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1

Generation of functional eggs and sperm from cryopreserved whole testes  

PubMed Central

The conservation of endangered fish is of critical importance. Cryobanking could provide an effective backup measure for use in conjunction with the conservation of natural populations; however, methodology for cryopreservation of fish eggs and embryos has not yet been developed. The present study established a methodology capable of deriving functional eggs and sperm from frozen type A spermatogonia (ASGs). Whole testes taken from rainbow trout were slowly frozen in a cryomedium, and the viability of ASGs within these testes did not decrease over a 728-d freezing period. Frozen-thawed ASGs that were intraperitoneally transplanted into sterile triploid hatchlings migrated toward, and were incorporated into, recipient genital ridges. Transplantability of ASGs did not decrease after as much as 939 d of cryopreservation. Nearly half of triploid recipients produced functional eggs or sperm derived from the frozen ASGs and displayed high fecundity. Fertilization of resultant gametes resulted in the successful production of normal, frozen ASG-derived offspring. Feasibility and simplicity of this methodology will call for an immediate application for real conservation of endangered wild salmonids. PMID:23319620

Lee, Seungki; Iwasaki, Yoshiko; Shikina, Shinya; Yoshizaki, Goro

2013-01-01

2

Correlation between Different Patterns of Hypo-Osmotic Swelling and Sperm Functional Tests  

PubMed Central

Background: Sperm membrane integrity is not only important as a barrier between intra- and extra-cellular spaces, but also it can be considered as a sign of DNA integrity. Hypoosmotic swelling test reflects membrane integrity and has been used to evaluate sperm quality. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in adjunct with hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST) has been used for treatment of males with asthenozoospermia. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate correlation of different pattern of HOST with sperm parameters, protamine deficiency and apoptosis. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, sixteen semen samples were randomly collected from infertile normozospermic men. Semen samples were divided into two portions as follows: one portion was assessed for sperm parameters according toWorld Health Organization (WHO)-2010, while the other portion, after applying HOST procedure, was used for assessment of sperm morphology, protamine deficiency and late or early apoptosis. Statistical analysis was carried out using the Statistical Package for the Social Studies (SPSS 11.5). Results: Our results showed that, the lowest odds ratio (OR) of abnormal sperm head morphology and abnormal acrosome was in d-sperm as compared to a-pattern or nonviable spermatozoa (p=0.00, p=0.01). In addition, a significant correlation was observed between d-sperm with sperm concentration and percentage of DNA damage (p=0.03 and p=0.04, respectively). A significant correlation was observed between percentage of sperm motility and DNA fragmentation (r=-0.56; p=0.01). Furthermore, significant correlations were observed between percentages of early apoptotic sperm with protamine deficiency and sperm concentration (p=0.009 and p=0.01, respectively). Conclusion: Significant correlations exist between d-pattern and sperm DNA integrity. Semen samples with low sperm concentration have low percentage of d-sperm which are mature and intact sperms. PMID:24520486

Bassiri, Farzaneh; Tavalaee, Marziyeh; Nasr Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein

2013-01-01

3

Toona sinensis Leaf Aqueous Extract Improves the Functions of Sperm and Testes via Regulating Testicular Proteins in Rats under Oxidative Stress  

PubMed Central

Toona sinensis leaf (TSL) is commonly used as a vegetable and in spice in Asia. In this study, feeding with aqueous extract of TSL (TSL-A) alleviated oxidative stress and recovered the motility and functions of sperm in rats under oxidative stress. Protein expressions in testes identified by proteomic analysis and verified by Western blot demonstrated that TSL-A not only downregulated the level of glutathione transferase mu6 (antioxidant system), heat shock protein 90?kDa-? (protein misfolding repairing system), cofilin 2 (spermatogenesis), and cyclophilin A (apoptosis) but also upregulated crease3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase 2 (steroidogenesis), heat shock glycoprotein 96, and pancreatic trypsin 1 (sperm-oocyte interaction). These results indicate that TSL-A promotes the functions of sperm and testes via regulating multiple testicular proteins in rats under oxidative stress, suggesting that TSL-A is a valuable functional food supplement to improve functions of sperm and testes for males under oxidative stress. PMID:23093985

Yu, Bu-Chin; Yu, Wen-Jen; Huang, Chun-Yung; Chen, Ying-Hsin; Tsai, Yun-Ching; Chang, Chen-Chin; Chang, Sue-Joan

2012-01-01

4

Dual function of the damselfly penis: sperm removal and transfer.  

PubMed

The male of Calopteryx maculata (Beauvois) (Odonata) uses its penis not only to transfer sperm to the female but also to remove sperm deposited in the female's sperm storage organs from previous matings. Apparently, no such sperm removal function has previously been attributed to the intromittent organ of any animal. PMID:17771731

Waage, J K

1979-03-01

5

Dual Function of the Damselfly Penis: Sperm Removal and Transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The male of Calopteryx maculata (Beauvois) (Odonata) uses its penis not only to transfer sperm to the female but also to remove sperm deposited in the female's sperm storage organs from previous matings. Apparently, no such sperm removal function has previously been attributed to the intromittent organ of any animal.

Jonathan K. Waage

1979-01-01

6

Functional Amyloids in the Mouse Sperm Acrosome  

PubMed Central

The acrosomal matrix (AM) is an insoluble structure within the sperm acrosome that serves as a scaffold controlling the release of AM-associated proteins during the sperm acrosome reaction. The AM also interacts with the zona pellucida (ZP) that surrounds the oocyte, suggesting a remarkable stability that allows its survival despite being surrounded by proteolytic and hydrolytic enzymes released during the acrosome reaction. To date, the mechanism responsible for the stability of the AM is not known. Our studies demonstrate that amyloids are present within the sperm AM and contribute to the formation of an SDS- and formic-acid-resistant core. The AM core contained several known amyloidogenic proteins, as well as many proteins predicted to form amyloid, including several ZP binding proteins, suggesting a functional role for the amyloid core in sperm-ZP interactions. While stable at pH 3, at pH 7, the sperm AM rapidly destabilized. The pH-dependent dispersion of the AM correlated with a change in amyloid structure leading to a loss of mature forms and a gain of immature forms, suggesting that the reversal of amyloid is integral to AM dispersion. PMID:24797071

Guyonnet, Benoit; Egge, Nathan

2014-01-01

7

Variability in sperm form and function in the context of sperm competition risk in two Tupinambis lizards  

PubMed Central

In polyandrous species, sperm morphometry and sperm velocity are under strong sexual selection. Although several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the role of sperm competition in sperm trait variation, this aspect is still poorly understood. It has been suggested that an increase in sperm competition pressure could reduce sperm size variation or produce a diversity of sperm to maximize male fertilization success. We aim at elucidating the variability of sperm morphometric traits and velocity in two Tupinambis lizards in the context of sperm competition risk. Sperm traits showed substantial variation at all levels examined: between species, among males within species, and within the ejaculate of individual males. Sperm velocity was found to be positively correlated with flagellum: midpiece ratio, with relatively longer flagella associated with faster sperm. Our results document high variability in sperm form and function in lizards. PMID:25505535

Blengini, Cecilia S; Sergio, Naretto; Gabriela, Cardozo; Giojalas, Laura C; Margarita, Chiaraviglio

2014-01-01

8

Variability in sperm form and function in the context of sperm competition risk in two Tupinambis lizards.  

PubMed

In polyandrous species, sperm morphometry and sperm velocity are under strong sexual selection. Although several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the role of sperm competition in sperm trait variation, this aspect is still poorly understood. It has been suggested that an increase in sperm competition pressure could reduce sperm size variation or produce a diversity of sperm to maximize male fertilization success. We aim at elucidating the variability of sperm morphometric traits and velocity in two Tupinambis lizards in the context of sperm competition risk. Sperm traits showed substantial variation at all levels examined: between species, among males within species, and within the ejaculate of individual males. Sperm velocity was found to be positively correlated with flagellum: midpiece ratio, with relatively longer flagella associated with faster sperm. Our results document high variability in sperm form and function in lizards. PMID:25505535

Blengini, Cecilia S; Sergio, Naretto; Gabriela, Cardozo; Giojalas, Laura C; Margarita, Chiaraviglio

2014-11-01

9

Ejaculate Economics: Testing the Effects of Male Sexual History on the Trade-Off between Sperm and Immune Function in Australian Crickets  

PubMed Central

Trade-offs between investment into male sexual traits and immune function provide the foundation for some of the most prominent models of sexual selection. Post-copulatory sexual selection on the male ejaculate is intense, and therefore trade-offs should occur between investment into the ejaculate and the immune system. Examples of such trade-offs exist, including that between sperm quality and immunity in the Australian cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus. Here, we explore the dynamics of this trade-off, examining the effects that increased levels of sexual interaction have on the viability of a male's sperm across time, and the concomitant effects on immune function. Males were assigned to a treatment, whereby they cohabited with females that were sexually immature, sexually mature but incapable of copulation, or sexually mature and capable of copulation. Sperm viability of each male was then assessed at two time points: six and 13 days into the treatment, and immune function at day 13. Sperm viability decreased across the time points, but only for males exposed to treatment classes involving sexually mature females. This decrease was similar in magnitude across both sexually mature classes, indicating that costs to the expression of high sperm viability are incurred largely through levels of pre-copulatory investment. Males exposed to immature females produced sperm of low viability at both time points. Although we confirmed a weak negative association between sperm viability and lytic activity (a measure of immune response to bacterial infection) at day 13, this relationship was not altered across the mating treatment. Our results highlight that sperm viability is a labile trait, costly to produce, and subject to strategic allocation in these crickets. PMID:22253916

Dowling, Damian K.; Simmons, Leigh W.

2012-01-01

10

Do Candidate Genes Mediating Conspecific Sperm Precedence Affect Sperm Competitive Ability Within Species? A Test Case in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

When females mate to multiple males, the last male to mate fathers the majority of progeny. When males of different species inseminate a female, the sperm of the male conspecific to the female is favored in fertilization in a process known as conspecific sperm precedence (CSP). A large number of studies in Drosophila have assayed the genetic basis of sperm competition, with a main focus on D. melanogaster and accessory gland protein genes. Only a few studies have attempted to disentangle the genetic basis of CSP between related species of Drosophila. Although there is no a priori reason to believe that genes influencing intraspecific sperm competitive ability might also mediate conspecific sperm precedence, no study has addressed the question. Here, we test a group of candidate CSP genes between D. simulans and D. mauritiana for their effect on sperm competition in D. melanogaster. The use of P-element insertion lines identified CG14891 gene disruption as the only one causing a significant decrease in second male paternity success relative to wild-type and ebony tester males. The gene disruption affected both sperm displacement and the sperm fertilizing ability. Out of five genes tested using RNA interference, only gene knockdown of CG6864 (Mst89B) significantly reduced the male’s ability to father progeny when second to mate. Our results suggest that CG14891 and CG6864 might have been co-opted from an intraspecies gene function (i.e., sperm competition) into an interspecies avoidance phenotype (i.e., CSP). Alternatively, the dual role of these genes could be a consequence of their pleiotropic roles. PMID:25031180

Civetta, Alberto; Finn, Scott

2014-01-01

11

Influence of serum prolactin on semen characteristics and sperm function.  

PubMed

The role of serum prolactin (sPRL) in male infertility is still unclear. For assessing the clinical significance of prolactin determination during infertility investigation, serum samples of 204 males attending the Infertility Clinic of Heidelberg were examined during a 1-year period. None of the patients exhibited galactorrhoea or complained of impotence. Results were correlated with age, duration of infertility, sperm count, motility, morphology, viability, and other parameters of routine sperm analysis and postcoital testing (PCT). Additionally, in vitro sperm penetration testing (SCMPT) in cervical mucus of partners and donors was performed as an important measure of functional sperm capacity. The subsequent pregnancy rate was determined after 6 months. Prolactin levels ranged from 1.4 to 24.7 ng/mL, with a median of 5 ng/mL. Only one patient had prolactin levels out of the normal range (greater than 20 ng/mL). No significant correlation of sPRL concentration was found with results of semen analysis, PCT outcome, or SCMPT. The functional sperm capacity was better in the groups of patients with sPRL above the median level (P less than .005). No significant difference in pregnancy rate was found between the high (greater than 5 ng/mL) and low (less than or equal to 5 ng/mL) prolactin groups; these were 20% and 26%, respectively. The results suggest that routine screening of asymptomatic male patients during infertility investigation for sPRL concentration is not helpful for assessing fertility prognosis. Prolactin should be preferentially determined in patients with clinical symptoms of hyperprolactinemia to exclude pituitary adenoma. PMID:1680827

Eggert-Kruse, W; Schwalbach, B; Gerhard, I; Tilgen, W; Runnebaum, B

1991-01-01

12

Sperm competition: linking form to function  

PubMed Central

Background Using information from physics, biomechanics and evolutionary biology, we explore the implications of physical constraints on sperm performance, and review empirical evidence for links between sperm length and sperm competition (where two or more males compete to fertilise a female's eggs). A common theme in the literature on sperm competition is that selection for increased sperm performance in polyandrous species will favour the evolution of longer, and therefore faster swimming, sperm. This argument is based on the common assumption that sperm swimming velocity is directly related to sperm length, due to the increased thrust produced by longer flagella. Results We critically evaluate the evidence for links between sperm morphology and swimming speed, and draw on cross-disciplinary studies to show that the assumption that velocity is directly related to sperm length will rarely be satisfied in the microscopic world in which sperm operate. Conclusion We show that increased sperm length is unlikely to be driven by selection for increased swimming speed, and that the relative lengths of a sperm's constituent parts, rather than their absolute lengths, are likely to be the target of selection. All else being equal, we suggest that a simple measure of the ratio of head to tail length should be used to assess the possible link between morphology and speed. However, this is most likely to be the case for external fertilizers in which females have relatively limited opportunity to influence a sperm's motility. PMID:19032741

2008-01-01

13

Responses of testis, epididymis, and sperm of pubertal rats exposed to functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the response of testes, epididymides and sperm in pubertal Wistar rats following exposure to 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 mg kg(-1) functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNTs) for 5 days. The results showed that administration of (f-MWCNTs) significantly increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in a dose-dependent manner in both testes and sperm compared with control group. Moreover, the significant decrease in the activity of glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione level was accompanied with significant elevation in the levels of hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde in both testes and sperm of (f-MWCNTs)-treated rats. The spermiogram of (f-MWCNTs)-treated rats indicated significant decrease in epididymal sperm number, sperm progressive motility, testicular sperm number and daily sperm production with elevated sperm abnormalities when compared with the control. Exposure to (f-MWCNTs) decreased plasma testosterone level and produced marked morphological changes including decreased geminal epithelium, edema, congestion, reduced spermatogenic cells and focal areas of tubular degeneration in the testes. The lumen of the epididymides contained reduced sperm cells and there was mild to severe hyperplasia epithelial cells lining the duct of the epididymis. Collectively, pubertal exposure of male rats to (f-MWCNTs) elicited oxidative stress response resulting in marked testicular and epididymides dysfunction. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2014. PMID:25410135

Farombi, Ebenezer O; Adedara, Isaac A; Forcados, Gilead E; Anao, Osemudiamen O; Agbowo, Agatha; Patlolla, Anita K

2014-11-20

14

DEVELOPMENT OF A SPERM CELL TOXICITY TEST FOR MARINE WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Preliminary methods for conducting a quick and sensitive sperm cell toxicity test for marine waters have been developed. This paper presents a simple static test in which sea urchin or sand dollar sperm cells are exposed to test or control solutions for short periods of time (typ...

15

Effect of oxamic analogues on functional mice sperm parameters.  

PubMed

The present study evaluates the effect of oxamate derivatives (N-ethyl, N-propyl, N-butyl oxamates) on functional murine sperm parameters, towards a new male non-hormonal contraceptive. These derivatives are selective inhibitors of lactate dehydrogenase-C4 (LDH-C4). LDH-C4 is a sperm-specific enzyme that plays an important role in ATP production for maintaining progressive motility as well as to induce capacitation and hyperactivation. The results demonstrate that all oxamate derivatives selectively inhibited LDH-C4 in mouse sperm extracts. The IC(50) values for hexokinase and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase were at least an order of magnitude greater than LDH-C4 IC(50) values. Prodrugs of oxamate derivatives assayed on sperm cells diminished normal sperm motility parameters, acrosome reaction, and cell viability in a concentration dependent manner. Also, we performed in vivo studies to determine the potential toxicity and possible contraceptive ability of these inhibitors. Mouse sperm were more sensitive to the N-butyl oxamate ethyl ester (NBOXet). Furthermore, results showed that NBOXet was of a low toxicity substance that diminished the total and progressive motility as well as the kinematic parameters of sperm cells. Data from in vitro and in vivo studies showed that N-butyl oxamate and its prodrug, are selective inhibitors of sperm LDH-C4, has low toxicity, and inhibits sperm progressive motility, offering some of the desirable characteristics of a male contraceptive: effect, low toxicity, and selectivity. PMID:24654556

Cordero-Martínez, Joaquín; Aguirre-Alvarado, Charmina; Wong, Carlos; Rodríguez-Páez, Lorena

2014-08-01

16

The effect of seminal plasma on alpaca sperm function.  

PubMed

In order to advance the development of assisted reproductive technologies in alpacas and other Camelids, the objective of this study was to explore the role of seminal plasma concentration on motility and functional integrity of alpaca sperm. Sixteen male alpacas > 3 y of age were used. In Experiment 1, epididymal sperm were incubated for 0 to 6 h in 0, 10, 25, 50, or 100% seminal plasma and motility was assessed. In Experiment 2, epididymal sperm were incubated in 0, 10, or 100% seminal plasma for 3 h and motility, acrosome integrity and DNA integrity were assessed. In Experiment 3, ejaculated sperm were incubated in 10, 25, 50, or 100% seminal plasma for 0 to 6 h and motility assessed. In Experiment 4, ejaculated sperm were incubated in 10 or 100% seminal plasma for 3 h and motility, acrosome integrity, DNA integrity, and viability were assessed. Epididymal and ejaculated sperm maintained motility longer when incubated in the presence of 10% seminal plasma compared to 0, 25, 50, or 100% seminal plasma (P < 0.001). The mean ± SEM percentage of epididymal sperm with intact acrosomes was less (P < 0.001) in samples incubated in 0% seminal plasma (39.4 ± 3.73) compared to 10% (75.3 ± 1.20) or 100% (77.4 ± 0.90) within 1 h after incubation. However, DNA integrity of ejaculated and epididymal sperm was not significantly affected by seminal plasma concentration. The mean viability of ejaculated sperm was reduced in the presence of 100 (12.7 ± 2.33) compared to 10% (36.2 ± 4.68) seminal plasma (P < 0.001) within 1 h of incubation. We concluded that alpaca semen should be diluted to a final concentration of 10% seminal plasma to prolong motility, preserve acrosome integrity, and maintain viability of sperm. PMID:21820722

Kershaw-Young, C M; Maxwell, W M C

2011-10-15

17

Not All Sperm Are Equal: Functional Mitochondria Characterize a Subpopulation of Human Sperm with Better Fertilization Potential  

PubMed Central

Human sperm samples are very heterogeneous and include a low amount of truly functional gametes. Distinct strategies have been developed to characterize and isolate this specific subpopulation. In this study we have used fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence-activated cell sorting to determine if mitochondrial function, as assessed using mitochondrial-sensitive probes, could be employed as a criterion to obtain more functional sperm from a given ejaculate. We first determined that mitochondrial activity correlated with the quality of distinct human samples, from healthy donors to patients with decreased semen quality. Furthermore, using fluorescence-activated cell sorting to separate sperm with active and inactive mitochondria we found that this was also true within samples. Indeed, sperm with active mitochondria defined a more functional subpopulation, which contained more capacitated and acrosome intact cells, sperm with lower chromatin damage, and, crucially, sperm more able to decondense and participate in early development using both chemical induction and injection into mature bovine oocytes. Furthermore, cell sorting using mitochondrial activity produced a more functional sperm subpopulation than classic swim-up, both in terms of improvement in a variety of functional sperm parameters and in statistical significance. In conclusion, whatever the true biological role of sperm mitochondria in fertilization, mitochondrial activity is a clear hallmark of human sperm functionality. PMID:21448461

Sousa, Ana Paula; Amaral, Alexandra; Baptista, Marta; Tavares, Renata; Caballero Campo, Pedro; Caballero Peregrín, Pedro; Freitas, Albertina; Paiva, Artur; Almeida-Santos, Teresa; Ramalho-Santos, João

2011-01-01

18

Characterisation of a subpopulation of sperm with massive nuclear damage, as recognised with the sperm chromatin dispersion test.  

PubMed

Assessment of human sperm DNA fragmentation by the sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) test is based on the detection of haloes of spreading DNA loops after sequential DNA denaturing and protamine removal. After the SCD test, sperm without DNA fragmentation show chromatin haloes emerging from the central nuclear core, while sperm containing fragmented DNA present small or no haloes. The nuclear degraded sperm are recognised as a differentiated category within the sperm with fragmented DNA, whose cores appear irregularly and/or faintly stained. This subpopulation is more prevalent in patients with varicocele. Protein staining with 2.7-dibrom-4-hydroxy-mercury-fluorescein demonstrated that degraded sperm intensely lose nuclear core proteins after the SCD processing. Moreover, degraded sperm are 65% more faintly labelled for DNA breaks after in situ nick translation (ISNT) on average, due to extensive DNA loss. A two-dimensional comet assay under sequential neutral and alkaline conditions demonstrated that degraded sperm contain both massive double- and single-strand DNA breaks. The degraded sperm appear as a subpopulation with stronger nuclear damage, affecting both DNA and protein fractions, possibly due to intense intratesticular oxidative stress, what could explain its higher proportion in patients with varicocele. PMID:23710631

Gosálvez, J; Rodríguez-Predreira, M; Mosquera, A; López-Fernández, C; Esteves, S C; Agarwal, A; Fernández, J L

2014-08-01

19

Presence and Function of Dopamine Transporter (DAT) in Stallion Sperm: Dopamine Modulates Sperm Motility and Acrosomal Integrity  

PubMed Central

Dopamine is a catecholamine with multiple physiological functions, playing a key role in nervous system; however its participation in reproductive processes and sperm physiology is controversial. High dopamine concentrations have been reported in different portions of the feminine and masculine reproductive tract, although the role fulfilled by this catecholamine in reproductive physiology is as yet unknown. We have previously shown that dopamine type 2 receptor is functional in boar sperm, suggesting that dopamine acts as a physiological modulator of sperm viability, capacitation and motility. In the present study, using immunodetection methods, we revealed the presence of several proteins important for the dopamine uptake and signalling in mammalian sperm, specifically monoamine transporters as dopamine (DAT), serotonin (SERT) and norepinephrine (NET) transporters in equine sperm. We also demonstrated for the first time in equine sperm a functional dopamine transporter using 4-[4-(Dimethylamino)styryl]-N-methylpyridinium iodide (ASP+), as substrate. In addition, we also showed that dopamine (1 mM) treatment in vitro, does not affect sperm viability but decreases total and progressive sperm motility. This effect is reversed by blocking the dopamine transporter with the selective inhibitor vanoxerine (GBR12909) and non-selective inhibitors of dopamine reuptake such as nomifensine and bupropion. The effect of dopamine in sperm physiology was evaluated and we demonstrated that acrosome integrity and thyrosine phosphorylation in equine sperm is significantly reduced at high concentrations of this catecholamine. In summary, our results revealed the presence of monoamine transporter DAT, NET and SERT in equine sperm, and that the dopamine uptake by DAT can regulate sperm function, specifically acrosomal integrity and sperm motility. PMID:25402186

Covarrubias, Alejandra A.; Rodríguez-Gil, Joan Enric; Ramírez-Reveco, Alfredo; Concha, Ilona I.

2014-01-01

20

Sperm competition and the evolution of testes size in birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative analyses suggest that a variety of ecological and behavioural factors contribute to the tremendous variability in extrapair mating among birds. In an analysis of 1010 species of birds, we examined several ecological and behavioural factors in relation to testes size; an index of sperm competition and the extent of extrapair mating. In univariate and multivariate analyses, testes size was

T. E. PITCHER; P. O. DUNN; L. A. WHITTINGHAM

2005-01-01

21

The Acridine Orange test: a clinically relevant screening method for sperm quality during infertility investigation?  

PubMed

To determine the clinical usefulness of Acridine Orange (AO) staining of spermatozoa as a screening test for the evaluation of semen quality during basic infertility investigation, semen smears from 103 randomly chosen males of subfertile couples were examined. The median duration of infertility was 4.5 years (range 1-15) and the median age was 33 years (range 21-43). The outcome of AO staining ranged from 5 to 81%, with a median of 24%, green fluorescent spermatozoa. Results were not significantly related to the parameters of semen analysis (sperm count, motility, standard morphology, viability, pH and volume, as well as fructose concentration and number of found cells) or to local sperm antibody testing and semen cultures. Fluorescence after AO staining was also not related to sperm functional capacity (evaluated using sperm-mucus interaction tests in vitro and in vivo), or the medical history of the patient. No significant differences in the AO test outcome were seen in patients with explained and unexplained infertility, or with regard to subsequent fertility [with a median value of 21% (range 5-46) green fluorescence in the fertile group, compared with a median value of 28% (range 9-81) green fluorescence in the other men]. The results of this prospective study indicate that under the usual conditions of conception, the AO test is not clinically useful as a screening procedure to determine semen quality during basic infertility investigation. PMID:8671329

Eggert-Kruse, W; Rohr, G; Kerbel, H; Schwalbach, B; Demirakca, T; Klinga, K; Tilgen, W; Runnebaum, B

1996-04-01

22

Earlier testing after vasectomy, based on the absence of motile sperm.  

PubMed

Between 1975 and 1992, a private physician performed 3178 vasectomies at the Cronulla Private Medical Clinic in Cronulla, New South Wales, Australia, and examined ejaculation specimens of 2260 of the cases either after 10 ejaculations or 4 to 14 weeks after vasectomy. He reviewed the postvasectomy testing results of those with immobile sperm and compared these results with those based on complete azoospermia. There were only 5 failures (0.16%) caused by either incorrectly performed vasectomy (1 case) or spontaneous recanalization (4 cases). A pregnancy revealed 1 failure (late recanalization and reappearance of motile sperm). Just 1.5% still had motile sperm during the first postvasectomy test. Further, the sperm count of these 33 men was less than 1 million sperm/ml and motility was either 5% or less. 9 weeks was the longest postvasectomy period with motile sperm still present. Sperm counts for specimens with no motile sperm varied from 1 to 33 million sperm/ml at 100 high power field, but the count for most cases was less than 1 million sperm/ml. Just 5 cases had 16 to 33 million nonmotile sperm. 19% of the men who returned for a sperm count 14 weeks after vasectomy still had some nonmotile sperm. Since nonmotile sperm cannot go through the cervical mucus or penetrate and fertilize the ovum, the physician gave the men with nonmotile sperm clearance, which was earlier than if he had waited for azoospermia. Therefore, testing can take place 4 weeks after vasectomy rather than after a set number of ejaculations, and if the specimens have no motile sperm within 12 hours of collection, the health provider can grant clearance. Further collection and publication of postvasectomy testing results are needed. PMID:8425641

Edwards, I S

1993-02-01

23

[Cyclic nucleotide-gated channels and sperm function].  

PubMed

The cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channel is a nonselective cation channel and one of the main entrances of Ca2+ influxion into cells. CNG channels are opened by direct binding of cyclic nucleotides. Six different genes encode the CNG protein, 4 A subunits and 2 B subunits. The activity of CNG channels can be regulated by Ca2+/Ca(2+)-binding proteins (CaM) and phosphorylation/dephosphorylation. Recently, extensive attention has been drawn to the researches on CNG channels in the reproductive system, and many studies show that CNG channels play a pivotal role in sperm motility, capacitation and acrosome reaction. This article focuses on the relationship of CNG channels with sperm function. PMID:23700737

Xu, Jian-Hua; Du, Jing

2013-03-01

24

Functional features and protein network of human sperm-egg interaction.  

PubMed

Elucidation of the sperm-egg interaction at the molecular level is one of the unresolved problems in sexual reproduction, and understanding the molecular mechanism is crucial in solving problems in infertility and failed in vitro fertilization (IVF). Many molecular interactions in the form of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) mediate the sperm-egg membrane interaction. Due to the complexity of the problem such as difficulties in analyzing in vivo membrane PPIs, many efforts have failed to comprehensively elucidate the fusion mechanism and the molecular interactions that mediate sperm-egg membrane fusion. The main purpose of this study was to reveal possible protein interactions and associated molecular function during sperm-egg interaction using a protein interaction network approach. Different databases have been used to construct the human sperm-egg interaction network. The constructed network revealed new interactions. These included CD151 and CD9 in human oocyte that interact with CD49 in sperm, and CD49 and ITGA4 in sperm that interact with CD63 and CD81, respectively, in the oocyte. These results showed that the different integrins in sperm may be involved in human sperm-egg interaction. It was also suggested that sperm ADAM2 plays a role as a protein candidate involved in sperm-egg membrane interaction by interacting with CD9 in the oocyte. Interleukin-4 receptor activity, receptor signaling protein tyrosine kinase activity, and manganese ion transmembrane transport activity are the major molecular functions in sperm-egg interaction protein network. The disease association analysis indicated that sperm-egg interaction defects are also reflected in other disease networks such as cardiovascular, hematological, and breast cancer diseases. By analyzing the network, we identified the major molecular functions and disease association genes in sperm-egg interaction protein. Further experimental studies will be required to confirm the significance of these new computationally resolved interactions and the genetic links between sperm-egg interaction abnormalities and the associated disease. PMID:25222562

Sabetian, Soudabeh; Shamsir, Mohd Shahir; Abu Naser, Mohammed

2014-12-01

25

Function of human epididymal proteins in sperm maturation.  

PubMed

Human post-testicular proteins were cloned by subtractive screening of epididymal cDNA libraries, employing testis as the primary negative control. This method identified six human epididymal cDNAs, named HE1-HE6, which are derived from abundant epididymal mRNAs. With the exception of HE5, which turned out to be identical to the lymphocyte surface antigen CD52, they represented completely novel human gene products. To date, there is little information on their function and the mechanism of their deposition on the sperm surface. Unlike the sperm coating antigens, CD52 binds firmly to the sperm membrane via its GPI anchor during epididymal passage. Its synthesis is carefully regulated by the epididymal epithelium. From the results of both in vivo and in vitro studies it was concluded that androgen and temperature are principal factors synergistically modulating epididymal CD52 expression. The human counterparts of two well-known major rodent epididymal proteins, secretory epididymal glutathione peroxidase (sGPX) and acidic epididymal glycoprotein (AEG = Protein DE), were not cloned by the subtractive screening approach, but by RT-PCR amplification. PMID:9739419

Kirchhoff, C; Osterhoff, C; Pera, I; Schröter, S

1998-01-01

26

Evaluation of ram semen quality using polyacrylamide gel instead of cervical mucus in the sperm penetration test.  

PubMed

Fertility is a very complex biological function that depends on several properties of the spermatozoa, including sperm motility. Two objectives are analyzed in this study: (1) Replace the cervical mucus by a synthetic medium in a sperm penetration test, and (2) evaluating the results of this test objectively analyzing the sperm number that migrates. In experiment 1, we have tested eight concentrations of acrylamide (1%-2%). Rheological properties of media were analyzed. The plastic straws, loaded with acrylamide, were placed vertically on the semen sample tube for 15 min at 39 °C. After, the acrylamides were placed, by segments of 5 mm, into wells of a 24-well plate, dyed with Hoechst 33342 and the number of spermatozoa were calculated by automated microscopy analysis. The 1.55% and 1.6% acrylamide gel showed a number of spermatozoa emigrating closer to that seen with natural mucus. In experiment 2, we applied the sperm penetration in acrylamide 1.6% and 1.55% using fresh semen and cooled semen at 15 °C and 5 °C. The spermatozoa counts were performed for each segment of 10 mm. Semen chilled at 15 °C presented intermediate values of sperm counts in comparison with fresh semen (higher) and 5 °C chilled semen. The sperm counts do not differ between acrylamides but the rheological properties of acrylamide 1.6% were more similar to those of the natural cervical mucus. In experiment 3, we have observed significant correlations between the number of spermatozoa and several sperm quality parameters (positive: progressive motility and velocity according to the straight path; negative: damaged acrosomes and apoptotic cells) in 1.6% acrylamide media. We conclude that the size of the cell subpopulation, objectively calculated, that migrate beyond 20 mm in 0.5-mL straws filled with acrylamide is a useful parameter in ram sperm quality assessment and further studies are needed to evaluate its relationship with field fertility. PMID:22289220

Martínez-Rodríguez, C; Alvarez, M; Ordás, L; Chamorro, C A; Martinez-Pastor, F; Anel, L; de Paz, P

2012-05-01

27

Morphology-function relationships and repeatability in the sperm of Passer sparrows.  

PubMed

Sperm performance is likely to be an important determinant of male reproductive success, especially when females copulate with multiple males. Understanding sperm performance is therefore crucial to fully understand the evolution of male reproductive strategies. In this study, we examined the repeatability of sperm morphology and motility measures over three breeding seasons, and we studied relationships between sperm morphology and function. We conducted this study in wild-derived captive house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and Spanish sparrows (P. hispaniolensis). Results for the two species were similar. As predicted from results in other passerine species, total sperm length was highly repeatable across ejaculates, and repeatability for the length of other components was moderate. The repeatability of sperm swimming speed across ejaculates was lower, but statistically significant, suggesting that sperm velocity may be a relatively dynamic trait. Surprisingly, swimming speed did not correlate with the relative length of the midpiece, and it correlated negatively with the relative length of the flagellum and with total sperm length. This pattern is the opposite of what theory predicts and differs from what has been found in house sparrows before. Also contrary to previous work, we found no evidence that total sperm length correlates with sperm longevity. These results therefore highlight the need for a better understanding of relationships between sperm morphology and function in passerine birds. J. Morphol., 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25427840

Cramer, Emily R A; Laskemoen, Terje; Stensrud, Even; Rowe, Melissah; Haas, Fredrik; Lifjeld, Jan T; Saetre, Glenn-Peter; Johnsen, Arild

2014-11-26

28

Prospective approaches to avoid flock fertility problems: predictive assessment of sperm function traits in poultry.  

PubMed

This paper discusses why it is important to evaluate males as individuals and how advances made in understanding and measurement of sperm function can be used to improve reproductive efficiency in poultry. Commercial turkey breeding relies on pooling semen from multiple toms. It generally is assumed that sperm in good quality semen from all toms are equally fecund. (Fecund is defined, for males, as an individual whose semen contains a majority of sperm with the potential of producing fertilized eggs, which includes success at all steps in the fertilization process: sperm movement, storage in the hens' sperm storage tubules, binding and penetrating the perivitelline layer, and fertilization.) However, when DNA fingerprinting was used to determine paternity efficiency after pooling ejaculates from seven or more toms, it was found that 18 of 26 males produced very few, or no, offspring. In addition, the traditional measures of poultry semen quality: semen volume, sperm concentration, sperm viability, and subjective motility assessment, were poor predictors of paternity. In recent years, a concentrated effort has been made to develop and evaluate methods that quantify sperm function in poultry. Methods to measure some of these traits are reviewed: sperm motility, sperm storage in the hen, and sperm binding and penetration of the ovum. Data supporting use of these tools for managing flock fertility from the male perspective are explored. PMID:10090272

Donoghue, A M

1999-03-01

29

Effect of polyvinylpyrrolidone on sperm function and early embryonic development following intracytoplasmic sperm injection in human assisted reproduction.  

PubMed

The objective here was to review the effects of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) upon sperm function and embryonic development in humans. PVP has been used successfully in intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) to facilitate the handling and immobilization of sperm for both domestic animals and humans. In our previous reports, PVP solution exists locally in embryos injected during the early developmental period, and also exerts influence over the developmental capacity of such embryos. In other reports, PVP causes significant damage to sperm membranes that can be detected by transmission electron microscopy, and has been associated with chromosomal abnormalities in pregnancy derived from ICSI embryos. In some Japanese clinics, PVP-free media has been used for sperm immobilization in order to optimise safety. Consequently, it is strongly suggested that the success rate of fertilization and clinical pregnancy could be improved by using PVP-free solution for human ICSI. In conclusion, our interpretation of the available data is to perform ICSI without PVP or select a lower concentration of PVP solution in order to reduce safety for pregnancy and children born via ICSI. PMID:23483084

Kato, Yoku; Nagao, Yoshikazu

2012-10-01

30

Receptor function of mouse sperm surface galactosyltransferase during fertilization.  

PubMed

Past studies from this laboratory have suggested that mouse sperm binding to the egg zona pellucida is mediated by a sperm galactosyltransferase (GalTase), which recognizes and binds to terminal N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) residues in the zona pellucida (Shur, B. D., and N. G. Hall, 1982, J. Cell Biol. 95:567-573; 95:574-579). We now present evidence that directly supports this mechanism for gamete binding. GalTase was purified to homogeneity by sequential affinity-chromatography on GlcNAc-agarose and alpha-lactalbumin-agarose columns. The purified enzyme produced a dose-dependent inhibition of sperm binding to the zona pellucida, relative to controls. To inhibit sperm/zona binding, GalTase had to retain its native conformation, since neither heat-inactivated nor Mn++-deficient GalTase inhibited sperm binding. GalTase inhibition of sperm/zona binding was not due to steric blocking of an adjacent sperm receptor on the zona, since GalTase could be released from the zona pellucida by forced galactosylation with UDPGal, and the resulting galactosylated zona was still incapable of binding sperm. In control experiments, when UDPGal was replaced with the inappropriate sugar nucleotide, UDPglucose, sperm binding to the zona pellucida remained normal after the adsorbed GalTase was washed away. The addition of UDPGal produced a dose-dependent inhibition of sperm/zona binding, and also dissociated preformed sperm/zona adhesions by catalyzing the release of the sperm GalTase from its GlcNAc substrate in the zona pellucida. Under identical conditions, UDP-glucose had no effect on sperm binding to the zona pellucida. The ability of UDPGal to dissociate sperm/zona adhesions was both time- and temperature-dependent. UDPGal produced nearly total inhibition of sperm/zona binding when the zonae pellucidae were first galactosylated to reduce the number of GalTase binding sites. Finally, monospecific anti-GalTase IgG and its Fab fragments produced a dose-dependent inhibition of sperm/zona binding and concomitantly blocked sperm GalTase catalytic activity. Preimmune IgG or anti-mouse brain IgG, which also binds to the sperm surface, had no effect. The sperm GalTase was localized by indirect immunofluorescence to a discrete plasma membrane domain on the dorsal surface of the anterior head overlying the intact acrosome. These results, along with earlier studies, show clearly that sperm GalTase serves as a principal gamete receptor during fertilization. PMID:2995408

Lopez, L C; Bayna, E M; Litoff, D; Shaper, N L; Shaper, J H; Shur, B D

1985-10-01

31

Correlation Between Human Sperm Swelling in Hypoosmotic Medium (Hypoosmotic Swelling Test) and In Vitro Fertilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human ejaculates (n = 83) were analyzed for standard sperm parameters (concentration, motility, and morphol- ogy), as well as for the ability of the spermatozoa to react (swell) in a hypoosmotic medium (Jeyendran et al, 1984). Subsequently, the fertilizing capacity of the spermatozoa was tested by their ability to fertilize human oocytes in vitro. Although the sperm concentration was adjusted

H. VAN DER VEN; RAJASINGAM S. JEYENDRAN; SAFAA ALHASANI; MARIANO PEREZ-PELAEZ; KLAUS DIEDRICH; LOURENS J. D. ZANEVELD

32

21 CFR 866.5800 - Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5800 Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test...

2014-04-01

33

21 CFR 866.5800 - Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5800 Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test...

2013-04-01

34

Choline Dehydrogenase Polymorphism rs12676 Is a Functional Variation and Is Associated with Changes in Human Sperm Cell Function  

PubMed Central

Approximately 15% of couples are affected by infertility and up to half of these cases arise from male factor infertility. Unidentified genetic aberrations such as chromosomal deletions, translocations and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may be the underlying cause of many cases of idiopathic male infertility. Deletion of the choline dehydrogenase (Chdh) gene in mice results in decreased male fertility due to diminished sperm motility; sperm from Chdh?/? males have decreased ATP concentrations likely stemming from abnormal sperm mitochondrial morphology and function in these cells. Several SNPs have been identified in the human CHDH gene that may result in altered CHDH enzymatic activity. rs12676 (G233T), a non-synonymous SNP located in the CHDH coding region, is associated with increased susceptibility to dietary choline deficiency and risk of breast cancer. We now report evidence that this SNP is also associated with altered sperm motility patterns and dysmorphic mitochondrial structure in sperm. Sperm produced by men who are GT or TT for rs12676 have 40% and 73% lower ATP concentrations, respectively, in their sperm. rs12676 is associated with decreased CHDH protein in sperm and hepatocytes. A second SNP located in the coding region of IL17BR, rs1025689, is linked to altered sperm motility characteristics and changes in choline metabolite concentrations in sperm. PMID:22558321

Johnson, Amy R.; Lao, Sai; Wang, Tongwen; Galanko, Joseph A.; Zeisel, Steven H.

2012-01-01

35

p,p?-DDE activates CatSper and compromises human sperm function at environmentally relevant concentrations  

PubMed Central

STUDY QUESTION Is the environmental endocrine disruptor p,p?-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p?-DDE) able to induce non-genomic changes in human sperm and consequently affect functional sperm parameters? SUMMARY ANSWER p,p?-DDE promoted Ca2+ flux into human sperm by activating CatSper channels even at doses found in human reproductive fluids, ultimately compromising sperm parameters important for fertilization. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY p,p?-DDE may promote non-genomic actions and interact directly with pre-existing signaling pathways, as already observed in other cell types. However, although often found in both male and female reproductive fluids, its effects on human spermatozoa function are not known. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION Normozoospermic sperm samples from healthy individuals were included in this study. Samples were exposed to several p,p?-DDE concentrations for 3 days at 37°C and 5% CO2 in vitro to mimic the putative continuous exposure to this toxicant in the female reproductive tract in vivo. Shorter p,p?-DDE incubation periods were also performed in order to monitor sperm rapid Ca2+ responses. All experiments were repeated on a minimum of five sperm samples from different individuals. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS All healthy individuals were recruited at the Biosciences School, University of Birmingham, the Medical Research Institute, University of Dundee and in the Human Reproduction Service at University Hospitals of Coimbra. Intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) was monitored by imaging single spermatozoa loaded with Oregon Green BAPTA-1AM and further whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were performed to validate our results. Sperm viability and acrosomal integrity were assessed using the LIVE/DEAD sperm vitality kit and the acrosomal content marker PSA-FITC, respectively. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE p,p?-DDE rapidly increased [Ca2+]i (P < 0.05) even at extremely low doses (1 pM and 1 nM), with magnitudes of response up to 200%, without affecting sperm viability, except after 3 days of continuous exposure to the highest concentration tested (P < 0.05). Furthermore, experiments performed in a low Ca2+ medium demonstrated that extracellular Ca2+ influx was responsible for this Ca2+ increase (P < 0.01). Mibefradil and NNC 55-0396, both inhibitors of the sperm-specific CatSper channel, reversed the p,p?-DDE-induced [Ca2+]i rise, suggesting the participation of CatSper in this process (P < 0.05). In fact, whole-cell patch-clamp recordings confirmed CatSper as a target of p,p?-DDE action by monitoring an increase in CatSper currents of >100% (P < 0.01). Finally, acrosomal integrity was adversely affected after 2 days of exposure to p,p?-DDE concentrations, suggesting that [Ca2+]i rise may cause premature acrosome reaction (P < 0.05). LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION This is an in vitro study, and caution must be taken when extrapolating the results. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS A novel non-genomic p,p?-DDE mechanism specific to sperm is shown in this study. p,p?-DDE was able to induce [Ca2+]i rise in human sperm through the opening of CatSper consequently compromising male fertility. The promiscuous nature of CatSper activation may predispose human sperm to the action of some persistent endocrine disruptors. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S) The study was supported by both the Portuguese National Science Foundation (FCT; PEst-C/SAU/LA0001/2011) and the UK Wellcome Trust (Grant #86470). SM was supported by the Infertility Research Trust. RST is a recipient of a PhD fellowship from FCT (SFRH/BD/46002/2008). None of the authors has any conflict of interest to declare. PMID:24067601

Tavares, Renata S.; Mansell, Steven; Barratt, Christopher L.R.; Wilson, Stuart M.; Publicover, Stephen J.; Ramalho-Santos, João

2013-01-01

36

METHOD OF SPERM COLLECTION SIGNIFICANTLY INFLUENCES SPERM MOTION PARAMETERS FOLLOWING ETHANE DIMETHANESULPHONATE ADMINISTRATION IN THE RAT  

EPA Science Inventory

Sperm motion analysis following exposure to a reproductive toxicant is one means of evaluating the functional integrity of the testes and epididymis. n this study we sought to determine whether the method used to collect sperm from the proximal cauda epididymidis, where sperm are...

37

Positive selection in the adhesion domain of Mus sperm Adam genes through gene duplications and function-driven gene complex formations  

PubMed Central

Background Sperm and testes-expressed Adam genes have been shown to undergo bouts of positive selection in mammals. Despite the pervasiveness of positive selection signals, it is unclear what has driven such selective bouts. The fact that only sperm surface Adam genes show signals of positive selection within their adhesion domain has led to speculation that selection might be driven by species-specific adaptations to fertilization or sperm competition. Alternatively, duplications and neofunctionalization of Adam sperm surface genes, particularly as it is now understood in rodents, might have contributed to an acceleration of evolutionary rates and possibly adaptive diversification. Results Here we sequenced and conducted tests of selection within the adhesion domain of sixteen known sperm-surface Adam genes among five species of the Mus genus. We find evidence of positive selection associated with all six Adam genes known to interact to form functional complexes on Mus sperm. A subset of these complex-forming sperm genes also displayed accelerated branch evolution with Adam5 evolving under positive selection. In contrast to our previous findings in primates, selective bouts within Mus sperm Adams showed no associations to proxies of sperm competition. Expanded phylogenetic analysis including sequence data from other placental mammals allowed us to uncover ancient and recent episodes of adaptive evolution. Conclusions The prevailing signals of rapid divergence and positive selection detected within the adhesion domain of interacting sperm Adams is driven by duplications and potential neofunctionalizations that are in some cases ancient (Adams 2, 3 and 5) or more recent (Adams 1b, 4b and 6). PMID:24079728

2013-01-01

38

Heat Shock Protein 90 Has Roles in Intracellular Calcium Homeostasis, Protein Tyrosine Phosphorylation Regulation, and Progesterone-Responsive Sperm Function in Human Sperm  

PubMed Central

Heat shock protein 90 plays critical roles in client protein maturation, signal transduction, protein folding and degradation, and morphological evolution; however, its function in human sperm is not fully understood. Therefore, our objective in this study was to elucidate the mechanism by which heat shock protein 90 exerts its effects on human sperm function. By performing indirect immunofluorescence staining, we found that heat shock protein 90 was localized primarily in the neck, midpiece, and tail regions of human sperm, and that its expression increased with increasing incubation time under capacitation conditions. Geldanamycin, a specific inhibitor of heat shock protein 90, was shown to inhibit this increase in heat shock protein 90 expression in western blotting analyses. Using a multifunctional microplate reader to examine Fluo-3 AM-loaded sperm, we observed for the first time that inhibition of heat shock protein 90 by using geldanamycin significantly decreased intracellular calcium concentrations during capacitation. Moreover, western blot analysis showed that geldanamycin enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation of several proteins, including heat shock protein 90, in a dose-dependent manner. The effects of geldanamycin on human sperm function in the absence or presence of progesterone was evaluated by performing chlortetracycline staining and by using a computer-assisted sperm analyzer. We found that geldanamycin alone did not affect sperm capacitation, hyperactivation, and motility, but did so in the presence of progesterone. Taken together, these data suggest that heat shock protein 90, which increases in expression in human sperm during capacitation, has roles in intracellular calcium homeostasis, protein tyrosine phosphorylation regulation, and progesterone-stimulated sperm function. In this study, we provide new insights into the roles of heat shock protein 90 in sperm function. PMID:25541943

Chen, Aijun; Jiang, Youfang; Xie, Haifeng; Shi, Qixian; Zhang, Songying; Ni, Ya

2014-01-01

39

Phosphoglycerate kinase 2 (PGK2) is essential for sperm function and male fertility in mice.  

PubMed

Phosphoglycerate kinase 2 (PGK2), an isozyme that catalyzes the first ATP-generating step in the glycolytic pathway, is encoded by an autosomal retrogene that is expressed only during spermatogenesis. It replaces the ubiquitously expressed phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1) isozyme following repression of Pgk1 transcription by meiotic sex chromosome inactivation during meiotic prophase and by postmeiotic sex chromatin during spermiogenesis. The targeted disruption of Pgk2 by homologous recombination eliminates PGK activity in sperm and severely impairs male fertility, but does not block spermatogenesis. Mating behavior, reproductive organ weights (testis, excurrent ducts, and seminal vesicles), testis histology, sperm counts, and sperm ultrastructure were indistinguishable between Pgk2(-/-) and wild-type mice. However, sperm motility and ATP levels were markedly reduced in males lacking PGK2. These defects in sperm function were slightly less severe than observed in males lacking glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, spermatogenic (GAPDHS), the isozyme that catalyzes the step preceding PGK2 in the sperm glycolytic pathway. Unlike Gapdhs(-/-) males, the Pgk2(-/-) males also sired occasional pups. Alternative pathways that bypass the PGK step of glycolysis exist. We determined that one of these bypass enzymes, acylphosphatase, is active in mouse sperm, perhaps contributing to phenotypic differences between mice lacking GAPDHS or PGK2. This study determined that PGK2 is not required for the completion of spermatogenesis, but is essential for sperm motility and male fertility. In addition to confirming the importance of the glycolytic pathway for sperm function, distinctive phenotypic characteristics of Pgk2(-/-) mice may provide further insights into the regulation of sperm metabolism. PMID:19759366

Danshina, Polina V; Geyer, Christopher B; Dai, Qunsheng; Goulding, Eugenia H; Willis, William D; Kitto, G Barrie; McCarrey, John R; Eddy, E M; O'Brien, Deborah A

2010-01-01

40

Receptor function of mouse sperm surface galactosyltransferase during fertilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past studies from this laboratory have suggested that mouse sperm binding to the egg zona pellucida is mediated by a sperm galactosyltransferase (GalTase), which recognizes and binds to terminal N-acetylglucosamine (GIcNAc) residues in the zona pellucida (ShuT, B. D., and N. G. Hall, 1982, J. Cell Biol. 95:567-573; 95:574-579). We now present evidence that directly supports this mechanism for gamete

LINDA C. LOPEZ; EVELYN M. BAYNA; DAVID LITOFF; NANCY L. SHAPER; JOEL H. SHAPER; BARRY D. SHUR

1985-01-01

41

Absence of estrogen receptor alpha leads to physiological alterations in the mouse epididymis and consequent defects in sperm function.  

PubMed

Male mice deficient in ESR1 (ERalpha) (Esr1KO mice) are infertile, and sperm recovered from the cauda epididymis exhibit reduced motility and fail to fertilize eggs in vitro. These effects on sperm appear to result from defective epididymal function and not a direct effect on spermatogenesis, as Esr1KO germ cells transplanted into wild-type testes yield normal offspring. We hypothesized that the previously described defect in efferent duct fluid reabsorption would lead to alterations in the epididymal fluid milieu, which would negatively impact sperm function. Analysis of the epididymal fluid revealed that the Esr1KO maintains a higher luminal pH throughout the epididymis, confirming an inability of the efferent ducts and/or epididymis to properly acidify the luminal contents. Subsequent studies showed that these abnormalities were not the result of global defects in epididymal function since protein secretion by the Esr1KO epididymis appeared normal as judged by SDS-PAGE of total secreted proteins and by immunoblotting of candidate secreted proteins. To gain insight into the basis of the aberrant fluid homeostasis in the Esr1KO epididymis, the expression of several enzymes and transporters known to be involved in acid/base regulation were analyzed. The levels of SLC9A3 (NHE3) as well as carbonic anhydrase XIV and SLC4A4 (NBC1) were all reduced in the proximal portion of the Esr1KO epididymis, while other components appeared unaffected, including other ion transporters and ATP6V0A1 (V-ATPase). The altered luminal milieu of the Esr1KO epididymis was shown to lead to a corresponding increase in the intracellular pH of Esr1KO sperm, relative to sperm from control animals. Since pH and bicarbonate ions are critical regulators of sperm cAMP levels and motility, we attempted to bypass the abnormal luminal and intracellular environment by supplementing sperm with exogenous cAMP. This treatment rescued all defective motility parameters, as assayed by CASA, further showing that motility defects are not intrinsic to the sperm but, rather, result from the abnormal epididymal milieu. PMID:20130267

Joseph, Avenel; Hess, Rex A; Schaeffer, David J; Ko, CheMyong; Hudgin-Spivey, Susan; Chambon, Pierre; Shur, Barry D

2010-05-01

42

Sperm Competition, Sperm Numbers and Sperm Quality in Muroid Rodents  

PubMed Central

Sperm competition favors increases in relative testes mass and production efficiency, and changes in sperm phenotype that result in faster swimming speeds. However, little is known about its effects on traits that contribute to determine the quality of a whole ejaculate (i.e., proportion of motile, viable, morphologically normal and acrosome intact sperm) and that are key determinants of fertilization success. Two competing hypotheses lead to alternative predictions: (a) sperm quantity and quality traits co-evolve under sperm competition because they play complementary roles in determining ejaculate's competitive ability, or (b) energetic constraints force trade-offs between traits depending on their relevance in providing a competitive advantage. We examined relationships between sperm competition levels, sperm quantity, and traits that determine ejaculate quality, in a comparative study of 18 rodent species using phylogenetically controlled analyses. Total sperm numbers were positively correlated to proportions of normal sperm, acrosome integrity and motile sperm; the latter three were also significantly related among themselves, suggesting no trade-offs between traits. In addition, testes mass corrected for body mass (i.e., relative testes mass), showed a strong association with sperm numbers, and positive significant associations with all sperm traits that determine ejaculate quality with the exception of live sperm. An “overall sperm quality” parameter obtained by principal component analysis (which explained 85% of the variance) was more strongly associated with relative testes mass than any individual quality trait. Overall sperm quality was as strongly associated with relative testes mass as sperm numbers. Thus, sperm quality traits improve under sperm competition in an integrated manner suggesting that a combination of all traits is what makes ejaculates more competitive. In evolutionary terms this implies that a complex network of genetic and developmental pathways underlying processes of sperm formation, maturation, transport in the female reproductive tract, and preparation for fertilization must all evolve in concert. PMID:21464956

Gómez Montoto, Laura; Magaña, Concepción; Tourmente, Maximiliano; Martín-Coello, Juan; Crespo, Cristina; Luque-Larena, Juan José

2011-01-01

43

A Simple Sperm DNA Toroid Integrity Test and Risk of Miscarriage  

PubMed Central

Current methods of analyzing sperm chromatin competency overlook the inner sperm compartment which is inaccessible to probes and reagents. By breaking the molecular protamine disulfide bridges, the DNA toroids are exposed to integrity analysis. The aim was to develop a simple nuclear toroid test and determine its association with fertilization, pregnancy, and miscarriage. The approach involved treating washed sperm remaining after ICSI procedures (N = 35 cases) with acidified Triton X-100 and dithiothreitol (DTT) before Diff-Quik staining. Percentages of sperm with normal chromatin indicated by light-colored nuclei were assessed. The toroid integrity test showed more sperm with normal chromatin in the pregnant group (73.6 ± 1.7%, mean ± SEM) when compared with the miscarriage (51.2 ± 6.6%) or nonpregnant groups (60.9 ± 4.8%). Furthermore, the toroid results were correlated with ICSI fertilization (R = 0.32, P = 0.04) and pregnancy outcome (pregnant cases 73.6 ± 1.7% versus nonpregnant 58.0 ± 3.9%, P = 0.001). ROC calculated cut-off was >70.0% for normal toroid integrity (sensitivity 0.98, specificity 0.33, and diagnostic accuracy 78.3%). An association between normal sperm toroid integrity and miscarriage was evident when the staining procedure included acidified detergent DTT pretreatment. PMID:25649376

Chan, Philip J.; Orzylowska, Eliza M.; Corselli, Johannah U.; Jacobson, John D.; Wei, Albert K.

2015-01-01

44

Sperm competition enhances functional capacity of mammalian spermatozoa  

E-print Network

there are differences in the proportion of spermatozoa that become ready to interact with the ovum (``capacitated to progesterone, an ovum-associated signal. Sperm competition thus favors a larger population of spermatozoa that are competent to fertilize, and spermatozoa that are more sensitive to the signals emitted by the ovum

Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales

45

SIGNIFICANCE OF INCORPORATING MEASURES OF SPERM PRODUCTION AND FUNCTION INTO RAT TOXICOLOGY STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The rat is the preferred species for reproductive toxicity testing. The inclusion of measures of rat sperm quality, such as motility and morphology, into reproductive test protocols often increases the sensitivity of the test to detect effects, and provides the toxicologist and ...

46

In vitro exposure to the organochlorine p,p'-DDE affects functional human sperm parameters.  

PubMed

Although no information exists regarding the levels of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) on reproductive fluids of heavily exposed populations, they are possibly quite high given the serum levels reported so far. In these populations altered semen quality has been reported, although the direct effects of this DDT metabolite on crucial sperm parameters remain largely unexplored. With this in mind, a long-term in vitro incubation that better mimics the putative continuous exposure of spermatozoa to p,p'-DDE in the female reproductive tract in vivo was used. Before compromising sperm viability, continuous p,p'-DDE exposure remarkably decreased sperm motility, possibly due to the combined reduction in the proportion of sperm with high mitochondrial membrane potential and cellular ATP levels, all of which were clearly more affected at 50 and 100?M p,p'-DDE. Moreover, 25?M p,p'-DDE was also able to promote a decline in sperm with high MMP, however without significantly affecting motility. On the other hand, p,p'-DDE at the highest concentration strongly inhibited the process of capacitation following 24h of incubation. In conclusion, human sperm function is affected by continuous high p,p'-DDE exposure which may ultimately compromise male fertility. Given our previously findings that showed a non-regulated Ca(2+) entry in the presence of p,p'-DDE, we suggest that this organochlorine may promote mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload which may culminate in a general mitochondrial dysfunction and cellular ATP depletion, thus affecting sperm fertilizing potential. Our findings suggest a broader understanding of the non-genomic mechanism of p,p'-DDE action in human sperm. PMID:25240159

Tavares, Renata S; Amaral, Sandra; Paiva, Carla; Baptista, Marta; Ramalho-Santos, João

2015-02-01

47

Testicular function in potential sperm donors: normal ranges and the effects of smoking and varicocele.  

PubMed

Testicular exocrine (semen analysis) and endocrine (plasma LH, FSH, prolactin and testosterone) function was assessed in 119 consecutive healthy men presenting for screening as potential sperm donors. Since these volunteers were unbiased with respect to their fertility status, this sample of the general male population was suitable to determine normal ranges and the influence of a variety of physical (height, weight, standardized body weight, varicocele) and demographic (age, marital and fertility status, tobacco and alcohol consumption) factors on normal human testicular endocrine and exocrine function, without the confounding effects of bias in selection of subjects. The statistical distribution of all seminal parameters was non-gaussian, but cube-root transformation of the data normalized the distribution, allowing for parametric statistical analysis. The median (and 95% confidence limits) for the various semen parameters was 73.0 (10.6-235.3) million sperm per ml; 189.0 (12.6-868) million sperm per ejaculate; 50.4 (5.9-181.9) million motile sperm per ml; 133.0 (6.9-661.7) million motile sperm per ejaculate; 54.0 (7.0-172.9) million morphologically normal sperm per ml and 138.5 (7.5-672) million morphologically normal sperm per ejaculate. Testicular volume was correlated positively with measures of physique such as standardized body weight (r = 0.25, P less than 0.01) and body surface area (r = 0.30, P less than 0.002), and negatively with plasma levels of FSH (r = -0.31), P less than 0.002) but not LH. Sperm output was positively correlated with testicular volume (r = 0.28, P less than 0.005) and negatively correlated with plasma FSH (r = -0.31, P less than 0.002) and plasma LH (r = -0.31, P less than 0.002). Smoking was associated with a highly significant reduction in sperm output and motility. Men with varicocele (25%) were significantly taller, had slightly lower haemoglobin levels and moderate left (but not right) testicular atrophy, but neither seminal nor hormonal parameters were different from men without varicocele. There was no difference in any markers of human testicular function between men according to marital or fertility status, grades of moderate alcohol consumption or the presence of low titres of sperm antibodies. PMID:6441782

Handelsman, D J; Conway, A J; Boylan, L M; Turtle, J R

1984-10-01

48

Clinical and Consumer Trial Performance of a Sensitive Immunodiagnostic Home Test That Qualitatively Detects Low Concentrations of Sperm Following Vasectomy  

PubMed Central

Purpose Compliance with post-vasectomy semen analysis could be improved with the availability of a simple, rapid and accurate home test. SpermCheck Vasectomy®, a highly sensitive lateral flow immunochromatographic diagnostic device, was designed to detect extreme oligospermia or azoospermia in men after vasectomy. We report the results of clinical and consumer testing of SpermCheck. Materials and Methods A prospective, noncomparative observational study assessed the ability of SpermCheck Vasectomy to predict post-vasectomy sperm counts obtained using a hemacytometer procedure based on standard World Health Organization methodology. Consumer studies evaluated ease of use. Results A cohort of 144 post-vasectomy semen samples was tested in the clinical trial. SpermCheck was 96% accurate in predicting whether sperm counts were greater or less than a threshold of 250,000 sperm per ml, a level associated with little or no risk of pregnancy. Sensitivity was 93% (95% CI 79% to 98%) and specificity was 97% (91% to 99%). The positive predictive value of the test was 93% (79% to 98%), and most importantly the negative predictive value was 97% (91% to 99%). The test gave a positive result 100% of the time at sperm concentrations of 385,000/ml or greater. Consumer studies with 109 lay volunteers showed that SpermCheck was easy to use. Volunteers obtained the correct or expected test result in every case and the correct response rate on a 20 question survey about the test was 97%. Conclusions SpermCheck Vasectomy, a simple and reliable immunodiagnostic test that can provide evidence of vasectomy success or failure, offers a useful alternative to improve compliance with post-vasectomy sperm monitoring. It is currently the only Food and Drug Administration approved test for this purpose. PMID:18930494

Klotz, Kenneth L.; Coppola, Michael A.; Labrecque, Michel; Brugh, Victor M.; Ramsey, Kim; Kim, Kyung-ah; Conaway, Mark R.; Howards, Stuart S.; Flickinger, Charles J.; Herr, John C.

2009-01-01

49

Sperm competition and the evolution of gamete morphology in frogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite detailed knowledge of the ultrastructure of spermatozoa, there is a paucity of information on the selective pressures that influence sperm form and function. Theoretical models for both internal and external fertilizers predict that sperm competition could favour the evolution of longer sperm. Empirical tests of the external-fertilization model have been restricted to just one group, the fishes, and these

Phillip G. Byrne; Leigh W. Simmons; J. Dale Roberts

2003-01-01

50

Do highly ornamented and less parasitized males have high quality sperm? – an experimental test for parasite-induced reproductive trade-offs in European minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus)  

PubMed Central

Parasites take their resources from hosts and thus directly reduce available resources for hosts’ own body functions, such as growth and reproduction. Furthermore, parasite infections cause significant indirect costs to their hosts in terms of increased investments on immune defense. In this study, we investigated the impact of parasite infection on the sperm quality and expression of secondary sexual ornamentation (saturation of the red abdominal colouration and number of breeding tubercles) in the Eurasian minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus). We exposed minnows to a high and low dose of common nonspecific fish ectoparasite, the glochidia larvae of duck mussel (Anodonta anatina) and tested whether parasite infection leads to trade-off in sperm quality and/or ornamental expression. We found that glochidia infection reduces the curvature of the sperm swimming trajectory, number of breeding tubercles, and possibly male competitive ability, but does not affect expression of male color ornamentation. Furthermore, glochidia infection was found to reduce sperm motility, but only when all the noninfected individuals were excluded from the model. Supporting one of the predictions by phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis both in high-infection and low-infection group male breeding colouration was positively associated with sperm quality. Our results suggest that although glochidia infection may have negative impact on male reproductive success, parasite-induced costs may not create strong trade-off between breeding colouration and sperm quality or that such trade-off become detectable only in resource-limited conditions. PMID:25540686

Kekäläinen, Jukka; Pirhonen, Juhani; Taskinen, Jouni

2014-01-01

51

Do highly ornamented and less parasitized males have high quality sperm? - an experimental test for parasite-induced reproductive trade-offs in European minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus).  

PubMed

Parasites take their resources from hosts and thus directly reduce available resources for hosts' own body functions, such as growth and reproduction. Furthermore, parasite infections cause significant indirect costs to their hosts in terms of increased investments on immune defense. In this study, we investigated the impact of parasite infection on the sperm quality and expression of secondary sexual ornamentation (saturation of the red abdominal colouration and number of breeding tubercles) in the Eurasian minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus). We exposed minnows to a high and low dose of common nonspecific fish ectoparasite, the glochidia larvae of duck mussel (Anodonta anatina) and tested whether parasite infection leads to trade-off in sperm quality and/or ornamental expression. We found that glochidia infection reduces the curvature of the sperm swimming trajectory, number of breeding tubercles, and possibly male competitive ability, but does not affect expression of male color ornamentation. Furthermore, glochidia infection was found to reduce sperm motility, but only when all the noninfected individuals were excluded from the model. Supporting one of the predictions by phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis both in high-infection and low-infection group male breeding colouration was positively associated with sperm quality. Our results suggest that although glochidia infection may have negative impact on male reproductive success, parasite-induced costs may not create strong trade-off between breeding colouration and sperm quality or that such trade-off become detectable only in resource-limited conditions. PMID:25540686

Kekäläinen, Jukka; Pirhonen, Juhani; Taskinen, Jouni

2014-11-01

52

Impact of obesity on male fertility, sperm function and molecular composition  

PubMed Central

Male obesity in reproductive-age men has nearly tripled in the past 30 y and coincides with an increase in male infertility worldwide. There is now emerging evidence that male obesity impacts negatively on male reproductive potential not only reducing sperm quality, but in particular altering the physical and molecular structure of germ cells in the testes and ultimately mature sperm. Recent data has shown that male obesity also impairs offspring metabolic and reproductive health suggesting that paternal health cues are transmitted to the next generation with the mediator mostly likely occurring via the sperm. Interestingly the molecular profile of germ cells in the testes and sperm from obese males is altered with changes to epigenetic modifiers. The increasing prevalence of male obesity calls for better public health awareness at the time of conception, with a better understanding of the molecular mechanism involved during spermatogenesis required along with the potential of interventions in reversing these deleterious effects. This review will focus on how male obesity affects fertility and sperm quality with a focus on proposed mechanisms and the potential reversibility of these adverse effects. PMID:23248766

Palmer, Nicole O.; Bakos, Hassan W.; Fullston, Tod; Lane, Michelle

2012-01-01

53

Flow cytometry for the assessment of animal sperm integrity and functionality: state of the art  

PubMed Central

Flow cytometry is now a recognized methodology within animal spermatology, and has moved from being a research tool to become routine in the assessment of animal semen destined to breeding. The availability of ‘bench-top' flow cytometers and of newer and versatile markers for cell structure and function had allowed the instrumentation to measure more sperm parameters, from viability to reactiveness when exposed to exogenous stimuli, and to increase our capabilities to sort spermatozoa for potential fertilizing capacity, or chromosomal sex. The present review summarizes the state of the art regarding flow cytometry applied to animal andrology, albeit keeping an open comparative intent. It critically evaluates the present and future capabilities of flow cytometry for the diagnostics of potential fertility and for the development of current reproductive technologies such as sperm freezing, sperm selection and sperm sorting. The flow cytometry methods will probably further revolutionize our understanding of the sperm physiology and their functionality, and will undoubtedly extend its application in isolating many uncharacterized features of spermatozoa. However, continuous follow-up of the methods is a necessity owing to technical developments and the complexity of mapping spermatozoa. PMID:21478895

Hossain, Md. Sharoare; Johannisson, Anders; Wallgren, Margareta; Nagy, Szabolcs; Siqueira, Amanda Pimenta; Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto

2011-01-01

54

Proenkephalin products are stored in the sperm acrosome and may function in fertilization.  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have shown that spermatogenic cells are a major source of testicular RNA encoding the opioid peptide precursor proenkephalin, suggesting that proenkephalin-derived peptides may function as intratesticular paracrine factors produced by male germ cells. However, direct evidence for the production of proenkephalin by spermatogenic cells has been lacking. In this report, we have used polysome profile analysis, peptide quantitation, and immunocytochemistry to show that proenkephalin products are synthesized during spermatogenesis and are retained within spermatozoa of humans, hamsters, rats, and sheep. We further show that these peptides are stored in the sperm acrosome and are depleted from sperm following the acrosome reaction, an exocytotic event required for fertilization. Proenkephalin products thus may serve a dual function as sperm acrosomal factors released during the fertilization process as well as intratesticular regulators secreted by spermatogenic cells. Images PMID:1701253

Kew, D; Muffly, K E; Kilpatrick, D L

1990-01-01

55

Sperm Competition, Sperm Numbers and Sperm Quality in Muroid Rodents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sperm competition favors increases in relative testes mass and production efficiency, and changes in sperm phenotype that result in faster swimming speeds. However, little is known about its effects on traits that contribute to determine the quality of a whole ejaculate (i.e., proportion of motile, viable, morphologically normal and acrosome intact sperm) and that are key determinants of fertilization success.

Laura Gómez Montoto; Concepción Magaña; Maximiliano Tourmente; Juan Martín-Coello; Cristina Crespo; Juan José Luque-Larena; Montserrat Gomendio; Eduardo R. S. Roldan; Neil Gemmell

2011-01-01

56

Metabolic Substrates Exhibit Differential Effects on Functional Parameters of Mouse Sperm Capacitation1  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Although substantial evidence exists that sperm ATP production via glycolysis is required for mammalian sperm function and male fertility, conflicting reports involving multiple species have appeared regarding the ability of individual glycolytic or mitochondrial substrates to support the physiological changes that occur during capacitation. Several mouse models with defects in the signaling pathways required for capacitation exhibit reductions in sperm ATP levels, suggesting regulatory interactions between sperm metabolism and signal transduction cascades. To better understand these interactions, we conducted quantitative studies of mouse sperm throughout a 2-h in vitro capacitation period and compared the effects of single substrates assayed under identical conditions. Multiple glycolytic and nonglycolytic substrates maintained sperm ATP levels and comparable percentages of motility, but only glucose and mannose supported hyperactivation. These monosaccharides and fructose supported the full pattern of tyrosine phosphorylation, whereas nonglycolytic substrates supported at least partial tyrosine phosphorylation. Inhibition of glycolysis impaired motility in the presence of glucose, fructose, or pyruvate but not in the presence of hydroxybutyrate. Addition of an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation reduced motility with pyruvate or hydroxybutyrate as substrates but unexpectedly stimulated hyperactivation with fructose. Investigating differences between glucose and fructose in more detail, we demonstrated that hyperactivation results from the active metabolism of glucose. Differences between glucose and fructose appeared to be downstream of changes in intracellular pH, which rose to comparable levels during incubation with either substrate. Sperm redox pathways were differentially affected, with higher levels of associated metabolites and reactive oxygen species generated during incubations with fructose than during incubations with glucose. PMID:22837480

Goodson, Summer G.; Qiu, Yunping; Sutton, Keith A.; Xie, Guoxiang; Jia, Wei; O'Brien, Deborah A.

2012-01-01

57

Metabolic substrates exhibit differential effects on functional parameters of mouse sperm capacitation.  

PubMed

Although substantial evidence exists that sperm ATP production via glycolysis is required for mammalian sperm function and male fertility, conflicting reports involving multiple species have appeared regarding the ability of individual glycolytic or mitochondrial substrates to support the physiological changes that occur during capacitation. Several mouse models with defects in the signaling pathways required for capacitation exhibit reductions in sperm ATP levels, suggesting regulatory interactions between sperm metabolism and signal transduction cascades. To better understand these interactions, we conducted quantitative studies of mouse sperm throughout a 2-h in vitro capacitation period and compared the effects of single substrates assayed under identical conditions. Multiple glycolytic and nonglycolytic substrates maintained sperm ATP levels and comparable percentages of motility, but only glucose and mannose supported hyperactivation. These monosaccharides and fructose supported the full pattern of tyrosine phosphorylation, whereas nonglycolytic substrates supported at least partial tyrosine phosphorylation. Inhibition of glycolysis impaired motility in the presence of glucose, fructose, or pyruvate but not in the presence of hydroxybutyrate. Addition of an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation reduced motility with pyruvate or hydroxybutyrate as substrates but unexpectedly stimulated hyperactivation with fructose. Investigating differences between glucose and fructose in more detail, we demonstrated that hyperactivation results from the active metabolism of glucose. Differences between glucose and fructose appeared to be downstream of changes in intracellular pH, which rose to comparable levels during incubation with either substrate. Sperm redox pathways were differentially affected, with higher levels of associated metabolites and reactive oxygen species generated during incubations with fructose than during incubations with glucose. PMID:22837480

Goodson, Summer G; Qiu, Yunping; Sutton, Keith A; Xie, Guoxiang; Jia, Wei; O'Brien, Deborah A

2012-09-01

58

Methyl-parathion decreases sperm function and fertilization capacity after targeting spermatocytes and maturing spermatozoa  

SciTech Connect

Paternal germline exposure to organophosphorous pesticides (OP) has been associated with reproductive failures and adverse effects in the offspring. Methyl parathion (Me-Pa), a worldwide-used OP, has reproductive adverse effects and is genotoxic to sperm. Oxidative damage has been involved in the genotoxic and reproductive effects of OP. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of Me-Pa on spermatozoa function and ability to fertilize. Male mice were exposed to Me-Pa (20 mg/kg bw, i.p.) and spermatozoa from epididymis-vas deferens were collected at 7 or 28 days post-treatment (dpt) to assess the effects on maturing spermatozoa and spermatocytes, respectively. DNA damage was evaluated by nick translation (NT-positive cells) and SCSA (percentDFI); lipoperoxidation (LPO) by malondialdehyde production; sperm function by spontaneous- and induced-acrosome reactions (AR); mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) by using the JC-1 flurochrome; and, fertilization ability by an in vitro assay and in vivo mating. Results showed alterations in DNA integrity (percentDFI and NT-positive cells) at 7 and 28 dpt, in addition to decreased sperm quality and a decrease in induced-AR; reduced MMP and LPO was observed only at 7 dpt. We found negative correlations between LPO and all sperm alterations. Altered sperm functional parameters were associated with reduced fertilization rates at both times, evaluated either in vitro or in vivo. These results show that Me-Pa exposure of maturing spermatozoa and spermatocytes affects many sperm functional parameters that result in a decreased fertilizing capacity. Oxidative stress seems to be a likely mechanism ofthe detrimental effects of Me-Pa in male germ cells.

Pina-Guzman, Belem; Sanchez-Gutierrez, M.; Marchetti, Francesco; Hernandez-Ochoa, I.; Solis-Heredia, M.J .; Quintanilla-Vega, B.

2009-05-03

59

Relationship between abnormal sperm morphology induced by dietary zinc deficiency and lipid composition in testes of growing rats.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the effect of dietary Zn deficiency during sexual maturation on sperm integrity and testis phospholipid fatty acid composition. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were randomised into four dietary groups for 3 weeks: Zn control (ZC; 30 mg Zn/kg); Zn marginally deficient (ZMD; 9 mg Zn/kg); Zn deficient (ZD; < 1 mg Zn/kg); pair fed (PF; 30 mg Zn/kg) to the ZD group. Morphology of cauda epididymal sperm and lipid profiles of testis phospholipids were analysed. The rats fed the ZD diet had a lower testis weight (P < 0.02). Seminal vesicles and prostate weight were also lower in the ZD and PF groups. Rats fed the ZD diet, but not the ZMD diet, had 34-35 % more abnormal spermatozoa and 24 % shorter sperm tail length than the ZC and PF rats (P < 0.001). Testis cholesterol concentration was higher in the ZD rats compared with the ZC and PF rats (P < 0.04). Testes were highly enriched with n-6 fatty acids by showing n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratios of 27:1 in phosphatidylcholine (PC) and 23:1 in phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). The dominant fatty acid in testes was docosapentaenoic acid (22 : 5n-6), comprising 15 and 24 % of PC and PE, respectively. This fatty acid was significantly lower in the ZD rats, whereas 18 : 2n-6 was higher compared with the rats in the other diet groups. These results demonstrate that severe Zn deficiency adversely affects sperm integrity and modulates testis fatty acid composition by interrupting essential fatty acid metabolism. This suggests that Zn deficiency-associated abnormal testicular function is perhaps preceded by altered membrane fatty acid composition, especially of a major fatty acid, 22 : 5n-6. PMID:19222874

Merrells, Krystal J; Blewett, Heather; Jamieson, Jennifer A; Taylor, Carla G; Suh, Miyoung

2009-07-01

60

Lipids of the sperm plasma membrane: from polyunsaturated fatty acids considered as markers of sperm function to possible scavenger therapy.  

PubMed

This article is, in part, a review of present knowledge regarding the lipid metabolism of the sperm cell and the lipid composition of the sperm plasma membrane. It is also a summary of our research on this topic, reporting published and unpublished data. The article tries to cover both basic and clinical research. Sperm cells use lipid metabolic pathways for the production of part of their energy. The double leaflets of the membrane are not simply a passive, bilayer, lipidic film in which the receptors receive their molecular specific signals, but are a very specialized structure. Complete maturation of the lipids of the sperm cell membrane is reached after passage of the spermatozoon through the epididymis. A specific composition of phospholipids and a significant concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been shown to be present in sperm membranes. Plasmalogen is a special kind of phospholipid found exclusively in spermatozoa and other cells with the capacity to react promptly to stimuli. In addition, we have found a high concentration of the n-3 PUFA family in the sperm membrane. Seminal plasma has a highly specialized scavenger system that defends the sperm membrane against lipoperoxidation. Various pathologies and systemic predisposition can lead to an antioxidant/pro-oxidant disequilibrium. Clinical trials with natural scavengers could be a useful research area in which to seek a treatment for these pathologies. Of the natural scavengers, glutathione has been shown to restore the physiological constitution of PUFA in the cell membrane under certain conditions. PMID:9079417

Lenzi, A; Picardo, M; Gandini, L; Dondero, F

1996-01-01

61

Semen Quality and Sperm Function Loss by Hypercholesterolemic Diet Was Recovered by Addition of Olive Oil to Diet in Rabbit  

PubMed Central

Fat increment (0.05% cholesterol, chol) in standard diet promoted a significant increase in serum and sperm membrane chol, which ultimately altered membrane-coupled sperm specific functions: osmotic resistance, acrosomal reaction, and sperm capacitation in White New Zealand rabbits. These changes were also associated with a reduction in motility percentage and appearance of abnormal sperm morphology. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of dietary olive oil (OO, 7% v/w) administration to several male hypercholesterolemic rabbits (hypercholesterolemic rabbits, HCR) with altered fertility parameters. These HCR males were achieved by feeding normal rabbits with a high-fat diet (0.05% chol). HCR were associated with a modest non-significant increase in body weight (standard diet, 4.08±0.17 Kg, versus high-fat diet, 4.37±0.24 Kg). Hypercholesterolemic rabbits presented a marked decrease in semen volume, sperm cell count, and percentage of sperm motility, associated with a significant increase in sperm cell abnormalities. Moreover, sperm capacitation measured by the characteristic phosphorylated protein pattern in and induced acrosomal reaction were also altered suggesting sperm dysfunction. However, the administration of OO (for 16 weeks) to rabbits that were fed with 50% of the high-fat diet normalized serum chol. Curiously, OO supply succeeded to attenuate the seminal and sperm alterations observed in HCR group. Administration of OO alone did not cause any significant changes in above mentioned parameters. These data suggest that OO administration to HCR male rabbits recovers the loss of semen quality and sperm functionality. PMID:23326331

Romero, Aida A.; Funes, Abi K.; Cid-Barria, Macarena; Cabrillana, María E.; Monclus, María A.; Simón, Layla; Vicenti, Amanda E.; Fornés, Miguel W.

2013-01-01

62

Variation in paternity in the field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus: no detectable influence of sperm numbers or sperm length  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent attention has focused on the role that sperm competition may play in the evolution of sperm morphology. Theoretical analyses predict increased sperm size, decreased sperm size, and no change in sperm size in response to sperm competition, depending on the assumptions made concerning the life history and function of sperm. However, although there is good evidence that sperm morphology

Leigh W. Simmons; Julie Wernham; Francisco Garci´a-Gonza´lez; Dan Kamien

2003-01-01

63

Comparative proteomic analysis of generative and sperm cells reveals molecular characteristics associated with sperm development and function specialization.  

PubMed

In flowering plants, two sperm cells (SCs) are generated from a generative cell (GC) in the developing pollen grain or growing pollen tube and are then delivered to the embryo sac to initiate double fertilization. SC development and function specialization involve the strict control of the protein (gene) expression program and coordination of diverse cellular processes. However, because methods for collecting a large amount of highly purified GCs and SCs for proteomic and transcriptomic studies from a plant are not available, molecular information about the program and the interconnections is lacking. Here, we describe a method for obtaining a large quantity of highly purified GCs and SCs from just-germinated lily pollen grains and growing pollen tubes for proteomic analysis. Our observation showed that SCs had less condensed chromatin and more vacuole-like structures than GCs and that mature SCs were arrested at the G2 phase. Comparison of SC and GC proteomes revealed 101 proteins differentially expressed in the two proteomes. These proteins are involved in diverse cellular and metabolic processes, with preferential involvement in metabolism, the cell cycle, signaling, the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway, and chromatin remodeling. Impressively, almost all proteins in SCF complex-mediated proteolysis and the cell cycle were up-regulated in SCs, whereas those in chromatin remodeling and stress response were down-regulated. Our data also reveal the coordination of SCF complex-mediated proteolysis, cell cycle progression, and DNA repair in SC development and function specialization. This study revealed for the first time a difference in protein profiles between GCs and SCs. PMID:23879389

Zhao, Xin; Yang, Ning; Wang, Tai

2013-11-01

64

COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF THREE RAPID MARINE TOXICITY TESTS: SEA URCHIN EARLY EMBRYO GROWTH TEST, SEA URCHIN SPERM CELL TOXICITY TEST AND MICROTOX  

EPA Science Inventory

Three rapid marine toxicity tests were evaluated to determine their potential usefulness in a toxicity testing program: early embryo growth test and sperm cell toxicity test, both using the sea urchin Arbacia punctulata, and Microtox. Toxicity values (EC50s) were derived for eigh...

65

Expansion and functional diversification of a leucyl aminopeptidase family that encodes the major protein constituents of Drosophila sperm  

PubMed Central

Background The evolutionary diversification of gene families through gene creation (and loss) is a dynamic process believed to be critical to the evolution of functional novelty. Previous identification of a closely related family of eight annotated metalloprotease genes of the M17 Merops family in the Drosophila sperm proteome (termed, Sperm-LeucylAminoPeptidases, S-LAPs 1-8) led us to hypothesize that this gene family may have experienced such a diversification during insect evolution. Results To assess putative functional activities of S-LAPs, we (i) demonstrated that all S-LAPs are specifically expressed in the testis, (ii) confirmed their presence in sperm by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, (iii) determined that they represent a major portion of the total protein in sperm and (iv) identified aminopeptidase enzymatic activity in sperm extracts using LAP-specific substrates. Functionally significant divergence at the canonical M17 active site indicates that the largest phylogenetic group of S-LAPs lost catalytic activity and likely acquired novel, as yet undetermined, functions in sperm prior to the expansion of the gene family. Conclusions Comparative genomic and phylogenetic analyses revealed the dramatic expansion of the S-LAP gene family during Drosophila evolution and copy number heterogeneity in the genomes of related insects. This finding, in conjunction with the loss of catalytic activity and potential neofunctionalization amongst some family members, extends empirical support for pervasive "revolving door" turnover in the evolution of reproductive gene family composition and function. PMID:21466698

2011-01-01

66

Nematode sperm.  

PubMed

Parasitic nematode infections remain a major public health problem in many parts of the world. Because most of the current strategies aimed at controlling parasitic nematode infections have met with only limited success, it may be time to consider alternative approaches. An aspect of nematode biology that has drawn little attention as a target for control is the reproductive process. Although there are numerous facets of the overall reproductive biology of nematodes that hold potential as targets for intervention, Alan Scott here focuses on the male reproductive system, and outlines some of the known unique processes and characteristics of sperm formation and sperm function that could be exploited to block fertilization. PMID:15275275

Scott, A L

1996-11-01

67

Selection of functional human sperm with higher DNA integrity and fewer reactive oxygen species.  

PubMed

Fertilization and reproduction are central to the survival and propagation of a species. Couples who cannot reproduce naturally have to undergo in vitro clinical procedures. An integral part of these clinical procedures includes isolation of healthy sperm from raw semen. Existing sperm sorting methods are not efficient and isolate sperm having high DNA fragmentation and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and suffer from multiple manual steps and variations between operators. Inspired by in vivo natural sperm sorting mechanisms where vaginal mucus becomes less viscous to form microchannels to guide sperm towards egg, a chip is presented that efficiently sorts healthy, motile and morphologically normal sperm without centrifugation. Higher percentage of sorted sperm show significantly lesser ROS and DNA fragmentation than the conventional swim-up method. The presented chip is an easy-to-use high-throughput sperm sorter that provides standardized sperm sorting assay with less reliance on operators's skills, facilitating reliable operational steps. PMID:24753434

Asghar, Waseem; Velasco, Vanessa; Kingsley, James L; Shoukat, Muhammad S; Shafiee, Hadi; Anchan, Raymond M; Mutter, George L; Tüzel, Erkan; Demirci, Utkan

2014-10-01

68

71 effect of cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrins on pre- and post-thaw function of felid sperm.  

PubMed

Propagation of genetically diverse felid populations would benefit from more effective assisted reproduction strategies, including enhanced methods for sperm cryopreservation. In felids, sperm cryopreservation has been improved by substituting soy-lecithin for egg yolk in cryomedium (Vick et al. 2012 Theriogenology 78, 2120-2128). In other species, such as elephants (Kiso et al. 2012 Reprod., Fert. Dev. 24, 1134-1142) and cattle (Purdy et al. 2004 Cryobiology 48, 36-45), the addition of cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrins (CLC) to sperm before freezing has been shown to produce superior cryopreservation results. In this study, our objectives were to (1) assess cholesterol content of cat sperm membranes and capacitation status following incubation with CLC; (2) evaluate post-thaw sperm motility, acrosome status, and fertility in vitro following CLC treatment and freezing in a soy-based cryomedium; and (3) conduct a preliminary assessment of cholesterol content in nondomestic cat sperm. Freshly collected domestic cat sperm (n=2 males, 3-4 ejaculates/male) were incubated with CLC (0, 1.5, or 3.0mgmL(-1)), and cholesterol levels were measured using an Amplex Red Cholesterol Assay. Sperm aliquots from each CLC concentration were treated with calcium ionophore (2?M, 30min) during in vitro incubation and stained with fluorescein isothiocyanate/PNA to evaluate induced acrosomal loss. To assess post-thaw parameters, cat sperm treated with CLC were frozen in straws using soy-lecithin cryomedium, thawed, and cultured in vitro over time. To evaluate fertility, oocytes were collected laparoscopically from gonadotropin-treated domestic cats (n=7 females, 147 oocytes total) and inseminated with low numbers of thawed-frozen sperm pretreated with 0 or 1.5mgmL(-1) CLC. Data were analysed using ANOVA and mean differences assessed with Fisher l.s.d. or chi-squared analysis. Sperm cholesterol levels were increased (P<0.05) after exposure to both 1.5 and 3.0mgmL(-1) CLC. Prefreeze motility was decreased (P<0.05) and capacitation was delayed at 3.0mgmL(-1) CLC relative to treatment with 0 or 1.5mgmL(-1) CLC. Both post-thaw motility and percentage of acrosome intact sperm were reduced (P<0.05) with the highest CLC concentration, but results were similar (P>0.05) for 0 and 1.5mgmL(-1) CLC. Fertilization percentages did not differ (P>0.05) between treatment groups (0 CLC, 33.3%, 25/75; 1.5mgmL(-1) CLC, 26.4%, 19/72). Preliminary results from a single cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) and single fishing cat (Prionailurus viverrinus) suggest that sperm membrane cholesterol may be lower compared to the domestic cat. Cholesterol content appeared to increase in both species after exposure to 1.5mgmL(-1) CLC. In summary, our findings suggest CLC treatment increased cholesterol content of felid sperm membranes. The higher CLC concentration was detrimental to sperm motility, capacitation, and post-thaw sperm traits. The lower CLC concentration did not improve post-thaw sperm function in domestic cats. PMID:25472120

Plourde, I A; Bateman, H L; Swanson, W F

2014-12-01

69

Supplementation of IVF medium with melatonin: effect on sperm functionality and in vitro produced bovine embryos.  

PubMed

Gamete co-incubation generates high free radical levels surrounding growing zygotes which may impair subsequent embryo viability. Melatonin eliminates a wide variety of free radicals; hence, we tried to improve in vitro embryo production by adding melatonin to in vitro fertilisation (IVF) media in high (Exp. 1) and low concentrations (Exp. 2), and we evaluated its effect on bull sperm function during IVF co-incubation time (Exp. 3). In Experiment 1, we supplemented IVF media culture with 0.01, 0.1 and 1 mmol of melatonin, along with a no melatonin control group. In Experiment 2, melatonin levels were reduced to 10, 100 and 1000 nmol, with a no melatonin control group. In Experiment 3, spermatozoa were incubated in IVF media with melatonin (as Exp. 2) and functional parameters were analysed at 0, 4 and 18 h. In Experiment 1, only 1 mmol melatonin showed lesser blastocyst rates than control (C: 23.2 ± 6.7% versus 1 mmol: 2.0 ± 1.7%). In Experiment 2, no statistical differences were found in cleavage percentage, blastocyst percentage and total cell count for any melatonin treatment. In Experiment 3, sperm samples with 1000 nmol melatonin had a significantly higher wobbler (WOB) coefficient, a lower percentage of intact acrosomes, a lower percentage of viable spermatozoa with ROS, greater DNA fragmentation and higher DNA oxidation than controls. Total fluorescence intensity for ROS at 10 nmol melatonin was significantly greater than controls (P < 0.05). IVF media with 1 mmol melatonin is deleterious for embryo development, and in lower concentrations, it modulated sperm functionality, but had no effects on embryo production. PMID:25059349

Cheuquemán, C; Arias, M E; Risopatrón, J; Felmer, R; Alvarez, J; Mogas, T; Sánchez, R

2014-07-25

70

A Systematic Analysis of a Deep Mouse Epididymal Sperm Proteome  

SciTech Connect

Spermatozoa are highly specialized cells that, when mature, are capable of navigating the female reproductive tract and fertilizing an oocyte. The sperm cell is thought to be largely quiescent in terms of transcriptional and translational activity. As a result, once it has left the male reproductive tract, the sperm cell is essentially operating with a static population of proteins. It is therefore theoretically possible to understand the protein networks contained in a sperm cell and to deduce its cellular function capabilities. To this end we have performed a proteomic analysis of mouse sperm isolated from the cauda epididymis and have confidently identified 2,850 proteins, which is the most comprehensive sperm proteome for any species reported to date. These proteins comprise many complete cellular pathways, including those for energy production via glycolysis, ?-oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation, protein folding and transport, and cell signaling systems. This proteome should prove a useful tool for assembly and testing of protein networks important for sperm function.

Chauvin, Theodore; Xie, Fang; Liu, Tao; Nicora, Carrie D.; Yang, Feng; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Roberts, Kenneth P.

2012-12-21

71

Melatonin improve the sperm quality in forced swimming test induced oxidative stress in nandrolone treated Wistar rats.  

PubMed

This study investigates the effects of melatonin on the sperm quality and testis weight after the combination of swimming exercise and nandrolone decanoate (DECA). Two groups of male Wistar rats were treated for eight weeks as follows; group A consist of CO (control), Sham, N (DECA), S (swimming) and NS (DECA plus swimming); and group B: Sham M (sham melatonin), M (melatonin), MN (melatonin plus DECA), MS (melatonin plus swimming), MNS (melatonin, DECA plus swimming). The motility of sperm was significantly improved in melatonin groups in comparison to N, S and NS groups (P?0.05).  The left testes weight was decreased in N, NS and MNS groups, and the right testes weight was decreased in N,S,NS, MS and MNS groups in compare with the control group. This study concluded that melatonin probably could improve the sperm motility and sex organs weight after the combination of DECA and exercise. PMID:25135257

Minaii, Bagher; Moayeri, Ardeshir; Shokri, Saeed; Habibi Roudkenar, Mehryar; Golmohammadi, Taghi; Malek, Fatemeh; Barbarestani, Mohammad

2014-01-01

72

The application of in vitro sperm competition test to evaluate the impact of ZP-derived peptides on fertilization capacity of cat sperm.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to establish a sensitive in vitro assay to assess the binding capacity of cat spermatozoa. Cat oocytes and epididymal sperm cells were isolated from gonads and cultured for in vitro fertilization. Before fertilization, the sperm cells were incubated either in 10 microM green dye Fluo-3-AM or 10 microM orange dye CellTracker Orange CMTMR (Molecular Probes), respectively. After removing the dyes by washing, sperm cells stained with each dye were added to medium drops containing oocytes in various proportions and cultured for 16 h at 37 degrees C, 5% CO(2). The oocytes were examined using fluorescence microscopy. Sperm bound to oocytes, and stained with different colors, were counted. When fresh epididymal sperm were mixed in at a specific proportion, the number of sperm bound to the zona pellucida (ZP) of oocytes reflected the proportion of differently colored sperm in the medium. This indicated that neither dye influenced the binding capacity of cat sperm. Mixing fresh and cryopreserved sperm, however, resulted in a higher number of fresh sperm bound to the oocyte surface in comparison to frozen-thawed sperm. Also, the pre-incubation of cat sperm cells with ZP derived peptide reduced the sperm binding capacity by 40%. In conclusion, the presented sperm competition assay allows assessment of fertilizing capacity of cat spermatozoa in vitro when a mixture of two different populations is used. The applied supravital fluorescence dyes do not affect motility and binding capacity of sperm cells and were clearly distinguishable under fluorescence microscopy. We demonstrate that the assay can be used to study the impact of sperm treatment, such as cryopreservation or pre-incubation in bioactive peptides, on fertilizing capacity. PMID:16620930

Niu, Yuyu; Greube, Alexa; Ji, Weizhi; Jewgenow, Katarina

2006-09-01

73

Time Course of Spontaneous In Vitro Sperm Acrosome Reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acrosome reaction (AR) is an exocytotic process essential for sperm penetration of the zona pellucida and binding to the oocyte (DeJonge, 1994). Evaluation of in vitro AR can suggest fertility potential. The purpose of this study was to determine AR as a function of time after removal of sperm from the seminal fluid using a novel test, the Acrobeads

G. M. CENTOLA; S. P. WEISENSEL; V. LEWIS; E. G. ANDOLINA; R. C. HERKO

74

Glass wool filtration of bull cryopreserved semen: a rapid and effective method to obtain a high percentage of functional sperm.  

PubMed

Frozen-thawed bull sperm are widely used in assisted reproductive technologies, but cryopreservation negatively affects semen quality. Several sperm selection techniques have been developed to separate motile sperm from non-motile cells. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the glass wool column filtration to select functional sperm from frozen-thawed bull semen samples. Frozen semen from six Holstein bulls was thawed and filtered through a glass wool column, followed by assessment of routine and functional sperm parameters. In a set of experiments, sperm aliquots were also processed by swim up to compare both selection methods. Samples recovered in the glass wool filtrate had high percentages of viable (94 ± 3%, mean ± SD), progressively motile (89 ± 4%), acrosome-intact (98 ± 1%), and non-capacitated (80 ± 10%) sperm; these values were higher (P < 0.05) than those obtained after performing the swim up procedure. Moreover, the glass wool filtration yielded 67 ± 19% motile cells, in comparison with 18 ± 8% obtained with swim up (P < 0.05), calculated as the concentration of progressively motile cells selected relative to their concentration in the sample before the selection procedure. Glass wool-filtered sperm were able to undergo capacitation-related events, based on the increase in the percentage of cells classified as capacitated by CTC staining (B-pattern) after incubation with heparin (50 ± 5%) in comparison with control conditions with no heparin (17 ± 4%) or heparin + glucose (16 ± 2%; P < 0.05). Moreover, they underwent acrosomal exocytosis in response to pharmacologic (calcium ionophore A23187 and lysophosphatidylcholine) and physiological (follicular fluid) stimuli, and they fertilized in vitro matured cumulus-oocyte complexes and denuded oocytes (two-cell embryos: 72 ± 4% and 52 ± 6%, respectively). We conclude that glass wool filtration is a low-cost, simple, and highly effective procedure to select functionally competent sperm for reproductive technologies in the bull, which may be useful for other domestic and farm animals, as well as for endangered species. PMID:22537998

Arzondo, M M; Caballero, J N; Marín-Briggiler, C I; Dalvit, G; Cetica, P D; Vazquez-Levin, M H

2012-07-01

75

Protective effect of butylated hydroxytoluene on sperm function in human spermatozoa cryopreserved by vitrification technique.  

PubMed

Butylhydroxytoluene (BHT), a synthetic analogue of vitamin E, shows antioxidant and antiviral properties and has been successfully used for mammalian sperm cryopreservation. In this study, BHT was included in a vitrification solution to determine its cryoprotective effect on human spermatozoa. Spermatozoa were selected by swim-up and vitrified in close sealed straw using either a combination of human tubal fluid (HTF), sucrose and BHT 1 mm (VMBHT), or only HTF and sucrose (VM). The optimal concentration of BHT was determined by the observation of preserved progressive sperm motility (PSM) after warming and detection of plasma membrane (PMI), membrane mitochondrial potential (??m) and DNA integrity. The presence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was also detected. The PSM was significantly higher in the VMBHT group (80.86 ± 5.41%) compared with the VM group (68.9 ± 3.67%) (P < 0.05). Butylhydroxytoluene significantly preserved DNA integrity (4.0 ± 0.1% versus 6.1 ± 1.6%; P < 0.05) and reduced ROS production (5.5 ± 2.2 versus 8.6 ± 1.8%; P < 0.05). Plasma membrane and ??m showed no statistical differences. One millimolar BHT effectively maintained cell function and due to its antioxidant and antiviral properties could be used in semen cryopreservation of patients with viral infections transmitted by seminal plasma. PMID:24612426

Merino, O; Aguagüiña, W E; Esponda, P; Risopatrón, J; Isachenko, E; Isachenko, V; Sánchez, R

2015-03-01

76

Protein deubiquitination during oocyte maturation influences sperm function during fertilisation, antipolyspermy defense and embryo development.  

PubMed

Ubiquitination is a covalent post-translational modification of proteins by the chaperone protein ubiquitin. Upon docking to the 26S proteasome, ubiquitin is released from the substrate protein by deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs). We hypothesised that specific inhibitors of two closely related oocyte DUBs, namely inhibitors of the ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolases (UCH) UCHL1 (L1 inhibitor) and UCHL3 (L3 inhibitor), would alter porcine oocyte maturation and influence sperm function and embryo development. Aberrant cortical granule (CG) migration and meiotic spindle defects were observed in oocytes matured with the L1 or L3 inhibitor. Embryo development was delayed or blocked in oocytes matured with the general DUB inhibitor PR-619. Aggresomes, the cellular stress-inducible aggregates of ubiquitinated proteins, formed in oocytes matured with L1 inhibitor or PR-619, a likely consequence of impaired protein turnover. Proteomic analysis identified the major vault protein (MVP) as the most prominent protein accumulated in oocytes matured with PR-619, suggesting that the inhibition of deubiquitination altered the turnover of MVP. The mitophagy/autophagy of sperm-contributed mitochondria inside the fertilised oocytes was hindered by DUB inhibitors. It is concluded that DUB inhibitors alter porcine oocyte maturation, fertilisation and preimplantation embryo development. By regulating the turnover of oocyte proteins and mono-ubiquitin regeneration, the DUBs may promote the acquisition of developmental competence during oocyte maturation. PMID:24848520

Yi, Young-Joo; Sutovsky, Miriam; Song, Won-Hee; Sutovsky, Peter

2014-05-22

77

Roles of the zona pellucida and functional exposure of the sperm-egg fusion factor 'IZUMO' during in vitro fertilization in pigs.  

PubMed

The zona pellucida (ZP) is considered to play important roles in the prevention of polyspermy in mammalian oocytes. However, in pigs we have shown that the presence of the ZP accelerates sperm penetration into the ooplasm during in vitro fertilization (IVF). In the present study, we investigated the effects of the ZP on sperm binding, acrosomal status, and functional exposure of IZUMO, a critical factor involved in sperm-egg fusion, during IVF in pigs. We evaluated the numbers and acrosomal statuses of sperm binding to the ZP and oolemma, and being present in the ZP and perivitelline space (PVS) using ZP-intact and ZP-free oocytes. More sperm bound to the ZP than to the oolemma. The average number of sperm present in the PVS was 0.44-0.51 per oocyte, and all sperm had lost their acrosomes. The proportion of sperm that were immunopositive for anti-IZUMO antibody was significantly higher after they were passing or had passed through the ZP. Furthermore, addition of anti-IZUMO antibody to the fertilization medium significantly inhibited the penetration of sperm into ZP-free oocytes. These results suggest that, in pigs, the ZP induces the acrosome reaction, which is associated with the functional exposure of IZUMO, resulting in completion of fertilization. PMID:24450993

Tanihara, Fuminori; Nakai, Michiko; Men, Nguyen Thi; Kato, Noriko; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Noguchi, Junko; Otoi, Takeshige; Kikuchi, Kazuhiro

2014-04-01

78

Functional Task Test (FTT)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the Functional Task Test (FTT), an interdisciplinary testing regimen that has been developed to evaluate astronaut postflight functional performance and related physiological changes. The objectives of the project are: (1) to develop a set of functional tasks that represent critical mission tasks for the Constellation Program, (2) determine the ability to perform these tasks after space flight, (3) Identify the key physiological factors that contribute to functional decrements and (4) Use this information to develop targeted countermeasures.

Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Peters, Brian T.; Rescheke, Millard F.; Wood, Scott; Lawrence, Emily; Koffman, Igor; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Spiering, Barry A.; Feeback, Daniel L.; Platts, Steven H.; Stenger, Michael B.; Lee, Stuart M.C.; Arzeno, Natalia; Feiveson, Alan H.; Ryder, Jeffrey; Garcia, Yamil; Guilliams, Mark E.

2009-01-01

79

Comparative evidence for the evolution of sperm swimming speed by sperm competition and female sperm storage duration in passerine birds.  

PubMed

Sperm swimming speed is an important determinant of male fertility and sperm competitiveness. Despite its fundamental biological importance, the underlying evolutionary processes affecting this male reproductive trait are poorly understood. Using a comparative approach in a phylogenetic framework, we tested the predictions that sperm swim faster with (1) increased risk of sperm competition, (2) shorter duration of female sperm storage, and (3) increased sperm length. We recorded sperm swimming speed in 42 North American and European free-living passerine bird species, representing 35 genera and 16 families. We found that sperm swimming speed was positively related to the frequency of extrapair paternity (a proxy for the risk of sperm competition) and negatively associated with clutch size (a proxy for the duration of female sperm storage). Sperm swimming speed was unrelated to sperm length, although sperm length also increased with the frequency of extrapair paternity. These results suggest that sperm swimming speed and sperm length are not closely associated traits and evolve independently in response to sperm competition in passerine birds. Our findings emphasize the significance of both sperm competition and female sperm storage duration as evolutionary forces driving sperm swimming speed. PMID:19453726

Kleven, Oddmund; Fossøy, Frode; Laskemoen, Terje; Robertson, Raleigh J; Rudolfsen, Geir; Lifjeld, Jan T

2009-09-01

80

Patch clamp studies of human sperm under physiological ionic conditions reveal three functionally and pharmacologically distinct cation channels  

PubMed Central

Whilst fertilizing capacity depends upon a K+ conductance (GK) that allows the spermatozoon membrane potential (Vm) to be held at a negative value, the characteristics of this conductance in human sperm are virtually unknown. We therefore studied the biophysical/pharmacological properties of the K+ conductance in spermatozoa from normal donors held under voltage/current clamp in the whole cell recording configuration. Our standard recording conditions were designed to maintain quasi-physiological, Na+, K+ and Cl? gradients. Experiments that explored the effects of ionic substitution/ion channel blockers upon membrane current/potential showed that resting Vm was dependent upon a hyperpolarizing K+ current that flowed via channels that displayed only weak voltage dependence and limited (?7-fold) K+ versus Na+ selectivity. This conductance was blocked by quinidine (0.3 mM), bupivacaine (3 mM) and clofilium (50 µM), NNC55-0396 (2 µM) and mibefradil (30 µM), but not by 4-aminopyridine (2 mM, 4-AP). Progesterone had no effect upon the hyperpolarizing K+ current. Repolarization after a test depolarization consistently evoked a transient inward ‘tail current’ (ITail) that flowed via a second population of ion channels with poor (?3-fold) K+ versus Na+ selectivity. The activity of these channels was increased by quinidine, 4-AP and progesterone. Vm in human sperm is therefore dependent upon a hyperpolarizing K+ current that flows via channels that most closely resemble those encoded by Slo3. Although 0.5 µM progesterone had no effect upon these channels, this hormone did activate the pharmacologically distinct channels that mediate ITail. In conclusion, this study reveals three functionally and pharmacologically distinct cation channels: Ik, ITail, ICatSper. PMID:24442342

Mansell, S.A.; Publicover, S.J.; Barratt, C.L.R.; Wilson, S.M.

2014-01-01

81

Pancreatic Exocrine Function Testing  

PubMed Central

It is important to understand which pancreatic function tests are available and how to interpret them when evaluating patients with malabsorption. Available direct tests are the secretin stimulation test, the Lundh test meal, and measurement of serum or fecal enzymes. Indirect tests assess pancreatic exocrine function by measuring the effect of pancreatic secretion on various nutrients. These include triglycerides labeled with carbon 14, cobalamin labeled with cobalt 57 and cobalt 58, and para-aminobenzoic acid bound to a dipeptide. Of all these tests the secretin stimulation test is the most accurate and reliable if done by experienced personnel. However, the indirect tests are simpler to do and appear to be comparable to the secretin test at detecting pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. These indirect tests are becoming clinically available and clinicians should familiarize themselves with the strengths and weaknesses of each. PMID:6176075

Goff, John S.

1981-01-01

82

Evolution of sperm morphology in anurans: insights into the roles of mating system and spawning location  

PubMed Central

Background The degree of postcopulatory sexual selection, comprising variable degrees of sperm competition and cryptic female choice, is an important evolutionary force to influence sperm form and function. Here we investigated the effects of mating system and spawning location on the evolution of sperm morphology in 67 species of Chinese anurans. We also examined how relative testes size as an indicator of the level of sperm competition affected variation in sperm morphology across a subset of 29 species. Results We found a significant association of mating system and spawning location with sperm morphology. However, when removing the effects of body mass or absolute testes mass for species for which such data were available, this effect became non-significant. Consistent with predictions from sperm competition theory, we found a positive correlation between sperm morphology and relative testes size after taking phylogeny into account. Conclusions Our findings suggest that sexual selection in Chinese anurans favors longer sperm when the level of sperm competition is high. Pre-copulatory male-male competition and spawning location, on the other hand, do not affect the evolution of sperm morphology after taking body mass and absolute testes mass into account. PMID:24884745

2014-01-01

83

An in vivo assay of the mutagenic potential of imidacloprid using sperm head abnormality test and dominant lethal test.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: To assess the mutagenic effects of imidacloprid in germ cells of Swiss albino male mice by sperm head abnormality (SHA) assay and dominant lethal test (DLT). Methods: Swiss albino mice were exposed to imidacloprid (22, 11 and 5.5?mg/kg/day) along with 3% gum acacia as vehicle control through oral route for 7, 14 and 28 days for SHA assay and for 28 days for DLT. The epididymal sperm smear in 1% eosin stain was analyzed for SHAs. In DLT, male mice were allowed to mate with females after 1, 3 and 6 weeks of end of pesticide treatment. The uterine contents of the sacrificed females were observed for live and dead implants. The analysis of test and control groups data was done by one way ANOVA at p?

Bagri, Preeti; Kumar, Vinod; Sikka, Anil Kumar

2014-10-15

84

Cholesterol addition protects membrane intactness during cryopreservation of stallion sperm.  

PubMed

Addition of cholesterol to sperm membranes improved equine sperm stability during semen cryopreservation; however, it also reduced in vivo fertility. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of adding cholesterol to stallion sperm prior to freezing, and subsequently removing it from frozen-thawed sperm. Semen from 12 stallions was subjected to four treatments: (T1) control, semen was diluted with Kenney extender, centrifuged, and resuspended to 100 x 10(6)spermatozoa/mL in INRA 82 freezing extender, packaged into 0.5-mL straws, cooled to 5 degrees C, and cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen; (T2) T1 with the addition of cholesterol before cooling (the cholesterol was incorporated to the sperm membranes with the methyl-beta-cyclodextrin-cholesterol complex); (T3) T2 with post-thaw removal of the cholesterol with 0.052 mg methyl-beta-cyclodextrin/50 x 10(6) sperm; and (T4) T3 with 0.156 mg methyl-beta-cyclodextrin/50 x 10(6) sperm. Sperm progressive motility and functional integrity of sperm plasma membranes were evaluated microscopically and by the hyposmotic swelling test, respectively. Using flow cytometry, physical integrity of sperm plasma membranes was assessed with propidium iodide, acrosomal integrity with fluoresceinated lectin peanut agglutinin, and rate of sperm acrosome reaction induced with of the calcium ionophore A23187. Cholesterol inclusion (T2) increased the proportion of frozen-thawed sperm with intact plasma membrane. Nevertheless, sperm from T2 (9.3+/-5.9%) had a lower rate of acrosome reaction after induction, compared to the control group (16.5+/-11.0%). After cholesterol removal, there was no increase in the induced acrosome reaction rate (T3: 11.3+/-7.1% and T4: 11.8+/-9.9%). Perhaps the cyclodextrin concentrations used were too low to remove sufficient cholesterol from sperm membranes to restore the ability of cryopreserved sperm to undergo an acrosome reaction. Regardless, the addition of cholesterol to improve post-thaw sperm integrity, and its subsequent removal, still has potential for cryopreservation of stallion sperm. PMID:19758774

Oliveira, C H; Vasconcelos, A B; Souza, F A; Martins-Filho, O A; Silva, M X; Varago, F C; Lagares, M A

2010-04-01

85

Ethernet Network Functionality Testing.  

E-print Network

?? Ethernet functionality testing as a generic term used for checking connectivity,throughput and capability to transfer packets over the network. Especially in the packet-switchenvironment, Ethernet… (more)

Mirza, Aamir Mehmood

2009-01-01

86

Platelet Function Tests  

MedlinePLUS

... services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities PLEASE NOTE: Your web browser does not have JavaScript enabled. Unless you enable Javascript , your ability to ... Platelet Function Tests Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ...

87

Effect of aracnotoxin from Latrodectus mactans on bovine sperm function: modulatory action of bovine oviduct cells and their secretions.  

PubMed

Latrodectus mactans' aracnotoxin (Atx) induces changes in sperm function that could be used as a co-adjuvant in male contraceptive barrier methods. This effect includes the suppression of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), an event necessary for capacitation, chemotaxis and acrosome reaction (AR). The sperm that are not trapped by the barrier method can reach the oviduct before fertilisation and be exposed to the secretions of the oviducts. This study evaluated the effect of bovine tubal explants (TU) and conditioned media (CM) from the ampullar and isthmal regions on spermatozoa exposed to Atx. Thawed bovine sperm were incubated with Atx, TU and CM from the ampullar and isthmal regions for 4 h and then DNA integrity, intracellular ROS and lysophosphatidylcholine-induced AR were determined. Spermatozoa exposed to Atx and co-incubated with TU and CM for 4 h produced an increase in sperm DNA damage, a decrease in ROS production and a decrease in %AR, compared with the control. A similar result was obtained from the co-incubation of spermatozoa with Atx. In conclusion, the effect of Atx is not modified by tubal cells or their secretions and this opens the door to future studies to evaluate the application of synthetic peptides obtained from Atx as a co-adjuvant of contraceptive barrier methods. PMID:22211875

Gómez, P N; Alvarez, J G; Parodi, J; Romero, F; Sánchez, R

2012-05-01

88

Methyl glycol, methanol and DMSO effects on post-thaw motility, velocities, membrane integrity and mitochondrial function of Brycon orbignyanus and Prochilodus lineatus (Characiformes) sperm.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to use more accurate techniques to investigate the effects of cryoprotectants (CPAs) and extenders on post-thaw sperm quality of Brycon orbignyanus and Prochilodus lineatus. Six freezing media comprising the combination of three CPAs (DMSO, methanol and methyl glycol) and two extenders (BTS and glucose) were used. Sperm was diluted in each medium, loaded into 0.5-mL straws, frozen in a nitrogen vapor vessel (dry-shipper), and stored in liquid nitrogen at -196 °C. Post-thaw sperm motility rate and velocities (curvilinear = VCL; straight line = VSL; average path = VAP) were evaluated using a computer-assisted sperm analyzer. Membrane integrity and mitochondrial function were determined using fluorochromes. Post-thaw quality was considered high when samples presented the following minimum values: 60 % motile sperm, 140 µm/s of VCL, 50 % intact sperm membrane and 50 % mitochondrial function integrity. High post-thaw quality was observed in B. orbignyanus sperm frozen in BTS-methyl glycol and in P. lineatus sperm frozen in BTS-methyl glycol, glucose-methyl glycol and glucose-methanol. All samples frozen in DMSO yielded low quality. The presence of ions in the BTS extender affected post-thaw sperm quality positively in B. orbignyanus and negatively in P. lineatus. Methyl glycol was the most suitable CPA for both fish species, leading to a good protection of cell membrane, mitochondrial function and motility apparatus during the cryopreservation process. For an improved protection, B. orbignyanus sperm should be frozen in an ionic freezing medium. PMID:25433690

Viveiros, Ana T M; Nascimento, Ariane F; Leal, Marcelo C; Gonçalves, Antônio C S; Orfão, Laura H; Cosson, Jacky

2015-02-01

89

Intracytoplasmic sperm injection: a novel selection method for sperm with normal frequency of chromosomal aneuploidies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To test a newly invented intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) sperm selection method based on sperm hyaluronic acid (HA) binding. Design: Comparison of chromosomal disomy and diploidy frequencies in sperm arising from semen and in HA-bound sperm. Setting: Academic andrology laboratory. Patient(s): Men presenting for semen analysis. Intervention(s): Washed sperm fractions of 32 semen samples were applied to Petri dishes

Attila Jakab; Denny Sakkas; Elena Delpiano; Sevil Cayli; Ertug Kovanci; David Ward; Alberto Ravelli; Gabor Huszar

2005-01-01

90

Structural evolution of CatSper1 in rodents is influenced by sperm competition, with effects on sperm swimming velocity  

PubMed Central

Background Competition between spermatozoa from rival males for success in fertilization (i.e., sperm competition) is an important selective force driving the evolution of male reproductive traits and promoting positive selection in genes related to reproductive function. Positive selection has been identified in reproductive proteins showing rapid divergence at nucleotide level. Other mutations, such as insertions and deletions (indels), also occur in protein-coding sequences. These structural changes, which exist in reproductive genes and result in length variation in coded proteins, could also be subjected to positive selection and be under the influence of sperm competition. Catsper1 is one such reproductive gene coding for a germ-line specific voltage-gated calcium channel essential for sperm motility and fertilization. Positive selection appears to promote fixation of indels in the N-terminal region of CatSper1 in mammalian species. However, it is not known which selective forces underlie these changes and their implications for sperm function. Results We tested if length variation in the N-terminal region of CatSper1 is influenced by sperm competition intensity in a group of closely related rodent species of the subfamily Murinae. Our results revealed a negative correlation between sequence length of CatSper1 and relative testes mass, a very good proxy of sperm competition levels. Since CatSper1 is important for sperm flagellar motility, we examined if length variation in the N-terminus of CatSper1 is linked to changes in sperm swimming velocity. We found a negative correlation between CatSper1 length and several sperm velocity parameters. Conclusions Altogether, our results suggest that sperm competition selects for a shortening of the intracellular region of CatSper1 which, in turn, enhances sperm swimming velocity, an essential and adaptive trait for fertilization success. PMID:24884901

2014-01-01

91

Comparison on the Effects and Safety of Tualang Honey and Tribestan in Sperm Parameters, Erectile Function, and Hormonal Profiles among Oligospermic Males.  

PubMed

Introduction. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of Tualang honey on sperm parameters, erectile function, and hormonal and safety profiles. Methodology. A randomized control trial was done using Tualang honey (20 grams) and Tribestan (750?mg) over a period of 12 weeks. Sperm parameters including sperm concentration, motility, and morphology were analyzed and erectile function was assessed using IIEF-5 questionnaire. Hormonal profiles of testosterone, FSH, and LH were studied. The volunteers were randomized into two groups and the outcomes were analyzed using SPSS version 18. Results. A total of 66 participants were involved. A significant increment of mean sperm concentration (P < 0.001), motility (P = 0.015) and morphology (P = 0.008) was seen in Tualang honey group. In Tribestan group, a significant increment of mean sperm concentration (P = 0.007), and morphology (P = 0.009) was seen. No significant differences of sperm concentration, motility, and morphology were seen between Tualang honey and Tribestan group and similar results were also seen in erectile function and hormonal profile. All safety profiles were normal and no adverse event was reported. Conclusion. Tualang honey effect among oligospermic males was comparable with Tribestan in improving sperm concentration, motility, and morphology. The usage of Tualang honey was also safe with no reported adverse event. PMID:25505918

Ismail, Shaiful Bahari; Bakar, Mohd Bustamanizan; Nik Hussain, Nik Hazlina; Norhayati, Mohd Noor; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Jaafar, Hasnan; Draman, Samsul; Ramli, Roszaman; Wan Yusoff, Wan Zahanim

2014-01-01

92

Sperm-Associated Antigen–17 Gene Is Essential for Motile Cilia Function and Neonatal Survival  

PubMed Central

Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), resulting from defects in cilia assembly or motility, is caused by mutations in a number of genes encoding axonemal proteins. PCD phenotypes are variable, and include recurrent respiratory tract infections, bronchiectasis, hydrocephaly, situs inversus, and male infertility. We generated knockout mice for the sperm-associated antigen–17 (Spag17) gene, which encodes a central pair (CP) protein present in the axonemes of cells with “9 + 2” motile cilia or flagella. The targeting of Spag17 resulted in a severe phenotype characterized by immotile nasal and tracheal cilia, reduced clearance of nasal mucus, profound respiratory distress associated with lung fluid accumulation and disruption of the alveolar epithelium, cerebral ventricular expansion consistent with emerging hydrocephalus, failure to suckle, and neonatal demise within 12 hours of birth. Ultrastructural analysis revealed the loss of one CP microtubule in approximately one quarter of tracheal cilia axonemes, an absence of a C1 microtubule projection, and other less frequent CP structural abnormalities. SPAG6 and SPAG16 (CP proteins that interact with SPAG17) were increased in tracheal tissue from SPAG17-deficient mice. We conclude that Spag17 plays a critical role in the function and structure of motile cilia, and that neonatal lethality is likely explained by impaired airway mucociliary clearance. PMID:23418344

Teves, Maria Eugenia; Zhang, Zhibing; Costanzo, Richard M.; Henderson, Scott C.; Corwin, Frank D.; Zweit, Jamal; Sundaresan, Gobalakrishnan; Subler, Mark; Salloum, Fadi N.; Rubin, Bruce K.

2013-01-01

93

Infant Pulmonary Function Testing  

PubMed Central

Infant pulmonary function testing has evolved from a research technique into a diagnostic tool. As such, new current procedural terminology (CPT) codes have been created and are available for use as of January 1, 2010. The technology now available has a range of applications. Through a series of vignettes, this article illustrates the methodology of the tests, some of their applications, and how to code and bill for the procedures. PMID:21540218

Davis, Stephanie D.

2011-01-01

94

Sperm Competition Selects for Sperm Quantity and Quality in the Australian Maluridae  

PubMed Central

When ejaculates from rival males compete for fertilization, there is strong selection for sperm traits that enhance fertilization success. Sperm quantity is one such trait, and numerous studies have demonstrated a positive association between sperm competition and both testes size and the number of sperm available for copulations. Sperm competition is also thought to favor increases in sperm quality and changes in testicular morphology that lead to increased sperm production. However, in contrast to sperm quantity, these hypotheses have received considerably less empirical support and remain somewhat controversial. In a comparative study using the Australian Maluridae (fairy-wrens, emu-wrens, grasswrens), we tested whether increasing levels of sperm competition were associated with increases in both sperm quantity and quality, as well as an increase in the relative amount of seminiferous tubule tissue contained within the testes. After controlling for phylogeny, we found positive associations between sperm competition and sperm numbers, both in sperm reserves and in ejaculate samples. Additionally, as sperm competition level increased, the proportion of testicular spermatogenic tissue also increased, suggesting that sperm competition selects for greater sperm production per unit of testicular tissue. Finally, we also found that sperm competition level was positively associated with multiple sperm quality traits, including the proportion of motile sperm in ejaculates and the proportion of both viable and morphologically normal sperm in sperm reserves. These results suggest multiple ejaculate traits, as well as aspects of testicular morphology, have evolved in response to sperm competition in the Australian Maluridae. Furthermore, our findings emphasize the importance of post-copulatory sexual selection as an evolutionary force shaping macroevolutionary differences in sperm phenotype. PMID:21283577

Rowe, Melissah; Pruett-Jones, Stephen

2011-01-01

95

Sperm competition selects for sperm quantity and quality in the Australian Maluridae.  

PubMed

When ejaculates from rival males compete for fertilization, there is strong selection for sperm traits that enhance fertilization success. Sperm quantity is one such trait, and numerous studies have demonstrated a positive association between sperm competition and both testes size and the number of sperm available for copulations. Sperm competition is also thought to favor increases in sperm quality and changes in testicular morphology that lead to increased sperm production. However, in contrast to sperm quantity, these hypotheses have received considerably less empirical support and remain somewhat controversial. In a comparative study using the Australian Maluridae (fairy-wrens, emu-wrens, grasswrens), we tested whether increasing levels of sperm competition were associated with increases in both sperm quantity and quality, as well as an increase in the relative amount of seminiferous tubule tissue contained within the testes. After controlling for phylogeny, we found positive associations between sperm competition and sperm numbers, both in sperm reserves and in ejaculate samples. Additionally, as sperm competition level increased, the proportion of testicular spermatogenic tissue also increased, suggesting that sperm competition selects for greater sperm production per unit of testicular tissue. Finally, we also found that sperm competition level was positively associated with multiple sperm quality traits, including the proportion of motile sperm in ejaculates and the proportion of both viable and morphologically normal sperm in sperm reserves. These results suggest multiple ejaculate traits, as well as aspects of testicular morphology, have evolved in response to sperm competition in the Australian Maluridae. Furthermore, our findings emphasize the importance of post-copulatory sexual selection as an evolutionary force shaping macroevolutionary differences in sperm phenotype. PMID:21283577

Rowe, Melissah; Pruett-Jones, Stephen

2011-01-01

96

Modern vestibular function testing.  

PubMed Central

Current tests of vestibular function concentrate on the horizontal semicircular canal-ocular reflex because it is the easiest reflex to stimulate (calorically and rotationally) and record (using electro-oculography). Tests of the other vestibulo-ocular reflexes (vertical semicircular canal and otolith) and of the vestibulospinal reflexes have yet to be shown useful in the clinical setting. Digital video recording of eye movements and vestibular-evoked responses are promising new technologies that may affect clinical testing in the near future. PMID:2660408

Baloh, R W; Furman, J M

1989-01-01

97

Oxidative phosphorylation is essential for felid sperm function, but is substantially lower in cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) compared to domestic cat (Felis catus) ejaculate.  

PubMed

Compared with the normospermic domestic cat, sperm metabolic function is compromised in the teratospermic cat and cheetah, but the pathway(s) involved in this deficiency are unknown. Glycolysis is essential for sperm motility, yet it appears to function normally in spermatozoa of either species regardless of structural morphology. We conducted a comparative study to further understand the mechanisms of energy production in felid spermatozoa, with the hypothesis that oxidative phosphorylation is required for normal sperm function and is impaired in teratospermic ejaculates. Electroejaculates from both species were stained with MitoTracker to quantify mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) or were incubated to assess changes in sperm function (motility, acrosomal integrity, and lactate production) after mitochondrial inhibition with myxothiazol. Sperm midpiece dimensions also were quantified. Sperm mitochondrial fluorescence (directly proportional to MMP) was ~95% lower in the cheetah compared with the normospermic and teratospermic cat, despite the cheetah having a 10% longer midpiece. In both species, MMP was increased 5-fold in spermatozoa with retained cytoplasm compared with structurally normal cells. Inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation impaired sperm function in both species, but a 100-fold higher inhibitor concentration was required in the cat compared with the cheetah. Collectively, findings revealed that oxidative phosphorylation was required for sperm function in the domestic cat and cheetah. This pathway of energy production appeared markedly less active in the cheetah, indicating a species-specific vulnerability to mitochondrial dysfunction. The unexpected, cross-species linkage between retained cytoplasmic droplets and elevated MMP may reflect increased concentrations of metabolic enzymes or substrates in these structures. PMID:21593479

Terrell, Kimberly A; Wildt, David E; Anthony, Nicola M; Bavister, Barry D; Leibo, S P; Penfold, Linda M; Marker, Laurie L; Crosier, Adrienne E

2011-09-01

98

Natural Variants of C. elegans Demonstrate Defects in Both Sperm Function and Oogenesis at Elevated Temperatures  

PubMed Central

The temperature sensitivity of the germ line is conserved from nematodes to mammals. Previous studies in C. briggsae and Drosophila showed that isolates originating from temperate latitudes lose fertility at a lower temperature than strains originating from tropical latitudes. In order to investigate these relationships in C. elegans, analysis of the fertility of 22 different wild-type isolates of C. elegans isolated from equatorial, tropical and temperate regions was undertaken. It was found that there are significant temperature, genotype and temperature × genotype effects on fertility but region of isolation showed no significant effect on differences in fertility. For most isolates 100% of the population maintained fertility from 20°C to 26°C, but there was a precipitous drop in the percentage of fertile hermaphrodites at 27°C. In contrast, all isolates show a progressive decrease in brood size as temperature increases from 20°C to 26°C, followed by a brood size near zero at 27°C. Temperature shift experiments were performed to better understand the causes of high temperature loss of fertility. Males up-shifted to high temperature maintained fertility, while males raised at high temperature lost fertility. Down-shifting males raised at high temperature generally did not restore fertility. This result differs from that observed in Drosophila and suggested that in C. elegans spermatogenesis or sperm function is irreversibly impaired in males that develop at high temperature. Mating and down-shifting experiments with hermaphrodites were performed to investigate the relative contributions of spermatogenic and oogenic defects to high temperature loss of fertility. It was found that the hermaphrodites of all isolates demonstrated loss in both spermatogenic and oogenic germ lines that differed in their relative contribution by isolate. These studies uncovered unexpectedly high variation in both the loss of fertility and problems with oocyte function in natural variants of C. elegans at high temperature. PMID:25380048

Petrella, Lisa N.

2014-01-01

99

Exposure to Environmentally Relevant Concentrations of Genistein during Activation Does Not Affect Sperm Motility in the Fighting Fish Betta splendens  

PubMed Central

Sperm collected from male fighting fish Betta splendens were activated in control water, water containing the ion-channel blocker gadolinium (a putative positive control), or water containing the isoflavone phytoestrogen genistein to determine the effects of acute genistein exposure on male reproductive function. Computer-assisted sperm analysis was used to quantify the proportion of sperm that were motile and the swimming velocity of those sperm. The highest concentration of gadolinium (100??M) tested was effective at reducing sperm motility and velocity, but neither concentration of genistein tested (3.7?nM or 3.7??M) significantly affected these sperm parameters. Our findings suggest that acute exposure to waterborne phytoestrogens during activation does not reduce the motility of fish sperm. PMID:24516856

Clotfelter, Ethan D.; Gendelman, Hannah K.

2014-01-01

100

Competition drives cooperation among closely related sperm of deer mice.  

PubMed

Among the extraordinary adaptations driven by sperm competition is the cooperative behaviour of spermatozoa. By forming cooperative groups, sperm can increase their swimming velocity and thereby gain an advantage in intermale sperm competition. Accordingly, selection should favour cooperation of the most closely related sperm to maximize fitness. Here we show that sperm of deer mice (genus Peromyscus) form motile aggregations, then we use this system to test predictions of sperm cooperation. We find that sperm aggregate more often with conspecific than heterospecific sperm, suggesting that individual sperm can discriminate on the basis of genetic relatedness. Next, we provide evidence that the cooperative behaviour of closely related sperm is driven by sperm competition. In a monogamous species lacking sperm competition, Peromyscus polionotus, sperm indiscriminately group with unrelated conspecific sperm. In contrast, in the highly promiscuous deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, sperm are significantly more likely to aggregate with those obtained from the same male than with sperm from an unrelated conspecific donor. Even when we test sperm from sibling males, we continue to see preferential aggregations of related sperm in P. maniculatus. These results suggest that sperm from promiscuous deer mice discriminate among relatives and thereby cooperate with the most closely related sperm, an adaptation likely to have been driven by sperm competition. PMID:20090679

Fisher, Heidi S; Hoekstra, Hopi E

2010-02-11

101

Aneuploidy in human sperm: The use of multicolor FISH to test various theories of nondisjunction  

SciTech Connect

While it is known that all chromosomes are susceptible to meiotic nondisjunction, it is not clear whether all chromosomes display the same frequency of nondisjunction. By use of multicolor FISH and chromosome-specific probes, the frequency of disomy in human sperm was determined for chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 9, 12, 15, 16, 18, 20, and 21, and the sex chromosomes. A minimum of 10,000 sperm nuclei were scored from each of five healthy, chromosomally normal donors for every chromosome studied, giving a total of 418,931 sperm nuclei. The mean frequencies of disomy obtained were 0.09% for chromosome 1; 0.08% for chromosome 2; 0.11% for chromosome 4; 0.14% for chromosome 9; 0.16% for chromosome 12; 0.11% for chromosomes 15, 16, and 18; 0.12% for chromosome 20; 0.29% for chromosome 21; and 0.43% for the sex chromosomes. Data for chromosomes 1, 12, 15, and 18, and the sex chromosomes have been published elsewhere. When the mean frequencies of disomy were compared, the sex chromosomes and chromosome 21 had significantly higher frequencies of disomy than that of any other autosome studied. These results corroborate the pooled data obtained from human sperm karyotypes and suggest that the sex chromosome bivalent and the chromosome 21 bivalent are more susceptible to nondisjunction during spermatogenesis. From these findings, theories proposed to explain the variable incidence of nondisjunction can be supported or discarded as improbable. 33 refs., 4 tabs.

Spriggs, E.L.; Martin, R.H. [Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada)] [and others

1996-02-01

102

Sperm swimming speed and energetics vary with sperm competition risk in bluegill ( Lepomis macrochirus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under sperm competition, a male’s fertilization success depends largely on the ejaculate characteristics of competing males. Theoretical models predict that, in external fertilizers, increased risk of sperm competition should result in selection for increased sperm swimming speed. To test this prediction, we studied the behavior of sperm from parental and sneaker male bluegill ( Lepomis macrochirus), a fish species characterized

Gary Burness; Stephen J. Casselman; Albrecht I. Schulte-Hostedde; Christopher D. Moyes; Robert Montgomerie

2004-01-01

103

Effects of glycerol and sugar mixing temperature on the morphologic and functional integrity of cryopreserved ram sperm.  

PubMed

Sperm deep freezing procedures for ram semen have considerable variations regarding the steps being employed for cooling, freezing, and addition of cryoprotectants. In this work, we evaluated the effects of the addition of glycerol and/or the disaccharides sucrose and trehalose to hypertonic diluents either before or after cooling from 30 °C to 5 °C in Merino Australian ram semen cryopreservation. Using optical and transmission electron microscopy techniques, we assessed that glycerol was beneficial to the cooling process independently of its addition at 30 °C or 5 °C in terms of sperm membrane integrity in different regions of the plasma membrane (acrosomal region, 14.5% higher integrity; postacrosomal region, 8.0% higher integrity [P < 0.01]; hypoosmotic swelling test [HOST], 10.8% higher integrity [P < 0.001]). Disaccharides were necessary for a better cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen, and the best procedure was their addition after cooling at 5 °C (12% higher sperm motility [P < 0.001]; 8% higher acrosome integrity, [P < 0.05]; 9.5% higher plasma membrane integrity assessed by HOST [P < 0.001]). Trehalose showed a greater preservation cryoprotectant capacity than sucrose, as indicated by sperm motility after thawing (8.1% greater [P < 0.01]) and by the integrity of the intermediate piece (20% greater [P < 0.05]). From these results, we conclude that the best procedure for ram semen cryopreservation in hypertonic disaccharide-containing diluents is the addition of glycerol and trehalose after the cooling process, at 5 °C. PMID:25312817

Pelufo, V; López Armengol, M F; Malcotti, V; Venturino, A; Aisen, E G

2015-01-01

104

Lipid Peroxidation and Nitric Oxide Levels in Male Smokers' Spermatozoa and their Relation with Sperm Motility  

PubMed Central

Background Nitric oxide (NO) is synthesized from L-arginine by a family of enzymes known as nitric oxide synthases. Low concentrations of NO is essential in biology and physiology of spermatozoa, but high amounts of NO is toxic and has negative effects on sperm functions. Moreover, sperm membrane contains high concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids that are highly susceptible to oxidative damage that interferes with fertilization ability. Therefore, we investigated the correlation between levels of sperm malondialdehyde (MDA) and NO with sperm motility in male smokers. Methods Semen samples were collected from normozoospermic smoker (n=64) and nonsmoker (n=83) men. The content of sperm lipid peroxidation was determined by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA). The sperm NO were also measured using Griess reagent. Data was analyzed by SPSS, (version 15.0), using independent t-test and Pearson analysis. Results The mean MDA and NO concentrations in the sperm of normozoospermic male smokers were significantly higher than the control group or normozoospermic nonsmokers, (p <0.001). A significant negative relationship was noted between sperm motility and sperm MDA levels (r=?0.32, p=0.01); and sperm motility and sperm NO concentration (for nitrite, r=?0.34, p=0.006 and for nitrate, r=?0.38, p=0.002). Conclusion It was concluded that the increase in MDA and NO production in sperm can influence sperm motility in normozoospermic smokers. Therefore, it seems that cigarette smoking may affect the fertility of male smokers via increasing the amount of sperm MDA/lipid peroxidation and NO concentrations. PMID:23926529

Ghaffari, Mohammad Ali; Rostami, Morad

2012-01-01

105

Mitochondrial fusion protein MFN2 interacts with the mitostatin-related protein MNS1 required for mouse sperm flagellar structure and function  

PubMed Central

Background Cilia and the sperm flagellum share many structural properties. Meiosis-specific nuclear structural 1 (MNS1) is a recently characterized protein that is abundantly expressed in post-meiotic spermatids and is required for proper flagellar and motile cilia formation. To explore the possible functions of MNS1, we performed a BLAST search and determined it is homologous to the conserved domain pfam13868, exemplified by mitostatin. This protein interacts with mitofusin 2 (MFN2), a protein that participates in regulating mitochondrial associations to subcellular organelles. We hypothesized that an association between MFN2 and MNS1 in the sperm is involved in flagellar biogenesis and function. Results In the studies reported here, MFN2 was found in murine reproductive and somatic tissues high in ciliary content while MNS1 was present as two closely migrating bands in reproductive tissues. Interestingly, mitostatin was also present in reproductive tissues. Similar to Mns1 and mitostatin, Mfn2 was expressed in the testis as detected by RT-PCR. In addition, Mfn2 and Mns1 decreased in expression from pachytene spermatocytes to condensing spermatids as assessed by quantitative RT-PCR. Co-immunoprecipitation demonstrated an association between MFN2 and MNS1 in spermatogenic cells. Indirect immunofluorescence indicated that MFN2 and MNS1 co-localized to the sperm flagellum in freshly collected cauda epididymal sperm. MFN2 associated with the midpiece while MNS1 was present throughout the sperm tail in caput and cauda epididymal sperm. In spermatogenic cells, MFN2 was seen in the mitochondria, and MNS1 was present throughout the cell cytoplasm. MFN2 and MNS1 were present in detergent-resistant flagellar structures of the sperm. Conclusions These results demonstrate that MFN2 and MNS1 are present in spermatogenic cells and are an integral part of the sperm flagellum, indicating they play a role in flagellar biogenesis and/or function. PMID:24876927

2014-01-01

106

Protein-Tyrosine Kinase Signaling in the Biological Functions Associated with Sperm  

PubMed Central

In sexual reproduction, two gamete cells (i.e., egg and sperm) fuse (fertilization) to create a newborn with a genetic identity distinct from those of the parents. In the course of these developmental processes, a variety of signal transduction events occur simultaneously in each of the two gametes, as well as in the fertilized egg/zygote/early embryo. In particular, a growing body of knowledge suggests that the tyrosine kinase Src and/or other protein-tyrosine kinases are important elements that facilitate successful implementation of the aforementioned processes in many animal species. In this paper, we summarize recent findings on the roles of protein-tyrosine phosphorylation in many sperm-related processes (from spermatogenesis to epididymal maturation, capacitation, acrosomal exocytosis, and fertilization). PMID:23209895

Ijiri, Takashi W.; Mahbub Hasan, A. K. M.; Sato, Ken-ichi

2012-01-01

107

Methamidophos alters sperm function and DNA at different stages of spermatogenesis in mice.  

PubMed

Methamidophos (MET) is a highly toxic organophosphate (OP) pesticide that is widely used in developing countries. MET has male reproductive effects, including decreased fertility. We evaluated MET effects on sperm quality, fertilization and DNA integrity, exploring the sensitivity of different stages of spermatogenesis. Adult male mice received MET (3.75 or 5mg/kg-bw/ip/day/4 days) and were euthanized 1, 28 or 45 days post-treatment (dpt) to evaluate MET's effects on epididymal maturation, meiosis or mitosis, respectively. Spermatozoa were obtained from the cauda epididymis-vas deferens and were evaluated for sperm quality, acrosome reaction (AR; Coomassie staining), mitochondrial membrane potential (by JC-1), DNA damage (comet assay), oxidative damage (malondialdehyde (MDA) production), in vitro fertilization and protein phosphorylation (immunodetection), and erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. At 1-dpt, MET inhibited AChE (43-57%) and increased abnormal cells (6%). While at 28- and 45-dpt, sperm motility and viability were significantly reduced with an increasing MET dose, and abnormal morphology increased at 5mg/kg/day/4 days. MDA and mitochondrial activity were not affected at any dose or time. DNA damage (OTM and %DNA) was observed at 5mg/kg/day/4 days in a time-dependent manner, whereas both parameters were altered in cells from mice exposed to 3.75 mg/kg/day/4 days only at 28-dpt. Depending on the time of collection, initial-, spontaneous- and induced-AR were altered at 5mg/kg/day/4 days, and the fertilization capacity also decreased. Sperm phosphorylation (at serine and tyrosine residues) was observed at all time points. Data suggest that meiosis and mitosis are the more sensitive stages of spermatogenesis for MET reproductive toxicity compared to epididymal maturation. PMID:24998973

Urióstegui-Acosta, Mayrut; Hernández-Ochoa, Isabel; Sánchez-Gutiérrez, Manuel; Piña-Guzmán, Belem; Rafael-Vázquez, Leticia; Solís-Heredia, M J; Martínez-Aguilar, Gerardo; Quintanilla-Vega, Betzabet

2014-09-15

108

Functional human sperm capacitation requires both bicarbonate-dependent PKA activation and down-regulation of Ser/Thr phosphatases by Src family kinases  

PubMed Central

In all mammalian species studied so far, sperm capacitation correlates with an increase in protein tyrosine (Tyr) phosphorylation mediated by a bicarbonate-dependent cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) pathway. Recent studies in mice revealed, however, that a Src family kinase (SFK)-induced inactivation of serine/threonine (Ser/Thr) phosphatases is also involved in the signaling pathways leading to Tyr phosphorylation. In view of these observations and with the aim of getting a better understanding of the signaling pathways involved in human sperm capacitation, in the present work we investigated the involvement of both the cAMP/PKA and SFK/phosphatase pathways in relation to the capacitation state of the cells. For this purpose, different signaling events and sperm functional parameters were analyzed as a function of capacitation time. Results revealed a very early bicarbonate-dependent activation of PKA indicated by the rapid (1 min) increase in both phospho-PKA substrates and cAMP levels (P < 0.05). However, a complete pattern of Tyr phosphorylation was detected only after 6-h incubation at which time sperm exhibited the ability to undergo the acrosome reaction (AR) and to penetrate zona-free hamster oocytes. Sperm capacitated in the presence of the SFK inhibitor SKI606 showed a decrease in both PKA substrate and Tyr phosphorylation levels, which was overcome by exposure of sperm to the Ser/Thr phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid (OA). However, OA was unable to induce phosphorylation when sperm were incubated under PKA-inhibitory conditions (i.e. in the absence of bicarbonate or in the presence of PKA inhibitor). Moreover, the increase in PKA activity by exposure to a cAMP analog and a phosphodiesterase inhibitor did not overcome the inhibition produced by SKI606. Whereas the presence of SKI606 during capacitation produced a negative effect (P < 0.05) on sperm motility, progesterone-induced AR and fertilizing ability, none of these inhibitions were observed when sperm were exposed to SKI606 and OA. Interestingly, different concentrations of inhibitors were required to modulate human and mouse capacitation revealing the species specificity of the molecular mechanisms underlying this process. In conclusion, our results describe for the first time the involvement of both PKA activation and Ser/Thr phosphatase down-regulation in functional human sperm capacitation and provide convincing evidence that early PKA-dependent phosphorylation is the convergent regulatory point between these two signaling pathways. PMID:23630234

Battistone, M.A.; Da Ros, V.G.; Salicioni, A.M.; Navarrete, F.A.; Krapf, D.; Visconti, P.E.; Cuasnicú, P.S.

2013-01-01

109

Sperm release evoked by electrical stimulation of the fish brain: a functional-anatomical study.  

PubMed

Acute brain stimulation experiments were carried out in anesthetized male green sunfish, Lepomis cyanellus. Semen discharge was evoked consistently by low level electrical stimulation (100 muA or less) in the following areas: the preoptic region, dorsal hypothalamus, thalamus, midbrain tegmentum and the basolateral midbrain and medulla. Areas which were stimulated repeatedly at 100 muA and were always negative for sperm release included: the telencephalon with the exception of the preoptic region, the optic tectum, the cerebellum, the inferior lobe of the hypothalamus, the nucleus rotundus and the dorsal medulla. Removal of most of the optic tectum and cerebellum failed to block reponses evoked from the preoptic area; however, they were usually eliminated by transecting the rostral spinal cord. Electrical stimulation of an isolated 4 mm segment of spinal cord located at the third vertebral level resulted in sperm release, indicating that adequate mechanisms for semen discharge are present within the upper spinal cord. The results of this study suggest that a sperm release system in the green sunfish extends from the preoptic area to the spinal cord passing through the hypothalamus, midbrain tegmentum and basal midbrain and medulla. PMID:1113069

Demski, L S; Bauer, D H; Gerald, J W

1975-02-01

110

Sperm cleanup and centrifugation processing for cryopreservation.  

PubMed

Fertility rates with artificial insemination are highest with good-quality sperm samples. Therefore, nonviable sperm, cellular debris, and seminal plasma are preferably removed from semen samples prior to use or for preservation. Such compounds are sources where reactive oxygen species are generated during storage or upon cryopreservation, impairing sperm function. In this chapter we describe methods to remove seminal plasma and cellular debris from sperm samples, and for selecting morphologically normal motile sperm. The methods that are described here include: ordinary centrifugation, sperm swim-up, glass wool and Sephadex filtration/adherence, and single-layer as well as discontinuous two-layer iodixanol density gradient centrifugation. PMID:25428016

Sieme, Harald; Oldenhof, Harriëtte

2015-01-01

111

Mammalian Sperm Fertility Related Proteins  

PubMed Central

Infertility is an important aspect of human and animal reproduction and still presents with much etiological ambiguity. As fifty percent of infertility is related to the male partner, molecular investigations on sperm and seminal plasma can lead to new knowledge on male infertility. Several comparisons between fertile and infertile human and other species sperm proteome have shown the existence of potential fertility markers. These proteins have been categorized into energy related, structural and other functional proteins which play a major role in sperm motility, capacitation and sperm-oocyte binding. The data from these studies show the impact of sperm proteome studies on identifying different valuable markers for fertility screening. In this article, we review recent development in unraveling sperm fertility related proteins. PMID:24151436

Ashrafzadeh, Ali; Karsani, Saiful Anuar; Nathan, Sheila

2013-01-01

112

Morphological diversity of sperm: A mini review  

PubMed Central

Sperms are highly specialized cells for delivering DNA from male to the ovum. Incredibly, wide degree of diversity in sperm morphology in their basic structures i.e. head, middle piece and tail is found across species. Differences in terms of overall size of the sperm, shape and number of sperm produced are also incredible. One of the key for this variations or diversity in sperm may be associated with female reproductive tract, sperm competition, testicular size and sperm size and number. Establishing a correlation between sperm morphology and factors influencing them is a phenomenal task. In this mini-review these associations and the anatomical and functional adaptations among different from of sperm cells that have evolved to optimize fertilization success are discussed. Nevertheless, explaining these morphological diversities in sperm cells is a challenging question and it seems that evolutionary biologists have only recently engaged in exploring its links and patterns. From the literatures it seems that there is no causal relationship between sperm size and testicular size, however, the accumulated knowledge do indicates evolution of sperm morphology across species has some associations with female reproductive tract, sperm competition and sperm size and number, however interpreting these results for phylogentic correlations should be approached with caution. PMID:24976817

Prakash, Seppan; Prithiviraj, Elumalai; Suresh, Sekar; Lakshmi, Nagella Venkata; Ganesh, Mohanraj Karthik; Anuradha, Murugesan; Ganesh, Lakshmanan; Dinesh, Premavathy

2014-01-01

113

Cryopreservation of epididymal stallion sperm.  

PubMed

Any event that makes semen collection or mating impossible, such as death, castration, or injury, may terminate a stallion's breeding career. Fortunately, stallion sperm which are capable of fertilization can be harvested from the epididymis, and frozen for future use. However, the fertility of frozen-thawed epididymal sperm has been found to be lower than that of ejaculated sperm. Therefore, this study aimed to optimize the fertility of frozen epididymal stallion sperm by investigating the effects of different cryoprotectants and freezing protocols on sperm quality. Dimethylformamide was tested alone or combination with pasteurized egg yolk as substitute of fresh egg yolk. In addition, the effect of the pre-freeze stabilization on sperm quality was analyzed. Heterospermic samples obtained from stallion epididymis were collected and cryopreserved in lactose-egg-yolk extender or in the same extender with varying content of cryoprotectant and content of egg yolk, stabilized and no-stabilized. Sperm motility, viability, hypoosmotic swelling test (HOST) and acrosome integrity were evaluated post-thawing. No improvement was observed on the replacement of fresh yolk by pasteurized egg yolk, whereas the results suggest that dimethylformamide is a cryoprotectant suitable for cryopreservation of equine epididymal semen, even better than glycerol. In addition, we found that the stabilization before freezing on epididymal stallion sperm, can improve sperm quality parameters. PMID:24412395

Olaciregui, M; Gil, L; Montón, A; Luño, V; Jerez, R A; Martí, J I

2014-02-01

114

Sperm epigenomics: challenges and opportunities  

PubMed Central

Sperm is a highly differentiated cell type whose function is to deliver a haploid genome to the oocyte. The sperm “epigenomes” were traditionally considered to be insignificant – the sperm is transcriptionally inactive, its genome is packaged in sperm-specific protamine toroids instead of nucleosomes, and its DNA methylation profile is erased immediately post-fertilization. Yet, in recent years there has been an increase in the number of reported cases of apparent epigenetic inheritance through the male germline, suggesting that the sperm epigenome may transmit information between generations. At the same time, technical advances have made the genome-wide profiling of different layers of the sperm epigenome feasible. As a result, a large number of datasets have been recently generated and analyzed with the aim to better understand what non-genetic material is contained within the sperm and whether it has any function post-fertilization. Here, we provide an overview of the current knowledge of the sperm epigenomes as well as the challenges in analysing them and the opportunities in understanding the potential non-genetic carriers of information in sperm. PMID:25278962

Casas, Eduard; Vavouri, Tanya

2014-01-01

115

Improved cryopreservability of stallion sperm using a sorbitol-based freezing extender.  

PubMed

Cryopreservation of stallion semen is often associated with poor post-thaw sperm quality. Sugars are among the important components of a freezing extender and act as non-permeating cryoprotectants. This study aimed to compare the quality of stallion sperm frozen with glucose, fructose or sorbitol-containing freezing extenders. Semen was collected from six stallions of proven fertility and cryopreserved using a freezing extender containing different types of monosaccharide sugars (glucose, fructose or sorbitol). After thawing, the semen was examined for sperm motility, viability, acrosome integrity, plasma membrane functionality and sperm longevity. The fertility of semen frozen in the presence of sorbitol was also tested by artificial insemination. Sperm quality was significantly decreased following freezing and thawing (P < 0.05). Fructose was inferior for protecting sperm during cryopreservation when compared to sorbitol and glucose (P < 0.05). Although the viability, motility and acrosome integrity of sperm cryopreserved with a glucose-containing extender did not significantly differ from sperm frozen in the sorbitol-based extender when examined at 2 and 4 h post-thaw, all of these parameters plus plasma membrane functionality were improved for sperm frozen in the sorbitol extender than in the glucose extender when examined 10 min post-thaw. Two of four mares (50%) inseminated with semen frozen with a sorbitol-containing freezing extender became pregnant. It is concluded that different sugars have different abilities to protect against cryoinjury during freezing and thawing of stallion sperm. This study demonstrated that an extender containing sorbitol as primary sugar can be used to successfully cryopreserve equine sperm; moreover, the quality of frozen-thawed sperm appeared to be better than when glucose or fructose was the principle sugar in the freezing extender. PMID:21458054

Pojprasath, T; Lohachit, C; Techakumphu, M; Stout, T; Tharasanit, T

2011-06-01

116

Freezing of stallion epididymal sperm.  

PubMed

Inseminations with frozen-thawed epididymal sperm have resulted in low-pregnancy rates of mares. If fertility of epididymal sperm could be improved, it would help to preserve genetic material from stallions that have suffered severe injuries, been castrated or have died. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of different extenders and pre-freezing addition of capacitation media on freezability of epididymal sperm and on storage at 5 degrees C for 24h. In experiment 1, epididymal sperm samples were diluted and subsequently frozen with three different extenders: Botu-Crio, EDTA-Lactose and INRA-82. Motility analysis using computer assisted sperm analyzer (CASA) demonstrated better motility for sperm in Botu-Crio than in the other extenders; EDTA-Lactose yielded better motility than INRA-82 on most evaluated parameters. There was no difference in membrane integrity among the studied extenders. From 18 inseminated mares, 12 (66%) were pregnant 15 days after AI with frozen-thawed epididymal sperm showing that Botu-Crio was able to maintain the fertility potential. In experiment 2, the effect of incubation of epididymal sperm before freezing in three capacitation media (Fert Talp, Sperm Talp, Talp+Progesterone), seminal plasma, or control was tested. Based on post-thaw motility evaluation by CASA, samples incubated in Sperm Talp showed better motility values. There were no differences in plasma or acrosomal membranes or in mitochondrial potential among groups. We concluded that Botu-Crio was better than the other extenders in the ability to preserve epididymal sperm and that pre-freeze addition of Sperm Talp was also beneficial. PMID:18556154

Papa, F O; Melo, C M; Fioratti, E G; Dell'aqua, J A; Zahn, F S; Alvarenga, M A

2008-09-01

117

Effects of metabolic rate and sperm competition on the fatty-acid composition of mammalian sperm.  

PubMed

The sperm membrane is a key structure affecting sperm function and thus reproductive success. Spermatozoa are highly specialized and differentiated cells that undergo a long series of processes in the male and female reproductive tracts until they reach the site of fertilization. During this transit, the sperm membrane is prone to damage such as lipid peroxidation. The characteristics and performance of the sperm membrane are strongly determined by the fatty-acid composition of membrane phospholipids. Polyunsaturated fatty-acids (PUFAs) are the most prone to lipid peroxidation. Lipid peroxidation and other types of oxidative damage increase with higher metabolism and with higher levels of sperm competition due to the increased ATP production to fuel higher sperm velocities. Consequently, we hypothesized that, in order to avoid oxidative damage, and the ensuing impairment of sperm function, sperm cells exhibit a negative relationship between PUFA content and mass-specific metabolic rate (MSMR). We also hypothesized that higher sperm competition leads to a reduction in the proportion of sperm PUFAs. We performed a comparative study in mammals and found that high MSMR and high levels of sperm competition both promote a decrease in the proportion of PUFAs that are more prone to lipid peroxidation. The negative relationship between MSMR and these PUFAs in sperm cells is surprising, because a positive relationship is found in all other cell types so far investigated. Our results support the idea that the effects of MSMR and sperm competition on sperm function can operate at very different levels. PMID:24251445

Delbarco-Trillo, J; Roldan, E R S

2013-11-20

118

Sperm storage in caecilian amphibians  

PubMed Central

Background Female sperm storage has evolved independently multiple times among vertebrates to control reproduction in response to the environment. In internally fertilising amphibians, female salamanders store sperm in cloacal spermathecae, whereas among anurans sperm storage in oviducts is known only in tailed frogs. Facilitated through extensive field sampling following historical observations we tested for sperm storing structures in the female urogenital tract of fossorial, tropical caecilian amphibians. Findings In the oviparous Ichthyophis cf. kohtaoensis, aggregated sperm were present in a distinct region of the posterior oviduct but not in the cloaca in six out of seven vitellogenic females prior to oviposition. Spermatozoa were found most abundantly between the mucosal folds. In relation to the reproductive status decreased amounts of sperm were present in gravid females compared to pre-ovulatory females. Sperm were absent in females past oviposition. Conclusions Our findings indicate short-term oviductal sperm storage in the oviparous Ichthyophis cf. kohtaoensis. We assume that in female caecilians exhibiting high levels of parental investment sperm storage has evolved in order to optimally coordinate reproductive events and to increase fitness. PMID:22672478

2012-01-01

119

Linking sperm length and velocity: the importance of intramale variation  

PubMed Central

Selection imposed through sperm competition is commonly thought to promote the evolution of longer sperm, since sperm length is assumed to be positively associated with sperm swimming velocity. Yet, the basis for this assumption remains controversial, and there is surprisingly little intraspecific evidence demonstrating such a link between sperm form and function. Here, we show that sperm length and velocity are highly correlated in the sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma, but importantly we report that failure to account for within-male variation in these sperm traits can obscure this relationship. These findings, in conjunction with the mounting evidence for extremely high levels of intra-specific variance in sperm traits, suggest that a functional link between sperm morphology and velocity may be more prevalent than what current evidence suggests. Our findings also suggest that selection for faster swimming sperm may promote the evolution of longer sperm, thereby supporting recent findings from macroevolutionary studies. PMID:20484233

Fitzpatrick, John L.; Garcia-Gonzalez, Francisco; Evans, Jonathan P.

2010-01-01

120

Production of live foals via intracytoplasmic injection of lyophilized sperm and sperm extract in the horse.  

PubMed

Work with lyophilized sperm helps delineate the factors required for successful fertilization. We investigated the use of lyophilized sperm in equine embryo production. In Experiment 1, sperm DNA fragmentation index was not affected by three freeze/thaw or lyophilization cycles. In Experiment 2, oocytes injected with lyophilized sperm or with sperm from a treatment in which lyophilized sperm were suspended in sperm cytoplasmic extract (SE) yielded blastocyst development rates of 0 and 28% respectively (P < 0.05). In Experiment 3, blastocyst development rate was 6-11% after injection of sperm lyophilized from fresh or frozen-thawed semen, suspended in SE. In Experiment 4, sperm lyophilized 3.5 months or 1 week previously, suspended in SE, yielded similar blastocyst rates (6 and 3% respectively). Rates of normal pregnancy after transfer were 7/10 and 5/7 for embryos from control and lyophilized sperm treatments respectively. Three pregnancies from the lyophilized sperm treatments were not terminated, resulting in two healthy foals. Parentage testing determined that one foal originated from the lyophilized sperm; the other was the offspring of the stallion providing the sperm extract. Further testing indicated that two of five additional embryos in the lyophilized sperm treatment originated from the stallion providing the sperm extract. We conclude that both lyophilized stallion sperm and stallion sperm processed by multiple unprotected freeze-thaw cycles (as for sperm extract) can support production of viable foals. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on production of live offspring by fertilization with lyophilized sperm in a non-laboratory animal species. PMID:21846810

Choi, Y H; Varner, D D; Love, C C; Hartman, D L; Hinrichs, K

2011-10-01

121

Sperm-Associated Antigen 6 (SPAG6) Deficiency and Defects in Ciliogenesis and Cilia Function: Polarity, Density, and Beat  

PubMed Central

SPAG6, an axoneme central apparatus protein, is essential for function of ependymal cell cilia and sperm flagella. A significant number of Spag6-deficient mice die with hydrocephalus, and surviving males are sterile because of sperm motility defects. In further exploring the ciliary dysfunction in Spag6-null mice, we discovered that cilia beat frequency was significantly reduced in tracheal epithelial cells, and that the beat was not synchronized. There was also a significant reduction in cilia density in both brain ependymal and trachea epithelial cells, and cilia arrays were disorganized. The orientation of basal feet, which determines the direction of axoneme orientation, was apparently random in Spag6-deficient mice, and there were reduced numbers of basal feet, consistent with reduced cilia density. The polarized epithelial cell morphology and distribution of intracellular mucin, ?-tubulin, and the planar cell polarity protein, Vangl2, were lost in Spag6-deficient tracheal epithelial cells. Polarized epithelial cell morphology and polarized distribution of ?-tubulin in tracheal epithelial cells was observed in one-week old wild-type mice, but not in the Spag6-deficient mice of the same age. Thus, the cilia and polarity defects appear prior to 7 days post-partum. These findings suggest that SPAG6 not only regulates cilia/flagellar motility, but that in its absence, ciliogenesis, axoneme orientation, and tracheal epithelial cell polarity are altered. PMID:25333478

Teves, Maria E.; Sears, Patrick R.; Li, Wei; Zhang, Zhengang; Tang, Waixing; van Reesema, Lauren; Costanzo, Richard M.; Davis, C. William; Knowles, Michael R.; Strauss, Jerome F.; Zhang, Zhibing

2014-01-01

122

Thyroid Function Tests  

MedlinePLUS

... is having the scan for other health problems. Nuclear medicine tests. Nuclear medicine tests of the thyroid include a thyroid ... scan. A thyroid scan is a type of nuclear medicine imaging. Nuclear medicine uses small amounts of ...

123

Improvement of Ram Sperm Cryopreservation Protocols Assessed by Sperm Quality Parameters and Heterogeneity Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semen cryopreservation processes generally decrease sperm quality and fertility rate, but this is highly dependent on the specific susceptibility of sperm cells to low temperatures. In order to study the effect of cooling, freezing, and thawing on ram spermatozoa, sperm viability (plasma membrane integrity), HOS test (hyposmotic swelling test), and individual motility were assessed in fresh, cooled, and frozen–thawed samples.

M. Ollero; R. Perez-Pe; T. Muiño-Blanco; J. A. Cebrian-Perez

1998-01-01

124

Thyroid Function Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes two tests, T-4 and T-3, for hypothyroid based on the binding of the hormones by proteins. The tests were performed in courses for physicians, clinical chemists, laboratory technicians, and undergraduate science students by the individuals involved and on their own sera. These tests are commercially available in kit form. (GA)

Glover, Irving T.

1979-01-01

125

Pronounced within-individual plasticity in sperm morphometry across social environments.  

PubMed

Sperm morphometry (i.e., size and shape) and function are important determinants of male reproductive success and are thought to be under stabilizing selection. However, recent studies suggest that sperm morphometry can be a phenotypically plastic trait, which can be adjusted to varying conditions. We tested whether different behavioral strategies in aggression between aggressive red and nonaggressive black males of the color polymorphic Gouldian finch (Erythrura gouldiae) can influence sperm morphometry. We show pronounced within-individual phenotypic plasticity in sperm morphometry of male Gouldian finches in three different social environments. Both red and black males placed in intermediate to high competitive environments (high frequency of red males) increased the relative length of their sperm midpiece. By contrast, red males placed in low to intermediate competitive environments (higher frequency of black males) increased the length of the sperm flagellum. Significant changes in stress and sex steroid hormone levels (in response to the competitive environment) appear to influence sperm traits in red but not in black males, suggesting that changes in hormonal levels are not solely responsible for the observed changes in sperm morphometry. These findings imply that males can adjust sperm morphometry across social environments. PMID:20015235

Immler, Simone; Pryke, Sarah R; Birkhead, Tim R; Griffith, Simon C

2010-06-01

126

The precursor region of a protein active in sperm-egg fusion contains a metalloprotease and a disintegrin domain: structural, functional, and evolutionary implications.  

PubMed Central

PH-30, a sperm surface protein involved in sperm-egg fusion, is composed of two subunits, alpha and beta, which are synthesized as precursors and processed, during sperm development, to yield the mature forms. The mature PH-30 alpha/beta complex resembles certain viral fusion proteins in membrane topology and predicted binding and fusion functions. Furthermore, the mature subunits are similar in sequence to each other and to a family of disintegrin domain-containing snake venom proteins. We report here the sequences of the PH-30 alpha and beta precursor regions. Their domain organizations are similar to each other and to precursors of snake venom metalloproteases and disintegrins. The alpha precursor region contains, from amino to carboxyl terminus, pro, metalloprotease, and disintegrin domains. The beta precursor region contains pro and metalloprotease domains. Residues diagnostic of a catalytically active metalloprotease are present in the alpha, but not the beta, precursor region. We propose that the active sites of the PH-30 alpha and snake venom metalloproteases are structurally similar to that of astacin. PH-30, acting through its metalloprotease and/or disintegrin domains, could be involved in sperm development as well as sperm-egg binding and fusion. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that PH-30 stems from a multidomain ancestral protein. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8248170

Wolfsberg, T G; Bazan, J F; Blobel, C P; Myles, D G; Primakoff, P; White, J M

1993-01-01

127

Effect of male age on sperm traits and sperm competition success in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).  

PubMed

Deleterious mutations can accumulate in the germline with age, decreasing the genetic quality of sperm and imposing a cost on female fitness. If these mutations also affect sperm competition ability or sperm production, then females will benefit from polyandry as it incites sperm competition and, consequently, minimizes the mutational load in the offspring. We tested this hypothesis in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a species characterized by polyandry and intense sperm competition, by investigating whether age affects post-copulatory male traits and sperm competition success. Females did not discriminate between old and young males in a mate choice experiment. While old males produced longer and slower sperm with larger reserves of strippable sperm, compared to young males, artificial insemination did not reveal any effect of age on sperm competition success. Altogether, these results do not support the hypothesis that polyandry evolved in response to costs associated with mating with old males in the guppy. PMID:19912453

Gasparini, C; Marino, I A M; Boschetto, C; Pilastro, A

2010-01-01

128

Subcellular preservation in giant ostracod sperm from an early Miocene cave deposit in Australia.  

PubMed

Cypridoidean ostracods are one of a number of animal taxa that reproduce with giant sperm, up to 10 000 µm in length, but they are the only group to have aflagellate, filamentous giant sperm. The evolution and function of this highly unusual feature of reproduction with giant sperm are currently unknown. The hypothesis of long-term evolutionary persistence of this kind of reproduction has never been tested. We here report giant sperm discovered by propagation phase contrast X-ray synchrotron micro- and nanotomography, preserved in five Miocene ostracod specimens from Queensland, Australia. The specimens belong to the species Heterocypris collaris Matzke-Karasz et al. 2013 (one male and three females) and Newnhamia mckenziana Matzke-Karasz et al. 2013 (one female). The sperm are not only the oldest petrified gametes on record, but include three-dimensional subcellular preservation. We provide direct evidence that giant sperm have been a feature of this taxon for at least 16 Myr and provide an additional criterion (i.e. longevity) to test hypotheses relating to origin and function of giant sperm in the animal kingdom. We further argue that the highly resistant, most probably chitinous coats of giant ostracod sperm may play a role in delaying decay processes, favouring early mineralization of soft tissue. PMID:24827442

Matzke-Karasz, Renate; Neil, John V; Smith, Robin J; Symonová, Radka; Mo?kovský, Libor; Archer, Michael; Hand, Suzanne J; Cloetens, Peter; Tafforeau, Paul

2014-07-01

129

Osmotic tolerance of avian spermatozoa: influence of time, temperature, cryoprotectant and membrane ion pump function on sperm viability.  

PubMed

Potential factors influencing sperm survival under hypertonic conditions were evaluated in the Sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) and turkey (Meleagridis gallopavo). Sperm osmotolerance (300-3000 mOsm/kg) was evaluated after: (1) equilibration times of 2, 10, 45 and 60 min at 4 degrees C versus 21 degrees C; (2) pre-equilibrating with dimethylacetamide (DMA) or dimethylsulfoxide (Me2SO) at either 4 degrees C or 21 degrees C; and (3) inhibition of the Na+/K+ and the Na+/H+ antiporter membrane ionic pumps. Sperm viability was assessed using the eosin-nigrosin live/dead stain. Species-specific differences occurred in response to hypertonic conditions with crane sperm remaining viable under extreme hypertonicity (3000 mOsm/kg), whereas turkey sperm viability was compromised with only slightly hypertonic (500 mOsm/kg) conditions. The timing of spermolysis under hypertonic conditions was also species-specific, with a shorter interval for turkey (2 min) than crane (10 min) sperm. Turkey sperm osmotolerance was slightly improved by lowering the incubation temperature from 21 to 4 degrees C. Pre-equilibrating sperm with DMA reduced the incidence of hypertonic spermolysis only in the crane, at both room and refrigeration temperature. Inhibiting the Na+/K+ and the Na+/H+ antiporter membrane ion pumps did not impair resistance of crane and turkey spermatozoa to hypertonic stress; pump inhibition actually increased turkey sperm survival compared to control sperm. Results demonstrate marked species specificity in osmotolerance between crane and turkey sperm, as well as in the way temperature and time of exposure affect sperm survival under hypertonic conditions. Differences are independent of the role of osmotic pumps in these species. PMID:18005955

Blanco, Juan M; Long, Julie A; Gee, George; Donoghue, Ann M; Wildt, David E

2008-02-01

130

The fusion of sperm cells and the function of male germ unit (MGU) of tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sperm cells released from in vivo-in vitro grown pollen tubes of tobacco are associated in pairs and initially enclosed by\\u000a the plasma membrane of the pollen tube. When the sperm cells are placed together, using glass microinjector needles, in an\\u000a enzymatic solution, up to half undergo cellular fusion with subsequent nuclear fusion. The frequency of sperm cell fusion\\u000a decreases with

Hui Qiao Tian; Scott D. Russell

1998-01-01

131

Osmotic tolerance of avian spermatozoa: Influence of time, temperature, cryoprotectant and membrane ion pump function on sperm viability  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Potential factors influencing sperm survival under hypertonic conditions were evaluated in the Sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) and turkey (Meleagridis gallopavo). Sperm osmotolerance (300-3000 mOsm/kg) was evaluated after: (1) equilibration times of 2, 10, 45 and 60 min at 4 ?C versus 21 ?C; (2) pre-equilibrating with dimethylacetamide (DMA) or dimethylsulfoxide (Me2SO) at either 4 ?C or 21 ?C; and (3) inhibition of the Na+/K+ and the Na+/H+ antiporter membrane ionic pumps. Sperm viability was assessed using the eosin-nigrosin live/dead stain. Species-specific differences occurred in response to hypertonic conditions with crane sperm remaining viable under extreme hypertonicity (3000 mOsm/kg), whereas turkey sperm viability was compromised with only slightly hypertonic (500 mOsm/kg) conditions. The timing of spermolysis under hypertonic conditions was also species-specific, with a shorter interval for turkey (2 min) than crane (10 min) sperm. Turkey sperm osmotolerance was slightly improved by lowering the incubation temperature from 21 to 4 ?C. Pre-equilibrating sperm with DMA reduced the incidence of hypertonic spermolysis only in the crane, at both room and refrigeration temperature. Inhibiting the Na+/K+ and the Na+/H+ antiporter membrane ion pumps did not impair resistance of crane and turkey spermatozoa to hypertonic stress; pump inhibition actually increased turkey sperm survival compared to control sperm. Results demonstrate marked species specificity in osmotolerance between crane and turkey sperm, as well as in the way temperature and time of exposure affect sperm survival under hypertonic conditions. Differences are independent of the role of osmotic pumps in these species.

Blanco, J.M.; Long, J.A.; Gee, G.; Donoghue, A.M.; Wildt, D.E.

2008-01-01

132

Pulmonary Function Tests  

MedlinePLUS

... heavily for at least 30 minutes ? ? before the test. Do not wear tight clothing that makes it ? ? difficult for you to take a deep breath. Do not eat a large meal within 2 hours before ? ? the test. Ask your health care provider if there are ...

133

Phenotypic engineering of sperm-production rate confirms evolutionary predictions of sperm competition theory  

PubMed Central

Sperm production is a key male reproductive trait and an important parameter in sperm competition theory. Under sperm competition, paternity success is predicted to depend strongly on male allocation to sperm production. Furthermore, because sperm production is inherently costly, individuals should economize in sperm expenditure, and conditional adjustment of the copulation frequency according to their sperm availability may be expected. However, experimental studies showing effects of sperm production on mating behaviour and paternity success have so far been scarce, mainly because sperm production is difficult to manipulate directly in animals. Here, we used phenotypic engineering to manipulate sperm-production rate, by employing dose-dependent RNA interference (RNAi) of a spermatogenesis-specific gene, macbol1, in the free-living flatworm Macrostomum lignano. We demonstrate (i) that our novel dose-dependent RNAi approach allows us to induce high variability in sperm-production rate; (ii) that a reduced sperm-production rate is associated with a decreased copulation frequency, suggesting conditional adjustment of mating behaviour; and (iii) that both sperm production and copulation frequency are important determinants of paternity success in a competitive situation, as predicted by sperm competition theory. Our study clearly documents the potential of phenotypic engineering via dose-dependent RNAi to test quantitative predictions of evolutionary theory. PMID:23446521

Sekii, Kiyono; Vizoso, Dita B.; Kuales, Georg; De Mulder, Katrien; Ladurner, Peter; Schärer, Lukas

2013-01-01

134

Sterols in spermatogenesis and sperm maturation  

PubMed Central

Mammalian spermatogenesis is a complex developmental program in which a diploid progenitor germ cell transforms into highly specialized spermatozoa. One intriguing aspect of sperm production is the dynamic change in membrane lipid composition that occurs throughout spermatogenesis. Cholesterol content, as well as its intermediates, differs vastly between the male reproductive system and nongonadal tissues. Accumulation of cholesterol precursors such as testis meiosis-activating sterol and desmosterol is observed in testes and spermatozoa from several mammalian species. Moreover, cholesterogenic genes, especially meiosis-activating sterol-producing enzyme cytochrome P450 lanosterol 14?-demethylase, display stage-specific expression patterns during spermatogenesis. Discrepancies in gene expression patterns suggest a complex temporal and cell-type specific regulation of sterol compounds during spermatogenesis, which also involves dynamic interactions between germ and Sertoli cells. The functional importance of sterol compounds in sperm production is further supported by the modulation of sterol composition in spermatozoal membranes during epididymal transit and in the female reproductive tract, which is a prerequisite for successful fertilization. However, the exact role of sterols in male reproduction is unknown. This review discusses sterol dynamics in sperm maturation and describes recent methodological advances that will help to illuminate the complexity of sperm formation and function. PMID:23093550

Keber, Rok; Rozman, Damjana; Horvat, Simon

2013-01-01

135

Pulmonary function tests  

MedlinePLUS

... see how it changes your test results. Lung volume measurement can be done in two ways: The ... pressure inside the box help determine the lung volume. Lung volume can also be measured when you ...

136

Why small males have big sperm: dimorphic squid sperm linked to alternative mating behaviours  

PubMed Central

Background Sperm cells are the target of strong sexual selection that may drive changes in sperm structure and function to maximize fertilisation success. Sperm evolution is regarded to be one of the major consequences of sperm competition in polyandrous species, however it can also be driven by adaptation to the environmental conditions at the site of fertilization. Strong stabilizing selection limits intra-specific variation, and therefore polymorphism, among fertile sperm (eusperm). Here we analyzed reproductive morphology differences among males employing characteristic alternative mating behaviours, and so potentially different conditions of sperm competition and fertilization environment, in the squid Loligo bleekeri. Results Large consort males transfer smaller (average total length = 73 ?m) sperm to a female's internal sperm storage location, inside the oviduct; whereas small sneaker males transfer larger (99 ?m) sperm to an external location around the seminal receptacle near the mouth. No significant difference in swimming speed was observed between consort and sneaker sperm. Furthermore, sperm precedence in the seminal receptacle was not biased toward longer sperm, suggesting no evidence for large sperm being favoured in competition for space in the sperm storage organ among sneaker males. Conclusions Here we report the first case, in the squid Loligo bleekeri, where distinctly dimorphic eusperm are produced by different sized males that employ alternative mating behaviours. Our results found no evidence that the distinct sperm dimorphism was driven by between- and within-tactic sperm competition. We propose that presence of alternative fertilization environments with distinct characteristics (i.e. internal or external), whether or not in combination with the effects of sperm competition, can drive the disruptive evolution of sperm size. PMID:21831296

2011-01-01

137

[Role of fatty acids in sperm membrane].  

PubMed

One of causes of male infertility is reduced sperm motility. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play significant role for physiological sperm function. Oxidative stress occurs when the production of potentially destructive ROS exceeds the natural antioxidant defences, resulting in cell damage. Sperm phospholipid polyunsaturated fatty acids are particularly susceptible to peroxidative damage by free radicals. Detrimental effects of lipid peroxidation should decrease sperm quality and be responsible of fertility problems. The review deals with sperm membrane composition, importance of fatty acids and prevention possibilities of oxidative cell damage. PMID:24874823

Stramová, X; Hampl, R; St?pán, J; Kan?ár, R

2014-04-01

138

High fertilization rate obtained after intracytoplasmic sperm injection with 100% nonmotile spermatozoa selected by using a simple modified hypo-osmotic swelling test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To report a high fertilization rate after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in patients with 100% nonmotile spermatozoa selected by a simple modified hypo-osmotic swelling test.Design: Clinical study.Setting: Hospital-based IVF center.Patient(s); Three couples with infertility due to asthenospermia.Intervention(s): The hypo-osmotic swelling test with 150-mOsm NaC1 solution was used to select viable spermatozoa before ICSI. Three patients provided semen samples and

Jiaen Liu; Yieh-Loong Tsai; Eugene Katz; Gail Compton; Jairo E. Garcia; Theodore A. Baramki

1997-01-01

139

Drosophila pericentrin requires interaction with calmodulin for its function at centrosomes and neuronal basal bodies but not at sperm basal bodies  

PubMed Central

Pericentrin is a critical centrosomal protein required for organizing pericentriolar material (PCM) in mitosis. Mutations in pericentrin cause the human genetic disorder Majewski/microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II, making a detailed understanding of its regulation extremely important. Germaine to pericentrin's function in organizing PCM is its ability to localize to the centrosome through the conserved C-terminal PACT domain. Here we use Drosophila pericentrin-like-protein (PLP) to understand how the PACT domain is regulated. We show that the interaction of PLP with calmodulin (CaM) at two highly conserved CaM-binding sites in the PACT domain controls the proper targeting of PLP to the centrosome. Disrupting the PLP-CaM interaction with single point mutations renders PLP inefficient in localizing to centrioles in cultured S2 cells and Drosophila neuroblasts. Although levels of PCM are unaffected, it is highly disorganized. We also demonstrate that basal body formation in the male testes and the production of functional sperm does not rely on the PLP-CaM interaction, whereas production of functional mechanosensory neurons does. PMID:25031429

Galletta, Brian J.; Guillen, Rodrigo X.; Fagerstrom, Carey J.; Brownlee, Chris W.; Lerit, Dorothy A.; Megraw, Timothy L.; Rogers, Gregory C.; Rusan, Nasser M.

2014-01-01

140

Structure, material characteristics and function of the upper respiratory tract of the pygmy sperm whale.  

PubMed

Cetaceans are neckless, so the trachea is very short. The upper respiratory tract is separate from the mouth and pharynx, and the dorsal blowhole connects, via the vestibular and nasopalatine cavities, directly to the larynx. Toothed cetaceans (Odontoceti) are capable of producing sounds at depth, either for locating prey or for communication. It has been suggested that during dives, air from the lungs and upper respiratory tract can be moved to the vestibular and nasal cavities to permit sound generation to continue when air volume within these cavities decreases as ambient pressure rises. The pygmy sperm whale, Kogia breviceps, is a deep diver (500-1000 m) that is known to produce hunting clicks. Our study of an immature female shows that the upper respiratory tract is highly asymmetrical: the trachea and bronchi are extremely compressible, whereas the larynx is much more rigid. Laryngeal and tracheal volumes were established. Calculations based on Boyle's Law imply that all air from the lungs and bronchi would be transferred to the larynx and trachea by a depth of 270 m and that the larynx itself could not accommodate all respiratory air mass at a depth of 1000 m. This suggests that no respiratory air would be available for vocalisation. However, the bronchi, trachea and part of the larynx have a thick vascular lining featuring large, thin-walled vessels. We propose that these vessels may become dilated during dives to reduce the volume of the upper respiratory tract, permitting forward transfer of air through the larynx. PMID:24072789

Davenport, John; Cotter, Liz; Rogan, Emer; Kelliher, Denis; Murphy, Colm

2013-12-15

141

Decoding mechanisms of loss of fertilization ability of cryopreserved mouse sperm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cryopreservation of mouse sperm is an important technology for management of biomedical research resources. Dramatic progress has been made recently in the development of protocols that combat mouse-strain specific reduction of IVF after cryopreservation. Equal emphasis, however, has not been placed on investigating the biological mechanisms underlying these improvements to IVF. This dissertation broadly investigates the basic question of how mouse-strain specific reduction of IVF occurs after cryopreservation, and how recently developed protocols prevent this process. My research investigated the effects of antioxidants, the cholesterol-acceptor CD, reduced calcium media, and TYH capacitation media on sperm function and oxidative stress after cryopreservation in a variety of mouse strains. I found that reduced IVF was associated with loss of capacitation-dependent sperm function in three strains, B6/J, B6/N, and 129X1, and CD improved sperm function and IVF in all three strains. These findings suggest that cryopreservation inhibits cholesterol efflux resulting in reduced IVF of many mouse strains. I also found that cryopreservation induces uniquely high production of mitochondrial H2O2 by B6/J sperm. H2O2 present in other cellular compartments of B6/J sperm was not elevated compared to other strains. High levels of mitochondrial H2O2 were associated with lipid peroxidation of the sperm head and inability to acrosome react. Antioxidants reduced mitochondrial H2O2 production, decreased sperm head lipid peroxidation, and improved acrosome reaction. The cryopreservation-induced increase in mitochondrial H2O2 production of B6/J and B6129XF1 sperm was associated with elevation of intracellular calcium after cryopreservation and dependent on mitochondrial metabolic substrates. Reducing intracellular calcium levels or removing mitochondrial metabolic substrates decreased mitochondrial H2O2 production and increased IVF rates of cryopreserved B6/J sperm. Many of the strains I tested exhibited increased H2O2 production after cryopreservation, but cryopreservation-induced H2O2 only interfered with IVF of B6/J sperm. This dissertation describes two means to improve IVF of cryopreserved sperm, mitigation of oxidative stress in B6/J sperm and improvement of capacitation-dependent sperm function for several mouse strains.

Gray, Jeffrey Earl

142

Seasonal dynamics of sperm morphometric subpopulations and its association with sperm quality parameters in ram ejaculates.  

PubMed

Sperm morphologic assessment is considered an irreplaceable part of standard laboratory routine analyses in the diagnosis of male fertility. Thus, in an attempt to quantify the effects of season on sperm morphology and its functional significance in relation to sperm quality parameters, sperm head morphometric traits were analyzed by using an objective computerized analysis combined with principal components analysis (PCA) cluster analysis to establish the relationship between the distribution of the subpopulations found and sperm quality in each season. There were slight variations on sperm motility and sperm membrane integrity indexes (P > 0.05). However, the mean values for sperm concentration substantially changed among seasons in all individuals studied (P < 0.01). There were significant differences in sperm morphometric parameters (P < 0.01) as well as in the distribution of morphometric subpopulations between seasons (P < 0.001). In conclusion, this study confirmed that there was an important seasonal effect on sperm morphometric traits. In addition, the distribution of these subpopulations seems to be related to the season studied and the ejaculate quality which would be a very important indicator of sperm function. The substantial information derived from these morphometric subpopulations has provided new knowledge which can be used in future studies using sperm morphometry as a seasonal indicator in ram ejaculates. PMID:22626774

Martí, J I; Aparicio, I M; Leal, C L V; García-Herreros, M

2012-08-01

143

Mating behavior and the evolution of sperm design  

PubMed Central

Sperm are the most diverse of all animal cell types, and much of the diversity in sperm design is thought to reflect adaptations to the highly variable conditions under which sperm function and compete to achieve fertilization. Recent work has shown that these conditions often evolve rapidly as a consequence of multiple mating, suggesting a role for sexual selection and sexual conflict in the evolution of sperm design. However, very little of the striking diversity in sperm design is understood functionally, particularly in internally fertilizing organisms. We use phylogenetic comparative analyses covering 16 species of the hermaphroditic flatworm genus Macrostomum to show that a complex sperm design is associated with reciprocal mating and that this complexity is lost secondarily when hypodermic insemination—sperm injection through the epidermis—evolves. Specifically, the complex sperm design, which includes stiff lateral bristles, is likely a male persistence trait associated with sexual conflicts over the fate of received ejaculates and linked to female resistance traits, namely an intriguing postcopulatory sucking behavior and a thickened epithelium of the sperm-receiving organ. Our results suggest that the interactions between sperm donor, sperm, and sperm recipient can change drastically when hypodermic insemination evolves, involving convergent evolution of a needle-like copulatory organ, a simpler sperm design, and a simpler female genital morphology. Our study documents that a shift in the mating behavior may alter fundamentally the conditions under which sperm compete and thereby lead to a drastic change in sperm design. PMID:21220334

Schärer, Lukas; Littlewood, D. Timothy J.; Waeschenbach, Andrea; Yoshida, Wataru; Vizoso, Dita B.

2011-01-01

144

Vestibular function test program evaluation  

E-print Network

VESTIBULAR FUNCTION TEST PROGRAM EVALUATION A Thesis by GLENN FREDERIC SCHMIDT Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTERS OF SCIENCE May 1990 Major... Subject: Bioengineering VESTIBULAR FUNCTION TEST PROGRAM EVALUATION A Thesis by GLENN FREDERIC SCMIDT Approved as to style and content by: Charles S. Lessard (Chair of Committee) Edward M. O' Brien (Member) rry Christensen (Member) G. K le Benne...

Schmidt, Glenn Frederic

1990-01-01

145

Anatase titanium dioxide nanoparticles in mice: evidence for induced structural and functional sperm defects after short-, but not long-, term exposure.  

PubMed

Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanoparticles (TNPs) are widely used commercially and exist in a variety of products. To determine if anatase TNPs (ATNPs) in doses smaller than previously used reach the scrotum after entry in the body at a distant location and induce sperm defects, 100% ATNP (2.5 or 5 mg kg-1 body weight) was administered intraperitoneally to adult males for three consecutive days, followed by sacrifice 1, 2, 3, or 5 weeks later (long-) or 24, 48 or 120 h (short-term exposure). Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of ANTP in scrotal adipose tissues collected 120 h postinjection when cytokine evaluation showed an inflammatory response in epididymal tissues and fluid. At 120 h and up to 3 weeks postinjection, testicular histology revealed enlarged interstitial spaces. Significantly increased numbers of terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling-positive (apoptotic) germ (P = 0.002) and interstitial space cells (P = 0.04) were detected in treated males. Caudal epididymal sperm from the short-term, but not a long-term, arm showed significantly (P < 0.001) increased frequencies of flagellar abnormalities, excess residual cytoplasm (ERC), and unreacted acrosomes in treated versus controls (dose-response relationship). A novel correlation between ERC and unreacted acrosomes was uncovered. At 120 h, there were significant decreases in hyperactivated motility (P < 0.001) and mitochondrial membrane potential (P < 0.05), and increased reactive oxygen species levels (P < 0.00001) in treated versus control sperm. These results indicate that at 4-8 days postinjection, ANTP induce structural and functional sperm defects associated with infertility, and DNA damage via oxidative stress. Sperm defects were transient as they were not detected 10 days to 5 weeks postinjection. PMID:25370207

Smith, Michelle A; Michael, Rowan; Aravindan, Rolands G; Dash, Soma; Shah, Syed I; Galileo, Deni S; Martin-DeLeon, Patricia A

2014-10-24

146

Osmotic tolerance of avian spermatozoa: Influence of time, temperature, cryoprotectant and membrane ion pump function on sperm viability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential factors influencing sperm survival under hypertonic conditions were evaluated in the Sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) and turkey (Meleagridis gallopavo). Sperm osmotolerance (300–3000mOsm\\/kg) was evaluated after: (1) equilibration times of 2, 10, 45 and 60min at 4°C versus 21°C; (2) pre-equilibrating with dimethylacetamide (DMA) or dimethylsulfoxide (Me2SO) at either 4°C or 21°C; and (3) inhibition of the Na+\\/K+ and the

Juan M. Blanco; Julie A. Long; George Gee; Ann M. Donoghue; David E. Wildt

2008-01-01

147

A short hypoosmotic swelling test for the prediction of boar sperm fertility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to explore the relationship between the ejaculate response to a hypoosmotic swelling test (HOST) and in vivo fertility in a group of 38 boars. The hypoosmotic test used was a modification of the HOST that involves a shorter incubation time (5 vs 120 min) and lower osmotic pressure (75 vs 150 mOsm\\/kg). Ejaculates containing less than

B. Pérez-Llano; J. L. Lorenzo; P. Yenes; A. Trejo; P. García-Casado

2001-01-01

148

Sperm competitiveness in frogs: slow and steady wins the race  

PubMed Central

When sperm compete to fertilize available ova, selection is expected to favour ejaculate traits that contribute to a male's fertilization success. While there is much evidence to show that selection favours increased numbers of sperm, only a handful of empirical studies have examined how variation in sperm form and function contributes to competitive fertilization success. Here, we examine selection acting on sperm form and function in the externally fertilizing myobatrachid frog, Crinia georgiana. Using in vitro fertilization techniques and controlling for variation in the number of sperm contributed by males in competitive situations, we show that males with a greater proportion of motile sperm, and motile sperm with slower swimming velocities, have an advantage when competing for fertilizations. Sperm morphology and the degree of genetic similarity between putative sires and the female had no influence on competitive fertilization success. These unusual patterns of selection might explain why frog sperm typically exhibit relatively slow swimming speeds and sustained longevity. PMID:19710059

Dziminski, Martin A.; Roberts, J. Dale; Beveridge, Maxine; Simmons, Leigh W.

2009-01-01

149

Epididymal Hypo-Osmolality Induces Abnormal Sperm Morphology and Function in the Estrogen Receptor Alpha Knockout Mouse1  

PubMed Central

Estrogen receptor-alpha (ESR1) is highly expressed in the efferent ductules of all species studied as well as in the epididymal epithelium in mice and other select species. Male mice lacking ESR1 (Esr1KO) are infertile, but transplantation studies demonstrated that Esr1KO germ cells are capable of fertilization when placed in a wild-type reproductive tract. These results suggest that extratesticular regions, such as the efferent ductules and epididymis, are the major source of pathological changes in Esr1KO males. Previous studies have shown alterations in ion and fluid transporters in the efferent duct and epididymal epithelia of Esr1KO males, leading to misregulation of luminal fluid pH. To determine the effect of an altered epididymal milieu on Esr1KO sperm, we assayed sperm morphology in the different regions of the epididymis. Sperm recovered from the epididymis exhibited abnormal flagellar coiling and increased incidence of spontaneous acrosome reactions, both of which are consistent with exposure to abnormal epididymal fluid. Analysis of the epididymal fluid revealed that the osmolality of the Esr1KO fluid was reduced relative to wild type, consistent with prior reports of inappropriate fluid absorption from the efferent ductules. This, along with the finding that morphological defects increased with transit through the epididymal duct, suggests that the anomalies in sperm are a consequence of the abnormal luminal environment. Consistent with this, incubating Esr1KO sperm in a more wild-type-like osmotic environment significantly rescued the abnormal flagellar coiling. This work demonstrates that Esr1KO mice exhibit an abnormal fluid environment in the lumen of the efferent ducts and epididymis, precluding normal sperm maturation and instead resulting in progressive deterioration of sperm that contributes to infertility. PMID:20130266

Joseph, Avenel; Shur, Barry D.; Ko, CheMyong; Chambon, Pierre; Hess, Rex A.

2010-01-01

150

21 CFR 866.5800 - Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...purposes to identify and differentiate animal and human semen. The test results may be used as court evidence in alleged instances of rape and other sex-related crimes. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the...

2010-04-01

151

21 CFR 866.5800 - Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...purposes to identify and differentiate animal and human semen. The test results may be used as court evidence in alleged instances of rape and other sex-related crimes. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the...

2011-04-01

152

Female presence influences sperm velocity in the guppy  

PubMed Central

As sperm production is costly, males are expected to strategically allocate resources to sperm production according to mating opportunities. While sperm number adjustments have been reported in several taxa, only a few studies investigated whether sperm quality shows adaptive plasticity as well. We tested this prediction in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata. A total of 46 males were initially stripped of all retrievable sperm before being randomly allocated to one of two treatments simulating different levels of mating opportunities (visual contact with females or female deprived). After 3 days, males were stripped and sperm velocity was assayed using Computer Assisted Sperm Analysis. Males in the presence of females produced significantly faster sperm than their counterparts. Implications for the evolution of this ejaculate plasticity in the light of results of sperm competition studies are discussed. PMID:19656863

Gasparini, Clelia; Peretti, Alfredo V.; Pilastro, Andrea

2009-01-01

153

Characterisation of Caenorhabditis elegans sperm transcriptome and proteome  

PubMed Central

Background Although sperm is transcriptionally and translationally quiescent, complex populations of RNAs, including mRNAs and non-coding RNAs, exist in sperm. Previous microarray analysis of germ cell mutants identified hundreds of sperm genes in Caenorhabditis elegans. To take a more comprehensive view on C. elegans sperm genes, here, we isolate highly pure sperm cells and employ high-throughput technologies to obtain sperm transcriptome and proteome. Results First, sperm transcriptome consists of considerable amounts of non-coding RNAs, many of which have not been annotated and may play functional roles during spermatogenesis. Second, apart from kinases/phosphatases as previously reported, ion binding proteins are also enriched in sperm, underlying the crucial roles of intracellular ions in post-translational regulation in sperm. Third, while the majority of sperm genes/proteins have low abundance, a small number of sperm genes/proteins are hugely enriched in sperm, implying that sperm only rely on a small set of proteins for post-translational regulation. Lastly, by extensive RNAi screening of sperm enriched genes, we identified a few genes that control fertility. Our further analysis reveals a tight correlation between sperm transcriptome and sperm small RNAome, suggesting that the endogenous siRNAs strongly repress sperm genes. This leads to an idea that the inefficient RNAi screening of sperm genes, a phenomenon currently with unknown causes, might result from the competition between the endogenous RNAi pathway and the exogenous RNAi pathway. Conclusions Together, the obtained sperm transcriptome and proteome serve as valuable resources to systematically study spermatogenesis in C. elegans. PMID:24581041

2014-01-01

154

Lactate Dehydrogenase C and Energy Metabolism in Mouse Sperm1  

PubMed Central

We demonstrated previously that disruption of the germ cell-specific lactate dehydrogenase C gene (Ldhc) led to male infertility due to defects in sperm function, including a rapid decline in sperm ATP levels, a decrease in progressive motility, and a failure to develop hyperactivated motility. We hypothesized that lack of LDHC disrupts glycolysis by feedback inhibition, either by causing a defect in renewal of the NAD+ cofactor essential for activity of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, sperm (GAPDHS), or an accumulation of pyruvate. To test these hypotheses, nuclear magnetic resonance analysis was used to follow the utilization of labeled substrates in real time. We found that in sperm lacking LDHC, glucose consumption was disrupted, but the NAD:NADH ratio and pyruvate levels were unchanged, and pyruvate was rapidly metabolized to lactate. Moreover, the metabolic disorder induced by treatment with the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) inhibitor sodium oxamate was different from that caused by lack of LDHC. This supported our earlier conclusion that LDHA, an LDH isozyme present in the principal piece of the flagellum, is responsible for the residual LDH activity in sperm lacking LDHC, but suggested that LDHC has an additional role in the maintenance of energy metabolism in sperm. By coimmunoprecipitation coupled with mass spectrometry, we identified 27 proteins associated with LDHC. A majority of these proteins are implicated in ATP synthesis, utilization, transport, and/or sequestration. This led us to hypothesize that in addition to its role in glycolysis, LDHC is part of a complex involved in ATP homeostasis that is disrupted in sperm lacking LDHC. PMID:21565994

Odet, Fanny; Gabel, Scott A.; Williams, Jason; London, Robert E.; Goldberg, Erwin; Eddy, Edward M.

2011-01-01

155

“OMICS” of Human Sperm: Profiling Protein Phosphatases  

PubMed Central

Abstract Phosphorylation is a major regulatory mechanism in eukaryotic cells performed by the concerted actions of kinases and phosphatases (PPs). Protein phosphorylation has long been relevant to sperm physiology, from acquisition of motility in the epididymis to capacitation in the female reproductive tract. While the precise kinases involved in the regulation of sperm phosphorylation have been studied for decades, the PPs have only recently received research interest. Tyrosine phosphorylation was first implicated in the regulation of several sperm-related functions, from capacitation to oocyte binding. Only afterwards, in 1996, the inhibition of the serine/threonine-PP phosphoprotein phosphatase 1 (PPP1) by okadaic acid and calyculin-A was shown to initiate motility in caput epididymal sperm. Today, the current mechanisms of sperm motility acquisition based on PPP1 and its regulators are still far from being fully understood. PPP1CC2, specifically expressed in mammalian sperm, has been considered to be the only sperm-specific serine/threonine-PP, while other PPP1 isoforms were thought to be absent from sperm. This article examines the “Omics” of human sperm, and reports, for the first time, the identification of three new serine/threonine-protein PPs, PPP1CB, PPP4C, and PPP6C, in human sperm, together with two tyrosine-PPs, MKP1 and PTP1C. We specifically localized in sperm PPP1CB and PPP1CC2 from the PPP1 subfamily, and PPP2CA, PPP4C, and PPP6C from the PPP2 subfamily of the serine/threonine-PPs. A semi-quantitative analysis was performed to determine the various PPs' differential expression in sperm head and tail. These findings contribute to a comprehensive understanding of human sperm PPs, and warrant further research for their clinical and therapeutic significance. PMID:23895272

Ferreira, Mónica; Pelech, Steven; Vieira, Sandra; Rebelo, Sandra; Korrodi-Gregorio, Luís; Sousa, Mário; Barros, Alberto; Silva, Vladimiro; da Cruz e Silva, Odete A. B.; da Cruz e Silva, Edgar F.

2013-01-01

156

Testing and learning Boolean functions  

E-print Network

Given a function f on n inputs, we consider the problem of testing whether f belongs to a concept class C, or is far from every member of C. An algorithm that achieves this goal for a particular C is called a property ...

Matulef, Kevin Michael

2009-01-01

157

OSMOTIC TOLERANCE OF AVIAN SPERMATOZOA: INFLUENCE OF TIME, TEMPERATURE, CRYOPROTECTANT AND MEMBRANE ION PUMP FUNCTION ON SPERM VIABILITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the sensitivity of crane and turkey spermatozoa to hyperosmotic conditions similar to those encountered during a cryogenic cycle. Sperm from both species were exposed to hypertonic media ranging from 500-3000 mOsm (300 mOsm = isotonic) for differing lengths o...

158

Mass-Specific Metabolic Rate and Sperm Competition Determine Sperm Size in Marsupial Mammals  

PubMed Central

Two complementary hypotheses have been proposed to explain variation in sperm size. The first proposes that post-copulatory sexual selection favors an increase in sperm size because it enhances sperm swimming speed, which is an important determinant of fertilization success in competitive contexts. The second hypothesis proposes that mass-specific metabolic rate acts as a constraint, because large animals with low mass-specific metabolic rates will not be able to process resources at the rates needed to produce large sperm. This constraint is expected to be particularly pronounced among mammals, given that this group contains some of the largest species on Earth. We tested these hypotheses among marsupials, a group in which mass-specific metabolic rates are roughly 30% lower than those of eutherian mammals of similar size, leading to the expectation that metabolic rate should be a major constraint. Our findings support both hypotheses because levels of sperm competition are associated with increases in sperm size, but low mass-specific metabolic rate constrains sperm size among large species. We also found that the relationship between sperm size and mass-specific metabolic rate is steeper among marsupials and shallower among eutherian mammals. This finding has two implications: marsupials respond to changes in mass-specific metabolic rate by modifying sperm length to a greater extent, suggesting that they are more constrained by metabolic rate. In addition, for any given mass-specific metabolic rate, marsupials produce longer sperm. We suggest that this is the consequence of marsupials diverting resources away from sperm numbers and into sperm size, due to their efficient sperm transport along the female tract and the existence of mechanisms to protect sperm. PMID:21731682

Tourmente, Maximiliano; Gomendio, Montserrat; Roldan, Eduardo R. S.

2011-01-01

159

LOCALIZATION OF SP22 ON HUMAN SPERM OF DIFFERING QUALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

LOCALIZATION OF SP22 ON HUMAN SPERM OF DIFFERING QUALITY. AE Lavers*1, GR Klinefelter2, DW Hamilton1, KP Roberts1, 1University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN and 2US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC. SP22 is a sperm membrane protein that has been implicated in sperm function d...

160

Senescent sperm performance in old male birds.  

PubMed

Senescence is the deterioration of the phenotype with age caused by negative effects of mutations acting late in life or the physiological deterioration of vital processes. Birds have traditionally been assumed to senescence slowly despite their high metabolic rates, high blood sugar levels and high body temperature. Here we investigate the patterns of age-related performance of sperm of a long distance migrant, the barn swallow Hirundo rustica, varying in age from 1 to 6 years, analysed by the computer-assisted sperm analysis equipment. Sperm showed deteriorating performance in terms of linear movement, track velocity, straight line velocity and reduced proportions of rapidly moving, progressive and motile sperm with age. In a second series of experiments, we assessed performance of sperm from the same males in neutral medium and in medium derived from the reproductive tract of females in an attempt to test if sperm of old males performed relatively better in female medium, as expected from extra-pair paternity being negatively related to male age, but not to female age. Older males showed consistently better performance in female medium than in neutral medium in terms of track velocity, straight line velocity and reduced proportions of rapidly moving, progressive and motile sperm, whereas young males showed better performance in neutral medium. These results provide evidence of declining sperm performance for important reproductive variables not only with age, but also with the sperm of old males performing differentially better in female medium than young males. PMID:19032491

Møller, A P; Mousseau, T A; Rudolfsen, G; Balbontín, J; Marzal, A; Hermosell, I; De Lope, F

2009-02-01

161

GALACSI integration and functional tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GALACSI is the Adaptive Optics (AO) modules of the ESO Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF) that will correct the wavefront delivered to the MUSE Integral Field Spectrograph. It will sense with four 40×40 subapertures Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors the AOF 4 Laser Guide Stars (LGS), acting on the 1170 voice-coils actuators of the Deformable Secondary Mirror (DSM). GALACSI has two operating modes: in Wide Field Mode (WFM), with the four LGS at 64" off axis, the collected energy in a 0.2"×0.2" pixel will be enhanced by a factor 2 at 750 nm over a Field of View (FoV) of 1'×1' using the Ground Layer AO (GLAO) technique. The other mode, the Narrow Field Mode (NFM), provides an enhanced wavefront correction (Strehl Ratio (SR) of 5% (goal 10%) at 650 nm) but in a smaller FoV (7.5"×7.5"), using Laser Tomography AO (LTAO), with the 4 LGS located closer, at 10" off axis. Before being shipped to Paranal, GALACSI will be first integrated and fully tested in stand-alone, and then moved to a dedicated AOF facility to be tested with the DSM in Europe. At present the module is fully assembled, its main functionalities have been implemented and verified, and AO system tests with the DSM are starting. We present here the main system features and the results of the internal functional tests of GALACSI.

La Penna, P.; Ströbele, S.; Aller Carpentier, E.; Argomedo, J.; Arsenault, R.; Conzelmann, R. D.; Delabre, B.; Donaldson, R.; Duchateau, M.; Fedrigo, E.; Gago, F.; Hubin, N.; Quentin, J.; Jolley, P.; Kiekebusch, M.; Kirchbauer, J. P.; Klein, B.; Kolb, J.; Kuntschner, H.; Le Louarn, M.; Lizon, J. L.; Madec, P.-.; Manescau, A.; Mehrgan, L.; Sedghi, B.; Suarez Valles, M.; Soenke, C.; Tordo, S.; Vernet, J.; Zampieri, S.

2014-07-01

162

Sperm competition and ejaculate investment in red squirrels ( Tamiasciurus hudsonicus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sperm competition is widespread in mammals and occurs when ejaculates from two or more males compete within the female’s reproductive\\u000a tract to fertilize the ova. Enlarged testes are associated with sperm competition because they produce sperm, but the accessory\\u000a glands produce fluids and proteins that are also important for fertilization success. Sperm morphology can also have consequences\\u000a for fertilization success

Vanessa L. Bonanno; Albrecht I. Schulte-Hostedde

2009-01-01

163

Sperm Shape (Morphology): Does It Affect Fertility?  

MedlinePLUS

... affect fertility? How is a man tested for infertility? The most common test of a man’s fertility ... of abnormally shaped sperm has been associated with infertility in some studies. Usually, higher numbers of abnormally ...

164

Multiple mating in the ant Cataglyphis cursor: testing the sperm limitation and the diploid male load hypotheses  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  Multiple mating (i.e., polyandry) by queens in social Hymenoptera is expected to weaken social cohesion since it lowers within-colony relatedness,\\u000a and hence, indirect fitness benefits from kin selection. Yet, there are many species where queens mate multiply. Several hypotheses\\u000a have been put forward to explain the evolution and maintenance of polyandry. Here,we investigated the ‘sperm limitation’ and\\u000a the ‘diploid male

M. Pearcy; I. Timmermans; D. Allard; S. Aron

2009-01-01

165

Individual adjustment of sperm expenditure accords with sperm competition theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sperm competition theory predicts that males should strategically allocate their sperm reserves according to the level of sperm competition, defined as the probability that the sperm of two males compete for fertilizing a given set of ova. Substantial evidence from numerous animal taxa suggests that, at the individual level, sperm expenditure increases when the risk of sperm competition is greater.

Andrea Pilastro; Marta Scaggiante; Maria B. Rasotto

2002-01-01

166

Abnormality on Liver Function Test  

PubMed Central

Children with abnormal liver function can often be seen in outpatient clinics or inpatients wards. Most of them have respiratory disease, or gastroenteritis by virus infection, accompanying fever. Occasionally, hepatitis by the viruses causing systemic infection may occur, and screening tests are required. In patients with jaundice, the tests for differential diagnosis and appropriate treatment are important. In the case of a child with hepatitis B virus infection vertically from a hepatitis B surface antigen positive mother, the importance of the recognition of immune clearance can't be overstressed, for the decision of time to begin treatment. Early diagnosis changes the fate of a child with Wilson disease. So, screening test for the disease should not be omitted. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which is mainly discovered in obese children, is a new strong candidate triggering abnormal liver function. Muscular dystrophy is a representative disease mimicking liver dysfunction. Although muscular dystrophy is a progressive disorder, and early diagnosis can't change the fate of patients, it will be better to avoid parent's blame for delayed diagnosis. PMID:24511518

2013-01-01

167

NICMOS DC Transfer Function Test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This early activity following the re-activation and re-cooling of NICMOS following SM4 is designed to test the basic operability of the NICMOSHgCdTe photodiode array focal plane detectors without exposure to external stimulating irradiation. This test requires "special commanding" and "non-standard" instrument state transition scheduling This test is to be executed following NCS cool-down and equilibration of the NICMOS detectors at their anticipated nominal Cycle 17 operating temperatures.Detector operability and dark functionality will be assessed from executing a bias-voltage ramped series series non-stimulated {dark} multiple non-destructive readout exposures; with the detector bias voltages ramped in 0.1V commanded steps from zero volts DC to 0.6 volts DC. These data MUST be taken in parallel in all three cameras, and make use of "non- standard" multi-accum sample-sequences, as we will compare these results directly to multiple pre-launch runs of the NICMOS System Test as well as the execution of SM2/NIC 7037 and SM3B/8976.

Schneider, Glenn

2009-07-01

168

Characterization of sperm motility in sea bass: the effect of heavy metals and physicochemical  

E-print Network

Characterization of sperm motility in sea bass: the effect of heavy metals and physicochemical of several physicochemical variables and heavy metals on sperm swimming performance. Duration of sperm. Two of the heavy metals tested, Cu2þ and Pb2þ , did not affect sperm motility when the activating

Villefranche sur mer

169

A C. elegans sperm TRP protein required for sperm-egg interactions during fertilization.  

PubMed

Fertilization, a critical step in animal reproduction, is triggered by a series of specialized sperm-egg interactions. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying fertilization are not well understood. Here, we identify a sperm-enriched C. elegans TRPC homolog, TRP-3. Mutations in trp-3 lead to sterility in both hermaphrodites and males due to a defect in their sperm. trp-3 mutant sperm are motile, but fail to fertilize oocytes after gamete contact. TRP-3 is initially localized in intracellular vesicles, and then translocates to the plasma membrane during sperm activation. This translocation coincides with a marked increase in store-operated calcium entry, providing an in vivo mechanism for the regulation of TRP-3 activity. As C. elegans oocytes lack egg coats, our data suggest that some TRPC family channels might function to mediate calcium influx during sperm-egg plasma membrane interactions leading to fertilization. PMID:12914694

Xu, X-Z Shawn; Sternberg, Paul W

2003-08-01

170

Significance of peristaltic squeezing of sperm bundles in the silkworm, Bombyx mori: elimination of irregular eupyrene sperm nuclei of the triploid.  

PubMed

Silkworm (Lepidoptera) males produce dimorphic sperm: nucleate eupyrene sperm and anucleate apyrene sperm. The eupyrene sperm are ordinary sperm to fertilise the eggs, while the function of apyrene sperm remains uncertain. After meiosis, 256 sperm cells are enclosed by a layer of cyst cells, forming a sperm bundle. We have previously documented that the nucleus of eupyrene sperm anchors to the head cyst cell, which locates at the anterior apex of the bundle, by an acrosome tubule-basal body assembly. Neither the basal body attachment to the nucleus nor the acrosome is seen in apyrene sperm, and the nuclei remain in the middle region of the bundle. Peristaltic squeezing starts from the anterior of the bundles in both types of sperm, and cytoplasmic debris of the eupyrene sperm, and both the nuclei and debris of apyrene sperm, are eliminated at the final stage of spermatogenesis. Since the irregularity of meiotic division in apyrene sperm is known, we used triploid silkworm males that show irregular meiotic division even in eupyrene spermatocytes and are highly sterile. The irregular nuclei of the triploid are discarded by the peristaltic squeezing just as those of the apyrene sperm. Transmission electron microscopic observations disclose the abnormality in the acrosome tubule and in the connection to the basal body. The peristaltic squeezing of sperm bundles in the silkworm appears to be the final control mechanism to eliminate irregular nuclei before they enter female reproductive organs. PMID:11358323

Kawamura, N; Yamashiki, N; Saitoh, H; Sahara, K

2001-05-01

171

Sperm competition in bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Sperm competition is a widespread phenomenon influencing the evolution of male anatomy, physiology and behaviour. Bats are an ideal group for studying sperm competition. Females store fertile sperm for up to 200 days and the size of social groups varies from single animals to groups of hundreds of thousands. This study examines the relationship between social group size and

D. J. Hosken

1997-01-01

172

SPE-44 Implements Sperm Cell Fate  

PubMed Central

The sperm/oocyte decision in the hermaphrodite germline of Caenorhabditis elegans provides a powerful model for the characterization of stem cell fate specification and differentiation. The germline sex determination program that governs gamete fate has been well studied, but direct mediators of cell-type-specific transcription are largely unknown. We report the identification of spe-44 as a critical regulator of sperm gene expression. Deletion of spe-44 causes sperm-specific defects in cytokinesis, cell cycle progression, and organelle assembly resulting in sterility. Expression of spe-44 correlates precisely with spermatogenesis and is regulated by the germline sex determination pathway. spe-44 is required for the appropriate expression of several hundred sperm-enriched genes. The SPE-44 protein is restricted to the sperm-producing germline, where it localizes to the autosomes (which contain sperm genes) but is excluded from the transcriptionally silent X chromosome (which does not). The orthologous gene in other Caenorhabditis species is similarly expressed in a sex-biased manner, and the protein likewise exhibits autosome-specific localization in developing sperm, strongly suggestive of an evolutionarily conserved role in sperm gene expression. Our analysis represents the first identification of a transcriptional regulator whose primary function is the control of gamete-type-specific transcription in this system. PMID:22570621

Guevel, Katie; Smith, Harold E.

2012-01-01

173

Evolution of sperm structure and energetics in passerine birds.  

PubMed

Spermatozoa exhibit considerable interspecific variability in size and shape. Our understanding of the adaptive significance of this diversity, however, remains limited. Determining how variation in sperm structure translates into variation in sperm performance will contribute to our understanding of the evolutionary diversification of sperm form. Here, using data from passerine birds, we test the hypothesis that longer sperm swim faster because they have more available energy. We found that sperm with longer midpieces have higher levels of intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP), but that greater energy reserves do not translate into faster-swimming sperm. Additionally, we found that interspecific variation in sperm ATP concentration is not associated with the level of sperm competition faced by males. Finally, using Bayesian methods, we compared the evolutionary trajectories of sperm morphology and ATP content, and show that both traits have undergone directional evolutionary change. However, in contrast to recent suggestions in other taxa, we show that changes in ATP are unlikely to have preceded changes in morphology in passerine sperm. These results suggest that variable selective pressures are likely to have driven the evolution of sperm traits in different taxa, and highlight fundamental biological differences between taxa with internal and external fertilization, as well as those with and without sperm storage. PMID:23282997

Rowe, Melissah; Laskemoen, Terje; Johnsen, Arild; Lifjeld, Jan T

2013-02-22

174

Evolution of sperm structure and energetics in passerine birds  

PubMed Central

Spermatozoa exhibit considerable interspecific variability in size and shape. Our understanding of the adaptive significance of this diversity, however, remains limited. Determining how variation in sperm structure translates into variation in sperm performance will contribute to our understanding of the evolutionary diversification of sperm form. Here, using data from passerine birds, we test the hypothesis that longer sperm swim faster because they have more available energy. We found that sperm with longer midpieces have higher levels of intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP), but that greater energy reserves do not translate into faster-swimming sperm. Additionally, we found that interspecific variation in sperm ATP concentration is not associated with the level of sperm competition faced by males. Finally, using Bayesian methods, we compared the evolutionary trajectories of sperm morphology and ATP content, and show that both traits have undergone directional evolutionary change. However, in contrast to recent suggestions in other taxa, we show that changes in ATP are unlikely to have preceded changes in morphology in passerine sperm. These results suggest that variable selective pressures are likely to have driven the evolution of sperm traits in different taxa, and highlight fundamental biological differences between taxa with internal and external fertilization, as well as those with and without sperm storage. PMID:23282997

Rowe, Melissah; Laskemoen, Terje; Johnsen, Arild; Lifjeld, Jan T.

2013-01-01

175

High quality sperm for nonhuman primate ART: Production and assessment  

PubMed Central

Factors that affect sperm quality can include method of semen collection, conditions for capacitation and whether or not agglutination is present. Media and procedures for sperm washing can also impair or improve sperm function in assisted reproductive technologies. For example, the removal of seminal fluid through large volume washing is required to eliminate decapacitation activity of seminal plasma. The forces involved with centrifugation and the metabolic stress of tightly pelleting sperm during washing procedures can have deleterious results. In contrast to human sperm, sperm from the most commonly used species of nonhuman primates, rhesus and cynomolgus macaques, do not spontaneously capacitate in vitro; rather, chemical activation with dibutryl cyclic AMP and caffeine is required. Recognizing motility patterns of non-activated and activated sperm can be accomplished with simple observation. After activation, sperm agglutination sometimes occurs and can interfere with sperm binding to the zona pellucida. Because nonhuman primate oocytes require a large investment to produce and currently, each animal can be hormonally stimulated a limited number of times, it is important to have means to evaluate quality prior to using sperm from a new male for in vitro fertilization. Methods for producing live, acrosome reacted sperm may also have application for ICSI. Because many genetically valuable males are now being identified, it may be necessary to individualize sperm preparation to accommodate male-to-male variation. PMID:15200678

VandeVoort, Catherine A

2004-01-01

176

Human sperm DNA integrity in normal and abnormal semen samples and its correlation with sperm characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Reports indicate an increase in the incidence of DNA fragmentation in male factor infertility and its role in the outcome of assisted reproductive techniques (ART). However, reports are conflicting between the relationships of sperm DNA integrity with conventional semen parameters. We examined the relation- ship between conventional sperm parameters and DNA integrity using acridine orange (AO) test. The study

A. C. Varghese; F. M. Bragais; D. Mukhopadhyay; S. Kundu; M. Pal; A. K. Bhattacharyya; A. Agarwal

2009-01-01

177

Sperm: seminal fluid interactions and the adjustment of sperm quality in relation to female attractiveness  

PubMed Central

An important predictor of male fitness is the fertilizing efficiency of their ejaculates. Ejaculates are costly to produce and males are predicted to devote greater resources to copulations with reproductively superior females. It is well established that males allocate different numbers of sperm to ejaculates. However, less is known about how males adjust their sperm quality, which has important implications for our understanding of fertilization and the evolution of sexual strategies. Here we test in the fowl, Gallus gallus, whether males adjust their sperm velocity by differentially allocating seminal fluid to copulations with attractive and unattractive females. To disentangle the contributions of sperm and seminal fluid to sperm velocity, we separated and remixed sperm and seminal fluid from ejaculates allocated to females of different attractiveness. We show that dominant males increase the velocity of the sperm they invest in more attractive females by allocating larger ejaculates that contain seminal fluid that increases sperm velocity. Furthermore, we find weak evidence that males also allocate sperm with higher velocity, irrespective of seminal fluid, to more attractive females. PMID:19586951

Cornwallis, Charlie K.; O'Connor, Emily A.

2009-01-01

178

Sperm selection and genetic incompatibility: does relatedness of mates affect male success in sperm competition?  

PubMed Central

Sperm selection may be said to occur if females influence the relative success of ejaculates competing to fertilize their ova. Most evidence that female animals or their ova are capable of sperm selection relates to male genetic incompatibility, although relatively few studies focus on competition between conspecific males. Here I look for evidence of sperm selection with respect to relatedness of mates. Reduced fitness or inbreeding effects in offspring resulting from copulations between close relatives are well documented. If females are capable of sperm selection, they might therefore be expected to discriminate against the sperm of sibling males during sperm competition. I describe an experimental protocol designed to test for evidence of sperm selection while controlling for inbreeding effects. Using decorated field crickets (Gryllodes supplicans), I found that sibling males achieved lower fertilization success in competition with a male unrelated to the female than in competition with another sibling more frequently than expected by chance, although the mean paternity values did not differ significantly between treatments. The tendancy for sibling males to achieve relatively lower fertilization success in competition with males unrelated to the female could not be explained by the effects of increased ejaculate allocation, female control of sperm transfer or inbreeding. This study therefore provides some evidence in support of the idea that female insects (or their ova) may be capable of selection against sperm on the basis of genetic similarity of conspecific males.

Stockley, P.

1999-01-01

179

Sperm competition and sperm midpiece size: no consistent pattern in passerine birds  

PubMed Central

Sperm competition is thought to be a major force driving the evolution of sperm shape and function. However, previous studies investigating the relationship between the risk of sperm competition and sperm morphometry revealed inconclusive results and marked differences between taxonomic groups. In a comparative study of two families of passerines (Fringillidae and Sylviidae) and also across species belonging to different passerine families, we investigated the relative importance of the phylogenetic background on the relationship between sperm morphometry and the risk of sperm competition. The risk of sperm competition was inferred from relative testis mass as an indicator of investment in sperm production. We found: (i) a significant positive association between both midpiece length and flagellum length and relative testis mass in the Fringillidae, (ii) a significant negative association between sperm trait dimensions and relative testis mass in the Sylviidae, and (iii) no association across all species. Despite the striking difference in the patterns shown by the Sylviidae and the Fringillidae, the relationship between midpiece length and flagellum length was positive in both families and across all species with positive allometry. Reasons for the differences and similarities between passerine families are discussed. PMID:17476777

Immler, Simone; Birkhead, Tim R

2006-01-01

180

What Are Lung Function Tests?  

MedlinePLUS

... level in your blood are pulse oximetry and arterial blood gas tests. These tests also are called blood ... oxygen level using a special light. For an arterial blood gas test, your doctor takes a sample of ...

181

Why don't some men with banked sperm respond to letters about their stored samples?  

PubMed

Abstract Long-term storage of banked sperm, especially when it is not needed, for reproductive purposes, is costly and poses practical problems for sperm banks. For sperm banks to function efficiently, men must understand the implications of unnecessary storage, and make timely decisions about disposal of their own samples. Men who bank sperm prior to cancer treatment are routinely offered follow-up consultations to test their fertility, update consent and, where necessary, expedite referral for Assisted Conception. Yet sperm banks report that men do not respond to letters, suggesting samples are stored needlessly. We conducted semi-structured interviews with six men with a history of not responding to letters, to document reasons for non-response. Interviews were transcribed and analysed using Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis. Men's reasons for not responding are a complex interplay between past, present and future perspectives. In terms of their past, information is important on diagnosis, because men must understand that fertility can change after treatment. Present and future concerns focus on fears of being told fertility has not recovered and being pressured to dispose of banked sperm. The challenge is to devise invitation letters that address men's concerns while offering them tangible benefits and peace of mind. PMID:24946139

Eiser, Christine; Merrick, Hannah; Arden-Close, Emily; Morris, Kate; Rowe, Richard; Pacey, Allan A

2014-12-01

182

Sperm competition and the evolution of sperm design in mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The influence of sperm competition upon sperm size has been a controversial issue during the last 20 years which remains unresolved for mammals. The hypothesis that, when ejaculates compete with rival males, an increase in sperm size would make sperm more competitive because it would increase sperm swimming speed, has generated contradictory results from both theoretical and empirical studies.

Maximiliano Tourmente; Montserrat Gomendio; Eduardo RS Roldan

2011-01-01

183

Sperm competition, male prudence, and sperm-limited females (2002)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sperm are produced in astronomical numbers compared with eggs, and there is good evidence that sperm competition is the force behind the evolution of many tiny sperm. However, sperm production inevitably has costs. Recent research shows that male ejaculate expenditure is dynamic in both time and space, and that males are sensitive to risks of sperm competition and can vary

Nina Wedell; Matthew Gage; Geoffrey Parker

184

Sperm motility under conditions of weightlessness.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the differences in motility of frozen and thawed bull spermatozoa under conditions of weightlessness compared with ground conditions. The tests were performed within a series of scientific and technologic experiments under microgravity using sounding rockets in the Technologische Experimente unter Schwerelosigkeit (TEXUS) program launched in Kiruna, North Sweden. Using a computerized sperm motility analyzer, significant differences were found in sperm motility under microgravity compared with sperm under gravitational conditions on earth. Computer analysis showed alterations in straight line and curvilinear velocity, as well as in linearity values. The amount of progressively motile spermatozoa, including all spermatozoa with a velocity > 20 microns/second, increased significantly from 24% +/- 9.5% in the reference test to 49% +/- 7.6% in the microgravity test. In conclusion, there is strong evidence that gravity influences sperm motility. PMID:1429219

Engelmann, U; Krassnigg, F; Schill, W B

1992-01-01

185

Sperm phosphoproteomics: historical perspectives and current methodologies  

PubMed Central

Mammalian sperm are differentiated germ cells that transfer genetic material from the male to the female. Owing to this essential role in the reproductive process, an understanding of the complex mechanisms that underlie sperm function has implications ranging from the development of novel contraceptives to the treatment of male infertility. While the importance of phosphorylation in sperm differentiation, maturation and fertilization has been well established, the ability to directly determine the sites of phosphorylation within sperm proteins and to quantitate the extent of phosphorylation at these sites is a recent development that has relied almost exclusively on advances in the field of proteomics. This review will summarize the work that has been carried out to date on sperm phosphoproteomics and discuss how the resulting qualitative and quantitative information has been used to provide insight into the manner in which protein phosphorylation events modulate sperm function. The authors also present the proteomics process as it is most often utilized for the elucidation of protein expression, with a particular emphasis on the way in which the process has been modified for the analysis of protein phosphorylation in sperm. PMID:23194270

Porambo, James R; Salicioni, Ana M; Visconti, Pablo E; Platt, Mark D

2013-01-01

186

Positive Association of Sperm Dysfunction in the Pathogenesis of Recurrent Pregnancy Loss  

PubMed Central

Background: Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is one of the most frustrating and difficult areas in reproductive medicine, because the aetiology is often unknown and there are few evidence-based diagnostic and treatment strategies. RPL diagnosis is mainly focused on the female partner. The male factor contributing in evaluation of RPL has been less investigated, it is restricted to karyotype and basic semen analysis, assessment of functionality of sperm is largely ignored. Aim and Objective: To investigate the role of sperm factors in RPL through regular semen analysis preceded with sperm function tests. Materials and Methods: We performed a case control study of 95 males whose partner has experienced two or more pregnancy loss as case and 37 volunteers who had fathered child/children without the history of RPL as control group. Basic semen analysis and sperm function test (Nuclear chromatin decondensation {NCD}, Hypo osmotic swelling {HOS} and Acrosome intactness test {AIT} was performed. The results were analysed by performing Independent-sample t-test using SPSS (version 14.0). Results: One individual had anatomical abnormality which was confirmed through trans-rectal ultrasound scanning and RPL group showed statistically significant (p<0.05) value for NCD, HOS and AIT and 36.8% of RPL individuals had reduced score for sperm count and motility. Less than 4% normal morphology was recorded in 16.8% individuals of RPL group. Conclusion: Our study revealed that the positive association of sperm dysfunction in RPL cases, hence male may be considered for a routine part of the evaluation along with his partner in the near future in order to achieve desirable outcome.

P, Kavitha

2014-01-01

187

Evaluation of abnormal liver function tests  

PubMed Central

Interpretation of abnormalities in liver function tests is a common problem faced by clinicians. This has become more common with the introduction of automated routine laboratory testing. Not all persons with one or more abnormalities in these tests actually have liver disease. The various biochemical tests, their pathophysiology, and an approach to the interpretation of abnormal liver function tests are discussed in this review. PMID:12840117

Limdi, J; Hyde, G

2003-01-01

188

Intracellular pH in sperm physiology.  

PubMed

Intracellular pH (pHi) regulation is essential for cell function. Notably, several unique sperm ion transporters and enzymes whose elimination causes infertility are either pHi dependent or somehow related to pHi regulation. Amongst them are: CatSper, a Ca(2+) channel; Slo3, a K(+) channel; the sperm-specific Na(+)/H(+) exchanger and the soluble adenylyl cyclase. It is thus clear that pHi regulation is of the utmost importance for sperm physiology. This review briefly summarizes the key components involved in pHi regulation, their characteristics and participation in fundamental sperm functions such as motility, maturation and the acrosome reaction. PMID:24887564

Nishigaki, Takuya; José, Omar; González-Cota, Ana Laura; Romero, Francisco; Treviño, Claudia L; Darszon, Alberto

2014-08-01

189

Effect of tulsi (Ocimum Sanctum Linn.) on sperm count and reproductive hormones in male albino rabbits.  

PubMed

Fresh leaves of Ocimum Sanctum (OS) were used to study its effect on male reproductive function (sperm count and reproductive hormones) in male albino rabbits. Animals in the test group received supplementation of 2 g of fresh leaves of OS per rabbit for 30 days, while the control group was maintained on normal diet for the same duration. Sperm count and hormonal estimation [testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH)] were done in serum samples of both groups and compared. A significant decrease was noted in the sperm count in test group rabbits. Serum testosterone levels showed marked increase while FSH and LH levels were significantly reduced in OS-treated rabbits. The results suggest the potential use of OS as an effective male contraceptive agent. PMID:21455446

Sethi, Jyoti; Yadav, Mridul; Sood, Sushma; Dahiya, Kiran; Singh, Veena

2010-10-01

190

Rheotaxis guides mammalian sperm  

PubMed Central

Background In sea urchins, spermatozoan motility is altered by chemotactic peptides, giving rise to the assumption that mammalian eggs also emit chemotactic agents that guide spermatozoa through the female reproductive tract to the mature oocyte. Mammalian spermatozoa indeed undergo complex adaptations within the female (the process of capacitation) that are initiated by agents ranging from pH to progesterone, but these factors are not necessarily taxic. Currently, chemotaxis, thermotaxis, and rheotaxis have not been definitively established in mammals. Results Here, we show that positive rheotaxis, the ability of organisms to orient and swim against the flow of surrounding fluid, is a major taxic factor for mouse and human sperm. This flow is generated within 4 hours of sexual stimulation and coitus in female mice; prolactin-triggered oviductal fluid secretion clears the oviduct of debris, lowers viscosity, and generates the stream that guides sperm migration in the oviduct. Rheotaxic movement is demonstrated in capacitated and uncapacitated spermatozoa in low and high viscosity medium. Finally, we show that a unique sperm motion we quantify using the sperm head's rolling rate reflects sperm rotation that generates essential force for positioning the sperm in the stream. Rotation requires CatSper channels, presumably by enabling Ca2+ influx. Conclusions We propose that rheotaxis is a major determinant of sperm guidance over long distances in the mammalian female reproductive tract. Coitus induces fluid flow to guide sperm in the oviduct. Sperm rheotaxis requires rotational motion during CatSper channel-dependent hyperactivated motility. PMID:23453951

Miki, Kiyoshi; Clapham, David E

2013-01-01

191

Intra-specific variation of sperm length in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae: males with shorter sperm have higher reproductive success  

PubMed Central

Background Intra-specific variation in sperm length influences male reproductive success in several species of insects. In males of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae, sperm length is highly variable but the significance of this variation is unknown. Understanding what determines the reproductive success of male mosquitoes is critical for controlling malaria, and in particular for replacing natural populations with transgenic, malaria-resistant mosquitoes. Methods A laboratory population of A. gambiae males was tested for intra-specific variation in sperm length. A full-sib quantitative genetic design was used to test for a genetic component of sperm length in A. gambiae males and estimate its heritability. This study also tested for a relationship between sperm length and male reproductive success in A. gambiae. Male reproductive success was measured as the proportions of inseminated and ovipositing females. Results There was intra-specific variation of sperm length in A. gambiae. There was no significant genetic variation in sperm length and its heritability was low (h2 = 0.18) compared to other insects. Sperm length was correlated with male body size (measured as wing length). Males with short sperm had significantly higher reproductive success than males with long sperm and this was independent of body size. Conclusion This is the first study to demonstrate intra-specific variation in sperm length in A. gambiae and that males with short sperm have higher reproductive success. That sperm length influences female oviposition is important for any strategy considering the release of transgenic males. PMID:18939985

Voordouw, Maarten J; Koella, Jacob C; Hurd, Hilary

2008-01-01

192

Functional Assays for Neurotoxicity Testing  

EPA Science Inventory

Neurobehavioral and pathological evaluations of the nervous system are complementary components of basic research and toxicity testing of pharmaceutical and environmental chemicals. While neuropathological assessments provide insight as to cellular changes in neurons, behavioral ...

193

Functional Assays for Neurotoxicity Testing*  

EPA Science Inventory

Neurobehavioral and pathological evaluations of the nervous system are complementary components of basic research and toxicity testing of pharmaceutical and environmental chemicals. While neuropathological assessments provide insight as to cellular changes in neurons, behavioral ...

194

Ventricular repolarization during cardiovascular autonomic function testing.  

E-print Network

??The autonomic nervous system is an important modulator of ventricular repolarization and arrhythmia vulnerability. This study explored the effects of cardiovascular autonomic function tests on… (more)

Haapalahti, Petri

2008-01-01

195

Disturbances of Sperm Maturation and Minipuberty: Is There a Connection?  

PubMed Central

Male reproductive function in the general population raises an increased attention due to reports indicating declining sperm counts, increased occurrence of testicular cancer, cryptorchidism, and hypospadias. It is also hypothesized that prolonged exposure of the developing male, during both fetal and postnatal life, to exogenous estrogens could reduce Sertoli cell number and thus reduce sperm output (and sperm counts) in adult life. Fact is that infertility, which is defined as the inability to conceive after 1 year of unprotected intercourse, has a global prevalence of 9%. A male contributory factor is involved in approximately half of these cases, but most of the causes of reduced semen quality and other disturbances of male reproductive function are unknown. In the most affected men (azoospermic men) 15–20% had a prior history of cryptorchidism. The association between the cryptorchidism and infertility is one of the most studied potential causes of infertility. There are numerous studies that accentuate the importance of minipuberty for future fertility. Is it possible that a normal minipuberty ensures normal fertility despite malpositioned testes? And to move away from cryptorchidism, could impaired minipuberty be responsible for fertility problems in men who were born with both testes in their scrotal sacs? PMID:24738078

Živkovi?, D.; Fratri?, I.

2014-01-01

196

Pulmonary Function Testing in Children  

MedlinePLUS

... can be compared to the results of other children of the same sex, age, and height, like the standard ranges on a growth chart. Two common PFT’s done in children are s pirometry and airway resistance tests . What is ...

197

Sperm Patch-Clamp  

PubMed Central

Sperm intracellular pH and calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) are two central factors that control sperm activity within the female reproductive tract. As such, the ion channels of the sperm plasma membrane that alter intracellular sperm [Ca2+] and pH play important roles in sperm physiology and the process of fertilization. Indeed, sperm ion channels regulate sperm motility, control sperm chemotaxis toward the egg in some species, and may trigger the acrosome reaction. Until recently, our understanding of these important molecules was rudimentary due to the inability to patch-clamp spermatozoa and directly record the activity of these ion channels under voltage clamp. Recently, we overcame this technical barrier and developed a method for reproducible application of the patch-clamp technique to mouse and human spermatozoa. This chapter covers important aspects of application of the patch-clamp technique to spermatozoa, such as selection of the electrophysiological equipment, isolation of spermatozoa for patch-clamp experiments, formation of the gigaohm seal with spermatozoa, and transition into the whole-cell mode of recording. We also discuss potential pitfalls in application of the patch-clamp technique to flagellar ion channels. PMID:23522465

Lishko, Polina; Clapham, David E.; Navarro, Betsy; Kirichok, Yuriy

2014-01-01

198

Improved methodology for a sea urchin sperm cell bioassay for marine waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple sperm\\/fertilization bioassay, primarily using sea urchin (and sand dollar) gametes, was improved to yield a quick, sensitive, and cost-effective procedure for measuring toxicity in marine waters. Standard sperm bioassays are conducted by exposing sperm cells to test solutions for 60 min prior to addition of eggs to the test solution for fertilization. Reduced fertilization success (as indicated by

Paul A. Dinnel; Jeanne M. Link; Quentin J. Stober

1987-01-01

199

Dynamics of sperm transfer in the ant Leptothorax gredleri  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mating tactics differ remarkably between and within species of social Hymenoptera (bees, wasps, ants) concerning, e.g., mating frequencies, sperm competition, and the degree of male sperm limitation. Although social Hymenoptera might, therefore, potentially be ideal model systems for testing sexual selection theory, the dynamics of mating and sperm transfer have rarely been studied in species other than social bees, and basic information needed to draw conclusions about possible sperm competition and female choice is lacking. We investigated sperm transfer in the ant Leptothorax gredleri, a species in which female sexuals attract males by “female calling.” The analysis of 38 female sexuals fixed immediately or up to 7 days after copulation with a single male each revealed that the sperm is transferred into the female bursa copulatrix embedded in a gelatinous mass, presumably a spermatophore. Sperm cells rapidly start to migrate from the tip of the spermatophore towards the spermatheca, but transfer is drastically slowed down by an extreme constriction of the spermathecal duct, through which sperm cells have to pass virtually one by one. This results in the spermatheca being filled only between one and several hours after mating. During this time, the posterior part of the spermatophore seals the junction between bursa copulatrix and spermathecal duct and prevents sperm loss. The prolonged duration of sperm transfer might allow female sexuals to chose between ejaculates and explain previously reported patterns of single paternity of the offspring of multiply mated queens.

Oppelt, Angelika; Heinze, Jürgen

2007-09-01

200

Sperm size of African cichlids in relation to sperm competition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared pairs of closely related taxa of cichlid fishes from Lake Tanganyika to examine the relationship between sperm size and the presumed intensity of sperm competition. In contrast to previous reports of relatively short sperm in polygamous fishes across a variety of taxa, we found that polygamous cichlids had significantly longer sperm than their closest monogamous relatives. In addition,

Sigal Balshine; Brenda J. Leach; Francis Neat; Noam Y. Werner; Robert Montgomerieb

2001-01-01

201

Suprazero Cooling Rate, Rather Than Freezing Rate, Determines Post Thaw Quality Of Rhesus Macaque Sperm  

PubMed Central

Sperm become most sensitive to cold shock when cooled from 37ºC to 5ºC at rates that are too fast or too slow; cold shock increases the susceptibility to oxidative damage due to its influence on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production ([1]. ROS are significant stress factors that are generated during cooling and low temperature storage, and may be a main cause of decreased motility and fertility upon warming. ROS have been shown to change cellular function through the disruption of the sperm plasma membrane and through damage to proteins and DNA. The objective of this study was to determine which cryopreservation rates result in the lowest degree of oxidative damage and greatest sperm quality. In the rhesus model it has not been determined whether suprazero cooling or subzero freezing rates causes a significant amount of ROS damage to sperm. Semen samples were collected from male rhesus macaques, washed, and resuspended in TEST-yolk cryopreservation buffer to 100 x 106 sperm/mL. Sperm were frozen in 0.5mL straws at four different combinations of suprazero and subzero rates. Three different suprazero rates were used between 22ºC and 0ºC: 0.5ºC/min (Slow), 45ºC/min (Medium), and 93ºC/min (Fast). These suprazero rates were used in combination with two different subzero rates for temperatures 0ºC to ?110ºC: 42ºC/min (Medium) and 87ºC/min (Fast). The different freezing groups were as follows: Slow-Med (SM), Slow-Fast (SF), Med-Med (MM), and Fast-Fast (FF). Flow cytometry was used to detect lipid peroxidation (LPO), a result of ROS generation. Motility was evaluated using a computer assisted sperm motion analyzer. The MM and FF treated sperm had less viable (P < 0.0001) and motile sperm (P < 0.001) than the SM, SF, or fresh sperm. Sperm exposed to MM and FF treatments demonstrated significantly higher oxidative damage than SM, SF, or fresh sperm (P < 0.05). The SM and SF treated sperm showed decreased motility, membrane integrity, and LPO compared to fresh semen (P<0.001). Slow cooling from room temperature promotes higher membrane integrity and motility post thaw, compared to medium or fast cooling rates. Cells exposed to similar cooling rates with differing freezing rates were not different in motility and membrane integrity, whereas comparison of cells exposed to differing cooling rates with similar freezing rates indicated significant differences in motility, membrane integrity, and LPO. These data suggest that sperm quality appears to be more sensitive to the cooling, rather than freezing rate and highlight the role of the suprazero cooling rate in post thaw sperm quality. PMID:24239181

Martorana, Kelly; Klooster, Katie; Meyers, Stuart

2013-01-01

202

Viability and fertilizing capacity of cryopreserved sperm from three North American acipenseriform species: A retrospective study  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Populations of sturgeon across the globe are threatened due to unregulated harvest and habitat loss, and the status varies among species across North America. Ready access to viable and functional sperm would contribute to recovery programmes for these species. In this study, we examined the motility, viability (cell membrane integrity) of cryopreserved sperm from three North American acipenseriform species and fertilizing capacity. Milt samples were collected from captive shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum), wild paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) and pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) and cryopreserved using combinations of Modified Tsvetkova's (MT) extender, Original Tsvetkova's extender, and modified Hanks' balanced salt solution, along with the cryoprotectants methanol (MeOH) or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). A dual-staining technique using the fluorescent stains SYBR-14 and propidium iodide was employed with flow cytometry to determine the percentages of spermatozoa that were viable by virtue of having intact membranes. The percentage of viable spermatozoa ranged from 5% to 12% in shortnose sturgeon, 30-59% in paddlefish, and 44-58% in pallid sturgeon. In the first experiment with shortnose sturgeon sperm, methanol allowed for higher values for dependent variables than did DMSO, and sperm viability generally correlated with post-thaw motility. However, fertilization rate, neurulation, or hatching rates were independent from these factors. In the second experiment with shortnose sturgeon, 5% MeOH combined with MT yielded higher values for all parameters tested than the other combinations: viability was correlated with motility, fertilization rate, and hatching rate. Overall, viability and post-thaw motility was not affected by the use of hyperosmotic extenders (OT) or cryoprotectants (DMSO), but their use decreased fertilization percentages. For paddlefish sperm (experiment 3), MT combined with 10% MeOH was clearly a good choice for cryopreservation; viability and motility results were correlated, but independent of fertilization. For pallid sturgeon sperm (experiment 4), MT with 5-10% MeOH showed significantly higher sperm quality and fertilization parameters. Membrane integrity can be used as a predictor of fertilization by cryopreserved sperm, however additional sperm quality parameters, supplementary to motility and membrane integrity, would be useful in the refining and optimizing cryopreservation protocols with acipenseriform sperm. ?? 2008 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

Horvath, A.; Wayman, W.R.; Dean, J.C.; Urbanyi, B.; Tiersch, T.R.; Mims, S.D.; Johnson, D.; Jenkins, J.A.

2008-01-01

203

Testing for familial aggregation of functional traits  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY In a genetic epidemiology study of a trait, prior to collecting genetic data the foremost task is to test for familial aggregation and examine heritability. Recently, functional traits have drawn attentions from investigators. Here, to test for familial aggregation of a functional trait in family studies, a test constructed based on the leading functional principal component of heritability, which is a summary measure of temporal genetic variation in a functional trait is proposed. The p-value of the test can be approximated by a permutation procedure given the family structure. The asymptotic distribution of the test statistic is derived. Simulations are carried out to examine the size and the power of the test. Proposed methods are applied to the total cholesterol data in the Framingham Heart Study. PMID:19731232

Fang, Yixin; Wang, Yuanjia

2013-01-01

204

The testis anion transporter TAT1 (SLC26A8) physically and functionally interacts with the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator channel: a potential role during sperm capacitation.  

PubMed

The Slc26 gene family encodes several conserved anion transporters implicated in human genetic disorders, including Pendred syndrome, diastrophic dysplasia and congenital chloride diarrhea. We previously characterized the TAT1 (testis anion transporter 1; SLC26A8) protein specifically expressed in male germ cells and mature sperm and showed that in the mouse, deletion of Tat1 caused male sterility due to a lack of sperm motility, impaired sperm capacitation and structural defects of the flagella. Ca(2+), Cl(-) and HCO(3)(-) influxes trigger sperm capacitation events required for oocyte fertilization; these events include the intracellular rise of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent protein phosphorylation. The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is expressed in mature sperm and has been shown to contribute to Cl(-) and HCO(3)(-) movements during capacitation. Furthermore, several members of the SLC26 family have been described to form complexes with CFTR, resulting in the reciprocal regulation of their activities. We show here that TAT1 and CFTR physically interact and that in Xenopus laevis oocytes and in CHO-K1 cells, TAT1 expression strongly stimulates CFTR activity. Consistent with this, we show that Tat1 inactivation in mouse sperm results in deregulation of the intracellular cAMP content, preventing the activation of PKA-dependent downstream phosphorylation cascades essential for sperm activation. These various results suggest that TAT1 and CFTR may form a molecular complex involved in the regulation of Cl(-) and HCO(3)(-) fluxes during sperm capacitation. In humans, mutations in CFTR and/or TAT1 may therefore be causes of asthenozoospermia and low fertilizing capacity of sperm. PMID:22121115

Rode, Baptiste; Dirami, Thassadite; Bakouh, Naziha; Rizk-Rabin, Marthe; Norez, Caroline; Lhuillier, Pierre; Lorès, Patrick; Jollivet, Mathilde; Melin, Patricia; Zvetkova, Ilona; Bienvenu, Thierry; Becq, Frédéric; Planelles, Gabrielle; Edelman, Aleksander; Gacon, Gérard; Touré, Aminata

2012-03-15

205

Sexual Selection IV: Sperm Competition  

E-print Network

Sexual Selection IV: Sperm Competition BIO3176 - University of Ottawa Prof. Gabriel Blouin and extra-pair paternity are common, even in socially monogamous species Sperm Competition 2 Proof of Sperm Competition Harcourt et al 1981 Nature 293: 55-57 3 · Primates · Selection on ejaculate volume Proof of Sperm

Blouin-Demers, Gabriel

206

An update on sperm retrieval techniques for azoospermic males  

PubMed Central

The use of non-ejaculated sperm coupled with intracytoplasmic sperm injection has become a globally established procedure for couples with azoospermic male partners who wish to have biological offspring. Surgical methods have been developed to retrieve spermatozoa from the epididymides and the testes of such patients. This article reviews the methods currently available for sperm acquisition in azoospermia, with a particular focus on the perioperative, anesthetic and technical aspects of these procedures. A critical analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of these sperm retrieval methods is provided, including the authors' methods of choice and anesthesia preferences. PMID:23503959

Esteves, Sandro C; Miyaoka, Ricardo; Orosz, José Eduardo; Agarwal, Ashok

2013-01-01

207

An update on sperm retrieval techniques for azoospermic males.  

PubMed

The use of non-ejaculated sperm coupled with intracytoplasmic sperm injection has become a globally established procedure for couples with azoospermic male partners who wish to have biological offspring. Surgical methods have been developed to retrieve spermatozoa from the epididymides and the testes of such patients. This article reviews the methods currently available for sperm acquisition in azoospermia, with a particular focus on the perioperative, anesthetic and technical aspects of these procedures. A critical analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of these sperm retrieval methods is provided, including the authors' methods of choice and anesthesia preferences. PMID:23503959

Esteves, Sandro C; Miyaoka, Ricardo; Orosz, José Eduardo; Agarwal, Ashok

2013-01-01

208

Sperm competition and the evolution of sperm design in mammals  

PubMed Central

Background The influence of sperm competition upon sperm size has been a controversial issue during the last 20 years which remains unresolved for mammals. The hypothesis that, when ejaculates compete with rival males, an increase in sperm size would make sperm more competitive because it would increase sperm swimming speed, has generated contradictory results from both theoretical and empirical studies. In addition, the debate has extended to which sperm components should increase in size: the midpiece to accommodate more mitochondria and produce more energy to fuel motility, or the principal piece to generate greater propulsion forces. Results In this study we examined the influence of sperm competition upon sperm design in mammals using a much larger data set (226 species) than in previous analyses, and we corrected for phylogenetic effects by using a more complete and resolved phylogeny, and more robust phylogenetic control methods. Our results show that, as sperm competition increases, all sperm components increase in an integrated manner and sperm heads become more elongated. The increase in sperm length was found to be associated with enhanced swimming velocity, an adaptive trait under sperm competition. Conclusions We conclude that sperm competition has played an important role in the evolution of sperm design in mammals, and discuss why previous studies have failed to detect it. PMID:21232104

2011-01-01

209

Elemental composition of human semen is associated with motility and genomic sperm defects among older men  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Older men tend to have poorer semen quality and are generally at higher risks for infertility and abnormal reproductive outcomes. METHODS We employed proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE, 3 MeV proton beam) to investigate the concentrations of zinc, copper, calcium, sulfur, chlorine, potassium, titanium, iron and nickel in washed sperm and seminal plasma from non-smoking groups of 10 older men (65–80 years old) and 10 younger men (22–28 years old) who were concurrently assayed for sperm function and genomicly defective sperm. RESULTS The older group showed elevated zinc, copper and calcium in sperm and elevated sulfur in seminal plasma compared with the younger men. The older group also showed reduced motility as well as increased sperm DNA fragmentation, achondroplasia mutations, DNA strand breaks and chromosomal aberrations. Sperm calcium and copper were positively associated with sperm DNA fragmentation (P < 0.03). Seminal sulfur was positively associated with sperm DNA fragmentation and chromosomal aberrations (P < 0.04), and negatively associated with sperm motility (P < 0.05). Sperm calcium was negatively associated with sperm motility, independent of male age (P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS We identified major differences in elemental concentrations between sperm and seminal plasma and that higher sperm copper, sulfur and calcium are quantitatively associated with poorer semen quality and increased frequencies of genomic sperm defects. PMID:23042799

Schmid, Thomas E.; Grant, Patrick G.; Marchetti, Francesco; Weldon, Rosana H.; Eskenazi, Brenda; Wyrobek, Andrew J.

2013-01-01

210

Correlation between Sperm Parameters and Protein Expression of Antioxidative Defense Enzymes in Seminal Plasma: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Background. Semen analysis is the cornerstone in the evaluation of male (in)fertility. However, there are men with normal semen tests but with impaired fertilizing ability, as well as fertile men with poor sperm characteristics. Thus, there is rising interest to find novel parameters that will help to predict and define the functional capacity of spermatozoa. Methods. We examined whether there is a correlation between semen parameters (count, progressive motility, and morphology) and protein expression/activity of antioxidative defense enzymes in seminal plasma from 10 normospermic subjects. Results. Sperm progressive motility was in positive correlation with seminal plasma protein expression of both superoxide dismutase (SOD) isoforms (MnSOD and CuZnSOD) and catalase. Also, positive correlation was observed between sperm count and MnSOD protein expression, as well as between sperm morphology and protein expression of catalase in seminal plasma. In contrast, protein expression of glutathione peroxidase was not in correlation with any sperm parameter, while its activity negatively correlated with sperm morphology and motility. Conclusions. These data suggest that evaluation of protein expression of antioxidative defense enzymes in seminal plasma might be of importance in the evaluation of male fertility status and that could be used as an additional biomarker along with classic semen analysis in assessment of semen quality.

Macanovic, Biljana; Vucetic, Milica; Jankovic, Aleksandra; Buzadzic, Biljana; Garalejic, Eliana; Otasevic, Vesna

2015-01-01

211

Sperm competition in bats.  

PubMed Central

Sperm competition is a widespread phenomenon influencing the evolution of male anatomy, physiology and behaviour. Bats are an ideal group for studying sperm competition. Females store fertile sperm for up to 200 days and the size of social groups varies from single animals to groups of hundreds of thousands. This study examines the relationship between social group size and investment in spermatogenesis across 31 species of microchiropteran bat using new and published data on testis mass and sperm length. In addition to male competition, I examined the effects of female reproductive biology on characteristics of spermatogenesis. Comparative studies indicate that relative testis mass is positively related to sperm competition risk in a wide range of taxa. Social group size may also influence the level of sperm competition, and one of the costs of living in groups may be decreased confidence of paternity. I used comparative analysis of independent contrast (CAIC) to control for phylogeny. Using two possible phylogenies and two measures of social group size, I found a significant positive relationship between social group size and testis mass. There was no relationship between testis mass and the dimension of the female reproductive tract or oestrus duration. Sperm length was not significantly related to body mass or group size, nor was it related to oestrus duration. PMID:9107054

Hosken, D J

1997-01-01

212

Assessing risks of invasion through gamete performance: farm Atlantic salmon sperm and eggs show equivalence in function, fertility, compatibility and competitiveness to wild Atlantic salmon  

PubMed Central

Adaptations at the gamete level (a) evolve quickly, (b) appear sensitive to inbreeding and outbreeding and (c) have important influences on potential to reproduce. We apply this understanding to problems posed by escaped farm salmon and measure their potential to reproduce in the wild. Farm Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are a threat to biodiversity, because they escape in large numbers and can introgress, dilute or disrupt locally adapted wild gene pools. Experiments at the whole fish level have found farm reproductive potential to be significant, but inferior compared to wild adults, especially for males. Here, we assess reproductive performance at the gamete level through detailed in vitro comparisons of the form, function, fertility, compatibility and competitiveness of farm versus wild Atlantic salmon sperm and eggs, in conditions mimicking the natural gametic microenvironment, using fish raised under similar environmental conditions. Despite selective domestication and reduced genetic diversity, we find functional equivalence in all farm fish gamete traits compared with their wild ancestral strain. Our results identify a clear threat of farm salmon reproduction with wild fish and therefore encourage further consideration of using triploid farm strains with optimized traits for aquaculture and fish welfare, as triploid fish remain reproductively sterile following escape. PMID:24822083

Yeates, Sarah E; Einum, Sigurd; Fleming, Ian A; Holt, William V; Gage, Matthew JG

2014-01-01

213

10/24/2006 02:59 PMBig Testes or Big Horns? It's One or the Other for Male Beetles Page 1 of 3http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2006/10/061016-beetle-sperm.html  

E-print Network

10/24/2006 02:59 PMBig Testes or Big Horns? It's One or the Other for Male Beetles Page 1 of 3http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2006/10/061016-beetle-sperm.html Enlarge Photo Email to a Friend RELATED For Dung Beetles, Monkey Business Is Serious Stuff (May 26, 2004) Wallpaper: Beetle Mom Are Flashy Male Birds Threats to Their Own

Emlen, Douglas J.

214

Effect on sperm quality of different cryoprotectants in sperm of Chinchilla lanigera.  

PubMed

Chinchilla lanigera is an endangered species therefore the development of cryopreservation protocols for its gametes is a useful tool in the application of assisted reproduction techniques. A study of the functionality of the spermatozoa punctured from the cauda epididymis was performed on fresh or frozen-thawed samples with three cryoprotective media (test-yolk buffer, sucrose and glycerol). The effect that these media had on sperm physiology during the freezing, storage and later thawing process was analysed. A decrease in the percentages of viability, motility, membrane integrity and capacity to undergo the induced acrosome reaction was found with all the media assayed, an increase in the percentages of DNA fragmentation was also observed. The comparative analysis of the effect of the different cryoprotectants assayed showed that the best medium to use to cryopreserve epididymal sperm in this species is test-yolk buffer. This medium had the least effect on the abovementioned physiological parameters, especially at the level of genetic material. PMID:22717073

Gramajo-Bühler, M C; Pucci-Alcaide, F; Sánchez-Toranzo, G

2013-11-01

215

Platelet function testing in clinical diagnostics.  

PubMed

Although the utility of platelet function testing is still under debate, the necessity to inhibit platelets in patients suffering from cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease is undoubted and well proven. The wide variety of available platelet function tests often using different methodologies, the apparent lack of standardization, and finally the emerging evidence on the clinical value of platelet function testing are resulting in a considerable uncertainty in the clinical practice, how to deal with the issue of platelet function testing. Platelet function testing might not only yield clinical benefits for the patients but also economical advantages by identifying the right drug at the right dose for the right patient. This article intends to provide an overview of the current platelet function tests such as light transmittance aggregometry, whole blood impedance aggregometry, the PFA-1001 system, the VerifyNow2 system, flow cytometry, as well as other promising technologies like Plateletworks3, IMPACT-R4, PADA, thromboelastography, and the mean platelet component (MPC), briefly addressing strengths, weaknesses and clinical utility of these tests. PMID:21152677

Rechner, A R

2011-05-01

216

Impact of adrenalectomy and dexamethasone treatment on testicular morphology and sperm parameters in rats: insights into the adrenal control of male reproduction.  

PubMed

Here we investigated the hypothesis that normal levels of glucocorticoids, a class of adrenal steroid hormones, are required for normal testicular and epididymal functions. We examined the effects of the manipulation of glucocorticoid plasma levels by bilateral adrenalectomy (1, 2, 7 and 15 days) alone or in combination with daily treatment with the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone (DEX; 5 ?g/kg, i.p., 6 days) on the morphology of the testis and sperm parameters in rats. We showed that adrenalectomy led to a reduction in testicular sperm count and daily sperm production starting 2 days after surgery and a differential decrease in sperm count in the epididymis, according to the region and time post-adrenalectomy analysed. In parallel, testes from 7-day adrenalectomized (ADX) rats displayed a higher frequency of damaged seminiferous tubules and the presence of elongated spermatids retained in the basal epithelial compartment in stages IX-XVII, which is indicative of defective spermiation. The alkaline comet assay revealed a late effect of adrenalectomy on epididymal sperm DNA fragmentation, which was increased only 15 days after surgery. DEX treatment prevented the changes in testicular and epididymal sperm count observed in 7-day ADX rats, but failed to protect the testis from ADX-induced morphological abnormalities. Thus, our results indicated that glucocorticoids may be involved in events related to the maintenance of spermatogenesis and sperm maturation during adulthood. These findings provide new insights into the importance of adrenal steroids to male fertility. PMID:24925687

Silva, E J R; Vendramini, V; Restelli, A; Bertolla, R P; Kempinas, W G; Avellar, M C W

2014-11-01

217

Diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis: Functional testing.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis is mainly based on imaging procedures (e.g., endoscopic ultrasound, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)). Functional testing in this context could however be still of help in cases of inconclusive morphological findings. With this aim, only the secretin-pancreozymin test and the endoscopic test are sensitive enough. The role of other function tests, such as the quantification of the coefficient of fat absorption (CFA) and the (13)C-mixed triglyceride breath test, is limited to the diagnosis of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency with maldigestion. Faecal elastase and chymotrypsin are still useful for detecting reduction of pancreatic secretion in patients with different pancreatic diseases and patients' compliance to enzyme replacement therapy, respectively. Other tests used in the past (e.g., Lundh test, N-benzoyl-tryosyl para-aminobenzoic acid (NBT-PABA) test, pancreolauryl test and amino acid consumption test) are neither available now nor useful for clinical practice. This article reviews the different pancreatic function tests commercially available and their role in clinical practice. PMID:20510825

Domínguez Muñoz, J Enrique

2010-06-01

218

Sperm variation within a single ejaculate affects offspring development in Atlantic salmon  

PubMed Central

It is generally believed that variation in sperm phenotype within a single ejaculate has no consequences for offspring performance, because sperm phenotypes are thought not to reflect sperm genotypes. We show that variation in individual sperm function within an ejaculate affects the performance of the resulting offspring in the Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. We experimentally manipulated the time between sperm activation and fertilization in order to select for sperm cohorts differing in longevity within single ejaculates of wild caught male salmon. We found that within-ejaculate variation in sperm longevity significantly affected offspring development and hence time until hatching. Whether these effects have a genetic or epigenetic basis needs to be further evaluated. However, our results provide experimental evidence for transgenerational effects of individual sperm function. PMID:24522632

Immler, Simone; Hotzy, Cosima; Alavioon, Ghazal; Petersson, Erik; Arnqvist, Göran

2014-01-01

219

The sexually selected sperm hypothesis, maternal effects, and sperm competitive success  

E-print Network

The sexually selected sperm hypothesis, maternal effects, and sperm competitive success in the bulb of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland ABSTRACT Background: The sexually selected sperm hypothesis predicts this result. Keywords: bulb mite, maternal effects, polyandry, sexually selected sperm hypothesis, sperm

Alvarez, Nadir

220

Sperm preparation: state-of-the-art—physiological aspects and application of advanced sperm preparation methods  

PubMed Central

For assisted reproduction technologies (ART), numerous techniques were developed to isolate spermatozoa capable of fertilizing oocytes. While early methodologies only focused on isolating viable, motile spermatozoa, with progress of ART, particularly intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), it became clear that these parameters are insufficient for the identification of the most suitable spermatozoon for fertilization. Conventional sperm preparation techniques, namely, swim-up, density gradient centrifugation and glass wool filtration, are not efficient enough to produce sperm populations free of DNA damage, because these techniques are not physiological and not modeled on the stringent sperm selection processes taking place in the female genital tract. These processes only allow one male germ cell out of tens of millions to fuse with the oocyte. Sites of sperm selection in the female genital tract are the cervix, uterus, uterotubal junction, oviduct, cumulus oophorus and the zona pellucida. Newer strategies of sperm preparation are founded on: (i) morphological assessment by means of ‘motile sperm organelle morphological examination (MSOME)' (ii) electrical charge; and (iii) molecular binding characteristics of the sperm cell. Whereas separation methods based on electrical charge take advantage of the sperm's adherence to a test tube surface or separate in an electrophoresis, molecular binding techniques use Annexin V or hyaluronic acid (HA) as substrates. Techniques in this category are magnet-activated cell sorting, Annexin V-activated glass wool filtration, flow cytometry and picked spermatozoa for ICSI (PICSI) from HA-coated dishes and HA-containing media. Future developments may include Raman microspectrometry, confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy and polarization microscopy. PMID:22138904

Henkel, Ralf

2012-01-01

221

Functional Testing of Semiconductor Random Access Memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overview of the problem of testing semiconductor random access memories (RAMs). An important aspect of this test procedure is the detection of permanent faults that cause the memory to function incorrectly. Functional-level fault models are very useful for describing a wide variety of RAM faults. Several fault models are &scussed throughout the paper, including the stuck-at-0\\/1

Magdy S. Abadir; Hassan K. Reghbati

1983-01-01

222

Sperm Quality Control  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

New research from the University of Missouri-Columbia suggests how defective sperm are tagged for destruction. This 57 second audio recording from Science Update originally aired on Monday, February 11, 2008.

Science Update (AAAS; )

2008-05-06

223

Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)  

MedlinePLUS

... fertilization occurs, the fertilized egg (now called an embryo) grows in a laboratory for 1 to 5 ... damaged. • The egg might not grow into an embryo even after it is injected with sperm. • The ...

224

Human Sperm Tail Proteome Suggests New Endogenous Metabolic Pathways*  

PubMed Central

Proteomic studies are contributing greatly to our understanding of the sperm cell, and more detailed descriptions are expected to clarify additional cellular and molecular sperm attributes. The aim of this study was to characterize the subcellular proteome of the human sperm tail and, hopefully, identify less concentrated proteins (not found in whole cell proteome studies). Specifically, we were interested in characterizing the sperm metabolic proteome and gaining new insights into the sperm metabolism issue. Sperm were isolated from normozoospermic semen samples and depleted of any contaminating leukocytes. Tail fractions were obtained by means of sonication followed by sucrose-gradient ultracentrifugation, and their purity was confirmed via various techniques. Liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry of isolated sperm tail peptides resulted in the identification of 1049 proteins, more than half of which had not been previously described in human sperm. The categorization of proteins according to their function revealed two main groups: proteins related to metabolism and energy production (26%), and proteins related to sperm tail structure and motility (11%). Interestingly, a great proportion of the metabolic proteome (24%) comprised enzymes involved in lipid metabolism, including enzymes for mitochondrial beta-oxidation. Unexpectedly, we also identified various peroxisomal proteins, some of which are known to be involved in the oxidation of very long chain fatty acids. Analysis of our data using Reactome suggests that both mitochondrial and peroxisomal pathways might indeed be active in sperm, and that the use of fatty acids as fuel might be more preponderant than previously thought. In addition, incubation of sperm with the fatty acid oxidation inhibitor etomoxir resulted in a significant decrease in sperm motility. Contradicting a common concept in the literature, we suggest that the male gamete might have the capacity to obtain energy from endogenous pools, and thus to adapt to putative exogenous fluctuations. PMID:23161514

Amaral, Alexandra; Castillo, Judit; Estanyol, Josep Maria; Ballescà, José Luís; Ramalho-Santos, João; Oliva, Rafael

2013-01-01

225

Functional testing of digital microfluidic biochips  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dependability is an important attribute for microfluidic biochips that are used for safety-critical applications such as point-of-care health assessment, air-quality monitoring, and food-safety testing. Therefore, these devices must be adequately tested after manufacture and during bioassay operations. Known techniques for biochip testing are all function-oblivious, i.e., while they can detect and locate defect sites on a microfluidic array, they cannot

Tao Xu; Krishnendu Chakrabarty

2007-01-01

226

Under-nutrition reduces spermatogenic efficiency and sperm velocity, and increases sperm DNA damage in sexually mature male sheep.  

PubMed

We tested whether the quality of spermatozoa from mature male sheep would be affected during nutrition-induced changes in testicular mass. Merino rams were fed for 65 days with diets that increased, maintained or decreased body and testis mass (n=8 per group). In semen collected on Days 56 and 63, underfed rams had less sperms per ejaculate than well-fed rams (P<0.05) and a lower sperm velocity (computer-assisted semen analysis) than well-fed or maintenance-fed rams (P<0.05). Sperm chromatin structure assay revealed more sperm DNA damage in underfed rams than in well-fed rams (P<0.05). The amount of sperm DNA damage was inversely correlated with change in scrotal circumference (r=-0.6, P<0.05), the percentages of progressive motile sperm (r=-0.8; P<0.01) and motile sperm (r=-0.6, P<0.05), and the numbers of sperms per gram of testis (r=-0.55, P<0.05). In testicular tissue collected on Day 65, underfed rams had fewer sperm per gram of testis than rams in the other two groups (P<0.001). We conclude that, in adult rams, underfeeding reduces spermatogenic efficiency and that this response is associated with a reduction in spermatozoal quality. PMID:25086661

Guan, Yongjuan; Malecki, Irek A; Hawken, Penelope A R; Linden, Matthew D; Martin, Graeme B

2014-10-01

227

Track/train dynamics test report transfer function test. Volume 1: Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A description is presented of the transfer function test performed on an open hopper freight car loaded with 80 tons of coal. Test data and a post-test update of the requirements document and test procedure are presented. Included are a statement of the test objective, a description of the test configurations, test facilities, test methods, data acquisition/reduction operations, and a chronological test summary. An index to the data for the three test configurations (X, Y, and Z-axis tests) is presented along with test sequence, run number, test reference, and input parameters.

Vigil, R. A.

1975-01-01

228

CIT photoheliograph functional verification unit test program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tests of the 2/3-meter photoheliograph functional verification unit FVU were performed with the FVU installed in its Big Bear Solar Observatory vacuum chamber. Interferometric tests were run both in Newtonian (f/3.85) and Gregorian (f/50) configurations. Tests were run in both configurations with optical axis horizontal, vertical, and at 45 deg to attempt to determine any gravity effects on the system. Gravity effects, if present, were masked by scatter in the data associated with the system wavefront error of 0.16 lambda rms ( = 6328A) apparently due to problems in the primary mirror. Tests showed that the redesigned secondary mirror assembly works well.

1973-01-01

229

Complex spectral analysis and test function spaces  

E-print Network

We consider complex eigenstates of unstable Hamiltonian and its physically meaningful regions. Starting from a simple model of a discrete state interacting with a continuum via a general potential, we show that its Lippmann-Schwinger solution set can be decomposed into a free-field set, a set containing lower half plane pole of Green's function and a set containing upper half pole of Green's function. From here distinctive complex eigenstates corresponding to each pole are constructed. We note that on the real line square integrable functions can be decomposed into Hardy class above and below functions which behave well in their respective complex half planes. Test function restriction formulas which remove unphysical growth are given. As a specific example we consider Friedrichs model which solutions and complex eigenstates are known, and compare numerically calculated total time evolution with test function restricted complex eigenstates for various cases. The results shows that test function restricted complex eigenstates capture the essence of decay phenomena quite well.

Sungyun Kim

2014-03-12

230

Retinol might stabilize sperm acrosomal membrane in situations of oxidative stress because of high temperatures.  

PubMed

High temperatures have negative effects on sperm quality leading to temporary or permanent sterility. The study tried to confirm the harmful effects of high temperatures on epididymal sperm cells in comparison with other temperatures (scrotal, environmental, and refrigeration temperatures), the main objective was the assessment of the addition of retinol as an antioxidant agent to improve sperm quality parameters. Testes from 10 bulls were collected from a slaughterhouse. Sperm cells were flushed from the cauda epididymis and deferent duct and assessed for sperm quality parameters at recovery. Afterward, sperm cell samples were exposed to one of four different temperatures (4 °C, 22 °C, 32 °C, and 41.5 °C for 3 hours) in presence or absence of retinol in the storage extender. Percentages of viability and morphologic abnormalities were determined using eosin-nigrosin staining. Acrosome integrity and sperm plasma membrane integrity were assessed by fluorescence Pisum sativum agglutinin lectin (FITC-PSA) staining and the hypo-osmotic swelling test, respectively. Total and progressive motility were analyzed by computer-assisted sperm analysis. Sperm quality parameters were mainly affected by high temperatures (41.5 °C). The addition of all-trans-retinol to the storage extender did not show any effect on sperm quality parameters. However, the percentage of sperm cells with altered acrosome was significantly reduced when retinol was present in the extender under heat stress conditions (41.5 °C). In conclusion, retinol might stabilize sperm acrosomal membrane in situations of oxidative stress because of high temperatures. PMID:23149412

Maya-Soriano, M J; Taberner, E; Sabés-Alsina, M; López-Béjar, M

2013-01-15

231

An automated system for pulmonary function testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experiment to quantitate pulmonary function was accepted for the space shuttle concept verification test. The single breath maneuver and the nitrogen washout are combined to reduce the test time. Parameters are defined from the forced vital capacity maneuvers. A spirometer measures the breath volume and a magnetic section mass spectrometer provides definition of gas composition. Mass spectrometer and spirometer data are analyzed by a PDP-81 digital computer.

Mauldin, D. G.

1974-01-01

232

Sperm transport and survival in the mare.  

PubMed

Following the deposition of semen in the mares uterus, spermatozoa must be transported to the site of fertilization, be maintained in the female tract until ovulation occurs, and be prepared to fertilize the released ovum. Sperm motility, myometrial contractions, and a spontaneous post-mating uterine inflammation are important factors for the transport and survival of spermatozoa in the mares reproductive tract. Fertilizable sperm are present in the oviduct within 4 hours after insemination. At this time, the uterus is the site of a hostile inflammatory environment. Our data suggest that spermatozoa trigger an influx of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) into the uterine lumen via activation of complement. Furthermore, seminal plasma appears to have a modulatory effect on the post-mating inflammation through its suppressive effect on PMN chemotaxis and migration. Spermatozoa that safely have reached the oviduct can be stored in a functional state for several days, but prolonged sperm storage in the female tract is not required for capacitation and fertilization in the horse. The caudal isthmus has been proposed as a sperm reservoir in the mare. The pattern of sperm transport and survival of spermatozoa in the mares reproductive tract are different between fertile and subfertile stallions, between fertile and some infertile mares, and between fresh and frozen-thawed semen. Possible explanations for these differences include a selective phagocytosis of damaged or dead spermatozoa, impaired myometrial activity in subfertile mares, bio-physiological changes of spermatozoa during cryopreservation, and the removal of seminal plasma during cryopreservation of equine semen. PMID:10732099

Troedsson, M H; Liu, I K; Crabo, B G

1998-04-01

233

Therapeutic ultrasound as a potential male contraceptive: power, frequency and temperature required to deplete rat testes of meiotic cells and epididymides of sperm determined using a commercially available system  

PubMed Central

Background Studies published in the 1970s by Mostafa S. Fahim and colleagues showed that a short treatment with ultrasound caused the depletion of germ cells and infertility. The goal of the current study was to determine if a commercially available therapeutic ultrasound generator and transducer could be used as the basis for a male contraceptive. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized and their testes were treated with 1 MHz or 3 MHz ultrasound while varying power, duration and temperature of treatment. Results We found that 3 MHz ultrasound delivered with 2.2 Watt per square cm power for fifteen minutes was necessary to deplete spermatocytes and spermatids from the testis and that this treatment significantly reduced epididymal sperm reserves. 3 MHz ultrasound treatment reduced total epididymal sperm count 10-fold lower than the wet-heat control and decreased motile sperm counts 1,000-fold lower than wet-heat alone. The current treatment regimen provided nominally more energy to the treatment chamber than Fahim's originally reported conditions of 1 MHz ultrasound delivered at 1 Watt per square cm for ten minutes. However, the true spatial average intensity, effective radiating area and power output of the transducers used by Fahim were not reported, making a direct comparison impossible. We found that germ cell depletion was most uniform and effective when we rotated the therapeutic transducer to mitigate non-uniformity of the beam field. The lowest sperm count was achieved when the coupling medium (3% saline) was held at 37 degrees C and two consecutive 15-minute treatments of 3 MHz ultrasound at 2.2 Watt per square cm were separated by 2 days. Conclusions The non-invasive nature of ultrasound and its efficacy in reducing sperm count make therapeutic ultrasound a promising candidate for a male contraceptive. However, further studies must be conducted to confirm its efficacy in providing a contraceptive effect, to test the result of repeated use, to verify that the contraceptive effect is reversible and to demonstrate that there are no detrimental, long-term effects from using ultrasound as a method of male contraception. PMID:22289508

2012-01-01

234

Gas Test Loop Functional and Technical Requirements  

SciTech Connect

This document defines the technical and functional requirements for a gas test loop (GTL) to be constructed for the purpose of providing a high intensity fast-flux irradiation environment for developers of advanced concept nuclear reactors. This capability is needed to meet fuels and materials testing requirements of the designers of Generation IV (GEN IV) reactors and other programs within the purview of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). Space nuclear power development programs may also benefit by the services the GTL will offer. The overall GTL technical objective is to provide developers with the means for investigating and qualifying fuels and materials needed for advanced reactor concepts. The testing environment includes a fast-flux neutron spectrum of sufficient intensity to perform accelerated irradiation testing. Appropriate irradiation temperature, gaseous environment, test volume, diagnostics, and access and handling features are also needed. This document serves to identify those requirements as well as generic requirements applicable to any system of this kind.

Glen R. Longhurst; Soli T. Khericha; James L. Jones

2004-09-01

235

Chimeras of sperm PLC? reveal disparate protein domain functions in the generation of intracellular Ca2+ oscillations in mammalian eggs at fertilization  

PubMed Central

Phospholipase C-zeta (PLC?) is a sperm-specific protein believed to cause Ca2+ oscillations and egg activation during mammalian fertilization. PLC? is very similar to the somatic PLC?1 isoform but is far more potent in mobilizing Ca2+ in eggs. To investigate how discrete protein domains contribute to Ca2+ release, we assessed the function of a series of PLC?/PLC?1 chimeras. We examined their ability to cause Ca2+ oscillations in mouse eggs, enzymatic properties using in vitro phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) hydrolysis and their binding to PIP2 and PI(3)P with a liposome interaction assay. Most chimeras hydrolyzed PIP2 with no major differences in Ca2+ sensitivity and enzyme kinetics. Insertion of a PH domain or replacement of the PLC? EF hands domain had no deleterious effect on Ca2+ oscillations. In contrast, replacement of either XY-linker or C2 domain of PLC? completely abolished Ca2+ releasing activity. Notably, chimeras containing the PLC? XY-linker bound to PIP2-containing liposomes, while chimeras containing the PLC? C2 domain exhibited PI(3)P binding. Our data suggest that the EF hands are not solely responsible for the nanomolar Ca2+ sensitivity of PLC? and that membrane PIP2 binding involves the C2 domain and XY-linker of PLC?. To investigate the relationship between PLC enzymatic properties and Ca2+ oscillations in eggs, we have developed a mathematical model that incorporates Ca2+-dependent InsP3 generation by the PLC chimeras and their levels of intracellular expression. These numerical simulations can for the first time predict the empirical variability in onset and frequency of Ca2+ oscillatory activity associated with specific PLC variants. PMID:24152875

Theodoridou, Maria; Nomikos, Michail; Parthimos, Dimitris; Gonzalez-Garcia, J. Raul; Elgmati, Khalil; Calver, Brian L.; Sideratou, Zili; Nounesis, George; Swann, Karl; Lai, F. Anthony

2013-01-01

236

Implication of apoptosis in sperm cryoinjury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apoptosis is an ongoing physiological phenomenon that has been documented to play a role in male infertility, if deregulated. Caspase activation, externalization of phosphatidylserine, alteration of mitochondrial membrane potential and DNA fragmentation are markers of apoptosis found in ejaculated human spermatozoa. These markers appear in excess in subfertile men and functionally incompetent spermatozoa. Sperm cryopreservation is a widely used procedure

Tamer M. Said; Aarti Gaglani; Ashok Agarwal

2010-01-01

237

The Sperm Whale Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1988, the carcass of a sperm whale washed up on East Chugach Island in Alaska. To capitalize on this rare opportunity, the Pratt Museum created the Sperm Whale Project, designed to "promote ocean conservation through enhanced cross disciplinary marine science education" for residents and visitors to the Kachemak Bay area, where the museum is located. New to the Scout Report, the Sperm Whale Project Web site offers a fascinating look at the history of this project, from the discovery of the carcass to the preparation and articulation of its skeleton for display at the Pratt Museum, a process that enlisted the help of area high school students. Nicely presented and full of interesting photos, this Web site should be worth a visit from anyone interested in whales, skeletology, or museum science in general.

238

20 CFR 718.103 - Pulmonary function tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pulmonary function tests. 718.103 Section 718.103...Medical Evidence § 718.103 Pulmonary function tests. (a) Any report of pulmonary function tests submitted in connection...

2011-04-01

239

20 CFR 718.103 - Pulmonary function tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pulmonary function tests. 718.103 Section 718.103...Medical Evidence § 718.103 Pulmonary function tests. (a) Any report of pulmonary function tests submitted in connection...

2010-04-01

240

Role of human- and animal-sperm studies in the evaluation of male reproductive hazards  

SciTech Connect

Human sperm tests provide a direct means of assessing chemically induced spermatogenic dysfunction in man. Available tests include sperm count, motility, morphology (seminal cytology), and Y-body analyses. Over 70 different human exposures have been monitored in various groups of exposed men. The majority of exposures studied showed a significant change from control in one or more sperm tests. When carefully controlled, the sperm morphology test is statistically the most sensitive of these human sperm tests. Several sperm tests have been developed in nonhuman mammals for the study of chemical spermatotoxins. The sperm morphology test in mice has been the most widely used. Results with this test seem to be related to germ-cell mutagenicity. In general, animal sperm tests should play an important role in the identification and assessment of potential human reproductive hazards. Exposure to spermatotoxins may lead to infertility, and more importantly, to heritable genetic damage. While there are considerable animal and human data suggesting that sperm tests may be used to detect agents causing infertility, the extent to which these tests detect heritable genetic damage remains unclear. (ERB)

Wyrobek, A.J.; Gordon, L.; Watchmaker, G.

1982-04-07

241

Sperm Proteases that May Be Involved in the Initiation of Sperm Motility in the Newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster  

PubMed Central

A protease of sperm in the newt Cynops pyrrhogaster that is released after the acrosome reaction (AR) is proposed to lyse the sheet structure on the outer surface of egg jelly and release sperm motility-initiating substance (SMIS). Here, we found that protease activity in the sperm head was potent to widely digest substrates beneath the sperm. The protease activity measured by fluorescein thiocarbamoyl-casein digestion was detected in the supernatant of the sperm after the AR and the activity was inhibited by 4-(2-aminoethyl) benzenesulfonyl fluoride (AEBSF), an inhibitor for serine or cysteine protease, suggesting the release of serine and/or cysteine proteases by AR. In an in silico analysis of the testes, acrosins and 20S proteasome were identified as possible candidates of the acrosomal proteases. We also detected another AEBSF-sensitive protease activity on the sperm surface. Fluorescence staining with AlexaFluor 488-labeled AEBSF revealed a cysteine protease in the principal piece; it is localized in the joint region between the axial rod and undulating membrane, which includes an axoneme and produces powerful undulation of the membrane for forward sperm motility. These results indicate that AEBSF-sensitive proteases in the acrosome and principal piece may participate in the initiation of sperm motility on the surface of egg jelly. PMID:25170808

Yokoe, Misato; Sano, Makoto; Shibata, Honami; Shibata, Daisuke; Takayama-Watanabe, Eriko; Inaba, Kazuo; Watanabe, Akihiko

2014-01-01

242

Characterization of Na+K+-ATPase in bovine sperm.  

PubMed

Existing as a ubiquitous transmembrane protein, Na(+)K(+)-ATPase affects sperm fertility and capacitation through ion transport and a recently identified signaling function. Functional Na(+)K(+)-ATPase is a dimer of ? and ? subunits, each with isoforms (four and three, respectively). Since specific isoform pairings and locations may influence or indicate function, the objective of this study was to identify and localize subunits of Na(+)K(+)-ATPase in fresh bull sperm by immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry using antibodies against ?1 and 3, and all ? isoforms. Relative quantity of Na(+)K(+)-ATPase in head plasma membranes (HPM's) from sperm of different bulls was determined by densitometry of immunoblot bands, and compared to bovine kidney. Sperm and kidney specifically bound all antibodies at kDa equivalent to commercial controls, and to additional lower kDa bands in HPM. Immunofluorescence of intact sperm confirmed that all isoforms were present in the head region of sperm and that ?3 was also uniformly distributed post-equatorially. Permeabilization exposing internal membranes typically resulted in an increase in fluorescence, indicating that some antibody binding sites were present on the inner surface of the HPM or the acrosomal membrane. Deglycosylation of ?1 reduced the kDa of bands in sperm, rat brain and kidney, with the kDa of the deglycosylated bands differing among tissues. Two-dimensional blots of ?1 revealed three distinct spots. Based on the unique quantity, location and structure Na(+)K(+)-ATPase subunits in sperm, we inferred that this protein has unique functions in sperm. PMID:22284223

Hickey, Katie D; Buhr, Mary M

2012-04-15

243

Sperm Whale (Physeter macrocephalus)  

E-print Network

species Listed as Endangered Under the U.S. Endangered Species Act of 1973. Marine Fisheries Review, 61 Act (ESA), the Endangered Species Conservation Act of 1969, and remained listed after the passage.3.2 Listing history Original Listing The sperm whale was listed under the precursor to the Endangered Species

244

Instrumented testing of functional knee braces.  

PubMed

The ability of seven functional knee braces to control anterior tibial displacement in three severely lax ACL deficient knees using two instrumented testing devices was studied. Some braces were statistically shown to be much better in this regard than others, but not all data obtained was statistically significant. This material should aid one in determining which braces offer the greatest degree of control of anterior tibial displacement in patients with ACL insufficiency. PMID:3728775

Beck, C; Drez, D; Young, J; Cannon, W D; Stone, M L

1986-01-01

245

Effect of different doses of nandrolone decanoate on lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation, sperm abnormality and histopathology of testes of male Wister rats.  

PubMed

The present study aims of to investigate the effects of low and high doses of nandrolone decanoate (ND) on histopathology and apoptosis of the spermatogenic cells as well as lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities, sperm abnormality and DNA fragmentation. Eighteen animals were divided into three groups each group contain six animals. The rats were divided into three groups as following: Group 1 was administered saline (control). Group 2, received nandrolone decanoate (3mg/kg/weekly) (low dose) with intramuscular injection. Group 3, received intramuscular injection dose of nandrolone decanoate (10mg/kg/weekly) (high dose). After 8 weeks, caspase-3 assay was used to determine the apoptotic cells. The sperm parameters, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities and testosterone concentration were also investigated in the experimental groups of both low and high dose compared to the control groups. Treated group with high dose showed degenerated germinal epithelial cells sloughed in the lumina of seminiferous tubules, where almost seminiferous tubules were devoid of spermatids and spermatozoa compared to control and group treated with low dose. Also, a significant increase of lipid peroxidation levels and heat shock proteins was observed in two groups administrated with two different doses of ND while, antioxidant enzyme activities, and testosterone concentration was significantly decreased in two treated group when compared with control. Administration of ND at high and low doses leads to deteriorated sperm parameters, DNA fragmentation and testicular apoptosis. In conclusion, the administration ND at high doses more effective on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities, sperm abnormality, histopathology, apoptotic and DNA changes compared to low dose group and to control group. PMID:25440442

Mohamed, Hanaa Mahmoud; Mohamed, Manal Abdul-Hamid

2015-01-01

246

Effects of flaxseed dietary supplementation on sperm quality and on lipid composition of sperm subfractions and prostatic granules in rabbit.  

PubMed

Lipids are the main structural/functional components of the sperm, and their composition may undergo a series of modifications in relation to either physiologic events (capacitation and acrosome reaction) and/or diet. The goals of the current study were (1) to investigate whether a flaxseed (FS) dietary supplementation could affect the lipid and fatty acid profile of sperm subfractions and of prostatic granules (PGs) and (2) to evaluate the effects of dietary FS on rabbit buck semen quality. Accordingly, 20 adult New Zealand White rabbits were fed ad libitum a control diet (CO) or a diet supplemented with 5% extruded FS. Integration of diet with FS, as a consequence of the linolenic acid (C18:3n-3; LNA; 56%), increased the dietary n-3/n-6 ratio and resulted in a substantial rearrangement of sperm fatty acid composition at the subcellular level, mainly of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)n-3 (8.3% vs. 14.3%, P<0.05). The lipid and fatty acid profiles of sperm tail membrane were the most affected, undergoing the following significant changes: (1) a reduction by half of linoleic acid (C18:2n-6; LA) and docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-6; DPA), and a reduction of cholesterol (-70%); (2) a concomitant increase of LNA (+65%), docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3; DHA; +83%), and of oleic acid (C18:1n-9, +61%). As a consequence, the sperm of FS-fed rabbits had a twice higher n-3/n-6 ratio and phospholipid/cholesterol ratio compared with the control sperm. These changes might have been on the basis of the higher responsiveness to hypo-osmotic solution and, hence, the higher sperm track speed observed for the FS group. Also, the membrane integrity and viability of the LNA-enriched sperm were both improved. On the other hand, the presence of lignans in FS might have accounted for the reduction of sperm cholesterol in the semen of FS-treated rabbits. The responsiveness of sperm to acrosome reaction was not affected by the dietary treatment probably due to supranutritional level of vitamin E and to the higher number of PGs, which are known to play a key role in sperm capacitation. In conclusion, our data showed for the first time that the integration of FS into the rabbit diet may improve sperm quality by modifying the sperm lipid composition and that the sperm subfractions and the PGs respond differently to the FS-induced lipid manipulation. PMID:20034660

Mourvaki, E; Cardinali, R; Dal Bosco, A; Corazzi, L; Castellini, C

2010-03-15

247

The flagellar beat of rat sperm is organized by the interaction of two functionally distinct populations of dynein bridges with a stable central axonemal partition.  

PubMed

Two distinct patterns of microtubular sliding were observed in rat sperm flagellar axonemes. The particular pattern of sliding was determined by the extraction conditions used to prepare the sperm for axoneme disintegration. Sperm prepared by incubating concentrated suspensions of Triton X-100-extracted sperm at pH 9.0 disintegrated by extruding the doublets and outer dense fibers numbered 4 through 7 in response to Mg-ATP. Sperm prepared by incubating motile Triton X-100-extracted models at 37 degrees C for 1 to 3 hours extruded doublets and outer dense fibers 9, 1 and 2. Axonemes disintegrated by both regimens tended to have doublets 3 and 8 (with their corresponding outer dense fibers), as well as the central pair, in place. In numerous instances, the 3-central-8 complex with outer dense fibers 3 and 8 could be found isolated in midpiece sections prepared from both methods. The 3-central-8 partition was also sometimes seen in isolation in cross-sections of the principal piece where it remained attached to the fibrous sheath. The flagellar remnant produced by extrusion of fibers 4 through 7 under high pH conditions was generally straight or randomly curved. In contrast, the flagellar remnant produced by extrusion of the 9-1-2 bundle of fibers was most often curved into a hook in the midpiece region. While the hook-like configuration was not Ca(2+)-dependent, it may be based on a related mechanism. The sliding of the 9-1-2 group of fibers is a consequence of dynein-tubulin sliding between the 2 and 3 doublets. This sliding pattern appears to be preferentially activated in the motile sperm models in EGTA, but seldom if ever produced sliding in the high-pH-extracted models. We conclude that the 3-central pair-8 complex and associated outer dense fibers form an I-beam-like partition that does not participate in sliding, but acts as a structural foundation for organizing a planar beat. In addition, it is clear that preferential activation of certain dynein arms can be evoked, depending on the treatment regimen employed. This shows definitively that the types of microtubule sliding in the two bend directions are not identical. PMID:1400632

Lindemann, C B; Orlando, A; Kanous, K S

1992-06-01

248

Sperm quality assessment via separation and sedimentation in a microfluidic device.  

PubMed

A major reason for infertility is due to male factors, including the quality of spermatozoa, which is a primary factor and often difficult to assess, particularly the total sperm concentration and its motile percentage. This work presents a simple microfluidic device to assess sperm quality by quantifying both total and motile sperm counts. The key design feature of the microfluidic device is two channels separated by a permeative phase-guide structure, where one channel is filled with raw semen and the other with pure buffer. The semen sample was allowed to reach equilibrium in both chambers, whereas non-motile sperms remained in the original channel, and roughly half of the motile sperms would swim across the phase-guide barrier into the buffer channel. Sperms in each channel agglomerated into pellets after centrifugation, with the corresponding area representing total and motile sperm concentrations. Total sperm concentration up to 10(8) sperms per ml and motile percentage in the range of 10-70% were tested, encompassing the cutoff value of 40% stated by World Health Organization standards. Results from patient samples show compact and robust pellets after centrifugation. Comparison of total sperm concentration between the microfluidic device and the Makler chamber reveal they agree within 5% and show strong correlation, with a coefficient of determination of R(2) = 0.97. Motile sperm count between the microfluidic device and the Makler chamber agrees within 5%, with a coefficient of determination of R(2) = 0.84. Comparison of results from the Makler Chamber, sperm quality analyzer, and the microfluidic device revealed that results from the microfluidic device agree well with the Makler chamber. The sperm microfluidic chip analyzes both total and motile sperm concentrations in one spin, is accurate and easy to use, and should enable sperm quality analysis with ease. PMID:23817531

Chen, Chang-Yu; Chiang, Tsun-Chao; Lin, Cheng-Ming; Lin, Shu-Sheng; Jong, De-Shien; Tsai, Vincent F-S; Hsieh, Ju-Ton; Wo, Andrew M

2013-09-01

249

Lysozyme activities and immunoglobulin concentrations in seminal plasma and spermatozoa of different teleost species and indications on its significance for sperm function.  

PubMed

The occurrence of lysozyme and immunoglobulin (Ig) in semen of different teleost species (brown trout-Salmo trutta, perch-Perca fluviatilis, burbot-Lota lota) was studied. In all investigated species lysozyme activities (1.13-1.45 U ml(-1)) and Ig concentrations (T-Ig: 1.11-1.61 microg ml(-1), IgG [measured only in brown trout]: 1.49 microg ml(-1)) were detected in seminal plasma. Ig was also found in spermatozoa (T-Ig: 0.234-0.357 microg/g protein, IgG: 0.198 microg ml(-1)) while spermatozoal lysozyme activities were low and fluctuating (0.093-0.164 U/g protein). In Salmo trutta lysozyme activities and immunoglobulin levels were compared between semen samples with high and low sperm motility as motility is an indicator for sperm fertility. Lysozyme activities were higher in seminal plasma of samples with high motility than in those with low motility while seminal plasma and spermatozoal immunoglobulin concentrations (T-Ig, IgG) were increased in samples with low motility in comparison to samples with high motility. Seminal plasma and spermatozoal IgG concentrations and seminal plasma lysozyme activities showed significant correlations with the sperm motility rate and swimming velocity. Moreover, lysozyme improved the viability of spermatozoa in in vitro experiments. Possible physiological meanings of these results are discussed. PMID:20416943

Lahnsteiner, F; Radner, M

2010-07-15

250

Sperm and Spermatids Contain Different Proteins and Bind Distinct Egg Factors  

PubMed Central

Spermatozoa are more efficient at supporting normal embryonic development than spermatids, their immature, immediate precursors. This suggests that the sperm acquires the ability to support embryonic development during spermiogenesis (spermatid to sperm maturation). Here, using Xenopus laevis as a model organism, we performed 2-D Fluorescence Difference Gel Electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and mass spectrometry analysis of differentially expressed proteins between sperm and spermatids in order to identify factors that could be responsible for the efficiency of the sperm to support embryonic development. Furthermore, benefiting from the availability of egg extracts in Xenopus, we also tested whether the chromatin of sperm could attract different egg factors compared to the chromatin of spermatids. Our analysis identified: (1) several proteins which were present exclusively in sperm; but not in spermatid nuclei and (2) numerous egg proteins binding to the sperm (but not to the spermatid chromatin) after incubation in egg extracts. Amongst these factors we identified many chromatin-associated proteins and transcriptional repressors. Presence of transcriptional repressors binding specifically to sperm chromatin could suggest its preparation for the early embryonic cell cycles, during which no transcription is observed and suggests that sperm chromatin has a unique protein composition, which facilitates the recruitment of egg chromatin remodelling factors. It is therefore likely that the acquisition of these sperm-specific factors during spermiogenesis makes the sperm chromatin suitable to interact with the maternal factors and, as a consequence, to support efficient embryonic development. PMID:25244019

Teperek, Marta; Miyamoto, Kei; Simeone, Angela; Feret, Renata; Deery, Michael J.; Gurdon, John B.; Jullien, Jerome

2014-01-01

251

Comprehensive profiling of accessible surface glycans of mammalian sperm using a lectin microarray.  

PubMed

It is well known that cell surface glycans or glycocalyx play important roles in sperm motility, maturation and fertilization. A comprehensive profile of the sperm surface glycans will greatly facilitate both basic research (sperm glycobiology) and clinical studies, such as diagnostics of infertility. As a group of natural glycan binders, lectin is an ideal tool for cell surface glycan profiling. However, because of the lack of effective technology, only a few lectins have been tested for lectin-sperm binding profiles. To address this challenge, we have developed a procedure for high-throughput probing of mammalian sperm with 91 lectins on lectin microarrays. Normal sperm from human, boar, bull, goat and rabbit were collected and analyzed on the lectin microarrays. Positive bindings of a set of ~50 lectins were observed for all the sperm of 5 species, which indicated a wide range of glycans are on the surface of mammalian sperm. Species specific lectin bindings were also observed. Clustering analysis revealed that the distances of the five species according to the lectin binding profiles are consistent with that of the genome sequence based phylogenetic tree except for rabbit. The procedure that we established in this study could be generally applicable for sperm from other species or defect sperm from the same species. We believe the lectin binding profiles of the mammalian sperm that we established in this study are valuable for both basic research and clinical studies. PMID:24629138

Xin, Ai-Jie; Cheng, Li; Diao, Hua; Wang, Peng; Gu, Yi-Hua; Wu, Bin; Wu, Yan-Cheng; Chen, Guo-Wu; Zhou, Shu-Min; Guo, Shu-Juan; Shi, Hui-Juan; Tao, Sheng-Ce

2014-01-01

252

CRYPTIC CHOICE OF CONSPECIFIC SPERM CONTROLLED BY THE IMPACT OF OVARIAN FLUID ON SPERM SWIMMING BEHAVIOR  

PubMed Central

Despite evidence that variation in male–female reproductive compatibility exists in many fertilization systems, identifying mechanisms of cryptic female choice at the gamete level has been a challenge. Here, under risks of genetic incompatibility through hybridization, we show how salmon and trout eggs promote fertilization by conspecific sperm. Using in vitro fertilization experiments that replicate the gametic microenvironment, we find complete interfertility between both species. However, if either species’ ova were presented with equivalent numbers of both sperm types, conspecific sperm gained fertilization precedence. Surprisingly, the species’ identity of the eggs did not explain this cryptic female choice, which instead was primarily controlled by conspecific ovarian fluid, a semiviscous, protein-rich solution that bathes the eggs and is released at spawning. Video analyses revealed that ovarian fluid doubled sperm motile life span and straightened swimming trajectory, behaviors allowing chemoattraction up a concentration gradient. To confirm chemoattraction, cell migration tests through membranes containing pores that approximated to the egg micropyle showed that conspecific ovarian fluid attracted many more spermatozoa through the membrane, compared with heterospecific fluid or water. These combined findings together identify how cryptic female choice can evolve at the gamete level and promote reproductive isolation, mediated by a specific chemoattractive influence of ovarian fluid on sperm swimming behavior. PMID:24299405

Yeates, Sarah E; Diamond, Sian E; Einum, Sigurd; Emerson, Brent C; Holt, William V; Gage, Matthew J G

2013-01-01

253

The monopulsed nature of sperm whale clicks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditionally, sperm whale clicks have been described as multipulsed, long duration, nondirectional signals of moderate intensity and with a spectrum peaking below 10 kHz. Such properties are counterindicative of a sonar function, and quite different from the properties of dolphin sonar clicks. Here, data are presented suggesting that the traditional view of sperm whale clicks is incomplete and derived from off-axis recordings of a highly directional source. A limited number of assumed on-axis clicks were recorded and found to be essentially monopulsed clicks, with durations of 100 ?s, with a composite directionality index of 27 dB, with source levels up to 236 dB re: 1 ?Pa (rms), and with centroid frequencies of 15 kHz. Such clicks meet the requirements for long-range biosonar purposes. Data were obtained with a large-aperture, GPS-synchronized array in July 2000 in the Bleik Canyon off Vestera?len, Norway (69°28' N, 15°40' E). A total of 14 h of sound recordings was collected from five to ten independent, simultaneously operating recording units. The sound levels measured make sperm whale clicks by far the loudest of sounds recorded from any biological source. On-axis click properties support previous work proposing the nose of sperm whales to operate as a generator of sound.

Møhl, Bertel; Wahlberg, Magnus; Madsen, Peter T.; Heerfordt, Anders; Lund, Anders

2003-08-01

254

Sperm storage mediated by cryptic female choice for nuptial gifts.  

PubMed

Polyandrous females are expected to discriminate among males through postcopulatory cryptic mate choice. Yet, there is surprisingly little unequivocal evidence for female-mediated cryptic sperm choice. In species in which nuptial gifts facilitate mating, females may gain indirect benefits through preferential storage of sperm from gift-giving males if the gift signals male quality. We tested this hypothesis in the spider Pisaura mirabilis by quantifying the number of sperm stored in response to copulation with males with or without a nuptial gift, while experimentally controlling copulation duration. We further assessed the effect of gift presence and copulation duration on egg-hatching success in matings with uninterrupted copulations with gift-giving males. We show that females mated to gift-giving males stored more sperm and experienced 17% higher egg-hatching success, compared with those mated to no-gift males, despite matched copulation durations. Uninterrupted copulations resulted in both increased sperm storage and egg-hatching success. Our study confirms the prediction that the nuptial gift as a male signal is under positive sexual selection by females through cryptic sperm storage. In addition, the gift facilitates longer copulations and increased sperm transfer providing two different types of advantage to gift-giving in males. PMID:24266042

Albo, Maria J; Bilde, Trine; Uhl, Gabriele

2013-12-01

255

Sperm storage mediated by cryptic female choice for nuptial gifts  

PubMed Central

Polyandrous females are expected to discriminate among males through postcopulatory cryptic mate choice. Yet, there is surprisingly little unequivocal evidence for female-mediated cryptic sperm choice. In species in which nuptial gifts facilitate mating, females may gain indirect benefits through preferential storage of sperm from gift-giving males if the gift signals male quality. We tested this hypothesis in the spider Pisaura mirabilis by quantifying the number of sperm stored in response to copulation with males with or without a nuptial gift, while experimentally controlling copulation duration. We further assessed the effect of gift presence and copulation duration on egg-hatching success in matings with uninterrupted copulations with gift-giving males. We show that females mated to gift-giving males stored more sperm and experienced 17% higher egg-hatching success, compared with those mated to no-gift males, despite matched copulation durations. Uninterrupted copulations resulted in both increased sperm storage and egg-hatching success. Our study confirms the prediction that the nuptial gift as a male signal is under positive sexual selection by females through cryptic sperm storage. In addition, the gift facilitates longer copulations and increased sperm transfer providing two different types of advantage to gift-giving in males. PMID:24266042

Albo, Maria J.; Bilde, Trine; Uhl, Gabriele

2013-01-01

256

Effect of various commercial buffers on sperm viability and capacitation.  

PubMed

A wide variety of sperm preparation protocols are currently available for assisted conception. They include density gradient separation and washing methods. Both aim at isolating and capacitating as much motile sperm as possible for subsequent oocyte fertilization. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of four commercial sperm washing buffers on sperm viability and capacitation. Semen samples from 48 healthy donors (normal values of sperm count, motility, morphology, and volume) were analyzed. After separation (density gradient 40/80%), sperm were incubated in various buffers then analysed for reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, viability, tyrosine phosphorylation (Tyr-P), cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) labeling, and the acrosome reaction (AR). The buffers affected ROS generation in various ways resulting either in rapid cell degeneration (when the amount of ROS was too high for cell survival) or the inability of the cells to maintain correct functioning (when ROS were too few). Only when the correct ROS generation curve was maintained, suitable membrane reorganization, evidenced by CTB labeling was achieved, leading to the highest percentages of both Tyr-P- and acrosome-reacted-cells. Distinguishing each particular pathological state of the sperm sample would be helpful to select the preferred buffer treatment since both ROS production and membrane reorganization can be significantly altered by commercial buffers. PMID:24673547

Andrisani, Alessandra; Donà, Gabriella; Ambrosini, Guido; Bonanni, Guglielmo; Bragadin, Marcantonio; Cosmi, Erich; Clari, Giulio; Armanini, Decio; Bordin, Luciana

2014-08-01

257

Identification of Peroxiredoxin-5 in Bovine Cauda Epididymal Sperm  

PubMed Central

Developing spermatozoa require a series of post-testicular modifications within the luminal environment of the epididymis to achieve maturation; this involves several surface modifications including changes in plasma membrane lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, and alterations in the outer acrosomal membrane. Epididymal maturation can therefore allow sperm to gain forward motility and fertilization capabilities. The objective of this study was to identify maturation dependent protein(s) and to investigate their role with the production of functionally competent spermatozoa. Lectin blot analyses of caput and cauda sperm plasma membrane fractions identified a 17.5kDa Wheat Germ Agglutinin (WGA) binding polypeptide present in the cauda sperm plasma membrane not in the caput sperm plasma membrane. Among the several WGA stained bands, the presence of a 17.5kDa WGA binding polypeptide band was detected only in cauda epididymal fluid not in caput epididymal fluid suggesting that the 17.5kDa WGA-binding polypeptide is secreted from the cauda epididymis and binds to the cauda sperm plasma membrane during epididymal transit. Proteomic identification of the 17.5kDa polypeptide yielded 13 peptides that matched the sequence of peroxiredoxin-5 (PRDX5) protein (Bos Taurus). We propose that bovine cauda sperm PRDX5 acts as an antioxidant enzyme in the epididymal environment, which is crucial in protecting the viable sperm population against the damage caused by endogeneous or exogeneous peroxide. PMID:24186847

Nagdas, Subir K; Buchanan, Teresa; Raychoudhury, Samir

2013-01-01

258

Cigarette smoke extract immobilizes human spermatozoa and induces sperm apoptosis.  

PubMed

Cigarette smoking by the male partner adversely affects assisted reproductive techniques, suggesting that it may damage sperm chromatin/DNA and consequently embryo development. The effects of graded concentrations of research cigarettes smoke extract (CSE) on motility, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), chromatin integrity and apoptosis were evaluated in spermatozoa obtained from 13 healthy, non-smoking men with normal sperm parameters, by flow cytometry. CSE suppressed sperm motility in a concentration- and time-dependent manner and increased the number of spermatozoa with low MMP, the main source of energy for sperm motility. In addition, CSE had a detrimental effect on sperm chromatin condensation and apoptosis. Indeed, it increased the number of spermatozoa with phosphatidylserine externalization, an early apoptotic sign, and fragmented DNA, a late apoptotic sign, in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. These effects of CSE were of similar or even greater magnitude to those obtained following incubation with tumour necrosis factor-alpha, a cytokine known for its negative impact on sperm function, used as positive control. Since transmission of smoking-induced sperm DNA alterations has been found in pre-implantation embryos, and this may predispose offspring to a greater risk of malformations, cancer and genetic diseases, men seeking to father a child are recommended to give up smoking. PMID:19909599

Calogero, Aldo; Polosa, Riccardo; Perdichizzi, Anna; Guarino, Francesca; La Vignera, Sandro; Scarfia, Alessia; Fratantonio, Enza; Condorelli, Rosita; Bonanno, Oriana; Barone, Nunziata; Burrello, Nunziatina; D'Agata, Rosario; Vicari, Enzo

2009-10-01

259

Protective effect of esterified glucomannan on aflatoxin-induced changes in testicular function, sperm quality, and seminal plasma biochemistry in rams.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of aflatoxin (AF) on spermatologic, biochemical, and testis parameters in rams, and the protective efficiency of esterified glucomannan (EG) co-administered with AF. Thirty-two Merino rams (12-14 months old) were used. The experimental design consisted of four dietary treatments. The control group was fed commercial feed. The AF group was fed with commercial feed plus 250 ?g/d of total AF. The EG group received commercial feed plus 2 g/d of EG. The AF + EG group was given commercial feed plus 250 ?g/d of total AF and 2 g/d of EG. There were treatment, time, and treatment-by-time interaction effects on sperm motility, abnormal spermatozoa, damaged acrosome, and dead spermatozoa (P < 0.01). The percentage of motile sperm was lower and the percentages of abnormal sperm, sperm with damaged acrosomes, and dead sperm were greater in the AF group than in the control, AF+EG, and EG groups, as from week 3 until the end of week 12 (P < 0.05). As from week 3, hyaluronidase activity in the seminal plasma increased significantly in the AF group, compared with the control. The co-administration of AF+EG was found to be effective in preventing the increase in hyaluronidase activity. As week 4, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were significantly higher in the AF group compared with the control. The combined administration of AF+EG was found to be effective in lowering the MDA levels, increased by AF, to the levels measured in the control (P < 0.05). Although glutathione (GSH) levels were determined to have significantly decreased in the AF group in comparison to the control, it was observed that, in the group co-administered with AF and EG, particularly after week 7, the GSH levels, which had decreased owing to AF, were largely ameliorated (P < 0.05). In conclusion, AF adversely affected spermatologic, biochemical, and testis parameters, and the combined administration of EG with AF reversibly eliminated these adverse effects in rams. PMID:24210915

Ataman, Mehmet Bozkurt; Dönmez, Hasan Hüseyin; Dönmez, Nurcan; Sur, Emrah; Bucak, Mustafa Numan; Coyan, Kenan

2014-02-01

260

Cryopreservation of Fish Sperm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Present status of research activities in cryopreservation of fish gamete in aquaculture field was introduced. More than 59 fish species have been reported in the research histories and nearly half of them were studied during recent 10 years. This means that the research activities are increasing, though commercial profit have not obtained yet. Fish species of which sperm can successfully cryopreserved is still limited comparing to numerous species in telost. One of the major obstacle for improvement of the technique is existence of wide specie specific variance in the freezing tolerance of fish sperm. The varianc can possibly be explaind thorugh the informations obtained by the studies in comparative spermatology, which is recently activated field in fish biology.

Kurokura, Hisashi

261

Sperm Whale Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes an award-winning project in Homer, Alaska. After a sperm whale carcass washed ashore, a museum-school collaboration implemented a five-year cross-disciplinary marine science education project using major grant funding. Students worked with museum staff, scientists, public agencies and the community to research the whale, preserve, articulate and mount its skeleton. They developed exhibits, school and community education programs interpreting the whale and promoting ocean conservation in the region.

262

The male reproductive system of Zorotypus caudelli Karny (Zoraptera): Sperm structure and spermiogenesis.  

PubMed

Considering the overall uniformity of the morphology of Zoraptera, the structural diversity of the male genital system is remarkable. Structures related to the male reproductive system of Zorotypus caudelli differ profoundly from those of Zorotypus hubbardi. The testes are elongated rather than spherical, the seminal vesicle is apparently absent, and the deferent ducts are very long. A feature shared by these two species and other zorapterans examined is that the two accessory glands are closely adherent to each other and form a single large structure, from which the ejaculatory duct originates. This is a potential zorapteran autapomorphy. Another feature possibly present in the groundplan of the order is the strong elongation of the sperm cells. This may be connected with a reproductive strategy of males trying to avoid re-mating of females with other males after the first copulation. The extremely long and coiled spermathecal duct of Z. caudelli and other zorapteran species is possibly correlated with the sperm elongation, and both features combined may result in a sexual isolating mechanism. The short duration of mating of Zorotypus barberi and Zorotypus gurneyi suggests that the male introduces sperm into the female tract up to the opening of the spermathecal duct using their long coiled aedeagus. A thick glycocalyx around the sperm in the distal part of the deferent ducts probably protects the sperm cells during their forward progression towards the long spermathecal duct, and is removed when they reach the apical receptacle. The spermatogenesis of Z. caudelli follows a pattern commonly found in insects, but differs distinctly from that of Z. hubbardi in the number of spermatids in each sperm cyst. An unusual and possibly autapomorphic feature of Z. caudelli is a disconnection of sub-tubules A and B at the level of microtubule doublets 1 and 6 of the mature sperm cells. It is conceivable that this results in a shorter period of sperm motility. The character combination found in different zorapteran species supports the view that the sperm, a very compact functional unit, does not evolve as a unit, but like in other more complex body regions, sperm components can also be modified independently from each other. This results in different mosaic patterns of plesiomorphic and derived features in a very compact entity in different species of the very small and otherwise uniform order Zoraptera. In Z. caudelli, for instance, the bi-layered acrosome and small accessory bodies are plesiomorphic states among several others, whereas the mitochondrial derivatives and the elongate nucleus are apparently derived conditions. Other combinations likely occur in other zorapteran species. Only few but noteworthy sperm characters indicate possible phylogenetic affinities of Zoraptera. A possible synapomorphic feature, the presence of dense laminae radiating in a cartwheel array between neighbouring centriolar triplets, is shared with Phasmatodea and Embioptera. Another potential synapomorphy shared with Phasmatodea is the presence of 17 protofilaments in the tubular wall of the outer accessory microtubules. PMID:21996133

Dallai, R; Mercati, D; Gottardo, M; Machida, R; Mashimo, Y; Beutel, R G

2011-11-01

263

High level of intracellular sperm oxidative stress negatively influences embryo pronuclear formation after intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment.  

PubMed

This study evaluates the relationship between sperm intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS; H2 O2 , O2 ), DNA fragmentation (DF), low mitochondria membrane potential (MMP) of sperm and normal pronuclear formation among intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) patients. Semen samples were obtained from 62 infertile male who were candidates for ICSI treatment. After sperm processing, metaphase II (MII) oocytes were injected, and the mean percentages of intracellular ROS, MMP and DF were evaluated using flow cytometry. The mean percentages of pronuclear formation and zygote score (Z) were also recorded, and Pearson, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and Kruskal-Wallis tests were applied to analyse the data. The amounts of sperm intracellular H2 O2 and O2-? had significant positive correlation with low MMP (P < 0.01). The intracellular ROS had a negative correlation with pronuclear formation (P < 0.05), and its effect was higher than 66.66%. In addition, the mean percentages of neither H2 O2 nor O2-? affected the quality of pronuclear embryos (Z-score). This study shows that although high levels of both sperm intracellular H2 O2 and O2-? in ICSI patients have deleterious effect on sperm MMP, only H2 O2 may interfere in pronuclear formation. PMID:24313687

Ghaleno, L R; Valojerdi, M R; Hassani, F; Chehrazi, M; Janzamin, E

2014-12-01

264

Frozen-thawed rhinoceros sperm exhibit DNA damage shortly after thawing when assessed by the sperm chromatin dispersion assay.  

PubMed

This study reports on the successful validation (via in situ nick translation and neutral comet assay) of the equine Sperm-Halomax kit as an appropriate methodology for the assessment of sperm DNA fragmentation in three species of rhinoceros. Rhinoceros sperm nuclei with fragmented DNA (validated using in situ nick translation) were evident as large halos with dispersed DNA fragments, whereas those with nonfragmented DNA displayed small halos of nondispersed DNA within the microgel. There was a high correlation (r) of 0.974 (R(2) value=0.949; P<0.01; n=16) between the respective assessments of the Sperm Chromatin Dispersion test (SCDt) and the neutral comet assay. Application of the SCDt to determine the DNA fragmentation dynamics of rhinoceros (n=6) sperm frozen in liquid nitrogen vapor and incubated postthaw at 37 degrees C for up to 48 h to mimic in vitro conditions in the female reproductive tract, revealed an increase (P=0.001) in DNA damage, as soon as 4h after the start of incubation. Linear regression equations were calculated for all six rhinoceroses over the first 6h of incubation and revealed individual animal variation. Freshly collected and incubated (37 degrees C) rhinoceros (n=3) sperm had no increase in the basal level of DNA fragmentation for up to 48 h, indicating that the cryopreservation of rhinoceros sperm in liquid nitrogen vapor, as used in this study, appeared to result in freeze-thaw DNA damage. PMID:19560805

Portas, T; Johnston, S D; Hermes, R; Arroyo, F; López-Fernadez, C; Bryant, B; Hildebrandt, T B; Göritz, F; Gosalvez, J

2009-09-15

265

Integrated Locomotor Function Tests for Countermeasure Evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Following spaceflight crewmembers experience locomotor dysfunction due to inflight adaptive alterations in sensorimotor function. Countermeasures designed to mitigate these postflight gait alterations need to be assessed with a new generation of tests that evaluate the interaction of various sensorimotor sub-systems central to locomotor control. The goal of the present study was to develop new functional tests of locomotor control that could be used to test the efficacy of countermeasures. These tests were designed to simultaneously examine the function of multiple sensorimotor systems underlying the control of locomotion and be operationally relevant to the astronaut population. Traditionally, gaze stabilization has been studied almost exclusively in seated subjects performing target acquisition tasks requiring only the involvement of coordinated eye-head movements. However, activities like walking involve full-body movement and require coordination between lower limbs and the eye-head-trunk complex to achieve stabilized gaze during locomotion. Therefore the first goal of this study was to determine how the multiple, interdependent, full-body sensorimotor gaze stabilization subsystems are functionally coordinated during locomotion. In an earlier study we investigated how alteration in gaze tasking changes full-body locomotor control strategies. Subjects walked on a treadmill and either focused on a central point target or read numeral characters. We measured: temporal parameters of gait, full body sagittal plane segmental kinematics of the head, trunk, thigh, shank and foot, accelerations along the vertical axis at the head and the shank, and the vertical forces acting on the support surface. In comparison to the point target fixation condition, the results of the number reading task showed that compensatory head pitch movements increased, peak head acceleration was reduced and knee flexion at heel-strike was increased. In a more recent study we investigated the adaptive remodeling of the full-body gaze control systems following exposure to visual-vestibular conflict. Subjects walked on a treadmill before and after a 30- minute exposure to 0.5X minifying during which self-generated sinusoidal vertical head rotations were performed while seated. Following exposure to visual-vestibular conflict subjects showed a restriction in compensatory head movements, increased knee and ankle flexion after heel-strike and a decrease in the rate of body loading during the rapid weight transfer phase after the heel strike event. Taken together, results from both studies provide evidence that the full body contributes to gaze stabilization during locomotion, and that different functional elements are responsive to changes in visual task constraints and are subject to adaptive alterations following exposure to visual-vestibular conflict. This information provides the basis for the design of a new generation of integrative tests that incorporate the evaluation of multiple neural control systems relevant to astronaut operational performance.

Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Cohen, H. S.; Landsness, E. C.; Black, F. O.

2005-01-01

266

Nanoparticle Incorporation of Melittin Reduces Sperm and Vaginal Epithelium Cytotoxicity  

PubMed Central

Melittin is a cytolytic peptide component of bee venom which rapidly integrates into lipid bilayers and forms pores resulting in osmotic lysis. While the therapeutic utility of free melittin is limited by its cytotoxicity, incorporation of melittin into the lipid shell of a perfluorocarbon nanoparticle has been shown to reduce its toxicity in vivo. Our group has previously demonstrated that perfluorocarbon nanoparticles containing melittin at concentrations <10 µM inhibit HIV infectivity in vitro. In the current study, we assessed the impact of blank and melittin-containing perfluorocarbon nanoparticles on sperm motility and the viability of both sperm and vaginal epithelial cells. We found that free melittin was toxic to sperm and vaginal epithelium at concentrations greater than 2 µM (p<0.001). However, melittin nanoparticles were not cytotoxic to sperm (p?=?0.42) or vaginal epithelium (p?=?0.48) at an equivalent melittin concentration of 10 µM. Thus, nanoparticle formulation of melittin reduced melittin cytotoxicity fivefold and prevented melittin toxicity at concentrations previously shown to inhibit HIV infectivity. Melittin nanoparticles were toxic to vaginal epithelium at equivalent melittin concentrations ?20 µM (p<0.001) and were toxic to sperm at equivalent melittin concentrations ?40 µM (p<0.001). Sperm cytotoxicity was enhanced by targeting of the nanoparticles to the sperm surface antigen sperm adhesion molecule 1. While further testing is needed to determine the extent of cytotoxicity in a more physiologically relevant model system, these results suggest that melittin-containing nanoparticles could form the basis of a virucide that is not toxic to sperm and vaginal epithelium. This virucide would be beneficial for HIV serodiscordant couples seeking to achieve natural pregnancy. PMID:24748389

Jallouk, Andrew P.; Moley, Kelle H.; Omurtag, Kenan; Hu, Grace; Lanza, Gregory M.; Wickline, Samuel A.; Hood, Joshua L.

2014-01-01

267

Nanoparticle incorporation of melittin reduces sperm and vaginal epithelium cytotoxicity.  

PubMed

Melittin is a cytolytic peptide component of bee venom which rapidly integrates into lipid bilayers and forms pores resulting in osmotic lysis. While the therapeutic utility of free melittin is limited by its cytotoxicity, incorporation of melittin into the lipid shell of a perfluorocarbon nanoparticle has been shown to reduce its toxicity in vivo. Our group has previously demonstrated that perfluorocarbon nanoparticles containing melittin at concentrations <10 µM inhibit HIV infectivity in vitro. In the current study, we assessed the impact of blank and melittin-containing perfluorocarbon nanoparticles on sperm motility and the viability of both sperm and vaginal epithelial cells. We found that free melittin was toxic to sperm and vaginal epithelium at concentrations greater than 2 µM (p<0.001). However, melittin nanoparticles were not cytotoxic to sperm (p?=?0.42) or vaginal epithelium (p?=?0.48) at an equivalent melittin concentration of 10 µM. Thus, nanoparticle formulation of melittin reduced melittin cytotoxicity fivefold and prevented melittin toxicity at concentrations previously shown to inhibit HIV infectivity. Melittin nanoparticles were toxic to vaginal epithelium at equivalent melittin concentrations ?20 µM (p<0.001) and were toxic to sperm at equivalent melittin concentrations ?40 µM (p<0.001). Sperm cytotoxicity was enhanced by targeting of the nanoparticles to the sperm surface antigen sperm adhesion molecule 1. While further testing is needed to determine the extent of cytotoxicity in a more physiologically relevant model system, these results suggest that melittin-containing nanoparticles could form the basis of a virucide that is not toxic to sperm and vaginal epithelium. This virucide would be beneficial for HIV serodiscordant couples seeking to achieve natural pregnancy. PMID:24748389

Jallouk, Andrew P; Moley, Kelle H; Omurtag, Kenan; Hu, Grace; Lanza, Gregory M; Wickline, Samuel A; Hood, Joshua L

2014-01-01

268

Sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA): a tool in diagnosis and treatment of infertility.  

PubMed

Diagnosis of male infertility has mainly been based on the World Health Organization (WHO) manual-based semen parameter's concentration, motility and morphology. It has, however, become apparent that none of these parameters are reliable markers for evaluation of the fertility potential of a couple. A search for better markers has led to an increased focus on sperm chromatin integrity testing in fertility work-up and assisted reproductive techniques. During the last couple of decades, numerous sperm DNA integrity tests have been developed. These are claimed to be characterized by a lower intraindividual variation, less intralaboratory and interlaboratory variation and thus less subjective than the conventional sperm analysis. However, not all the sperm chromatin integrity tests have yet been shown to be of clinical value. So far, the test that has been found to have the most stable clinical threshold values in relation to fertility is the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA), a flow cytometric test that measures the susceptibility of sperm DNA to acid-induced DNA denaturation in situ. Sperm DNA fragmentation as measured by SCSA has shown to be an independent predictor of successful pregnancy in first pregnancy planners as well as in couples undergoing intrauterine insemination, and can be used as a tool in investigation, counseling and treatment of involuntary childlessness. More conflicting data exist regarding the role of sperm DNA fragmentation in relation to fertilization, pre-embryo development and pregnancy outcome in in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). PMID:21057512

Bungum, Mona; Bungum, Leif; Giwercman, Aleksander

2011-01-01

269

Sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA): a tool in diagnosis and treatment of infertility  

PubMed Central

Diagnosis of male infertility has mainly been based on the World Health Organization (WHO) manual-based semen parameter's concentration, motility and morphology. It has, however, become apparent that none of these parameters are reliable markers for evaluation of the fertility potential of a couple. A search for better markers has led to an increased focus on sperm chromatin integrity testing in fertility work-up and assisted reproductive techniques. During the last couple of decades, numerous sperm DNA integrity tests have been developed. These are claimed to be characterized by a lower intraindividual variation, less intralaboratory and interlaboratory variation and thus less subjective than the conventional sperm analysis. However, not all the sperm chromatin integrity tests have yet been shown to be of clinical value. So far, the test that has been found to have the most stable clinical threshold values in relation to fertility is the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA), a flow cytometric test that measures the susceptibility of sperm DNA to acid-induced DNA denaturation in situ. Sperm DNA fragmentation as measured by SCSA has shown to be an independent predictor of successful pregnancy in first pregnancy planners as well as in couples undergoing intrauterine insemination, and can be used as a tool in investigation, counseling and treatment of involuntary childlessness. More conflicting data exist regarding the role of sperm DNA fragmentation in relation to fertilization, pre-embryo development and pregnancy outcome in in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). PMID:21057512

Bungum, Mona; Bungum, Leif; Giwercman, Aleksander

2011-01-01

270

Effect of docosahexaenoic acid and alpha-tocopherol enrichment in chicken sperm on semen quality, sperm lipid composition and susceptibility to peroxidation.  

PubMed

The aim of the present experiment was to study the effect of fish oil and Vitamin E rich diets on semen production, sperm functions and composition in broiler breeders. The following parameters were measured: semen volume and concentration, sperm motility and viability, sperm susceptibility to induced peroxidation, sperm lipid and alpha-tocopherol contents. Dietary n-3 PUFA were successfully transferred into spermatozoan phospholipid by fish oil feeding according to the following main features: (a) the C22:6n-3 and C22:5n - 3 contents were increased, but C22:4n-6 remained the peculiar and major polyunsaturate; (b) the content and proportion of total PUFA did not change; (c) the proportional increase of n-3 PUFA was compensated by the decrease of n-6 PUFA, an increase in the proportion of n-9 fatty acids was also found. The sperm content of alpha-tocopherol was doubled increasing the dietary availability of the vitamin to 300 mg/kg of feed. The specific n-3 PUFA and Vitamin E enrichment of chicken sperm affected cell functions. Significant interactions between the two treatments were also found for some parameters. The best sperm quality condition in control sperm (rich mainly in n-6 PUFA) was found supplying 200mg Vitamin E/kg of feed to the male breeders, and in contrast in n-3 rich sperm supplying 300 mg Vitamin E/kg. PMID:16530814

Cerolini, S; Zaniboni, L; Maldjian, A; Gliozzi, T

2006-09-01

271

Light, polarizing, and transmission electron microscopy: three methods for the evaluation of sperm quality.  

PubMed

Semen from 33 patients were evaluated by light microscopy (LM) obtaining sperm concentration, percent motility, percentage of sperm with normal morphology (PAP staining), and percentage of dead sperm (Eosin Y stained). The samples were observed by polarizing microscopy (PM), that evaluates sperm morphology and the viability by birefringence of organelles, and it provides a PM index (percentage of birefringent, viable, motile sperm) and a percentage of dead, non-birefringent sperm. Sperm were processed for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and TEM data were elaborated with a mathematical formula able to provide a fertility index (FI, number of sperm free of structural defects) and percentages of sperm immaturity and necrosis (dead sperm). To test the reliability of these techniques, the values of normal acrosome, nucleus, midpiece, and tail and the presence of cytoplasmic residues obtained with the three methods were compared. With the exception of cytoplasmic residues (P?=?0.40), significant differences in the evaluation of each organelle were observed and TEM analysis resulted as the most stringent screening. In addition, relationships among relevant sperm variables were investigated. Motility showed positive correlations with the percentage of normal tail, midpiece, and PM index (P?sperm death (non-birefringent sperm: P?sperm: P?sperm morphology: FI with PM index (P?sperm (PAP staining) (P?Sperm immaturity showed positive correlations (P?sperm quality. PM appears to offer several advantages 'midway' between LM and TEM and it should be considered in sperm analysis. PMID:23043672

Collodel, Giulia; Iacoponi, Francesca; Mazzi, Lucia; Terzuoli, Gaia; Pascarelli, Nicola Antonio; Moretti, Elena

2013-02-01

272

Use of density centrifugation for delayed cryopreservation of stallion sperm: perform sperm selection directly after collection or after storage?  

PubMed

Equipment for cryopreservation of stallion sperm is not always available. In such cases, diluted semen can be shipped to a facility for later cryopreservation. The aim of this study was to evaluate if selection of sperm via density centrifugation yields higher survival rates when cryopreservation is to be delayed (i.e. carried out after 1 day of storage at 5°C). Two-layer iodixanol as well as single-layer Androcoll density centrifugation were tested and compared with samples prepared with standard centrifugation. Special emphasis was placed on comparing centrifugation on the day of semen collection with centrifugation after 1-day refrigerated storage. Sperm morphology and motility as well as membrane and chromatin integrity were evaluated before and after centrifugation. Sperm motility and membrane integrity were also assessed after cryopreservation. It was found that both two- and single-layer density centrifugation processing resulted in higher percentages of morphologically normal and motile sperm with higher membrane and chromatin integrity, as compared to standard centrifugation or diluted samples. Differences were only in the order of magnitude of 5%. Recovery rates after density centrifugation were only approximately 30-40%. When cryopreservation was carried out after 1-day refrigerated storage, centrifugation processing of sperm directly after semen collection resulted in higher percentages of plasma membrane intact sperm post-thaw as compared to performing centrifugation processing of stored sperm just prior to cryopreservation. No significant differences in progressively motile sperm post-thaw were seen. Taken together, for delayed cryopreservation, it is best to perform density centrifugation directly after collection rather than immediately prior to cryopreservation. PMID:25400025

Heutelbeck, A; Oldenhof, H; Rohn, K; Martinsson, G; Morrell, Jm; Sieme, H

2015-02-01

273

Mitochondrial Hydrogen Peroxide and Defective Cholesterol Efflux Prevent In Vitro Fertilization by Cryopreserved Inbred Mouse Sperm1  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Recent advances in the cryopreservation of mouse sperm have resulted in dramatically improved in vitro fertilization (IVF) rates, but the biological mechanisms underlying the techniques remain unclear. Two different classes of compounds have been widely utilized to improve the IVF rates of cryopreserved mouse sperm: antioxidants and cyclodextrins. To determine how cryopreservation reduces mouse sperm IVF and how antioxidants and cyclodextrins mitigate this effect, we examined sperm function and oxidative damage after cryopreservation, with and without treatments, in mouse strains important for biomedical research. Our investigation revealed mouse strain-specific effects on IVF by modulation of oxidative stress and cholesterol efflux of cryopreserved sperm. Antioxidants improved IVF rates of C57Bl6/J cryopreserved mouse sperm by reducing hydrogen peroxide produced by sperm mitochondria and ameliorating peroxidative damage to the sperm acrosome. Enhancing cholesterol efflux with cyclodextrin restored capacitation-dependent sperm function and IVF after cryopreservation of C57Bl/6J, C57Bl/6N, and 129X1 mouse sperm. Our results highlight two accessible pathways for continued development of IVF techniques for mouse sperm and provide novel endpoints prognostic of IVF success. These insights may improve sperm cryopreservation methods of other mouse strains and species. PMID:23740947

Gray, Jeffrey E.; Starmer, Joshua; Lin, Vivian S.; Dickinson, Bryan C.; Magnuson, Terry

2013-01-01

274

Loss of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A (VEGFA) Isoforms in the Testes of Male Mice Causes Subfertility, Reduces Sperm Numbers, and Alters Expression of Genes That Regulate Undifferentiated Spermatogonia  

PubMed Central

Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) isoform treatment has been demonstrated to alter spermatogonial stem cell homeostasis. Therefore, we generated pDmrt1-Cre;Vegfa?/? (knockout, KO) mice by crossing pDmrt1-Cre mice to floxed Vegfa mice to test whether loss of all VEGFA isoforms in Sertoli and germ cells would impair spermatogenesis. When first mated, KO males took 14 days longer to get control females pregnant (P < .02) and tended to take longer for all subsequent parturition intervals (9 days; P < .07). Heterozygous males sired fewer pups per litter (P < .03) and after the first litter took 10 days longer (P < .05) to impregnate females, suggesting a more progressive loss of fertility. Reproductive organs were collected from 6-month-old male mice. There were fewer sperm per tubule in the corpus epididymides (P < .001) and fewer ZBTB16-stained undifferentiated spermatogonia (P < .003) in the testes of KO males. Testicular mRNA abundance for Bcl2 (P < .02), Bcl2:Bax (P < .02), Neurog3 (P < .007), and Ret was greater (P = .0005), tended to be greater for Sin3a and tended to be reduced for total Foxo1 (P < .07) in KO males. Immunofluorescence for CD31 and VE-Cadherin showed no differences in testis vasculature; however, CD31-positive staining was evident in undifferentiated spermatogonia only in KO testes. Therefore, loss of VEGFA isoforms in Sertoli and germ cells alters genes necessary for long-term maintenance of undifferentiated spermatogonia, ultimately reducing sperm numbers and resulting in subfertility. PMID:24169552

Lu, Ningxia; Sargent, Kevin M.; Clopton, Debra T.; Pohlmeier, William E.; Brauer, Vanessa M.; McFee, Renee M.; Weber, John S.; Ferrara, Napoleone; Silversides, David W.

2013-01-01

275

Loss of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) isoforms in the testes of male mice causes subfertility, reduces sperm numbers, and alters expression of genes that regulate undifferentiated spermatogonia.  

PubMed

Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) isoform treatment has been demonstrated to alter spermatogonial stem cell homeostasis. Therefore, we generated pDmrt1-Cre;Vegfa(-/-) (knockout, KO) mice by crossing pDmrt1-Cre mice to floxed Vegfa mice to test whether loss of all VEGFA isoforms in Sertoli and germ cells would impair spermatogenesis. When first mated, KO males took 14 days longer to get control females pregnant (P < .02) and tended to take longer for all subsequent parturition intervals (9 days; P < .07). Heterozygous males sired fewer pups per litter (P < .03) and after the first litter took 10 days longer (P < .05) to impregnate females, suggesting a more progressive loss of fertility. Reproductive organs were collected from 6-month-old male mice. There were fewer sperm per tubule in the corpus epididymides (P < .001) and fewer ZBTB16-stained undifferentiated spermatogonia (P < .003) in the testes of KO males. Testicular mRNA abundance for Bcl2 (P < .02), Bcl2:Bax (P < .02), Neurog3 (P < .007), and Ret was greater (P = .0005), tended to be greater for Sin3a and tended to be reduced for total Foxo1 (P < .07) in KO males. Immunofluorescence for CD31 and VE-Cadherin showed no differences in testis vasculature; however, CD31-positive staining was evident in undifferentiated spermatogonia only in KO testes. Therefore, loss of VEGFA isoforms in Sertoli and germ cells alters genes necessary for long-term maintenance of undifferentiated spermatogonia, ultimately reducing sperm numbers and resulting in subfertility. PMID:24169552

Lu, Ningxia; Sargent, Kevin M; Clopton, Debra T; Pohlmeier, William E; Brauer, Vanessa M; McFee, Renee M; Weber, John S; Ferrara, Napoleone; Silversides, David W; Cupp, Andrea S

2013-12-01

276

Formal functional test designs with a test representation language  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of the category-partition method to the test design phase of hardware, software, or system test development is discussed. The method provides a formal framework for reducing the total number of possible test cases to a minimum logical subset for effective testing. An automatic tool and a formal language were developed to implement the method and produce the specification of test cases.

Hops, J. M.

1993-01-01

277

Impaired swimming behaviour and morphology of sperm from barn swallows Hirundo rustica in Chernobyl.  

PubMed

We investigated the motility and morphology of live sperm from barn swallows Hirundo rustica breeding in radioactively contaminated areas around Chernobyl and control areas in Ukraine in order to test the hypothesis that swimming behaviour and morphology of sperm was impaired by radioactive contamination. We obtained sperm samples from 98% of sampled birds, thus avoiding sampling bias due to the fraction of males not producing sperm samples. Analyses of within- and between-sample repeatability revealed significant and intermediate to large estimates for all sperm parameters. There were significant differences between the Chernobyl area and the control area for two of 11 sperm behaviour parameters, and significant interactions between area and year for six of these parameters. The proportion of sperm with abnormal morphology was elevated in barn swallows from Chernobyl. A principal component (PC) analysis revealed four significant axes that explained 88% of the variance in sperm behaviour parameters. One of these principal components differed between areas, and three components showed significant year by area interactions. PC2 representing the frequency of slow sperm increased with increasing radiation in one year, but not another. PC3 representing sperm with high linearity, small amplitude of lateral head displacement and low track velocity decreased with increasing background radiation level. PC4 reflecting a large proportion of static sperm with high beat cross frequency increased with increasing background radiation level. Sperm behaviour as reflected by principal components was predictable among years from information on level of radiation, and it was predictable among sites in different years. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that sperm behaviour and morphology have been affected by radiation due to the Chernobyl accident. PMID:18218334

Møller, A P; Mousseau, T A; Lynn, C; Lynnn, C; Ostermiller, S; Rudolfsen, G

2008-02-29

278

Spermatangium formation and sperm discharge in the Japanese pygmy squid Idiosepius paradoxus.  

PubMed

In cephalopods, sperm discharge is an important event not only for sperm transfer but also influencing sperm storage capacity of attached spermatangia (everted spermatophores). To investigate sperm discharge from spermatangia and the condition of naturally attached spermatangia in Japanese pygmy squid (Idiosepius paradoxus) we (i) investigated the morphology of spermatophores and spermatangia, and the process of spermatophore evagination and sperm discharge from spermatangia obtained in vitro; (ii) observed spermatangia that were naturally attached to female squids at 6, 12, 18, 24 and 48 h after copulation to investigate alterations in naturally attached spermatangia with time. The spermatophore of I. paradoxus is slender and cylindrical and consists of a sperm mass, a cement body and an ejaculatory apparatus, which is similar to those of loliginid squids. The spermatangium is fishhook-shaped, its distal end being open and narrow. After the spermatangium is formed, the sperm mass gradually moves to the open end of the spermatangium, from where sperm are released. Sperm discharge is a rapid process immediately after the beginning of sperm release, but within 5 min changes to an intermittent release of sperm. Although the volume of residual spermatozoa differed among spermatangia that were naturally attached to a single individual, the probability that spermatangia would be empty increased with time. Most naturally attached spermatangia discharged almost all of their spermatozoa within 24h after copulation, and no spermatangia were attached to females 48 h after copulation. These results suggest that sperm transfer from the spermatangium to the seminal receptacle must occur within 24h, and that the spermatangium functions as a transient sperm storage organ in pygmy squids. PMID:24813852

Sato, Noriyosi; Kasugai, Takashi; Munehara, Hiroyuki

2014-06-01

279

Pulmonary function tests in ulcerative colitis  

PubMed Central

Background: Pulmonary impairment in patients suffering ulcerative colitis (UC) has been suggested by several investigators using standard pulmonary function tests (PFTs). This changes in pulmonary function associated with minimal respiratory symptoms have been documented, especially in patients with active disease. The aim of this prospective study was to determine airway resistance and lung volumes in patients with UC who have no respiratory symptoms in comparisons to a healthy control group. Materials and Methods: We evaluated a total of 30 patients with UC by means of spirometry, body plethysmography, and impulse oscillometry. The patients were not complaining of any pulmonary symptoms and did not present any history of previous respiratory diseases. As controls we examined 30 healthy subjects matched for gender, age, and smoking status. The relationship between PFT, lung volume, and airway resistance; and the activity, localization, and duration of the UC disease were analyzed. Results: There was a significant difference between airway resistances (kPa/L/s) measured by body plethysmography in patients with UC and those of the controls (R5hz; 0.60 ± 0.44 vs. 0.39 ± 0.13; P < 0.001) and R20hz (0.37 ± 0.19 vs. 0.29 ± 0.1, P = 0.02). There were no correlation between PFT, airway resistance and site and scoring activity (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Despite the lack of pulmonary symptoms, increased airway resistance was found in UC patients. We also have not found correlation between PFT, lung volume and airway resistance values and scoring of UC activity. PMID:25364358

Amra, Babak; Ataabadi, Ghazal; Emami, Mohamad Hassan; Hassanzadeh, Akbar; Golshan, Mohammad; Soltaninejad, Forogh

2014-01-01

280

Mating system does not predict permanent sperm depletion in black widow spiders.  

PubMed

Variation in sperm production is strongly influenced by mating system across taxa. Recent work in spiders suggests that males of some species show termination of spermatogenesis before their adult molt and thus an inability to produce sperm after maturation. This permanent sperm depletion (PSD) has been hypothesized to co-occur with monogyny, genital mutilation, or sexual cannibalism because the maintenance of continual sperm supplies is not necessary for species where males can expect only one mating opportunity. Here we test this hypothesis in two congeners exhibiting genital mutilation: the sexually cannibalistic, monogynous Australian redback spider Latrodectus hasselti and the polygynous Western black widow Latrodectus hesperus. We report that PSD does not occur in adult males of either species, and show that males transfer sperm into their copulatory organs multiple times as adults. These data suggest evolutionary links between mating system and investment in sperm production may be more complex than currently appreciated. PMID:23607304

Modanu, Maria; Michalik, Peter; Andrade, Maydianne C B

2013-05-01

281

Strategic ejaculation in simultaneously hermaphroditic land snails: more sperm into virgin mates  

PubMed Central

Background It has been theorised that sperm competition promotes the strategic usage of costly sperm. Although sperm competition is thought to be an important driving force of reproductive traits in simultaneous hermaphrodites as well as in species with separate sexes, empirical studies on strategic ejaculation in simultaneous hermaphrodites are scarce. Results In the present study, we tested whether the simultaneously hermaphroditic land snail Euhadra quaesita adjusts the number of sperm donated according to the condition of the mate and whether the pattern of strategic ejaculation is in line with previously suggested theories. We found that individuals donated much more sperm when they copulated with a virgin mate than when they copulated with a non-virgin. Conclusion The virgin-biased pattern of ejaculation matches the theoretical prediction and suggests that sperm competition significantly influence the reproductive traits of simultaneously hermaphroditic land snails. PMID:24304518

2013-01-01

282

High-resolution mapping of chromatin packaging in mouse embryonic stem cells and sperm.  

PubMed

Mammalian embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and sperm exhibit unusual chromatin packaging that plays important roles in cellular function. Here, we extend a recently developed technique, based on deep paired-end sequencing of lightly digested chromatin, to assess footprints of nucleosomes and other DNA-binding proteins genome-wide in murine ESCs and sperm. In ESCs, we recover well-characterized features of chromatin such as promoter nucleosome depletion and further identify widespread footprints of sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins such as CTCF, which we validate in knockdown studies. We document global differences in nuclease accessibility between ESCs and sperm, finding that the majority of histone retention in sperm preferentially occurs in large gene-poor genomic regions, with only a small subset of nucleosomes being retained over promoters of developmental regulators. Finally, we describe evidence that CTCF remains associated with the genome in mature sperm, where it could play a role in organizing the sperm genome. PMID:24998598

Carone, Benjamin R; Hung, Jui-Hung; Hainer, Sarah J; Chou, Min-Te; Carone, Dawn M; Weng, Zhiping; Fazzio, Thomas G; Rando, Oliver J

2014-07-14

283

Seminal vesicle protein SVS2 is required for sperm survival in the uterus  

PubMed Central

In mammals, sperm migrate through the female reproductive tract to reach the egg; however, our understanding of this journey is highly limited. To shed light on this process, we focused on defining the functions of seminal vesicle secretion 2 (SVS2). SVS2?/? male mice produced sperm but were severely subfertile, and formation of a copulatory plug to cover the female genital opening did not occur. Surprisingly, even when artificial insemination was performed with silicon as a substitute for the plug, sperm fertility in the absence of SVS2 remained severely reduced because the sperm were already dead in the uterus. Thus, our results provide evidence that the uterus induces sperm cell death and that SVS2 protects sperm from uterine attack. PMID:24591616

Kawano, Natsuko; Araki, Naoya; Yoshida, Kaoru; Hibino, Taku; Ohnami, Naoko; Makino, Maako; Kanai, Seiya; Hasuwa, Hidetoshi; Yoshida, Manabu; Miyado, Kenji; Umezawa, Akihiro

2014-01-01

284

Percutaneous Sperm Retrieval in Secondary Azoospermia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Males presenting for assisted reproduction after vasectomy have a high chance of normal spermatogenesis and of successful surgical sperm retrieval. We aimed to evaluate simple percutaneous methods of retrieving sperm for intracytoplasmic sperm injection in males with secondary azoospermia due to previous vasectomy. Patients and Methods: We analyzed a series of post-vasectomy males who presented for sperm retrieval between

S. J. Bromage; D. A. Falconer; B. A. Lieberman; B. Shafar; S. R. Payne

2008-01-01

285

Delineating the roles of males and females in sperm competition  

PubMed Central

Disentangling the relative roles of males, females and their interactive effects on competitive fertilization success remains a challenge in sperm competition. In this study, we apply a novel experimental framework to an ideally suited externally fertilizing model system in order to delineate these roles. We focus on the chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, a species in which ovarian fluid (OF) has been implicated as a potential arbiter of cryptic female choice for genetically compatible mates. We evaluated this predicted sexually selected function of OF using a series of factorial competitive fertilization trials. Our design involved a series of 10 factorial crosses, each involving two ‘focal’ rival males whose sperm competed against those from a single ‘standardized’ (non-focal) rival for a genetically uniform set of eggs in the presence of OF from two focal females. This design enabled us to attribute variation in competitive fertilization success among focal males, females (OF) and their interacting effects, while controlling for variation attributable to differences in the sperm competitive ability of rival males, and male-by-female genotypic interactions. Using this experimental framework, we found that variation in sperm competitiveness could be attributed exclusively to differences in the sperm competitive ability of focal males, a conclusion supported by subsequent analyses revealing that variation in sperm swimming velocity predicts paternity success. Together, these findings provide evidence that variation in paternity success can be attributed to intrinsic differences in the sperm competitive ability of rival males, and reveal that sperm swimming velocity is a key target of sexual selection. PMID:24266039

Evans, Jonathan P.; Rosengrave, Patrice; Gasparini, Clelia; Gemmell, Neil J.

2013-01-01

286

A New Method for Multiple Sperm Cells Tracking  

PubMed Central

Motion analysis or quality assessment of human sperm cell is great important for clinical applications of male infertility. Sperm tracking is quite complex due to cell collision, occlusion and missed detection. The aim of this study is simultaneous tracking of multiple human sperm cells. In the first step in this research, the frame difference algorithm is used for background subtraction. There are some limitations to select an appropriate threshold value since the output accuracy is strongly dependent on the selected threshold value. To eliminate this dependency, we propose an improved non-linear diffusion filtering in the time domain. Non-linear diffusion filtering is a smoothing and noise removing approach that can preserve edges in images. Many sperms that move with different speeds in different directions eventually coincide. For multiple tracking over time, an optimal matching strategy is introduced that is based on the optimization of a new cost function. A Hungarian search method is utilized to obtain the best matching for all possible candidates. The results show nearly 3.24% frame based error in dataset of videos that contain more than 1 and less than 10 sperm cells. Hence the accuracy rate was 96.76%. These results indicate the validity of the proposed algorithm to perform multiple sperms tracking. PMID:24696807

Imani, Yoones; Teyfouri, Niloufar; Ahmadzadeh, Mohammad Reza; Golabbakhsh, Marzieh

2014-01-01

287

Sperm Proteomics: Road to Male Fertility and Contraception  

PubMed Central

Spermatozoa are highly specialized cells that can be easily obtained and purified. Mature spermatozoa are transcriptionally and translationally inactive and incapable of protein synthesis. In addition, spermatozoa contain relatively higher amounts of membrane proteins compared to other cells; therefore, they are very suitable for proteomic studies. Recently, the application of proteomic approaches such as the two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, and differential in-gel electrophoresis has identified several sperm-specific proteins. These findings have provided a further understanding of protein functions involved in different sperm processes as well as of the differentiation of normal state from an abnormal one. In addition, studies on the sperm proteome have demonstrated the importance of spermatozoal posttranslational modifications and their ability to induce physiological changes responsible for fertilization. Large-scale proteomic studies to identify hundreds to thousands of sperm proteins will ultimately result in the development of novel biomarkers that may help to detect fertility, the state of complete contraception, and beyond. Eventually, these protein biomarkers will allow for a better diagnosis of sperm dysfunctions and aid in drug development. This paper reviews the recent scientific publications available from the PubMed database to address sperm proteomics and its potential application to characterize male fertility and contraception. PMID:24363670

Rahman, Md Saidur; Lee, June-Sub

2013-01-01

288

Cryopreservation of sperm of red abalone (Haliotis rufescens)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Abalone culture, a developing industry in Baja California, Mexico, would benefit from genetic improvement and controlled breeding. The use of cryopreserved sperm would allow germplasm availability, and this study was designed to develop sperm cryopreservation protocols for red abalone Haliotis rufescens. The acute toxic effects of the cryoprotectants dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), propylene glycol (PG), and glycerol (GLY) were assessed after suspending sperm in different concentrations, whereby cryoprotectant treatments of 10% DMSO and 10% GLY equilibrated for 10 min yielded the highest range of motile sperm in preliminary freezing trials and were used for cryopreservation studies. To determine effective cooling rates, three freezing chambers were tested. Replicate samples of sperm from 4 males were placed in 0.5-mL French straws and frozen using a commercial freezing chamber (CFC) used for bull sperm, a programmable rate chamber (PRC), and a manually controlled styrofoam chamber (MCC). For the CFC, the cooling rate was 16??C/min, from 4??C to -140??C. For the PRC and MCC, it was 1??C/min, from -20??C to -30??C. The samples were held at -30??C for 5 min before being plunged into liquid nitrogen (-196??C) for storage, and each sample was thawed in a water bath at 45??C for 8 s. The quality of thawed sperm was determined by estimating percent motility, evaluating membrane integrity using a dual-staining technique and flow cytometry, and estimating fertilization rate. Statistical analyses were performed using 2-way ANOVA where chamber and treatment were the independent variables. Sperm quality parameters were independent. For motilities, a significant interaction was noted between the cryoprotective treatment and the chamber type, whereby motilities for DMSO and GLY were higher (P = 0.0055) using MCC. Membrane integrities were significantly lower after using the PRC than the CFC or the MCC (P = 0.0167). The highest post-thaw motility (48 ?? 7%) was found using sperm suspended in 10% glycerol and frozen in the MCC. The highest percent of intact membranes (56 ?? 11%) was for sperm suspended in 10% glycerol and frozen in the CFC. The highest fertilization rate (29 ?? 10%) was with samples frozen with 10% glycerol in the CFC. The use of cryopreserved sperm from red abalone provides an alternative breeding option for culture and the protocols delineated are the first developed for this species.

Salinas-Flores, L.; Paniagua-Chavez, C. G.; Jenkins, J.A.; Tiersch, T.R.

2005-01-01

289

TR: Postcopulatory sexual selection is associated with reduced variation in sperm morphology  

E-print Network

Background. The evolutionary role of postcopulatory sexual selection in shaping male reproductive traits, including sperm morphology, is well documented in several taxa. However, previous studies have focused almost exclusively on the influence of sperm competition on variation among species. In this study we tested the hypothesis that intraspecific variation in sperm morphology is driven by the level of postcopulatory sexual selection in passerine birds. Methodology/Findings. Using two proxy measures of sperm competition level, (i) relative testes size and (ii) extrapair paternity level, we found strong evidence that intermale variation in sperm morphology is negatively associated with the degree of postcopulatory sexual selection, independently of phylogeny. Conclusions/Significance. Our results show that the role of postcopulatory sexual selection in the evolution of sperm morphology extends to an intraspecific level, reducing the variation towards what might be a speciesspecific ‘optimum ’ sperm phenotype. This finding suggests that while postcopulatory selection is generally directional (e.g., favouring longer sperm) across avian species, it also acts as a stabilising evolutionary force within species under intense selection, resulting in reduced variation in sperm morphology traits. We discuss some potential evolutionary mechanisms for this pattern.

Sara Calhim; Simone Immler; Tim R. Birkhead

290

Postcopulatory Sexual Selection Is Associated with Reduced Variation in Sperm Morphology  

PubMed Central

Background The evolutionary role of postcopulatory sexual selection in shaping male reproductive traits, including sperm morphology, is well documented in several taxa. However, previous studies have focused almost exclusively on the influence of sperm competition on variation among species. In this study we tested the hypothesis that intraspecific variation in sperm morphology is driven by the level of postcopulatory sexual selection in passerine birds. Methodology/Findings Using two proxy measures of sperm competition level, (i) relative testes size and (ii) extrapair paternity level, we found strong evidence that intermale variation in sperm morphology is negatively associated with the degree of postcopulatory sexual selection, independently of phylogeny. Conclusions/Significance Our results show that the role of postcopulatory sexual selection in the evolution of sperm morphology extends to an intraspecific level, reducing the variation towards what might be a species-specific ‘optimum’ sperm phenotype. This finding suggests that while postcopulatory selection is generally directional (e.g., favouring longer sperm) across avian species, it also acts as a stabilising evolutionary force within species under intense selection, resulting in reduced variation in sperm morphology traits. We discuss some potential evolutionary mechanisms for this pattern. PMID:17476335

Calhim, Sara; Immler, Simone; Birkhead, Tim R.

2007-01-01

291

Impact of sperm chromatin evaluation on fertilization rate in intracytoplasmic sperm injection  

PubMed Central

Background: Sperm DNA in human beings and most vertebrates is packed by protamines into highly compact form of chromatin. There are many staining methods to assess sperm chromatin. Three different methods of staining were used simultaneously in this study and the goal was to determine which of these sperm tests has a relation with fertilization rate in intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Materials and Methods: Thirty couples who referred to Yamagata University Hospital (Yamagata, Japan) for ICSI were included in this study. The greater part of semen was prepared for ICSI. The remaining part was used for staining with aniline blue, acridine orange, and chromomycin A3 (CMA3). For evaluation of abnormal morphology and abnormality of head, Papanicolaou-stained smears were used. The analysis of data was done using Spearman coefficient of correlation and logistic regression model. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve was used for discrimination of CMA3 staining power to identify ICSI rates. Results: Percentage of CMA3 positivity, unlike those of aniline blue and acridine orange, showed significant negative correlation with fertilization rate. Moreover, the percentage of CMA3 positivity showed a positive correlation with the percentage of abnormal morphology and abnormality of head. By dividing patients into CMA3 <48% and CMA3> 48% groups, the area under the curve was 0.646. Conclusions: CMA3 staining (protamine deficiency) could be considered as a useful tool for evaluation of male fertility prior to infertility treatment. PMID:25538915

Iranpour, Farhad Golshan

2014-01-01

292

Complex female genitalia indicate sperm dumping in armored goblin spiders (Arachnida, Araneae, Oonopidae).  

PubMed

In promiscuous females, sperm ejection from the sperm storage site can be a strong mechanism to influence sperm priority patterns. Sperm dumping is reported from different animals including birds, insects, and humans. In spiders, it has been documented for four species including the oonopid Silhouettella loricatula. Oonopidae are a diverse spider family comprising many species with peculiar female genitalia. Especially in species where studies of mating behavior are difficult, morphological investigations of the genitalia help to understand their function and evolution. In the present study, the genitalia of the oonopids Myrmopopaea sp., Grymeus sp., and Lionneta sp. are investigated by means of histological serial sections and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results are compared with previous findings on S. loricatula. In Myrmopopaea sp. and Grymeus sp., the same morphological components are present that are involved in sperm dumping in S. loricatula. Inside the receptaculum, sperm are enclosed in a secretory sac which can be moved to the genital opening and dumped during copulation by muscle contractions. The female genitalia of Lionneta sp. are asymmetric. They show the same characteristics as S. loricatula but all the investigated females were unmated. The results strongly suggest that sperm dumping occurs in Myrmopopaea sp., Grymeus sp., and Lionneta sp. and happens by the same mechanism as in S. loricatula. Sperm dumping might even be common within a clade of oonopids. As in S. loricatula, the sperm transfer forms in the investigated species consist of several spermatozoa. Papillae with unknown function occur on the receptacula of all females. PMID:19939658

Burger, Matthias

2010-01-01

293

Identification and validation of mouse sperm proteins correlated with epididymal maturation  

PubMed Central

Sperm need to mature in the epididymis to become capable of fertilization. To understand the molecular mechanisms of mouse sperm maturation, we conducted a proteomic analysis using saturation dye labeling to identify proteins of caput and cauda epididymal sperm that exhibited differences in amounts or positions on two-dimensional gels. Of eight caput epididymal sperm-differential proteins, three were molecular chaperones and three were structural proteins. Of nine cauda epididymal sperm-differential proteins, six were enzymes of energy metabolism. To validate these proteins as markers of epididymal maturation, immunoblotting and immunofluorescence analyses were performed. During epididymal transit, heat shock protein 2 was eliminated with the cytoplasmic droplet and smooth muscle ?-actin exhibited reduced fluorescence from the anterior acrosome while the signal intensity of aldolase A increased, especially in the principal piece. Besides these changes, we observed protein spots, such as glutathione S-transferase mu 5 and the E2 component of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, shifting to more basic isoelectric points, suggesting post-translational changes such dephosphorylation occur during epididymal maturation. We conclude that most caput epididymal sperm-differential proteins contribute to the functional modification of sperm structures and that many cauda epididymal sperm-differential proteins are involved in ATP production that promotes sperm functions such as motility. PMID:21805633

Ijiri, Takashi W.; Merdiushev, Tanya; Cao, Wenlei; Gerton, George L.

2012-01-01

294

Chemosensory Ca2+ Dynamics Correlate with Diverse Behavioral Phenotypes in Human Sperm*  

PubMed Central

In the female reproductive tract, mammalian sperm undergo a regulated sequence of prefusion changes that “prime” sperm for fertilization. Among the least understood of these complex processes are the molecular mechanisms that underlie sperm guidance by environmental chemical cues. A “hard-wired” Ca2+ signaling strategy that orchestrates specific motility patterns according to given functional requirements is an emerging concept for regulation of sperm swimming behavior. The molecular players involved, the spatiotemporal characteristics of such motility-associated Ca2+ dynamics, and the relation between a distinct Ca2+ signaling pattern and a behavioral sperm phenotype, however, remain largely unclear. Here, we report the functional characterization of two human sperm chemoreceptors. Using complementary molecular, physiological, and behavioral approaches, we comparatively describe sperm Ca2+ responses to specific agonists of these novel receptors and bourgeonal, a known sperm chemoattractant. We further show that individual receptor activation induces specific Ca2+ signaling patterns with unique spatiotemporal dynamics. These distinct Ca2+ dynamics are correlated to a set of stimulus-specific stereotyped behavioral responses that could play vital roles during various stages of prefusion sperm-egg chemical communication. PMID:21454470

Veitinger, Thomas; Riffell, Jeffrey R.; Veitinger, Sophie; Nascimento, Jaclyn M.; Triller, Annika; Chandsawangbhuwana, Charlie; Schwane, Katlen; Geerts, Andreas; Wunder, Frank; Berns, Michael W.; Neuhaus, Eva M.; Zimmer, Richard K.; Spehr, Marc; Hatt, Hanns

2011-01-01

295

Mating systems and protein–protein interactions determine evolutionary rates of primate sperm proteins  

PubMed Central

To assess the relative impact of functional constraint and post-mating sexual selection on sequence evolution of reproductive proteins, we examined 169 primate sperm proteins. In order to recognize potential genome-wide trends, we additionally analysed a sample of altogether 318 non-reproductive (brain and postsynaptic) proteins. Based on cDNAs of eight primate species (Anthropoidea), we observed that pre-mating sperm proteins engaged in sperm composition and assembly show significantly lower incidence of site-specific positive selection and overall lower non-synonymous to synonymous substitution rates (dN/dS) across sites as compared with post-mating sperm proteins involved in capacitation, hyperactivation, acrosome reaction and fertilization. Moreover, database screening revealed overall more intracellular protein interaction partners in pre-mating than in post-mating sperm proteins. Finally, post-mating sperm proteins evolved at significantly higher evolutionary rates than pre-mating sperm and non-reproductive proteins on the branches to multi-male breeding species, while no such increase was observed on the branches to unimale and monogamous species. We conclude that less protein–protein interactions of post-mating sperm proteins account for lowered functional constraint, allowing for stronger impact of post-mating sexual selection, while the opposite holds true for pre-mating sperm proteins. This pattern is particularly strong in multi-male breeding species showing high female promiscuity. PMID:24307672

Schumacher, Julia; Rosenkranz, David; Herlyn, Holger

2014-01-01

296

Test Functions Space in Noncommutative Quantum Field Theory  

E-print Network

It is proven that the $\\star$-product of field operators implies that the space of test functions in the Wightman approach to noncommutative quantum field theory is one of the Gel'fand-Shilov spaces $S^{\\beta}$ with $\\beta test functions smears the noncommutative Wightman functions, which are in this case generalized distributions, sometimes called hyperfunctions. The existence and determination of the class of the test function spaces in NC QFT is important for any rigorous treatment in the Wightman approach.

M. Chaichian; M. Mnatsakanova; A. Tureanu; Yu. Vernov

2008-07-26

297

Screening Test Items for Differential Item Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A method for medical screening is adapted to differential item functioning (DIF). Its essential elements are explicit declarations of the level of DIF that is acceptable and of the loss function that quantifies the consequences of the two kinds of inappropriate classification of an item. Instead of a single level and a single function, sets of…

Longford, Nicholas T.

2014-01-01

298

Using Dependency Structures for Prioritisation of Functional Test Suites  

E-print Network

1 Using Dependency Structures for Prioritisation of Functional Test Suites Shifa-e-Zehra Haidry, Australia. 3 Abstract--Test case prioritisation is the process of ordering the exe- cution of test cases software delivery. Many existing test case prioritisation techniques consider that tests can be run in any

Miller, Tim

299

Site of lesion vestibular function testing.  

PubMed

The results of conventional electronystagmography (ENG) sometimes are confusing. The Hallpike alternate binaural bithermal (ABB) caloric test is helpful diagnostically except for the group of "sick patients that have a normal test." Conventional ENG tests also fall short in the area of objective confirmation of patient progress. What does each test tell us regarding site of lesion? 1. Alternate binaural bithermal stimulation gives us information about the semicircular canals -- particularly the horizontal semicircular canal -- pickup head. 2. Simultaneous binaural bithermal stimulation gives information brain stem connections -- switching and relay. 3. Rotation testing gives information about the processing by the brain -- central control. PMID:3872394

Rubin, W

1985-04-01

300

Atrazine in sub-acute exposure results in sperm DNA disintegrity and nuclear immaturity in rats  

PubMed Central

This study was designed to evaluate the detrimental effect of atrazine (ATR) on germinal epitheliums (GE) cytoplasmic carbohydrate (CH) and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) ratio and to clarify the effect of ATR on serum levels of FSH, LH, testosterone and inhibin-B (INH-B). The impact of ATR exposure on total antioxidant capacity (TAC), sperm DNA packing and integrity were also investigated. Seventy two Wistar rats were used. The rats in control group received vehicle and the animals in test groups received 100, 200 and 300 mg kg-1 BW of ATR orally on daily bases for 12, 24 and 48 days. In ATR-received groups the spermatogenesis cell were presented with dense reactive sites for lipidophilic staining associated with faint cytoplasmic CH accumulation. Dissociated germinal epithelium, negative tubular and repopulation indexes were manifested. The serum levels of testosterone, FSH, LH and INH-B decreased by 85% after 48 days exposure to high dose of ATR. TAC was reduced in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The sperm DNA damage was marked in animals which exposed to high dose of ATR (72.50 ± 2.25%) and the percentage of nuclear immature sperm increased up to 83.40 ± 0.89%. In conclusion, ATR not only induced its detrimental effect on the endocrine function of the testes and pituitary gland but also affected the cytoplasmic CH ratio and consequently leads to inadequate energy supplement in spermatogenesis cells. Therefore the imbalanced oxidative stress occurs in testicular tissue, which in turn enhances the sperm DNA disintegrity and nuclear immaturity.

Feyzi-Dehkhargani, Sajad; Shahrooz, Rasoul; Malekinejad, Hassan; Sadrkhanloo, Rajab-Ali

2012-01-01

301

Male infertility testing: reactive oxygen species and antioxidant capacity.  

PubMed

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are an integral component of sperm developmental physiology, capacitation, and function. Elevated ROS levels, from processes such as infection or inflammation, can be associated with aberrations of sperm development, function, and fertilizing capacity. We review the impact of ROS on sperm physiology, its place in infertility evaluation, the implications for reproductive outcomes, and antioxidant therapy. Our systematic review of PubMed literature from the last 3 decades focuses on the physiology and etiology of ROS and oxidative stress (OS), evaluation of ROS, and antioxidants. ROS is normally produced physiologically and is used to maintain cellular processes such as sperm maturation, capacitation, and sperm-oocyte interaction. When ROS production exceeds the buffering capacity of antioxidants, OS occurs and can have a negative impact on sperm and fertility. ROS and antioxidant capacity testing can potentially add additional prognostic information to standard laboratory testing for the infertile male, although its role as standard part of an evaluation has yet to be determined. Elevated ROS levels have been implicated with abnormal semen parameters and male infertility, but the impact of ROS on fertilization rates and pregnancy is controversial. This is partly because of the lack of consensus on what type of patients may be suitable for ROS testing and assay standardization. Routine ROS testing for the infertile male is not currently recommended. PMID:25458618

Ko, Edmund Y; Sabanegh, Edmund S; Agarwal, Ashok

2014-12-01

302

Identification of sperm subpopulations with specific motility characteristics in stallion ejaculates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to test the presence of separate sperm subpopulations, with specific motility characteristics, in stallion ejaculates by using a computer-assisted semen motility analysis (CASA) system. Motility data were analyzed with a hierarchical clustering of variables based on a correlation or covariance matrix to select like parameters of sperm motility descriptors that better explain the kinetics

A Quintero-Moreno; J Miró; A Teresa Rigau; J. E Rodr??guez-Gil

2003-01-01

303

DIBROMOACETIC ACID AFFECTS REPRODUCTIVE COMPETENCE AND SPERM QUALITY IN THE MALE RAT  

EPA Science Inventory

We have recently shown that Dibromoacetic acid (DBAA) alters sperm quality in short duration tests. n this study, male rats were gavaged with 0, 2, 10, 50, 250 mg DBAA/kg/d for up to 49 d. Interim. and terminal measurements of sperm quality & reproductive outcome were made. BAA c...

304

SPERM COUNT, MORPHOLOGY AND FLUORESCENT BODY FREQUENCY IN AUTOPSY SERVICE WORKERS EXPOSED TO FORMALDEHYDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The ability of a battery of genetic monitoring tests to detect occupational formaldehyde exposure in a population of a hospital autopsy service workers was investigated. Eleven exposed individuals and 11 matched controls were evaluated for sperm count, abnormal sperm morphology a...

305

The giant bite of a new raptorial sperm whale from the Miocene epoch of Peru  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modern giant sperm whale Physeter macrocephalus, one of the largest known predators, preys upon cephalopods at great depths. Lacking a functional upper dentition, it relies on suction for catching its prey; in contrast, several smaller Miocene sperm whales (Physeteroidea) have been interpreted as raptorial (versus suction) feeders, analogous to the modern killer whale Orcinus orca. Whereas very large physeteroid

Olivier Lambert; Giovanni Bianucci; Klaas Post; Christian de Muizon; Rodolfo Salas-Gismondi; Mario Urbina; Jelle Reumer

2010-01-01

306

Viability and fertilizing capacity of cryopreserved sperm from three North American acipenseriform species: a retrospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Populations of sturgeon across the globe are threatened due to unregulated harvest and habitat loss, and the status varies among species across North America. Ready access to viable and functional sperm would contribute to recovery pro- grammes for these species. In this study, we examined the motility, viability (cell membrane integrity) of cryopreserved sperm from three North American acipenseriform

Á. Horváth; W. R. Wayman; J. C. Dean; B. Urbányi; T. R. Tiersch; S. D. Mims; D. Johnson; J. A. Jenkins

2008-01-01

307

First State Fitness Test. A Measurement of Functional Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This test is designed to measure the functional health of young people. Functional health refers to those factors relating to personal health that can be improved with regular exercise. This test is unique in comparison to other physical fitness tests because of the absence of motor skill items which have no relationship to an individual's…

Brown, Timothy; And Others

308

Ultrastructural and DNA fragmentation analyses in swim-up selected human sperm.  

PubMed

Seventeen sperm samples were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) before and after swim-up separation. DNA-fragmentation was tested by terminal d-UTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) in unselected and selected semen samples, and the results were analyzed in relation to sperm ultrastructural characteristics detected by TEM. A significant improvement in mean numbers and percentages of structurally normal sperm was observed after swim-up selection, corresponding to a significant decrease in the percentage of necrotic and apoptotic sperm, while the percentage of sperm with immature nuclei did not change significantly. TUNEL indicated a significant decrease in chromatin-fragmented sperm after swim-up. Swim up selection based on sperm motility excludes many sperm with ultrastructural evidence of necrosis (absent or reacted acrosome, disrupted chromatin, broken plasma membrane) and apoptosis (misshapen nuclei with marginated chromatin), as confirmed by TUNEL analysis. Nevertheless, immature sperm with elliptical or roundish nuclei, misshapen acrosomes and uncondensed chromatin remain part of fertilizing pool. PMID:16338870

Piomboni, P; Bruni, E; Capitani, S; Gambera, L; Moretti, E; La Marca, A; De Leo, V; Baccetti, B

2006-01-01

309

No Experimental Evidence for Sneaking in a West African Cichlid Fish with Extremely Long Sperm  

PubMed Central

Alternative reproductive tactics are widespread in fishes, increasing the potential for sperm competition. Sperm competition has enormous impact on both variation in sperm numbers and sperm size. In cichlids, the sperm competition risk is very divergent and longer sperm are usually interpreted as adaptation to sperm competition. Here we examined whether sneaking tactics exist in Pelvicachromis taeniatus, a socially monogamous cichlid with biparental brood care from West Africa. The small testis indicates low gonadal investment which is typical for genetically monogamous species. In contrast, sperm length with up to 85??m is extraordinarily long. We examined the reproductive behaviour of ten groups with a male-biased sex ratio under semi-natural conditions via continuous video recording. We recorded spawning site preferences and correlates of reproductive success and conducted paternity tests using microsatellites. Safe breeding sites that could be successfully defended were preferred. All offspring could be assigned to their parents and no multiple paternities were detected. Body size of spawning pairs predicted their spawning probability and offspring hatching rate suggesting benefits from mating with large individuals. Our study suggests low risk of sperm competition under the given conditions in P. taeniatus and thus first evidence for genetic monogamy in a substrate breeding cichlid. PMID:24386589

Langen, Kathrin; Thünken, Timo; Bakker, Theo C. M.

2013-01-01

310

Sperm competition and the evolution of male reproductive anatomy in rodents  

PubMed Central

Sperm competition is a pervasive selective force in evolution, shaping reproductive anatomy, physiology and behaviour. Here, we present comparative evidence that varying sperm competition levels account for variation in the male reproductive anatomy of rodents, the largest and most diverse mammalian order. We focus on the sperm-producing testes and the accessory reproductive glands, which produce the seminal fluid fraction of the ejaculate. We demonstrate a positive association between relative testis size and the prevalence of within-litter multiple paternity, consistent with previous analyses in which relative testis size has been found to correlate with sperm competition levels inferred from social organization and mating systems. We further demonstrate an association between sperm competition level and the relative size of at least two accessory reproductive glands: the seminal vesicles and anterior prostate. The size of the major product of these glands—the copulatory plug—is also found to vary with sperm competition level. Our findings thus suggest that selection for larger plugs under sperm competition may explain variation in accessory gland size, and highlight the need to consider both sperm and non-sperm components of the male ejaculate in the context of post-copulatory sexual selection. PMID:16024351

Ramm, Steven A; Parker, Geoffrey A; Stockley, Paula

2005-01-01

311

Sperm speed is associated with sex bias of siblings in a human population  

PubMed Central

Recent studies investigating possible causes of male subfertility have largely focused on how lifestyle or environmental factors impact on the process of spermatogenesis. Markedly, fewer studies have investigated those risk factors that result in reduced sperm quality, such as poor sperm motility. The speed at which sperm swim is a major predictor of fertility and is extremely variable in human populations. It has been hypothesized that offspring sex may be adaptively manipulated to maximize the offspring's reproductive fitness (e.g., parents with genes for good male fertility traits, such as high sperm speed, would produce primarily sons and fewer daughters because the offspring will inherit advantageous male fertility genes). Conversely, parents with poor male fertility genes would produce primarily daughters. We tested whether there was an association between how fast a man's sperm swam and the sex bias of his siblings in a sample of men attending clinic for fertility investigations with their partner and with a wide range of semen characteristics, including sperm speed. We found that the sex bias of a man's siblings is associated with his sperm speed; men with female-biased siblings had significantly slower sperm (judged using computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA)) than men from male-biased sibships. This observation suggests family composition is an important factor that needs to be considered in future epidemiological and clinical studies of human fertility. PMID:23202700

Mossman, Jim A; Slate, Jon; Birkhead, Tim R; Moore, Harry D; Pacey, Allan A

2013-01-01

312

Mammalian sperm energy resources management and survival during conservation in refrigeration.  

PubMed

The present review has as its main aim to present an overview regarding the mechanisms utilized by mammalian sperm to manage its intracellular energy levels. This management will strongly influence the sperm's ability to maintain its overall function during its entire life span. Thus, the precise knowledge of these mechanisms will be of the utmost interest to optimize the systems utilized to conserve mammalian sperm for a medium-to-long time-lapse. Briefly, utilization of hexoses as energy substrates by mammalian sperm is very finely regulated from the very first step of its metabolization. Furthermore, the equilibrium among the separate, monosaccharide metabolization pathways in mammalian sperm depends on many factors. This prevents the possibility to draw a general vision of sperm energy utilization, which explains the results of all mammalian species in all points of the sperm life-cycle. To complicate the matter further, there are separate energy phenotypes among mammalian spermatozoa. The precise knowledge of these phenotypes is of the greatest importance in order to optimize the design of new extenders for sperm conservation in refrigerated conditions. Moreover, sugars can act on sperm not only as passive metabolic substrates, but also as direct function activators through mechanisms like specific changes in the tyrosine phosphorylation status of distinct proteins. Finally, mammalian sperm utilizes non-glucidic substrates like citrate and lactate to obtain energy in a regular form. This utilization is also finely regulated and of importance to maintain overall sperm function. This implies that the exact proportion of glucidic and non-glucidic energy substrates could be very important to optimize the survival ability of these cells in conservation. PMID:16984465

Rodriguez-Gil, J E

2006-10-01

313

The Effect of Curcumin on Intracellular pH (pHi), Membrane Hyperpolarization and Sperm Motility  

PubMed Central

Background Curcumin has shown to affect sperm motility and function in vitro and fertility in vivo. The molecular mechanism(s) by which curcumin affects sperm motility has not been delineated. Since modulation of intracellular pH (pHi) and plasma membrane polarization is involved in sperm motility, the present study was conducted to investigate the effect of curcumin on these sperm (human and murine) parameters. Methods The effect of curcumin on sperm forward motility was examined by counting percentages of forward moving sperm. The effect of curcumin on intracellular pH (pHi) was measured by the fluorescent pH indicator 2,7-bicarboxyethyl-5,6-carboxyfluorescein-acetoxymethyl ester (BCECF-AM). The effect of curcumin on plasma membrane polarization was examined using the fluorescence sensitive dye bis (1,3-dibarbituric acid)-trimethine oxanol [DiBAC4(3)]. Results Curcumin caused a concentration-dependent (p<0.05) decrease in forward motility of both human and mouse sperm. It also caused a concentration-dependent decrease in intracellular pH (pHi) in both human and mouse sperm. Curcumin induced significant (p<0.05) hyperpolarization of the plasma membrane in both human and mouse sperm. Conclusion These findings indicate that curcumin inhibits sperm forward motility by intracellular acidification and hyperpolarization of sperm plasma membrane. This is the first study to our knowledge which examined the effect of curcumin on sperm pHi and membrane polarization that affect sperm forward motility. These exciting findings will have application in deciphering the signal transduction pathway involved in sperm motility and function and in development of a novel non-steroidal contraceptive for infertility. PMID:24918078

Naz, Rajesh K.

2014-01-01

314

Sperm Trajectories Form Chiral Ribbons  

PubMed Central

We report the discovery of an entirely new three-dimensional (3D) swimming pattern observed in human and horse sperms. This motion is in the form of ‘chiral ribbons’, where the planar swing of the sperm head occurs on an osculating plane creating in some cases a helical ribbon and in some others a twisted ribbon. The latter, i.e., the twisted ribbon trajectory, also defines a minimal surface, exhibiting zero mean curvature for all the points on its surface. These chiral ribbon swimming patterns cannot be represented or understood by already known patterns of sperms or other micro-swimmers. The discovery of these unique patterns is enabled by holographic on-chip imaging of >33,700?sperm trajectories at >90–140?frames/sec, which revealed that only ~1.7% of human sperms exhibit chiral ribbons, whereas it increases to ~27.3% for horse sperms. These results might shed more light onto the statistics and biophysics of various micro-swimmers' 3D motion. PMID:23588811

Su, Ting-Wei; Choi, Inkyum; Feng, Jiawen; Huang, Kalvin; McLeod, Euan; Ozcan, Aydogan

2013-01-01

315

Stressful environments induce novel phenotypic variation: hierarchical reaction norms for sperm performance of a pervasive invader  

PubMed Central

Genetic variation for phenotypic plasticity is ubiquitous and important. However, the scale of such variation including the relative variability present in reaction norms among different hierarchies of biological organization (e.g., individuals, populations, and closely related species) is unknown. Complicating interpretation is a trade-off in environmental scale. As plasticity can only be inferred over the range of environments tested, experiments focusing on fine tuned responses to normal or benign conditions may miss cryptic phenotypic variation expressed under novel or stressful environments. Here, we sought to discern the presence and shape of plasticity in the performance of brown trout sperm as a function of optimal to extremely stressful river pH, and demarcate if the reaction norm varies among genotypes. Our overarching goal was to determine if deteriorating environmental quality increases expressed variation among individuals. A more applied aim was to ascertain whether maintaining sperm performance over a wide pH range could help explain how brown trout are able to invade diverse river systems when transplanted outside of their native range. Individuals differed in their reaction norms of phenotypic expression of an important trait in response to environmental change. Cryptic variation was revealed under stressful conditions, evidenced through increasing among-individual variability. Importantly, data on population averages masked this variability in plasticity. In addition, canalized reaction norms in sperm swimming velocities of many individuals over a very large range in water chemistry may help explain why brown trout are able to colonize a wide variety of habitats. PMID:23145341

Purchase, Craig F; Moreau, Darek T R

2012-01-01

316

Surgical sperm retrieval: Techniques and their indications  

PubMed Central

Men with azoospermia can father a child through intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection if sperm can be retrieved from their epididymis or testis. Several percutaneous and open surgical procedures have been described to retrieve sperm. The various techniques and their merits are discussed in this review. In men with obstructive azoospermia, epididymal sperm can usually be retrieved by percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA). If PESA fails then testicular sperm are obtained by needle aspiration biopsy (NAB). In men with non-obstructive azoospermia, there will be no sperm in the epididymis and testicular sperm retrieval is required. Percutaneous retrieval by NAB can be tried first. If that fails then testicular sperm extraction (TESE) from open microsurgical biopsies is performed using the single seminiferous tubule (SST) or the microdissection TESE techniques. The simplest, least invasive procedure should be tried first. PMID:21716933

Shah, Rupin

2011-01-01

317

Sperm cryopreservation of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus : cryoprotectants, freezing rates and sperm:egg dilution ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods for cryopreserving spermatozoa and optimizing sperm:egg dilution ratio in African catfish Clariasgariepinus were developed. Five percent to 25% DMSO and methanol were tested as cryoprotectants, by diluting semen in Ginzburg fish ringer and freezing in 1-milliliter cryovials in a programmable freezer. To avoid an excess of spermatozoa per egg, post-thaw semen was diluted 1:20, 1:200 or 1:2000 before fertilization.

A. T. M. Viveiros; N. So; J. Komen

2000-01-01

318

Mice lacking FABP9/PERF15 develop sperm head abnormalities but are fertile.  

PubMed

The male germ cell-specific fatty acid-binding protein 9 (FABP9/PERF15) is the major component of the murine sperm perforatorium and perinuclear theca. Based on its cytoskeletal association and sequence homology to myelin P2 (FABP8), it has been suggested that FABP9 tethers sperm membranes to the underlying cytoskeleton. Furthermore, its upregulation in apoptotic testicular germ cells and its increased phosphorylation status during capacitation suggested multiple important functions for FABP9. Therefore, we investigated specific functions for FABP9 by means of targeted gene disruption in mice. FABP9(-/-) mice were viable and fertile. Phenotypic analysis showed that FABP9(-/-) mice had significant increases in sperm head abnormalities (~8% greater than their WT cohorts); in particular, we observed the reduction or absence of the characteristic structural element known as the "ventral spur" in ~10% of FABP9(-/-) sperm. However, deficiency of FABP9 affected neither membrane tethering to the perinuclear theca nor the fatty acid composition of sperm. Moreover, epididymal sperm numbers were not affected in FABP9(-/-) mice. Therefore, we conclude that FABP9 plays only a minor role in providing the murine sperm head its characteristic shape and is not absolutely required for spermatogenesis or sperm function. PMID:20920498

Selvaraj, Vimal; Asano, Atsushi; Page, Jennifer L; Nelson, Jacquelyn L; Kothapalli, Kumar S D; Foster, James A; Brenna, J Thomas; Weiss, Robert S; Travis, Alexander J

2010-12-15

319

Reliability and validity of functional balance tests post stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To contribute to the reliability and validity of a series of functional balance tests for use post stroke.Design: Within-session, test-retest and intertester reliability was tested using the kappa coefficient and intraclass correlations. The tests were performed three times and the first and third attempts compared to test the within-session reliability. The tests were repeated a few days later to

Sarah F Tyson; Lorraine H DeSouza

2004-01-01

320

Dephosphorylation of sperm guanylate cyclase during sea urchin fertilization  

SciTech Connect

When intact Arbacia punctulata spermatozoa are exposed to solubilized egg jelly, the electrophoretic mobility of an abundant sperm flagellar membrane protein changes from an apparent molecular mass of 160 kDa to 150 kDa. A. punctulata spermatozoa can be labeled in vivo with /sup 32/P-labeled cells it was demonstrated that the mobility shift of the 160-kDa protein is due to dephosphorylation. The peptide resact (Cys-Val-Thr-Gly-Ala-Pro-Gly-Cys-Val-Gly-Gly-Gly-Arg-Leu-NH/sub 2/) is the component of egg jelly which is responsible for inducing the dephosphorylation. The 160/150-kdal sperm membrane protein has been purified to homogeneity by affinity chromatography on concanavalin A-agarose, and identified as sperm guanylate cyclase. The enzymatic activity of the guanylate cyclase is tightly coupled to its phosphorylation state. Resact has been shown to act as a potent chemoattractant for A. punctulata spermatozoa. The chemotactic response is concentration-dependent, is abolished by pretreatment of the spermatozoa with resact, and shows an absolute requirement for external calcium. This work represents the first demonstration of animal sperm chemotaxis in response to a precisely-defined molecule of egg origin. The results established a new, biologically meaningful function for resact, and may implicate sperm guanylate cyclase and cGMP in flagellar function and the chemotactic response.

Ward, G.E.

1985-01-01

321

IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DISEASE USING PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract Pulmonary function testing is used routinely in human medicine to objectively define functional deficits in individuals with respiratory disease. Despite the fact that respiratory disease is a common problem in veterinary medicine, evaluation of the small animal pa...

322

Effect of ram age on structural and functional competence of frozen-thawed spermatozoa in dairy sheep.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to investigate the influence of ram age on structural and functional competence of frozen-thawed spermatozoa and to test the hypothesis that increasing number of sperm bound to the zona pellucida in vitro was associated with decreasing in vivo fertility of frozen semen. Rams were allocated into two groups. Each group consisted of five rams aged either 1-2 years (young) or 4-5 years (mature). Three successive ejaculates were collected from each ram using an artificial vagina. Only ejaculates of >or= 2.5 x 10(9) sperm/ml and 80% sperm progressive motility were pooled per ram, diluted with Bioxcell medium and frozen in 0.25 ml straws. The end points of post-thawing semen evaluation were computer-assisted cell motility analysis, sperm capacitation (chlortetracycline assay), simultaneous assessment of plasma membrane integrity, mitochondrial membrane potential and condensation status of nucleus, per-cell analysis of lipid peroxidation using C11-BODIPY(581/591), sperm-hemizona binding (HZB) ability and sperm fertility after laparoscopic insemination of ewes (n = 114) in the progestagen-synchronized oestrus. The results showed that mature rams had significantly lower values of sperm hyperactivated motility and peroxidized sperm, higher percentages of live non-capacitated sperm and sperm cells with intact plasma membrane, functional mitochondria and condensed chromatin, as well as, greater lambing rate and ewe prolificacy. Sperm HZB binding ability was higher (p < 0.05) for young than for mature rams. Significant correlations were found between number of spermatozoa bound to the zona pellucida and semen fertility (r = -0.63 to -0.71). In conclusion, mature rams have better semen quality and in vivo fertility than young rams. Cryocapacitation can be involved in decreasing ram semen fertility as evidenced by the high number of spermatozoa bound to the zona pellucida in vitro. PMID:19055551

Lymberopoulos, A G; Tsakmakidis, I A; Khalifa, T A A

2010-08-01

323

Physiology and endocrinology symposium: a proteome-based model for sperm mobility phenotype.  

PubMed

Sperm mobility is defined as sperm movement against resistance at body temperature. Although all mobile sperm are motile, not all motile sperm are mobile. Sperm mobility is a primary determinant of male fertility in the chicken. Previous work explained phenotypic variation at the level of the sperm cell and the mitochondrion. The present work was conducted to determine if phenotypic variation could be explained at the level of the proteome using semen donors from lines of chickens selected for low or high sperm mobility. We began by testing the hypothesis that premature mitochondrial failure, and hence sperm immobility, arose from Ca(2+) overloading. The hypothesis was rejected because staining with a cell permeant Ca(2+)-specific dye was not enhanced in the case of low mobility sperm. The likelihood that sperm require little energy before ejaculation and the realization that the mitochondrial permeability transition can be induced by oxidative stress arising from inadequate NADH led to the hypothesis that glycolytic enzymes might differ between lines. This possibility was confirmed by 2-dimensional electrophoresis for aldolase and phosphoglycerate kinase 1. This outcome warranted evaluation of the whole cell proteome by differential detergent fractionation and mass spectrometry. Bioinformatics evaluation of proteins with different expression levels confirmed the likelihood that ATP metabolism and glycolysis differ between lines. This experimental outcome corroborated differences observed between lines in previous work, which include mitochondrial ultrastructure, sperm cell oxygen consumption, and straight line velocity. Although glycolytic proteins were more abundant within highly mobile sperm, quantitative PCR of representative testis RNA, which included mRNA for phosphoglycerate kinase 1, found no difference between lines. In summary, we propose a proteome-based model for sperm mobility phenotype in which a genetic predisposition puts sperm cells at risk of premature mitochondrial failure as they pass through the excurrent ducts of the testis. In other words, we attribute mitochondrial failure to sperm cell and reproductive tract attributes that interact to affect sperm in a stochastic manner before ejaculation. In conclusion, our work provides a starting point for understanding chicken semen quality in terms of gene networks. PMID:21036929

Froman, D P; Feltmann, A J; Pendarvis, K; Cooksey, A M; Burgess, S C; Rhoads, D D

2011-05-01

324

Identifying X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm by DNA content: retrospective perspectives and prospective opinions  

SciTech Connect

Theoretically, since DNA should be the most constant component, quantitatively, of normal sperm, then genotoxic agents arising from energy production and consumption, and chemical and physical mutagens, could be identified by measuring variability in the DNA content of individual sperm from exposed men or test animals. The difference between the DNA content of X and Y sperm seemed a biologically significant benchmark for the measurement technology. Several methods are available for determining the genetic activity of agents in male germ cells, but these tests are generally laborious. Sperm-based methods provide an attractive alternate since they are not invasive, and are directly applicable to the study of human exposure. Slide-based assay of DNA content suggests that human sperm with X, Y, or YY chromosome constitutions can be distinguished by their fluorescence with quinacrine. Subsequent measurement of the dry mass of human sperm heads is performed. Dry mass is proportional to DNA content. While the study showed that human sperm with none and one quinacrine-fluorescent spot are X- and Y-bearing, respectively, the dry mass measurements indicated that many of the sperm with two quinacrine-fluorescent spots are not YY-bearing. While several reports on the initial application of flow cytometry of sperm to the investigation of mammalian infertility have appeared recently, emphasis here has been on the development of an in vivo sperm-based flow cytometric bioassay for mutations, and has not centered on andrological applications. In this review, the ability to differentiate between two equally sized populations of sperm, one bearing X and the other Y chromosomes with mean DNA content differing by about 3 to 4% is described. It has direct application to the preselection of sex of offspring, and could likely have a profound impact on animal improvement. (ERB)

Gledhill, B.L.; Pinkel, D.; Garner, D.L.

1982-03-05

325

Effect of different extenders on in vitro characteristics of feline epididymal sperm during cryopreservation.  

PubMed

To evaluate and compare the efficacy of various extenders for the cryopreservation of epididymal cat spermatozoa, two experiments were planned. Bovine and equine commercial extenders in the experiment 1 and TRIS-egg yolk-based extenders in experiment 2 were separately studied since the number of sperm collected per cat is reduced. Epididymal sperm samples were packaged into 0.25-ml straws and frozen. Vigour, motility, morphology, acrosome status, sperm viability and functional membrane integrity were assessed at collection, after cooling and after thawing, while DNA integrity was evaluated at 0- and 6-h post-thaw. Experiment 1 compared the effect of three non-feline commercial extenders - based on TRIS-egg yolk (Triladyl), egg-yolk-free medium (AndroMed) and skimmed milk-egg yolk (Gent) - on the quality of frozen-thawed epididymal cat sperm. Values for sperm motility and functional membrane integrity in cooled sperm diluted in Triladyl were higher (p < 0.001) than those recorded for Andromed and Gent. Except sperm morphology, the other assessed characteristics showed significant higher values in frozen-thawed sperm diluted in Triladyl than in Andromed and Gent extenders. Experiment 2 analysed the effects of three TRIS-egg yolk-based extenders, one non-feline commercial (Triladyl) and the other two prepared using different monosaccharides (glucose and fructose), on freezing-thawed sperm. Results showed that specifically prepared extenders for cryopreservation of feline spermatozoa performed better than the commercial extender Triladyl, although sperm quality during the freezing-thawing process did not significantly differ associated with the type of monosaccharide (glucose vs fructose) added to the mentioned extenders. Although TRIS-egg yolk-based extenders prepared in experiment 2 improved sperm cryoprotection, Triladyl remains a good option for practitioners who, for ease of use and availability, prefer to work with commercial extenders. PMID:23320450

Jiménez, E; Pérez-Marín, C C; Vizuete, G; Millán, Y; Agüera, E I

2013-08-01

326

Interpreting sperm DNA damage in a diverse range of mammalian sperm by means of the two-tailed comet assay  

PubMed Central

Key Concepts The two-dimensional Two-Tailed Comet assay (TT-comet) protocol is a valuable technique to differentiate between single-stranded (SSBs) and double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) on the same sperm cell.Protein lysis inherent with the TT-comet protocol accounts for differences in sperm protamine composition at a species-specific level to produce reliable visualization of sperm DNA damage.Alkaline treatment may break the sugar–phosphate backbone in abasic sites or at sites with deoxyribose damage, transforming these lesions into DNA breaks that are also converted into ssDNA. These lesions are known as Alkali Labile Sites “ALSs.”DBD–FISH permits the in situ visualization of DNA breaks, abasic sites or alkaline-sensitive DNA regions.The alkaline comet single assay reveals that all mammalian species display constitutive ALS related with the requirement of the sperm to undergo transient changes in DNA structure linked with chromatin packing.Sperm DNA damage is associated with fertilization failure, impaired pre-and post- embryo implantation and poor pregnancy outcome.The TT is a valuable tool for identifying SSBs or DSBs in sperm cells with DNA fragmentation and can be therefore used for the purposes of fertility assessment. Sperm DNA damage is associated with fertilization failure, impaired pre-and post- embryo implantation and poor pregnancy outcome. A series of methodologies to assess DNA damage in spermatozoa have been developed but most are unable to differentiate between single-stranded DNA breaks (SSBs) and double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) on the same sperm cell. The two-dimensional Two-Tailed Comet assay (TT-comet) protocol highlighted in this review overcomes this limitation and emphasizes the importance in accounting for the difference in sperm protamine composition at a species-specific level for the appropriate preparation of the assay. The TT-comet is a modification of the original comet assay that uses a two dimensional electrophoresis to allow for the simultaneous evaluation of DSBs and SSBs in mammalian spermatozoa. Here we have compiled a retrospective overview of how the TT-comet assay has been used to investigate the structure and function of sperm DNA across a diverse range of mammalian species (eutheria, metatheria, and prototheria). When conducted as part of the TT-comet assay, we illustrate (a) how the alkaline comet single assay has been used to help understand the constitutive and transient changes in DNA structure associated with chromatin packing, (b) the capacity of the TT-comet to differentiate between the presence of SSBs and DSBs (c) and the possible implications of SSBs or DSBs for the assessment of infertility. PMID:25505901

Cortés-Gutiérrez, Elva I.; López-Fernández, Carmen; Fernández, José Luis; Dávila-Rodríguez, Martha I.; Johnston, Stephen D.; Gosálvez, Jaime

2014-01-01

327

No Evidence of Conpopulation Sperm Precedence between Allopatric Populations of House Mice  

PubMed Central

Investigations into the evolution of reproductive barriers have traditionally focused on closely related species, and the prevalence of conspecific sperm precedence. The effectiveness of conspecific sperm precedence at limiting gene exchange between species suggests that gametic isolation is an important component of reproductive isolation. However, there is a paucity of tests for evidence of sperm precedence during the earlier stages of divergence, for example among isolated populations. Here, we sourced individuals from two allopatric populations of house mice (Mus domesticus) and performed competitive in vitro fertilisation assays to test for conpopulation sperm precedence specifically at the gametic level. We found that ova population origin did not influence the outcome of the sperm competitions, and thus provide no evidence of conpopulation or heteropopulation sperm precedence. Instead, we found that males from a population that had evolved under a high level of postcopulatory sexual selection consistently outcompeted males from a population that had evolved under a relatively lower level of postcopulatory sexual selection. We standardised the number of motile sperm of each competitor across the replicate assays. Our data therefore show that competitive fertilizing success was directly attributable to differences in sperm fertilizing competence. PMID:25295521

Firman, Renée C.; Simmons, Leigh W.

2014-01-01

328

Sperm chromatin structure and male fertility: biological and clinical aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim:Sperm chromatin\\/DNA integrity is essential for the accurate transmission of paternal genetic information, and normal sperm chromatin structure is important for sperm fertilizing ability. The routine examination of semen, which includes sperm concentration, motility and morphology, does not identify defects in sperm chromatin structure. The origin of sperm DNA damage and a variety of methods for its assessment are described.

J. Erenpreiss; M. Spano; J. Erenpreisa; M. Bungum; A. Giwercman

2006-01-01

329

Membrane progestin receptor alpha mediates progestin-induced sperm hypermotility and increased fertilization success in southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma).  

PubMed

Progestin hormones stimulate sperm motility in teleosts but their mechanisms of action remain unclear. Preliminary results suggest that progestin upregulation of sperm motility in southern flounder and several other marine species is mediated through a sperm membrane progestin receptor with the characteristics of membrane progestin receptor alpha (mPR?, also known as Paqr7b). The hypothesis that mPR? has an important role in progestin regulation of southern flounder sperm motility and fertility was tested in the present study. The specific mPR? agonist, 10-ethenyl-19-norprogesterone (Org OD 02-0, 100nM), mimicked the stimulatory actions of the endogenous progestin, 17,20?, 21-trihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (20?-S, 100nM) on flounder sperm motility. The concentration of the mPR? protein on sperm plasma membranes was positively correlated to sperm motility as well as the responsiveness of sperm to progestin stimulation. Acute in vitro progestin treatment of sperm with high mPR? protein levels increased both sperm motility and fertilization success in strip spawning experiments. However, in vitro progestin treatments were ineffective on sperm with low receptor abundance. A single injection of the superactive gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog (LHRHa, 100?g/kg) increased sperm motility and fertilization success in strip spawning experiments 72h post-injection which was accompanied by an increase in mPR? protein concentrations on sperm plasma membranes. These results provide clear evidence that southern flounder sperm hypermotility is mediated through mPR?. Stimulatory G proteins, but not inhibitory G proteins, were identified in flounder sperm plasma membrane fractions. The finding that treatment of flounder sperm plasma membrane fractions with either 20?-S or Org OD 02-0 increases cAMP levels suggests progestins stimulate flounder sperm motility by activating an mPR?/stimulatory G protein/membrane adenylyl cyclase pathway. A similar mechanism has been identified in Atlantic croaker, suggesting that the signaling pathway mediated by mPR? in sperm is highly conserved in advanced teleosts. Collectively, our results indicate that progestin-stimulation of flounder sperm hypermotility and fertility is dependent on a sufficient concentration of mPR? which can be upregulated by in vivo LHRHa treatments. These findings potentially have practical applications for enhancing the fertility of male flounder broodstock. PMID:24530629

Tan, Wenxian; Aizen, Joseph; Thomas, Peter

2014-05-01

330

Development and Validation of a Functional Health Literacy Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Three validated functional health literacy tests (FHLTs) have been developed for use in healthcare settings. However, none of these tests has been shown to be readily applicable for use in the general public. Objective: To develop and validate an FHLT for screening the functional health literacy level of the general public and patients in healthcare settings. Methods: Maze procedure,

Xu-Hao Zhang; Julian Thumboo; Kok-Yong Fong; Shu-Chuen Li

2009-01-01

331

Sperm transport and survival in the mare: a review.  

PubMed

After the deposition of semen in the mare's uterus, spermatozoa must be transported to the site of fertilization, be maintained in the female tract until ovulation occurs, and be prepared to fertilize the released ovum. Sperm motility, myometrial contractions, and a spontaneous post-mating uterine inflammation are important factors for the transport and survival of spermatozoa in the mare's reproductive tract. Fertilizable sperm are present in the oviduct within 4 h after insemination. At this time, the uterus is the site of a hostile inflammatory environment. Our data suggest that spermatozoa trigger an influx of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) into the uterine lumen via activation of complement. Furthermore, semen plasma appears to have a modulatory effect on the post-mating inflammation through its suppressive effect on PMN chemotaxis and migration. Spermatozoa that safely have reached the oviduct can be stored in a functional state for several days, but prolonged sperm storage in the female tract is not required for capacitation and fertilization in the horse. The caudal isthmus has been proposed as a sperm reservoir in the mare. The pattern of sperm transport and survival of spermatozoa in the mare's reproductive tract are different between fertile and subfertile stallions, between fertile and some infertile mares, and between fresh and frozen/thawed semen. Possible explanations for these differences include a selective phagocytosis of damaged or dead spermatozoa, impaired myometrial activity in subfertile mares, bio-physiological changes in spermatozoa during cryopreservation, and the removal of semen plasma during cryopreservation of equine semen. PMID:10734454

Troedsson, M H; Liu, I K; Crabo, B G

1998-10-01

332

Sperm competition and the evolution of seminal fluid composition.  

PubMed

Male ejaculates include large amounts of seminal fluid proteins (Sfps) that influence male sperm competitive success. In spite of their diverse proximate functions, Sfps involved in sperm competition increase male fitness in one of three ways: (1) "avoidance" proteins help males avoid sperm competition, (2) "defense" proteins help males defend their sperm from displacement by the female's subsequent mate, and (3) "offense" proteins aid males in displacing sperm of preceding males. Here, we present a population genetic model of the evolution of allocation of finite resources by males to the three kinds of Sfps. We analyze the influence of relative efficiencies of different Sfps, of plasticity in resource allocation, and of differences in viability costs of Sfps. We find that in absence of plasticity or different viability costs, equal investment in defense and offense Sfps evolves, irrespective of their relative efficiency. In all cases, males evolve to invest more in avoidance when avoidance proteins are increasingly efficient, and when offense is more efficient than defense. Differences in viability costs result in lower investment in costly proteins, whereas plasticity has complex effects, influencing both the optimal seminal fluid composition and maintenance of variation in investment in these proteins across populations. PMID:24975874

Dhole, Sumit; Servedio, Maria R

2014-10-01

333

Sea urchin sperm antigens mediating the acrosome reaction  

SciTech Connect

The study of sea urchin sperm antigens mediating the acrosome reactions (AR) has been undertaken. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been isolated reacting with a number of sperm surface antigens. These mAbs have been used in functional assays to attempt to infer the roles of these proteins in the induction of the AR. These mAbs have also been used to isolate protein for biochemical characterization and reconstitution studies. mAbs reacting with a 210 kD protein of the sea urchin sperm plasma membrane have been used to identify this protein as playing a role in the regulation of ion fluxes during the induction of the AR. mAbs reacting with certain extracellular regions inhibit the induction of: the AR, the long duration {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} uptake into the mitochondrion, and H{sup +} efflux. Addition of these same mAbs, however, induces an increase in sperm (Ca{sup 2+}){sub i} to levels much higher than those induced by FSG, as monitored by the fluorescent Ca{sup 2+} indicators fura 2 and indo 1. This (Ca{sup 2+}){sub i} increase occurs without an increase in pH{sub i}, and thus allows for the first time the analysis of the effects of increasing sperm (Ca{sup 2+}){sub i} ion the absence of increased pH{sub i}.

Trimmer, J.S.

1987-01-01

334

No evidence of sperm conjugate formation in an Australian mouse bearing sperm with three hooks.  

PubMed

Sperm conjugation occurs when two or more sperm physically unite for motility or transport through the female reproductive tract. In many muroid rodent species, sperm conjugates have been shown to form by a single, conspicuous apical hook located on the sperm head. These sperm "trains" have been reported to be highly variable in size and, despite all the heads pointing in roughly the same direction, exhibit a relatively disordered arrangement. In some species, sperm "trains" have been shown to enhance sperm swimming speed, and thus have been suggested to be advantageous in sperm competition. Here, we assessed the behavior of sperm in the sandy inland mouse (Pseudomys hermannsburgensis), a muroid rodent that bears sperm with three apical hooks. First, we accrued genetic evidence of multiple paternity within "wild" litters to unequivocally show that sperm competition does occur in this species. Following this we utilized both in vitro and in vivo methodologies to determine whether sandy inland mouse sperm conjugate to form motile trains. Our observations of in vitro preparations of active sperm revealed that sandy inland mouse sperm exhibit rapid, progressive motility as individual cells only. Similarly, histological sections of the reproductive tracts of mated females revealed no in vivo evidence of sperm conjugate formation. We conclude that the unique, three-hooked morphology of the sandy inland mouse sperm does not facilitate the formation of motile conjugates, and discuss our findings in relation to the different hypotheses for the evolution of the muroid rodent hook/s. PMID:23919134

Firman, Renée C; Bentley, Blair; Bowman, Faye; Marchant, Fernando García-Solís; Parthenay, Jahmila; Sawyer, Jessica; Stewart, Tom; O'Shea, James E

2013-07-01

335

No evidence of sperm conjugate formation in an Australian mouse bearing sperm with three hooks  

PubMed Central

Sperm conjugation occurs when two or more sperm physically unite for motility or transport through the female reproductive tract. In many muroid rodent species, sperm conjugates have been shown to form by a single, conspicuous apical hook located on the sperm head. These sperm “trains” have been reported to be highly variable in size and, despite all the heads pointing in roughly the same direction, exhibit a relatively disordered arrangement. In some species, sperm “trains” have been shown to enhance sperm swimming speed, and thus have been suggested to be advantageous in sperm competition. Here, we assessed the behavior of sperm in the sandy inland mouse (Pseudomys hermannsburgensis), a muroid rodent that bears sperm with three apical hooks. First, we accrued genetic evidence of multiple paternity within “wild” litters to unequivocally show that sperm competition does occur in this species. Following this we utilized both in vitro and in vivo methodologies to determine whether sandy inland mouse sperm conjugate to form motile trains. Our observations of in vitro preparations of active sperm revealed that sandy inland mouse sperm exhibit rapid, progressive motility as individual cells only. Similarly, histological sections of the reproductive tracts of mated females revealed no in vivo evidence of sperm conjugate formation. We conclude that the unique, three-hooked morphology of the sandy inland mouse sperm does not facilitate the formation of motile conjugates, and discuss our findings in relation to the different hypotheses for the evolution of the muroid rodent hook/s. PMID:23919134

Firman, Renée C; Bentley, Blair; Bowman, Faye; Marchant, Fernando García-Solís; Parthenay, Jahmila; Sawyer, Jessica; Stewart, Tom; O'Shea, James E

2013-01-01

336

Effects of sera taken from women with recurrent spontaneous abortion on sperm motility and apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Background: Recurrent spontaneous abortion impacts almost 1% of couples. The sera from women with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (URSA) have toxic effects on embryos that grow in the uterus. Therefore, the abnormal condition of the uterus may also affect sperm qualities. Objective: The objectives of this study were to search if these sera could induce DNA denaturation in sperm nuclei and also it could reduce sperm motility. Materials and Methods: Sera of 20 women with URSA history and sera from 20 women with at least two healthy children were added to the sperms samples from 20 healthy men for 2 hours. The sperm motility was assessed after incubation with sera. The samples were stained with Tdt mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay for DNA fragmentation. The samples were analyzed with flow cytometry and the percentage of the TUNEL positive sperms were calculated. The data were analyzed by t-test. Results: The incubation of the sperm samples in sera with URSA lead to a decrease in the percentage of the motile sperm from 55% in control to 41% in the treated group, significantly (p=0.038). The percentage of the sperm with abnormal fragmented DNA increased after incubation with URSA (26.6%) compare to the control (21.2%); however, it was not significant. Conclusion: It seems that sera from URSA patients could not induce a significant increase in the percentage of the sperms with nuclei contain DNA fragmentation. However, the sera of women with URSA could affect the fertility rate by reduction of the sperm motility.

Talaei-khozani, Tahereh; Borzoei, Zahra; Bahmanpour, Soghra; Zolghadr, Jaleh; Dehbashi, Sedigheh; Zareh, Hamid Reza

2011-01-01

337

Sperm retrieval from patients with nonmosaic Klinefelter's syndrome by semen cytology examination.  

PubMed

Successful sperm retrieval from ejaculates of nonmosaic Klinefelter's syndrome (KS) patients by using semen cytology examination was described in this report. The clinical parameters of KS patients with sperm compared to patients without sperm were described. One hundred and fifty-one patients were proven to suffer from KS by chromosomal analysis using G-banding. Spermatozoa were obtained from 10 patients (10/151, 6.6%) using semen analysis. After semen cytology examination, 32 patients (32/151, 21.2%) were found to have sperm or germ cell in their ejaculate. The patients with successful sperm retrieval were significantly younger (27.1 ± 3.7 years) than the patients for whom sperm retrieval failed (28.9 ± 4.2 years). The mean serum testosterone level and the mean T/LH ratio of KS patients with successful sperm retrieval were significantly higher in men with sperm than in men without sperm (testosterone: 3.2 ± 2.1 ng/mL vs 2.7 ± 1.5 ng/mL; T/LH ratio: 0.2 ± 0.3 vs 0.1 ± 0.1). In conclusion, semen cytology examination should be performed to identify sperm and germ cells in the ejaculate of KS patients if no sperm can be detected by traditional semen analysis. The serum testosterone level and T/LH ratio revealed an association between impaired Leydig cell function and impaired spermatogenesis in KS males. KS patients should receive earlier diagnosis and treatment. PMID:24668672

Jiang, Y-T; Dong, Y; Yu, X-W; Du, R-C; Li, L-L; Zhang, H-G; Liu, R-Z

2014-01-01

338

Computer-based tracking of single sperm.  

PubMed

This paper describes a robust single sperm tracking algorithm (SSTA) that can be used in laser optical trapping and sperm motility studies. The algorithm creates a region of interest (ROI) centered about a sperm selected by the user. SSTA contrast enhances the ROI image and implements a modified four-class thresholding method to extract the tracked sperm as it transitions in and out of focus. The nearest neighbor method is complemented with a speed-check feature to aid tracking in the presence of additional sperm or other particles. SSTA has a collision-detection feature for real or perceived collision or near-miss cases between two sperm. Subsequent postcollision analysis employs three criteria to distinguish the tracked sperm in the image. The efficacy of SSTA is validated through examples and comparisons to commercially available computer-aided sperm tracking systems. PMID:17092158

Shi, Linda Z; Nascimento, Jaclyn M; Berns, Michael W; Botvinick, Elliot L

2006-01-01

339

Evolution of protamine genes and changes in sperm head phenotype in rodents.  

PubMed

Little is known about the genetic basis of evolutionary changes in sperm phenotype. Postcopulatory sexual selection is associated with differences in protamine gene sequences and promoters and is a powerful force acting on sperm form and function, although links between protamine evolution and sperm phenotype are scarce. Protamines are involved in sperm chromatin condensation, and protamine deficiency negatively affects sperm morphology and male fertility, thus suggesting that they are important for sperm design and function. We examined changes in protamine genes and sperm phenotype in rodents to understand the role of sexual selection on protamine evolution and sperm design. We performed a genotype-phenotype association study using root-to-tip dN/dS (nonsynonymous/synonymous substitutions rate ratio) to account for evolutionary rates and phylogenetic generalized least squares analyses to compare genetic and morphometric data. Evolutionary rates of protamine 1 and the protamine 2 domain cleaved off during chromatin condensation correlated with head size and elongation. Protamine 1 exhibited restricted positive selection on some functional sites, which seemed sufficient to preserve its role in head design. The cleaved-protamine 2, whose relaxation is halted by sexual selection, seems to ensure small, elongated heads that would make sperm more competitive. No association existed between mature-protamine 2 and head phenotype, suggesting little involvement during chromatin condensation and a likely role maintaining the condensed state. Our results suggest that evolutionary changes in protamines could be related to complex developmental modifications in the sperm head. This represents an important step toward understanding the role of changes in gene coding sequences in the divergence of germ cell phenotype. PMID:24522148

Lüke, Lena; Vicens, Alberto; Tourmente, Maximiliano; Roldan, Eduardo R S

2014-03-01

340

Permutation Testing Made Practical for Functional Magnetic Resonance Image Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an efficient algorithm for the step-down permutation test, applied to the analysis of functional magnetic resonance images. The algorithm's time bound is nearly linear, making it feasible as an interactive tool. Results of the permutation test algorithm applied to data from a cognitive activation paradigm are compared with those of a standard parametric test corrected for multiple comparisons.

Matthew Belmonte; Deborah Yurgelun-todd

2001-01-01

341

Memory Hazard Functions: A Vehicle for Theory Development and Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A framework is developed to rigorously test an entire class of memory retention functions by examining hazard properties. Evidence is provided that the memory hazard function is not monotonically decreasing. Yet most of the proposals for retention functions, which have emerged from the psychological literature, imply that memory hazard is…

Chechile, Richard A.

2006-01-01

342

Accelerated aging of reproductive capacity in male rat offspring of protein-restricted mothers is associated with increased testicular and sperm oxidative stress.  

PubMed

Maternal protein restriction (MPR) in pregnancy causes life course organ dysfunction, but few studies link the developmental origins of disease hypothesis to early aging. Suboptimal developmental nutrition increases oxidative stress (OS) and male infertility, damaging sperm function. We hypothesized that MPR in pregnancy accelerates age-related changes in testicular and sperm function related to both maternal diet and increased testicular OS in rat offspring. We studied male rats whose pregnant mothers ate either control (C, 20 % casein) or restricted (R, 10 % casein) isocaloric diet. After birth, mothers and offspring ate C diet. Testes were retrieved at 19 days gestation and across the life course (postnatal day (PND) 21, 36, 110, and 850) to measure OS markers, antioxidant enzymes, serum FSH, LH, and testosterone, and PND 110 sperm OS and quality. Fertility rate was evaluated at PND 110, 450, and 850. Offspring showed age- and MPR-related changes in testosterone, testicular OS markers and antioxidant enzymes and fertility, and maternal diet-related OS and sperm antioxidant enzyme changes. Developmental programming is considered a key factor in predisposing to chronic disease. Our data show that programming also plays an important role in aging trajectory. This interaction is a little studied area in aging biology that merits more investigation. PMID:25354645

Rodríguez-González, Guadalupe L; Reyes-Castro, Luis A; Vega, Claudia C; Boeck, Lourdes; Ibáñez, Carlos; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Larrea, Fernando; Zambrano, Elena

2014-12-01

343

The effects of opiate consumption on serum reproductive hormone levels, sperm parameters, seminal plasma antioxidant capacity and sperm DNA integrity.  

PubMed

We evaluated the effects of opiate consumption on semen quality, sperm function, seminal plasma antioxidant capacity, and sperm DNA integrity. A total of 142 opiate addict men (group 1) were enrolled in the study and 146 healthy age matched male volunteers (group 2) served as controls. Two semen analyses were performed in all participants. Sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) was used to identify sperm DNA integrity. The mean±SD sperm concentration in opiate users and in control subjects was 22.2±4.4 and 66.3±8.3 million per ml, respectively (P=0.002). A significant increase in the amount of fragmented DNA was found in opiate consumers compared with that in controls (36.4±3.8% vs. 27.1±2.4%, P=0.004). Significantly decreased levels of catalase-like and superoxide dismutase-like (SOD) activity were observed in group 1 compared with group 2. Opiate consumption has significant adverse effects on semen quality. In cases of unexplained infertility in men, opium consumption should be considered as a possible factor. PMID:23207164

Safarinejad, Mohammad Reza; Asgari, Seyyed Alaeddin; Farshi, Alireza; Ghaedi, Gholamhossein; Kolahi, Ali Asghar; Iravani, Shahrokh; Khoshdel, Ali Reza

2013-04-01

344

Extraordinarily long sperm in the socially monogamous cichlid fish Pelvicachromis taeniatus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main function of the spermatozoon is the transfer of the male haploid genome during fertilisation. In animals in general and in fishes in particular, there is huge variation in sperm size. In fishes, sperm size ranges from 13 ?m in Mugil cephlus to nearly 100 ?m in the channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. We examined intra-specific variation in sperm morphometry in the socially monogamous cichlid Pelvicachromis taeniatus using scanning electron microscopy. The mean total sperm length of nearly 70 ?m was extraordinarily large for cichlids. Furthermore, within-male variation was remarkably high. To our knowledge, P. taeniatus produces the longest cichlid sperm ever documented. Several hypotheses concerning the adaptive significance of these results are presented.

Thünken, Timo; Bakker, Theo C. M.; Kullmann, Harald

2007-06-01

345

ORIGINAL PAPER Relationship between Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) sperm  

E-print Network

hyperthermia (Rhodes 1975; Sekoni et al. 2004). Sperm quality might also be affected by immunological disorders function in wild Iberian ibexes. The animals examined were 43 adult males shot during the rutting season; Masvaer et al. 2004). Although the mechanism by which parasites directly affect reproductive performance

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

346

Cryopreservation of Greenshell™ Mussel (Perna canaliculus) Sperm.  

PubMed

Cryopreservation is a valuable technique for aquaculture as it enables a library or bank of genetically valuable animals to be maintained in a cost-effective manner. Here, we describe a method to cryopreserve the sperm of the Greenshell™ mussel (Perna canaliculus) and how to use the sperm post-thawing to maximize larval production from thawed sperm in selective breeding. PMID:25428014

Adams, Serean L; Smith, John F; Taylor, Jolene; McGowan, Lindsay T; Tervit, H Robin

2015-01-01

347

Airborne sperm of Conocephalum conicum (Conocephalaceae).  

PubMed

We have obtained the first momentary photographs of sperms just as they are discharged from the antheridium of a liverwort, Conocephalum conicum, and have succeeded in monitoring the airborne sperms of bryophytes under field conditions. Airborne sperm of liverworts seems to be an effective strategy for raising the efficiency of fertilization between male and female plants separated in a drought environment. PMID:18058191

Shimamura, Masaki; Yamaguchi, Tomio; Deguchi, Hironori

2008-01-01

348

Current status of plant products reported to inhibit sperm.  

PubMed

This report reviews research on plant-derived agents that prevent sperm production if taken orally by the male or that incapacitate or kill sperm on contact if used vaginally by the female. It would be of great value to develop fertility inhibitors that are totally selective for reproductive systems and enzymes, and there is a possibility that a plant-derived drug may have this effect. Plants that have been studied for their fertility inhibiting effects in the male include: Aristolochia indica L. (Aristolochiaceae); Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae); Balanites roxburghii Planch. (Zygophyllaceae); Calotropis procera (Ait) R.Br. (Asclepiadaceae); Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae); Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don (Apocynaceae); Dieffenbachia seguine (Jacquin) Schott. (Araceae); Ecaballium elaterium A. Richard (Cucurbitaceae); Gossypium species (Malvaceae); Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (Malvaceae); Hippophae salicifolia D. Don (Elaeagnaceae); Leucaena glauca (L.) Benth. (Leguminosae); Lonicera ciliosa Poir. (Caprifoliaceae); Lupinus termis Forsk. (Leguminosae); Malvaviscus conzattii Greenm. (Malvaceae); Momordica charantia L. (Curcurbitaceae); Ocimum sanctum L. (Labiatae); Prunus emarginata Walp. (Rosaceae); and Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (Solanaceae). A large number of plants have been randomly selected and screened for spermicidal activity "in vitro" and several seem promising. Those species found to be active and the nature of the active principle(s), when known, are presented in a table as are plant-derived chemical substances of known or partially known structure reported to be spermicidal "in vitro." Plants warrant systematic study as potential sources of sperm-agglutinating compounds. Of 1600 Indian plants tested, 90 showed positive semen coagulating properties. There seems to be a lack of correlation among experimental results obtained by different groups of investigators, between data obtained "in vitro" and "in vivo," and between experimental results and information found in folklore. Factors complicating the adequate assessment of plants affecting male fertility are inadequate numbers of vehicle-treated controls, poor experimental design, problems related to insolubility of crude plant extracts, variation in routes of administration, diversity in reproductive function and control among various laboratory species, and problems in identifying plant names consistently. PMID:12179631

Farnsworth, N R; Waller, D P

1982-06-01

349

Is intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI) beneficial in the first ART cycle? a multicentric randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

Intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI), by selecting spermatozoa at high magnification improves the outcome of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) mainly after several failures. However, only few monocentric randomized studies are available and they do not analyse results as a function of sperm characteristics. In 255 couples attempting their first assisted reproductive technology (ART) attempt for male infertility (motile sperm count <1×10? after sperm selection, but at least 3×10? spermatozoa per ejaculate to allow a detailed analysis of sperm characteristics), a prospective randomized trial was performed to compare the clinical outcomes of IMSI and ICSI and to evaluate the influence of sperm characteristics on these outcomes. IMSI did not provide any significant improvement in the clinical outcomes compared with ICSI neither for implantation (24% vs. 23%), nor clinical pregnancy (31% vs. 33%) nor live birth rates (27% vs. 30%). Moreover, the results of IMSI were similar to the ICSI ones whatever the degree of sperm DNA fragmentation, nuclear immaturity and sperm morphology. These results show that IMSI instead of ICSI has no advantage in the first ART attempts. However, this does not rule out IMSI completely and more randomized trials must be performed especially regarding patients carrying severe teratozoospermia, or high sperm DNA fragmentation levels or having previous ICSI failures. PMID:23788532

Leandri, R D; Gachet, A; Pfeffer, J; Celebi, C; Rives, N; Carre-Pigeon, F; Kulski, O; Mitchell, V; Parinaud, J

2013-09-01

350

Effect of proctodeal gland foam on sperm kinetics in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).  

PubMed

The proctodeal gland of the male Japanese quail produces thick foam that accompanies semen when it is transferred to the female. It is thought that this foam enhances fertilization by improving the motility of the sperm, but reports are conflicting because the effect of foam on sperm motility has only been assessed subjectively The velocity of individual sperm was not able to be measured accurately, variations were large, and small changes in motility could not be accurately evaluated. So, we tested the hypothesis that foam affects the motility of spermatozoa of Japanese quail by analyzing motility objectively using computer-assisted semen analysis and determining changes in sperm kinetics in the presence of different concentrations of proctodeal gland foam. The addition of 5% or 10% foam to the sperm suspension increased (P < 0.05) all sperm kinetic parameters (the curvilinear velocity, straight line velocity, the velocity of the average path, linearity, straightness, and beat cross frequency). As a result, the percentage of motile and progressive motile sperm also increased. All these parameters declined (P < 0.05) with a further increase in the concentration of foam to 15% and 20%. Furthermore, this effect was similar in males that were 8, 16, or 26 weeks of age. We conclude that sperm motility is enhanced by proctodeal gland foam, and this enhancement depends on its concentration. PMID:25301249

Farooq, U; Cho, S; Rybnik-Trzaskowska, P K; Singh, R P; Malecki, I A

2015-01-15

351

cSrc is necessary for epididymal development and is incorporated into sperm during epididymal transit  

PubMed Central

Changes that occur to mammalian sperm upon epididymal transit and maturation render these cells capable of moving progressively and capacitating. Signaling events leading to mammalian sperm capacitation depend on the modulation of proteins by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation cascades. Recent experiments have demonstrated that the Src family of kinases plays an important role in the regulation of these events. However, sperm from cSrc null mice display normal tyrosine phosphorylation associated with capacitation. We report here that, despite normal phosphorylation, sperm from cSrc null mice display a severe reduction in forward motility, and are unable to fertilize in vitro. Histological analysis of seminiferous tubules in the testes, caput and corpus epididymis do not reveal obvious defects. However, the cauda epididymis is significantly smaller, and expression of key transport proteins in the epithelial cells lining this region is reduced in cSrc null mice compared to wild type littermates. Although previously, we and others have shown the presence of cSrc in mature sperm from cauda epididymis, a closer evaluation indicates that this tyrosine kinase is not present in sperm from the caput epididymis, suggesting that this protein is acquired by sperm later during epididymal maturation. Consistent with this observation, cSrc is enriched in vesicles released by the epididymal epithelium known as epididymosomes. Altogether, these observations indicate that cSrc is essential for cauda epididymal development and suggest an essential role of this kinase in epididymal sperm maturation involving cSrc extracellular trafficking. PMID:22750823

Krapf, Dario; Ruan, Ye Chun; Wertheimer, Eva V.; Battistone, Maria A.; Pawlak, John B.; Sanjay, Archana; Pilder, Stephen H.; Cuasnicu, Patricia; Breton, Sylvie; Visconti, Pablo E.

2012-01-01

352

Aggregation of beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase on mouse sperm induces the acrosome reaction.  

PubMed

beta-1,4-Galactosyltransferase (GalTase) is present on the surface of mouse sperm, where it functions during fertilization by binding to oligosaccharide residues in the egg zona pellucida. The specific oligosaccharide substrates for sperm GalTase reside on the glycoprotein ZP3, which possesses both sperm-binding and acrosome reaction-inducing activity. A variety of reagents that perturb sperm GalTase activity inhibit sperm binding to the zona pellucida, including UDP-galactose, N-acetylglucosamine, alpha-lactalbumin, and anti-GalTase Fab fragments. However, none of these reagents are able to cross-link GalTase within the membrane nor are they able to induce the acrosome reaction. On the other hand, intact anti-GalTase IgG blocks sperm-zona binding as well as induces the acrosome reaction. Anti-GalTase IgG induces the acrosome reaction by aggregating GalTase on the sperm plasma membrane, as shown by the inability of anti-Gal-Tase Fab fragments to induce the acrosome reaction unless cross-linked with goat anti-rabbit IgG. These data suggest that zona pellucida oligosaccharides induce the acrosome reaction by clustering GalTase on the sperm surface. PMID:1916017

Macek, M B; Lopez, L C; Shur, B D

1991-10-01

353

Frozen-thawed rhesus sperm retain normal morphology and highly progressive motility but exhibit sharply reduced efficiency in penetrating cervical mucus and hyualuronic acid gel  

PubMed Central

The preservation of the genetic diversity of captive populations of rhesus monkeys is critical to the future of biomedical research. Cryopreservation of rhesus macaque sperm is relatively simple to perform, yields high post-thaw motility, and theoretically, provides via artificial insemination (AI) a way to easily transfer genetics among colonies of animals. In the interest of optimizing semen cryopreservation methods for use with vaginal AI, we evaluated the ability of frozen-thawed rhesus sperm to penetrate periovulatory cervical mucus (CM). Motile sperm concentration of pre–freeze (“fresh”) and post-thawed (“thawed”) samples from 5 different males were normalized for both computer assisted sperm motion analysis and CM penetration experiments. Sperm samples were deposited into slide chambers containing CM or gel composed of hyaluronic acid (HA) as a surrogate for CM and numbers of sperm were recorded as they entered a video field a preset distance from the sperm suspension-CM (or HA) interface. Fresh and thawed sperm were dried on glass slides, “Pap”-stained, and assessed for changes in head dimensions and head and flagellar shape. While retaining better than 80% of fresh sperm progressive motility, thawed sperm from the same ejaculate retained on average only 18.6% of the CM penetration ability. Experiments using HA gel yielded similar results only with reduced experimental error and thus improved detection of treatment differences. Neither the percentage of abnormal forms nor head dimensions differed between fresh and thawed sperm. While findings suggests that sperm-CM interaction is a prominent factor in previous failures of vaginal AI with cryopreserved macaque sperm, neither sperm motility nor morphology appears to account for changes in the ability of cryopreserved sperm to penetrate CM. Our data points to a previously unidentified manifestation of cryodamage which may have implications for assessment of sperm function beyond the cervix and across mammalian species. PMID:21112322

Tollner, Theodore L.; Dong, Qiaoxiang; VandeVoort, Catherine A.

2011-01-01

354

SP100 nuclear assembly test: Test assembly functional requirements and system arrangement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the functional requirements and the system that will be tested to validate the reactor, flight shield, and flight controller of the SP-100 Generic Flight System (GFS). The Nuclear Assembly Test (NAT) consists of the test article (SP-100 reactor with control devices and the flight shield) and its supporting systems. The NAT test assembly is being designed by

T. Ted Fallas; Robert Gluck; Kumar Motwani; Harold Clay; Gerald O'Neill

1991-01-01

355

HPV-DNA sperm infection and infertility: from a systematic literature review to a possible clinical management proposal.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to investigate the implications of human papillomavirus (HPV) sperm infection on male fertility, impairment of sperm parameters, and possible alteration of sperm nuclear status and to identify a possible effective management of infertile men with HPV sperm infection. We employed a systematic review and clinical management proposal at the Centers for Reproductive and Health care for treating infertile male patients with HPV infection. Literature search was carried out in electronic databases in the last two decades. We focused our attention on: (i) HPV sperm prevalence (ii) HPV-related alteration of sperm parameters; (iii) molecular mechanisms of HPV semen infection and infertility. The main outcome measures were HPV prevalence in infertile male patients and semen parameters. The prevalence of HPV sperm infection ranges between 2 and 31% in men from general population and between 10 and 35.7% in men affected by unexplained infertility. The presence of HPV in semen is associated with an impairment of sperm motility and the presence of anti-sperm antibodies. The molecular mechanisms underlying impairment of sperm motility apparatus need further evaluations. A greater attention should be applied to assess HPV sperm infection, particularly in men undergoing assisted reproduction techniques cycle for male infertility or sperm banking. It would be useful to perform HPV test and fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis for HPV in semen from these patients both at first admission, to define the possible presence and localization of semen infection, and after 6 months, to assess the possible virus clearance retrieval on normal sperm parameters. PMID:25270519

Foresta, C; Noventa, M; De Toni, L; Gizzo, S; Garolla, A

2014-10-01

356

Competition Between the Sperm of a Single Male Can Increase the Evolutionary Rate of Haploid Expressed Genes  

PubMed Central

The population genetic behavior of mutations in sperm genes is theoretically investigated. We modeled the processes at two levels. One is the standard population genetic process, in which the population allele frequencies change generation by generation, depending on the difference in selective advantages. The other is the sperm competition during each genetic transmission from one generation to the next generation. For the sperm competition process, we formulate the situation where a huge number of sperm with alleles A and B, produced by a single heterozygous male, compete to fertilize a single egg. This “minimal model” demonstrates that a very slight difference in sperm performance amounts to quite a large difference between the alleles’ winning probabilities. By incorporating this effect of paternity-sharing sperm competition into the standard population genetic process, we show that fierce sperm competition can enhance the fixation probability of a mutation with a very small phenotypic effect at the single-sperm level, suggesting a contribution of sperm competition to rapid amino acid substitutions in haploid-expressed sperm genes. Considering recent genome-wide demonstrations that a substantial fraction of the mammalian sperm genes are haploid expressed, our model could provide a potential explanation of rapid evolution of sperm genes with a wide variety of functions (as long as they are expressed in the haploid phase). Another advantage of our model is that it is applicable to a wide range of species, irrespective of whether the species is externally fertilizing, polygamous, or monogamous. The theoretical result was applied to mammalian data to estimate the selection intensity on nonsynonymous mutations in sperm genes. PMID:23666936

Ezawa, Kiyoshi; Innan, Hideki

2013-01-01

357

Dynamics of sperm DNA fragmentation in domestic animals II. The stallion.  

PubMed

The mixed success of equine artificial insemination programs using chilled and frozen-thawed semen is most likely associated with the variable response of the sperm cell to the preservation process and the fact that stallions are not selected on the basis of reproductive performance. We propose that the traditional indicators of sperm viability do not fully account for male factor infertility in the stallion and that knowledge of sperm DNA damage in the original semen sample and during semen processing may provide a more informed explanation of an individual stallion's reproductive potential. This study reports on the validation of a sperm DNA fragmentation test based on the sperm chromatin dispersion test (SCD) for stallion spermatozoa and on its application to semen that was chilled (4 degrees C; n=10) or frozen-thawed (n=13). Semen samples were collected by artificial vagina and the proportion of sperm with fragmented DNA determined. Seminal plasma was then removed by centrifugation and the sperm pellet re-suspended in commercial extenders prior to being chilled or cryopreserved using standard industry protocols. Chilled semen was cooled slowly to 4 degrees C and stored for 1h before commencing the analysis; cryopreserved semen was thawed and immediately analyzed. Following chilling or cryopreservation, the semen samples were incubated at 37 degrees C and analyzed for SCD after 0, 4, 6, 24 and 48 h storage. The results of this investigation revealed that there was no significant difference in the sperm DNA fragmentation index (sDFI) of sperm evaluated initially after collection compared to those tested immediately after chilling or cryopreservation. However, within 1h of incubation at 37 degrees C, both chilled and frozen-thawed spermatozoa showed a significant increase in the proportion of sDFI; after 6h the sDFI had increased to over 50% and by 48 h, almost 100% of the sperm showed DNA damage. While the sDFI of individual stallions at equivalent times of incubation was variable, an analysis of the rate of change of sDFI revealed no difference between stallions or the way in which the semen was preserved. In terms of sperm DNA fragmentation dynamics, the highest intensity of sperm DNA damage occurred in the first 6h of incubation. We suggest that the SCD test can be used as a routine assessment tool for the development and refinement of preservation protocols designed to reduce stallion sperm DNA damage. PMID:17919715

López-Fernández, C; Crespo, F; Arroyo, F; Fernández, J L; Arana, P; Johnston, S D; Gosálvez, J

2007-12-01

358

Neurotensin enhances sperm capacitation and acrosome reaction in mice.  

PubMed

Neurotensin (NT) has multiple functions, ranging from acting as a neurotransmitter to regulating intestinal movement. However, its function in reproductive physiology is unknown. Here, we confirmed the expression and localization of NT receptors (NTR1) in mouse epididymal spermatozoa and investigated the effect of NT on sperm function. Sperm protein tyrosine phosphorylation, one of the indices of sperm capacitation, was facilitated dose-dependently by NT administration. In addition, the acrosome reaction was promoted in capacitated spermatozoa, and addition of a selective antagonist of NTR1 and NTR2 blocked the induction. Furthermore, intracellular calcium mobilization by NT addition was observed. This showed that NT was an accelerator of sperm function via its functional receptors. The presence of NT was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and its localization was observed in epithelia of the uterus and oviduct isthmus and ampulla, which correspond to the fertilization route of spermatozoa. The NT mRNA level in ovulated cumulus cell was remarkably increased by treatment with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Using an in vitro maturation model, we analyzed the effects of FSH, epidermal growth factor (EGF), estradiol, and progesterone in NT production in cumulus cells. We found that FSH and EGF upregulated NT release and mRNA expression. Both FSH- and EGF-induced upregulation were inhibited by U0126, an MAPK kinase inhibitor, indicating that FSH and EGF regulate NT expression via a MAPK-dependent pathway. This evidence suggests that NT can act as a promoter of sperm capacitation and the acrosome reaction in the female reproductive tract. PMID:25031361

Hiradate, Yuuki; Inoue, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Norio; Shirakata, Yoshiki; Suzuki, Yutaka; Gotoh, Aina; Roh, Sang-Gun; Uchida, Takafumi; Katoh, Kazuo; Yoshida, Manabu; Sato, Eimei; Tanemura, Kentaro

2014-08-01

359

Expression of two-pore domain potassium channels in nonhuman primate sperm*  

PubMed Central

Objective Two-pore domain potassium channels (K2P) play integral roles in cell signaling pathways by modifying cell membrane resting potential. Here we describe the expression and function of K2P channels in nonhuman primate sperm. Design Experimental animal study, randomized blinded concentration-response experiments. Setting University affiliated primate research center. Animal(s) Male nonhuman primates. Interventions Western blot and immunofluorescent analysis of epididymal sperm samples. Kinematic measures (VCL and ALH) and acrosome status were studied in epidydimal sperm samples exposed to K2P agonist (Docosahexaenoic acid) and antagonist (Gadolinium). Main outcome measures Semi-quantitative protein expression and cellular localization and quantitative changes in specific kinematic parameters and acrosome integrity. Results Molecular analysis demonstrated expression and specific regional distribution of TRAAK, TREK-1, and TASK-2 in nonhuman primate sperm. Docosahexaenoic acid produced a concentration-dependent increase in curvilinear velocity (p < 0.0001) with concomitant concentration-dependent reductions in lateral head displacement (p = 0.005). Gadolinium reduced velocity measures (p < 0.01) without significantly affecting lateral head displacement. Conclusion(s) The results demonstrated for the first time, expression and function of K2P potassium channels in nonhuman primate sperm. The unique, discrete distributions of K2P channels in nonhuman primate sperm suggest specific roles for this sub-family of ion channels in primate sperm function. PMID:17067589

Chow, Gregory E.; Muller, Charles H.; Curnow, Eliza C.; Hayes, Eric S.

2007-01-01

360

Safety and Function Test Report for the SWIFT Wind Turbine  

SciTech Connect

This test was conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Independent Testing project. This project was established to help reduce the barriers of wind energy expansion by providing independent testing results for small turbines. Three turbines where selected for testing at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) as a part of round two of the Small Wind Turbine Independent Testing project. Safety and Function testing is one of up to 5 tests that may be performed on the turbines. Other tests include power performance, duration, noise, and power quality. The results of the testing will provide the manufacturers with reports that may be used for small wind turbine certification.

Mendoza, I.; Hur, J.

2013-01-01

361

A Semi-Automated Functional Test Data Analysis Tool  

SciTech Connect

The growing interest in commissioning is creating a demand that will increasingly be met by mechanical contractors and less experienced commissioning agents. They will need tools to help them perform commissioning effectively and efficiently. The widespread availability of standardized procedures, accessible in the field, will allow commissioning to be specified with greater certainty as to what will be delivered, enhancing the acceptance and credibility of commissioning. In response, a functional test data analysis tool is being developed to analyze the data collected during functional tests for air-handling units. The functional test data analysis tool is designed to analyze test data, assess performance of the unit under test and identify the likely causes of the failure. The tool has a convenient user interface to facilitate manual entry of measurements made during a test. A graphical display shows the measured performance versus the expected performance, highlighting significant differences that indicate the unit is not able to pass the test. The tool is described as semiautomated because the measured data need to be entered manually, instead of being passed from the building control system automatically. However, the data analysis and visualization are fully automated. The tool is designed to be used by commissioning providers conducting functional tests as part of either new building commissioning or retro-commissioning, as well as building owners and operators interested in conducting routine tests periodically to check the performance of their HVAC systems.

Xu, Peng; Haves, Philip; Kim, Moosung

2005-05-01

362

Platelet Function Tests: A Review of Progresses in Clinical Application  

PubMed Central

The major goal of traditional platelet function tests has been to screen and diagnose patients who present with bleeding problems. However, as the central role of platelets implicated in the etiology of arterial thrombotic diseases such as myocardial infarction and stroke became widely known, platelet function tests are now being promoted to monitor the efficacy of antiplatelet drugs and also to potentially identify patients at increased risk of thrombosis. Beyond hemostasis and thrombosis, an increasing number of studies indicate that platelets play an integral role in intercellular communication, are mediators of inflammation, and have immunomodulatory activity. As new potential biomarkers and technologies arrive at the horizon, platelet functions testing appears to take on a new aspect. This review article discusses currently available clinical application of platelet function tests, placing emphasis on essential characteristics. PMID:24895576

Choi, Jae-Lim; Li, Shuhua

2014-01-01

363

Usng subjective percentiles and test data for estimating fragility functions  

SciTech Connect

Fragility functions are cumulative distribution functions (cdfs) of strengths at failure. They are needed for reliability analyses of systems such as power generation and transmission systems. Subjective opinions supplement sparse test data for estimating fragility functions. Often the opinions are opinions on the percentiles of the fragility function. Subjective percentiles are likely to be less biased than opinions on parameters of cdfs. Solutions to several problems in the estimation of fragility functions are found for subjective percentiles and test data. How subjective percentiles should be used to estimate subjective fragility functions, how subjective percentiles should be combined with test data, how fragility functions for several failure modes should be combined into a composite fragility function, and how inherent randomness and uncertainty due to lack of knowledge should be represented are considered. Subjective percentiles are treated as independent estimates of percentiles. The following are derived: least-squares parameter estimators for normal and lognormal cdfs, based on subjective percentiles (the method is applicable to any invertible cdf); a composite fragility function for combining several failure modes; estimators of variation within and between groups of experts for nonidentically distributed subjective percentiles; weighted least-squares estimators when subjective percentiles have higher variation at higher percents; and weighted least-squares and Bayes parameter estimators based on combining subjective percentiles and test data. 4 figures, 2 tables.

George, L.L.; Mensing, R.W.

1981-01-15

364

Estimation and specification tests of count data recreation demand functions  

E-print Network

ESTIMATION AND SPECIFICATION TESTS OF COUNT DATA RECREATION DEMAND FUNCTIONS A Thesis IRMA ADRIANA GOMEZ Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A8cM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1991 Major Subject: Agricultural Economics ESTIMATION AND SPECIFICATION TESTS OF COUNT DATA RECREATION DEMAND FUNCTIONS A Thesis by IRMA ADRIANA GOMEZ Approved as to style and content by: T o a, Jr. (C a' of Committee) Lonnie...

Gomez, Irma Adriana

1991-01-01

365

Testing and Formal Verification of Logarithmic Function Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Logarithmic function has been designed on basis of multiplicative normalization and then its testing is been done using tetraMAX. It is observed that 7050 possible faults can be there in the design and tetraMAX ATPG can provide test coverage of 99.29%. Using design compiler .db file is generated which is used for functional verification of the design with respect to RTL design. Compare points are shown by cone views of the design.

Agarwal, Sanjeev; Bhuria, Indu

2010-11-01

366

Simulation analysis of a printed circuit board functional test process  

E-print Network

Corporation, a manufacturer of switching systems used in telecommunications networks. The impetus for the study was provided by the existence of a flow bottleneck in the functional testing area for a particular switching system production line. Using a... of a printed circuit board functional test process for DSC Communications Corporation. DSC is a mid-sized firm engaged in the development and production of digital switching systems for use in public and private telecommunications networks. The data...

Brinkley, Paul Andrew

2012-06-07

367

Sperm release pathway  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... organs include the testes, epididymis, urethra, vas deferens, prostate gland, seminal vesicle, and penis. The testes are ... ducts toward the urethra, passing first by the prostate gland, where a milky fluid is added to ...

368

Rescue of germline transmission from chimeras by IVF after sperm analysis.  

PubMed

Successful production of genetically modified mouse lines is dependent on germline transmission (GLT) of mutant alleles from chimeras. When natural mating fails to achieve GLT due to male infertility, sickness, or other problems, sperm can be harvested from chimeras and used for assisted reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) to attempt to "rescue" GLT. However, a rational, evidence-based approach to determine if such extraordinary efforts should be attempted on a chimera has not been established. Therefore, in the present study we assessed the production, quality and genotype of epididymal sperm harvested from male chimeras generated by blastocyst or morula microinjection of gene targeted embryonic stem (ES) cell clones containing a LacZ expression cassette and that failed to achieve GLT. Results of this analysis enabled us to determine the cause of GLT failure, correlate coat color chimerism with the proportion of LacZ-positive sperm, and test the likelihood of achieving GLT by IVF. In 415 chimeras, 332 (80 %) produced no offspring by natural mating ("infertile"), while 83 (20 %) produced only wildtype offspring ("fertile"). Of the 332 infertile chimeras, 209 (63 %) failed to produce any sperm whatsoever, 48 (15 %) had extremely poor quality sperm, and 75 (23 %) had good quality sperm. These results indicate that most chimeras that do not achieve GLT by natural mating are infertile, and the primary cause of infertility is failed spermatogenesis. Genotyping of sperm from 519 chimeras revealed a significant positive linear correlation between coat color chimerism and mean percentage of LacZ-positive sperm (R(2) = 0.95). Finally, IVF using good quality, LacZ-positive sperm from fertile and infertile chimeras "rescued" GLT for 19 out of 56 genes. We conclude that an assessment of coat color chimerism together with sperm quality and genotype can better inform the selection of chimeras for IVF to rescue GLT than coat color chimerism alone. PMID:25080098

Li, Ming-Wen; Willis, Brandon J; Evans, Kristin D; Araiza, Renee S; Lee, Angus Yiu-Fai; Lloyd, K C Kent

2015-02-01

369

Formal Functional Test Designs: Bridging the Gap Between Test Requirements and Test Specifications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation describes the testing life cycle, the purpose of the test design phase, and test design methods and gives an example application. Also included is a description of Test Representation Language (TRL), a summary of the language, and an example of an application of TRL. A sample test requirement and sample test design are included.

Hops, Jonathan

1993-01-01

370

Understanding Functions without Using the Vertical Line Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study was conducted on how the students were made to think meaningfully and widely within and across the representations in solving and identifying functions in precalculus, without the usage of the vertical line test. It was concluded that the "no vertical line testing" method proved to be easily accessible by all students and also made them…

Fernandez, Eileen

2005-01-01

371

Cryptographic Randomness Testing of Block Ciphers and Hash Functions  

E-print Network

, the cryptographic randomness tests are applied to AES finalist algorithms and the results are com- pared to the onesCryptographic Randomness Testing of Block Ciphers and Hash Functions Ali Doganaksoy, Baris¸ Ege by concatenating the outputs of the algorithms obtained from various input types. In this work, a more convenient

372

SLO3 K+ channels control calcium entry through CATSPER channels in sperm.  

PubMed

Here we show how a sperm-specific potassium channel (SLO3) controls Ca(2+) entry into sperm through a sperm-specific Ca(2+) channel, CATSPER, in a totally unanticipated manner. The genetic deletion of either of those channels confers male infertility in mice. During sperm capacitation SLO3 hyperpolarizes the sperm, whereas CATSPER allows Ca(2+) entry. These two channels may be functionally connected, but it had not been demonstrated that SLO3-dependent hyperpolarization is required for Ca(2+) entry through CATSPER channels, nor has a functional mechanism linking the two channels been shown. In this study we show that Ca(2+) entry through CATSPER channels is deficient in Slo3 mutant sperm lacking hyperpolarization; we also present evidence supporting the hypothesis that SLO3 channels activate CATSPER channels indirectly by promoting a rise in intracellular pH through a voltage-dependent mechanism. This mechanism may work through a Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (sNHE) and/or a bicarbonate transporter, which utilizes the inward driving force of the Na(+) gradient, rendering it intrinsically voltage-dependent. In addition, the sperm-specific Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (sNHE) possess a putative voltage sensor that might be activated by membrane hyperpolarization, thus increasing the voltage sensitivity of internal alkalization. PMID:25271166

Chávez, Julio César; Ferreira, Juan José; Butler, Alice; De La Vega Beltrán, José Luis; Treviño, Claudia L; Darszon, Alberto; Salkoff, Lawrence; Santi, Celia M

2014-11-14

373

Studies on Brahma rasayana in male swiss albino mice: Chromosomal aberrations and sperm abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Ayurveda, the Indian holistic healthcare system encompasses traditional medicines with a principle of creating harmony and maintaining balance within the natural rhythms of the body. Rasayana is one of the branches of Ayurveda frequently used as rejuvenant therapy to overcome many discomforts and prevent diseases. It has been reported that rasayanas have immunomodulatory, antioxidant and antitumor functions. However, the genotoxic potential of many rasayanas remains to be evaluated. The present study was undertaken to assess the role of Brahma rasayana(BR) on genotoxicity in vivo in a mouse test system. The older mice (9 months) were orally fed with rasayana for 8 weeks. The treated groups showed no signs of dose-dependent toxicity at the dosage levels tested. The body weight loss/gain and feed consumption were unaffected at tested doses. Furthermore, sperm abnormalities and chromosomal aberrations were insignificant in the treatment group when compared to controls. However, there was a marginal increase in sperm count in the BR treated animals. These findings clearly indicate that there are no observed adverse genotoxic effects elicited by BR in experimental animals such as mice. PMID:21829300

Guruprasad, K. P.; Mascarenhas, Roshan; Gopinath, P. M.; Satyamoorthy, K.

2010-01-01

374

SP100 nuclear assembly test - Test assembly functional requirements and system arrangement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the functional requirements and the system that will be tested to validate the reactor, flight shield, and flight controller of the SP-100 Generic Flight System. The Nuclear Assembly Test consists of the test article (SP-100 reactor with control devices and the flight shield) and its supporting systems.

T. T. Fallas; Robert Gluck; Kumar Motwani; Harold Clay; Gerald O'Neill

1991-01-01

375

The test of functional health literacy in adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To develop a valid, reliable instrument to measure the functional health literacy of patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN: The Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA) was developed using actual hospital materials. The TOFHLA consists\\u000a of a 50-item reading comprehension and 17-item numerical ability test, taking up to 22 minutes to administer. The TOFHLA,\\u000a the Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised (WRAT-R), and

Ruth M. Parker; David W. Baker; Mark V. Williams; Joanne R. Nurss

1995-01-01

376

State of the Art in Platelet Function Testing  

PubMed Central

Summary Platelets perform many functions in hemostasis but also in other areas of physiology and pathology. Therefore, it is obvious that many different function tests have been developed, each one conceived and standardized for a special purpose. This review will summarize the different fields in which platelet function testing is currently in use; diagnostics of patients with bleeding disorders, monitoring patients’ response to anti-platelet therapy, monitoring in transfusion medicine (blood donors, platelet concentrates, and after transfusion), and monitoring in perioperative medicine to predict bleeding tendency. The second part of the review outlines different methods for platelet function testing, spanning bleeding time, and platelet counting as well as determining platelet adhesion, platelet secretion, platelet aggregation, platelet morphology, platelet signal transduction, platelet procoagulant activity, platelet apoptosis, platelet proteomics, and molecular biology. PMID:23653569

E. Kehrel, Beate; F. Brodde, Martin

2013-01-01

377

A NOVEL SYSTEM FOR THE CO-CULTURE OF EPIDIDYMAL EPITHELIAL CELLS AND SPERM FROM ADULT RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

To study interactions which occur between the epididymal epithelial cells and sperm within the epididymis during sperm maturation, a specialized co-culture system capable of supporting the differentiated function of these cell types must be utilized. A multifaceted approach has b...

378

ORIGINAL PAPER Sperm morphology, swimming velocity, and longevity  

E-print Network

and sperm longevity in the house sparrow Passer domesticus. Sperm velocity was found to be correlated to maximize their fertilization success in a context of sperm competition. Keywords Passer domesticus . SpermORIGINAL PAPER Sperm morphology, swimming velocity, and longevity in the house sparrow Passer

Richner, Heinz

379

Potential Changes in Rat Spermatogenesis and Sperm Parameters after Inhalation of Boswellia papyrifera and Boswellia carterii Incense  

PubMed Central

In this study the effect of Boswellia papyrifera (B. papyrifera) and Boswellia carterii (B. carterii) smoke exposure on spermatogenesis and sperm parameters in male albino rats was investigated. Rats (n = 11) were exposed daily in smoking chambers to smoke emanated by burning 4 g each of either B. papyrifera or B. carterii for 48 days. At the end of exposure duration rats were killed, and the testes were excised and analysed for histopathological and ultrastructural changes. Sperm analysis including total sperm count, motility, velocity and relative percentage of abnormal sperms were recorded. Rats exposed to B. papyrifera and B. carterii showed significant disturbances in spermatogenetic patterns and changes in sperm kinetics compared to unexposed rats. Atrophied seminiferous tubules with dynamic changes were also noticed. The boundaries of intercellular and intracellular vacuoles were seen in the Sertoli cells. Furthermore, in spermatids acrosomal vesicles were not fully formed. Degenerating spermatids were devoid of their nuclear membrane with electron dense matrix and vacuolization. Structural changes in Leydig cells were observed. Sperm analysis in exposed rats exhibited significant decrease in the sperm count, motility, speed and an increase in sperm anomalies when compare to controls. These findings demonstrate that the B. papyrifera and B. carterii smoke affects the process of spermatogenesis and sperm parameters and indicate the detrimental effects of these incense materials on human reproductive system. PMID:23449005

Ahmed, Mukhtar; Al-Daghri, Nasser; Alokail, Majed S.; Hussain, Tajamul

2013-01-01

380

Potential changes in rat spermatogenesis and sperm parameters after inhalation of Boswellia papyrifera and Boswellia carterii incense.  

PubMed

In this study the effect of Boswellia papyrifera (B. papyrifera) and Boswellia carterii (B. carterii) smoke exposure on spermatogenesis and sperm parameters in male albino rats was investigated. Rats (n = 11) were exposed daily in smoking chambers to smoke emanated by burning 4 g each of either B. papyrifera or B. carterii for 48 days. At the end of exposure duration rats were killed, and the testes were excised and analysed for histopathological and ultrastructural changes. Sperm analysis including total sperm count, motility, velocity and relative percentage of abnormal sperms were recorded. Rats exposed to B. papyrifera and B. carterii showed significant disturbances in spermatogenetic patterns and changes in sperm kinetics compared to unexposed rats. Atrophied seminiferous tubules with dynamic changes were also noticed. The boundaries of intercellular and intracellular vacuoles were seen in the Sertoli cells. Furthermore, in spermatids acrosomal vesicles were not fully formed. Degenerating spermatids were devoid of their nuclear membrane with electron dense matrix and vacuolization. Structural changes in Leydig cells were observed. Sperm analysis in exposed rats exhibited significant decrease in the sperm count, motility, speed and an increase in sperm anomalies when compare to controls. These findings demonstrate that the B. papyrifera and B. carterii smoke affects the process of spermatogenesis and sperm parameters and indicate the