a subtle mixture of conflict and cooperation between the sexes. In part, conflict and cooperation is cryptic, taking place within the female’s reproductive tract. In this paper the cryptic interaction for humans was analysed using data from both a nationwide survey and counts of sperm inseminated into, and ejected by, females. On average, 35% of

R. Robin Baker; Mark A. Bellis

123

Lipid Peroxidation and Nitric Oxide Levels in Male Smokers' Spermatozoa and their Relation with Sperm Motility  

PubMed Central

Background Nitric oxide (NO) is synthesized from L-arginine by a family of enzymes known as nitric oxide synthases. Low concentrations of NO is essential in biology and physiology of spermatozoa, but high amounts of NO is toxic and has negative effects on sperm functions. Moreover, sperm membrane contains high concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids that are highly susceptible to oxidative damage that interferes with fertilization ability. Therefore, we investigated the correlation between levels of sperm malondialdehyde (MDA) and NO with sperm motility in male smokers. Methods Semen samples were collected from normozoospermic smoker (n=64) and nonsmoker (n=83) men. The content of sperm lipid peroxidation was determined by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA). The sperm NO were also measured using Griess reagent. Data was analyzed by SPSS, (version 15.0), using independent t-test and Pearson analysis. Results The mean MDA and NO concentrations in the sperm of normozoospermic male smokers were significantly higher than the control group or normozoospermic nonsmokers, (p <0.001). A significant negative relationship was noted between sperm motility and sperm MDA levels (r=?0.32, p=0.01); and sperm motility and sperm NO concentration (for nitrite, r=?0.34, p=0.006 and for nitrate, r=?0.38, p=0.002). Conclusion It was concluded that the increase in MDA and NO production in sperm can influence sperm motility in normozoospermic smokers. Therefore, it seems that cigarette smoking may affect the fertility of male smokers via increasing the amount of sperm MDA/lipid peroxidation and NO concentrations.

Ghaffari, Mohammad Ali; Rostami, Morad

2012-01-01

124

Thyroid Function Tests  

MedlinePLUS

... the thyroid, a computerized tomography (CT) scan, or nuclear medicine tests, to diagnose and find the cause ... is having the scan for other health problems. Nuclear medicine tests. Nuclear medicine tests of the thyroid ...

125

The function of male sperm whale slow clicks in a high latitude habitat: communication, echolocation, or prey debilitation?  

PubMed

Sperm whales produce different click types for echolocation and communication. Usual clicks and buzzes appear to be used primarily in foraging while codas are thought to function in social communication. The function of slow clicks is less clear, but they appear to be produced by males at higher latitudes, where they primarily forage solitarily, and on the breeding grounds, where they roam between groups of females. Here the behavioral context in which these vocalizations are produced and the function they may serve was investigated. Ninety-nine hours of acoustic and diving data were analyzed from sound recording tags on six male sperm whales in Northern Norway. The 755 slow clicks detected were produced by tagged animals at the surface (52%), ascending from a dive (37%), and during the bottom phase (11%), but never during the descent. Slow clicks were not associated with the production of buzzes, other echolocation clicks, or fast maneuvering that would indicate foraging. Some slow clicks were emitted in seemingly repetitive temporal patterns supporting the hypothesis that the function for slow clicks on the feeding grounds is long range communication between males, possibly relaying information about individual identity or behavioral states. PMID:23654416

Oliveira, Cláudia; Wahlberg, Magnus; Johnson, Mark; Miller, Patrick J O; Madsen, Peter T

2013-05-01

126

Functional classification of ADAMs based on a conserved motif for binding to integrin alpha 9beta 1: implications for sperm-egg binding and other cell interactions.  

PubMed

ADAMs (a disintegrin and metalloproteases) are members of the metzincin superfamily of metalloproteases. Among integrins binding to disintegrin domains of ADAMs are alpha(9)beta(1) and alpha(v)beta(3), and they bind in an RGD-independent and an RGD-dependent manner, respectively. Human ADAM15 is the only ADAM with the RGD motif in the disintegrin domain. Thus, both integrin alpha(9)beta(1) and alpha(v)beta(3) recognize the ADAM15 disintegrin domain. We determined how these integrins recognize the ADAM15 disintegrin domain by mutational analysis. We found that the Arg(481) and the Asp-Leu-Pro-Glu-Phe residues (residues 488-492) were critical for alpha(9)beta(1) binding, but the RGD motif (residues 484-486) was not. In contrast, the RGD motif was critical for alpha(v)beta(3) binding, but the other residues flanking the RGD motif were not. As the RX(6)DLPEF alpha(9)beta(1) recognition motif (residues 481-492) is conserved among ADAMs, except for ADAM10 and 17, we hypothesized that alpha(9)beta(1) may recognize disintegrin domains in all ADAMs except ADAM10 and 17. Indeed we found that alpha(9)beta(1) bound avidly to the disintegrin domains of ADAM1, 2, 3, and 9 but not to the disintegrin domains of ADAM10 and 17. As several ADAMs have been implicated in sperm-oocyte interaction, we tested whether the functional classification of ADAMs, based on specificity for integrin alpha(9)beta(1), applies to sperm-egg binding. We found that the ADAM2 and 15 disintegrin domains bound to oocytes, but the ADAM17 disintegrin domain did not. Furthermore, the ADAM2 and 15 disintegrin domains effectively blocked binding of sperm to oocytes, but the ADAM17 disintegrin domain did not. These results suggest that oocytes and alpha(9)beta(1) have similar binding specificities for ADAMs and that alpha(9)beta(1), or a receptor with similar specificity, may be involved in sperm-egg interaction during fertilization. As alpha(9)beta(1) is a receptor for many ADAM disintegrins and alpha(9)beta(1) and ADAMs are widely expressed, alpha(9)beta(1)-ADAM interaction may be of a broad biological importance. PMID:11882657

Eto, Koji; Huet, Clotilde; Tarui, Takehiko; Kupriyanov, Sergey; Liu, Hai-Zhen; Puzon-McLaughlin, Wilma; Zhang, Xi-Ping; Sheppard, Dean; Engvall, Eva; Takada, Yoshikazu

2002-05-17

127

Sperm preparation for ART  

PubMed Central

The onset of clinical assisted reproduction, a quarter of a century ago, required the isolation of motile spermatozoa. As the indication of assisted reproduction shifted from mere gynaecological indications to andrological indications during the years, this urged andrological research to understand the physiology of male germ cell better and develop more sophisticated techniques to separate functional spermatozoa from those that are immotile, have poor morphology or are not capable to fertilize oocytes. Initially, starting from simple washing of spermatozoa, separation techniques, based on different principles like migration, filtration or density gradient centrifugation evolved. The most simple and cheapest is the conventional swim-up procedure. A more sophisticated and most gentle migration method is migration-sedimentation. However, its yield is relatively small and the technique is therefore normally only limited to ejaculates with a high number of motile spermatozoa. Recently, however, the method was also successfully used to isolate spermatozoa for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Sperm separation methods that yield a higher number of motile spermatozoa are glass wool filtration or density gradient centrifugation with different media. Since Percoll® as a density medium was removed from the market in 1996 for clinical use in the human because of its risk of contamination with endotoxins, other media like IxaPrep®, Nycodenz, SilSelect®, PureSperm® or Isolate® were developed in order to replace Percoll®. Today, an array of different methods is available and the selection depends on the quality of the ejaculates, which also includes production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by spermatozoa and leukocytes. Ejaculates with ROS production should not be separated by means of conventional swim-up, as this can severely damage the spermatozoa. In order to protect the male germ cells from the influence of ROS and to stimulate their motility to increase the yield, a number of substances can be added to the ejaculate or the separation medium. Caffeine, pentoxifylline and 2-deoxyadenosine are substances that were used to stimulate motility. Recent approaches to stimulate spermatozoa include bicarbonate, metal chelators or platelet-activating factor (PAF). While the use of PAF already resulted in pregnancies in intrauterine insemination, the suitability of the other substances for the clinical use still needs to be tested. Finally, the isolation of functional spermatozoa from highly viscous ejaculates is a special challenge and can be performed enzymatically to liquefy the ejaculate. The older method, by which the ejaculate is forcefully aspirated through a narrow-gauge needle, should be abandoned as it can severely damage spermatozoa, thus resulting in immotile sperm.

Henkel, Ralf R; Schill, Wolf-Bernhard

2003-01-01

128

Protein-Tyrosine Kinase Signaling in the Biological Functions Associated with Sperm  

PubMed Central

In sexual reproduction, two gamete cells (i.e., egg and sperm) fuse (fertilization) to create a newborn with a genetic identity distinct from those of the parents. In the course of these developmental processes, a variety of signal transduction events occur simultaneously in each of the two gametes, as well as in the fertilized egg/zygote/early embryo. In particular, a growing body of knowledge suggests that the tyrosine kinase Src and/or other protein-tyrosine kinases are important elements that facilitate successful implementation of the aforementioned processes in many animal species. In this paper, we summarize recent findings on the roles of protein-tyrosine phosphorylation in many sperm-related processes (from spermatogenesis to epididymal maturation, capacitation, acrosomal exocytosis, and fertilization).

Ijiri, Takashi W.; Mahbub Hasan, A. K. M.; Sato, Ken-ichi

2012-01-01

129

Thyroid Function Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes two tests, T-4 and T-3, for hypothyroid based on the binding of the hormones by proteins. The tests were performed in courses for physicians, clinical chemists, laboratory technicians, and undergraduate science students by the individuals involved and on their own sera. These tests are commercially available in kit form. (GA)

Glover, Irving T.

1979-01-01

130

Platelet Function Tests  

MedlinePLUS

... medications unless instructed to do so by your health care provider. The Test Sample What is being tested? Platelets (also known ... medications unless instructed to do so by your health care provider. The Test How is it used? When is it ordered? ...

131

Boar sperm encapsulation reduces in vitro polyspermy.  

PubMed

A boar sperm encapsulation technology in barium alginate has been developed to enhance reproductive performances and spermatozoa preservation time; aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of in vitro sperm encapsulation on polyspermy as a function of storage time at 18 degrees C. A total number of 40 in vitro fertilization (IVF) tests were performed using encapsulated or diluted spermatozoa (20 IVF each treatment). Overall, 1288 in vitro matured oocytes were fertilized with spermatozoa stored at 24, 48 or 72 h at 18 degrees C for both treatments polyspermy and normospermy, and the non-penetration rates were assessed by optical microscopy. Results indicate a significant reduction in risk of polyspermic oocytes when spermatozoa are preserved in barium alginate membranes (incidence risk ratio: 0.766 with respect to diluted); such enhancement could be explained by lesser damage of sperm membranes achieved by encapsulation technology. PMID:19144017

Faustini, M; Bucco, M; Galeati, G; Spinaci, M; Villani, S; Chlapanidas, T; Ghidoni, I; Vigo, D; Torre, M L

2010-04-01

132

Angiotensin II stimulates sperm motility.  

PubMed

The physiological factors which induce and maintain mammalian sperm maturation and motility generally remain unclear, although several agents are known to be involved. We recently described the application of immunocytochemical and immunoblotting methods to identify the angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor in the tails of ejaculated rat and human sperm, and gave evidence to show that angiotensin II may promote sperm motility. These data are extended here by the application of a computerised sperm tracking system (the Hobson Sperm Tracker) to demonstrate that AII has actions on specific motility parameters, including curvilinear velocity, straight line velocity, and amplitude of lateral head movement. Since local tissue renin-angiotensin systems are present in both male and female tracts, the data suggest that angiotensin II has a role in the maintenance of sperm function and fertility. PMID:8958584

Vinson, G P; Mehta, J; Evans, S; Matthews, S; Puddefoot, J R; Saridogan, E; Holt, W V; Djahanbakhch, O

1996-12-01

133

Mammalian Sperm Fertility Related Proteins  

PubMed Central

Infertility is an important aspect of human and animal reproduction and still presents with much etiological ambiguity. As fifty percent of infertility is related to the male partner, molecular investigations on sperm and seminal plasma can lead to new knowledge on male infertility. Several comparisons between fertile and infertile human and other species sperm proteome have shown the existence of potential fertility markers. These proteins have been categorized into energy related, structural and other functional proteins which play a major role in sperm motility, capacitation and sperm-oocyte binding. The data from these studies show the impact of sperm proteome studies on identifying different valuable markers for fertility screening. In this article, we review recent development in unraveling sperm fertility related proteins.

Ashrafzadeh, Ali; Karsani, Saiful Anuar; Nathan, Sheila

2013-01-01

134

Validation of the sperm quality analyzer and the hypo-osmotic swelling test for frozen-thawed ram and minke whale (Balaenoptera bonarensis) spermatozoa.  

PubMed

The object of the present study was to investigate the validation of the sperm quality analyzer (SQA) and the hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) test with standard sperm analysis methods in frozen-thawed ram and minke whale spermatozoa. In rams, highly significant correlations were observed in the percentage of motile spermatozoa (P<0.01) and sperm concentration (P<0.01) between the standard and SQA methods. But, the percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa did not significantly correlate between the standard and SQA methods. The percentages of swollen spermatozoa at 15 minutes by the HOS test were significantly correlated with the motility by the standard (P<0.05) and by the SQA (P<0.05) methods. For minke whale spermatozoa, the SVI (sperm viability index) values by the standard method were significantly (P<0.001) correlated with the sperm motility index (SMI) values by SQA. The percentage of motile spermatozoa was also significantly correlated (P<0.01) with the motility measured by SQA. Using different hypo-osmotic solutions and incubation times, the HOS test with 25, 100 and 150 mOsM did not show significant variations. Motility observed by the standard method and the percentage of swollen spermatozoa were significantly correlated (P<0.05). These results indicate that the SQA and HOS test can be utilized to assess the post-thawing motility of ram and minke whale spermatozoa, and that the SQA and HOS test values are significantly correlated in ram spermatozoa. However, sperm concentration and morphologically normal spermatozoa are not assessed accurately by SQA in minke whales. PMID:15007212

Fukui, Yutaka; Togawa, Morihiko; Abe, Norihito; Takano, Yuuki; Asada, Masatsugu; Okada, Aki; Iida, Kenji; Ishikawa, Hajime; Ohsumi, Seiji

2004-02-01

135

Functions and Vertical Line Test  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to introduce students to the vertical line test for functions as well as practice plotting points and drawing simple functions. The lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to the vertical line test and functions as well as suggested ways to integrate them into the lesson.

2010-01-01

136

Leukocytospermia and sperm preparation - a flow cytometric study  

PubMed Central

Background Leukocytes represent the predominant source of reactive oxygen species both in seminal plasma and in sperm suspensions and have been demonstrated to negatively influence sperm function and fertilization rate in assisted reproduction procedures. Peroxidase test is the standard method recommended by WHO to detect semen leukocytes but it may be inaccurate. The aims of this study were (i) to compare the efficiency of swim-up and density-gradient centrifugation techniques in removing seminal leukocytes, (ii) to examine the effect of leukocytes on sperm preparation, and (iii) to compare flow cytometry and peroxidase test in determining leukocyte concentration in semen using a multiparameter flow cytometric method. Methods Semen samples from 126 male partners of couples undergoing infertility investigations were analyzed for leukocytospermia using standard optical microscopy and flow cytometry. Sixty-nine out of 126 samples were also processed using simultaneously the swim-up and density-gradient centrifugation techniques. A multiparameter flow cytometric analysis to assess simultaneously sperm concentration, sperm viability, sperm apoptosis, and leukocyte concentration was carried out on neat and prepared sperm. Results Both sperm preparation methods removed most seminal leukocytes. However, the concentration of leukocytes was significantly lower after swim-up compared to that after density-gradient centrifugation preparation. Leukocytes concentration, either initial or in prepared fractions, was not correlated with sperm parameters (optical microscopy and flow cytometry parameters) after semen processing. There was no correlation between leukocyte concentration in the ejaculate and sperm recovery rate, whereas a significant correlation was found between the concentration of the residual leukocytes in prepared fractions and viable sperm recovery rate. Although the overall concordance between the flow cytometry and the optical microscopy was satisfactory, the sensitivity of peroxidase test for the detection of leukocytospermia resulted low. Conclusion Seminal leukocytes do not seem to influence sperm preparation results. However, for assisted conception, semen samples containing leukocytes should be processed using swim-up method. Although peroxidase-test is recommended by WHO as the standard method for determining semen leukocytes, it should not be used in clinical research study.

2009-01-01

137

Novel Approaches of Sperm Selection for ART: The Role of Objective Biochemical Markers of Nuclear and Cytoplasmic Integrity and Sperm Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a With the technological advancements in assisted reproduction treatment, it is now feasible to cause fertilization and pregnancy\\u000a by injection of a single spermatozoon into the oocyte via the ICSI method. The ultimate goal in this respect is the selection\\u000a of a spermatozoon that has genetic and cellular attributes comparable to those sperm that interact with the zona pellucida\\u000a under physiological

Gabor Huszar; Denny Sakkas

138

Current knowledge of the human sperm proteome.  

PubMed

The knowledge of the mature sperm proteome is undoubtedly the basis for understanding sperm function, the mechanisms responsible for fertilization, the reasons for infertility and possible treatments. The methods of sperm protein extraction depend mainly on the proteins of interest and the protein separation techniques that will be employed. The isolation of the membrane proteins appears to be most problematic step. Nevertheless, two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry have become the main techniques used in human sperm protein analysis. We outline the present techniques used to examine the sperm proteome and data generated from studies on the human sperm and different types of male infertility. We present the most characteristic proteins that are involved in sperm function. Their value as biomarkers for diagnosis and treatment of infertility would require further validation. We focus on selected and critical studies of the human sperm proteome to present our subjective view of this fast-moving field. PMID:24168729

Nowicka-Bauer, Karolina; Kurpisz, Maciej

2013-12-01

139

Automated sperm immobilization for intracytoplasmic sperm injection.  

PubMed

Sperm immobilization is a requisite step in intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Conventionally, sperm immobilization is performed manually, which entails long training hours and stringent skills. Manual sperm immobilization also has the limitation of low success rates and poor reproducibility due to human fatigue and skill variations across operators. This paper presents a system for fully automated sperm immobilization to eliminate limitations in manual operation. Integrating computer vision and motion control algorithms, the automated system is able to visually track a sperm and control a micropipette to immobilize the sperm. A robust sperm tail tracking algorithm is developed to locate the optimal position on the sperm tail for sperm immobilization. The system demonstrates: 1) an average sperm tail tracking error of 0.95 ?m; 2) a sperm tail visual tracking success rate of 96%; 3) a sperm immobilization success rate of 88.2% (based on 1000 trials); and 4) a speed of 6-7 s per successful immobilization. PMID:21156388

Leung, Clement; Lu, Zhe; Esfandiari, Navid; Casper, Robert F; Sun, Yu

2011-04-01

140

Reduced metabolic rate and oxygen radicals production in stored insect sperm.  

PubMed

Females of internally fertilizing species can significantly extend sperm lifespan and functionality during sperm storage. The mechanisms for such delayed cellular senescence remain unknown. Here, we apply current hypotheses of cellular senescence developed for diploid cells to sperm cells, and empirically test opposing predictions on the relationship between sperm metabolic rate and oxygen radical production in an insect model, the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus. Using time-resolved microfluorimetry, we found a negative correlation between metabolic rate (proportion of protein-bound NAD[P]H) and in situ intracellular oxygen radicals production in freshly ejaculated sperm. In contrast, sperm stored by females for periods of 1 h to 26 days showed a positive correlation between metabolic rate and oxygen radicals production. At the same time, stored sperm showed a 37 per cent reduced metabolic rate, and 42 per cent reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, compared with freshly ejaculated sperm. Rank differences between males in ROS production and metabolic rate observed in ejaculated sperm did not predict rank differences in stored sperm. Our method of simultaneously measuring ROS production and metabolic rate of the same sample has the advantage of providing data that are independent of sperm density and any extracellular antioxidants that are proteins. Our method also excludes effects owing to accumulated hydrogen peroxide. Our results unify aspects of competing theories of cellular ageing and suggest that reducing metabolic rate may be an important means of extending stored sperm lifespan and functionality in crickets. Our data also provide a possible explanation for why traits of ejaculates sampled from the male may be rather poor predictors of paternity in sexual selection studies and likelihood of pregnancy in reproductive medicine. PMID:22279170

Ribou, Anne-Cécile; Reinhardt, Klaus

2012-06-01

141

Treated wastewater effluent reduces sperm motility along an osmolality gradient.  

PubMed

Many toxic effects of treated wastewater effluent on organismal and reproductive health have been documented. However, the physicochemical environment of treated wastewater effluent frequently differs considerably from that of its receiving waters and may affect organismal function independently of toxic effects. Teleost sperm, for example, may be affected by the higher osmolality of treated wastewater, as this sperm is activated for a brief period of time following ejaculation due to the sudden decrease in osmolality of its surrounding environment. In this study, we examined the effects of treated wastewater effluent on sperm motility to test the hypothesis that the higher osmolality of effluent compared to river water will adversely affect sperm activation in a concentration-dependent relationship. Treated wastewater effluent was collected on 5 days from the outflow of the Metropolitan Wastewater Treatment Plant, St. Paul, Minnesota, and from an upstream site on the Mississippi River. Milt aliquots collected from goldfish were diluted in an isotonic extender solution and subsequently activated in either deionized water, 100%, 50%, or 10% effluent, a synthetic ion mixture, or river water. Sperm motility and velocity were assessed at 15-s intervals for 1 min using a computer assisted sperm analyzer. Significant differences in performance parameters were found only at 15 s, with sperm motility and velocity declining rapidly at later sampling times. Predictably, deionized water resulted in the greatest activation of sperm motility, while motility exhibited a concentration-dependent decline in 10%, 50%, and 100% treated wastewater effluent. Interestingly, Mississippi River water and a synthetic ion mixture with an osmolality comparable to 50% effluent both resulted in the least amount of sperm activation. However, sperm activation in river water varied between collection days during the study. River water and 100% effluent both had low sperm activation characteristics despite a 10-fold difference in osmolality between these two treatments (1 and 10 mOsmol kg(-1), respectively). Results of this study indicate a concentration-dependent decrease in sperm motility in treated wastewater effluent as well as significant fluctuations of sperm activation in Mississippi River water. This study illustrates the complexity of assessing the effects of treated wastewater effluents and the difficulty of determining appropriate reference sites for such studies. PMID:18769849

Schoenfuss, H L; Levitt, J T; Rai, R; Julius, M L; Martinovic, D

2009-04-01

142

The precursor region of a protein active in sperm-egg fusion contains a metalloprotease and a disintegrin domain: structural, functional, and evolutionary implications.  

PubMed Central

PH-30, a sperm surface protein involved in sperm-egg fusion, is composed of two subunits, alpha and beta, which are synthesized as precursors and processed, during sperm development, to yield the mature forms. The mature PH-30 alpha/beta complex resembles certain viral fusion proteins in membrane topology and predicted binding and fusion functions. Furthermore, the mature subunits are similar in sequence to each other and to a family of disintegrin domain-containing snake venom proteins. We report here the sequences of the PH-30 alpha and beta precursor regions. Their domain organizations are similar to each other and to precursors of snake venom metalloproteases and disintegrins. The alpha precursor region contains, from amino to carboxyl terminus, pro, metalloprotease, and disintegrin domains. The beta precursor region contains pro and metalloprotease domains. Residues diagnostic of a catalytically active metalloprotease are present in the alpha, but not the beta, precursor region. We propose that the active sites of the PH-30 alpha and snake venom metalloproteases are structurally similar to that of astacin. PH-30, acting through its metalloprotease and/or disintegrin domains, could be involved in sperm development as well as sperm-egg binding and fusion. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that PH-30 stems from a multidomain ancestral protein. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4

Wolfsberg, T G; Bazan, J F; Blobel, C P; Myles, D G; Primakoff, P; White, J M

1993-01-01

143

Cytometric analysis of shape and DNA content in mammalian sperm  

SciTech Connect

Male germ cells respond dramatically to a variety of insults and are important reproductive dosimeters. Semen analyses are very useful in studies on the effects of drugs, chemicals, and environmental hazards on testicular function, male fertility and heritable germinal mutations. Sperm were analyzed by flow cytometry and slit-scan flow analysis for injury following the exposure of testes to mutagens. The utility of flow cytometry in genotoxin screening and monitoring of occupational exposure was evaluated. The technique proved valuable in separation of X- and Y-chromosome bearing sperm and the potential applicability of this technique in artificial insemination and a solution, of accurately assessing the DNA content of sperm were evaluated-with reference to determination of X- and Y-chromosome bearing sperm.

Gledhill, B.L.

1983-10-10

144

Novel and traditional traits of frozen-thawed porcine sperm related to in vitro fertilization success.  

PubMed

Cryopreserved semen allows the use of single ejaculates for repeated analyses, potentially improving IVF consistency by eliminating interejaculate variability observed with fresh semen. However, the freezing and thawing processes result in compromised sperm function and IVF success. Semen samples are often screened for motility before use for IVF. Samples that are below a designated motility threshold may be discarded. Our objectives were to determine if post-thaw sperm motility, other traits that may be indicative of sperm function, or a novel assay of oviduct binding were related to IVF success. Semen from 16 boars was cooled to 15 °C for overnight shipment before cryopreservation. Semen was thawed and motility was recorded microscopically and confirmed using computer-automated sperm assessment. Each sample was tested by IVF in two to three independent replicates. Regression and correlation analyses were employed to determine the interrelationships between sperm traits and the relationships between post-thaw motility, sperm-oviduct binding and IVF outcomes. Among the sperm traits examined, sperm acrosome integrity was negatively correlated with post-thaw motility (r(2) = 0.64) but not with IVF results. The number of sperm bound to oviduct aggregates was correlated with IVF polyspermy rates (r(2) = 0.62, P < 0.05) but less with overall IVF rates (r(2) = 0.31, P > 0.10). There was some relationship of post-thaw motility with IVF monospermic fertilization (P = 0.06, r(2) = 0.08) but not to other IVF outcomes. Our results indicate that post-thaw motility of frozen-thawed boar sperm is strongly related to acrosome integrity but has limited use for predicting IVF success. The number of sperm bound to oviduct cells was related to IVF polyspermy rates and may be more indicative of in vitro sperm function than traditional sperm motility and acrosome status evaluation. PMID:24839923

Daigneault, Bradford W; McNamara, Kelli A; Purdy, Phillip H; Krisher, Rebecca L; Knox, Robert V; Miller, David J

2014-07-15

145

Osmotic tolerance of avian spermatozoa: Influence of time, temperature, cryoprotectant and membrane ion pump function on sperm viability  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Potential factors influencing sperm survival under hypertonic conditions were evaluated in the Sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) and turkey (Meleagridis gallopavo). Sperm osmotolerance (300-3000 mOsm/kg) was evaluated after: (1) equilibration times of 2, 10, 45 and 60 min at 4 ?C versus 21 ?C; (2) pre-equilibrating with dimethylacetamide (DMA) or dimethylsulfoxide (Me2SO) at either 4 ?C or 21 ?C; and (3) inhibition of the Na+/K+ and the Na+/H+ antiporter membrane ionic pumps. Sperm viability was assessed using the eosin-nigrosin live/dead stain. Species-specific differences occurred in response to hypertonic conditions with crane sperm remaining viable under extreme hypertonicity (3000 mOsm/kg), whereas turkey sperm viability was compromised with only slightly hypertonic (500 mOsm/kg) conditions. The timing of spermolysis under hypertonic conditions was also species-specific, with a shorter interval for turkey (2 min) than crane (10 min) sperm. Turkey sperm osmotolerance was slightly improved by lowering the incubation temperature from 21 to 4 ?C. Pre-equilibrating sperm with DMA reduced the incidence of hypertonic spermolysis only in the crane, at both room and refrigeration temperature. Inhibiting the Na+/K+ and the Na+/H+ antiporter membrane ion pumps did not impair resistance of crane and turkey spermatozoa to hypertonic stress; pump inhibition actually increased turkey sperm survival compared to control sperm. Results demonstrate marked species specificity in osmotolerance between crane and turkey sperm, as well as in the way temperature and time of exposure affect sperm survival under hypertonic conditions. Differences are independent of the role of osmotic pumps in these species.

Blanco, J.M.; Long, J.A.; Gee, G.; Donoghue, A.M.; Wildt, D.E.

2008-01-01

146

Subcellular preservation in giant ostracod sperm from an early Miocene cave deposit in Australia.  

PubMed

Cypridoidean ostracods are one of a number of animal taxa that reproduce with giant sperm, up to 10 000 µm in length, but they are the only group to have aflagellate, filamentous giant sperm. The evolution and function of this highly unusual feature of reproduction with giant sperm are currently unknown. The hypothesis of long-term evolutionary persistence of this kind of reproduction has never been tested. We here report giant sperm discovered by propagation phase contrast X-ray synchrotron micro- and nanotomography, preserved in five Miocene ostracod specimens from Queensland, Australia. The specimens belong to the species Heterocypris collaris Matzke-Karasz et al. 2013 (one male and three females) and Newnhamia mckenziana Matzke-Karasz et al. 2013 (one female). The sperm are not only the oldest petrified gametes on record, but include three-dimensional subcellular preservation. We provide direct evidence that giant sperm have been a feature of this taxon for at least 16 Myr and provide an additional criterion (i.e. longevity) to test hypotheses relating to origin and function of giant sperm in the animal kingdom. We further argue that the highly resistant, most probably chitinous coats of giant ostracod sperm may play a role in delaying decay processes, favouring early mineralization of soft tissue. PMID:24827442

Matzke-Karasz, Renate; Neil, John V; Smith, Robin J; Symonová, Radka; Mo?kovský, Libor; Archer, Michael; Hand, Suzanne J; Cloetens, Peter; Tafforeau, Paul

2014-07-01

147

The use of a hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) test on sperm of the pig (Sus scrofa domesticus), emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae), Asian elephant (Elephas maximus), hamadryas baboon (Papio hamadryas hamadryas), and central rock rat (Zyzomys pedunculatus).  

PubMed

A hypo-osmotic swelling test using TALP-HEPES medium over a range of 50 to 300 mOsm/kg was applied to sperm from domestic and endangered species. Maximal responses of curling of the sperm tails were seen over a range of osmolalities for epididymal sperm from the pig (100 mOsm/kg), hamadryas baboon (range 50-125 mOsm/kg), and central rock rat (range 50-100 mOsm/kg), and the ejaculated sperm from the emu (50 mOsm/kg) and the Asian elephant (range 75-150 mOsm/kg). A solution of TALP-HEPES medium at 100 mOsm/kg would be suitable to obtain the maximal response in this range of mammals tested, though it would need to be diluted to at least 50 mOsm/kg when testing the viability of the emu sperm. PMID:19734955

Matson, Phillip; Kappelle, Wendy; Malecki, Irek

2009-07-01

148

Temperature controlled centrifugation improves sperm retrieval.  

PubMed

Sperm retrieval techniques form an integral part of the assisted reproductive programme. The success of sperm separation is measured by the number of motile sperm retrieved from a given semen sample. The study aimed to evaluate the effect of temperature during sperm preparation events on the number and percentage motile sperm retrieved following a double wash swim-up procedure. Thirty semen samples were obtained from 10 normozoospermic donors. After collection samples were divided into two aliquots, one aliquot was placed in an incubator at 34 °C, while the second aliquot was left at room temperature (25 °C). Sperm motility assessments were recorded with a computer assisted sperm analyser. Motile sperm fractions were retrieved from the semen samples following a double wash swim-up technique. Two tubes were prepared for each experiment. Tubes were placed in two different centrifuges: (i) SpermFuge (Shivani Industries, India) with temperature centrifuge control (34 °C) and (ii) Sigma with no temperature control facilities. Both centrifuges were set at 484 g for 5 min. Following the second wash, sperm pellets were layered with culture medium, and sperm was allowed to swim up. Supernatants were removed and analysed for sperm concentration and motility values. Percentage motile sperm was transformed to ARCSIN values and results of the two centrifugation methods at 34 °C and room temperature were compared with Mann-Whitney test for independent samples. The mean sperm concentration retrieved at 34 °C was 43.8 ± 50 (SpermFuge) and 32.7 ± 21 (Sigma) (P < 0.05), compared to retrieved concentration at room temperature namely, 30.9 ± 33 (SpermFuge) and 30.6 ± 17 (Sigma) (P ? 0.05). The mean percentage motile sperm at 34 °C was 64.0 ± 19 (SpermFuge) and 44.2 ± 24 (Sigma) (P = 0.02), while at room temperature the percentage motile sperm was 54.7 ± 17 (SpermFuge) compared to 46.5 ± 14 (Sigma) (P ? 0.05). Centrifuge temperature and incubation temperature significantly influenced the percentage retrieved motile sperm. The use of temperature-controlled sperm preparation might have clinical value for men with poor sperm motility values. PMID:21561464

Franken, D R; van Wyk, R; Stoumann, C; Avari, K

2011-06-01

149

Sperm pathology: a step beyond descriptive morphology. Origin, characterization and fertility potential of abnormal sperm phenotypes in infertile men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sperm pathology is presented as the discipline of characterizing structural and functional deficiencies in abnormal spermatozoa. This concept complements that of sperm morphology mainly concerned with the appearance of spermatozoa. These two notions collaborate in providing correlations of prognostic value with sperm fertilizing capacity, explaining the mechanisms of sperm inefficiency, suggesting strategies to improve fertilization and opening a door to

Hector E. Chemes; Vanesa Y. Rawe

2003-01-01

150

Phenotypic engineering of sperm-production rate confirms evolutionary predictions of sperm competition theory  

PubMed Central

Sperm production is a key male reproductive trait and an important parameter in sperm competition theory. Under sperm competition, paternity success is predicted to depend strongly on male allocation to sperm production. Furthermore, because sperm production is inherently costly, individuals should economize in sperm expenditure, and conditional adjustment of the copulation frequency according to their sperm availability may be expected. However, experimental studies showing effects of sperm production on mating behaviour and paternity success have so far been scarce, mainly because sperm production is difficult to manipulate directly in animals. Here, we used phenotypic engineering to manipulate sperm-production rate, by employing dose-dependent RNA interference (RNAi) of a spermatogenesis-specific gene, macbol1, in the free-living flatworm Macrostomum lignano. We demonstrate (i) that our novel dose-dependent RNAi approach allows us to induce high variability in sperm-production rate; (ii) that a reduced sperm-production rate is associated with a decreased copulation frequency, suggesting conditional adjustment of mating behaviour; and (iii) that both sperm production and copulation frequency are important determinants of paternity success in a competitive situation, as predicted by sperm competition theory. Our study clearly documents the potential of phenotypic engineering via dose-dependent RNAi to test quantitative predictions of evolutionary theory.

Sekii, Kiyono; Vizoso, Dita B.; Kuales, Georg; De Mulder, Katrien; Ladurner, Peter; Scharer, Lukas

2013-01-01

151

Phenotypic engineering of sperm-production rate confirms evolutionary predictions of sperm competition theory.  

PubMed

Sperm production is a key male reproductive trait and an important parameter in sperm competition theory. Under sperm competition, paternity success is predicted to depend strongly on male allocation to sperm production. Furthermore, because sperm production is inherently costly, individuals should economize in sperm expenditure, and conditional adjustment of the copulation frequency according to their sperm availability may be expected. However, experimental studies showing effects of sperm production on mating behaviour and paternity success have so far been scarce, mainly because sperm production is difficult to manipulate directly in animals. Here, we used phenotypic engineering to manipulate sperm-production rate, by employing dose-dependent RNA interference (RNAi) of a spermatogenesis-specific gene, macbol1, in the free-living flatworm Macrostomum lignano. We demonstrate (i) that our novel dose-dependent RNAi approach allows us to induce high variability in sperm-production rate; (ii) that a reduced sperm-production rate is associated with a decreased copulation frequency, suggesting conditional adjustment of mating behaviour; and (iii) that both sperm production and copulation frequency are important determinants of paternity success in a competitive situation, as predicted by sperm competition theory. Our study clearly documents the potential of phenotypic engineering via dose-dependent RNAi to test quantitative predictions of evolutionary theory. PMID:23446521

Sekii, Kiyono; Vizoso, Dita B; Kuales, Georg; De Mulder, Katrien; Ladurner, Peter; Schärer, Lukas

2013-04-22

152

Sterols in spermatogenesis and sperm maturation  

PubMed Central

Mammalian spermatogenesis is a complex developmental program in which a diploid progenitor germ cell transforms into highly specialized spermatozoa. One intriguing aspect of sperm production is the dynamic change in membrane lipid composition that occurs throughout spermatogenesis. Cholesterol content, as well as its intermediates, differs vastly between the male reproductive system and nongonadal tissues. Accumulation of cholesterol precursors such as testis meiosis-activating sterol and desmosterol is observed in testes and spermatozoa from several mammalian species. Moreover, cholesterogenic genes, especially meiosis-activating sterol-producing enzyme cytochrome P450 lanosterol 14?-demethylase, display stage-specific expression patterns during spermatogenesis. Discrepancies in gene expression patterns suggest a complex temporal and cell-type specific regulation of sterol compounds during spermatogenesis, which also involves dynamic interactions between germ and Sertoli cells. The functional importance of sterol compounds in sperm production is further supported by the modulation of sterol composition in spermatozoal membranes during epididymal transit and in the female reproductive tract, which is a prerequisite for successful fertilization. However, the exact role of sterols in male reproduction is unknown. This review discusses sterol dynamics in sperm maturation and describes recent methodological advances that will help to illuminate the complexity of sperm formation and function.

Keber, Rok; Rozman, Damjana; Horvat, Simon

2013-01-01

153

Thyroid function tests: a review.  

PubMed

In this paper, we review the tests that are executed to aid the diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction. Thyroid function tests provide information at physiological, pathological and anatomical levels. Along with history and physical examination they owe to many specific findings that are associated with thyroid functioning. So an attempt has been made to put forward a gist of thyroid function tests. Serum tests of thyroid function are serum total thyroxine (T4), serum total triiodothyronin (T3), free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronin (FT3), reverse triiodothyronin (rT3), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), serum calcitonin and protein thyroglobulin (Tg). The serological tests are antithyroglobulin antibodies (ATA) and antimicrosomal antibodies (AMA). An invasive test for histologic examination is done by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and noninvasive test includes ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography. Further molecular study provides molecular markers for thyroid cancer. These tests can provide greater sensitivity and specificity that enhance the likelihood of early detection of ambiguous thyroid disease with only minimal clinical findings. Lastly, in vivo tests are thyroidal radioiodine and iodide uptake is also done. PMID:19961039

Shivaraj, G; Prakash, B Desai; Sonal, V; Shruthi, K; Vinayak, H; Avinash, M

2009-01-01

154

Why small males have big sperm: dimorphic squid sperm linked to alternative mating behaviours  

PubMed Central

Background Sperm cells are the target of strong sexual selection that may drive changes in sperm structure and function to maximize fertilisation success. Sperm evolution is regarded to be one of the major consequences of sperm competition in polyandrous species, however it can also be driven by adaptation to the environmental conditions at the site of fertilization. Strong stabilizing selection limits intra-specific variation, and therefore polymorphism, among fertile sperm (eusperm). Here we analyzed reproductive morphology differences among males employing characteristic alternative mating behaviours, and so potentially different conditions of sperm competition and fertilization environment, in the squid Loligo bleekeri. Results Large consort males transfer smaller (average total length = 73 ?m) sperm to a female's internal sperm storage location, inside the oviduct; whereas small sneaker males transfer larger (99 ?m) sperm to an external location around the seminal receptacle near the mouth. No significant difference in swimming speed was observed between consort and sneaker sperm. Furthermore, sperm precedence in the seminal receptacle was not biased toward longer sperm, suggesting no evidence for large sperm being favoured in competition for space in the sperm storage organ among sneaker males. Conclusions Here we report the first case, in the squid Loligo bleekeri, where distinctly dimorphic eusperm are produced by different sized males that employ alternative mating behaviours. Our results found no evidence that the distinct sperm dimorphism was driven by between- and within-tactic sperm competition. We propose that presence of alternative fertilization environments with distinct characteristics (i.e. internal or external), whether or not in combination with the effects of sperm competition, can drive the disruptive evolution of sperm size.

2011-01-01

155

Persistence and intergenerational transmission of differentially expressed genes in the testes of intracytoplasmic sperm injection conceived mice*  

PubMed Central

Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is commonly used to solve male infertility problems. Previous studies showed that early environmental exposure of an embryo may influence postnatal development. To detect whether ICSI operations affect the reproductive health of a male or his offspring, we established assisted reproductive technologies (ART) conceived mouse models, and analyzed gene expression profiles in the testes of both ICSI and naturally conceived (NC) newborn F1 mice using micro-array analysis. Among the differentially expressed genes, we focused on the expression of eight male reproduction-related genes. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to analyze the expression of these genes in the testes of both adult and old F1 generation mice and adult F2 generation mice. Our results showed that down-regulated and somatic cell-expressed genes in newborn mice retained their differential expression patterns in adult and old F1 generation individuals, implying the persistence and fetal origin of the alteration in the expression of these genes. The intergenerational transmission of differential gene expression was observed, but most changes tended to be reduced in adult F2 generations. Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) mice models were added to explore the precise factors contributing to the differences in ICSI offspring. The data demonstrated that superovulation, in vitro culture, and mechanical stimulation involved in ICSI had a cumulative effect on the differential expression of these male reproductive genes.

Wang, Li-ya; Wang, Ning; Le, Fang; Li, Lei; Li, Le-jun; Liu, Xiao-zhen; Zheng, Ying-ming; Lou, Hang-ying; Xu, Xiang-rong; Zhu, Xiao-ming; Zhu, Yi-min; Huang, He-feng; Jin, Fan

2013-01-01

156

Treating boar sperm with cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrins widens the sperm osmotic tolerance limits and enhances the in vitro sperm fertilising ability.  

PubMed

Treating sperm with cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrins (CLC) improves the cryosurvival of the sperm of different cold-shock sensitive species. However, the response of boar sperm to this treatment is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to determine how CLC and methyl-?-cyclodextrin (M?CD, not loaded with cholesterol) affect the parameters for boar sperm functionality, including sperm osmotic resistance, and the ability of the sperm to capacitate and to penetrate the sow's immature oocytes in vitro. Samples treated with CLC or M?CD prior to freezing exhibited similar percentages of motile sperm, live sperm and sperm with intact acrosomes as the control samples (P>0.05). In addition, these treatments did not alter the response of the boar sperm to capacitating conditions. However, when compared to the controls and the M?CD-treated samples, the CLC-treated sperm maintained greater percentages of motile sperm and live sperm in a wide range of osmotic solutions including hypo- (50, 75 and 150 mOsm/kg) and hyper-osmotic (600, 800 mOsm/kg) conditions (P<0.05). In addition, the CLC-treated sperm exhibited greater oocyte penetration ability than the control and the M?CD-treated sperm (P<0.0001). In conclusion, the pre-freezing treatment of boar sperm with CLC does not alter the ability of the sperm to respond to capacitating conditions. Despite not increasing the cryosurvival of the sperm, this treatment widens the sperm osmotic tolerance limits and enhances the in vitro sperm fertilising ability. PMID:22218105

Tomás, Cristina; Blanch, Eva; Hernández, Marta; Gil, María A; Roca, Jordi; Vázquez, Juan M; Martínez, Emilio A; Mocé, Eva

2011-12-01

157

Fertilization dynamics of sperm from different male mating tactics in bluegill ( Lepomis macrochirus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sperm competition results in the evolution of ejaculate characteristics such as high sperm density, high mo- tility, and fast sperm swimming speed. A fundamental assumption of sperm competition theory is that ejaculates with high motility and fast-swimming sperm have an advantage with respect to fertilization success. We tested this assump- tion by studying the fertilization dynamics of alternative mating tactics

Albrecht I. Schulte-Hostedde; Gary Burness

2005-01-01

158

Sialidases on Mammalian Sperm Mediate Deciduous Sialylation during Capacitation*  

PubMed Central

Sialic acids (Sias) mediate many biological functions, including molecular recognition during development, immune response, and fertilization. A Sia-rich glycocalyx coats the surface of sperm, allowing them to survive as allogeneic cells in the female reproductive tract despite female immunity. During capacitation, sperm lose a fraction of their Sias. We quantified shed Sia monosaccharides released from capacitated sperm and measured sperm sialidase activity. We report the presence of two sialidases (neuraminidases Neu1 and Neu3) on mammalian sperm. These are themselves shed from sperm during capacitation. Inhibiting sialidase activity interferes with sperm binding to the zona pellucida of the ovum. A survey of human sperm samples for the presence of sialidases NEU1 and NEU3 identified a lack of one or both sialidases in sperm of some male idiopathic infertility cases. The results contribute new insights into the dynamic remodeling of the sperm glycocalyx prior to fertilization.

Ma, Fang; Wu, Diana; Deng, Liwen; Secrest, Patrick; Zhao, June; Varki, Nissi; Lindheim, Steven; Gagneux, Pascal

2012-01-01

159

Exposure in utero to 2,2',3,3',4,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 132) impairs sperm function and alters testicular apoptosis-related gene expression in rat offspring  

SciTech Connect

Toxicity of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) depends on their molecular structure. Mechanisms by prenatal exposure to a non-dioxin-like PCB, 2,2',3,4',5',6-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 132) that may act on reproductive pathways in male offspring are relatively unknown. The purpose was to determine whether epididymal sperm function and expression of apoptosis-related genes were induced or inhibited by prenatal exposure to PCB 132. Pregnant rats were treated with a single dose of PCB 132 at 1 or 10 mg/kg on gestational day 15. Male offspring were killed and the epididymal sperm counts, motility, velocity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, sperm-oocyte penetration rate (SOPR), testicular histopathology, apoptosis-related gene expression and caspase activation were assessed on postnatal day 84. Prenatal exposure to PCB 132 with a single dose of 1 or 10 mg/kg decreased cauda epididymal weight, epididymal sperm count and motile epididymal sperm count in adult offspring. The spermatozoa of PCB 132-exposed offspring produced significantly higher levels of ROS than the controls; ROS induction and SOPR reduction were dose-related. In the low-dose PCB 132 group, p53 was significantly induced and caspase-3 was inhibited. In the high-dose group, activation of caspase-3 and -9 was significantly increased, while the expressions of Fas, Bax, bcl-2, and p53 genes were significantly decreased. Gene expression and caspase activation data may provide insight into the mechanisms by which exposure to low-dose or high-dose PCB 132 affects reproduction in male offspring in rats. Because the doses of PCB 132 administered to the dams were approximately 625-fold in low-dose group and 6250-fold higher in high-dose group than the concentration in human tissue levels, the concentrations are not biologically or environmentally relevant. Further studies using environmentally relevant doses are needed for hazard identification.

Hsu, P.-C. [Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Pan, M.-H. [Department of Seafood Science, National Kaohsiung Marine University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Li, L.-A. [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Taiwan (China); Chen, C.-J. [Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Tsai, S.-S. [Department of Veterinary Medicine, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung, Taiwan (China); Guo, Y.L. [No. 1, Section 1, Jen-Ai Road, Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei 100, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: leonguo@ha.mc.ntu.edu.tw

2007-05-15

160

Structural and Functional Studies of the Protamine 2-Zinc Complex from Syrian Gold Hamster (Mesocricetus Auratus) Spermatids and Sperm  

SciTech Connect

The research described in this dissertation consists of four major areas: (1) sequence analysis of protamine 2 from Muroid rodents to identify potential zinc-binding domain(s) of protamine 2; (2) structural studies of the protamine 2-zinc complex from Syrian Gold hamster sperm and spermatids to elucidate the role of zinc during spermiogenesis; (3) structural studies of an unique protamine 2-zinc complex from chinchilla sperm; and (4) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) studies of soluble complexes of hairpin oligonucleotides with synthetic arginine-rich peptides or protamine 1 isolated from bull sperm. First, zinc was quantitated in spermatids and sperm by Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) to determine whether zinc is present in the early stages of spermiogenesis. The PIXE results revealed the zinc content varies proportionately with the amount of protamine 2 in both spermatid and sperm nuclei. An exception was chinchilla sperm containing twice the amount of protamine 2 than zinc. Further analyses by PIXE and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) of zinc bound to protamines isolated from hamster sperm confirmed the majority of the zinc is bound to protamine and identified the zinc ligands of protamine 2 in hamster spermatids and sperm in vivo. These studies established that zinc is bound to the protamine 2 precursor in hamster spermatids and the coordination of zinc by protamine 2 changes during spermiogenesis. Finally, the sequence analysis combined with the XAS results suggest that the zinc-binding domain in protamine 2 resides in the amino-terminus. Similar analyses of chinchilla sperm by XAS were performed to clarify the unusual PIXE results and revealed that chinchilla has an atypical protamine 2-zinc structure. Two protamine 2 molecules coordinate one zinc atom, forming homodimers that facilitate the binding of protamine 2 to DNA and provide an organizational scheme that would accommodate the observed species-specific protamine stoichiometry in mammalian sperm. Based on these results, we propose the binding of zinc to protamine 2 molecules stabilizes a dimerization domain in other mammalian sperm. Future experiments will use the knowledge we gained of the interactions between protamine 1 and DNA from the NMR studies to obtain structural data for the DNA-protamine 2-zinc complex.

Dolan, C E

2004-08-30

161

Testing Properties of Boolean Functions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Given oracle access to some boolean function f, how many queries do we need to test whether f is linear. Or monotone. Or whether its output is completely determined by a small number of the input variables. This thesis studies these and related questions ...

E. Blais

2012-01-01

162

Vehicle Transfer Function Test Contingency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The TFT is a forced response test that measures HST system modal parameters {modal gains, modal damping ratios and frequencies} by applying a RWA forcing function and measuring RGA gyro response. This test will be performed if PCS analysis of post-SM3B HST flight data {such as the VDT} suggests that HST system modal parameters significantly differ from pre-SM3B analytical models. On-orbit modal parameters that differ from pre-SM3B models can cause degraded performance of the HST attitude control system because of reductions in stability margins and/or increased vehicle jitter. The test occurs after release and at least 24-hours after the Vehicle Disturbance Test is complete. The NCC will be operating at steady state temperature {out of surge}. The overall duration of the TFT is approximately 18 orbits of spacecraft time in gyro hold that includes nine orbits in the +V3 sunpoint orientation and nine orbits at V1 sunpoint. While in each orientation, three orbits will be allocated for applying forcing functions about each of the three vehicle axes. Forced response of the HST is required at two different vehicle attitudes because HST modal parameters are a function of solar array angle. At the beginning of the test, Stored Program Command macros are activated in real time to establish modified PN Format telemetry, to switch the attitude control law to the maneuver gain set, to command the gyros to low mode, and to disable velocity aberration and parallax {VAP} processing in the flight computer. Each TFT forcing function will be prescribed by flight software table loads that will be uplinked in real time prior to each test. As many as 14500 SPC words of flight computer memory will be required to store each forcing function, and this will require the STScI to use 8000 SPC words less than the normal allocation used for the SMS. It is anticipated that each forcing function will take approximately 12.5 minutes to uplink. After uplink, the forcing function is activated via real time command and it runs for at least one orbit. The nominal telemetry format and attitude control law configuration will be restored at the end of the test via real time command.

Clapp, Brian

2001-07-01

163

Assessment of sperm quality analyzer II B: comparison with manual semen analysis and CASA.  

PubMed

Two hundred and seven patients with male infertility were investigated. Total sperm concentration and percent progressive motility by SQA IIB showed high correlations with those of conventional manual method. Percent of normal morphology showed a significant correlation among these techniques. The sperm motility index (SMI) and total functional sperm concentration (TFSC) demonstrated high correlations with any variables of manual analysis. Only velocity and amplitude of lateral head displacement showed significant correlations with the variables obtained by SQA IIB, especially with SMI and TFSC. It was suggested that SQA IIB could be a useful instrument in the clinical practice of infertility as a screening test for semen quality. PMID:15764419

Fuse, H; Akashi, T; Nozaki, T; Nishio, R; Mizuno, I

2005-01-01

164

Utilisation of a sperm quality analyser to evaluate sperm quantity and quality of turkey breeders.  

PubMed

1. A relatively new instrument known as a Sperm Quality Analyzer (SQA) offers a rapid assessment of sperm quality and quantity by providing a sperm quality index (SQI). The SQA measures a combination of the intensity of sperm activity and motile concentration by determining the number and amplitude of sperm movements per second in a capillary tube as detected through light beam interference. 2. Because the SQA has not been tested for its potential use in turkeys, the objective was to determine if the SQA could accurately respond to changes in turkey sperm concentration, viability, and motility in semen collected from turkey breeders. 3. The effect of varying concentrations of sperm on SQI values was evaluated by diluting replicate pools of semen from 4 different aged turkey breeder flocks with saline. Results from all 4 flocks showed that semen dilutions greater than 20-fold resulted in a linear decline in SQI values. 4. Additional in vitro analysis evaluated the effects of turkey sperm viability on the SQI under conditions of constant sperm concentration. Incubated, live sperm was mixed in various proportions with thawed, dead sperm to determine changes in viability. Increased proportions of dead sperm caused a decline in the SQI. 5. To assess sperm motility, turkey semen was incubated under either aerobic (motile) or anaerobic (immotile) conditions. Varied amounts of immotile and motile sperm samples were mixed. A linear increase in the SQI was observed as per cent motile sperm increased. 6. These results indicate that the SQA can respond to differences in turkey sperm concentration, viability, and motility using in vitro analyses. PMID:12195806

Neuman, S L; McDaniel, C D; Frank, L; Radu, J; Einstein, M E; Hester, P Y

2002-07-01

165

Epididymal Hypo-Osmolality Induces Abnormal Sperm Morphology and Function in the Estrogen Receptor Alpha Knockout Mouse1  

PubMed Central

Estrogen receptor-alpha (ESR1) is highly expressed in the efferent ductules of all species studied as well as in the epididymal epithelium in mice and other select species. Male mice lacking ESR1 (Esr1KO) are infertile, but transplantation studies demonstrated that Esr1KO germ cells are capable of fertilization when placed in a wild-type reproductive tract. These results suggest that extratesticular regions, such as the efferent ductules and epididymis, are the major source of pathological changes in Esr1KO males. Previous studies have shown alterations in ion and fluid transporters in the efferent duct and epididymal epithelia of Esr1KO males, leading to misregulation of luminal fluid pH. To determine the effect of an altered epididymal milieu on Esr1KO sperm, we assayed sperm morphology in the different regions of the epididymis. Sperm recovered from the epididymis exhibited abnormal flagellar coiling and increased incidence of spontaneous acrosome reactions, both of which are consistent with exposure to abnormal epididymal fluid. Analysis of the epididymal fluid revealed that the osmolality of the Esr1KO fluid was reduced relative to wild type, consistent with prior reports of inappropriate fluid absorption from the efferent ductules. This, along with the finding that morphological defects increased with transit through the epididymal duct, suggests that the anomalies in sperm are a consequence of the abnormal luminal environment. Consistent with this, incubating Esr1KO sperm in a more wild-type-like osmotic environment significantly rescued the abnormal flagellar coiling. This work demonstrates that Esr1KO mice exhibit an abnormal fluid environment in the lumen of the efferent ducts and epididymis, precluding normal sperm maturation and instead resulting in progressive deterioration of sperm that contributes to infertility.

Joseph, Avenel; Shur, Barry D.; Ko, CheMyong; Chambon, Pierre; Hess, Rex A.

2010-01-01

166

Epididymal hypo-osmolality induces abnormal sperm morphology and function in the estrogen receptor alpha knockout mouse.  

PubMed

Estrogen receptor-alpha (ESR1) is highly expressed in the efferent ductules of all species studied as well as in the epididymal epithelium in mice and other select species. Male mice lacking ESR1 (Esr1KO) are infertile, but transplantation studies demonstrated that Esr1KO germ cells are capable of fertilization when placed in a wild-type reproductive tract. These results suggest that extratesticular regions, such as the efferent ductules and epididymis, are the major source of pathological changes in Esr1KO males. Previous studies have shown alterations in ion and fluid transporters in the efferent duct and epididymal epithelia of Esr1KO males, leading to misregulation of luminal fluid pH. To determine the effect of an altered epididymal milieu on Esr1KO sperm, we assayed sperm morphology in the different regions of the epididymis. Sperm recovered from the epididymis exhibited abnormal flagellar coiling and increased incidence of spontaneous acrosome reactions, both of which are consistent with exposure to abnormal epididymal fluid. Analysis of the epididymal fluid revealed that the osmolality of the Esr1KO fluid was reduced relative to wild type, consistent with prior reports of inappropriate fluid absorption from the efferent ductules. This, along with the finding that morphological defects increased with transit through the epididymal duct, suggests that the anomalies in sperm are a consequence of the abnormal luminal environment. Consistent with this, incubating Esr1KO sperm in a more wild-type-like osmotic environment significantly rescued the abnormal flagellar coiling. This work demonstrates that Esr1KO mice exhibit an abnormal fluid environment in the lumen of the efferent ducts and epididymis, precluding normal sperm maturation and instead resulting in progressive deterioration of sperm that contributes to infertility. PMID:20130266

Joseph, Avenel; Shur, Barry D; Ko, CheMyong; Chambon, Pierre; Hess, Rex A

2010-05-01

167

Leukocytes and oxidative stress: dilemma for sperm function and male fertility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spermatozoa are constantly exposed to the interphase between oxidation through high amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and leukocytes, and reduction by means of scavengers and antioxidants. Considering the very special functions as being the only cells with such high polarization and exerting their functions outside the body, even in a different individual, the female genital tract, the membranes of

Ralf R Henkel

2011-01-01

168

Sperm characteristics and ultrastructure of testes of rats after long-term treatment with the methanol subfraction of Carica papaya seeds  

PubMed Central

The contraceptive efficacy of Carica papaya seeds after short-term evaluation has been well established. We have examined the safety and mechanism of contraception in rats after long-term treatment with the methanol subfraction (MSF) of C. papaya seeds. The test substance was administered orally to the male albino rats (n = 40) at 50 mg per kg body weight each day for 360 days. Control animals (n = 40) received olive oil as a vehicle. Recovery was assessed up to 120 days after treatment withdrawal. Sperm parameters, serum testosterone levels, fertility, histology and ultrastructure of the testis, haematology and serum clinical chemistry were evaluated to establish the safety and efficacy of the test substance. Safety of long-term treatment was evidenced by unaltered health status, organ weight, haematology and clinical chemistry, and by an increase in body weight. The mechanism of contraception was shown by reduction in nuclear and cytoplasmic volume, normal nuclear characteristics and vacuolization in the cytoplasmic organelles of the Sertoli cells, as well as nuclear degeneration in spermatocytes and spermatids indicating disturbed spermatogenesis. Leydig cells were normal. Initial effects were observed in Sertoli cells at 60 days of treatment. Spermatocytes and spermatids were affected after 120–240 days of treatment. A significant decline in sperm count and viability, total inhibition of sperm motility, increased numbers of sperm abnormalities, normal serum testosterone levels and 100% sterility were evident after 60 days of treatment. All the altered parameters, including percent fertility, were restored to control level 120 days after treatment withdrawal. It is concluded that the MSF is safe for long-term treatment and the mechanism of contraception is shown by its effect on spermatid differentiation in the testis, possibly mediated by the Sertoli cell factors.

Manivannan, Boomi; Mittal, Ruchi; Goyal, Shipra; Ansari, Abdul S.; Lohiya, Nirmal K.

2009-01-01

169

Sperm characteristics and ultrastructure of testes of rats after long-term treatment with the methanol subfraction of Carica papaya seeds.  

PubMed

The contraceptive efficacy of Carica papaya seeds after short-term evaluation has been well established. We have examined the safety and mechanism of contraception in rats after long-term treatment with the methanol subfraction (MSF) of C. papaya seeds. The test substance was administered orally to the male albino rats (n = 40) at 50 mg per kg body weight each day for 360 days. Control animals (n = 40) received olive oil as a vehicle. Recovery was assessed up to 120 days after treatment withdrawal. Sperm parameters, serum testosterone levels, fertility, histology and ultrastructure of the testis, haematology and serum clinical chemistry were evaluated to establish the safety and efficacy of the test substance. Safety of long-term treatment was evidenced by unaltered health status, organ weight, haematology and clinical chemistry, and by an increase in body weight. The mechanism of contraception was shown by reduction in nuclear and cytoplasmic volume, normal nuclear characteristics and vacuolization in the cytoplasmic organelles of the Sertoli cells, as well as nuclear degeneration in spermatocytes and spermatids indicating disturbed spermatogenesis. Leydig cells were normal. Initial effects were observed in Sertoli cells at 60 days of treatment. Spermatocytes and spermatids were affected after 120-240 days of treatment. A significant decline in sperm count and viability, total inhibition of sperm motility, increased numbers of sperm abnormalities, normal serum testosterone levels and 100% sterility were evident after 60 days of treatment. All the altered parameters, including percent fertility, were restored to control level 120 days after treatment withdrawal. It is concluded that the MSF is safe for long-term treatment and the mechanism of contraception is shown by its effect on spermatid differentiation in the testis, possibly mediated by the Sertoli cell factors. PMID:19648937

Manivannan, Boomi; Mittal, Ruchi; Goyal, Shipra; Ansari, Abdul S; Lohiya, Nirmal K

2009-09-01

170

Sperm cell proteomics.  

PubMed

The spermatozoon is an accessible cell which can be easily purified and therefore it is particularly well suited for proteomic analysis. It is also an extremely differentiated cell with very marked genetic, cellular, functional and chromatin changes as compared to other cells, and has profound implications for fertility, embryo development and heredity. The recent developments in MS have boosted the potential for identification and study of the sperm proteins. Catalogues of hundreds to thousands of spermatozoan proteins in human and in model species are becoming available setting up the basis for subsequent research, diagnostic applications and the development of specific treatments. The present article reviews the available scientific publications dealing with the composition and function of the sperm cell using an MS proteomic approach. PMID:19212950

Oliva, Rafael; de Mateo, Sara; Estanyol, Josep Maria

2009-02-01

171

Antlers honestly advertise sperm production and quality  

PubMed Central

Evolutionary theory proposes that exaggerated male traits have evolved via sexual selection, either through female mate choice or male–male competition. While female preferences for ornamented males have been amply demonstrated in other taxa, among mammals sexual characters are commonly regarded as weapons whose main function is to enhance male competitiveness in agonistic encounters. One particularly controversial hypothesis to explain the function of male sexual characters proposes that they advertise male fertility. We test this hypothesis in red deer (Cervus elaphus), a species where sexual characters (antlers) reach an extreme degree of elaboration. We find that a global measure of relative antler size and complexity is associated with relative testes size and sperm velocity. Our results exclude the possibility that condition dependence, age or time of culling, drive these associations. Red deer antlers could signal male fertility to females, the ability to avoid sperm depletion throughout the reproductive season and/or the competitive ability of ejaculates. By contrast, male antlers could also signal to other males not only their competitive ability at the behavioural level (fighting ability) but also at the physiological level (sperm competition).

Malo, Aurelio F.; Roldan, Eduardo R. S.; Garde, Julian; Soler, Ana J.; Gomendio, Montserrat

2005-01-01

172

Methodological advances in sperm proteomics.  

PubMed

Proteomics is the study of the proteins of cells or tissues. Sperm proteomics aims to identify the proteins that compose the sperm cell and the study of their function. Recent developments in mass spectrometry (MS) have markedly increased the throughput to identify and study sperm proteins. Catalogues of hundreds to thousands of spermatozoan proteins in human and in model species are becoming available setting up the basis for subsequent research, diagnostic applications and the development of specific treatments. A wide range of MS techniques are also rapidly becoming available for researchers. The present review summarises the different methodological options to study the sperm cell using MS and to provide a summary of some of the ongoing proteomic studies. PMID:21117936

Oliva, Rafael; De Mateo, Sara; Castillo, Judit; Azpiazu, Rubén; Oriola, Josep; Ballescà, Josep Lluís

2010-12-01

173

Involvement of the prostate and testis expression (PATE)-like proteins in sperm-oocyte interaction  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND The prostate and testis expression (PATE)-like family of proteins are expressed mainly in the male genital tract. They are localized in the sperm head and are homologous to SP-10, the acrosomal vesicle protein also named ACRV1. Our aim was to characterize the expression and functional role of three PATE-like proteins in the testis and ejaculated sperm. METHODS The expression and localization of PATE-like proteins in human testis biopsies (n= 95) and sperm cells were assessed by RT–PCR, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence staining (at least 600 sperm cells per specimen). The function of the PATE protein was tested by the hemizona assay and hamster egg penetration test (HEPT). RESULTS PATE and PATE-M genes and proteins were present almost exclusively in germ cells in the testis: immunoflourescence showed that the percentage of germ cells positive for PATE, PATE-M and PATE-B was 85, 50 and 2%, respectively. PATE and PATE-M proteins were localized in the equatorial segment of the sperm head, while PATE-B protein was localized in the post-acrosomal region. A polyclonal antibody (Ab, at 1:50 and 1:200 dilutions) against the PATE protein did not inhibit sperm–zona binding in the hemizona assay (hemizona index of 89.6 ± 10 and 87 ± 36%, respectively). However, there was inhibition of sperm–oolemma fusion and penetration in the HEPT (penetration index: without Ab 7 ± 3.9; Ab dilution of 1:100, 4 ± 3.5; Ab dilution of 1:20, 0.6 ± 1.2, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Our data suggest that PATE protein is involved in sperm–oolemma fusion and penetration but not sperm–zona binding.

Margalit, M.; Yogev, L.; Yavetz, H.; Lehavi, O.; Hauser, R.; Botchan, A.; Barda, S.; Levitin, F.; Weiss, M.; Pastan, I.; Wreschner, D.H.; Paz, G.; Kleiman, S.E.

2012-01-01

174

Characterisation of Caenorhabditis elegans sperm transcriptome and proteome  

PubMed Central

Background Although sperm is transcriptionally and translationally quiescent, complex populations of RNAs, including mRNAs and non-coding RNAs, exist in sperm. Previous microarray analysis of germ cell mutants identified hundreds of sperm genes in Caenorhabditis elegans. To take a more comprehensive view on C. elegans sperm genes, here, we isolate highly pure sperm cells and employ high-throughput technologies to obtain sperm transcriptome and proteome. Results First, sperm transcriptome consists of considerable amounts of non-coding RNAs, many of which have not been annotated and may play functional roles during spermatogenesis. Second, apart from kinases/phosphatases as previously reported, ion binding proteins are also enriched in sperm, underlying the crucial roles of intracellular ions in post-translational regulation in sperm. Third, while the majority of sperm genes/proteins have low abundance, a small number of sperm genes/proteins are hugely enriched in sperm, implying that sperm only rely on a small set of proteins for post-translational regulation. Lastly, by extensive RNAi screening of sperm enriched genes, we identified a few genes that control fertility. Our further analysis reveals a tight correlation between sperm transcriptome and sperm small RNAome, suggesting that the endogenous siRNAs strongly repress sperm genes. This leads to an idea that the inefficient RNAi screening of sperm genes, a phenomenon currently with unknown causes, might result from the competition between the endogenous RNAi pathway and the exogenous RNAi pathway. Conclusions Together, the obtained sperm transcriptome and proteome serve as valuable resources to systematically study spermatogenesis in C. elegans.

2014-01-01

175

Honey bee ( Apis mellifera ) sperm competition in vitro — two are no less viable than one  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sperm competition is the competition between sperm of different males for the fertilization of an ovum. Queen honey bees mate\\u000a with many males over a short period, establishing ideal conditions in which sperm competition might occur. One hypothesized\\u000a mechanism by which sperm competition may occur is via sperm incapacitation (SI), which involves the killing and\\/or inhibition\\u000a of function of sperm

Sharoni Shafir; Liz Kabanoff; Michael Duncan; Benjamin P. Oldroyd

2009-01-01

176

Lactate dehydrogenase C and energy metabolism in mouse sperm.  

PubMed

We demonstrated previously that disruption of the germ cell-specific lactate dehydrogenase C gene (Ldhc) led to male infertility due to defects in sperm function, including a rapid decline in sperm ATP levels, a decrease in progressive motility, and a failure to develop hyperactivated motility. We hypothesized that lack of LDHC disrupts glycolysis by feedback inhibition, either by causing a defect in renewal of the NAD(+) cofactor essential for activity of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, sperm (GAPDHS), or an accumulation of pyruvate. To test these hypotheses, nuclear magnetic resonance analysis was used to follow the utilization of labeled substrates in real time. We found that in sperm lacking LDHC, glucose consumption was disrupted, but the NAD:NADH ratio and pyruvate levels were unchanged, and pyruvate was rapidly metabolized to lactate. Moreover, the metabolic disorder induced by treatment with the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) inhibitor sodium oxamate was different from that caused by lack of LDHC. This supported our earlier conclusion that LDHA, an LDH isozyme present in the principal piece of the flagellum, is responsible for the residual LDH activity in sperm lacking LDHC, but suggested that LDHC has an additional role in the maintenance of energy metabolism in sperm. By coimmunoprecipitation coupled with mass spectrometry, we identified 27 proteins associated with LDHC. A majority of these proteins are implicated in ATP synthesis, utilization, transport, and/or sequestration. This led us to hypothesize that in addition to its role in glycolysis, LDHC is part of a complex involved in ATP homeostasis that is disrupted in sperm lacking LDHC. PMID:21565994

Odet, Fanny; Gabel, Scott A; Williams, Jason; London, Robert E; Goldberg, Erwin; Eddy, Edward M

2011-09-01

177

Lactate Dehydrogenase C and Energy Metabolism in Mouse Sperm1  

PubMed Central

We demonstrated previously that disruption of the germ cell-specific lactate dehydrogenase C gene (Ldhc) led to male infertility due to defects in sperm function, including a rapid decline in sperm ATP levels, a decrease in progressive motility, and a failure to develop hyperactivated motility. We hypothesized that lack of LDHC disrupts glycolysis by feedback inhibition, either by causing a defect in renewal of the NAD+ cofactor essential for activity of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, sperm (GAPDHS), or an accumulation of pyruvate. To test these hypotheses, nuclear magnetic resonance analysis was used to follow the utilization of labeled substrates in real time. We found that in sperm lacking LDHC, glucose consumption was disrupted, but the NAD:NADH ratio and pyruvate levels were unchanged, and pyruvate was rapidly metabolized to lactate. Moreover, the metabolic disorder induced by treatment with the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) inhibitor sodium oxamate was different from that caused by lack of LDHC. This supported our earlier conclusion that LDHA, an LDH isozyme present in the principal piece of the flagellum, is responsible for the residual LDH activity in sperm lacking LDHC, but suggested that LDHC has an additional role in the maintenance of energy metabolism in sperm. By coimmunoprecipitation coupled with mass spectrometry, we identified 27 proteins associated with LDHC. A majority of these proteins are implicated in ATP synthesis, utilization, transport, and/or sequestration. This led us to hypothesize that in addition to its role in glycolysis, LDHC is part of a complex involved in ATP homeostasis that is disrupted in sperm lacking LDHC.

Odet, Fanny; Gabel, Scott A.; Williams, Jason; London, Robert E.; Goldberg, Erwin; Eddy, Edward M.

2011-01-01

178

Expression, localization and functions in acrosome reaction and sperm motility of Ca(V)3.1 and Ca(V)3.2 channels in sperm cells: an evaluation from Ca(V)3.1 and Ca(V)3.2 deficient mice.  

PubMed

In spermatozoa, voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCC) have been involved in different cellular functions like acrosome reaction (AR) and sperm motility. Multiple types of VDCC are present and their relative contribution is still a matter of debate. Based mostly on pharmacological studies, low-voltage-activated calcium channels (LVA-CC), responsible of the inward current in spermatocytes, were described as essential for AR in sperm. The development of Ca(V)3.1 or Ca(V)3.2 null mice provided the opportunity to evaluate the involvement of such LVA-CC in AR and sperm motility, independently of pharmacological tools. The inward current was fully abolished in spermatogenic cells from Ca(V)3.2 deficient mice. This current is thus only due to Ca(V)3.2 channels. We showed that Ca(V)3.2 channels were maintained in sperm by Western-blot and immunohistochemistry experiments. Calcium imaging experiments revealed that calcium influx in response to KCl was reduced in Ca(V)3.2 null sperm in comparison to control cells, demonstrating that Ca(V)3.2 channels were functional. On the other hand, no difference was noticed in calcium signaling induced by zona pellucida. Moreover, neither biochemical nor functional experiments, suggested the presence of Ca(V)3.1 channels in sperm. Despite the Ca(V)3.2 channels contribution in KCl-induced calcium influx, the reproduction parameters remained intact in Ca(V)3.2 deficient mice. These data demonstrate that in sperm, besides Ca(V)3.2 channels, other types of VDCC are activated during the voltage-dependent calcium influx of AR, these channels likely belonging to high-voltage activated Ca(2+) channels family. The conclusion is that voltage-dependent calcium influx during AR is due to the opening of redundant families of calcium channels. PMID:17450521

Escoffier, Jessica; Boisseau, Sylvie; Serres, Catherine; Chen, Chien-Chang; Kim, Daesoo; Stamboulian, Séverine; Shin, Hee-Sup; Campbell, Kevin P; De Waard, Michel; Arnoult, Christophe

2007-09-01

179

Cytometry of mammalian sperm  

SciTech Connect

Male germ cells respond dramatically to a variety of insults and are important reproductive dosimeters. Semen analyses are very useful in studies on the effects of drugs, chemicals, and environmental hazards on testicular function, male fertility and heritable germinal mutations. The accessibility of male cells makes them well suited for analytical cytology. We might automate the process of determining sperm morphology but should not do so solely for increased speed. Rather, richer tangible benefits will derive from cytometric evaluation through increased sensitivity, reduced subjectivity, standardization between investigators and laboratories, enhanced archival systems, and the benefits of easily exchanged standardized data. Inroads on the standardization of assays for motility and functional integrity are being made. Flow cytometric analysis of total DNA content of individual sperm is an insensitive means to detect exposure to reproductive toxins because of the small size and low frequency of the DNA content errors. Flow cytometry can be applied to determine the proportions of X- and Y-sperm in semen samples.

Gledhill, B.L.

1983-10-11

180

Detecting and minimizing sperm DNA damage.  

PubMed

In recent years, with the advancement in sperm cell biology and the development of additional testing techniques, sperm DNA fragmentation has been recognized as one of the important causes of reduced fertility potential. Elevated sperm DNA fragmentation rates also significantly diminish the chance of success in assisted pregnancies. Sperm DNA damage can impair fertilization, disrupt embryonic development, and increase rates of miscarriage and poor conception rates. Newer studies suggest the possibility of an increased risk of childhood cancer when an embryo develops from DNA-damaged sperm. There is limited data from large, randomized, controlled trials to support improvement in male fertility with current interventions such as antioxidant therapy, varicocelectomy, and antibiotics treatment in genital tract infections. Nonetheless, research efforts have shown improvements in semen parameters and these interventions are low risk. Therefore, when the external risk factors are known, every effort should be made to minimize sperm DNA damage. PMID:23775382

Zhang, Yachao; Trussell, J C; Chohan, Kazim R

2013-07-01

181

Contrast sensitivity tests in predicting visual function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Testing contrast sensitivity function is one of the most important tests available for evaluating functional visual impairment. The contrast level determines visual function more precisely than the visual acuity measurement. There are numerous contrast sensitivity function tests, but the two that are clinically practical are Pelli-Robson and MARS. Both tests use uniform letter size with a gradual decrement of contrast

Eleanor E. Faye

2005-01-01

182

Chromatin Organization in Sperm May Be the Major Functional Consequence of Base Composition Variation in the Human Genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromatin in sperm is different from that in other cells, with most of the genome packaged by protamines not nucleosomes. Nucleosomes are, however, retained at some genomic sites, where they have the potential to transmit paternal epigenetic information. It is not understood how this retention is specified. Here we show that base composition is the major determinant of nucleosome retention

Tanya Vavouri; Ben Lehner

2011-01-01

183

Single sperm cryopreservation on cryoloops: an alternative to hamster zona for freezing individual spermatozoa.  

PubMed

Methodology enabling cryopreservation of individual spermatozoa in extreme cases of oligozoospermia would tremendously benefit patients. This study explores the use of a nylon loop for cryopreservation of small quantities of spermatozoa, and also describes a novel technique for freezing individual spermatozoa with this cryoloop. Experiments were conducted to compare sperm recovery and viability after cryopreservation in conventional vials versus on the cryoloops. Discarded human sperm specimens with varying parameters were utilized. The study also examines two different glycerolbased cryoprotectants, with and without test yolk buffer. For single sperm cryopreservation, 5-10 spermatozoa were selected and loaded onto cryoloops with the aid of a microscope and micromanipulation equipment. Sperm function testing was performed on both human and bovine spermatozoa frozen on cryoloops. Microquantities of spermatozoa frozen on cryoloops exhibited overall motility and viability parameters similar to control samples frozen in cryovials. Individually selected spermatozoa cryopreserved on loops were easily recovered and post-thaw motility was generally good. Sperm function testing demonstrated that both human and bovine spermatozoa cryopreserved on loops were able to undergo sperm head decondensation when injected into oocytes. Cryoloops may be an excellent alternative to hamster zonae for cryopreserving small numbers of human spermatozoa. PMID:15257818

Desai, Nina N; Blackmon, Heather; Goldfarb, James

2004-07-01

184

Determinants of mating and sperm-transfer success in a simultaneous hermaphrodite.  

PubMed

The number of mating partners an individual has within a population is a crucial parameter in sex allocation theory for simultaneous hermaphrodites because it is predicted to be one of the main parameters influencing sex allocation. However, little is known about the factors that determine the number of mates in simultaneous hermaphrodites. Furthermore, in order to understand the benefits obtained by resource allocation into the male function it is important to identify the factors that predict sperm-transfer success, i.e. the number of sperm a donor manages to store in a mate. In this study we experimentally tested how social group size (i.e. the number of all potential mates within a population) and density affect the number of mates and sperm-transfer success in the outcrossing hermaphroditic flatworm Macrostomum lignano. In addition, we assessed whether these parameters covary with morphological traits, such as body size, testis size and genital morphology. For this we used a method, which allows tracking sperm of a labelled donor in an unlabelled mate. We found considerable variation in the number of mates and sperm-transfer success between individuals. The number of mates increased with social group size, and was higher in worms with larger testes, but there was no effect of density. Similarly, sperm-transfer success was affected by social group size and testis size, but in addition this parameter was influenced by genital morphology. Our study demonstrates for the first time that the social context and the morphology of sperm donors are important predictors of the number of mates and sperm-transfer success in a simultaneous hermaphrodite. Based on these findings, we hypothesize that sex allocation influences the mating behaviour and outcome of sperm competition. PMID:19196388

Janicke, T; Schärer, L

2009-02-01

185

Sperm variables as predictors of fertility in Black Castellana roosters; use in the selection of sperm donors for genome resource banking purposes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semen was collected from 10 Black Castellana roosters and the classic sperm variables (ejaculate volume, sperm con - centration and sperm motility) examined. In addition, the hypo-osmotic swelling test was used to investigate sperm cell membrane integrity, and acidic aniline blue staining used to screen for morphological abnormalities (including acrosome integrity) and to examine the condensation status of the chromatin.

J. Santiago-Moreno; A. López-Sebastián; C. Castaño; M. A. Coloma; A. Gómez-Brunet; A. Toledano-Díaz; M. T. Prieto; J. L. Campo

186

Alteration of human sperm kinematics in cervical mucus due to nonoxynol-9.  

PubMed

Traditional endpoints of the double-ended test (DET), a contraceptive screening assay used to evaluate the ability of a compound to permeate cervical mucus and inhibit sperm progression, ignore important information about sublethal effects upon sperm cells. Improved contraceptive agents may capitalize on such sublethal aspects. This study utilized a DET testing protocol that included measurement of human sperm motion characteristics as an indicator of cell function within spermicide-exposed human mucus. The currently available spermicide nonoxynol-9 (N9) was used as the test compound and was dissolved in two different delivery solutions, deionized (DI) water and saline, to evaluate the effects of the osmolarity and pH of the delivery vehicle on test results. The N9-water treatment demonstrated significantly greater activity than the N9-saline treatment in terms of all measured variables, exhibiting an apparent "biopermeation" distance approximately 3 mm further into the mucus. The DI water control treatment displayed less activity than N9-saline in terms of the vanguard penetration distance, but comparable or greater activity in terms of inhibiting kinematic variables. The saline control treatment had no effect in terms of any measured variable. Dose responses to N9 of sperm in mucus were inferred from DET results combined with direct measures of N9 diffusion. These were compared to dose responses to N9 of seminal sperm, indicating that N9 inhibits sperm motion at lower concentrations in mucus than in semen. PMID:9179452

Dunmire, E N; Katz, D F

1997-04-01

187

Mass-Specific Metabolic Rate and Sperm Competition Determine Sperm Size in Marsupial Mammals  

PubMed Central

Two complementary hypotheses have been proposed to explain variation in sperm size. The first proposes that post-copulatory sexual selection favors an increase in sperm size because it enhances sperm swimming speed, which is an important determinant of fertilization success in competitive contexts. The second hypothesis proposes that mass-specific metabolic rate acts as a constraint, because large animals with low mass-specific metabolic rates will not be able to process resources at the rates needed to produce large sperm. This constraint is expected to be particularly pronounced among mammals, given that this group contains some of the largest species on Earth. We tested these hypotheses among marsupials, a group in which mass-specific metabolic rates are roughly 30% lower than those of eutherian mammals of similar size, leading to the expectation that metabolic rate should be a major constraint. Our findings support both hypotheses because levels of sperm competition are associated with increases in sperm size, but low mass-specific metabolic rate constrains sperm size among large species. We also found that the relationship between sperm size and mass-specific metabolic rate is steeper among marsupials and shallower among eutherian mammals. This finding has two implications: marsupials respond to changes in mass-specific metabolic rate by modifying sperm length to a greater extent, suggesting that they are more constrained by metabolic rate. In addition, for any given mass-specific metabolic rate, marsupials produce longer sperm. We suggest that this is the consequence of marsupials diverting resources away from sperm numbers and into sperm size, due to their efficient sperm transport along the female tract and the existence of mechanisms to protect sperm.

Tourmente, Maximiliano; Gomendio, Montserrat; Roldan, Eduardo R. S.

2011-01-01

188

Genetic effects on sperm design in the zebra finch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sperm design and function are important determinants of male reproductive success and are expected to be under strong selection. The way that spermatozoa phenotypes evolve is poorly understood, because there have been few studies of the quantitative genetics of sperm. Here we show, in the zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata, an extraordinary degree of inter-male variation in sperm design that is

T. R. Birkhead; E. J. Pellatt; P. Brekke; R. Yeates; H. Castillo-Juarez

2005-01-01

189

The ecological and evolutionary consequences of sperm chemoattraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical communication between sperm and egg is a critical factor mediating sexual reproduction. Sperm attractants may be signifi- cant evolutionarily for maintaining species barriers, and important ecologically for increasing gamete encounters. Still unresolved, however, are the functional consequences of these dissolved signal molecules. Here, we provide experimental evidence that sperm chemoattraction directly affects the magnitude of fertilization success. The recent

Jeffrey A. Riffell; Patrick J. Krug; Richard K. Zimmer

2004-01-01

190

The ecological and evolutionary consequences of sperm chemoattraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical communication between sperm and egg is a critical factor mediating sexual reproduction. Sperm attractants may be significant evolutionarily for maintaining species barriers, and important ecologically for increasing gamete encounters. Still unresolved, however, are the functional consequences of these dissolved signal molecules. Here, we provide experimental evidence that sperm chemoattraction directly affects the magnitude of fertilization success. The recent discovery

Jeffrey A. Riffell; Patrick J. Krug; Richard K. Zimmer

2004-01-01

191

LOCALIZATION OF SP22 ON HUMAN SPERM OF DIFFERING QUALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

LOCALIZATION OF SP22 ON HUMAN SPERM OF DIFFERING QUALITY. AE Lavers*1, GR Klinefelter2, DW Hamilton1, KP Roberts1, 1University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN and 2US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC. SP22 is a sperm membrane protein that has been implicated in sperm function d...

192

Insemination of heifers with sexed sperm.  

PubMed

Data from inseminating 1,000 heifers consecutively with sexed sperm and 370 heifers with control sperm in 11 small field trials are summarized. Semen was from 22 bulls of unknown fertility of various beef and dairy breeds, and 6 inseminators participated. Freshly collected sperm were sexed using a MoFlo flow cytometer/cell sorter after staining sperm with the DNA-binding dye Hoechst 33342; the principle is that the bovine X chromosome has 3.8% more DNA than the Y chromosome. Accuracy approaching 90% males or females was achieved. There was little difference in pregnancy rates between sexed, unfrozen and sexed, frozen sperm. In 5 of 6 field trials, there was little difference in pregnancy rates between insemination doses of 1.0 to 1.5 x 10(6) versus 3.0 x 10(6) sexed, frozen sperm. In the most recent trials, pregnancy rates with sexed, frozen sperm were within 90% of unsexed, frozen controls that had 7 to 20 times more sperm/insemination dose; however, in a few trials, control pregnancy rates were substantially higher than with low doses of sexed sperm. There were too few inseminations per bull to test bull differences in pregnancy rates rigorously. Insemination of sexed, frozen sperm bilaterally into the uterine horns produced pregnancy rates similar to insemination into the uterine body in 4 of 5 field trials. Pregnancy rates among inseminators did not differ significantly. There was no excess embryonic death between 1 and 2 months of gestation with pregnancies from sexed sperm, and very few abortions occurred between 2 months of gestation and term. Although rigorous epidemiological studies remain to be done, calves resulting from sexed sperm appear to exhibit no more abnormalities than controls. PMID:10735085

Seidel, G E; Schenk, J L; Herickhoff, L A; Doyle, S P; Brink, Z; Green, R D; Cran, D G

1999-12-01

193

Sperm allocation in the simultaneously hermaphroditic land snail Arianta arbustorum  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test the idea that individuals of the simultaneously hermaphroditic land snailArianta arbustorumcan control the number of spermatozoa in their spermatophores, we investigated whether they differentially release sperm to virgin or nonvirgin partners with respect to the potential risk of sperm competition in a given mating. The number of sperm transferred ranged from 802620 to 3968800 (X= 2185100;N=91), but was

BRUNO BAUR; ROLF LOCHER; ANETTE BAUR

1998-01-01

194

Effects that bovine sperm cryopreservation using two different extenders has on sperm membranes and chromatin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of cryopreservation impairs sperm cell function, potentially leading to a reduction in fertility. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effects that cryopreservation using two different extenders has on sperm motility and mitochondrial function, as well as on the integrity of plasma membranes, acrosomal membranes and chromatin, using practical and objective techniques. The focus of

Eneiva Carla Carvalho Celeghini; Rubens Paes de Arruda; André Furugen Cesar de Andrade; Juliana Nascimento; Cláudia Fernandes Raphael; Paulo Henrique Mazza Rodrigues

2008-01-01

195

Individual adjustment of sperm expenditure accords with sperm competition theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sperm competition theory predicts that males should strategically allocate their sperm reserves according to the level of sperm competition, defined as the probability that the sperm of two males compete for fertilizing a given set of ova. Substantial evidence from numerous animal taxa suggests that, at the individual level, sperm expenditure increases when the risk of sperm competition is greater.

Andrea Pilastro; Marta Scaggiante; Maria B. Rasotto

2002-01-01

196

A C. elegans sperm TRP protein required for sperm-egg interactions during fertilization.  

PubMed

Fertilization, a critical step in animal reproduction, is triggered by a series of specialized sperm-egg interactions. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying fertilization are not well understood. Here, we identify a sperm-enriched C. elegans TRPC homolog, TRP-3. Mutations in trp-3 lead to sterility in both hermaphrodites and males due to a defect in their sperm. trp-3 mutant sperm are motile, but fail to fertilize oocytes after gamete contact. TRP-3 is initially localized in intracellular vesicles, and then translocates to the plasma membrane during sperm activation. This translocation coincides with a marked increase in store-operated calcium entry, providing an in vivo mechanism for the regulation of TRP-3 activity. As C. elegans oocytes lack egg coats, our data suggest that some TRPC family channels might function to mediate calcium influx during sperm-egg plasma membrane interactions leading to fertilization. PMID:12914694

Xu, X-Z Shawn; Sternberg, Paul W

2003-08-01

197

Correlation between the spermatozoal characteristics and sperm penetration distance in polacrylamide gel and bovine cervical mucus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Correlation between the spermatozoal characteristics and the sperm penetration distance in polyacrylamide gel was assessed, utilizing frozen thawed semen samples obtained from 6 bulls, and it was compared with the correlation between sperm penetration in bovine cervical mucus and spermatozoal characteristics. In vitro sperm penetration tests were performed with mucus and gel. The sperm penetration in gel and mucus was

R. Anilkumar; T. G. Devanathan; S. R. Pattabiraman; M. John Edwin

2001-01-01

198

Sperm numbers, their storage and usage in the fly Dryomyza anilis  

PubMed Central

In the fly Dryomyza anilis females have two kinds of sperm storage organs: one bursa copulatrix and three spermathecae (two spermathecae with a common duct form the doublet, and the third is a singlet spermathecal unit). At the beginning of a mating the male deposits his sperm in the bursa copulatrix. After sperm transfer the male taps the female's abdomen with his claspers. This behaviour has been shown to increase the male's fertilization success. After mating, the female discharges large quantities of sperm before oviposition. To find out where the sperm remaining in the female are stored, I counted the number of sperm in the droplet and in the female's sperm storage organs after different types of mating. I carried out three mating experiments. In experiment 1, virgin females were mated with one male and the matings were interrupted either immediately after sperm transfer or after several tapping sequences. The results show that during male tapping more sperm moved into the singlet spermatheca. In addition, the total number of sperm correlated with sperm numbers in all sperm storage organs, and male size was positively related to the number of sperm remaining in the bursa. In experiment 2, females mated with several males. The number of sperm increased with increasing number of matings only in the doublet spermatheca. No increase in the number of sperm in the singlet spermatheca during consecutive matings suggests that sperm were replaced or did not reach this sperm storage organ. In experiment 3, virgin females were mated with a single male and half of them were allowed to lay eggs. The experiment showed that during egglaying, females primarily used sperm from their singlet spermatheca. The results from the three experiments suggest that sperm stored in the singlet spermatheca is central for male fertilization success and male tapping is related to sperm storage in the singlet spermatheca. The different female's sperm storage organs in D. anilis may have separate functions during sperm storage as well as during sperm usage.

Otronen, M.

1997-01-01

199

Biparental Inheritance of ?-Tubulin during Human Fertilization: Molecular Reconstitution of Functional Zygotic Centrosomes in Inseminated Human Oocytes and in Cell-free Extracts Nucleated by Human Sperm  

PubMed Central

Human sperm centrosome reconstitution and the parental contributions to the zygotic centrosome are examined in mammalian zygotes and after exposure of spermatozoa to Xenopus laevis cell-free extracts. The presence and inheritance of the conserved centrosomal constituents ?-tubulin, centrin, and MPM-2 (which detects phosphorylated epitopes) are traced, as is the sperm microtubule-nucleating capability on reconstituted centrosomes. ?-Tubulin is biparentally inherited in humans (maternal >> than paternal): Western blots detect the presence of paternal ?-tubulin. Recruitment of maternal ?-tubulin to the sperm centrosome occurs after sperm incorporation in vivo or exposure to cell-free extract, especially after sperm “priming” induced by disulfide bond reduction. Centrin is found in the proximal sperm centrosomal region, demonstrates expected calcium sensitivity, but appears absent from the zygotic centrosome after sperm incorporation or exposure to extracts. Sperm centrosome phosphorylation is detected after exposure of primed sperm to egg extracts as well as during the early stages of sperm incorporation after fertilization. Finally, centrosome reconstitution in cell-free extracts permits sperm aster microtubule assembly in vitro. Collectively, these results support a model of a blended zygotic centrosome composed of maternal constituents attracted to an introduced paternal template after insemination.

Simerly, Calvin; Zoran, Sara S.; Payne, Chris; Dominko, Tanja; Sutovsky, Peter; Navara, Christopher S.; Salisbury, Jeffery L.; Schatten, Gerald

1999-01-01

200

Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)  

MedlinePLUS

... the use of traditional IVF has not produced fertilization, regardless of the condition of the sperm. Will ... with sperm • The embryo may stop growing Once fertilization takes place, a couple's chance of giving birth ...

201

The importance of porcine sperm parameters on fertility in vivo.  

PubMed

It would be desirable to use semen parameters to predict the in vivo fertilizing capacity of a particular ejaculate. In animal production, an ejaculate is divided into multiple doses for artificial insemination (AI); therefore, it would be economically beneficial to know the functional quality (i.e., fertility) of the semen before it is inseminated. To identify a predictive assay of the fertilizing capacity of a porcine ejaculate, we performed 4 rapid assays of sperm quality (motility, viability, physiological status as assessed by chlortetracycline fluorescence, and ATP content) on samples from 9 ejaculates, before and after a thermal stress test (42.5 degrees C, 45 min). These parameters were subsequently correlated with in vivo fertility resulting from AI with 2 sperm doses, 3 x 10(9) or 0.3 x 10(9) motile cells in 70 mL (optimal or suboptimal sperm number per insemination, respectively) from these same ejaculates. No parameter was correlated to the fertility rates obtained after inseminating with the optimal semen doses, either before or after the thermal stress test (P > 0.05). However, with respect to the animals inseminated with the suboptimal semen dose, sperm motility (the percentage of motile spermatozoa as assessed visually by microscopy) prior to thermal stress was well-correlated to fertility rates (r = 0.783, P = 0.01). The percentage of spermatozoa displaying the chlortetracycline Pattern AR (acrosome reaction) was also statistically related to fertility (r = 0.05, P = 0.04), but the biological importance of this relationship is questionable given the small variation among ejaculates (range: 0 to 2%). No other sperm parameter was significantly related to fertility rates in this group (P > 0.05). These data, therefore, indicate that sperm motility is a useful indicator of sperm fertilizing capacity in vivo. Moreover, to identify a predictor of semen fertility it is critical that the number of spermatozoa used during insemination is sufficiently low to detect differences in sperm fertilizing efficiency. PMID:10734379

Tardif, S; Laforest, J P; Cormier, N; Bailey, J L

1999-08-01

202

EVIDENCE FAVORING SPERM SELECTION OVER SPERM COMPETITION IN THE INTERACTION BETWEEN HUMAN SEMINAL PLASMA AND SPERM MOTILITY IN VITRO  

Microsoft Academic Search

& The effect on sperm motility of sperm-sperm and sperm-seminal plasma interactions was stud- ied among homologous and heterologous sperm. There were no significant interactions between sperm in vitro, but it was found that seminal plasmas of different donors have different effects on sperm motility, and different sperm react differently to the same seminal plasma. Sperm showed higher motility in

K. Jaffe; M. I. Camejo; T. E. Carrillo; M. Weffer; M. G. Muñoz

2006-01-01

203

Track/train dynamics test procedure transfer function test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A transfer function vibration test was made on an 80 ton open hopper freight car in an effort to obtain validation data on the car's nonlinear elastic model. Test configuration, handling, test facilities, test operations, and data acquisition/reduction activities necessary to meet the conditions of test requirements are given.

Vigil, R. A.

1975-01-01

204

Integrative DNA Methylation and Gene Expression Analyses Identify DNA Packaging and Epigenetic Regulatory Genes Associated with Low Motility Sperm  

PubMed Central

Background In previous studies using candidate gene approaches, low sperm count (oligospermia) has been associated with altered sperm mRNA content and DNA methylation in both imprinted and non-imprinted genes. We performed a genome-wide analysis of sperm DNA methylation and mRNA content to test for associations with sperm function. Methods and Results Sperm DNA and mRNA were isolated from 21 men with a range of semen parameters presenting to a tertiary male reproductive health clinic. DNA methylation was measured with the Illumina Infinium array at 27,578 CpG loci. Unsupervised clustering of methylation data differentiated the 21 sperm samples by their motility values. Recursively partitioned mixture modeling (RPMM) of methylation data resulted in four distinct methylation profiles that were significantly associated with sperm motility (P?=?0.01). Linear models of microarray analysis (LIMMA) was performed based on motility and identified 9,189 CpG loci with significantly altered methylation (Q<0.05) in the low motility samples. In addition, the majority of these disrupted CpG loci (80%) were hypomethylated. Of the aberrantly methylated CpGs, 194 were associated with imprinted genes and were almost equally distributed into hypermethylated (predominantly paternally expressed) and hypomethylated (predominantly maternally expressed) groups. Sperm mRNA was measured with the Human Gene 1.0 ST Affymetrix GeneChip Array. LIMMA analysis identified 20 candidate transcripts as differentially present in low motility sperm, including HDAC1 (NCBI 3065), SIRT3 (NCBI 23410), and DNMT3A (NCBI 1788). There was a trend among altered expression of these epigenetic regulatory genes and RPMM DNA methylation class. Conclusions Using integrative genome-wide approaches we identified CpG methylation profiles and mRNA alterations associated with low sperm motility.

Pacheco, Sara E.; Houseman, E. Andres; Christensen, Brock C.; Marsit, Carmen J.; Kelsey, Karl T.; Sigman, Mark; Boekelheide, Kim

2011-01-01

205

Autostage sperm tracing system for semen evaluation.  

PubMed

To overcome the limitation of the microscope field, the study proposed an autostage sperm tracing system (ASTS), which could trace a particular sperm for a long time and distance. The ASTS was constructed by assembling a commercial microscope, an image frame grabber, a personal computer, and a motorized stage. Its performance was tested by evaluating 6 semen samples and by comparing the evaluation with those of other semen evaluations. The ASTS broke through the limitation of the microscope field and traced a particular sperm as long as possible. It analyzed the sperm track and calculated the motility parameters, such as curvilinear velocity (Vcl), straight-line velocity (Vsl), and linearity (L(in)). The sperm quality was then evaluated in real time, and the user could decide to capture or abandon a particular sperm in the IVF The ASTS enables users to evaluate sperm progression for a long time and to have the global quality of a particular sperm in real time. Its open structure has the flexibility for micromanipulating a semen sample, and has the potential application associated with a modern IVF technique. PMID:10690762

Kuo, Y L; Tzeng, W L; Li, P C; Tang, T S; Young, S T

2000-01-01

206

Evolution of sperm structure and energetics in passerine birds  

PubMed Central

Spermatozoa exhibit considerable interspecific variability in size and shape. Our understanding of the adaptive significance of this diversity, however, remains limited. Determining how variation in sperm structure translates into variation in sperm performance will contribute to our understanding of the evolutionary diversification of sperm form. Here, using data from passerine birds, we test the hypothesis that longer sperm swim faster because they have more available energy. We found that sperm with longer midpieces have higher levels of intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP), but that greater energy reserves do not translate into faster-swimming sperm. Additionally, we found that interspecific variation in sperm ATP concentration is not associated with the level of sperm competition faced by males. Finally, using Bayesian methods, we compared the evolutionary trajectories of sperm morphology and ATP content, and show that both traits have undergone directional evolutionary change. However, in contrast to recent suggestions in other taxa, we show that changes in ATP are unlikely to have preceded changes in morphology in passerine sperm. These results suggest that variable selective pressures are likely to have driven the evolution of sperm traits in different taxa, and highlight fundamental biological differences between taxa with internal and external fertilization, as well as those with and without sperm storage.

Rowe, Melissah; Laskemoen, Terje; Johnsen, Arild; Lifjeld, Jan T.

2013-01-01

207

Left-handed sperm removal by male Calopteryx damselflies (Odonata).  

PubMed

Male genitalia in several insect species are asymmetry in right and left shape. However, the function of such asymmetric male genitalia is still unclear. We found that the male genitalia of the damselfly Calopteryx cornelia (Odonata: Calopterygidae) are morphologically symmetric just after emergence but asymmetric after reproductive maturation. Males remove rival sperm stored in the female bursa copulatrix (single spherical sac) and the following spermatheca (Y-shaped tubular sac) prior to their own ejaculation to prevent sperm competition. Males possess the aedeagus with a recurved head to remove bursal sperm and a pair of spiny lateral processes to remove spermathecal sperm. The right lateral process is less developed than the left, and sperm stored in the right spermathecal tube are rarely removed. Experiments involving surgical cutting of each lateral process demonstrated that only the left process functions in spermathecal sperm removal. Thus, males of C. cornelia are left-handed in their sperm removal behaviour at copulation. PMID:24711986

Tsuchiya, Kaori; Hayashi, Fumio

2014-01-01

208

The functional testing of external cardiac pacemakers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In common with all other biomedical equipment, cardiac pacemakers should be routinely tested and serviced. Experience has shown that although they are generally very reliable some faults have occurred that might have been detected by regular testing. A testing protocol is suggested that has two levels, routine tests that check the essential functions of the pacemakers and supplementary tests that

M. P. Watts; A. L. Evans

1988-01-01

209

Direct action of endocrine disrupting chemicals on human sperm.  

PubMed

Synthetic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), omnipresent in food, household, and personal care products, have been implicated in adverse trends in human reproduction, including infertility and increasing demand for assisted reproduction. Here, we study the action of 96 ubiquitous EDCs on human sperm. We show that structurally diverse EDCs activate the sperm-specific CatSper channel and, thereby, evoke an intracellular Ca(2+) increase, a motility response, and acrosomal exocytosis. Moreover, EDCs desensitize sperm for physiological CatSper ligands and cooperate in low-dose mixtures to elevate Ca(2+) levels in sperm. We conclude that EDCs interfere with various sperm functions and, thereby, might impair human fertilization. PMID:24820036

Schiffer, Christian; Müller, Astrid; Egeberg, Dorte L; Alvarez, Luis; Brenker, Christoph; Rehfeld, Anders; Frederiksen, Hanne; Wäschle, Benjamin; Kaupp, U Benjamin; Balbach, Melanie; Wachten, Dagmar; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Almstrup, Kristian; Strünker, Timo

2014-07-01

210

Evaluation of abnormal liver function tests.  

PubMed

Interpretation of abnormalities in liver function tests is a common problem faced by clinicians. This has become more common with the introduction of automated routine laboratory testing. Not all persons with one or more abnormalities in these tests actually have liver disease. The various biochemical tests, their pathophysiology, and an approach to the interpretation of abnormal liver function tests are discussed in this review. PMID:12840117

Limdi, J K; Hyde, G M

2003-06-01

211

Sperm nuclear proteome and its epigenetic potential.  

PubMed

The main function of the sperm cell is to transmit the paternal genetic message and epigenetic information to the embryo. Importantly, the majority of the genes in the sperm chromatin are highly condensed by protamines, whereas genes potentially needed in the initial stages of development are associated with histones, representing a form of epigenetic marking. However, so far little attention has been devoted to other sperm chromatin-associated proteins that, in addition to histones and protamines, may also have an epigenetic role. Therefore, with the goal of contributing to cover this subject we have compiled, reviewed and report a list of 581 chromatin or nuclear proteins described in the human sperm cell. Furthermore, we have analysed their Gene Ontology Biological Process enriched terms and have grouped them into different functional categories. Remarkably, we show that 56% of the sperm nuclear proteins have a potential epigenetic activity, being involved in at least one of the following functions: chromosome organization, chromatin organization, protein-DNA complex assembly, DNA packaging, gene expression, transcription, chromatin modification and histone modification. In addition, we have also included and compared the sperm cell proteomes of different model species, demonstrating the existence of common trends in the chromatin composition in the mammalian mature male gamete. Taken together, our analyses suggest that the mammalian sperm cell delivers to the offspring a rich combination of histone variants, transcription factors, chromatin-associated and chromatin-modifying proteins which have the potential to encode and transmit an extremely complex epigenetic information. PMID:24327354

Castillo, J; Amaral, A; Oliva, R

2014-05-01

212

Functional Assays for Neurotoxicity Testing*  

EPA Science Inventory

Neurobehavioral and pathological evaluations of the nervous system are complementary components of basic research and toxicity testing of pharmaceutical and environmental chemicals. While neuropathological assessments provide insight as to cellular changes in neurons, behavioral ...

213

Functional Assays for Neurotoxicity Testing  

EPA Science Inventory

Neurobehavioral and pathological evaluations of the nervous system are complementary components of basic research and toxicity testing of pharmaceutical and environmental chemicals. While neuropathological assessments provide insight as to cellular changes in neurons, behavioral ...

214

Sperm: seminal fluid interactions and the adjustment of sperm quality in relation to female attractiveness  

PubMed Central

An important predictor of male fitness is the fertilizing efficiency of their ejaculates. Ejaculates are costly to produce and males are predicted to devote greater resources to copulations with reproductively superior females. It is well established that males allocate different numbers of sperm to ejaculates. However, less is known about how males adjust their sperm quality, which has important implications for our understanding of fertilization and the evolution of sexual strategies. Here we test in the fowl, Gallus gallus, whether males adjust their sperm velocity by differentially allocating seminal fluid to copulations with attractive and unattractive females. To disentangle the contributions of sperm and seminal fluid to sperm velocity, we separated and remixed sperm and seminal fluid from ejaculates allocated to females of different attractiveness. We show that dominant males increase the velocity of the sperm they invest in more attractive females by allocating larger ejaculates that contain seminal fluid that increases sperm velocity. Furthermore, we find weak evidence that males also allocate sperm with higher velocity, irrespective of seminal fluid, to more attractive females.

Cornwallis, Charlie K.; O'Connor, Emily A.

2009-01-01

215

Validation of the sperm quality analyzer (SQA) for dog sperm analysis.  

PubMed

In the present study, a simple and inexpensive unit (the Sperm Quality Analyzer-SQA), was evaluated for dog sperm analysis. Our objective was to propose a cheap, accurate and convenient device to be used in veterinary practices involved with dog fertility assessment and artificial insemination. The device was tested by analyzing repeatability and accuracy at different sperm concentrations and motility characteristics. The Sperm Motility Index (SMI), a numeric index provided by the SQA, was compared with the results obtained using a computer-aided sperm analyzer (Hamilton Thorn IVOS 10). The correlation between SMI and some sperm parameters as well as predictive values of the SMI were established. The dog sperm data provided by the SQA were consistent and repeatable (coefficient of variability below 10% for all concentrations tested). The SMI was significantly dependant on motile sperm concentration and a positive significant correlation was established for the different motile sperm concentrations from a concentration of 25 x 10(6) up to over 200 x 10(6) cells/mL. Zero motility did not affect SMI because non-motile cells, regardless of their concentration, do not cause any fluctuations in the optical density (OD). Over the tested 200 x 10(6) cells/mL value, a correlation still could be observed but it was not statistically significant, possibly because of a saturation of the system. In dog semen, the correlation is better between SMI values and the number of motile spermatozoa than with the overall motile concentration. Based on this observation, a predictive value was given to the SMI allowing for a sorting of dog ejaculates in 3 sperm categories (SMI <100, 100250) each characterized by a range of sperm number and motility. If a positive correlation between the SMI categories and fertility has been demonstrated in humans, such a correlation needs to be established in dogs. PMID:11322241

Iguer-Ouada, M; Verstegen, J P

2001-03-15

216

Adaptive plasticity of mammalian sperm production in response to social experience  

PubMed Central

Sperm competition theory predicts that males should invest prudently in ejaculates according to levels of female promiscuity. Males may therefore be sensitive to cues in their social environment associated with sexual competition, and tailor investment in sperm production accordingly. We tested this idea experimentally for the first time, to our knowledge, in a mammal by comparing reproductive traits of male house mice (Mus musculus domesticus) that had experienced contrasting encounter regimes with potential sexual competitors. We found that daily sperm production and numbers of sperm in the caput epididymis were significantly higher in subjects that had experienced a high encounter rate of social cues from three other males compared to those that had experienced a low encounter rate of social cues from just one other male. Epididymal sperm counts were negatively correlated with the frequency of scent-marking behaviour across all males in our study, suggesting that investment in ejaculate production may be traded off against traits that function in gaining copulations, although there was no difference in overall levels of scent marking between treatment groups. We conclude that social experience-mediated phenotypic plasticity in mammalian spermatogenesis is likely to be adaptive under sperm competition, enabling males to balance the energetic costs and paternity-enhancing benefits of ejaculate production, and is a potentially widespread explanation for intraspecific variation in ejaculate expenditure.

Ramm, Steven A.; Stockley, Paula

2008-01-01

217

Sperm competition, male prudence and sperm-limited females  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sperm are produced in astronomical numbers compared with eggs, and there is good evidence that sperm competition is the force behind the evolution of many tiny sperm. However, sperm production inevitably has costs. Recent research shows that male ejaculate expenditure is dynamic in both time and space, and that males are sensitive to risks of sperm competition and can vary

Nina Wedell; Matthew J. G. Gage; Geoffrey A. Parker

2002-01-01

218

Radiography in functional lacrimal testing.  

PubMed Central

A functional study of the lacrimal drainage apparatus was made in 25 patients. Angiographin was instilled into the conjunctival sac and serial radiographs were taken. The films were interpreted in conjunction with the intubation macro-dacryocystograms. Although this is a useful procedure, the use of angiographin compares unfavourably with ultra-fluid Lipiodol in a similar procedure. Images

Hurwitz, J J; Welham, R A

1975-01-01

219

Sperm activation by heat shock protein 70 supports the migration of sperm released from sperm storage tubules in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).  

PubMed

Systems for maintaining the viability of ejaculated sperm in the female reproductive tract are widespread among vertebrates and invertebrates. In birds, this sperm storage function is performed by specialized simple tubular invaginations called sperm storage tubules (SSTs) in the uterovaginal junction (UVJ) of the oviduct. Although the incidence and physiological reasons for sperm storage in birds have been reported extensively, the mechanisms of sperm uptake by the SSTs, sperm maintenance within the SSTs, and control of sperm release from the SSTs are poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrated that the highly conserved heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) stimulates sperm motility in vitro and also that HSP70 expressed in the UVJ may facilitate the migration of sperm released from the SSTs. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that the expression of HSP70 mRNA in the UVJ increases before ovulation/oviposition. Gene-specific in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical analysis with a specific antibody to HSP70 demonstrated that HSP70 is localized in the surface epithelium of the UVJ. Furthermore, injection of anti-HSP70 antibody into the vagina significantly inhibited fertilization in vivo. In addition, we found that recombinant HSP70 activates flagellar movement in the sperm and that the binding of recombinant HSP70 to the sperm surface is mediated through an interaction with voltage-dependent anion channel protein 2 (VDAC2). Our results suggest that HSP70 binds to the sperm surface by interacting with VDAC2 and activating sperm motility. This binding appears to play an important role in sperm migration within the oviduct. PMID:24194572

Hiyama, Gen; Matsuzaki, Mei; Mizushima, Shusei; Dohra, Hideo; Ikegami, Keisuke; Yoshimura, Takashi; Shiba, Kogiku; Inaba, Kazuo; Sasanami, Tomohiro

2014-02-01

220

Effects of experimentally-induced diabetes on sperm parameters and chromatin quality in mice.  

PubMed

Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM), primary or idiopathic is a chronic disorder of the carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism. DM may impact male reproductive function at several levels. It is shown that DM has detrimental effects on sperm parameters in human and experimental animals. Objective: The aim of this study was to observe the effects of diabetes on sperm parameters (viability, count, morphology and motility) and evaluation of sperm chromatin quality in mice. Materials and Methods: Totally twenty adult male Syrian mice were divided randomly into 2 groups (n=10). The animals of group A were considered as controls while group B mice were diabetic that received a single dose (200 mg/kg) streptozotocin (STZ) intra peritoneally. After 35 days, the cauda epididymis of each diabetic mouse was dissected and placed in culture medium for 30 min. The swim-out spermatozoa were analyzed for count, motility, morphology and viability. The sperm chromatin quality and DNA integrity, was evaluated with Aniline Blue (AB), Toluidine blue (TB), Acridine orange (AO) and Chromomycin A3 (CMA3) staining. Results: In sperm analysis, the diabetic mice had poor parameters in comparison with control animals (p=0.000). Regarding sperm chromatin quality, the results of TB and AO tests showed statically significant differences between two groups, but in AB and CMA3 staining, we didn't see any differences between them. Conclusion: The results showed that STZ-induced diabetes mellitus may influence the male fertility potential via affecting sperm parameters and DNA integrity in mice. However, according to our data, the diabetes doesn't have any detrimental effects on histone-protamines replacement during the testicular phase of sperm chromatin packaging. PMID:24639693

Mangoli, Esmat; Talebi, Ali Reza; Anvari, Morteza; Pourentezari, Majid

2013-01-01

221

Test-Wiseness: A Cognitive Function?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports the findings of an attempt to improve test-wiseness (TW) through direct instruction in selected test-taking strategies. TW was defined as "a cognitive function, subject to improvement through both general exposure to a wide variety of test items, and specific training in test-taking skills." The total investigation included:…

Woodley, Katheryn K.

222

Comparative proteomics reveals evidence for evolutionary diversification of rodent seminal fluid and its functional significance in sperm competition.  

PubMed

During insemination, males of internally fertilizing species transfer a complex array of seminal fluid proteins to the female reproductive tract. These proteins can have profound effects on female reproductive physiology and behavior and are thought to mediate postcopulatory sexual selection and intersexual conflict. Such selection may cause seminal fluid to evolve rapidly, with potentially important consequences for speciation. Here we investigate the evolution of seminal fluid proteins in a major mammalian radiation, the muroid rodents, by quantifying diversity in seminal fluid proteome composition for the first time across a broad range of closely related species. Using comparative proteomics techniques to identify and cross-match proteins, we demonstrate that rodent seminal fluid is highly diverse at the level of both proteomes and individual proteins. The striking interspecific heterogeneity in seminal fluid composition revealed by our survey far exceeds that seen in a second proteome of comparable complexity, skeletal muscle, indicating that the complement of proteins expressed in seminal fluid may be subject to rapid diversification. We further show that orthologous seminal fluid proteins exhibit substantial interspecific variation in molecular mass. Because this variation cannot be attributed to differential glycosylation or radical differences in termination sites, it is strongly suggestive of rapid amino acid divergence. Sperm competition is implicated in generating such divergence for at least one major seminal fluid protein in our study, SVS II, which is responsible for copulatory plug formation via transglutaminase-catalyzed cross-linking after insemination. We show that the molecular mass of SVS II is positively correlated with relative testis size across species, which could be explained by selection for an increased number of cross-linking sites involved in the formation of the copulatory plug under sperm competition. PMID:18931385

Ramm, Steven A; McDonald, Lucy; Hurst, Jane L; Beynon, Robert J; Stockley, Paula

2009-01-01

223

Decreasing Epididymal Sperm Reserves Enhances the Detection of Ethoxyethanol-Induced Spermatotoxicity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Current test strategies for assessing male reproductive toxicity may be inadequate for estimating risk in humans. High levels of sperm production and existence of large epididymal sperm reserves in most test species may impede the detection of spermatoxic...

M. E. Hurtt H. Zenick

1986-01-01

224

Functional Performance Testing in Athletes with Functional Ankle Instability  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine if functional performance deficits are present in athletes with functional ankle instability (FAI) compared to healthy athletes using various functional performance tests. Methods Sixty two athletes (mean age-21.7±1.8years; height-168.2±9.1cm; weight-63.8±11.0kg) participated in this case control study. Athletes were divided into two groups: athletes with FAI (FAI group, n=31) and healthy athletes (Non-FAI group, n=31). The FAI group was further divided into two subgroups: FAI with giving way (FAI-GW), FAI with no giving way (FAI-NGW). Functional performance was assessed with the single-limb hopping test, figure-of-8 hop test, side-hop test, single-limb hurdle test, square hop test and single hop test. Results Significant differences (P<0.05) were observed for all the functional performance tests (FPTs) except the single hop test between FAI and Non-FAI groups; between FAI-GW, FAI-NGW and Non-FAI groups. Additionally, the involved limb performed significantly worse (P<0.05) than the contra-lateral uninvolved limb of the FAI-GW group for the above-mentioned FPTs. Conclusion Significant functional performance deficits were observed in the FAI group in all tests except single hop test with greater deficits observed in the FAI-GW group. Hence, these tests can be used to determine the presence of FAI. However no deficits were identified for the test involving sagittal plane functional activities suggesting that this test can not be used as a criterion to discriminate individuals with FAI. It was further ascertained that functional performance was not affected by limb dominance.

Sharma, Nidhi; Sharma, Archna; Singh Sandhu, Jaspal

2011-01-01

225

Testing Functions of One and Two Arguments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Software to evaluate functions of one or two arguments is too often tested or certified, or the accuracy assessed, by ad hoc methods. Systematic methods to test, certify or assess the accuracy of single- or double-precision functions of one or two arguments, and supporting software, are described here.

Van Snyder, W.

1996-01-01

226

Traditional intracytoplasmic sperm injection provides equivalent outcomes compared with human zona pellucida-bound selected sperm injection.  

PubMed

Summary The capability of human zona pellucida (ZP) to bind selectively to normal functional sperm with normal chromatin has been reported widely in the literature. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether ZP-binding sperm selection may represent a method to retrieve superior spermatozoa for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Patients were divided into two groups: a ZP-ICSI and a conventional ICSI group. In the ZP-ICSI group, spermatozoa for injection were selected after ZP-sperm incubation and spermatozoa that were tightly bound to the ZP were used for ICSI (ZP-ICSI). Clinical outcomes of ZP-ICSI were compared with the outcomes of traditional scientist-selected sperm injection (conventional ICSI). Results did not show any significant difference in fertilization, pregnancy, implantation and take-home-baby rates between conventional ICSI and ZP-ICSI. However, when data relative to patients who received ZP-ICSI were analyzed, an interesting result was observed: higher sperm concentration and morphology correlated with higher ZP-sperm binding. Additionally, patients with higher ZP-sperm binding seem to have improved pregnancy and take-home-baby rates. In conclusion, this study shows that ZP-ICSI is not a superior method compared with conventional ICSI. However, clinical ICSI outcomes were apparently improved in the presence of good ZP-sperm binding. We therefore speculate that sperm competence to ICSI could be reduced when the sperm's ability to bind the ZP is impaired. PMID:23659189

Casciani, Valentina; Minasi, Maria Giulia; Fabozzi, Gemma; Scarselli, Filomena; Colasante, Alessandro; Lobascio, Anna Maria; Greco, Ermanno

2013-05-01

227

[Can specialized sperm analysis predict fertilization ability?].  

PubMed

Conventional in vitro fertilization (cIVF) is an assisted reproductive technologies (ART) procedure, which requires both a sufficient number of motile sperm to be inseminated around the oocyte but also an optimal fertilizing ability of the inseminated sperm. Thus, the frequency of the risk that this method leads to a failure of fertilization varies depending on the cIVF indication and is enhanced if no factor of infertility was found in the first-line examination, suggesting a "qualitative" incapacity of the sperm to fertilize. Thus, many secondary sperm tests have been studied to know whether they could predict such fertilization failure The aim of this review is then to analyze the literature interested on these secondary specialized explorations sperm and their ability to predict the fertilization rate following cIVF, especially when an idiopathic (normal conventional sperm examination, including normal pelvic laparoscopy) or a pseudo-idiopathic infertility (normal conventional sperm examination, but non-done pelvic laparoscopy) are suspected. PMID:22762979

Hakima, N; Sermondade, N; Sifer, C

2012-09-01

228

Effect of juvenile hormone and juvenile hormone mimics on sperm transfer from the testes of the male cat flea (Siphonaptera:Pulicidae).  

PubMed

Sperm transfer into the epididymis was completed without a blood meal, when newly emerged male cat fleas. Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché), were exposed to filter papers treated with juvenile hormone III or the juvenile hormone mimics fenoxycarb, methoprene, or pyriproxyfen. As the concentration of juvenile hormone or the time of flea exposure to juvenile hormone or the juvenile hormone mimics increased, the percentage of fleas that transferred sperm also increased. The percentage of pyriproxyfen-treated males that transferred sperm reached 100% after 3 d: whereas, 7 d exposure to juvenile hormone, fenoxycarb and methoprene was required for 100% of the males to transfer sperm. Although sperm were present in the epididymis of treated fleas, insemination of females did not take place off the host either on juvenile hormone-treated filter paper or on juvenile hormone-treated dog hair. PMID:9220683

Dean, S R; Meola, R W

1997-07-01

229

Cohomologies of spaces of Schwartz test functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We calculate cohomologies of the Schwartz algebras D and S, which are basic spaces (test-function spaces) of the distribution theory. In the process, we find special cohomologies of the quotient algebras E/D and M/S (E andMare also test-function spaces), which are quite unusual from the standpoint of the standard functional analysis and are interesting for theoretical and mathematical physics.

Zharinov, V. V.

2012-03-01

230

The Sperm Epigenome  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The development of male germ cells from the primordial germ cell stage to that of the mature spermatozoon is a key time of\\u000a epigenetic reprogramming. Orchestrated by specialized enzymes, DNA methylation and histone modifications undergo dynamic changes\\u000a throughout gametogenesis. Alterations to any level of the sperm epigenetic coding may affect fertility and the sperm’s contribution\\u000a to normal embryo development. In

Donovan Chan; Jacquetta Trasler

231

Functional interaction of phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase with sperm mitochondrion-associated cysteine-rich protein discloses the adjacent cysteine motif as a new substrate of the selenoperoxidase.  

PubMed

The mitochondrial capsule is a selenium- and disulfide-rich structure enchasing the outer mitochondrial membrane of mammalian spermatozoa. Among the proteins solubilized from the sperm mitochondrial capsule, we confirmed, by using a proteomic approach, the presence of phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx) as a major component, and we also identified the sperm mitochondrion-associated cysteine-rich protein (SMCP) and fragments/aggregates of specific keratins that previously escaped detection (Ursini, F., Heim, S., Kiess, M., Maiorino, M., Roveri, A., Wissing, J., and Flohé, L. (1999) Science 285, 1393-1396). The evidence for a functional association between PHGPx, SMCP, and keratins is further supported by the identification of a sequence motif of regularly spaced Cys-Cys doublets common to SMCP and high sulfur keratin-associated proteins, involved in bundling hair shaft keratin by disulfide cross-linking. Following the oxidative polymerization of mitochondrial capsule proteins, catalyzed by PHGPx, two-dimensional redox electrophoresis analysis showed homo- and heteropolymers of SMCP and PHGPx, together with other minor components. Adjacent cysteine residues in SMCP peptides are oxidized to cystine by PHGPx. This unusual disulfide is known to drive, by reshuffling oxidative protein folding. On this basis we propose that oxidative polymerization of the mitochondrial capsule is primed by the formation of cystine on SMCP, followed by reshuffling. Occurrence of reshuffling is further supported by the calculated thermodynamic gain of the process. This study suggests a new mechanism where selenium catalysis drives the cross-linking of structural elements of the cytoskeleton via the oxidation of a keratin-associated protein. PMID:16159880

Maiorino, Matilde; Roveri, Antonella; Benazzi, Louise; Bosello, Valentina; Mauri, Pierluigi; Toppo, Stefano; Tosatto, Silvio C E; Ursini, Fulvio

2005-11-18

232

Efficacy of sperm mobility assessment in commercial flocks and the relationships of sperm mobility and insemination dose with fertility in turkeys.  

PubMed

Our objectives were to evaluate: 1) the efficacy of the Sperm Mobility Test on commercial turkey farms, and 2) the influence of sperm mobility phenotype on fertility when insemination parameters are varied. In research flocks, differences in sperm mobility among toms are predictive of fertility. We wanted to test the efficacy of this sire selection test in practical, real-world situations, evaluating its usefulness in terms of assessing large numbers of toms, different strains of turkeys, and variable management practices. Utilizing field study results, controlled studies were then conducted to improve test parameters. For the field trials, semen from each of 405 breeder toms (11 strains or lines) was evaluated either in duplicate (n = 285) or in triplicate (n = 120). Sperm mobility was normally distributed among all toms tested, except for one strain. Because the sperm mobility indices for toms evaluated in these field trials were higher than those observed in research flocks, the Sperm Mobility Test was modified to increase the separation between high and low sperm mobility phenotypes by increasing the concentration of Accudenz. To determine the effects of sperm mobility and insemination dose on sustained fertility through time, hens from a research flock were inseminated twice before the onset of lay with sperm from toms classified as high-, average-, or low-mobility in concentrations of 25 to 400 million sperm per artificial insemination dose, and egg fertility was evaluated over a 5-wk period. Toms with the high-mobility sperm phenotype maintained higher fertility (P < 0.05) over the 5-wk period at all insemination doses compared with toms with low-mobility sperm. Toms with high-mobility sperm sired equal numbers of poults in a sperm competition study in which numbers favored low-mobility toms by 3:1. These results demonstrate that the Sperm Mobility Test can be used for on-farm evaluation of semen quality of toms in commercial flocks and that sperm mobility influences fertility and sire fitness. PMID:11194043

King, L M; Kirby, J D; Froman, D P; Sonstegard, T S; Harry, D E; Darden, J R; Marini, P J; Walker, R M; Rhoads, M L; Donoghue, A M

2000-12-01

233

Rheotaxis guides mammalian sperm  

PubMed Central

Background In sea urchins, spermatozoan motility is altered by chemotactic peptides, giving rise to the assumption that mammalian eggs also emit chemotactic agents that guide spermatozoa through the female reproductive tract to the mature oocyte. Mammalian spermatozoa indeed undergo complex adaptations within the female (the process of capacitation) that are initiated by agents ranging from pH to progesterone, but these factors are not necessarily taxic. Currently, chemotaxis, thermotaxis, and rheotaxis have not been definitively established in mammals. Results Here, we show that positive rheotaxis, the ability of organisms to orient and swim against the flow of surrounding fluid, is a major taxic factor for mouse and human sperm. This flow is generated within 4 hours of sexual stimulation and coitus in female mice; prolactin-triggered oviductal fluid secretion clears the oviduct of debris, lowers viscosity, and generates the stream that guides sperm migration in the oviduct. Rheotaxic movement is demonstrated in capacitated and uncapacitated spermatozoa in low and high viscosity medium. Finally, we show that a unique sperm motion we quantify using the sperm head's rolling rate reflects sperm rotation that generates essential force for positioning the sperm in the stream. Rotation requires CatSper channels, presumably by enabling Ca2+ influx. Conclusions We propose that rheotaxis is a major determinant of sperm guidance over long distances in the mammalian female reproductive tract. Coitus induces fluid flow to guide sperm in the oviduct. Sperm rheotaxis requires rotational motion during CatSper channel-dependent hyperactivated motility.

Miki, Kiyoshi; Clapham, David E

2013-01-01

234

Intra-specific variation of sperm length in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae: males with shorter sperm have higher reproductive success  

PubMed Central

Background Intra-specific variation in sperm length influences male reproductive success in several species of insects. In males of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae, sperm length is highly variable but the significance of this variation is unknown. Understanding what determines the reproductive success of male mosquitoes is critical for controlling malaria, and in particular for replacing natural populations with transgenic, malaria-resistant mosquitoes. Methods A laboratory population of A. gambiae males was tested for intra-specific variation in sperm length. A full-sib quantitative genetic design was used to test for a genetic component of sperm length in A. gambiae males and estimate its heritability. This study also tested for a relationship between sperm length and male reproductive success in A. gambiae. Male reproductive success was measured as the proportions of inseminated and ovipositing females. Results There was intra-specific variation of sperm length in A. gambiae. There was no significant genetic variation in sperm length and its heritability was low (h2 = 0.18) compared to other insects. Sperm length was correlated with male body size (measured as wing length). Males with short sperm had significantly higher reproductive success than males with long sperm and this was independent of body size. Conclusion This is the first study to demonstrate intra-specific variation in sperm length in A. gambiae and that males with short sperm have higher reproductive success. That sperm length influences female oviposition is important for any strategy considering the release of transgenic males.

Voordouw, Maarten J; Koella, Jacob C; Hurd, Hilary

2008-01-01

235

The influence of direct mobile phone radiation on sperm quality  

PubMed Central

Introduction It is impossible to imagine a modern socially–active man who does not use mobile devices and/or computers with Wi–Fi function. The effect of mobile phone radiation on male fertility is the subject of recent interest and investigations. The aim of this study was to investigate the direct in vitro influence of mobile phone radiation on sperm DNA fragmentation and motility parameters in healthy subjects with normozoospermia. Material and methods 32 healthy men with normal semen parameters were selected for the study. Each sperm sample was divided into two equal portions (A and B). Portions A of all involved men were placed for 5 hours in a thermostat, and portions B were placed into a second thermostat for the same period of time, where a mobile phone in standby/talk mode was placed. After 5 hours of incubation the sperm samples from both thermostats were re–evaluated regarding basic motility parameters. The presence of DNA fragmentation in both A and B portions of each sample was determined each hour using a standard sperm chromatin dispersion test. Results The number of spermatozoa with progressive movement in the group, influenced by electromagnetic radiation, is statistically lower than the number of spermatozoa with progressive movement in the group under no effect of the mobile phone. The number of non–progressive movement spermatozoa was significantly higher in the group, which was influenced by cell phone radiation. The DNA fragmentation was also significantly higher in this group. Conclusions A correlation exists between mobile phone radiation exposure, DNA–fragmentation level and decreased sperm motility.

Gorpinchenko, Igor; Nikitin, Oleg; Shulyak, Alexander

2014-01-01

236

Sperm quality improvement after date seed oil in vitro supplementation in spontaneous and induced oxidative stress  

PubMed Central

In vitro supplementation with date seed oil (DSO) can protect spermatozoa against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-mediated damage and can improve sperm function, possibly owing to antioxidant properties. We tested the antioxidant effects of DSO on human sperm motility, sperm viability, reacted acrosome and lipid peroxidation assessed in vitro after H2O2-mediated oxidative damage in spermatozoa. Sixteen patients (mean age: 35 years; range: 25–45 years) referred to the Histology–Embryology Laboratory of the Medicine Faculty of Sfax for semen analysis after 12–24 months of sexual intercourse without conception were selected. After spermiogram, sperm selection by two-interface discontinuous Sill Select gradient was performed, and selected spermatozoa were used in four experimental assays: control; incubation with 100 ?m H2O2; incubation with 0.1% DSO; and co-incubation with 0.1% DSO and 100 ?m H2O2. Motility and viability were determined using World Health Organization criteria. Acrosome reaction and lipid peroxidation were assessed by staining with fluorescein isothiocyanate-Pisum sativum and spectrophotometric measurement of malondialdehyde, respectively. Results showed that incubation with H2O2 alone led to a significant increase in lipid peroxidation (57.83%, P < 0.05) associated with a significant decrease in sperm motility, sperm viability (after 30 min and 24 h) and percentage of reacted acrosome (P < 0.05). Date seed oil improved sperm motility after 24 h of incubation (P < 0.05) and protected spermatozoa against the deleterious effects of H2O2 on motility, viability, acrosome reaction and lipid peroxidation. We conclude that supplementation with DSO may have a function in antioxidant protection against male infertility.

Fatma, Ben A.; Nozha, Chakroun F.; Ines, Dammak; Hamadi, Attia; Basma, Hentati; Leila, Ammar K.

2009-01-01

237

Reproductive-tactic-specific variation in sperm swimming speeds in a shell-brooding cichlid.  

PubMed

Theory predicts that males experiencing elevated levels of sperm competition will invest more in gonads and produce faster-swimming sperm. Although there is ample evidence in support of the first prediction, few studies have examined sperm swimming speed in relation to sperm competition. In this study, we tested these predictions from sperm competition theory by examining sperm characteristics in Telmatochromis vittatus, a small shell-brooding cichlid fish endemic to Lake Tanganyika. Males exhibit four different reproductive tactics: pirate, territorial, satellite, and sneaker. Pirate males temporarily displace all other competing males from a shell nest, whereas sneaker males always release sperm in the presence of territorial and satellite males. Due to the fact that sneakers spawn in the presence of another male, sneakers face the highest levels of sperm competition and pirates the lowest, whereas satellites and territorials experience intermediate levels. In accordance with predictions, sperm from sneakers swam faster than sperm from males adopting the other reproductive tactics, whereas sperm from pirates was slowest. Interestingly, we were unable to detect any variation in sperm tail length among these reproductive tactics. Thus, sperm competition appears to have influenced sperm energetics in this species without having any influence on sperm size. PMID:17460159

Fitzpatrick, J L; Desjardins, J K; Milligan, N; Montgomerie, R; Balshine, S

2007-08-01

238

PhysioChemical Characteristics of Seminal Plasma and Development of Media and Methods for the Cryopreservation of European eel Sperm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high sperm density, together with the short spermatozoa swimming time, makes European eel sperm manipulation and assessment for quality difficult. Two diluting media (K15 and K30) previously designed for Japanese eel sperm were tested. After 24 h, European eel sperm showed significant reduction in the percentage of motile spermatozoa after activation and different motility parameters (VAP, angular velocity; VCL, curvilinear

J. F. Asturiano; L. Pérez; D. L. Garzón; F. Marco-Jiménez; D. S. Peñaranda; J. S. Vicente; M. Jover

2004-01-01

239

Disturbances of Sperm Maturation and Minipuberty: Is There a Connection?  

PubMed Central

Male reproductive function in the general population raises an increased attention due to reports indicating declining sperm counts, increased occurrence of testicular cancer, cryptorchidism, and hypospadias. It is also hypothesized that prolonged exposure of the developing male, during both fetal and postnatal life, to exogenous estrogens could reduce Sertoli cell number and thus reduce sperm output (and sperm counts) in adult life. Fact is that infertility, which is defined as the inability to conceive after 1 year of unprotected intercourse, has a global prevalence of 9%. A male contributory factor is involved in approximately half of these cases, but most of the causes of reduced semen quality and other disturbances of male reproductive function are unknown. In the most affected men (azoospermic men) 15–20% had a prior history of cryptorchidism. The association between the cryptorchidism and infertility is one of the most studied potential causes of infertility. There are numerous studies that accentuate the importance of minipuberty for future fertility. Is it possible that a normal minipuberty ensures normal fertility despite malpositioned testes? And to move away from cryptorchidism, could impaired minipuberty be responsible for fertility problems in men who were born with both testes in their scrotal sacs?

Zivkovic, D.; Fratric, I.

2014-01-01

240

Platelet function testing in clinical diagnostics.  

PubMed

Although the utility of platelet function testing is still under debate, the necessity to inhibit platelets in patients suffering from cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease is undoubted and well proven. The wide variety of available platelet function tests often using different methodologies, the apparent lack of standardization, and finally the emerging evidence on the clinical value of platelet function testing are resulting in a considerable uncertainty in the clinical practice, how to deal with the issue of platelet function testing. Platelet function testing might not only yield clinical benefits for the patients but also economical advantages by identifying the right drug at the right dose for the right patient. This article intends to provide an overview of the current platelet function tests such as light transmittance aggregometry, whole blood impedance aggregometry, the PFA-1001 system, the VerifyNow2 system, flow cytometry, as well as other promising technologies like Plateletworks3, IMPACT-R4, PADA, thromboelastography, and the mean platelet component (MPC), briefly addressing strengths, weaknesses and clinical utility of these tests. PMID:21152677

Rechner, A R

2011-05-01

241

Influence of Thyroid Function on Different Kidney Function Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: The commonly used kidney function tests have limitations, especially in thyroid dysfunction. Therefore, we studied the most commonly used kidney function tests in patients with hypo- and hyperthyroidism and after reaching euthyroidism. Methods: Prospective case series in 16 patients with thyroid dysfunction. Serum creatinine, 24-hour creatinine clearance, calculated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by Cockroft-Gault, estimated GFR (eGFR) by the

Martin Kimmel; Niko Braun; Mark Dominik Alscher

2012-01-01

242

Preparation and Selection of Sperm for IVF and ICSI  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Approximately 50% of all infertility problems are due to male factors. Some of the male factors preventing natural insemination\\u000a or fertilization include ejaculatory problems, low sperm counts, abnormal sperm morphology, diminished sperm motility and\\u000a function, and, often times, a combination of several of these factors. In vitro fertilization (IVF) was originally developed\\u000a as a tool to overcome tubal defects in

Charles L. Bormann; Jose R. Alagretti; Eduardo L. A. Motta; Paulo Serafini; Gary D. Smith

243

Functional and nonfunctional testing of ATM networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ATM network will support new multimedia services that will require new protocols, those services and protocols will need different test strategies and tools. In this paper, the concepts of functional and non-functional testers of ATM networks are discussed, a multimedia service and its requirements are presented and finally, a summary description of an ATM network and of the test tool that will be used to validate it are presented.

Ricardo, Manuel; Ferreira, M. E.; Guimaraes, F.; Mamede, J.; Henriques, M.; Silva, J.; Carrapatoso, E.

1995-02-01

244

Possible function of the ADAM1a/ADAM2 Fertilin complex in the appearance of ADAM3 on the sperm surface.  

PubMed

In mouse, two different isoforms of ADAM1 (fertilin alpha), ADAM1a and ADAM1b, are produced in the testis. ADAM1a is localized within the endoplasmic reticulum of testicular germ cells, whereas epididymal sperm contain only ADAM1b on the plasma membrane. In this study, we show that the loss of ADAM1a results in the male infertility because of the severely impaired ability of sperm to migrate from the uterus into the oviduct through the uterotubal junction. However, epididymal sperm of ADAM1a-deficient mice were capable of fertilizing cumulus-intact, zona pellucida-intact eggs in vitro despite the delayed dispersal of cumulus cells and the reduced adhesion/binding to the zona pellucida. Among testis (sperm)-specific proteins examined, only the level of ADAM3 (cyritestin) was strongly reduced in ADAM1a-deficient mouse sperm. Moreover, the appearance of ADAM3 on the sperm surface was dependent on the formation of a fertilin protein complex between ADAM1a and ADAM2 (fertilin beta) in testicular germ cells, although no direct interaction between the fertilin complex and ADAM3 was found. These results suggest that ADAM1a/ADAM2 fertilin may be implicated in the selective transport of specific sperm proteins including ADAM3 from the endoplasmic reticulum of testicular germ cells onto the cell surface. These proteins then can participate in sperm migration into the oviduct, the dispersal of cumulus cells, and sperm binding to the zona pellucida. PMID:15194697

Nishimura, Hitoshi; Kim, Ekyune; Nakanishi, Tomoko; Baba, Tadashi

2004-08-13

245

The testis anion transporter TAT1 (SLC26A8) physically and functionally interacts with the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator channel: a potential role during sperm capacitation.  

PubMed

The Slc26 gene family encodes several conserved anion transporters implicated in human genetic disorders, including Pendred syndrome, diastrophic dysplasia and congenital chloride diarrhea. We previously characterized the TAT1 (testis anion transporter 1; SLC26A8) protein specifically expressed in male germ cells and mature sperm and showed that in the mouse, deletion of Tat1 caused male sterility due to a lack of sperm motility, impaired sperm capacitation and structural defects of the flagella. Ca(2+), Cl(-) and HCO(3)(-) influxes trigger sperm capacitation events required for oocyte fertilization; these events include the intracellular rise of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent protein phosphorylation. The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is expressed in mature sperm and has been shown to contribute to Cl(-) and HCO(3)(-) movements during capacitation. Furthermore, several members of the SLC26 family have been described to form complexes with CFTR, resulting in the reciprocal regulation of their activities. We show here that TAT1 and CFTR physically interact and that in Xenopus laevis oocytes and in CHO-K1 cells, TAT1 expression strongly stimulates CFTR activity. Consistent with this, we show that Tat1 inactivation in mouse sperm results in deregulation of the intracellular cAMP content, preventing the activation of PKA-dependent downstream phosphorylation cascades essential for sperm activation. These various results suggest that TAT1 and CFTR may form a molecular complex involved in the regulation of Cl(-) and HCO(3)(-) fluxes during sperm capacitation. In humans, mutations in CFTR and/or TAT1 may therefore be causes of asthenozoospermia and low fertilizing capacity of sperm. PMID:22121115

Rode, Baptiste; Dirami, Thassadite; Bakouh, Naziha; Rizk-Rabin, Marthe; Norez, Caroline; Lhuillier, Pierre; Lorès, Patrick; Jollivet, Mathilde; Melin, Patricia; Zvetkova, Ilona; Bienvenu, Thierry; Becq, Frédéric; Planelles, Gabrielle; Edelman, Aleksander; Gacon, Gérard; Touré, Aminata

2012-03-15

246

Dynamics of sperm transfer in the ant Leptothorax gredleri  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mating tactics differ remarkably between and within species of social Hymenoptera (bees, wasps, ants) concerning, e.g., mating frequencies, sperm competition, and the degree of male sperm limitation. Although social Hymenoptera might, therefore, potentially be ideal model systems for testing sexual selection theory, the dynamics of mating and sperm transfer have rarely been studied in species other than social bees, and basic information needed to draw conclusions about possible sperm competition and female choice is lacking. We investigated sperm transfer in the ant Leptothorax gredleri, a species in which female sexuals attract males by “female calling.” The analysis of 38 female sexuals fixed immediately or up to 7 days after copulation with a single male each revealed that the sperm is transferred into the female bursa copulatrix embedded in a gelatinous mass, presumably a spermatophore. Sperm cells rapidly start to migrate from the tip of the spermatophore towards the spermatheca, but transfer is drastically slowed down by an extreme constriction of the spermathecal duct, through which sperm cells have to pass virtually one by one. This results in the spermatheca being filled only between one and several hours after mating. During this time, the posterior part of the spermatophore seals the junction between bursa copulatrix and spermathecal duct and prevents sperm loss. The prolonged duration of sperm transfer might allow female sexuals to chose between ejaculates and explain previously reported patterns of single paternity of the offspring of multiply mated queens.

Oppelt, Angelika; Heinze, Jürgen

2007-09-01

247

PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTING IN SMALL LABORATORY MAMMALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The lung is the primary organ likely to be exposed by inhalation studies and, therefore, measurement of changes in lung function are of particular interest to the pulmonary physiologist and toxicologist. Tests of pulmonary function have been developed which can be used with small...

248

Correlation between serum lipids profile with sperm parameters of infertile men with abnormal semen analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: One of the main laboratory tests for evaluation of infertility is semen analysis (SA). However, additional tests may be suggested for further diagnosis of male fertility potentials. The seminal fluid contains sperms, non-sperm cells, and various types of lipids and glucose. Objective: The objective of this cross-sectional study was to correlate the sperm parameters with concentrations of cholesterol, triglyceride,

Mohammad Ali Khalili; Najmeh Zare-Zadeh; Hamideh Hashemi

2009-01-01

249

A strategy for thyroid function tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of decision-aiding ranges were introduced to improve diagnostic efficiency. The clinical uncertainty in distinguishing borderline cases of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism among 1559 consecutive requests for thyroid function tests was 47%. This was reduced to 22% by using the free thyroxine index and to under 2% by using specific tests determined by the decision-aiding ranges.

K E Britton; V Quinn; B L Brown; R P Ekins

1975-01-01

250

Viability and fertilizing capacity of cryopreserved sperm from three North American acipenseriform species: A retrospective study  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Populations of sturgeon across the globe are threatened due to unregulated harvest and habitat loss, and the status varies among species across North America. Ready access to viable and functional sperm would contribute to recovery programmes for these species. In this study, we examined the motility, viability (cell membrane integrity) of cryopreserved sperm from three North American acipenseriform species and fertilizing capacity. Milt samples were collected from captive shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum), wild paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) and pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) and cryopreserved using combinations of Modified Tsvetkova's (MT) extender, Original Tsvetkova's extender, and modified Hanks' balanced salt solution, along with the cryoprotectants methanol (MeOH) or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). A dual-staining technique using the fluorescent stains SYBR-14 and propidium iodide was employed with flow cytometry to determine the percentages of spermatozoa that were viable by virtue of having intact membranes. The percentage of viable spermatozoa ranged from 5% to 12% in shortnose sturgeon, 30-59% in paddlefish, and 44-58% in pallid sturgeon. In the first experiment with shortnose sturgeon sperm, methanol allowed for higher values for dependent variables than did DMSO, and sperm viability generally correlated with post-thaw motility. However, fertilization rate, neurulation, or hatching rates were independent from these factors. In the second experiment with shortnose sturgeon, 5% MeOH combined with MT yielded higher values for all parameters tested than the other combinations: viability was correlated with motility, fertilization rate, and hatching rate. Overall, viability and post-thaw motility was not affected by the use of hyperosmotic extenders (OT) or cryoprotectants (DMSO), but their use decreased fertilization percentages. For paddlefish sperm (experiment 3), MT combined with 10% MeOH was clearly a good choice for cryopreservation; viability and motility results were correlated, but independent of fertilization. For pallid sturgeon sperm (experiment 4), MT with 5-10% MeOH showed significantly higher sperm quality and fertilization parameters. Membrane integrity can be used as a predictor of fertilization by cryopreserved sperm, however additional sperm quality parameters, supplementary to motility and membrane integrity, would be useful in the refining and optimizing cryopreservation protocols with acipenseriform sperm. ?? 2008 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

Horvath, A.; Wayman, W. R.; Dean, J. C.; Urbanyi, B.; Tiersch, T. R.; Mims, S. D.; Johnson, D.; Jenkins, J. A.

2008-01-01

251

Lithium Therapy and Thyroid Function Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thyroid function tests including thyroxine (T4), T3 test, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free T4 index and antithyroid antibodies were studied in 51 patients before the start of long-term lithium therapy and after 4 and 12 months on lithium. After 4 months on lithium, changes occurred in all laboratory parameters – T4 and T3 test levels decreased and TSH increased. After 12

L. Smigan; A. Wahlin; L. Jacobsson; L. von Knorring

1984-01-01

252

Discriminant Value of Thyroid Function Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different thyroid function tests permitted a final classification of 204 consecutive patients with suspected thyroid disorders into three populations (thyrotoxic, euthyroid, and hypothyroid). Linear discriminant analysis was applied to all test results (10 variates) on adjacent population pairs. Two invitro tests (serum protein bound iodine (P.B.I.) and tri-iodothyronine (T-3) uptake values) gave good separation of thyrotoxic from euthyroid patients and

David B. Barnett; Anthony A. Greenfield; Peter J. Howlett; Jennifer C. Hudson; Robert N. Smith

1973-01-01

253

Note: The full function test explosive generator.  

PubMed

We have conducted three tests of a new pulsed power device called the full function test. These tests represented the culmination of an effort to establish a high energy pulsed power capability based on high explosive pulsed power (HEPP) technology. This involved an extensive computational modeling, engineering, fabrication, and fielding effort. The experiments were highly successful and a new U.S. record for magnetic energy was obtained. PMID:20370232

Reisman, D B; Javedani, J B; Griffith, L V; Ellsworth, G F; Kuklo, R M; Goerz, D A; White, A D; Tallerico, L J; Gidding, D A; Murphy, M J; Chase, J B

2010-03-01

254

Functional testing of digital microfluidic biochips  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dependability is an important attribute for microfluidic biochips that are used for safety-critical applications such as point-of-care health assessment, air-quality monitoring, and food-safety testing. Therefore, these devices must be adequately tested after manufacture and during bioassay operations. Known techniques for biochip testing are all function-oblivious, i.e., while they can detect and locate defect sites on a microfluidic array, they cannot

Tao Xu; Krishnendu Chakrabarty

2007-01-01

255

Note: The full function test explosive generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have conducted three tests of a new pulsed power device called the full function test. These tests represented the culmination of an effort to establish a high energy pulsed power capability based on high explosive pulsed power (HEPP) technology. This involved an extensive computational modeling, engineering, fabrication, and fielding effort. The experiments were highly successful and a new U.S. record for magnetic energy was obtained.

Reisman, D. B.; Javedani, J. B.; Griffith, L. V.; Ellsworth, G. F.; Kuklo, R. M.; Goerz, D. A.; White, A. D.; Tallerico, L. J.; Gidding, D. A.; Murphy, M. J.; Chase, J. B.

2010-03-01

256

Assessing risks of invasion through gamete performance: farm Atlantic salmon sperm and eggs show equivalence in function, fertility, compatibility and competitiveness to wild Atlantic salmon.  

PubMed

Adaptations at the gamete level (a) evolve quickly, (b) appear sensitive to inbreeding and outbreeding and (c) have important influences on potential to reproduce. We apply this understanding to problems posed by escaped farm salmon and measure their potential to reproduce in the wild. Farm Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are a threat to biodiversity, because they escape in large numbers and can introgress, dilute or disrupt locally adapted wild gene pools. Experiments at the whole fish level have found farm reproductive potential to be significant, but inferior compared to wild adults, especially for males. Here, we assess reproductive performance at the gamete level through detailed in vitro comparisons of the form, function, fertility, compatibility and competitiveness of farm versus wild Atlantic salmon sperm and eggs, in conditions mimicking the natural gametic microenvironment, using fish raised under similar environmental conditions. Despite selective domestication and reduced genetic diversity, we find functional equivalence in all farm fish gamete traits compared with their wild ancestral strain. Our results identify a clear threat of farm salmon reproduction with wild fish and therefore encourage further consideration of using triploid farm strains with optimized traits for aquaculture and fish welfare, as triploid fish remain reproductively sterile following escape. PMID:24822083

Yeates, Sarah E; Einum, Sigurd; Fleming, Ian A; Holt, William V; Gage, Matthew Jg

2014-04-01

257

Assessing risks of invasion through gamete performance: farm Atlantic salmon sperm and eggs show equivalence in function, fertility, compatibility and competitiveness to wild Atlantic salmon  

PubMed Central

Adaptations at the gamete level (a) evolve quickly, (b) appear sensitive to inbreeding and outbreeding and (c) have important influences on potential to reproduce. We apply this understanding to problems posed by escaped farm salmon and measure their potential to reproduce in the wild. Farm Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are a threat to biodiversity, because they escape in large numbers and can introgress, dilute or disrupt locally adapted wild gene pools. Experiments at the whole fish level have found farm reproductive potential to be significant, but inferior compared to wild adults, especially for males. Here, we assess reproductive performance at the gamete level through detailed in vitro comparisons of the form, function, fertility, compatibility and competitiveness of farm versus wild Atlantic salmon sperm and eggs, in conditions mimicking the natural gametic microenvironment, using fish raised under similar environmental conditions. Despite selective domestication and reduced genetic diversity, we find functional equivalence in all farm fish gamete traits compared with their wild ancestral strain. Our results identify a clear threat of farm salmon reproduction with wild fish and therefore encourage further consideration of using triploid farm strains with optimized traits for aquaculture and fish welfare, as triploid fish remain reproductively sterile following escape.

Yeates, Sarah E; Einum, Sigurd; Fleming, Ian A; Holt, William V; Gage, Matthew JG

2014-01-01

258

Effect of cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrins on bull and goat sperm processed with fast or slow cryopreservation protocols.  

PubMed

Cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrins (CLC) added to the sperm before cryopreservation enhance sperm quality after freeze-thawing in several cold shock-sensitive species, including cattle and goats. However, all studies conducted to date have used conventional protocols, in which sperm are cooled slowly to 5°C before freezing. As cholesterol plays a significant role in sperm cold shock resistance, it is possible that CLC-treated sperm can withstand cooling damage when the sperm are not cooled slowly to 5°C before freezing. In this study, we determined whether CLC-treated goat (1 mg CLC/120×10(6) sperm) and bull (2 mg CLC/120×10(6) sperm) sperm quality, after thawing, was different for sperm frozen using conventional protocols (including a slow cooling phase to 5ºC) and protocols in which the sperm were frozen from room temperature, without cooling the sperm slowly to 5°C before freezing. CLC-treated sperm exhibited higher percentages of plasma membrane-intact sperm than control sperm when cryopreserved using conventional protocols. In addition, CLC treatment enhanced both sperm motility and plasma membrane integrity when sperm were frozen directly from room temperature. However, this treatment did not fully prevent the damage of the sperm after cooling rapidly and subsequent freezing, as the sperm quality was lower than that presented by the samples frozen using the conventional protocol. The results are promising, but studies to optimize the protocols for freezing sperm directly from room temperature need to be conducted, as well as studies to determine how cryopreserving sperm in this manner affects other sperm functions. PMID:24556141

Mocé, E; Tomás, C; Blanch, E; Graham, J K

2014-05-01

259

Sperm from pheromone primed brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) produce more larvae.  

PubMed

Male goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposed to female hormonal pheromones express increased milt volumes and their sperm fertilize more eggs than sperm from unprimed males. Ovulated salmonid females also release odours that increase volumes of strippable milt in males. It is, however, not known if the priming pheromones affect the ability of sperm to fertilize eggs in salmonids. In this study, we compare the proportion of larvae produced from in vitro fertilization tests between primed brown trout (Salmo trutta) males exposed to a mix of female urine and ovarian fluids, and control males exposed only to 0.9 % sodium chloride. We also investigate priming effects on milt yield and sperm motility. Fertilization tests with sperm from single males, as well as sperm from two males (i.e., sperm competition), were performed. Primed males generated more larvae in both the single male and competition fertilization tests. No differences between treatments in milt yield and sperm motility could be established. PMID:22976196

Hellström, Gustav; Prestegaard, Tore; Dannewitz, Johan; Olsén, K Håkan

2013-06-01

260

Elemental composition of human semen is associated with motility and genomic sperm defects among older men  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Older men tend to have poorer semen quality and are generally at higher risks for infertility and abnormal reproductive outcomes. METHODS We employed proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE, 3 MeV proton beam) to investigate the concentrations of zinc, copper, calcium, sulfur, chlorine, potassium, titanium, iron and nickel in washed sperm and seminal plasma from non-smoking groups of 10 older men (65–80 years old) and 10 younger men (22–28 years old) who were concurrently assayed for sperm function and genomicly defective sperm. RESULTS The older group showed elevated zinc, copper and calcium in sperm and elevated sulfur in seminal plasma compared with the younger men. The older group also showed reduced motility as well as increased sperm DNA fragmentation, achondroplasia mutations, DNA strand breaks and chromosomal aberrations. Sperm calcium and copper were positively associated with sperm DNA fragmentation (P < 0.03). Seminal sulfur was positively associated with sperm DNA fragmentation and chromosomal aberrations (P < 0.04), and negatively associated with sperm motility (P < 0.05). Sperm calcium was negatively associated with sperm motility, independent of male age (P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS We identified major differences in elemental concentrations between sperm and seminal plasma and that higher sperm copper, sulfur and calcium are quantitatively associated with poorer semen quality and increased frequencies of genomic sperm defects.

Schmid, Thomas E.; Grant, Patrick G.; Marchetti, Francesco; Weldon, Rosana H.; Eskenazi, Brenda; Wyrobek, Andrew J.

2013-01-01

261

The sperm epigenome: implications for the embryo.  

PubMed

Recent advances, including the human genome project and numerous studies of cancer and other diseases, have shown that the genetic code is not simply limited to the sequence of the four bases of DNA but also includes epigenetic programming, heritable changes that affect gene expression [Riggs A, Martinssen R, Russo V (2007) Introduction. In: Riggs A, Martinssen R, Russo V (eds) Epigenetics mechanisms of gene regulation. Cold Spring Harbor Press, New York]. The science of epigenetics is important in understanding many diseases and biological processes, including in identifying the causes of disease and better understanding the mechanisms by which the environment can affect gene expression [Carrell Fertil Steril 97 (2):267-274, 2012]. This chapter will focus on the epigenome of sperm and particularly highlight the potential role of the sperm epigenome in embryogenesis.The sperm epigenome is unique and highly specialized because of the unique nature and function of sperm and because of the diverse requirements for successful fertilization. Due to the need for motility, sperm chromatin must be compacted and highly organized. During spermiogenesis the chromatin is packaged tightly into the sperm head by the replacement of most histones with protamines. This allows for protection of the DNA from the hostile environment in the female reproductive tract. Remaining histones can have chemical modifications to the tails of the protein that either facilitate or repress gene transcription. Sperm, like embryonic stem cells, have a unique pattern of histone modifications that includes both activating and silencing marks in the promoters of genes associated with development. These bivalent marks, along with DNA hypomethylation, comprise a unique state in which the key genes are "poised" for possible activation in embryogenesis. Sperm epigenetic abnormalities have been linked with multiple diseases including male factor infertility and poor embryogenesis. PMID:23955672

Gannon, John R; Emery, Benjamin R; Jenkins, Timothy G; Carrell, Douglas T

2014-01-01

262

An update on sperm retrieval techniques for azoospermic males  

PubMed Central

The use of non-ejaculated sperm coupled with intracytoplasmic sperm injection has become a globally established procedure for couples with azoospermic male partners who wish to have biological offspring. Surgical methods have been developed to retrieve spermatozoa from the epididymides and the testes of such patients. This article reviews the methods currently available for sperm acquisition in azoospermia, with a particular focus on the perioperative, anesthetic and technical aspects of these procedures. A critical analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of these sperm retrieval methods is provided, including the authors' methods of choice and anesthesia preferences.

Esteves, Sandro C; Miyaoka, Ricardo; Orosz, Jose Eduardo; Agarwal, Ashok

2013-01-01

263

The Sperm Penetration Assay for the Assessment of Fertilization Capacity  

PubMed Central

Summary The sperm penetration assay, or zona-free hamster oocyte penetration assay is utilized to measure the ability of sperm to undergo capacitation, fuse with the egg membrane and decondense the sperm head within the cytoplasm of the oocyte resulting in the formation of the male pronucleus. The test is scored by calculation the percentage of ova that are penetrated or the average number of sperm penetrations per ovum. It has been used to identify those couples who will have a high likelihood of success with in vitro fertilization.

Hwang, Kathleen; Lamb, Dolores J.

2013-01-01

264

Pulmonary function testing in small laboratory mammals.  

PubMed Central

The lung is the primary organ likely to be exposed by inhalation studies and, therefore, measurement of changes in lung function are of particular interest to the pulmonary physiologist and toxicologist. Tests of pulmonary function have been developed which can be used with small animals to measure spirometry (lung volumes), mechanics, distribution of ventilation, gas exchange or control of ventilation. These tests were designed on the basis of similar tests which are used in humans to diagnose and manage patients with lung disease. A major difference is that many of the measurements are performed in anesthetized animals, while human pulmonary function is usually measured in awake cooperating individuals. In addition, the measurement of respiratory events in small animals requires sensitive and rapidly responding equipment, because signals may be small and events can occur quickly. In general, the measurements described provide information on the change in normal lung function which results primarily from structural changes. These tests of pulmonary function can be repetitively and routinely accomplished and the results appear to be highly reproducible. Although some are quite sophisticated, many can be undertaken with relatively inexpensive equipment and provide useful information for toxicological testing.

O'Neil, J J; Raub, J A

1984-01-01

265

CIT photoheliograph functional verification unit test program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tests of the 2/3-meter photoheliograph functional verification unit FVU were performed with the FVU installed in its Big Bear Solar Observatory vacuum chamber. Interferometric tests were run both in Newtonian (f/3.85) and Gregorian (f/50) configurations. Tests were run in both configurations with optical axis horizontal, vertical, and at 45 deg to attempt to determine any gravity effects on the system. Gravity effects, if present, were masked by scatter in the data associated with the system wavefront error of 0.16 lambda rms ( = 6328A) apparently due to problems in the primary mirror. Tests showed that the redesigned secondary mirror assembly works well.

1973-01-01

266

Diagnostic accuracy of computer-assisted sperm motion analysis.  

PubMed

One retrospective and two prospective studies were conducted among 218 couples treated with in-vitro fertilization (IVF) to establish the reproducibility and diagnostic accuracy of computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) with swim-up spermatozoa for the prediction of the fertilization rate of oocytes in vitro. Based on the results of a preliminary retrospective analysis in 49 patients, the 'curvilinear velocity' (VCL) was chosen as the most distinctive motion parameter of sperm function and the median was used to represent the entire sperm population. The number of inseminated motile spermatozoa was then adjusted to median VCL during two subsequent prospective studies with clinical IVF. Whereas in the first prospective study (90 couples) the threshold values of VCL with regard to the number of spermatozoa inseminated were based on the results of the preliminary retrospective study (49 couples), in the second prospective study (79 couples) the settings were based on the results of the first prospective study. The reproducibility of CASA was tested by analysing the motion characteristics of spermatozoa at different intervals after termination of swim-up, by repeated analysis of the same video-recording of the incubated spermatozoa by different observers, and by the repeated video-recording of the freshly prepared sperm samples and analysis of both video-recordings by the same observer. Under these conditions the frequency of disagreement between two measurements varied between 2.0 and 8.2%. In both prospective studies the sensitivity of CASA for the prediction of fertilization was high (74.0%), whereas the specificity was low (40.0%). In contrast to successful fertilization, unsuccessful fertilization of oocytes in vitro could not be predicted reliably with CASA. However, the pregnancy rate per cycle among patients with predicted low fertilization rates was significantly lower (5.3%) than in couples with high predicted fertilization rates (24.3%, P < 0.001). Therefore, CASA of washed spermatozoa may still help to identify couples who would benefit more from intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) than from IVF. A definite threshold level could not be identified for any of the motion parameters to distinguish the motion characteristics of fertilizing and non-fertilizing spermatozoa. Using various algorithms for hyperactivated motility, the percentage of hyperactivated spermatozoa was significantly higher among the successfully fertilizing patients than among the nonfertilizing group. However, the absolute number of hyperactivated spermatozoa added to the oocytes was higher in non-fertilizing couples. Therefore, the lack of fertilization in some patients may be caused by a generalized defect in sperm function rather than by insufficient hyperactivation. PMID:9806276

De Geyter, C; De Geyter, M; Koppers, B; Nieschlag, E

1998-09-01

267

A sperm-activating peptide controls a cGMP-signaling pathway in starfish sperm.  

PubMed

Peptides released from eggs of marine invertebrates play a central role in fertilization. About 80 different peptides from various phyla have been isolated, however, with one exception, their respective receptors on the sperm surface have not been unequivocally identified and the pertinent signaling pathways remain ill defined. Using rapid mixing techniques and novel membrane-permeable caged compounds of cyclic nucleotides, we show that the sperm-activating peptide asterosap evokes a fast and transient increase of the cGMP concentration in sperm of the starfish Asterias amurensis, followed by a transient cGMP-stimulated increase in the Ca(2+) concentration. In contrast, cAMP levels did not change significantly and the Ca(2+) response evoked by photolysis of caged cAMP was significantly smaller than that using caged cGMP. By cloning of cDNA and chemical crosslinking, we identified a receptor-type guanylyl cyclase in the sperm flagellum as the asterosap-binding protein. Sperm respond exquisitely sensitive to picomolar concentrations of asterosap, suggesting that the peptide serves a chemosensory function like resact, a peptide involved in chemotaxis of sperm of the sea urchin Arbacia punctulata. A unifying principle emerges that chemosensory transduction in sperm of marine invertebrates uses cGMP as the primary messenger, although there may be variations in the detail. PMID:12921734

Matsumoto, Midori; Solzin, Johannes; Helbig, Annika; Hagen, Volker; Ueno, Sei-ichi; Kawase, Osamu; Maruyama, Yoshinori; Ogiso, Manabu; Godde, Matthias; Minakata, Hiroyuki; Kaupp, U Benjamin; Hoshi, Motonori; Weyand, Ingo

2003-08-15

268

ACROSOMAL DISRUPTION IN SPERM  

PubMed Central

"Capacitation" is a physiological event which alters sperm to permit rapid penetration through oocyte investments and fusion between gametes. Acrosomal "reaction," the physiological release of acrosomal contents, occurs after this facilitating process. In this study, acrosomal "disruption" of guinea pig and rat sperm was achieved in vitro by incubating sperm together with the follicular contents of superovulated mice. The samples contained both "reacted" and "disrupted" sperm. Thin sections of affected sperm revealed rupture and vesiculation of the plasma membrane overlying the acrosome, as well as loss of both the outer acrosomal membrane and the acrosomal content. Freeze-fracture revealed disintegration of the characteristic geometric patterns in regions of the acrosomal and plasma membranes thus disrupted and major modifications in particle distribution in the sperm tail. In the guinea pig, strands of 6–8-nm particles, usually confined to the plasma membrane of the midpiece, which overlies mitochondria, also appeared in the principal piece. Likewise, in rat sperm, bands of similarly small particles formed acute angles throughout the membrane of the principal piece. Compared with the membranes of control preparations, these membrane alterations are apparently a direct consequence of incubation with ovarian follicular contents.

Friend, Daniel S.; Rudolf, Irene

1974-01-01

269

Track/train dynamics test report transfer function test. Volume 1: Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A description is presented of the transfer function test performed on an open hopper freight car loaded with 80 tons of coal. Test data and a post-test update of the requirements document and test procedure are presented. Included are a statement of the test objective, a description of the test configurations, test facilities, test methods, data acquisition/reduction operations, and a chronological test summary. An index to the data for the three test configurations (X, Y, and Z-axis tests) is presented along with test sequence, run number, test reference, and input parameters.

Vigil, R. A.

1975-01-01

270

An automated system for pulmonary function testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experiment to quantitate pulmonary function was accepted for the space shuttle concept verification test. The single breath maneuver and the nitrogen washout are combined to reduce the test time. Parameters are defined from the forced vital capacity maneuvers. A spirometer measures the breath volume and a magnetic section mass spectrometer provides definition of gas composition. Mass spectrometer and spirometer data are analyzed by a PDP-81 digital computer.

Mauldin, D. G.

1974-01-01

271

Effects of Cryopreservation on Bull Sperm Head Morphometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial insemination using cryopreserved semen is a common management tool of the contemporary livestock producer. However, cryopreservation is detrimental to sperm function and fer- tility, killing some 50% of the spermatozoa during the process. Pre- diction of cryopreservation damage from prefreeze samples remains elusive. Computer-automated sperm head morphometry was used in this study to determine the effects of cryopreservation on

CURTIS G. GRAVANCE; R. VISHWANATH; COLIN PITL; DUANE L. GARNER; PATRICK J. CASEY

272

Immune Activation Reduces Sperm Quality in the Great Tit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mounting an immune response against pathogens incurs costs to organisms by its effects on important life-history traits, such as reproductive investment and survival. As shown recently, immune activation produces large amounts of reactive species and is suggested to induce oxidative stress. Sperm are highly susceptible to oxidative stress, which can negatively impact sperm function and ultimately male fertilizing efficiency. Here

Sylvain Losdat; Heinz Richner; Jonathan D. Blount; Fabrice Helfenstein

2011-01-01

273

Treated Wastewater Effluent Reduces Sperm Motility Along an Osmolality Gradient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many toxic effects of treated wastewater effluent on organismal and reproductive health have been documented. However, the physicochemical environment of treated wastewater effluent frequently differs consider- ably from that of its receiving waters and may affect organismal function independently of toxic effects. Teleost sperm, for example, may be affected by the higher osmo- lality of treated wastewater, as this sperm

H. L. Schoenfuss; Æ J. T. Levitt; R. Rai; M. L. Julius; D. Martinovic

2008-01-01

274

Sperm preparation: state-of-the-art--physiological aspects and application of advanced sperm preparation methods.  

PubMed

For assisted reproduction technologies (ART), numerous techniques were developed to isolate spermatozoa capable of fertilizing oocytes. While early methodologies only focused on isolating viable, motile spermatozoa, with progress of ART, particularly intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), it became clear that these parameters are insufficient for the identification of the most suitable spermatozoon for fertilization. Conventional sperm preparation techniques, namely, swim-up, density gradient centrifugation and glass wool filtration, are not efficient enough to produce sperm populations free of DNA damage, because these techniques are not physiological and not modeled on the stringent sperm selection processes taking place in the female genital tract. These processes only allow one male germ cell out of tens of millions to fuse with the oocyte. Sites of sperm selection in the female genital tract are the cervix, uterus, uterotubal junction, oviduct, cumulus oophorus and the zona pellucida. Newer strategies of sperm preparation are founded on: (i) morphological assessment by means of 'motile sperm organelle morphological examination (MSOME)'; (ii) electrical charge; and (iii) molecular binding characteristics of the sperm cell. Whereas separation methods based on electrical charge take advantage of the sperm's adherence to a test tube surface or separate in an electrophoresis, molecular binding techniques use Annexin V or hyaluronic acid (HA) as substrates. Techniques in this category are magnet-activated cell sorting, Annexin V-activated glass wool filtration, flow cytometry and picked spermatozoa for ICSI (PICSI) from HA-coated dishes and HA-containing media. Future developments may include Raman microspectrometry, confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy and polarization microscopy. PMID:22138904

Henkel, Ralf

2012-03-01

275

Sperm preparation: state-of-the-art--physiological aspects and application of advanced sperm preparation methods  

PubMed Central

For assisted reproduction technologies (ART), numerous techniques were developed to isolate spermatozoa capable of fertilizing oocytes. While early methodologies only focused on isolating viable, motile spermatozoa, with progress of ART, particularly intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), it became clear that these parameters are insufficient for the identification of the most suitable spermatozoon for fertilization. Conventional sperm preparation techniques, namely, swim-up, density gradient centrifugation and glass wool filtration, are not efficient enough to produce sperm populations free of DNA damage, because these techniques are not physiological and not modeled on the stringent sperm selection processes taking place in the female genital tract. These processes only allow one male germ cell out of tens of millions to fuse with the oocyte. Sites of sperm selection in the female genital tract are the cervix, uterus, uterotubal junction, oviduct, cumulus oophorus and the zona pellucida. Newer strategies of sperm preparation are founded on: (i) morphological assessment by means of ‘motile sperm organelle morphological examination (MSOME)' (ii) electrical charge; and (iii) molecular binding characteristics of the sperm cell. Whereas separation methods based on electrical charge take advantage of the sperm's adherence to a test tube surface or separate in an electrophoresis, molecular binding techniques use Annexin V or hyaluronic acid (HA) as substrates. Techniques in this category are magnet-activated cell sorting, Annexin V-activated glass wool filtration, flow cytometry and picked spermatozoa for ICSI (PICSI) from HA-coated dishes and HA-containing media. Future developments may include Raman microspectrometry, confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy and polarization microscopy.

Henkel, Ralf

2012-01-01

276

Bushcricket Spermatophores Vary in Accord with Sperm Competition and Parental Investment Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sperm competition theory predicts that males will vary the number of sperm ejaculated according to the intensity of competition expected over the fertilization of eggs. Parental investment theory predicts that the magnitude of male investment in offspring should be associated with confidence of paternity. The spermatophores of some bushcrickets serve the dual functions of delivering sperm and providing the female

L. W. Simmons; M. Craig; T. Llorens; M. Schinzig; D. Hosken

1993-01-01

277

VASECTOMY REVERSAL ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASED REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES PRODUCTION BY SEMINAL FLUID LEUKOCYTES AND SPERM  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeReactive oxygen species, which are primarily produced by leukocytes, are generally detrimental to sperm. High reactive oxygen species levels are found in men with abnormal sperm function. Since men often have poor sperm characteristics and infertility after vasectomy reversal, fertile men to determine if reactive oxygen species were elevated in the former group.

ROBERT H. SHAPIRO; CHARLES H. MULLER; GREGORY CHEN; RICHARD E. BERGER

1998-01-01

278

Human sperm tail proteome suggests new endogenous metabolic pathways.  

PubMed

Proteomic studies are contributing greatly to our understanding of the sperm cell, and more detailed descriptions are expected to clarify additional cellular and molecular sperm attributes. The aim of this study was to characterize the subcellular proteome of the human sperm tail and, hopefully, identify less concentrated proteins (not found in whole cell proteome studies). Specifically, we were interested in characterizing the sperm metabolic proteome and gaining new insights into the sperm metabolism issue. Sperm were isolated from normozoospermic semen samples and depleted of any contaminating leukocytes. Tail fractions were obtained by means of sonication followed by sucrose-gradient ultracentrifugation, and their purity was confirmed via various techniques. Liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry of isolated sperm tail peptides resulted in the identification of 1049 proteins, more than half of which had not been previously described in human sperm. The categorization of proteins according to their function revealed two main groups: proteins related to metabolism and energy production (26%), and proteins related to sperm tail structure and motility (11%). Interestingly, a great proportion of the metabolic proteome (24%) comprised enzymes involved in lipid metabolism, including enzymes for mitochondrial beta-oxidation. Unexpectedly, we also identified various peroxisomal proteins, some of which are known to be involved in the oxidation of very long chain fatty acids. Analysis of our data using Reactome suggests that both mitochondrial and peroxisomal pathways might indeed be active in sperm, and that the use of fatty acids as fuel might be more preponderant than previously thought. In addition, incubation of sperm with the fatty acid oxidation inhibitor etomoxir resulted in a significant decrease in sperm motility. Contradicting a common concept in the literature, we suggest that the male gamete might have the capacity to obtain energy from endogenous pools, and thus to adapt to putative exogenous fluctuations. PMID:23161514

Amaral, Alexandra; Castillo, Judit; Estanyol, Josep Maria; Ballescà, José Luís; Ramalho-Santos, João; Oliva, Rafael

2013-02-01

279

Factors affecting sperm fertilizing capacity in men infected with HIV.  

PubMed

Studies on the sperm-fertilizing capacity of HIV-seropositive men show conflicting results for reasons that are not yet clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and relationships of some factors such as patient age, CD4(+) cells count, fathering offspring, concomitant sexually transmitted diseases (STD), and receipt of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) on sperm fertilizing capacity. Semen samples were collected from 33 HIV-seropositive men. Data on the above factors were acquired from a self-designed questionnaire. Computer-assisted sperm analysis, a hypo-osmotic swelling, and zona-free hamster oocyte penetration tests were performed according to criteria of the World Health Organization. CD4(+) cells in peripheral blood were examined using a flow cytometric (FCM) analyzer. Sperm vitality, sperm motility (grades a?+?b), total sperm motility, and sperm penetration rates were significantly higher in patients whose CD4(+) counts were ?350/µl than in those whose CD4(+) counts were <350/µl (P?sperm count and sperm tail swelling rate between patients co-infected with STD and without STD were observed (P?Sperm penetration rate in patients receiving HAART was significantly higher than in those not receiving HAART (P?sperm fertilizing capacity of HIV-seropositive men. After receiving HAART, the sperm penetration rate of HIV-seropositive men can be improved. J. Med. Virol. 86:1467-1472, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24898681

Wang, Dian; Li, Lianbing; Xie, Qingdong; Hou, Zhiwei; Yu, Xiaojun; Ma, Mingfu; Huang, Tianhua

2014-09-01

280

Sperm plasma membrane characteristics and boar semen fertility.  

PubMed

Much effort is being made to establish relationships between the molecular events that take place in spermatozoa under fertilizing conditions and actual sperm function during fertilization. During capacitation, the process that 'primes' spermatozoa for interaction with the egg, components of the sperm's environment, notably bicarbonate, provoke various specific changes in the architecture and functioning of the sperm plasma membrane in a large number of cells. The individual changes have been found to proceed on different time scales, and may therefore represent sequential stages in the capacitation process. However, each change takes place at different rates in individual cells, revealing considerable functional heterogeneity within the sperm population. Recent work on membrane changes provoked by cooling has indicated similarities with capacitational changes. The effect of cooling may therefore be to induce premature capacitation (and destabilization). Such an effect would greatly compromise sperm fertilizing potential. A pig sperm-egg interaction model was used to examine quantitative details of zona binding and zona penetrating abilities within capacitated sperm populations, and sperm behaviour was found not to accord with generally held beliefs. In particular, individual spermatozoa that have bound to the zona pellucida show great variation in the delay before penetrating: no evidence has been found for a specially competent subgroup. Even in sperm samples incubated to undergo maximal capacitational membrane changes, cells with actual penetrating potential represent less than 15% of the total number that attach initially to the zona pellucida. Thus detection of capacitational membrane changes appears greatly to overestimate zona penetrating capability. Future studies linking sperm membrane characteristics with semen fertility in the field will need to consider differences between in vitro and in vivo conditions. The need for survival in the female tract may require much slower sperm responses than are considered optimal for in vitro fertilization. PMID:9602729

Harrison, R A

1997-01-01

281

Gas Test Loop Functional and Technical Requirements  

SciTech Connect

This document defines the technical and functional requirements for a gas test loop (GTL) to be constructed for the purpose of providing a high intensity fast-flux irradiation environment for developers of advanced concept nuclear reactors. This capability is needed to meet fuels and materials testing requirements of the designers of Generation IV (GEN IV) reactors and other programs within the purview of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). Space nuclear power development programs may also benefit by the services the GTL will offer. The overall GTL technical objective is to provide developers with the means for investigating and qualifying fuels and materials needed for advanced reactor concepts. The testing environment includes a fast-flux neutron spectrum of sufficient intensity to perform accelerated irradiation testing. Appropriate irradiation temperature, gaseous environment, test volume, diagnostics, and access and handling features are also needed. This document serves to identify those requirements as well as generic requirements applicable to any system of this kind.

Glen R. Longhurst; Soli T. Khericha; James L. Jones

2004-09-01

282

Correlation of CASA Velocity and Linearity Parameters With Sperm Mobility Phenotype in Turkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since all domestic turkeys are produced through artifi- cial insemination, a measurable sperm characteristic that would be predictive of fertility would allow for the culling of poor males, resulting in improved reproductive efficiency. The sperm mobility test (SMT), which quantifies sperm penetration into an Accudenz solution, has been shown to correlate highly with fertilization potential of individual turkeys. Since this

LAURA M. KING; DENISE R. HOLSBERGER; ANN M. DONOGHUE

283

Male mating behavior and ejaculate expenditure under sperm competition risk in the eastern mosquitofish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theory predicts that males should tailor the size of their ejaculates according to temporal changes in the risk of sperm competition. Specifically, males are predicted to allocate more sperm to each mating event with increasing risk (i.e., the probability that the sperm from two males will compete for fertilization). We tested this hypothesis by using the eastern mosquitofish, a freshwater

Jonathan P. Evans; Michele Pierotti; Andrea Pilastro

2003-01-01

284

Sperm Quality Control  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

New research from the University of Missouri-Columbia suggests how defective sperm are tagged for destruction. This 57 second audio recording from Science Update originally aired on Monday, February 11, 2008.

Science Update (AAAS;)

2008-05-06

285

Long-lived sperm in the geothermal bryophyte Pohlia nutans  

PubMed Central

Non-vascular plants rely on sperm to cross the distance between male and female reproductive organs for fertilization and sexual reproduction to occur. The majority of non-vascular plants have separate sexes, and thus, this distance may be a few millimetres to many metres. Because sperm need water for transport, it has been assumed that sperm lifespans are short and that this type of sexual reproduction limits the expansion of non-vascular plants in terrestrial environments. However, little data is available on the lifespan of sperm in non-vascular plants, and none is available for bryophytes, the group thought to have first colonized terrestrial habitats. Here, we documented the lifespan of sperm of Pohlia nutans, collected from a geothermal spring's area, and tested the effects of variation under environmental conditions on this lifespan. Surprisingly, 20 per cent of the sperm were still motile after 100 h, and sperm lifespan was not significantly affected by temperature variation between 22 and 60°C. Lifespan was significantly affected by sperm dilution and temperatures above 75°C. These results suggest the need to reconsider the importance of sperm motility in bryophyte fertilization.

Rosenstiel, Todd N.; Eppley, Sarah M.

2009-01-01

286

Effects of flaxseed dietary supplementation on sperm quality and on lipid composition of sperm subfractions and prostatic granules in rabbit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipids are the main structural\\/functional components of the sperm, and their composition may undergo a series of modifications in relation to either physiologic events (capacitation and acrosome reaction) and\\/or diet. The goals of the current study were (1) to investigate whether a flaxseed (FS) dietary supplementation could affect the lipid and fatty acid profile of sperm subfractions and of prostatic

E. Mourvaki; R. Cardinali; A. Dal Bosco; L. Corazzi; C. Castellini

2010-01-01

287

Functional Performance Testing for Power and Return to Sports  

PubMed Central

Context: Functional performance testing of athletes can determine physical limitations that may affect sporting activities. Optimal functional performance testing simulates the athlete’s activity. Evidence Acquisition: A Medline search from 1960 to 2012 was implemented with the keywords functional testing, functional impairment testing, and functional performance testing in the English language. Each author also undertook independent searches of article references. Conclusion: Functional performance tests can bridge the gap between general physical tests and full, unrestricted athletic activity.

Manske, Robert; Reiman, Michael

2013-01-01

288

Comprehensive mapping of the bull sperm surface proteome.  

PubMed

While the mechanisms that underpin maturation, capacitation, and sperm-egg interactions remain elusive it is known that these essential fertilisation events are driven by the protein complement of the sperm surface. Understanding these processes is critical to the regulation of animal reproduction, but few studies have attempted to define the full repertoire of sperm surface proteins in animals of agricultural importance. Recent developments in proteomics technologies, subcellular fractionation, and optimised solubilisation strategies have enhanced the potential for the comprehensive characterisation of the sperm surface proteome. Here we report the identification of 419 proteins from a mature bull sperm plasma membrane fraction. Protein domain enrichment analyses indicate that 67% of all the proteins identified may be membrane associated. A large number of the proteins identified are conserved between mammalian species and are reported to play key roles in sperm-egg communication, capacitation and fertility. The major functional pathways identified were related to protein catabolism (26S proteasome complex), chaperonin-containing TCP-1 (CCT) complex and fundamental metabolic processes such as glycolysis and energy production. We have also identified 118 predicted transmembrane proteins, some of which are implicated in cell adhesion, acrosomal exocytosis, vesicle transport and immunity and fertilisation events, while others have not been reported in mammalian LC-MS-derived sperm proteomes to date. Comparative proteomics and functional network analyses of these proteins expand our system's level of understanding of the bull sperm proteome and provide important clues toward finding the essential conserved function of these proteins. PMID:23081703

Byrne, Keren; Leahy, Tamara; McCulloch, Russell; Colgrave, Michelle L; Holland, Michael K

2012-12-01

289

Sperm-egg recognition in the mouse: characterization of sp56, a sperm protein having specific affinity for ZP3  

PubMed Central

Recognition between mammalian gametes occurs when the plasma membrane of the sperm head binds to the zona pellucida (ZP), an extracellular coat surrounding eggs. ZP3, one of three glycoproteins in the ZP, is the egg protein recognized by sperm. A mouse sperm surface protein, sp56 (M(r) = 56,000), has been identified on the basis of its specific affinity for ZP3 (Bleil, J. D., and P. M. Wassarman. 1990. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 87:5563-5567). Studies presented here were designed to characterize mouse sperm sp56 and to further test whether or not this protein specifically recognizes ZP3. sp56 was purified by both ZP3 affinity chromatography and by ion exchange chromatography followed by size-exclusion chromatography. The purified native protein eluted from size-exclusion columns as a homomultimer (M(r) approximately 110,000). Each monomer of the protein contains intramolecular disulfide bonds, consistent with its extracellular location. Immunohistochemical and immunoblotting studies, using monoclonal antibodies, demonstrated that sp56 is a peripheral membrane protein located on the outer surface of the sperm head plasma membrane, precisely where sperm bind ZP3. Results of crosslinking experiments demonstrated that the ZP3 oligosaccharide recognized by sperm has specific affinity for sp56. Collectively, these results suggest that sp56 may be the sperm protein responsible for sperm-egg recognition in the mouse.

1994-01-01

290

Collection and evaluation of epididymal sperm in captive agoutis (Dasyprocta aguti).  

PubMed

The objective was to establish a protocol for the collection and evaluation of epididymal sperm in agoutis. Eight males (1-2 y old) underwent left orchidectomy and epididymal sperma were collected by retrograde flush. Average values were flush volume 32 ?L, pH 6.9, sperm concentration 748 x 10(6) sperm/mL, with motility 86.5% and vigor 4.6. Viable sperm were present in all flush samples; 66% of sperm were alive, and 41.9% of sperm responded positively to the hypoosmotic test (using distilled water). There were 21.1% morphologically abnormal sperm, of which 2.0 and 19.1% were primary and secondary defects, respectively. The acrosome was intact in 99.5% of sperm. The sperm head was 4.89 ± 0.41 ?m long and 3.13 ± 0.35 ?m wide, with an area of 13.01 ± 2.01 ?m(2). Midpieces were 5.33 ± 0.44 ?m long and 0.98 ± 0.13 wide, sperm tails were 29.91 ± 2.29 ?m, and overall sperm length was 40.12 ± 2.44 ?m. In conclusion, epididymal sperm collection from agoutis was satisfactory; the collected sperm has the potential to be stored, facilitating development of other reproductive biotechnologies for this species. PMID:21040962

Ferraz, M S; de Menezes, D J A; Pessoa, G T; Cabral, R M; Illera, M J; Silva, A R; Carvalho, M A M

2011-02-01

291

Sperm quality as reflected through morphology in salmon alternative life histories.  

PubMed

Male salmon exhibit alternative mating strategies, as both older anadromous adults and precocious juveniles (parr) participate in the spawning of a single female. This study tested the following hypotheses: 1) different intensities of sperm competition may reflect different sperm tail optima; 2) long spermatozoa are superior to short ones, with an associated cost on sperm longevity; and 3) a disfavored role in sperm competition selects for parr investing more in sperm quality. Comparisons included sperm morphological traits, whereas sperm quality was investigated by motility duration observations, measurement of the sperm adenylate system, and fertilization experiments. No evidence of different adaptive sperm dimensions between the male types was found. Positive association between spermatocrit and energy charge was, however, detected. Sperm length parameters correlated positively with ATP, energy charge, and fertilization success, whereas no evidence for an effect of sperm morphology on longevity was found. Male parr had greater spermatocrit than adults and fertilized equal proportions of eggs as adults despite a pronounced numerical subordinance in the fertilization experiments. It is concluded that a long sperm tail and midpiece may be selected to optimize energetic demands under conditions of increased sperm competition intensity. PMID:11751270

Vladi?, Tomislav V; Afzelius, Björn A; Bronnikov, Gennady E

2002-01-01

292

Effects of centrifugation before freezing on boar sperm cryosurvival.  

PubMed

Current protocols for boar sperm cryopreservation require the centrifugation of semen in order to separate sperm cells from the seminal plasma. This study evaluated the influence of different centrifugation regimes on both sperm recovery and yield (percentage of viable sperm with an intact acrosome relative to the initial sperm population) after centrifugation (experiment 1) as well as the influence of different centrifugation regimes on boar sperm cryosurvival (experiment 2). In both experiments, sperm-rich fractions from 3 boars were diluted, pooled, and cooled to 17 degrees C before centrifugation. In experiment 1, the g-forces tested were 400, 800, 1600, and 2400 x g for 3 or 5 minutes, using the standard regime (800 x g for 10 minutes) as a reference. Sperm recovery (Bürker Chamber) and yield (triple fluorescent stain of PI/R123/FITC-PNA [DNA-specific fluorochrome propidium iodide/mitochondria-specific fluorochrome rhodamine-123/acrosome-specific fluorochrome fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled peanut (Arachis hypogaea) agglutinin]) were calculated. The highest recovery and yield (P <.05) values were achieved using 2400 x g for 5 or 3 minutes and 1600 x g for 5 minutes, which showed no differences (P >.05) from the reference in terms of sperm yield. In experiment 2, cooled semen was centrifuged using 3 different regimes: C1 (2400 x g for 3 minutes), C2 (1600 x g for 5 minutes), and C3 (800 x g for 10 minutes). Pellets were diluted in lactose-egg yolk (LEY)-glycerol-Equex STM (1 x 10(9) cells/mL) and frozen in 0.5-mL straws. After thawing, sperm quality was assessed after 30 and 150 minutes of incubation (37 degrees C). Centrifugation regimes C1 and C2 showed significantly (P <.05) higher postthaw sperm motility (assessed with a computer-assisted semen analysis system), viability (evaluated as for experiment 1), and percentage of uncapacitated sperm (assessed with a chlortetracycline assay) than did C3. In addition, C1 had the highest (P <.05) oocyte penetrating ability (assessed with the homologous in vitro penetration test performed with immature oocytes). Malondialdehyde production, assessed with the thiobarbituric acid reactive species test, was unaffected (P >.05) by the centrifugation regime used. We conclude that high g-force (2400 x g) and short centrifugation time (3 minutes) do not affect sperm recovery and yield and that, moreover, they have a positive effect on the cryosurvival of boar sperm. Therefore, we recommend the use of short-term centrifugation with a relatively high g-force (2400 x g for 3 minutes) in boar sperm cryopreservation protocol. PMID:15064317

Carvajal, Gema; Cuello, Cristina; Ruiz, Maria; Vázquez, Juan María; Martínez, Emilio Arsenio; Roca, Jordi

2004-01-01

293

Lack of Tyrosylprotein Sulfotransferase-2 Activity Results in Altered Sperm-Egg Interactions and Loss of ADAM3 and ADAM6 in Epididymal Sperm*  

PubMed Central

Tyrosine O-sulfation is a post-translational modification catalyzed by two tyrosylprotein sulfotransferases (TPST-1 and TPST-2) in the trans-Golgi network. Tpst2-deficient mice have male infertility, sperm motility defects, and possible abnormalities in sperm-egg membrane interactions. Studies here show that compared with wild-type sperm, fewer Tpst2-null sperm bind to the egg membrane, but more of these bound sperm progress to membrane fusion. Similar outcomes were observed with wild-type sperm treated with the anti-sulfotyrosine antibody PSG2. The increased extent of sperm-egg fusion is not due to a failure of Tpst2-null sperm to trigger establishment of the egg membrane block to polyspermy. Anti-sulfotyrosine staining of sperm showed localization similar to that of IZUMO1, a sperm protein that is essential for gamete fusion, but we detected little to no tyrosine sulfation of IZUMO1 and found that IZUMO1 expression and localization were normal in Tpst2-null sperm. Turning to a discovery-driven approach, we used mass spectrometry to characterize sperm proteins that associated with PSG2. This identified ADAM6, a member of the A disintegrin and A metalloprotease (ADAM) family; members of this protein family are associated with multiple sperm functions. Subsequent studies revealed that Tpst2-null sperm lack ADAM6 and ADAM3. Loss of ADAM3 is strongly associated with male infertility and is observed in knockouts of male germ line-specific endoplasmic reticulum-resident chaperones, raising the possibility that TPST-2 may function in quality control in the secretory pathway. These data suggest that TPST-2-mediated tyrosine O-sulfation participates in regulating the sperm surface proteome or membrane order, ultimately affecting male fertility.

Marcello, Matthew R.; Jia, Weitao; Leary, Julie A.; Moore, Kevin L.; Evans, Janice P.

2011-01-01

294

New system for long-term monitoring of sperm motility: EDTA effect on semen.  

PubMed

Many drugs act as sperm stimulants and are of clinical value for male infertility. Current research deals with the physiological mechanisms of sperm motility/sperm stimulation and how long the effect lasts. For such a study, long-term monitoring of sperm motility becomes essential for traditional semen evaluation. A new system was designed to deal with the microscopic images of semen. Its performance was evaluated by studying the effect of EDTA on sperm motility. EDTA increased sperm curvilinear velocity (Vcl) and straight-line velocity (Vsl) by 31 and 20%. EDTA also prolonged the duration of motility by 68 and 61%, respectively. However, EDTA had less effect on the linearity of forward progression (Lin). The proposed system can analyze semen and does well at monitoring sperm motility for short term and long term. It may be valuable to test the possible role of sperm stimulation for male infertility and assisted reproduction. PMID:9730441

Kuo, Y L; Tzeng, W L; Chiang, H K; Ni, R F; Lee, T C; Young, S T

1998-01-01

295

[Cardiology. Platelet function testing for clinicians].  

PubMed

Platelet P2YI2 receptor inhibition with clopidogrel, prasugrel or ticagrelor plays a key role to prevent recurrent ischaemic events after percutaneous coronary intervention in acute coronary syndromes or elective settings. The degree of platelet inhibition depends on the antiplatelet medication used and is influenced by clinical and genetic factors. A concept of therapeutic window exists. On one side, efficient anti-aggregation is required in order to reduce cardio-vascular events. On the other side, an excessive platelet inhibition represents a risk of bleeding complications. This article describes the current knowledge about some platelet function tests and genetic tests and summarises their role in the clinical practice. PMID:24558893

Pellaton, Cyril; Eeckhout, Eric; Silvain, Johanne; Montalescot, Gilles; Collet, Jean-Phillipe

2014-01-15

296

"Sperm bank" integration - accident or fiction?  

PubMed

Question: A Washington newsletter recently reprinted from another publication the story of a white, previously childless, married woman who supposedly bore a black baby after being artifically inseminated with sperm from a "sperm bank." The woman reportedly committed suicide after the birth. I was not aware of the existence of such banks and would like information about their operation, and whether such an incident as reported could possibly have occurred. Answer: This question interests me enormously, for I was one of the pioneer investigators in therapeutic donor insemination. Our 1st such baby is now 41-years-old. I do not know of any "sperm bank" which furnishes sperm to doctors or patients. I know of only 1 doctor in the U.S. who started freezing of sperm to a temperature of -74 degrees C who will on occassion ship sperm to a colleague for insemination. I can assure you that in this instance there has never been any mixup in the source of the sperm. Even those physicians who have sources of sperm which they use for donor insemination, for example, Edward Tyler, MD, in Los Angeles, and S.J. Behrman, MD, in Ann Arbor, Michigan, to my knowledge use the specimens only for their own patients. I have personal knowledge of only 1 instance of error. In this case a doctor advised me that through an error of his office nurse, sperm from a black donor was inseminated into the doctor's private white patient. Fortunately, the physician called me within 24 hours of this occurrence and I immediately instructed him to put the patient on a regimen of high doses of estrogen at once. This prevented the possibility of a pregnancy from a bank. Again I will say that in my large experience of donor insemination I do now know of any functioning sperm bank which furnishes semen to a casual physician. The letter from the inquiring physician did not clearly elucidate the sequential relations between the artifical insemination, the birth of the black baby, and the suicide. I presume that the black baby was born 9 months after the insemination; and, then because of having given birth to a black baby, the white mother committed sucide. Referring to my experience mentioned above, if sucn an accident should happen because of the use of the wrong sperm, whether it be of black, white, or other origin, treatment with estrogen within 3-4 days of insem ination will prevent the ainsemination from being successful. In all lik elihood, if this particular story were investigated, you will find that the sperm sample probably was not from a sperm bank but was fresh sperm, with somebody's carelessness responsible for the mixup; and, of course, assuming the incident really occurred. PMID:12306298

Kleegman, S J

1972-03-01

297

Pulmonary Function Testing in Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diffuse parenchymal lung diseases are a group of disorders that involve the space between the epithelial and endothelial basement membranes and are generally segregated into four major catego- ries. These include the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, which are further categorized into seven clinical\\/radiologic\\/pathologic subsets.Thesedisordersgenerallyshareacommonpatternofphysi- ologic abnormality characterized by a restrictive ventilatory defect and reduced diffusing capacity (DLCO). Pulmonary function testing is

Fernando J. Martinez; Kevin Flaherty

2006-01-01

298

Genetic Influences on Thyroid Function Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this review we will discuss the possible effects of polymorphic variation in the genes important for thyroid hormone synthesis,\\u000a metabolism, and action, on the interindividual variation in thyroid functions tests. The genes involved are summarized in\\u000a the following outline of thyroid hormone production and action, but their role is discussed in detail in other sections (Chaps.\\u000a 1 and 4).

Wendy M. van der Deure; Marco Medici; Robin P. Peeters; Theo J. Visser

299

Mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide and defective cholesterol efflux prevent in vitro fertilization by cryopreserved inbred mouse sperm.  

PubMed

Recent advances in the cryopreservation of mouse sperm have resulted in dramatically improved in vitro fertilization (IVF) rates, but the biological mechanisms underlying the techniques remain unclear. Two different classes of compounds have been widely utilized to improve the IVF rates of cryopreserved mouse sperm: antioxidants and cyclodextrins. To determine how cryopreservation reduces mouse sperm IVF and how antioxidants and cyclodextrins mitigate this effect, we examined sperm function and oxidative damage after cryopreservation, with and without treatments, in mouse strains important for biomedical research. Our investigation revealed mouse strain-specific effects on IVF by modulation of oxidative stress and cholesterol efflux of cryopreserved sperm. Antioxidants improved IVF rates of C57Bl6/J cryopreserved mouse sperm by reducing hydrogen peroxide produced by sperm mitochondria and ameliorating peroxidative damage to the sperm acrosome. Enhancing cholesterol efflux with cyclodextrin restored capacitation-dependent sperm function and IVF after cryopreservation of C57Bl/6J, C57Bl/6N, and 129X1 mouse sperm. Our results highlight two accessible pathways for continued development of IVF techniques for mouse sperm and provide novel endpoints prognostic of IVF success. These insights may improve sperm cryopreservation methods of other mouse strains and species. PMID:23740947

Gray, Jeffrey E; Starmer, Joshua; Lin, Vivian S; Dickinson, Bryan C; Magnuson, Terry

2013-07-01

300

Sperm competition roles and ejaculate investment in a promiscuous mammal.  

PubMed

Theoretical models of sperm competition predict how males should allocate sperm and seminal fluid components to ejaculates according to their mating role (dominant vs. subordinate). Here, we present a detailed analysis of ejaculate expenditure according to male roles in the bank vole (Myodes glareolus). Sperm competition occurs regularly in this species, and dominant males typically achieve higher fertilization success than subordinates. Contrary to theoretical predictions, we found that dominant male bank voles invest more sperm per ejaculate than subordinates, both absolutely and relative to body and testes mass. The testes of dominant males were also absolutely (although not relatively) larger than those of subordinates. However, we found no evidence that subordinate males compensate for lower sperm numbers per ejaculate by increasing ejaculation frequency or sperm velocity. Similarly, we found no evidence for differential investment in copulatory plug size according to male roles in sperm competition, although dominant males had significantly larger seminal vesicles (both absolutely and relative to body mass) compared with subordinates. We conclude that sperm competition roles can have significant but unexpected influences on ejaculate investment in mammals with clearly defined differences in male social status. PMID:22515660

Lemaître, J-F; Ramm, S A; Hurst, J L; Stockley, P

2012-06-01

301

Comparison of four fluorochromes for the detection of the inner mitochondrial membrane potential in human spermatozoa and their correlation with sperm motility  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Sperm motility evaluation is associated with fertility in IVF programmes. The visual estimation of sperm motility is extremely subjective. Hence, alternative methods are required. Among them, determination of mitochondrial membrane potential (Dcm) changes of spermatozoa using potentiometric dyes may be a reliable test to determine sperm quality. However, the use of the potentiometric dyes in sperm samples has not

Carole Marchetti; Nathalie Jouy; Brigitte Leroy-Martin; Pierre Formstecher; Philippe Marchetti

2004-01-01

302

CCD multi-function processor test bed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report describes the Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) Multi-Function Processor Test Bed developed to support the test and evaluation of, and experimentation with, second- and third-generation CCD Programmable Transversal Filters (PTF) developed for RADC/ESE by Texas Instruments. The test bed consists of the PTF Module and PTF Exerciser Module. These modules provide the circuitry necessary to program, operate, control, and interface the PTF device. The present level of performance justifies continued experimentation and investigations into applications of the PTF as a generic signal processing module. Two areas that will continue to be pursued in FY82 include comparing the performance of the PTF configured as an adaptive equalizer in a wideband HF system against an existing all-digital equalizer and, secondly, application of several PTF Modules as a matched filter in a spread-spectrum modem.

Paczan, M. W.; Waldstein, S. M.

1982-01-01

303

Proteomic characterization of the human sperm nucleus.  

PubMed

Generating a catalogue of sperm nuclear proteins is an important first step towards the clarification of the function of the paternal chromatin transmitted to the oocyte upon fertilization. With this goal, sperm nuclei were obtained through CTAB treatment and isolated to over 99.9% purity without any tail fragments, acrosome or mitochondria as assessed by optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The nuclear proteins were extracted and separated in 2-D and 1-D gels and the 2-D spots and 1-D bands were excised and analysed to identify the proteins through LC-MS/MS. With this approach, 403 different proteins have been identified from the isolated sperm nuclei. The most abundant family of proteins identified are the histones, for which several novel members had not been reported previously as present in the spermatogenic cell line or in the human mature spermatozoa. More than half (52.6%) of the proteins had not been detected in the previous human whole sperm cell proteome reports. Of relevance, several chromatin-related proteins, such as zinc fingers and transcription factors, so far not known to be associated with the sperm chromatin, have also been detected. This provides additional information about the nuclear proteins that are potentially relevant for epigenetic marking, proper fertilization and embryo development. PMID:21630459

de Mateo, Sara; Castillo, Judit; Estanyol, Josep Maria; Ballescà, José Luis; Oliva, Rafael

2011-07-01

304

Proteomic identification of rainbow trout sperm proteins.  

PubMed

Proteomics represents a powerful tool for the analysis of fish spermatozoa, since these cells are transcriptionally inactive. The aim of the present study was to generate an inventory of the most prominent rainbow trout sperm proteins by SDS-PAGE prefractionation combined with nano-LC-MS/MS based identification. This study provides the first in-depth analysis of the rainbow trout sperm proteome, with a total of 206 identified proteins. We found that rainbow trout spermatozoa are equipped with functionally diverse proteins related to energetic metabolism, signal transduction, protein turnover, transport, cytoskeleton, oxidative injuries, and stress and reproduction. The availability of a catalog of rainbow trout sperm proteins provides a crucial tool for the understanding of fundamental molecular processes in fish spermatozoa, for the ongoing development of novel markers of sperm quality and for the optimization of short- and long-term sperm preservation procedures. The MS data are available at ProteomeXchange with the dataset identifier PXD000355 and DOI 10.6019/PXD000355. PMID:24687995

Nynca, Joanna; Arnold, Georg J; Fröhlich, Thomas; Otte, Kathrin; Ciereszko, Andrzej

2014-06-01

305

Sperm count and sperm motility decrease in old rats.  

PubMed

Sexual behavior declines with age in male rats. The rate and magnitude of this decline may depend on the amount of prior sexual experience and a number of other, unidentified factors. Age-dependent changes in the characteristics of ejaculate quality in rats have not been described earlier, and the relationship between such changes and modifications of sexual behavior is likewise unknown. We have recently developed a technique for the detailed analysis of parameters of ejaculate in rats, and this technique was used for the determination of semen and seminal plug characteristics in rats of different ages. Sexually experienced Wistar rats were tested for sex behavior at the ages of 3, 12 and 24 months. Semen was obtained from the female partner immediately after ejaculation at these tests. Between tests, the males were offered the opportunity to copulate once every 3-4 weeks. The behavioral data showed that the latency to ejaculation was increased only at 24 months. Concerning the characteristics of semen, there was a substantial increase in the proportion of immobile spermatozoa and motility of those moving was much reduced, both at 12 and 24 months of age. There was no relationship between parameters of sexual behavior and those of the ejaculate. Likewise, the size of the seminal plug did not affect the amount of intrauterine spermatozoa. The reduced sperm number together with the increased sperm immobility diminishes the ejaculate quality of old males, which could influence fertility. PMID:23296084

Lucio, Rosa Angélica; Tlachi-López, José L; Eguibar, Jose R; Ågmo, Anders

2013-02-17

306

Diethylstilbestrol-treated adult rats with altered epididymal sperm numbers and sperm motility parameters, but without alterations in sperm production and sperm morphology.  

PubMed

In this study, we characterized estrogenic effects of diethylstilbestrol (DES) on reproductive parameters in male rats to identify a minimal dose level that alters epididymal and sperm functions but has little or no effect on sperm production and/or spermatogenesis. Adult rats (five animals/group) received s.c. injections of 0.2 ml of corn oil containing DES at a rate of 1.0 mg, 200 microg, 40 microg, 8 microg, 1.6 microg, or 320 ng x rat(-1) x day(-1) for 12 days. The control group received corn oil only. DES effects were similar in the 8-microg group and higher dose groups and included significant (P < or = 0.05) reductions in 1) absolute and relative weights of the head and body of the epididymis (EP), tail of the EP, and seminal vesicle, 2) numbers of sperm in both regions of the EP, and 3) motility characteristics in sperm collected from the tail of the EP. Conversely, no significant changes were observed in relative testis weight, daily sperm production, spermatogenesis, seminiferous epithelial height in stage VII, and sperm morphology. All of the above parameters in the 1.6-microg group (except seminal vesicle weight) and 320-ng group were comparable to those of controls. Plasma testosterone (T) level was reduced to an almost undetectable level in the > or = 8-microg groups and to a very low level in the 1.6-microg group (0.35 vs. 2.36 ng/ml in controls or 320-ng group), but LH level was unaltered. In a parallel fertility study, males received DES at a rate of 40, 8, or 1.6 microg x rat(-1) x day(-1) for 12 days prior to and 12 days during cohabitation (1:1) with untreated females. Of the 15 females cohabited with treated males (5 females/dose), none in the 40-microg and 8-microg groups and 1 in the 1.6-microg group formed a copulatory plug and delivered 8 pups, in contrast to 5/5 copulatory plugs and 13-15 pups/litter in the controls. DES at a rate of 8 microg x rat(-1) x day(-1) for 12 days reduced EP weights, sperm numbers in the EP, and sperm motility patterns but caused minimal to no alterations in daily sperm production, spermatogenesis, or sperm morphology. Factors other than T, or in addition to lower T, may be responsible for DES-induced reproductive disorders (despite lower T, sperm contents and sperm motility patterns in the EP were normal in the 1.6-microg group). Deficits in EP sperm functions and/or sexual behavior (as evident from absence of copulatory plugs) probably accounted for reduced fertility in treated males. PMID:11207210

Goyal, H O; Braden, T D; Mansour, M; Williams, C S; Kamaleldin, A; Srivastava, K K

2001-03-01

307

Human sperm DNA integrity in normal and abnormal semen samples and its correlation with sperm characteristics.  

PubMed

Reports indicate an increase in the incidence of DNA fragmentation in male factor infertility and its role in the outcome of assisted reproductive techniques (ART). However, reports are conflicting between the relationships of sperm DNA integrity with conventional semen parameters. We examined the relationship between conventional sperm parameters and DNA integrity using acridine orange (AO) test. The study included 373 patients and 28 fertile volunteers. DNA normality was compared with semen parameters between the patient and donor populations. Significant correlations were noted between DNA normality and sperm concentration (r = 0.18, P = 0.000), motility (r = 0.21, P = 0.0001), rapid motility (0.19, P = 0.000), normal morphology by World Health Organization (r = 0.15, P = 0.019) and head defects (r = -0.15, P = 0.023). A significant difference was noted in AO levels between donors and patients with asthenozoospermia (P = 0.002) and oligoasthenozoospermia (P = 0.001). A significant difference in DNA integrity was noted in samples having <30% and >30% normal morphology. A wide range of % DNA normality was observed in the patient group. Sperm assessment for DNA status using AO is reliable and shows good correlation with sperm count, motility and morphology. Assessment of sperm DNA status with AO staining may be helpful prior to ART. PMID:19601931

Varghese, A C; Bragais, F M; Mukhopadhyay, D; Kundu, S; Pal, M; Bhattacharyya, A K; Agarwal, A

2009-08-01

308

Sound production in neonate sperm whales (L)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acoustic data from two sperm whale neonates (Physeter macrocephalus) in rehabilitation are presented and implications for sound production and function are discussed. The clicks of neonate sperm whale are very different from usual clicks of adult specimens in that neonate clicks are of low directionality [SL anomaly (0°-90°) <8 dB], long duration (2-12 ms), and low frequency (centroid frequency between 300 and 1700 Hz) with estimated SLs between 140 and 162 dB//1 ?Pa (rms). Such neonate clicks are unsuited for biosonar, but can potentially convey homing information between calves and submerged conspecifics in open ocean waters at ranges of some 2 km. Moreover, it is demonstrated that sperm whale clicks are produced at the anterior placed monkey lips, thereby substantiating a key point in the modified Norris and Harvey theory and supporting the unifying theory of sound production in odontocetes.

Madsen, P. T.; Carder, D. A.; Au, W. W. L.; Nachtigall, P. E.; Møhl, B.; Ridgway, S. H.

2003-06-01

309

Methods for the analysis of the sperm proteome.  

PubMed

Proteomics is the study of the proteins of cells or tissues. Sperm proteomics aims at the identification of the proteins that compose the sperm cell and the study of their function. The recent developments in mass spectrometry (MS) have markedly increased the throughput for the identification and study of the sperm proteins. Catalogues of spermatozoal proteins in human and in model species are becoming available laying the groundwork for subsequent research, diagnostic applications, and the development of patient-specific treatments. A wide range of MS techniques is also rapidly becoming available for researchers. This chapter describes a methodological option to study the sperm cell using MS and provides a detailed protocol to identify the proteins extracted from a Percoll-purified human sperm population and separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) using LC-MS/MS. PMID:22992932

de Mateo, Sara; Estanyol, Josep Maria; Oliva, Rafael

2013-01-01

310

Sperm-egg interaction and gene manipulated animals.  

PubMed

It is intriguing that the disruption of a number of genes, e.g., Clgn, Ace, Adamla, Adam2 and Adam3 results in a similar sperm phenotype, i.e., failure of sperm to bind to the zona pellucida (ZP). Because calmegin functions as a testis-specific molecular chaperone, there is a possibility of misfolding of ADAMs in sperm from Clgn-/- mice. In the first half of this review we describe the interaction of ADAMs with calmegin and try to elucidate the relationship of these proteins to establish the zona binding ability. In the second half of this review we describe other gene manipulated animals that lead to a defect in sperm-egg fusion. The first factor, CD9, was found serendipitously on the egg side, while the second factor, Izumo, on the sperm side, was discovered after 20 years of pursuit. Here we describe various gene manipulated animals that are useful to elucidate the mechanism of fertilisation. PMID:17644977

Inoue, Naokazu; Yamaguchi, Ryo; Ikawa, Masahito; Okabe, Masaru

2007-01-01

311

Synergistic effect of gramicidin and EDTA in inhibiting sperm motility and cervical mucus penetration in vitro.  

PubMed

Gramicidin, a linear polypeptide with antiviral and antimicrobial properties, was compared in vitro with a commonly used spermicidal detergent-nonoxynol-9 (N9). The inhibition of sperm functions was evaluated by computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) for sperm motility, in cervical mucus penetration assay, and by colorimetric tetrazolium salt and lactate dehydrogenase release assays routinely employed for testing the toxicity of drugs. The effective 100% inhibitory concentration (IC100) of gramicidin in a 2-min sperm immobilization assay by CASA was equal to 4 micrograms/ml, whereas IC100 of N9 was equal to 200 micrograms/ml. The presence of 0.1% of chelating agent, EDTA, reduced IC100 of gramicidin to 10 ng/ml, while less than a twofold enhancement in N9 activity was observed upon combination with EDTA. Likewise, the gramicidin/EDTA combination was 100,000 times more potent than N9/EDTA in the sperm penetration assay. Quantitative toxicity tests confirmed that gramicidin is a potent spermostatic rather than spermicidal agent. Further development of a gramicidin/EDTA formulation is warranted as a nontoxic topical contraceptive with activity against viral and microbial sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). PMID:8968665

Bourinbaiar, A S; Lee, C H

1996-12-01

312

Use of the Sperm Quality Analyzer (SQA II-C) for the assessment of dog sperm quality.  

PubMed

In the present study, an automated system for sperm analysis, the Sperm Quality Analyzer (SQA II-C), was tested as a potential tool for the assessment of dog sperm quality. In the first experiment the device displayed a good repeatability of measurements for semen of medium and high quality, as evidenced by a low coefficient of variance (CV; 0.08), whereas a high CV (0.46) was obtained for one dog with semen of inferior quality. In the second experiment, seven different sperm concentrations (25-300 x 106/ml), obtained by dilutions in Hepes-TALP medium were stored for 48 h at room temperature. A concentration dependent increase in sperm motility index (SMI) was shown, reaching a plateau at 150 x 106 spermatozoa/ml. For all sperm concentrations, the SMI value decreased significantly after 24 h, indicating the importance of sperm motility for SMI values. For sperm concentrations lower than 150x106/ml, highly significant correlations [r=0.80;p<0.05] were established between SMI values on one hand and sperm concentration, and semen parameters expressing the overall semen sample quality on the other hand (experiment 3) while non-significant or low correlations were found between SMI values and other individual sperm parameters. In experiment 4, significantly high correlations (r=0.97) were found between mean SMI values and post-thaw motility and progressive motility assessed subjectively. In conclusion, our study indicates that both motility and concentration largely influence SMI values and that the SQA II-C saturates at 150 x 106 fresh spermatozoa/ml. In our opinion, the SQA II-C may be a useful and objective device to assess the post-thaw motility of dog sperm. PMID:12071890

Rijsselaere, Tom; Van Soom, A; Maes, D; de Kruif, A

2002-06-01

313

The ecological and evolutionary consequences of sperm chemoattraction.  

PubMed

Chemical communication between sperm and egg is a critical factor mediating sexual reproduction. Sperm attractants may be significant evolutionarily for maintaining species barriers, and important ecologically for increasing gamete encounters. Still unresolved, however, are the functional consequences of these dissolved signal molecules. Here, we provide experimental evidence that sperm chemoattraction directly affects the magnitude of fertilization success. The recent discovery of L-tryptophan as a potent attractant to red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) sperm affords the opportunity to quantify how navigation affects gamete interactions. Sperm behavioral responses to manipulations of the natural tryptophan gradient around individual eggs reveals that both chemotaxis and chemokinesis significantly promote contacts. Our results show further that attractant release by means of diffusion effectively doubles the target size of red abalone eggs, which in turn significantly increases fertilization success. Although long theorized as potential barriers to hybridization, species-specific sperm attractants in red and green (Haliotis fulgens) abalone are only minor contributors to maintaining reproductive isolation. Because abalone typically live in dense, multispecies aggregations, chemically mediated navigation would prevent sperm from pointlessly tracking heterospecific eggs. Thus, even though reproductive isolation fundamentally resides at the level of membrane recognition proteins, species-specific sperm attractants may evolve to locate the right target within mixed gamete suspensions of closely related species. PMID:15070747

Riffell, Jeffrey A; Krug, Patrick J; Zimmer, Richard K

2004-03-30

314

Surgical recovery of sperm in non-obstructive azoospermia.  

PubMed

The development of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) opened a new era in the field of assisted reproduction and revolutionized the assisted reproductive technology protocols for couples with male factor infertility. Fertilisation and pregnancies can be achieved with spermatozoa recovered not only from the ejaculate but also from the seminiferous tubules. The most common methods for retrieving testicular sperm in non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) are testicular sperm aspiration (TESA: needle/fine needle aspiration) and open testicular biopsy (testicular sperm extraction: TESE). The optimal technique for sperm extraction should be minimally invasive and avoid destruction of testicular function, without compromising the chance to retrieve adequate numbers of spermatozoa to perform ICSI. Microdissection TESE (micro-TESE), performed with an operative microscope, is widely considered to be the best method for sperm retrieval in NOA, as larger and opaque tubules, presumably with active spermatogenesis, can be directly identified, resulting in higher spermatozoa retrieval rates with minimal tissue loss and low postoperative complications. Micro-TESE, in combination with ICSI, is applicable in all cases of NOA, including Klinefelter syndrome (KS). The outcomes of surgical sperm retrieval, primarily in NOA patients with elevated serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) (NOA including KS patients), are reviewed along with the phenotypic features. The predictive factors for surgical sperm retrieval and outcomes of treatment were analysed. Finally, the short- and long-term complications in micro-TESE in both 46XY males with NOA and KS patients are considered. PMID:22120931

Ishikawa, Tomomoto

2012-01-01

315

The computational sperm cell.  

PubMed

Sperm are guided to the egg by a gradient of chemical attractants - a process called chemotaxis. The binding of the chemoattractant to receptors on the surface of the flagellum triggers a cascade of signaling events that eventually lead to an influx of Ca(2+) ions. Based on these Ca(2+) surges, which control the waveform of the flagellar beat, sperm adjust their swimming path toward the egg. In past years, many components of chemotactic signaling have been identified. Moreover, kinetic spectroscopy and imaging techniques unraveled the sequence of cellular events controlling swimming behavior. During navigation in a chemical gradient, sperm perform a surprising variety of computational operations. Here we discuss theoretical concepts of navigation strategies and the cellular underpinnings. PMID:24342435

Alvarez, Luis; Friedrich, Benjamin M; Gompper, Gerhard; Kaupp, U Benjamin

2014-03-01

316

Porcine sperm bind to specific 6-sialylated biantennary glycans to form the oviduct reservoir.  

PubMed

After mating, many female mammals store a subpopulation of sperm in the lower portion of the oviduct, forming a reservoir. The reservoir lengthens sperm lifespan, regulates sperm capacitation, controls polyspermy, and selects normal sperm. It is believed that sperm bind to glycans on the oviduct epithelium to form the reservoir, but the specific adhesion molecules that retain sperm are unclear. Herein, using a glycan array to test 377 glycans for their ability to bind porcine sperm, we found two glycan motifs in common among all glycans with sperm-binding ability: the Lewis X trisaccharide and biantennary structures containing a mannose core with 6-sialylated lactosamine at one or more termini. Binding to both motifs was specific; isomers of each motif did not bind sperm. Further work focused on sialylated lactosamine. Sialylated lactosamine was found abundantly on the apical side of epithelial cells collected from the oviduct isthmus, among N-linked and O-linked glycans. Sialylated lactosamine bound to the head of sperm, the region that interacts with the oviduct epithelium. After capacitation, sperm lost affinity for sialylated lactosamine. Receptor modification may contribute to release from the reservoir so that sperm can move to the site of fertilization. Sialylated lactosamine was required for sperm to bind oviduct cells. Simbucus nigra agglutinin or an antibody specific to sialylated lactosamine with a preference for Neu5Acalpha2-6Gal rather than Neu5Acalpha2-3Gal reduced sperm binding to oviduct isthmic cells, as did occupying putative receptors on sperm with sialylated biantennary glycans. These results demonstrate that sperm binding to oviduct 6-sialylated biantennary glycans is necessary for normal adhesion to the oviduct. PMID:23115267

Kadirvel, Govindasamy; Machado, Sergio A; Korneli, Claudia; Collins, Emily; Miller, Paul; Bess, Kelsey N; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Tiemeyer, Michael; Bovin, Nicolai; Miller, David J

2012-06-01

317

Reduction of Mouse Egg Surface Integrin Alpha9 Subunit (ITGA9) Reduces the Egg's Ability to Support Sperm-Egg Binding and Fusion1  

PubMed Central

The involvement of egg integrins in mammalian sperm-egg interactions has been controversial, with data from integrin inhibitor studies contrasting with evidence from knockouts showing that specific integrin subunits are not essential for fertility. An alpha4/alpha9 (ITGA4/ITGA9) integrin subfamily member has been implicated in fertilization but not extensively examined, so we tested the following three hypotheses: 1) an ITGA4/ITGA9 integrin participates in sperm-egg interactions, 2) short-term acute knockdown by RNA interference of integrin subunits would result in a fertilization phenotype differing from that of chronic depletion via knockout, and 3) detection of a fertilization phenotype is sensitive to in vitro fertilization (IVF) assay conditions. We show that mouse and human eggs express the alpha9 integrin subunit (ITGA9). RNA interference-mediated knockdown resulted in reduced levels of Itga9 mRNA and surface protein in mouse eggs. RNA interference attempts to knockdown ITGA9?s likely beta partner, beta1 (ITGB1), resulted in reduced Itgb1 mRNA but no reduction in ITGB1 surface protein. Therefore, studies using a function-blocking anti-ITGB1 antibody tested the hypothesis that ITGB1 participates in gamete interactions. Analyses of sperm-egg interactions with Itga9-knockdown eggs and anti-ITGB1 antibody-treated eggs in IVF assays using specific sperm:egg ratios revealed the following: 1) a reduction, but not complete loss, of sperm-egg binding and fusion was observed and 2) the reduction of sperm-egg binding and fusion was not detected in inseminations with high sperm:egg ratios. These data demonstrate that ITGA9 and ITGB1 participate in sperm-egg interactions but clearly are not the only molecules involved. This also shows that careful design of IVF parameters allows detection of deficiencies in gamete interactions.

Vjugina, Ulyana; Zhu, Xiaoling; Oh, Eugene; Bracero, Nabal J.; Evans, Janice P.

2009-01-01

318

Olfaction: attracting both sperm and the nose.  

PubMed

Odorant receptor genes are expressed not only in the nose but also in testes, where they have been hypothesized to play a role in sperm chemotaxis. New data demonstrate that human odorant receptor hOR 17-4 may play similar roles in both tissues, lending support to the idea that chemical attraction is important for reproduction. PMID:15530382

Vosshall, Leslie B

2004-11-01

319

Olfaction: Attracting Both Sperm and the Nose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Odorant receptor genes are expressed not only in the nose but also in testes, where they have been hypothesized to play a role in sperm chemotaxis. New data demonstrate that human odorant receptor hOR 17-4 may play similar roles in both tissues, lending support to the idea that chemical attraction is important for reproduction.

Leslie B. Vosshall

2004-01-01

320

Effects of viscosity on sperm motility studied with optical tweezers.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to analyze human sperm motility and energetics in media with different viscosities. Multiple experiments were performed to collect motility parameters using customized computer tracking software that measures the curvilinear velocity (VCL) and the minimum laser power (Pesc) necessary to hold an individual sperm in an optical trap. The Pesc was measured by using a 1064 nm Nd:YVO(4) continuous wave laser that optically traps motile sperm at a power of 450 mW in the focused trap spot. The VCL was measured frame by frame before trapping. In order to study sperm energetics under different viscous conditions sperm were labeled with the fluorescent dye DiOC(6)(3) to measure membrane potentials of mitochondria in the sperm midpiece. Fluorescence intensity was measured before and during trapping. The results demonstrate a decrease in VCL but an increase in Pesc with increasing viscosity. Fluorescent intensity is the same regardless of the viscosity level indicating no change in sperm energetics. The results suggest that, under the conditions tested, viscosity physically affects the mechanical properties of sperm motility rather than the chemical pathways associated with energetics. PMID:22463031

Hyun, Nicholas; Chandsawangbhuwana, Charlie; Zhu, Qingyuan; Shi, Linda Z; Yang-Wong, Collin; Berns, Michael W

2012-02-01

321

Individual adjustment of sperm expenditure accords with sperm competition theory.  

PubMed

Sperm competition theory predicts that males should strategically allocate their sperm reserves according to the level of sperm competition, defined as the probability that the sperm of two males compete for fertilizing a given set of ova. Substantial evidence from numerous animal taxa suggests that, at the individual level, sperm expenditure increases when the risk of sperm competition is greater. In contrast, according to the "intensity model" of sperm competition [Parker, G. A., Ball, M. A., Stockley, P. & Gage, M. J. G. (1996) Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 263, 1291-1297], when more than two ejaculates compete during a given mating event, sperm expenditure should decrease as the number of competing males increases. Empirical evidence supporting this prediction, however, is still lacking. Here we measured sperm expenditure in two gobiid fishes, the grass (Zosterisessor ophiocephalus) and black goby (Gobius niger), in which up to six sneakers can congregate around the nest of territorial males and release their sperm when females spawn. We show that, in accordance with theory, sneaker males of both species release fewer sperm as the number of competitors increases. PMID:12107282

Pilastro, Andrea; Scaggiante, Marta; Rasotto, Maria B

2002-07-23

322

The Effect of Cigarette Smoking on Human Sperm Creatine Kinase Activity: As An ATP Buffering System in Sperm  

PubMed Central

Background: Spermatozoa are a group of cells that consume adenosine triphosphate (ATP) rapidly. Creatine kinase (CK), produced by creatine phosphate, is an energy reservoir for the rapid buffering and regeneration of ATP and can play an important role in sperm motility. Therefore, this study investigates the effects of cigarette smoking on human sperm CK activity in males who smoke. Materials and Methods: In this case - control study, we obtained semen samples from male smokers (n=64) and nonsmokers (n=83). Smokers were categorized as light, moderate, or heavy smokers according to the daily number of cigarettes smoked and the number of years they have smoked. Data were analyzed by the independent t test and Pearson’s analysis. Results: This investigation showed significantly lower sperm CK activity and movement in male smokers compared to nonsmokers. In addition, it was demonstrated that cigarette smoking had a dose-dependent effect on these parameters. There was a positive relation, although not significant, between sperm CK activity and its motility in male smokers. Conclusion: Smoking, by diminishing sperm CK activity, may potentially impair sperm energy homeostasis and have an association with damage to sperm motility. This effect can be an important mechanism that may cause infertility in male smokers. However, further research is necessary to elucidate the underlying mechanism of sperm motility damage caused by cigarette smoking.

Ghaffari, Mohammad Ali; Rostami, Morad

2013-01-01

323

Accuracy of the normal sperm morphology value by Sperm Quality Analyzer IIC: comparison with the strict criteria.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study is to investigate the accuracy of the normal sperm morphology value by Sperm Quality Analyzer IIC (SQA IIC), which was developed to provide a rapid and low-cost quantitative evaluation of semen quality. Normal sperm morphology was assessed using SQA IIC in comparison with that by the strict criteria in 62 semen samples. Normal sperm morphology value by SQA IIC was based on the studies of three traditional sperm parameters from over 4000 fresh, untreated semen samples, while the strict criteria was based on the method by Kruger et al. The mean +/- SD of percent normal morphology by SQA IIC and the strict criteria were 37.6 +/- 10.9% (range 15-52) and 19.9 +/- 8.2 (range 1-34), respectively. There was a significant correlation of the sperm morphology assessment between the two methods (r=0.454, p < 0.001). Using the cut-off value of >30% normal morphology by SQA IIC, the positive predictive value and the negative predictive value of the 'normal' strict criteria were 79.6% (39/49) and 46.2% (6/13), respectively. These results indicate that SQA IIC might be used as an initial screening test for the evaluation of sperm morphology. However, sperm morphological assessment by the strict criteria should be performed in order to make decisions in planning strategies for the treatment of infertile couples. PMID:11869376

Shibahara, Hiroaki; Suzuki, Tatsuya; Obara, Hiromi; Hirano, Yuki; Onagawa, Tamaho; Taneichi, Akiyo; Takamizawa, Satoru; Sato, Ikuo

2002-02-01

324

Sperm competition in Odonata (Insecta): the evolution of female sperm storage and rivals' sperm displacement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Odonates (dragonflies) are well known for the ability of the males to displace sperm stored in the female's sperm- storage organs during copulation. By this means, copulating males are able to increase their fertilization success. This ability has been used as an example to illustrate a conflict of interests between the sexes in which males have evolved sperm-displacement mechanisms whilst

E. Uh ´ õa; A. Cordero River; E. U. E. T. Forestal

2003-01-01

325

Relationship between Iberian ibex ( Capra pyrenaica ) sperm quality and level of parasitism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the relationship between parasite infection rates and reproductive function in wild Iberian ibexes. The\\u000a animals examined were 43 adult males shot during the rutting season. Gastrointestinal and pulmonary nematodes, intestinal\\u000a cestodes and intestinal coccidia were determined by coprological analysis. Protozoa in the muscles were detected by biopsy.\\u000a Epididymal spermatozoa were collected from recovered testes. Sperm motility, the

Julian Santiago-Moreno; Monica Luzón; Miguel Angel Coloma; Antonio Pulido-Pastor; Félix Gómez-Guillamón; Ricardo Salas de la Vega; Adolfo Toledano-Díaz; Antonio López-Sebastián

2010-01-01

326

Tag Development and Response of Sperm Whales to Low Frequencies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results from this program include the following: tracking of surface activities of sperm whales using HF radio, qualifications of surface and diving activities showing diurnal diving patterns, and tests of towed array for tracking of tag and whale sounds;...

W. A. Watkins

1994-01-01

327

Six novel single-nucleotide polymorphisms in SPAG11 gene and their association with sperm quality traits in Chinese Holstein bulls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sperm-associated antigen 11 (SPAG11) is predominant in the male reproductive tract. Similar to ?-defensin, aside from its antibacterial activity, SPAG11 also has an important role in male reproductive function. In the present study, the association of bovine SPAG11 gene polymorphism with sperm quality traits was examined, including ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, fresh sperm motility, post-thaw cryopreserved sperm motility, and deformity

Xinyan Liu; Zhihua Ju; Lingling Wang; Yan Zhang; Jingmin Huang; Qiuling Li; Jianbin Li; Jifeng Zhong; Liguo An; Changfa Wang

328

Semen-coagulating protein, SVS2, in mouse seminal plasma controls sperm fertility.  

PubMed

Mammalian seminal plasma is known to contain a decapacitation factor(s) that prevents capacitation and thus, the fertility of sperm. This phenomenon has been observed in experiments conducted in vitro that assessed the inhibition of epididymal sperm fertility by seminal plasma or by the purified decapacitation factor. However, the phenomenon of decapacitation has not yet been characterized in vivo. In the present study, we demonstrate that seminal vesicle protein secretion 2 (SVS2), which is a 40-kDa basic protein and a major component of the copulatory plug, enters the uterus and interacts with ejaculated sperm heads after copulation. The SVS2-binding region of sperm changed from the postacrosomal region to the equatorial segment, while the sperm migrated through the uterus and finally disappeared in the oviduct. Furthermore, SVS2 reduced the fertility of epididymal sperm. The sperm treated with SVS2 decreased the percentage of fertilized oocytes from 60% to 10%. The capacitation state was assessed by protein tyrosine phosphorylation and the comprehensiveness of the acrosome reaction. SVS2 functioned to maintain sperm in the uncapacitated state and to reverse capacitated sperm to the uncapacitated state. We found that the fertility of ejaculated sperm is associated with SVS2 distribution in the female reproductive tract. These results indicate that SVS2 functions as a decapacitation factor for mouse sperm. PMID:17123940

Kawano, Natsuko; Yoshida, Manabu

2007-03-01

329

Testes of Astyanax altiparanae: The Sertoli cell functions in a semicystic spermatogenesis.  

PubMed

The Astyanax altiparanae (lambari) is a South American freshwater fish belonging to the family Characidae. Although some authors have described reproductive aspects of this species, this is the first study about the morphology of the testes throughout the annual reproductive cycle of A. altiparanae. Fish spermatogenesis differs from that in mammals as it occurs in cysts whose borders are defined by cytoplasmic processes of Sertoli cells, thus creating a favorable environment for spermatogenesis. The functions commonly attributed to fish Sertoli cells were investigated using stereological, light and electron microscopy in A. altiparanae. Results showed that when the Sertoli cells of A. altiparanae are in contact with germ cells, they plan a support function that culminates in the production of spermatozoa. After releasing spermatozoa, modified Sertoli cells form the duct epithelium, transform into secretory cells and release a secretion into the duct lumen where spermatids and sperm are located. Thus, the present study revealed important aspects of the testes of A. altiparanae, and propose a sequence of functions played by the Sertoli cells in this species. PMID:24792443

Costa, F G; Adolfi, M C; Gomes, C C; Jesus, L W O; Batlouni, S R; Borella, M I

2014-06-01

330

Sperm dynamics in spiders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioral studies of sexual selection tend to focus on events that lead up to copulation and the transfer of sperm. Not surprisingly, we know most about how the selective forces prior to copulation act on female choice and male--male competition. The playground for postcopulatory processes is the female genital tract where we expect male and female adaptations to control fertilization.

M. E. Herberstein; J. M. Schneider; G. Uhl; P. Michalik

2011-01-01

331

Sperm motion analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a computerized technique for quantitative analysis of the movement characteristics of spermatozoa. Stored video images of spermatozoa are digitized at a fixed time interval. The digital images are stored as a sequence of frames in a microcomputer. The analysis of the sequence comprises two main tasks: finding the location of the centroid for each sperm and tracking

Valiollah Salari

1991-01-01

332

Effects of concurrent chronic administration of alcohol and nicotine on rat sperm parameters.  

PubMed

The prevalence of cigarette and alcohol consumption is high among young adult males during the reproductive period. The current study aimed to evaluate the impact of concurrent chronic administration of nicotine and ethanol on the quality of sperm in the rat. Fifty healthy Wistar male rats were randomly divided into five groups (n = 10) and were given the following for a period of 50 days: ethanol (E), nicotine (N), ethanol and nicotine (E/N); the control group (C) and an intact (I) group. Body weight as well as the weight, volume and dimensions of the testes and the weight of the cauda epididymidis and vas deference were measured. The concentration, motility, viability and membrane integrity of sperm were also assessed. There were no significant differences between body weight and all testis parameters including weight, volume and dimensions. The concentration and motility of sperm in the E/N group was significantly reduced compared with the control group (P < 0.01). Nevertheless, only a marginally significant decrease in sperm viability was found in the E/N group compared with the control group. The study indicates that concurrent chronic administration of ethanol and nicotine may disturb male reproductive function. PMID:22335559

Ezzatabadipour, M; Azizollahi, S; Sarvazad, A; Mirkahnooj, Z; Mahdinia, Z; Nematollahi-Mahani, S N

2012-10-01

333

Pulmonary function testing in young children.  

PubMed

Pulmonary function testing (PFT) is of great importance in the evaluation and treatment of respiratory diseases. Spirometry is simple, noninvasive, and has been the most commonly used technique in cooperative children, obtaining reliable data in only a few minutes. The development of commercially available equipment as well as the simplification of previous techniques that now require minimal patient cooperation applied during tidal breathing have significantly stimulated the use of PFT in younger children. Tidal breathing techniques such as impulse oscillometry, gas dilution, and plethysmography have permitted previously unobtainable PFT in children 2 to 5 years of age. The purpose of this review is to help clinicians become familiar with available PFT techniques used in young children by discussing their general principles, clinical applications, and limitations. PMID:21894521

Escobar, Hugo; Carver, Terrence W

2011-12-01

334

Use of amides as cryoprotectants in extenders for frozen sperm of tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum.  

PubMed

Amides were tested as cryoprotectants in comparison with glycerol and DMSO (more traditional cryoprotectants) for recovery of Colossoma macropomum (tambaqui fish) sperm. Milt was extended in Beltsville Thawing Solution, then frozen with the addition of 2%, 5%, 8%, or 11% of: (1) dimethylacetamide (DMA), (2) dimethylformamide (DMF), (3) methylformamide (MF), or with 5% glycerol or 10% dimethylsulfoxide. Fertilization rates were greatest (P<0.001) with amides; 8% DMF (91.6±1.3%), 5% DMF (88.9±1.6%), and 8% MF (83.0±1.6%), which did not significantly differ among themselves, when compared with glycerol (51.6±2.4%) and DMSO (61.9±3.1%). The best hatching rates (P<0.001) also occurred for 5% or 8% DMF and 8% MF (79.1±3.1, 87.6±1.5, and 74.8±3.0, respectively) and were also similar (P>0.05). For such treatments, both fertilization and hatching rates were similar (P>0.05) to those with fresh sperm (91.7±1.4 and 87.4±1.4, respectively). The best sperm motility across extenders (at least 55.7%) was with 5%, 8%, and 11% DMF (P<0.001). Those same treatments, along with 11% MF, provided the longest (P<0.001) period of motility (at least 1 min). The greatest sperm integrity (more than 54%) was with 5% and 11% MF and with DMA and DMF at all tested concentrations (P<0.001). The greatest (P<0.001) sperm viability (at least 31%) was for 5%, 8%, and 11% DMA, and with 8% and 11% MF, and also for DMF at all tested concentrations. Sperm DNA integrity was best (more than 50%) for 2%, 5%, and 8% MF and for DMA and DMF at all concentrations (P<0.001), whereas 2% DMA, 11% MF, 11% DMF, and the three amides at both 5% and 8% yielded the highest mitochondrial functionality (at least 44%; P<0.001); thus, 8% MF and both 5% and 8% DMF were the cryoprotectants with the best postthaw quality for C. macropomum sperm. PMID:22578629

Varela Junior, A S; Corcini, C D; Gheller, S M M; Jardim, R D; Lucia, T; Streit, D P; Figueiredo, M R C

2012-07-15

335

Stimulation of voltage-dependent calcium channels during capacitation and by progesterone in human sperm.  

PubMed

To fertilize, mammalian sperm must undergo two sequential steps that require activation of calcium entry mechanisms, capacitation and acrosomal exocytosis, induced in the latter case by the egg zona pellucida glycoprotein ZP3 or by progesterone. Voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCC) could participate in these processes. Since patch clamp recordings are extremely difficult in mature sperm, the activity of VDCC has been alternatively analyzed with optical detectors of membrane potential and intracellular calcium in sperm populations. Using this approach, we previously reported that in human sperm there is a voltage-dependent calcium influx system that strongly indicates that human sperm are endowed with functional VDCC. In this study we developed evidence indicating that calcium influx through VDCC is significantly stimulated during sperm in vitro capacitation and by progesterone action, which is present in the follicular fluid that surrounds the egg. The observed effects of capacitation and progesterone on VDCC may be physiologically significant for sperm-egg interaction. PMID:12464273

González-Martínez, Marco T; Bonilla-Hernández, Mirta Araceli; Guzmán-Grenfell, Alberto Martín

2002-12-15

336

Post-thaw sperm characteristics following long-term storage of boar semen in liquid nitrogen.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effect of long-term liquid nitrogen storage of semen from individual boars on post-thaw sperm characteristics. Ejaculates, collected from five Polish large white (PLW) and five Polish landrace (PLR) boars, were frozen using a standard cryopreservation protocol. Post-thaw analysis was performed within a week (Period 1) and 42-48 months (Period 2) of semen storage in liquid nitrogen. Post-thaw sperm assessments included total motility, mitochondrial function (JC-1/PI assay), plasma membrane integrity (SYBR-14/PI assay), osmotic resistance test (ORT), lipid peroxidation (LPO) status and DNA fragmentation, analysed by the neutral Comet assay. Individual boar variability within breed and cryostorage periods had significant effects on the analysed parameters of frozen-thawed spermatozoa. Prolonged semen storage in liquid nitrogen (Period 2) induced a marked reduction in post-thaw sperm motility, mitochondrial function and plasma membrane integrity in most of the boars. Post-thaw semen of eight boars exhibited a marked decrease in osmotic resistance of the sperm acrosomal membrane, whereas a significant increase in the sperm cryo-susceptibility to induced LPO and DNA fragmentation was observed only in three boars after long-term semen storage. Additionally, frozen-thawed spermatozoa of PLR boars exhibited significantly lower osmotic resistance of the acrosomal membrane than PLW boars following prolonged semen storage in liquid nitrogen. The results of this study provide evidence of ageing processes in frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa following prolonged cryostorage. It seems that, even though cryopreservation allows long-term semen storage in liquid nitrogen, spermatozoa from individual boars are more susceptible to cryo-induced damage. PMID:24819551

Fraser, L; Strze?ek, J; Kordan, W

2014-06-30

337

[Advances in the studies of sperm protein 22 (SP22)].  

PubMed

Multifunctional sperm protein 22 (SP22) is expressed ubiquitously and related to quite a few diseases. Located on the sperm surface, SP22 has an enzymatic activity that may assist sperm in penetrating into the ovum. SP22 may be carcinogenic in conspiracy with the factor ras. Among all species SP22 is highly conservative, which demonstrates its importance to life. More and more studies indicate that SP22 is directly correlated with male infertility and Parkinsons disease. This article summarizes recent researches on SP22 in the gene structure, protein structure and functional characteristics. PMID:15704685

Wan, Chuan-dan; Huang, Yu-feng; Xu, Xiao-feng

2005-01-01

338

Fertilization: a sperm's journey to and interaction with the oocyte  

PubMed Central

Mammalian fertilization comprises sperm migration through the female reproductive tract, biochemical and morphological changes to sperm, and sperm-egg interaction in the oviduct. Recent gene knockout approaches in mice have revealed that many factors previously considered important for fertilization are largely dispensable, or if they are essential, they have an unexpected function. These results indicate that what has been observed in in vitro fertilization (IVF) differs significantly from what occurs during “physiological” fertilization. This Review focuses on the advantages of studying fertilization using gene-manipulated animals and highlights an emerging molecular mechanism of mammalian fertilization.

Ikawa, Masahito; Inoue, Naokazu; Benham, Adam M.; Okabe, Masaru

2010-01-01

339

Pulmonary function testing in calves: technical data.  

PubMed

Measurements of airflow (V), tidal volume (Vt), and intrapleural pressure (Ppl) were tested for accuracy in 5 healthy Dutch Friesian calves with an average body weight of 153 kg. A face mask was constructed, using fiberglass and polyester, taking into account the typical facial morphology of the calf. It was tested for airtightness, dead space, laminarity of the expiratory V, and absence of saliva into the pneumotachograph. Three different systems for measuring Ppl (pleura puncturing, esophageal balloon catheter, and esophageal saline solution-filled catheter) were tested in vitro, in a Woulfe's flask, and in vivo, in the 5 calves previously described. Moreover, Ppl measured at 3 different puncture sites of the thorax and at 3 different thoracic positions of the esophagus were compared. The frequency-response was flat to 5 Hz for the intrapleural needle and the balloon catheter, but not for the saline solution-filled catheter. The pulmonary function values obtained by puncture of the pleura at the right 9th intercostal space on a line running from the tuber coxae to the shoulder joint and by the esophageal balloon catheter, the balloon being positioned between the crossing point with the aorta and the 2 largest caudal mediastinal lymph nodes, did not differ significantly. The Ppl changes during normal breathing were greatest in the ventral site of the thorax and in the caudal thoracic portion of the esophagus, less in the dorsal site of the thorax and the middle thoracic portion of the esophagus, and least in the cranial site of the thorax and the cranial thoracic portion of the esophagus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6711959

Lekeux, P; Hajer, R; Breukink, H J

1984-02-01

340

Sexing sperm of domestic animals.  

PubMed

The ability to preselect or predetermine the sex of offspring prior to conception is a highly desired technological tool for assisted female breeding programs specifically for milk production, and in males, for meat production and increasing livestock numbers. The current technology is based on the well-known differences in X- and Y-sperm in the amount of DNA. The technology uses modified flow cytometric instrumentation for sorting X- and Y-bearing sperm. The method can be validated on the basis of live births, laboratory reanalysis of sorted sperm for DNA content, and embryo biopsy for sex determination. Currently, the sex of animals has been predetermined with 90 % accuracy by sexing spermatozoa. In the bovine breeding industry, flow cytometric sperm sexing has not fulfilled its original promise. Sexed sperm doses are too expensive for widespread application while the fertility of sexed sperm doses is lower than unsexed ones. Essentially all bovine sexed semen is frozen and then applied through artificial insemination (AI) or in vitro fertilization. There is still a need in the animal breeding industry to develop a technique for sperm sexing that provides sufficient spermatozoa for AI doses, does not compromise sperm fertility, and is widely applicable to a range of species. In this review, we will summarize the current state-of-the-art in sex preselection in domestic animals and some wildlife species using flow cytometric sperm-sorting of X from Y sperm based on DNA differences. PMID:22829354

Espinosa-Cervantes, Román; Córdova-Izquierdo, Alejandro

2012-12-01

341

Quality assessment of bovine cryopreserved sperm after sexing by flow cytometry and their use in in vitro embryo production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective was to evaluate the structural and functional quality of bull sperm after sexing by flow cytometry. Frozen non-sexed (NS), sexed for X (SX) and sexed for Y (SY) sperm from four bulls was used. Frozen-thawed sperm was analyzed for motility, sperm head agglutination, morphology, capacitation, and integrity of the plasma membrane, acrosome, and chromatin. After Percoll centrifugation (45:60%

J. O. Carvalho; R. Sartori; G. M. Machado; G. B. Mourão; M. A. N. Dode

2010-01-01

342

Comparison of methods for detecting mitomycin C- and ethyl nitrosourea-induced germ cell damage in mice: sperm enzyme activities, sperm motility, and testis weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Testes weights, sperm motility and enzyme activities in single sperm were compared with respect to their ability to detect either developmental or mutational damage to germ cells. Male mice were injected i.p. with 2.5 mg\\/kg mitomycin C (MC) or 50 or 100 mg\\/kg ethylnitrosourea (ENU) or saline and were then killed at times such that sperm derived from treated vas

Gyula Ficsor; Gregory M. Oldford; Karen R. Loughlin; Brahma B. Panda; Janice L. Dubien; Leonard C. Ginsberg

1984-01-01

343

Comparison of methods to evaluate the plasmalemma of bovine sperm and their relationship with in vitro fertilization rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to compare different methods of evaluating sperm plasmalemma and to determine their relationship with in vitro fertilization rate. A single batch of frozen semen from each of eight beef bulls was used for assessment of sperm viability and for in vitro fertilization. Conventional viability tests included sperm morphology, motility, acrosome integrity, and abnormal DNA

Leonardo F. C. Brito; Albert D. Barth; Sylvie Bilodeau-Goeseels; Paul L. Panich; John P. Kastelic

2003-01-01

344

?-Defensin 22 is a major component of the mouse sperm glycocalyx  

PubMed Central

Surface components of sperm isolated from the cauda epididymides were stabilized by whole sperm fixation for immunization of rabbits. The resulting immunoglobulins (Igs) recognized a single protein of 130 kDa (non-reduced) or 54–57 kDa (reduced) on western blots of cauda sperm. Igs recognized the same 54–57 kDa protein band on whole tissue blots of the corpus and cauda epididymidis and vas deferens. No immunoreactive bands were detected on blots of the prostate, seminal vesicles, testes, caput epididymis, or any of various non-reproductive tissues. Removal of sperm from the vas deferens prior to blotting eliminated the detection of the sperm antigen. Antibodies raised to synthetic peptides, identical in amino acid sequence to two unique spans of DEFB22, recognized the same 130/54–57 kDa antigen on western blots of both caudal sperm and the purified antigen isolated with the anti-sperm Ig. From indirect immunofluorescence, both the anti-sperm and anti-peptide Igs appeared to localize to the entire sperm surface, a pattern confirmed at the ultrastructural level. Real-time PCR identified the corpus epididymides as the major site of expression of DEFB22, with negligible expression in the testes, caput epididymides, and vas deferens. Immunostaining of epididymal sections showed DEFB22 being released into the lumen at the distal caput/proximal corpus, with sperm becoming intensely coated with DEFB22 as they reached the distal corpus. Most uterine sperm recovered from mice 4 h following copulation exhibited DEFB22 coating the entire sperm surface. By contrast, some sperm recovered from the oviduct and cumulus extracellular matrix showed loss of DEFB22 from the sperm head.

Yudin, Ashley I; Tollner, Theodore L; Treece, Cathy A; Kays, Robert; Cherr, Gary N; Overstreet, James W; Bevins, Charles L

2012-01-01

345

Permutation tests for homogeneity based on the empirical characteristic function  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, omnibus tests are proposed for testing the homogeneity of two populations. The tests are based on weighted integrals involving the empirical characteristic function. The consistency of the tests as well as their asymptotic distribution under the null hypothesis are investigated. As the decay of the weight functions tends to infinity, the test statistics approach limit values which

Simos G. Meintanis

2005-01-01

346

Comprehensive profiling of accessible surface glycans of mammalian sperm using a lectin microarray  

PubMed Central

It is well known that cell surface glycans or glycocalyx play important roles in sperm motility, maturation and fertilization. A comprehensive profile of the sperm surface glycans will greatly facilitate both basic research (sperm glycobiology) and clinical studies, such as diagnostics of infertility. As a group of natural glycan binders, lectin is an ideal tool for cell surface glycan profiling. However, because of the lack of effective technology, only a few lectins have been tested for lectin-sperm binding profiles. To address this challenge, we have developed a procedure for high-throughput probing of mammalian sperm with 91 lectins on lectin microarrays. Normal sperm from human, boar, bull, goat and rabbit were collected and analyzed on the lectin microarrays. Positive bindings of a set of ~50 lectins were observed for all the sperm of 5 species, which indicated a wide range of glycans are on the surface of mammalian sperm. Species specific lectin bindings were also observed. Clustering analysis revealed that the distances of the five species according to the lectin binding profiles are consistent with that of the genome sequence based phylogenetic tree except for rabbit. The procedure that we established in this study could be generally applicable for sperm from other species or defect sperm from the same species. We believe the lectin binding profiles of the mammalian sperm that we established in this study are valuable for both basic research and clinical studies.

2014-01-01

347

The sperm proteasome during sperm capacitation and fertilization.  

PubMed

The 26S proteasome is a multi-subunit protease specifically targeting ubiquitinated proteins. A consensus has emerged from studies by multiple laboratories on the role of sperm-borne proteasomes in human, mouse, pig, bovine, ascidian and echinoderm fertilization. Major findings from the studies in various mammalian and non-mammalian fertilization systems are (1) proteasomes are present in the mammalian sperm acrosome and on the acrosomal surface; (2) ubiquitinated proteins are present on the mammalian, ascidian and echinoderm egg coat; (3) proteasomal proteolytic and ubiquitin-deconjugating (deubiquitinating) activities can be detected in viable, motile mammalian spermatozoa; (4) proteasomes remain associated with the sperm head following ZP-induced acrosomal exocytosis; (5) inhibition of ubiquitination and proteasomal proteolysis blocks fertilization in mammals, ascidians and echinoderms; (6) inhibition of proteasomal proteolysis alters the course of mammalian sperm capacitation and acrosomal exocytosis induced by sperm binding to the egg coat, zona pellucida (ZP); (7) depletion of the sperm surface-associated ATP blocks porcine and echinoderm fertilization, most likely by affecting the integrity of sperm proteasomes, of which several subunits are ATPases; (8) inhibition of proteasomal proteolysis blocks sperm-ZP penetration, but does not alter the rate of sperm-ZP binding in mammals, and (9) experimental modification of sperm-associated deubiquitinating activities shifts the balance of monospermic fertilization to polyspermic fertilization in vitro. Altogether, these studies provide evidence for the involvement of the 26S proteasome in multiple steps of animal and human fertilization, offering a novel model of sperm-egg coat interactions, and identifying a range of potential new sperm quality markers and contraceptive targets. PMID:19853307

Zimmerman, Shawn; Sutovsky, Peter

2009-12-01

348

CRYPTIC CHOICE OF CONSPECIFIC SPERM CONTROLLED BY THE IMPACT OF OVARIAN FLUID ON SPERM SWIMMING BEHAVIOR  

PubMed Central

Despite evidence that variation in male–female reproductive compatibility exists in many fertilization systems, identifying mechanisms of cryptic female choice at the gamete level has been a challenge. Here, under risks of genetic incompatibility through hybridization, we show how salmon and trout eggs promote fertilization by conspecific sperm. Using in vitro fertilization experiments that replicate the gametic microenvironment, we find complete interfertility between both species. However, if either species’ ova were presented with equivalent numbers of both sperm types, conspecific sperm gained fertilization precedence. Surprisingly, the species’ identity of the eggs did not explain this cryptic female choice, which instead was primarily controlled by conspecific ovarian fluid, a semiviscous, protein-rich solution that bathes the eggs and is released at spawning. Video analyses revealed that ovarian fluid doubled sperm motile life span and straightened swimming trajectory, behaviors allowing chemoattraction up a concentration gradient. To confirm chemoattraction, cell migration tests through membranes containing pores that approximated to the egg micropyle showed that conspecific ovarian fluid attracted many more spermatozoa through the membrane, compared with heterospecific fluid or water. These combined findings together identify how cryptic female choice can evolve at the gamete level and promote reproductive isolation, mediated by a specific chemoattractive influence of ovarian fluid on sperm swimming behavior.

Yeates, Sarah E; Diamond, Sian E; Einum, Sigurd; Emerson, Brent C; Holt, William V; Gage, Matthew J G

2013-01-01

349

Chronic effects of low lead levels on sperm quality, gonadotropins and testosterone in albino rats.  

PubMed

The current study evaluates the impact of low or moderate levels of lead acetate (PbAc) on sperm parameters, gonadotropins (FSH, LH) and testosterone. Adult albino wistar male rats were allocated to five groups and given 0%, 0.025%, 0.05%, 0.1% and 0.3% PbAc in distilled drinking water for 24 weeks. There was no change in body weight gain and in absolute or relative weight of testes, epididymides and seminal vesicles. The ventral prostate weight was decreased in groups exposed to 0.05%, 0.1% and 0.3% PbAc without statistically significant differences. Sperm velocity was decreased in all treated groups while reduction of sperm motility was observed in rats exposed to 0.05%, 0.1% and 0.3% PbAc without statistically significant differences compared to the control group. However, there was a significant increase greater than 100% in the total percentage of abnormal sperm in groups treated with 0.1% (p<0.01) and 0.3% PbAc (p<0.05).The frequency of dead sperm was significantly increased only in the 0.3% PbAc group (p<0.01). Significant increases in frequencies of amorphous head sperm (p<0.01) and abnormal tails (p<0.01) were found in the group exposed to 0.1% PbAc, while the frequency of neck abnormalities was increased in the high-lead-exposed group (p<0.01). The levels of LH and FSH were not significantly affected after lead treatment and significant increase in serum testosterone level was noted only in animals administered 0.05% PbAc (p<0.01). In conclusion, our results reveal that some sperm parameters were altered at low or moderate lead concentrations with no obvious alteration of hypothalamic-pituitary function. The increase of testosterone level observed suggests that lead may target testicular function. PMID:19188052

Allouche, Lynda; Hamadouche, Mohamed; Touabti, Abderrezek

2009-09-01

350

Sperm from sneaker male squids exhibit chemotactic swarming to CO?.  

PubMed

Behavioral traits of sperm are adapted to the reproductive strategy that each species employs. In polyandrous species, spermatozoa often form motile clusters, which might be advantageous for competing with sperm from other males. Despite this presumed advantage for reproductive success, little is known about how sperm form such functional assemblies. Previously, we reported that males of the coastal squid Loligo bleekeri produce two morphologically different euspermatozoa that are linked to distinctly different mating behaviors. Consort and sneaker males use two distinct insemination sites, one inside and one outside the female's body, respectively. Here, we show that sperm release a self-attracting molecule that causes only sneaker sperm to swarm. We identified CO2 as the sperm chemoattractant and membrane-bound flagellar carbonic anhydrase as its sensor. Downstream signaling results from the generation of extracellular H(+), intracellular acidosis, and recovery from acidosis. These signaling events elicit Ca(2+)-dependent turning behavior, resulting in chemotactic swarming. These results illuminate the bifurcating evolution of sperm underlying the distinct fertilization strategies of this species. PMID:23583548

Hirohashi, Noritaka; Alvarez, Luis; Shiba, Kogiku; Fujiwara, Eiji; Iwata, Yoko; Mohri, Tatsuma; Inaba, Kazuo; Chiba, Kazuyoshi; Ochi, Hiroe; Supuran, Claudiu T; Kotzur, Nico; Kakiuchi, Yasutaka; Kaupp, U Benjamin; Baba, Shoji A

2013-05-01

351

Effect of various commercial buffers on sperm viability and capacitation.  

PubMed

Abstract A wide variety of sperm preparation protocols are currently available for assisted conception. They include density gradient separation and washing methods. Both aim at isolating and capacitating as much motile sperm as possible for subsequent oocyte fertilization. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of four commercial sperm washing buffers on sperm viability and capacitation. Semen samples from 48 healthy donors (normal values of sperm count, motility, morphology, and volume) were analyzed. After separation (density gradient 40/80%), sperm were incubated in various buffers then analysed for reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, viability, tyrosine phosphorylation (Tyr-P), cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) labeling, and the acrosome reaction (AR). The buffers affected ROS generation in various ways resulting either in rapid cell degeneration (when the amount of ROS was too high for cell survival) or the inability of the cells to maintain correct functioning (when ROS were too few). Only when the correct ROS generation curve was maintained, suitable membrane reorganization, evidenced by CTB labeling was achieved, leading to the highest percentages of both Tyr-P- and acrosome-reacted-cells. Distinguishing each particular pathological state of the sperm sample would be helpful to select the preferred buffer treatment since both ROS production and membrane reorganization can be significantly altered by commercial buffers. PMID:24673547

Andrisani, Alessandra; Donà, Gabriella; Ambrosini, Guido; Bonanni, Guglielmo; Bragadin, Marcantonio; Cosmi, Erich; Clari, Giulio; Armanini, Decio; Bordin, Luciana

2014-08-01

352

The monopulsed nature of sperm whale clicks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditionally, sperm whale clicks have been described as multipulsed, long duration, nondirectional signals of moderate intensity and with a spectrum peaking below 10 kHz. Such properties are counterindicative of a sonar function, and quite different from the properties of dolphin sonar clicks. Here, data are presented suggesting that the traditional view of sperm whale clicks is incomplete and derived from off-axis recordings of a highly directional source. A limited number of assumed on-axis clicks were recorded and found to be essentially monopulsed clicks, with durations of 100 ?s, with a composite directionality index of 27 dB, with source levels up to 236 dB re: 1 ?Pa (rms), and with centroid frequencies of 15 kHz. Such clicks meet the requirements for long-range biosonar purposes. Data were obtained with a large-aperture, GPS-synchronized array in July 2000 in the Bleik Canyon off Vestera?len, Norway (69°28' N, 15°40' E). A total of 14 h of sound recordings was collected from five to ten independent, simultaneously operating recording units. The sound levels measured make sperm whale clicks by far the loudest of sounds recorded from any biological source. On-axis click properties support previous work proposing the nose of sperm whales to operate as a generator of sound.

Møhl, Bertel; Wahlberg, Magnus; Madsen, Peter T.; Heerfordt, Anders; Lund, Anders

2003-08-01

353

Detection and tracking of low contrast human sperm tail  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tracking sperm tail movement provides important information for clinical sperm research. It is also a crucial step for sperm immobilization in Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI). However, the low visibility of the sperm tail under optical microscopy, coupled with the sperm fast motility, render sperm tail identification and tracking challenging tasks to execute. This paper presents two approaches for sperm tail

Clement Leung; Zhe Lu; Navid Esfandiari; Robert F. Casper; Yu Sun

2010-01-01

354

Cryopreservation of Fish Sperm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Present status of research activities in cryopreservation of fish gamete in aquaculture field was introduced. More than 59 fish species have been reported in the research histories and nearly half of them were studied during recent 10 years. This means that the research activities are increasing, though commercial profit have not obtained yet. Fish species of which sperm can successfully cryopreserved is still limited comparing to numerous species in telost. One of the major obstacle for improvement of the technique is existence of wide specie specific variance in the freezing tolerance of fish sperm. The varianc can possibly be explaind thorugh the informations obtained by the studies in comparative spermatology, which is recently activated field in fish biology.

Kurokura, Hisashi

355

Adverse effects of cadmium exposure on mouse sperm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of cadmium chloride exposure on sperm functional parameters were evaluated on eight-week-old ICR-CD1 male mice administered with a single s.c. injection of 1, 2 and 3mgCdCl2\\/kgbw. Groups of animals treated with each dose, as well as their respective controls, were sacrificed after 24h to detect short-term (acute) effects and after 35 days. Sperm cells were collected from the

Helena Oliveira; Marcello Spanò; Conceição Santos; Maria de Lourdes Pereira

2009-01-01

356

Treated Wastewater Effluent Reduces Sperm Motility Along an Osmolality Gradient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many toxic effects of treated wastewater effluent on organismal and reproductive health have been documented. However, the\\u000a physicochemical environment of treated wastewater effluent frequently differs considerably from that of its receiving waters\\u000a and may affect organismal function independently of toxic effects. Teleost sperm, for example, may be affected by the higher\\u000a osmolality of treated wastewater, as this sperm is activated

H. L. Schoenfuss; J. T. Levitt; R. Rai; M. L. Julius; D. Martinovic

2009-01-01

357

Formal Functional Test Designs with a Test Representation Language.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The application of the category-partition method to the test design phase of hardware, software, or system test development is discussed. The method provides a formal framework for reducing the total number of possible test cases to a minimum logical subs...

J. M. Hops

1993-01-01

358

Diagnostic value of sperm DNA fragmentation and sperm high-magnification for predicting outcome of assisted reproduction treatment  

PubMed Central

Over the last years, major improvements in the field of male infertility diagnosis have been achieved. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic usefulness of sperm DNA integrity and sperm vacuolisation for predicting outcome in infertile couples undergoing in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatments. A cohort study from 152 infertile couples undergoing sperm DNA fragmentation and high-magnification tests prior to an assisted reproduction treatment was designed. We found that the most predictive cutoff for pregnancy was 25.5% of DNA fragmentation with a negative predictive value of 72.7% (P=0.02). For the degree of vacuolisation, the best predictor of pregnancy was 73.5% of vacuolated sperm grades III+IV with a negative predictive value of 39.4% (P=0.09), which was not statistically significant. In conclusion, sperm DNA fragmentation greater than 25.5% could be associated with higher probability of failure IVF treatment. Regarding the results of the sperm analysis at high magnification, they do not allow us to predict whether or not patients will become pregnant.

Lopez, Gemma; Lafuente, Rafael; Checa, Miguel A; Carreras, Ramon; Brassesco, Mario

2013-01-01

359

Effect of procarbazine on sperm morphology in syrian hamsters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of procarbazine, an antineoplastic drug, on the reproductive system of male Syrian hamsters was studied. Exposure to procarbazine (5 daily doses ranging from 20 to 500 mg\\/kg body weight) resulted in 5? to 7.5?fold increase in sperm abnormalities, diminished sperm counts, and smaller testes within 4 wk. Transmission electron micrographs showed severe damage to the acrosomal plasma membrane

Harpal Singh; Thomas Kozel; Servon Jackson

1989-01-01

360

Variation in sperm displacement and its association with accessory gland protein loci in Drosophila melanogaster  

SciTech Connect

Genes that influence mating and/or fertilization success may be targets for strong natural selection. If females remate frequently relative to the duration of sperm storage and rate of sperm use, sperm displacement may be an important component of male reproductive success. Although it has long been known that mutant laboratory stocks of Drosophila differ in sperm displacement, the magnitude of the naturally occurring genetic variation in this character has not been systematically quantified. Here we report the results of a screen for variation in sperm displacement among 152 lines of Drosophila melanogaster that were made homozygous for second and/or third chromosomes recovered from natural populations. Sperm displacement was assayed by scoring the progeny of cn;bw females that had been mated sequentially to cn;bw and tested males in either order. Highly significant differences were seen in both the ability to displace sperm that is resident in the female`s reproductive tract and in the ability to resist displacement by subsequent sperm. Most lines exhibited nearly complete displacement, having nearly all progeny sired by the second male, but several lines had as few as half the progeny fathered by the second male. Lines that were identified in the screen for naturally occurring variation in sperm displacement were also characterized for single-strand conformation polymorphisms (SSCP) at seven accessory gland protein (Acp) genes. Significant associations were found between particular Acp alleles at four different loci (Acp26Aa/Ab, Acp29B, Acp36DE and Acp53E) and the ability of males to resist displacement by subsequent sperm. There was no correlation between the ability to displace resident sperm and the ability to resist being displaced by subsequent sperm. This lack of correlation, and the association of Acp alleles with resisting subsequent sperm only, suggests that different mechanisms mediate the two components of sperm displacement. 36 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

Clark, A.G. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Prout, T.; Harshman, L.G. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)] [and others

1995-01-01

361

Effect of different monosaccharides and disaccharides on boar sperm quality after cryopreservation.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cryoprotectant effect of different non-permeating sugars for boar sperm. Pooled semen from three boars was used for the experiments. In the first experiment, the sperm quality of boar sperm cryopreserved with an egg-yolk based extender supplemented with different monosaccharides (glucose, galactose or fructose) was compared to a control cryopreserved in lactose-egg yolk extender. In the second experiment, the effect of five disaccharides (lactose, sucrose, lactulose, trehalose or melibiose) on boar sperm cryosurvival was studied. Several sperm quality parameters were assessed by flow cytometry in samples incubated for 30 and 150 min at 37°C after thawing: percentages of sperm with intact plasma membrane (SIPM), sperm presenting high plasma membrane fluidity (HPMF), sperm with intracellular reactive oxygen substances production (IROSP) and apoptotic sperm (AS). In addition, the percentages of total motile (TMS) and progressively motile sperm (PMS) were assessed at the same incubation times with a computer-assisted sperm analysis system. Freezing extenders supplemented with each of the monosaccharide presented smaller cryoprotective effect than the control extender supplemented with lactose (P<0.05). However, from the three monosaccharides tested, glucose provided the best sperm quality after freezing-thawing. With respect to the disaccharides studied, samples frozen with the extender supplemented with lactulose exhibited in general the lowest sperm quality, except for the percentage of capacitated sperm, which was highest (P<0.05) in the samples cryopreserved with the trehalose extender. Our results suggest that disaccharides have higher cryoprotective effect than monosaccharides, although the monosaccharide composition of the disaccharides is also important, since the best results were obtained with those disaccharides presenting glucose in their composition. PMID:22771077

Gómez-Fernández, José; Gómez-Izquierdo, Emilio; Tomás, Cristina; Mocé, Eva; de Mercado, Eduardo

2012-07-01

362

Nanoparticle Incorporation of Melittin Reduces Sperm and Vaginal Epithelium Cytotoxicity  

PubMed Central

Melittin is a cytolytic peptide component of bee venom which rapidly integrates into lipid bilayers and forms pores resulting in osmotic lysis. While the therapeutic utility of free melittin is limited by its cytotoxicity, incorporation of melittin into the lipid shell of a perfluorocarbon nanoparticle has been shown to reduce its toxicity in vivo. Our group has previously demonstrated that perfluorocarbon nanoparticles containing melittin at concentrations <10 µM inhibit HIV infectivity in vitro. In the current study, we assessed the impact of blank and melittin-containing perfluorocarbon nanoparticles on sperm motility and the viability of both sperm and vaginal epithelial cells. We found that free melittin was toxic to sperm and vaginal epithelium at concentrations greater than 2 µM (p<0.001). However, melittin nanoparticles were not cytotoxic to sperm (p?=?0.42) or vaginal epithelium (p?=?0.48) at an equivalent melittin concentration of 10 µM. Thus, nanoparticle formulation of melittin reduced melittin cytotoxicity fivefold and prevented melittin toxicity at concentrations previously shown to inhibit HIV infectivity. Melittin nanoparticles were toxic to vaginal epithelium at equivalent melittin concentrations ?20 µM (p<0.001) and were toxic to sperm at equivalent melittin concentrations ?40 µM (p<0.001). Sperm cytotoxicity was enhanced by targeting of the nanoparticles to the sperm surface antigen sperm adhesion molecule 1. While further testing is needed to determine the extent of cytotoxicity in a more physiologically relevant model system, these results suggest that melittin-containing nanoparticles could form the basis of a virucide that is not toxic to sperm and vaginal epithelium. This virucide would be beneficial for HIV serodiscordant couples seeking to achieve natural pregnancy.

Jallouk, Andrew P.; Moley, Kelle H.; Omurtag, Kenan; Hu, Grace; Lanza, Gregory M.; Wickline, Samuel A.; Hood, Joshua L.

2014-01-01

363

Structure and evolution of the sea star egg receptor for sperm bindin.  

PubMed

Selection on coevolving sperm- and egg-recognition molecules is a potent engine of population divergence leading to reproductive isolation and speciation. The study of receptor-ligand pairs can reveal co-evolution of male- and female-expressed genes or differences between their evolution in response to selective factors such as sperm competition and sexual conflict. Phylogeographical studies of these patterns have been limited by targeted gene methods that favour short protein-coding sequences amplifiable by PCR. Here, I use high-throughput transcriptomic methods to characterize the structure and divergence of full-length coding sequences for the gene encoding the protein component of a large complex egg surface glycopeptide receptor for the sperm acrosomal protein bindin from the sea star Patiria miniata. I used a simple but effective method for resolving nucleotide polymorphisms into haplotypes for phylogeny-based analyses of selection. The protein domain organization of sea star egg bindin receptor (EBR1) was similar to sea urchins and included a pair of protein-recognition domains plus a series of tandem repeat domains of two types. Two populations separated by a well-characterized phylogeographical break included lineages of EBR1 alleles under positive selection at several codons (similar to selection on sperm bindin in the same populations). However, these populations shared the same alleles that were under selection for amino acid differences at multiple codons (unlike the pattern of selection for population divergence in sperm bindin). The significance of positively selected EBR1 domains and alleles could be tested in functional analyses of fertilization rates associated with EBR1 (and bindin) polymorphisms. PMID:23432510

Hart, Michael W

2013-04-01

364

A Comparison of Statistical Significance Tests for Selecting Equating Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared the accuracies of nine previously proposed statistical significance tests for selecting identity, linear, and equipercentile equating functions in an equivalent groups equating design. The strategies included likelihood ratio tests for the loglinear models of tests' frequency distributions, regression tests, Kolmogorov—Smirnov tests, and equated score difference tests. Results showed that the most accurate strategies were the likelihood ratio

Tim Moses

2009-01-01

365

The alteration of profile analysis to accommodate testing functions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a methodology was studied for testing differences among several pilot functions, where the data points represent averages at various frequencies. Topics discussed include: basic assumptions, hypothesis, profile analysis, alteration of profile analysis to accommodate testing functions, test and procedures, and power of tests.

Myers, R. H.

1979-01-01

366

OAIS Functional Model Conformance Test: A Proposed Measurement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a test for data centres, repositories and archives to determine OAIS functional model conformance. The test developed was carried out among the World Data Centre (WDC) member data centres. The method used to develop the OAIS functional model conformance test is discussed, along with the test

Laughton, Paul

2012-01-01

367

Screening Test Items for Differential Item Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A method for medical screening is adapted to differential item functioning (DIF). Its essential elements are explicit declarations of the level of DIF that is acceptable and of the loss function that quantifies the consequences of the two kinds of inappropriate classification of an item. Instead of a single level and a single function, sets of…

Longford, Nicholas T.

2014-01-01

368

Mitochondrial Hydrogen Peroxide and Defective Cholesterol Efflux Prevent In Vitro Fertilization by Cryopreserved Inbred Mouse Sperm1  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Recent advances in the cryopreservation of mouse sperm have resulted in dramatically improved in vitro fertilization (IVF) rates, but the biological mechanisms underlying the techniques remain unclear. Two different classes of compounds have been widely utilized to improve the IVF rates of cryopreserved mouse sperm: antioxidants and cyclodextrins. To determine how cryopreservation reduces mouse sperm IVF and how antioxidants and cyclodextrins mitigate this effect, we examined sperm function and oxidative damage after cryopreservation, with and without treatments, in mouse strains important for biomedical research. Our investigation revealed mouse strain-specific effects on IVF by modulation of oxidative stress and cholesterol efflux of cryopreserved sperm. Antioxidants improved IVF rates of C57Bl6/J cryopreserved mouse sperm by reducing hydrogen peroxide produced by sperm mitochondria and ameliorating peroxidative damage to the sperm acrosome. Enhancing cholesterol efflux with cyclodextrin restored capacitation-dependent sperm function and IVF after cryopreservation of C57Bl/6J, C57Bl/6N, and 129X1 mouse sperm. Our results highlight two accessible pathways for continued development of IVF techniques for mouse sperm and provide novel endpoints prognostic of IVF success. These insights may improve sperm cryopreservation methods of other mouse strains and species.

Gray, Jeffrey E.; Starmer, Joshua; Lin, Vivian S.; Dickinson, Bryan C.; Magnuson, Terry

2013-01-01

369

Sperm ubiquitination and DNA fragmentation in men with occupational exposure and varicocele.  

PubMed

Assessment of sperm ubiquitination and DNA fragmentation as sperm functional markers are proposed to complement routine semen analysis. This study focuses on the evaluation of these markers in infertile men with varicocele or exposed to occupational background. The results were compared with normozoospermic men. Semen parameters in both groups were lower than those in the control group. Ubiquitination median, as a marker for functionality of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, was also lower in both groups. The ubiquitination median showed a significant positive correlation with motility in both groups, while it showed only a negative correlation with sperm morphology in the varicocele group. DNA fragmentation showed a significant correlation with semen parameters, in total varicocele and also total exposure groups. In conclusion, significant difference of sperm ubiquitination between normal and study groups further validates that sperm ubiquitination as a potential molecular marker for sperm evaluation in addition to routine semen analysis in clinical laboratories. PMID:23594355

Hosseinpour, E; Shahverdi, A; Parivar, K; Sedighi Gilani, M A; Nasr-Esfahani, M H; Salman Yazdi, R; Sharbatoghli, M; Tavalaee, M; Chehrazi, M

2014-05-01

370

Male sperm whale acoustic behavior observed from multipaths at a single hydrophone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sperm whales generate transient sounds (clicks) when foraging. These clicks have been described as echolocation sounds, a result of having measured the source level and the directionality of these signals and having extrapolated results from biosonar tests made on some small odontocetes. The authors propose a passive acoustic technique requiring only one hydrophone to investigate the acoustic behavior of free-ranging sperm whales. They estimate whale pitch angles from the multipath distribution of click energy. They emphasize the close bond between the sperm whale's physical and acoustic activity, leading to the hypothesis that sperm whales might, like some small odontocetes, control click level and rhythm. An echolocation model estimating the range of the sperm whale's targets from the interclick interval is computed and tested during different stages of the whale's dive. Such a hypothesis on the echolocation process would indicate that sperm whales echolocate their prey layer when initiating their dives and follow a methodic technique when foraging.

Laplanche, Christophe; Adam, Olivier; Lopatka, Maciej; Motsch, Jean-François

2005-10-01

371

Distributions with dynamic test functions and multiplication by discontinuous functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

As follows from the Schwartz Impossibility Theorem, multiplication of two distributions is in general impossible. Nevertheless, often one needs to multiply a distribution by a discontinuous function, not by an arbitrary distribution. In the present paper we construct a space of distributions where the general operation of multiplication by a discontinuous function is defined, continuous, commutative, associative and for which

V. Derr; D. Kinzebulatov

2006-01-01

372

New Insights into Sperm Physiology and Pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Infertility is a relatively common condition affecting approximately one in ten of the population. In half of these cases,\\u000a a male factor is involved, making defective sperm function the largest single, defined cause of human infertility. Among other\\u000a factors, recent data suggest that oxidative stress plays a major role in the etiology of this condition. Spermatozoa spontaneously\\u000a produce a variety

R. John Aitken; Mark A. Baker; Geoffry N. De Iuliis; Brett Nixon

373

Ability of Catalonian donkey sperm to penetrate zona pellucida-free bovine oocytes matured in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was designed to study the interaction between fresh\\/frozen-thawed donkey spermatozoa and zona pellucida (ZP)-free bovine oocytes in an attempt to develop a model for assessing cryopreserved Catalonian donkey sperm function. Semen from five donkeys was collected using an artificial vagina. Sperm motility and viability were immediately assessed and the semen sample cryopreserved. Sperm viability and motility were then

E. Taberner; R. Morató; T. Mogas; J. Miró

2010-01-01

374

Identification of novel immunodominant epididymal sperm proteins using combinatorial approach.  

PubMed

Functionally immature spermatozoa leave the testis mature during epididymal transit. This process of maturation involves either addition of new proteins or modification of existing proteins onto the sperm domains that are responsible for domain-specific functions. Epididymal proteins are preferred targets for immunocontraception. In an attempt to identify epididymis-specific sperm proteins, we used a novel combinatorial approach comprising subtractive immunization (SI) followed by proteomics. Following SI, sera of mice were used for immunoproteomics, which led to the identification of 30 proteins, of which four proteins namely sperm head protein 1, sperm flagella protein 2 (SFP2), SFP3, and SFP4 are being reported for the first time on sperm. Another group of four proteins namely collagen alpha-2 (I) chain precursor, homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 1, GTP-binding protein Rab1, and ubiquinol cytochrome c reductase core protein II although reported earlier in testis are being reported for the first time in epididymal sperm. Furthermore, seven out of these eight novel proteins could be validated using peptide ELISA. These data are a useful repository, which could be exploited to develop targets for post-testicular immunocontraception or biomarkers for infertility diagnosis and management. PMID:19423663

Khan, Shagufta A; Suryawanshi, Amol R; Ranpura, Sandeep A; Jadhav, Sudhir V; Khole, Vrinda V

2009-07-01

375

Hierarchical radial and polar organisation of chromosomes in human sperm.  

PubMed

It is well established that chromosomes occupy distinct positions within the interphase nuclei, conferring a potential functional implication to the genome. In addition, alterations in the nuclear organisation patterns have been associated with disease phenotypes (e.g. cancer or laminopathies). The human sperm is the smallest cell in the body with specific DNA packaging and the mission of delivering the paternal genome to the oocyte during fertilisation. Studies of nuclear organisation in the sperm have postulated nonrandom chromosome position and have proposed a chromocentre model with the centromeres facing toward the interior and the telomeres toward the periphery of the nucleus. Most studies have assessed the nuclear address in the sperm longitudinally predominantly using centromeric or telomeric probes and to a lesser extent with whole chromosome paints. To date, studies investigating the radial organisation of human sperm have been limited. The purpose of this study was to utilise whole chromosome paints for six clinically important chromosomes (18, 19, 21, 22, X, and Y) to investigate nuclear address by assessing their radial and longitudinal nuclear organisation. A total of 10,800 sperm were analysed in nine normozoospermic individuals. The results have shown nonrandom chromosome position for all chromosomes using both methods of analysis. We present novel radial and polar analysis of chromosome territory localization within the human sperm nucleus. Specifically, a hierarchical organisation was observed radially with chromosomes organised from the interior to the periphery (chromosomes 22, 21, Y, X, 19, and 18 respectively) and polar organisation from the sperm head to tail (chromosomes X, 19, Y, 22, 21, and 18, respectively). We provide evidence of defined nuclear organisation in the human sperm and discuss the function of organisation and potential possible clinical ramifications of these results in regards to male infertility and early human development. PMID:23143649

Millan, N M; Lau, P; Hann, M; Ioannou, D; Hoffman, D; Barrionuevo, M; Maxson, W; Ory, S; Tempest, H G

2012-10-01

376

Loss of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) isoforms in the testes of male mice causes subfertility, reduces sperm numbers, and alters expression of genes that regulate undifferentiated spermatogonia.  

PubMed

Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) isoform treatment has been demonstrated to alter spermatogonial stem cell homeostasis. Therefore, we generated pDmrt1-Cre;Vegfa(-/-) (knockout, KO) mice by crossing pDmrt1-Cre mice to floxed Vegfa mice to test whether loss of all VEGFA isoforms in Sertoli and germ cells would impair spermatogenesis. When first mated, KO males took 14 days longer to get control females pregnant (P < .02) and tended to take longer for all subsequent parturition intervals (9 days; P < .07). Heterozygous males sired fewer pups per litter (P < .03) and after the first litter took 10 days longer (P < .05) to impregnate females, suggesting a more progressive loss of fertility. Reproductive organs were collected from 6-month-old male mice. There were fewer sperm per tubule in the corpus epididymides (P < .001) and fewer ZBTB16-stained undifferentiated spermatogonia (P < .003) in the testes of KO males. Testicular mRNA abundance for Bcl2 (P < .02), Bcl2:Bax (P < .02), Neurog3 (P < .007), and Ret was greater (P = .0005), tended to be greater for Sin3a and tended to be reduced for total Foxo1 (P < .07) in KO males. Immunofluorescence for CD31 and VE-Cadherin showed no differences in testis vasculature; however, CD31-positive staining was evident in undifferentiated spermatogonia only in KO testes. Therefore, loss of VEGFA isoforms in Sertoli and germ cells alters genes necessary for long-term maintenance of undifferentiated spermatogonia, ultimately reducing sperm numbers and resulting in subfertility. PMID:24169552

Lu, Ningxia; Sargent, Kevin M; Clopton, Debra T; Pohlmeier, William E; Brauer, Vanessa M; McFee, Renee M; Weber, John S; Ferrara, Napoleone; Silversides, David W; Cupp, Andrea S

2013-12-01

377

Sperm development and motility are regulated by PP1 phosphatases in Caenorhabditis elegans.  

PubMed

Sperm from different species have evolved distinctive motility structures, including tubulin-based flagella in mammals and major sperm protein (MSP)-based pseudopods in nematodes. Despite such divergence, we show that sperm-specific PP1 phosphatases, which are required for male fertility in mouse, function in multiple processes in the development and motility of Caenorhabditis elegans amoeboid sperm. We used live-imaging analysis to show the PP1 phosphatases GSP-3 and GSP-4 (GSP-3/4) are required to partition chromosomes during sperm meiosis. Postmeiosis, tracking fluorescently labeled sperm revealed that both male and hermaphrodite sperm lacking GSP-3/4 are immotile. Genetic and in vitro activation assays show lack of GSP-3/4 causes defects in pseudopod development and the rate of pseudopodial treadmilling. Further, GSP-3/4 are required for the localization dynamics of MSP. GSP-3/4 shift localization in concert with MSP from fibrous bodies that sequester MSP at the base of the pseudopod, where directed MSP disassembly facilitates pseudopod contraction. Consistent with a role for GSP-3/4 as a spatial regulator of MSP disassembly, MSP is mislocalized in sperm lacking GSP-3/4. Although a requirement for PP1 phosphatases in nematode and mammalian sperm suggests evolutionary conservation, we show PP1s have independently evolved sperm-specific paralogs in separate lineages. Thus PP1 phosphatases are highly adaptable and employed across a broad range of sexually reproducing species to regulate male fertility. PMID:22042574

Wu, Jui-ching; Go, Aiza C; Samson, Mark; Cintra, Thais; Mirsoian, Susan; Wu, Tammy F; Jow, Margaret M; Routman, Eric J; Chu, Diana S

2012-01-01

378

Secondary sexual characters and sperm traits in coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT The sperm,competition,hypothesis predicts that males likely to occupy,disfavored spawning positions, as indicated by reduced expression of secondary sexual characters, would allocate more,resources to sperm production and velocity to compensate,for relatively poor access to spawning females. To test these predictions, body size metrics and red abdominal spawning colouration were examined,in relation to sperm related metrics in coho salmon,(Oncorhynchus kisutch). Males

T. E. Pitcher; S. M. Doucet; J.-M. J. Beausoleil; D. Hanley

2009-01-01