Sample records for functional sperm tests

  1. Sperm functional tests.

    PubMed

    Oehninger, Sergio; Franken, Daniel R; Ombelet, Willem

    2014-12-01

    Several semen parameters are used to discriminate the fertile male from the subfertile male. The most widely used parameters are sperm concentration, motility, progressive motility, and sperm morphology. Semen analysis is usually applied as described in the World Health Organization manual for semen analysis. In addition to a routine semen analysis, sperm functional tests have been described for many years, which in most cases are regarded as research tools and not part of the routine semen testing in an infertility clinic. In this review we report on the value of four sperm function tests: the sperm penetration assay, the sperm-zona pellucida binding tests, the acrosome reaction, and the hyaluronan binding assay. For each test we describe the current value, the indication for performing the test, how to interpret the results, and its therapeutic implications. Our data show that sperm functional assays are highly predictive of IVF outcome results and have the potential to assist in clinical decision making, especially to avoid the current long-standing treatment with IUI and to direct the patients to intracytoplasmic sperm injection without delay when sperm functional testing fails. We believe that advances in molecular biology techniques will allow us to develop simpler sperm function assays in the near future. This will undoubtedly help clinicians in optimizing male factor infertility diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25450304

  2. Semen analysis and sperm function testing

    PubMed Central

    Franken, Daniel R; Oehninger, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Despite controversy regarding the clinical value of semen analysis, male fertility investigation still relies on a standardized analysis of the semen parameters. This is especially true for infertility clinics in both developing and developed countries. Other optional tests or sophisticated technologies have not been widely applied. The current review addresses important changes in the analysis of semen as described in the new World Health Organization (WHO) manual for semen analysis. The most important change in the manual is the use of evidence-based publications as references to determine cutoff values for normality. Apart from the above mentioned changes, the initial evaluation and handling methods remain, in most instances, the same as in previous editions. Furthermore, the review evaluates the importance of quality control in andrology with emphasis on the evaluation of sperm morphology. WHO sperm morphology training programmes for Sub-Saharan countries were initiated at Tygerberg Hospital in 1995. The external quality control programme has ensured that the majority of participants have maintained their morphological reading skills acquired during initial training. This review reports on current sperm functional tests, such as the induced acrosome reaction, and sperm–zona pellucida binding assays, as well as the impact of sperm quality in terms of DNA integrity, and the relationship of sperm function tests to sperm morphology. PMID:22179512

  3. Sperm competition leads to functional adaptations in avian testes to maximize sperm quantity and quality.

    PubMed

    Lüpold, Stefan; Wistuba, Joachim; Damm, Oliver S; Rivers, James W; Birkhead, Tim R

    2011-05-01

    The outcome of sperm competition (i.e. competition for fertilization between ejaculates from different males) is primarily determined by the relative number and quality of rival sperm. Therefore, the testes are under strong selection to maximize both sperm number and quality, which are likely to result in trade-offs in the process of spermatogenesis (e.g. between the rate of spermatogenesis and sperm length or sperm energetics). Comparative studies have shown positive associations between the level of sperm competition and both relative testis size and the proportion of seminiferous (sperm-producing) tissue within the testes. However, it is unknown how the seminiferous tissue itself or the process of spermatogenesis might evolve in response to sperm competition. Therefore, we quantified the different germ cell types and Sertoli cells (SC) in testes to assess the efficiency of sperm production and its associations with sperm length and mating system across 10 species of New World Blackbirds (Icteridae) that show marked variation in sperm length and sperm competition level. We found that species under strong sperm competition generate more round spermatids (RS)/spermatogonium and have SC that support a greater number of germ cells, both of which are likely to increase the maximum sperm output. However, fewer of the RS appeared to elongate to mature spermatozoa in these species, which might be the result of selection for discarding spermatids with undesirable characteristics as they develop. Our results suggest that, in addition to overall size and gross morphology, testes have also evolved functional adaptations to maximize sperm quantity and quality. PMID:21307271

  4. Semen analysis and sperm function tests: How much to test?

    PubMed Central

    Vasan, S. S.

    2011-01-01

    Semen analysis as an integral part of infertility investigations is taken as a surrogate measure for male fecundity in clinical andrology, male fertility, and pregnancy risk assessments. Clearly, laboratory seminology is still very much in its infancy. In as much as the creation of a conventional semen profile will always represent the foundations of male fertility evaluation, the 5th edition of the World Health Organization (WHO) manual is a definitive statement on how such assessments should be carried out and how the quality should be controlled. A major advance in this new edition of the WHO manual, resolving the most salient critique of previous editions, is the development of the first well-defined reference ranges for semen analysis based on the analysis of over 1900 recent fathers. The methodology used in the assessment of the usual variables in semen analysis is described, as are many of the less common, but very valuable, sperm function tests. Sperm function testing is used to determine if the sperm have the biologic capacity to perform the tasks necessary to reach and fertilize ova and ultimately result in live births. A variety of tests are available to evaluate different aspects of these functions. To accurately use these functional assays, the clinician must understand what the tests measure, what the indications are for the assays, and how to interpret the results to direct further testing or patient management. PMID:21716889

  5. Tamoxifen treatment of oligozoospermia: a re-evaluation of its effects including additional sperm function tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Sterzik; B. Rosenbusch; J. Mogck; M. Heyden; K. Lichtenberger

    1993-01-01

    Summary  Because of previous contradictory results, we reevaluted the effects of tamoxifen on 29 men presenting with idiopathic oligozoospermia.\\u000a To determine whether a possible increase in sperm concentration might be correlated with an improvement of sperm quality,\\u000a the hamster ovum penetration (HOP) test and the hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) test were included as additional tests of sperm\\u000a function. Patients were treated with

  6. Correlation between Different Patterns of Hypo-Osmotic Swelling and Sperm Functional Tests

    PubMed Central

    Bassiri, Farzaneh; Tavalaee, Marziyeh; Nasr Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Background: Sperm membrane integrity is not only important as a barrier between intra- and extra-cellular spaces, but also it can be considered as a sign of DNA integrity. Hypoosmotic swelling test reflects membrane integrity and has been used to evaluate sperm quality. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in adjunct with hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST) has been used for treatment of males with asthenozoospermia. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate correlation of different pattern of HOST with sperm parameters, protamine deficiency and apoptosis. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, sixteen semen samples were randomly collected from infertile normozospermic men. Semen samples were divided into two portions as follows: one portion was assessed for sperm parameters according toWorld Health Organization (WHO)-2010, while the other portion, after applying HOST procedure, was used for assessment of sperm morphology, protamine deficiency and late or early apoptosis. Statistical analysis was carried out using the Statistical Package for the Social Studies (SPSS 11.5). Results: Our results showed that, the lowest odds ratio (OR) of abnormal sperm head morphology and abnormal acrosome was in d-sperm as compared to a-pattern or nonviable spermatozoa (p=0.00, p=0.01). In addition, a significant correlation was observed between d-sperm with sperm concentration and percentage of DNA damage (p=0.03 and p=0.04, respectively). A significant correlation was observed between percentage of sperm motility and DNA fragmentation (r=-0.56; p=0.01). Furthermore, significant correlations were observed between percentages of early apoptotic sperm with protamine deficiency and sperm concentration (p=0.009 and p=0.01, respectively). Conclusion: Significant correlations exist between d-pattern and sperm DNA integrity. Semen samples with low sperm concentration have low percentage of d-sperm which are mature and intact sperms. PMID:24520486

  7. Sperm form and function in the absence of sperm competition.

    PubMed

    van der Horst, Gerhard; Maree, Liana

    2014-03-01

    Sperm competition is a post-copulatory, sexual selection force that, together with phylogeny and fertilization mode, has been regarded as one of the main factors explaining the diversity in sperm size across species. This universal sperm selection mechanism favors traits that enhance a male's fertilizing ability and paternity success. Surprisingly, however, sperm characteristics and semen quality in monogamous species, with low risk of sperm competition, have barely received any attention. In this review, we consider sperm competition and monogamy as two ends of the selective spectrum, and discuss its effect on sperm structure and function. We address the issue of a lack of sperm competition by comparing sperm traits of essentially monogamous species--their largely degenerative sperm features and high degree of polymorphisms could be norms for monogamous species. Further, the level of sperm competition in humans is discussed by comparing its mating strategy, relative testis size, and sperm traits to other primate species. In terms of sperm concentration, sperm swimming speed, and sperm morphology, humans seem to be closer aligned to the low-risk sperm competition situation in gorillas than to promiscuous chimpanzees. PMID:24273026

  8. Sperm competition selects beyond relative testes size in birds.

    PubMed

    Lüpold, Stefan; Linz, George M; Rivers, James W; Westneat, David F; Birkhead, Tim R

    2009-02-01

    Sperm morphology varies considerably across taxa, and postcopulatory sexual selection is thought to be one of the main forces responsible for this diversity. Several studies have investigated the effects of the variation in sperm design on sperm function, but the consequences of variation in sperm design on testis morphology have been overlooked. Testes size or architecture may determine the size of the sperm they produce, and selection for longer sperm may require concomitant adaptations in the testes. Relative testes size differs greatly between species and is often used as an index of sperm competition, but little is known about whether larger testes have more sperm-producing tissue or produce sperm at a faster rate. Using a comparative approach in New World Blackbirds (Icteridae), we found (1) a strong link between testis histology and sperm length, suggesting selection on testis architecture through selection on sperm size, and (2) that species under intense sperm competition had a greater proportion of sperm-producing tissue within their testes. These results support the prediction that sperm competition fosters adaptations in reproductive organs that extend beyond testes size, and raise questions about the trade-offs influencing reproductive investment. PMID:19215291

  9. In vitro production of functional sperm in cultured neonatal mouse testes.

    PubMed

    Sato, Takuya; Katagiri, Kumiko; Gohbara, Ayako; Inoue, Kimiko; Ogonuki, Narumi; Ogura, Atsuo; Kubota, Yoshinobu; Ogawa, Takehiko

    2011-03-24

    Spermatogenesis is one of the most complex and longest processes of sequential cell proliferation and differentiation in the body, taking more than a month from spermatogonial stem cells, through meiosis, to sperm formation. The whole process, therefore, has never been reproduced in vitro in mammals, nor in any other species with a very few exceptions in some particular types of fish. Here we show that neonatal mouse testes which contain only gonocytes or primitive spermatogonia as germ cells can produce spermatids and sperm in vitro with serum-free culture media. Spermatogenesis was maintained over 2?months in tissue fragments positioned at the gas-liquid interphase. The obtained spermatids and sperm resulted in healthy and reproductively competent offspring through microinsemination. In addition, neonatal testis tissues were cryopreserved and, after thawing, showed complete spermatogenesis in vitro. Our organ culture method could be applicable through further refinements to a variety of mammalian species, which will serve as a platform for future clinical application as well as mechanistic understanding of spermatogenesis. PMID:21430778

  10. Assessment of sperm functional competence and sperm-egg interaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Asok K. Bhattacharyya; Sagarika Kanjilal

    2003-01-01

    A precise understanding in the functional competence of mammalian sperm is essential to generate clinical advances for the treatment of infertility and novel contraceptive strategies. The fundamental knowledge on the controlling parameters for spermatozoal activation process will help in the identifying the causes in fertilization failure due to male factor as well as in developing male contraceptive methodologies. The defects

  11. Dual function of the damselfly penis: sperm removal and transfer.

    PubMed

    Waage, J K

    1979-03-01

    The male of Calopteryx maculata (Beauvois) (Odonata) uses its penis not only to transfer sperm to the female but also to remove sperm deposited in the female's sperm storage organs from previous matings. Apparently, no such sperm removal function has previously been attributed to the intromittent organ of any animal. PMID:17771731

  12. Dual Function of the Damselfly Penis: Sperm Removal and Transfer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan K. Waage

    1979-01-01

    The male of Calopteryx maculata (Beauvois) (Odonata) uses its penis not only to transfer sperm to the female but also to remove sperm deposited in the female's sperm storage organs from previous matings. Apparently, no such sperm removal function has previously been attributed to the intromittent organ of any animal.

  13. Human sperm chromosomes obtained from hamster eggs after sperm capacitation in TEST-yolk buffer

    SciTech Connect

    Brandriff, B.; Gordon, L.; Watchmaker, G.

    1985-01-01

    Human sperm chromosomes were obtained after capacitation with TES-Tris (TEST) yolk buffer and fusion with Syrian hamster eggs. Semen samples could be stored at 4/sup 0/C for 3 days and remain functional in the assay system. The efficiency of TEST yolk buffer for obtaining karyotypes was as good as, or greater than, the efficiency of standard BWW medium containing human serum albumin. 16 references, 3 tables.

  14. Functional Amyloids in the Mouse Sperm Acrosome

    PubMed Central

    Guyonnet, Benoit; Egge, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    The acrosomal matrix (AM) is an insoluble structure within the sperm acrosome that serves as a scaffold controlling the release of AM-associated proteins during the sperm acrosome reaction. The AM also interacts with the zona pellucida (ZP) that surrounds the oocyte, suggesting a remarkable stability that allows its survival despite being surrounded by proteolytic and hydrolytic enzymes released during the acrosome reaction. To date, the mechanism responsible for the stability of the AM is not known. Our studies demonstrate that amyloids are present within the sperm AM and contribute to the formation of an SDS- and formic-acid-resistant core. The AM core contained several known amyloidogenic proteins, as well as many proteins predicted to form amyloid, including several ZP binding proteins, suggesting a functional role for the amyloid core in sperm-ZP interactions. While stable at pH 3, at pH 7, the sperm AM rapidly destabilized. The pH-dependent dispersion of the AM correlated with a change in amyloid structure leading to a loss of mature forms and a gain of immature forms, suggesting that the reversal of amyloid is integral to AM dispersion. PMID:24797071

  15. Ejaculate Economics: Testing the Effects of Male Sexual History on the Trade-Off between Sperm and Immune Function in Australian Crickets

    PubMed Central

    Dowling, Damian K.; Simmons, Leigh W.

    2012-01-01

    Trade-offs between investment into male sexual traits and immune function provide the foundation for some of the most prominent models of sexual selection. Post-copulatory sexual selection on the male ejaculate is intense, and therefore trade-offs should occur between investment into the ejaculate and the immune system. Examples of such trade-offs exist, including that between sperm quality and immunity in the Australian cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus. Here, we explore the dynamics of this trade-off, examining the effects that increased levels of sexual interaction have on the viability of a male's sperm across time, and the concomitant effects on immune function. Males were assigned to a treatment, whereby they cohabited with females that were sexually immature, sexually mature but incapable of copulation, or sexually mature and capable of copulation. Sperm viability of each male was then assessed at two time points: six and 13 days into the treatment, and immune function at day 13. Sperm viability decreased across the time points, but only for males exposed to treatment classes involving sexually mature females. This decrease was similar in magnitude across both sexually mature classes, indicating that costs to the expression of high sperm viability are incurred largely through levels of pre-copulatory investment. Males exposed to immature females produced sperm of low viability at both time points. Although we confirmed a weak negative association between sperm viability and lytic activity (a measure of immune response to bacterial infection) at day 13, this relationship was not altered across the mating treatment. Our results highlight that sperm viability is a labile trait, costly to produce, and subject to strategic allocation in these crickets. PMID:22253916

  16. Variability in sperm form and function in the context of sperm competition risk in two Tupinambis lizards

    PubMed Central

    Blengini, Cecilia S; Sergio, Naretto; Gabriela, Cardozo; Giojalas, Laura C; Margarita, Chiaraviglio

    2014-01-01

    In polyandrous species, sperm morphometry and sperm velocity are under strong sexual selection. Although several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the role of sperm competition in sperm trait variation, this aspect is still poorly understood. It has been suggested that an increase in sperm competition pressure could reduce sperm size variation or produce a diversity of sperm to maximize male fertilization success. We aim at elucidating the variability of sperm morphometric traits and velocity in two Tupinambis lizards in the context of sperm competition risk. Sperm traits showed substantial variation at all levels examined: between species, among males within species, and within the ejaculate of individual males. Sperm velocity was found to be positively correlated with flagellum: midpiece ratio, with relatively longer flagella associated with faster sperm. Our results document high variability in sperm form and function in lizards. PMID:25505535

  17. Do Candidate Genes Mediating Conspecific Sperm Precedence Affect Sperm Competitive Ability Within Species? A Test Case in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Civetta, Alberto; Finn, Scott

    2014-01-01

    When females mate to multiple males, the last male to mate fathers the majority of progeny. When males of different species inseminate a female, the sperm of the male conspecific to the female is favored in fertilization in a process known as conspecific sperm precedence (CSP). A large number of studies in Drosophila have assayed the genetic basis of sperm competition, with a main focus on D. melanogaster and accessory gland protein genes. Only a few studies have attempted to disentangle the genetic basis of CSP between related species of Drosophila. Although there is no a priori reason to believe that genes influencing intraspecific sperm competitive ability might also mediate conspecific sperm precedence, no study has addressed the question. Here, we test a group of candidate CSP genes between D. simulans and D. mauritiana for their effect on sperm competition in D. melanogaster. The use of P-element insertion lines identified CG14891 gene disruption as the only one causing a significant decrease in second male paternity success relative to wild-type and ebony tester males. The gene disruption affected both sperm displacement and the sperm fertilizing ability. Out of five genes tested using RNA interference, only gene knockdown of CG6864 (Mst89B) significantly reduced the male’s ability to father progeny when second to mate. Our results suggest that CG14891 and CG6864 might have been co-opted from an intraspecies gene function (i.e., sperm competition) into an interspecies avoidance phenotype (i.e., CSP). Alternatively, the dual role of these genes could be a consequence of their pleiotropic roles. PMID:25031180

  18. Alkaline phosphatase in boar sperm function.

    PubMed

    Bucci, D; Isani, G; Giaretta, E; Spinaci, M; Tamanini, C; Ferlizza, E; Galeati, G

    2014-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (AP) catalyses the detachment of phosphate residues from different substrates. Its activity has been demonstrated in seminal plasma and spermatozoa from porcine and other mammalian species; anyway, the role of AP in male reproduction has not been clarified yet and the aim of this study was to determine AP function in boar sperm capacitation and in vitro fertilization (IVF). AP activity was assayed in seminal plasma and in uncapacitated and in vitro capacitated (IVC) spermatozoa; in addition, capacitation was studied in presence of different doses of AP (1.2 and 2.5 IU/mL). The effect of different doses of AP (1.2 and 2.5 IU/mL) on several sperm parameters after IVC (viability, acrosome integrity with FITC-PSA, capacitation status with CTC staining, tyrosine phosphorylation) and on fertilizing ability during IVF were also evaluated. High AP activity was detected in seminal plasma, in particular in sperm-rich fraction; a lower activity was detected in uncapacitated spermatozoa while a significant decrease was evidenced after IVC. Viability was not changed by AP supplementation of the capacitating medium, whereas acrosome integrity and capacitation status were significantly affected by 1.2 and 2.5 doses, with a dose-dependent decrease in acrosome-reacted cells as well as in CTC B pattern displaying cells. As for sperm head protein phosphorylation, a decrease in relative fluorescence was detected in AP 2.5 group, if compared with capacitated one. After IVF, a dose-dependent decrease in penetrated oocytes was recorded, with an increase in monospermic zygote rate. In conclusion, we demonstrated that AP activity decreases under capacitating condition and that addition of AP to spermatozoa during capacitation results in a depression of the capacitating process and IVF. We can infer that AP plays a role in keeping spermatozoa quiescent until they are ejaculated and in modulating the acquisition of the fertilizing ability. PMID:24249651

  19. 21 CFR 866.5800 - Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system...Test Systems § 866.5800 Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system. (a) Identification. A seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test...

  20. 21 CFR 866.5800 - Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system...Test Systems § 866.5800 Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system. (a) Identification. A seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test...

  1. 21 CFR 866.5800 - Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system...Test Systems § 866.5800 Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system. (a) Identification. A seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test...

  2. 21 CFR 866.5800 - Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system...Test Systems § 866.5800 Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system. (a) Identification. A seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test...

  3. 21 CFR 866.5800 - Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system...Test Systems § 866.5800 Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system. (a) Identification. A seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test...

  4. High Quality RNA in Semen and Sperm: Isolation, Analysis and Potential Application in Clinical Testing

    PubMed Central

    Georgiadis, Andrew P.; Kishore, Archana; Zorrilla, Michelle; Jaffe, Thomas M.; Sanfilippo, Joseph S.; Volk, Etta; Rajkovic, Aleksandar; Yatsenko, Alexander N.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Male infertility is a complex health condition. To our knowledge there are no molecular biomarkers of male infertility. Sperm RNA is a potential biomarker for detecting sperm abnormalities and viability at infertility clinics. However, RNA use is hindered by its inconsistent quantity, quality, multiple cell types in semen and condensed sperm structure. Materials and Methods We tested the usefulness of high quality RNA isolated from mature sperm and whole semen by our protocol, which reduces RNA degradation by maintaining semen and protocol components at 37C and decreasing processing time. We isolated RNA from 83 whole semen samples, 18 samples of motile sperm prepared by the swim-up protocol and 18 of sperm prepared by the standard Percoll gradient method. Results Electrophoretic and spectral analysis of RNA revealed high quality 18S and 28S rRNAs in 71 of 83 whole semen samples (86%) and 15 of 18 mature sperm swim-up samples (83%). However, high quality RNA was isolated from only 7 of 18 Percoll gradient sperm samples (39%). Interestingly quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis of 4 somatic and 10 germ cell markers showed that whole semen and swim-up samples had similar RNA profiles. RNA sequencing revealed that most encoded proteins were involved in mature sperm function, regulation of DNA replication, transcription, translation, cell cycle and embryo development. Conclusions We believe that semen and sperm specific RNAs are highly informative biomarkers for germ cell stages and somatic cell contribution. Therefore, these RNAs could be valuable diagnostic indicators of sperm survival, fertilization and early embryogenesis, and could serve as a predictor of the in vitro fertilization prognosis. PMID:25088949

  5. Stability, delivery and functions of human sperm RNAs at fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Sendler, Edward; Johnson, Graham D.; Mao, Shihong; Goodrich, Robert J.; Diamond, Michael P.; Hauser, Russ; Krawetz, Stephen A.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing attention has focused on the significance of RNA in sperm, in light of its contribution to the birth and long-term health of a child, role in sperm function and diagnostic potential. As the composition of sperm RNA is in flux, assigning specific roles to individual RNAs presents a significant challenge. For the first time RNA-seq was used to characterize the population of coding and non-coding transcripts in human sperm. Examining RNA representation as a function of multiple methods of library preparation revealed unique features indicative of very specific and stage-dependent maturation and regulation of sperm RNA, illuminating their various transitional roles. Correlation of sperm transcript abundance with epigenetic marks suggested roles for these elements in the pre- and post-fertilization genome. Several classes of non-coding RNAs including lncRNAs, CARs, pri-miRNAs, novel elements and mRNAs have been identified which, based on factors including relative abundance, integrity in sperm, available knockout data of embryonic effect and presence or absence in the unfertilized human oocyte, are likely to be essential male factors critical to early post-fertilization development. The diverse and unique attributes of sperm transcripts that were revealed provides the first detailed analysis of the biology and anticipated clinical significance of spermatozoal RNAs. PMID:23471003

  6. Effects of environmental tobacco smoke in vivo on rhesus monkey semen quality, sperm function, and sperm metabolism.

    PubMed

    Hung, Pei-Hsuan; Froenicke, Lutz; Lin, Ching Yu; Lyons, Leslie A; Miller, Marion G; Pinkerton, Kent E; VandeVoort, Catherine A

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this study was to use a non-human primate model to examine the effect of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in vivo on semen quality, sperm function, and sperm metabolism. Four adult rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were exposed to ETS for six months, and semen samples were collected every week for evaluation. ETS exposure in vivo did not affect semen quality and sperm function. The sperm X:Y chromosome ratio remained unchanged after ETS exposure. The sex ratio of the embryos fertilized by ETS-exposed males was not different from the control male. However, sperm showed changes in metabolome detected by NMR during the ETS exposure. We concluded that with the duration and level of ETS exposure in this study, semen quality and sperm function were not affected, whereas sperm did undergo metabolic changes with ETS exposure in vivo. PMID:19159676

  7. Assessment of human sperm function after hydrogen peroxide exposure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. P Chaki; M. M Misro

    2002-01-01

    The reactive oxygen species (ROS) that is most damaging to human spermatozoa is hydrogen peroxide. Using an artificial medium Ham’s F-10, we have evaluated the effect of different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on various sperm function characteristics to develop a water-based vaginal contraceptive. H2O2 at 30 and 60 ?M had no effect on sperm motility. At 120 ?M of

  8. Presence and Function of Dopamine Transporter (DAT) in Stallion Sperm: Dopamine Modulates Sperm Motility and Acrosomal Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Covarrubias, Alejandra A.; Rodríguez-Gil, Joan Enric; Ramírez-Reveco, Alfredo; Concha, Ilona I.

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine is a catecholamine with multiple physiological functions, playing a key role in nervous system; however its participation in reproductive processes and sperm physiology is controversial. High dopamine concentrations have been reported in different portions of the feminine and masculine reproductive tract, although the role fulfilled by this catecholamine in reproductive physiology is as yet unknown. We have previously shown that dopamine type 2 receptor is functional in boar sperm, suggesting that dopamine acts as a physiological modulator of sperm viability, capacitation and motility. In the present study, using immunodetection methods, we revealed the presence of several proteins important for the dopamine uptake and signalling in mammalian sperm, specifically monoamine transporters as dopamine (DAT), serotonin (SERT) and norepinephrine (NET) transporters in equine sperm. We also demonstrated for the first time in equine sperm a functional dopamine transporter using 4-[4-(Dimethylamino)styryl]-N-methylpyridinium iodide (ASP+), as substrate. In addition, we also showed that dopamine (1 mM) treatment in vitro, does not affect sperm viability but decreases total and progressive sperm motility. This effect is reversed by blocking the dopamine transporter with the selective inhibitor vanoxerine (GBR12909) and non-selective inhibitors of dopamine reuptake such as nomifensine and bupropion. The effect of dopamine in sperm physiology was evaluated and we demonstrated that acrosome integrity and thyrosine phosphorylation in equine sperm is significantly reduced at high concentrations of this catecholamine. In summary, our results revealed the presence of monoamine transporter DAT, NET and SERT in equine sperm, and that the dopamine uptake by DAT can regulate sperm function, specifically acrosomal integrity and sperm motility. PMID:25402186

  9. Effects of environmental tobacco smoke in vitro on rhesus monkey sperm function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pei Hsuan Hung; Julie Baumber; Stuart A. Meyers; Catherine A. VandeVoort

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to use a non-human primate model to examine the effect of ETS on sperm function. Sperm samples were collected from adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and treated with different levels of ETS exposed medium. ETS treatment decreased the percentage of motile sperm and motion parameters. Sperm treated with ETS exposed medium showed a limited

  10. Ubiquitination Regulates the Morphogenesis and Function of Sperm Organelles

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Nobuhiro

    2013-01-01

    It is now understood that protein ubiquitination has diverse cellular functions in eukaryotes. The molecular mechanism and physiological significance of ubiquitin-mediated processes have been extensively studied in yeast, Drosophila and mammalian somatic cells. Moreover, an increasing number of studies have emphasized the importance of ubiquitination in spermatogenesis and fertilization. The dysfunction of various ubiquitin systems results in impaired sperm development with abnormal organelle morphology and function, which in turn is highly associated with male infertility. This review will focus on the emerging roles of ubiquitination in biogenesis, function and stability of sperm organelles in mammals. PMID:24709878

  11. Effects of environmental tobacco smoke in vivo on rhesus monkey semen quality, sperm function, and sperm metabolism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pei-hsuan Hung; Lutz Froenicke; Ching Yu Lin; Leslie A. Lyons; Marion G. Miller; Kent E. Pinkerton; Catherine A. VandeVoort

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to use a non-human primate model to examine the effect of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in vivo on semen quality, sperm function, and sperm metabolism. Four adult rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were exposed to ETS for six months, and semen samples were collected every week for evaluation. ETS exposure in vivo did not affect

  12. Effect of varicocelectomy on sperm functional characteristics and DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Tavalaee, M; Bahreinian, M; Barekat, F; Abbasi, H; Nasr-Esfahani, M H

    2014-09-19

    In individuals with varicocele, DNA is damaged due to high level of oxidative stress, and varicocelectomy can overcome this effect. Damaged DNA is less liable to DNA methylation, and antioxidant therapy appears to have the potential to reduce sperm oxidative stress and DNA damage and thereby maintain DNA methylation, while effect of varicocelectomy on DNA methylation patterns has remained unclear. In the light of these considerations, we aimed to examine the effect of varicocelectomy on sperm DNA methylation and functional characteristics. Fifty-two men with left-sided varicocele (grade II &III) were included. Sperm parameters, DNA fragmentation, protamine deficiency, oxidative stress and global DNA methylation were evaluated before and 3 months after surgery. Our data show that sperm concentration, percentages of spermatozoon with abnormal morphology, DNA fragmentation, protamine deficiency and oxidative stress significantly improved after surgery. Percentage of sperm motility, global DNA methylation and intensity of DNA methylation also improved after surgery, although the differences were not significant when compared with before surgery. Categorisation of individuals to subgroups revealed that improvement of DNA methylation appears to take place in oligozoospermic individuals, which are more severely affected by state of varicocele. However, this is a preliminary study, and further studies are required to solidify this conclusion. PMID:25234073

  13. Effects of cryoprotectant treatments on bovine sperm function and osmolyte content

    PubMed Central

    Setyawan, Erif E. M.; Cooper, Trevor G.; Widiasih, Dyah A.; Junaidi, Aris; Yeung, Ching-Hei

    2009-01-01

    The hypothesis that addition and removal of cryoprotectants to and from spermatozoa would initiate regulatory volume decrease, and lead to osmolyte loss and reduced sperm function, was tested. Common cryoprotectants, in the absence of freezing and thawing, affected bovine ejaculated spermatozoa by lowering their total and progressive motility in medium, reducing their migration through surrogate cervical mucus, damaging sperm head membranes and inducing sperm tail coiling. Sperm function was slightly better maintained after cryoprotectants were added and removed in multiple small steps rather than in a single step. The intracellular content of the polyol osmolytes, D-sorbitol and myo-inositol, exceeded that of the zwitterion osmolytes, L-carnitine and L-glutamate. Certain cryoprotectants reduced intracellular L-carnitine and L-glutamate concentration but not that of myo-inositol or D-sorbitol. Multistep treatments with some cryoprotectants had advantages over one-step treatments in mucus penetration depending on the original amount of intracellular carnitine and glutamate in the spermatozoa. Overall, sperm quality was best maintained by multistep treatment with glycerol and propanediols that were associated with decreased intracellular glutamate concentration. Bovine spermatozoa seem to use glutamate to regulate cryoprotectant-induced cell swelling. PMID:19668223

  14. Extender components and surfactants affect boar sperm function and membrane behavior during cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Pettitt, M J; Buhr, M M

    1998-01-01

    To determine how the individual components of extenders affected boar sperm function and membrane structure and to test a new surfactant's cryoprotective ability, boar sperm were cryopreserved in straws in BF5 extender plus or minus egg yolk plus or minus glycerol plus or minus a surfactant (Orvus ES Paste [OEP] or various concentrations of Pluronic F-127). After thawing, sperm function and fluidity of the isolated head plasma membrane (HPM) were determined. Total motility and adenosine triphosphate content (a measure of viability) were superior postthaw in sperm extended in egg yolk plus glycerol (P < 0.05); neither surfactant improved function. Egg yolk plus any other ingredients improved normal acrosome morphology, whereas a combined measure of motility and normal acrosome morphology was better in the presence of 0.33% OEP or 0.1% Pluronic F-127 (P < 0.05 vs. controls). Head plasma membrane was isolated from freshly collected spermatozoa and spermatozoa cryopreserved in the various extenders. Membrane fluidity was monitored with the probes cis-parinaric acid (cPNA), transparinaric acid (tPNA), and 1,6-diphenyl-1 ,3,5-hexatriene (DPH). The cPNA and the DPH monitor the fluidity of gel and liquid-crystalline areas of the membrane, whereas the tPNA preferentially monitors the gel-phase domains of the membrane. Additionally, DPH monitors the hydrophobic core of the bilayer. In the HPM from fresh sperm, the fluidity of each domain changed over time in a manner unique to that domain, and the behavior of the DPH domain varied among boars. The fluidity dynamics of each domain responded uniquely to cryopreservation. The cPNA domain was unaffected, the tPNA domain was altered by four of the eight extenders, and all extenders affected the fluidity of the DPH domain. Membrane structure was significantly correlated with cell function for sperm cryopreserved in extenders that preserved viability and motility. Sperm cryopreserved in egg yolk plus glycerol plus either OEP or 0.1% Pluronic F-127 functioned best when the bulk domains were less fluid initially and the gel domain solidified more slowly. Therefore, the behavior of domains in the HPM of boar spermatozoa is affected by cryopreservation and is related to the postthaw function of boar sperm cryopreserved in different extenders. PMID:9876025

  15. Effect of the addition of six antioxidants on sperm motility, membrane integrity and mitochondrial function in red seabream (Pagrus major) sperm cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qinghua; Wang, Xueying; Wang, Wenqi; Zhang, Xuelei; Xu, Shihong; Ma, Daoyuan; Xiao, Zhizhong; Xiao, Yongshuang; Li, Jun

    2015-04-01

    The present study was to evaluate the effects of six antioxidants on frozen-thawed sperm motility, viability, membrane integrity and mitochondrial function in red seabream (Pagrus major) by computer-assisted sperm analysis system and flow cytometry, respectively. All the parameters tested in this study were determined using one-way ANOVA and identified using the SNK test (P < 0.05). The results demonstrated that on the first day, the highest motility and longevity occurred in 100 mM trehalose (78.34 ± 3.41 %, 29 ± 4.00 days) and 50 mM taurine (77.46 ± 1.54 %, 29.33 ± 4.04 days), followed by 25 mM vitamin C (79.03 ± 5.37 %, 17 ± 1.00 days), 25 mM vitamin E (69.64 ± 1.64 %, 27.67 ± 1.53 days) and 25 mM vitamin A (78.89 ± 2.81 %, 9.33 ± 1.53 days), which were all higher than frozen-thawed sperm without antioxidant (control) (66.80 ± 5.55, 5.67 ± 1.15 days). Especially, the percentages of class A sperm with the addition of 100 mM trehalose (40.39 ± 5.20 %) and 50 mM taurine (37.78 ± 3.22 %) were significantly improved compared to the control (19.63 ± 5.44 %). The viability of all groups on the third and sixth day showed a similar trend. Moreover, during the 4 °C storage process, the decrease of frozen-thawed sperm motility was closely associated with the decrease in membrane integrity and mitochondrial function. In conclusion, the present study indicated that antioxidant (100 mM trehalose and 50 mM taurine) provided the most pronounced protective effect in improving frozen-thawed quality of red seabream sperm. The addition of antioxidant may be capable of scavenging the ROS generated during the cryopreservation process and 4 °C storage. PMID:25255938

  16. Gold nanoparticles interfere with sperm functionality by membrane adsorption without penetration.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Ulrike; Barchanski, Annette; Petersen, Svea; Kues, Wilfried August; Baulain, Ulrich; Gamrad, Lisa; Sajti, Laszlo; Barcikowski, Stephan; Rath, Detlef

    2014-08-01

    Abstract To examine gold nanoparticle reprotoxicity, bovine spermatozoa were challenged with ligand-free or oligonucleotide-conjugated gold nanoparticles synthesized purely without any surfactants by laser ablation. Sperm motility declined at nanoparticle mass dose of 10?µg/ml (corresponding to ?14?000 nanoparticles per sperm cell) regardless of surface modification. Sperm morphology and viability remained unimpaired at all concentrations. Transmission electron microscopy showed an modification dependant attachment of nanoparticles to the cell membrane of spermatozoa, but provided no evidence for nanoparticle entrance into sperm cells. A molecular examination revealed a reduction of free thiol residues on the cell membrane after nanoparticle exposure, which could explain the decrease in sperm motility. Sperm fertilising ability decreased after exposure to 10?µg/ml of ligand-free nanoparticles indicating that agglomerated ligand-free nanoparticles interfere with membrane properties necessary for fertilisation. In conclusion, nanoparticles may impair key sperm functions solely by interacting with the sperm surface membrane. PMID:24289310

  17. [Cyclic nucleotide-gated channels and sperm function].

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian-Hua; Du, Jing

    2013-03-01

    The cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channel is a nonselective cation channel and one of the main entrances of Ca2+ influxion into cells. CNG channels are opened by direct binding of cyclic nucleotides. Six different genes encode the CNG protein, 4 A subunits and 2 B subunits. The activity of CNG channels can be regulated by Ca2+/Ca(2+)-binding proteins (CaM) and phosphorylation/dephosphorylation. Recently, extensive attention has been drawn to the researches on CNG channels in the reproductive system, and many studies show that CNG channels play a pivotal role in sperm motility, capacitation and acrosome reaction. This article focuses on the relationship of CNG channels with sperm function. PMID:23700737

  18. A simple osmotic stress test to predict boar sperm cryosurvival.

    PubMed

    Garzon-Perez, Cesar; Flores, Hector F; Medrano, Alfredo

    2010-01-01

    This work was carried out to test whether viability of pig spermatozoa subjected to an osmotic test is correlated to sperm cryosurvival. Spermatozoa were cooled from 22 degrees C to -5 degrees C, aliquots were exposed to a series of hyperosmotic solutions (300-2100 mOsm/kg) for 15 min, immediately spermatozoa were re-warmed to 37 degrees C and isosmolarity was restored. Spermatozoa were cooled from 22 degrees C to -5 degrees C and one aliquot was exposed to the osmotic test while diluted spermatozoa were frozen-thawed. Plasma membrane-intact spermatozoa decreased as osmolarity increased (P < 0.0001), a further decreased (P < 0.0001) was observed when isotonicity was restored. Proportions of plasma membrane-intact and acrosome-intact cells from the osmotic test were no different from those after freeze-thawing: 36% vs. 35%, 80% vs. 80%, respectively. A significant correlation was found between the proportion of acrosome-intact cells after freeze-thawing and that from the osmotic test (r = 0.81, P <0.01). This test provides a useful and economical mean to predict in vitro boar sperm cryosurvival. PMID:21410012

  19. Markers of human sperm functions in the ICSI era.

    PubMed

    Muratori, Monica; Marchiani, Sara; Tamburrino, Lara; Forti, Gianni; Luconi, Michaela; Baldi, Elisabetta

    2011-01-01

    The process of fertilization is crucial for species development and maintenance. Due to social and environmental problems, the number of infertile couples is increasing worldwide. Male and female factors contribute equally, and about 7% of men experiences problems in conceiving a child due to sperm defects. Assisted reproduction techniques (ARTs), including the most invasive intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), are the only available therapy for severe male factor infertility. Whether such techniques are associated with increased birth defects is still debated, and search for alternative options should go on. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the process of fertilization may lead to the development of new pharmacological strategies to treat infertile men and new male contraceptive agents. In addition, in view of the low predictive power of routine semen analysis, new tests aimed to better predict the fertilization potential could be developed. The present review summarizes current evidence of the molecular mechanisms involved in fertilization in human spermatozoa, with particular emphasis on the main post-ejaculatory maturation events, i.e. sperm capacitation and motility. PMID:21196236

  20. Cluster analysis reveals a binary effect of storage on boar sperm motility function.

    PubMed

    Henning, Heiko; Petrunkina, Anna M; Harrison, Robin A P; Waberski, Dagmar

    2014-06-01

    Storage of liquid-preserved boar spermatozoa is associated with a loss of fertilising ability of the preserved spermatozoa, which standard semen parameters barely reflect. Monitoring responses to molecular effectors of sperm function (e.g. bicarbonate) has proven to be a more sensitive approach to investigating storage effects. Bicarbonate not only initiates capacitation in spermatozoa, but also induces motility activation. This occurs at ejaculation, but also happens throughout passage through the oviduct. In the present study we tested whether the specific response of boar sperm subpopulations to bicarbonate, as assessed by motility activation, is altered with the duration of storage in vitro. Three ejaculates from each of seven boars were diluted in Beltsville thawing solution and stored at 17°C. Only minor changes in the parameters of diluted semen were revealed over a period of 72h storage. For assessment of bicarbonate responses, subsamples of diluted spermatozoa were centrifuged through a discontinuous Percoll gradient after 12, 24 and 72h storage. Subsequently, spermatozoa were incubated in two Ca2+-free variants of Tyrode's medium either without (TyrControl) or with (TyrBic) 15mM bicarbonate, and computer-aided sperm analysis motility measurements were made. Cluster analysis of imaging data from motile spermatozoa revealed the presence of five major sperm subpopulations with distinct motility characteristics, differing between TyrBic and TyrControl at any given time (P<0.001). Although there was an increasing loss of motility function in both media, bicarbonate induced an increase in a 'fast linear' cohort of spermatozoa in TyrBic regardless of storage (66.4% at 12h and 63.9% at 72h). These results imply a binary pattern in response of sperm motility function descriptors to storage: although the quantitative descriptor (percentage of motile spermatozoa) declines in washed semen samples, the qualitative descriptor (percentage of spermatozoa stimulated into fast linear motion by bicarbonate) is sustained independent of the duration of storage. PMID:24942182

  1. Recombinant Hamster Oviductin Is Biologically Active and Exerts Positive Effects on Sperm Functions and Sperm-Oocyte Binding

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaojing; Zhao, Yuewen; Yang, Xiaolong; Kan, Frederick W. K.

    2015-01-01

    Studies carried out in several mammalian species suggest that oviductin, also known as oviduct-specific glycoprotein or OVGP1, plays a key role in sperm capacitation, fertilization, and development of early embryos. In the present study, we used recombinant DNA technology to produce, for the first time, recombinant hamster OVGP1 (rHamOVGP1) in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. rHamOVGP1 secreted in the culture medium was purified by affinity chromatography. The resulting protein migrated as a poly-dispersed band of 160-350 kDa on SDS-PAGE corresponding to the molecular mass of the native HamOVGP1. Subsequent mass spectrometric analysis of the purified rHamOVGP1 confirmed its identity as HamOVGP1. Immunocytochemistry demonstrated binding of rHamOVGP1 to the mid-piece and head of hamster sperm and to the zona pellucida (ZP) of ovarian oocytes. In vitro functional experiments showed that addition of rHamOVGP1 in the capacitation medium further enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation of two sperm proteins of approximately 75 kDa and 83 kDa in a time-dependent manner. After 3 hours of incubation in the presence of rHamOVGP1, a significant increase in acrosome reaction was measured. Pretreatment of either sperm or oocyte with 20 ?g/ml of rHamOVGP1 prior to sperm-egg binding assay significantly increased the number of sperm bound to the ZP. Addition of rHamOVGP1 in the medium during sperm-egg binding with either oocyte or sperm pretreated with rHamOVGP1 also saw an increase in the number of sperm bound to ZP. In all experimental conditions, the effect of rHamOVGP1 on sperm-oocyte binding was negated by the addition of monoclonal anti-HamOVGP1 antibody. The successful production and purification of a biologically active rHamOVGP1 will allow further exploration of the function of this glycoprotein in reproductive function. PMID:25849110

  2. Recombinant hamster oviductin is biologically active and exerts positive effects on sperm functions and sperm-oocyte binding.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaojing; Zhao, Yuewen; Yang, Xiaolong; Kan, Frederick W K

    2015-01-01

    Studies carried out in several mammalian species suggest that oviductin, also known as oviduct-specific glycoprotein or OVGP1, plays a key role in sperm capacitation, fertilization, and development of early embryos. In the present study, we used recombinant DNA technology to produce, for the first time, recombinant hamster OVGP1 (rHamOVGP1) in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. rHamOVGP1 secreted in the culture medium was purified by affinity chromatography. The resulting protein migrated as a poly-dispersed band of 160-350 kDa on SDS-PAGE corresponding to the molecular mass of the native HamOVGP1. Subsequent mass spectrometric analysis of the purified rHamOVGP1 confirmed its identity as HamOVGP1. Immunocytochemistry demonstrated binding of rHamOVGP1 to the mid-piece and head of hamster sperm and to the zona pellucida (ZP) of ovarian oocytes. In vitro functional experiments showed that addition of rHamOVGP1 in the capacitation medium further enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation of two sperm proteins of approximately 75 kDa and 83 kDa in a time-dependent manner. After 3 hours of incubation in the presence of rHamOVGP1, a significant increase in acrosome reaction was measured. Pretreatment of either sperm or oocyte with 20 ?g/ml of rHamOVGP1 prior to sperm-egg binding assay significantly increased the number of sperm bound to the ZP. Addition of rHamOVGP1 in the medium during sperm-egg binding with either oocyte or sperm pretreated with rHamOVGP1 also saw an increase in the number of sperm bound to ZP. In all experimental conditions, the effect of rHamOVGP1 on sperm-oocyte binding was negated by the addition of monoclonal anti-HamOVGP1 antibody. The successful production and purification of a biologically active rHamOVGP1 will allow further exploration of the function of this glycoprotein in reproductive function. PMID:25849110

  3. Evaluation of ram semen quality using polyacrylamide gel instead of cervical mucus in the sperm penetration test.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Rodríguez, C; Alvarez, M; Ordás, L; Chamorro, C A; Martinez-Pastor, F; Anel, L; de Paz, P

    2012-05-01

    Fertility is a very complex biological function that depends on several properties of the spermatozoa, including sperm motility. Two objectives are analyzed in this study: (1) Replace the cervical mucus by a synthetic medium in a sperm penetration test, and (2) evaluating the results of this test objectively analyzing the sperm number that migrates. In experiment 1, we have tested eight concentrations of acrylamide (1%-2%). Rheological properties of media were analyzed. The plastic straws, loaded with acrylamide, were placed vertically on the semen sample tube for 15 min at 39 °C. After, the acrylamides were placed, by segments of 5 mm, into wells of a 24-well plate, dyed with Hoechst 33342 and the number of spermatozoa were calculated by automated microscopy analysis. The 1.55% and 1.6% acrylamide gel showed a number of spermatozoa emigrating closer to that seen with natural mucus. In experiment 2, we applied the sperm penetration in acrylamide 1.6% and 1.55% using fresh semen and cooled semen at 15 °C and 5 °C. The spermatozoa counts were performed for each segment of 10 mm. Semen chilled at 15 °C presented intermediate values of sperm counts in comparison with fresh semen (higher) and 5 °C chilled semen. The sperm counts do not differ between acrylamides but the rheological properties of acrylamide 1.6% were more similar to those of the natural cervical mucus. In experiment 3, we have observed significant correlations between the number of spermatozoa and several sperm quality parameters (positive: progressive motility and velocity according to the straight path; negative: damaged acrosomes and apoptotic cells) in 1.6% acrylamide media. We conclude that the size of the cell subpopulation, objectively calculated, that migrate beyond 20 mm in 0.5-mL straws filled with acrylamide is a useful parameter in ram sperm quality assessment and further studies are needed to evaluate its relationship with field fertility. PMID:22289220

  4. The use of the hypo-osmotic swelling test, water test, and supravital staining in the evaluation of drone sperm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zekariya Nur; Selvinar Seven-Cakmak; Burcu Ustuner; Ibrahim Cakmak; Melih Erturk; Charles I. Abramson; Hakan Sa?irkaya; Mustafa Kemal Soylu

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the suitability of the water test and hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) test for\\u000a analyzing honeybee semen. In particular, the relationships between these tests of the integrity of the sperm plasma membrane\\u000a and tests of sperm motility and sperm viability were measured using SYBR-14\\/PI. To this end, semen was obtained from mature\\u000a drones

  5. Relative testis size and sperm morphometry across mammals: no evidence for an association between sperm competition and sperm length.

    PubMed Central

    Gage, Matthew J G; Freckleton, Robert P

    2003-01-01

    Understanding why there is extensive variation in sperm form and function across taxa has been a challenge because sperm are specialized cells operating at a microscopic level in a complex environment. This comparative study collates published data to determine whether the evolution of sperm morphometry (sperm total length and separate component dimensions) is associated with sperm competition (when different males' sperm mix and compete for a female's ova) across 83 mammalian species. We use relative testes mass as an indicator of the intensity of sperm competition across taxa: relative investment into testes is widely accepted to predict the level of sperm competition that a species or population endures. Although we found evidence for positive associations between relative testes mass (controlling for allometry) and sperm morphometry across 83 mammalian species, these relationships were phylogenetically dependent. When we appropriately controlled for phylogenetic association using multiple regression within a phylogenetic framework, there was no relationship between relative testes mass and sperm length across mammals. Furthermore, we found no evidence for associations between relative testes mass and sperm head, mid-piece or flagellar lengths, nor was there a relationship with mid-piece or mitochondrial volumes. Results, therefore, indicate that sperm competition does not select for longer or shorter sperm across mammals, and alternative forces selecting on sperm form and function are discussed. PMID:12769463

  6. Prospective approaches to avoid flock fertility problems: predictive assessment of sperm function traits in poultry.

    PubMed

    Donoghue, A M

    1999-03-01

    This paper discusses why it is important to evaluate males as individuals and how advances made in understanding and measurement of sperm function can be used to improve reproductive efficiency in poultry. Commercial turkey breeding relies on pooling semen from multiple toms. It generally is assumed that sperm in good quality semen from all toms are equally fecund. (Fecund is defined, for males, as an individual whose semen contains a majority of sperm with the potential of producing fertilized eggs, which includes success at all steps in the fertilization process: sperm movement, storage in the hens' sperm storage tubules, binding and penetrating the perivitelline layer, and fertilization.) However, when DNA fingerprinting was used to determine paternity efficiency after pooling ejaculates from seven or more toms, it was found that 18 of 26 males produced very few, or no, offspring. In addition, the traditional measures of poultry semen quality: semen volume, sperm concentration, sperm viability, and subjective motility assessment, were poor predictors of paternity. In recent years, a concentrated effort has been made to develop and evaluate methods that quantify sperm function in poultry. Methods to measure some of these traits are reviewed: sperm motility, sperm storage in the hen, and sperm binding and penetration of the ovum. Data supporting use of these tools for managing flock fertility from the male perspective are explored. PMID:10090272

  7. Morphology-function relationships and repeatability in the sperm of Passer sparrows.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Emily R A; Laskemoen, Terje; Stensrud, Even; Rowe, Melissah; Haas, Fredrik; Lifjeld, Jan T; Saetre, Glenn-Peter; Johnsen, Arild

    2015-04-01

    Sperm performance is likely to be an important determinant of male reproductive success, especially when females copulate with multiple males. Understanding sperm performance is therefore crucial to fully understand the evolution of male reproductive strategies. In this study, we examined the repeatability of sperm morphology and motility measures over three breeding seasons, and we studied relationships between sperm morphology and function. We conducted this study in wild-derived captive house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and Spanish sparrows (P. hispaniolensis). Results for the two species were similar. As predicted from results in other passerine species, total sperm length was highly repeatable across ejaculates, and repeatability for the length of other components was moderate. The repeatability of sperm swimming speed across ejaculates was lower, but statistically significant, suggesting that sperm velocity may be a relatively dynamic trait. Surprisingly, swimming speed did not correlate with the relative length of the midpiece, and it correlated negatively with the relative length of the flagellum and with total sperm length. This pattern is the opposite of what theory predicts and differs from what has been found in house sparrows before. Also contrary to previous work, we found no evidence that total sperm length correlates with sperm longevity. These results therefore highlight the need for a better understanding of relationships between sperm morphology and function in passerine birds. J. Morphol. 276:370-377, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25427840

  8. Epididymal secreted protein Crisp-1 and sperm function.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Kenneth P; Ensrud, Kathy M; Wooters, Joseph L; Nolan, Michael A; Johnston, Daniel S; Hamilton, David W

    2006-05-16

    Crisp-1 is a member of the cysteine-rich secretory protein family. This family of proteins is characterized by the presence of 16 conserved cysteine residues, the characteristic from which the family name is derived. Members of the Crisp protein family are found in the secretions of the reproductive tract and salivary glands, including venom toxins from several species of snakes and lizards. The Crisp proteins are modular, each containing an amino terminal pathogenesis-related (PR)-like domain and a carboxyl terminal cysteine-rich domain (CRD) connected by a hinge region. Sequence and structural similarities to proteins with known functions suggest that the Crisp family of proteins may act by regulating cellular ion channels. Rat Crisp-1 is synthesized as two distinct isoforms (referred to as Proteins D and E) by the epididymal epithelium and both are secreted into the luminal fluid where they interact with spermatozoa. Our laboratory has correlated Crisp-1 binding to sperm with inhibiting the signaling cascades that initiate capacitation while others have shown that blocking Crisp-1 binding sites on oocytes interferes with sperm-egg fusion. We hypothesize that the D and E populations of rat Crisp-1 have different interactions with sperm that modulate these distinct biological activities. Through tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) and monosaccharide composition analyses, we have identified at least one difference between the D and E forms as an additional single O-linked N-acetyl galactosamine on an amino terminal threonine residue in Protein E. This post-translational modification appears to account for the unique 'E' epitope bound by monoclonal antibody 4E9 developed in our laboratory, and may also lead to differential processing and localization of Protein E on sperm, when compared to Protein D. These findings are the first step in distinguishing the molecular basis of the biological activities of the D and E forms of rat Crisp-1. The epididymal-specific expression of Crisp-1, combined with its role in regulation of sperm capacitation and oocyte interaction, make it an attractive target for post-testicular contraceptive development. PMID:16414181

  9. K+ and Cl? Channels and Transporters in Sperm Function

    PubMed Central

    Santi, C.M.; Orta, G.; Salkoff, L.

    2013-01-01

    To succeed in fertilization, spermatozoa must decode environmental cues which require a set of ion channels. Recent findings have revealed that K+ and Cl? channels participate in some of the main sperm functions. This work reviews the evidence indicating the involvement of K+ and Cl? channels in motility, maturation, and the acrosome reaction, and the advancement in identifying their molecular identity and modes of regulation. Improving our insight on how these channels operate will strengthen our ability to surmount some infertility problems, improve animal breeding, preserve biodiversity, and develop selective and secure male contraceptives. PMID:23287041

  10. Functional Characterization of the Primate Sperm Acrosomal Antigen (PSA63)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANTHONY E. ARCHIBONG; C. Y. GREG LEE; DON P. WOLPt

    1995-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody (HS-63) raised in mice against human ejaculated sperm, polyclonal antibodies raised in rabbits against the cognate mouse testicular antigen (MSA-63; or Fab) and polyclonal antibodies raised in the rabbit against recombinant fusion proteins (GST-63) showed acrosomal localization in permeabilized rhesus monkey and human ejaculated sperm. Tail localization of the cognate primate sperm antigen (PSA-63) was also seen with

  11. Sperm aneuploidy testing using fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Emery, Benjamin R

    2013-01-01

    Sperm aneuploidy screening has been used as a tool in diagnosis and determining treatment options for male factor infertility since the development of human sperm karyotyping by injection into hamster and mouse oocytes in the 1970s. From these studies and subsequent work with interphase chromosome analysis, at risk populations of men with teratozoospermia, oligozoospermia, and men with translocations, have since been identified. The current technique is an application of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) on interphase sperm nuclei with careful enumeration of the labeled chromosomes to determine sperm ploidy. Typically, five to seven chromosomes are evaluated in individual ejaculates to determine the percent of aneuploid sperm present. This protocol will detail the procedures for: preparation of specimens, exposure of the sperm nuclei to the FISH probes, hybridization, destaining, and scoring criteria. PMID:22992912

  12. Correlation Between Human Sperm Swelling in Hypoosmotic Medium (Hypoosmotic Swelling Test) and In Vitro Fertilization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. VAN DER VEN; RAJASINGAM S. JEYENDRAN; SAFAA ALHASANI; MARIANO PEREZ-PELAEZ; KLAUS DIEDRICH; LOURENS J. D. ZANEVELD

    Human ejaculates (n = 83) were analyzed for standard sperm parameters (concentration, motility, and morphol- ogy), as well as for the ability of the spermatozoa to react (swell) in a hypoosmotic medium (Jeyendran et al, 1984). Subsequently, the fertilizing capacity of the spermatozoa was tested by their ability to fertilize human oocytes in vitro. Although the sperm concentration was adjusted

  13. Choline Dehydrogenase Polymorphism rs12676 Is a Functional Variation and Is Associated with Changes in Human Sperm Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Amy R.; Lao, Sai; Wang, Tongwen; Galanko, Joseph A.; Zeisel, Steven H.

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 15% of couples are affected by infertility and up to half of these cases arise from male factor infertility. Unidentified genetic aberrations such as chromosomal deletions, translocations and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may be the underlying cause of many cases of idiopathic male infertility. Deletion of the choline dehydrogenase (Chdh) gene in mice results in decreased male fertility due to diminished sperm motility; sperm from Chdh?/? males have decreased ATP concentrations likely stemming from abnormal sperm mitochondrial morphology and function in these cells. Several SNPs have been identified in the human CHDH gene that may result in altered CHDH enzymatic activity. rs12676 (G233T), a non-synonymous SNP located in the CHDH coding region, is associated with increased susceptibility to dietary choline deficiency and risk of breast cancer. We now report evidence that this SNP is also associated with altered sperm motility patterns and dysmorphic mitochondrial structure in sperm. Sperm produced by men who are GT or TT for rs12676 have 40% and 73% lower ATP concentrations, respectively, in their sperm. rs12676 is associated with decreased CHDH protein in sperm and hepatocytes. A second SNP located in the coding region of IL17BR, rs1025689, is linked to altered sperm motility characteristics and changes in choline metabolite concentrations in sperm. PMID:22558321

  14. MEASUREMENT OF EPIDIDYMAL SPERM MOTILITY AS A TEST VARIABLE IN THE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several environmental contaminants, notably dibromochloropropane (Whorton et al. 1977) and kepone (Taylor et al. 1978; Cannon et al, 1978) have been implicated in sperm deficiencies among occupationally exposed males. These incidents emphasize the need for adequate testing of che...

  15. Heat Shock Protein 90 Has Roles in Intracellular Calcium Homeostasis, Protein Tyrosine Phosphorylation Regulation, and Progesterone-Responsive Sperm Function in Human Sperm

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Aijun; Jiang, Youfang; Xie, Haifeng; Shi, Qixian; Zhang, Songying; Ni, Ya

    2014-01-01

    Heat shock protein 90 plays critical roles in client protein maturation, signal transduction, protein folding and degradation, and morphological evolution; however, its function in human sperm is not fully understood. Therefore, our objective in this study was to elucidate the mechanism by which heat shock protein 90 exerts its effects on human sperm function. By performing indirect immunofluorescence staining, we found that heat shock protein 90 was localized primarily in the neck, midpiece, and tail regions of human sperm, and that its expression increased with increasing incubation time under capacitation conditions. Geldanamycin, a specific inhibitor of heat shock protein 90, was shown to inhibit this increase in heat shock protein 90 expression in western blotting analyses. Using a multifunctional microplate reader to examine Fluo-3 AM-loaded sperm, we observed for the first time that inhibition of heat shock protein 90 by using geldanamycin significantly decreased intracellular calcium concentrations during capacitation. Moreover, western blot analysis showed that geldanamycin enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation of several proteins, including heat shock protein 90, in a dose-dependent manner. The effects of geldanamycin on human sperm function in the absence or presence of progesterone was evaluated by performing chlortetracycline staining and by using a computer-assisted sperm analyzer. We found that geldanamycin alone did not affect sperm capacitation, hyperactivation, and motility, but did so in the presence of progesterone. Taken together, these data suggest that heat shock protein 90, which increases in expression in human sperm during capacitation, has roles in intracellular calcium homeostasis, protein tyrosine phosphorylation regulation, and progesterone-stimulated sperm function. In this study, we provide new insights into the roles of heat shock protein 90 in sperm function. PMID:25541943

  16. Identification and Characterization of Functional Nongenomic Progesterone Receptors on Human Sperm Membrane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MICHAELA LUCONI; LORELLA BONACCORSI; MARIO MAGGI; PAOLA PECCHIOLI; CSILLA KRAUSZ; GIANNI FORTI; ELISABETTA BALDI

    2010-01-01

    The presence of functional nongenomic progesterone (P) receptors in human spermatozoa has been investigated by equilibrium binding studies in intact spermatozoa, ligand blot and Western blot analysis of sperm lysates, as well as determination of the effects of the steroid on sperm intracellular Ca21 concentrations. Binding experiments were performed using progesterone-11a-glucuronide-(125I)iodotyra- mine as tracer. Computer analysis of competition curves using

  17. A Simple Sperm DNA Toroid Integrity Test and Risk of Miscarriage

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Philip J.; Orzylowska, Eliza M.; Corselli, Johannah U.; Jacobson, John D.; Wei, Albert K.

    2015-01-01

    Current methods of analyzing sperm chromatin competency overlook the inner sperm compartment which is inaccessible to probes and reagents. By breaking the molecular protamine disulfide bridges, the DNA toroids are exposed to integrity analysis. The aim was to develop a simple nuclear toroid test and determine its association with fertilization, pregnancy, and miscarriage. The approach involved treating washed sperm remaining after ICSI procedures (N = 35 cases) with acidified Triton X-100 and dithiothreitol (DTT) before Diff-Quik staining. Percentages of sperm with normal chromatin indicated by light-colored nuclei were assessed. The toroid integrity test showed more sperm with normal chromatin in the pregnant group (73.6 ± 1.7%, mean ± SEM) when compared with the miscarriage (51.2 ± 6.6%) or nonpregnant groups (60.9 ± 4.8%). Furthermore, the toroid results were correlated with ICSI fertilization (R = 0.32, P = 0.04) and pregnancy outcome (pregnant cases 73.6 ± 1.7% versus nonpregnant 58.0 ± 3.9%, P = 0.001). ROC calculated cut-off was >70.0% for normal toroid integrity (sensitivity 0.98, specificity 0.33, and diagnostic accuracy 78.3%). An association between normal sperm toroid integrity and miscarriage was evident when the staining procedure included acidified detergent DTT pretreatment. PMID:25649376

  18. Sperm chromatin dispersion test in the assessment of DNA fragmentation and aneuploidy in human spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Balasuriya, A; Speyer, B; Serhal, P; Doshi, A; Harper, J C

    2011-05-01

    Sperm DNA damage is thought to be increased in men with male factor infertility. Previous studies suggest a correlation between sperm DNA fragmentation and aneuploidy. The sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) test was modified to produce the Halosperm Kit. The SCD-fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) test allows the simultaneous detection of DNA fragmentation and aneuploidy on the same sperm cell. The objectives of this study were to validate the SCD, SCD-FISH and Halosperm tests for the analysis of sperm DNA fragmentation and compare them to the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA). Semen samples from 20 males undergoing IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection were processed using FISH, SCD-FISH, SCD and Halosperm, and compared with SCSA results. There was a significant difference between FISH and SCD-FISH results in the detection of aneuploidy (P=0.000) and the level of sperm DNA fragmentation in the samples subjected to SCSA and SCD (P=0.001) or SCSA and SCD-FISH (P=0.001). There was no significant correlation between DNA fragmentation and aneuploidy. If sperm aneuploidy is to be determined, more reliable results will be obtained if FISH is performed rather than SCD-FISH. A lack of validation and unknown clinical significance question the value of DNA fragmentation assays. DNA damage in the male germ line may result in adverse clinical outcomes and the pathophysiology and clinical consequences of sperm DNA damage are being actively researched. Many DNA fragmentation assays such as the Halosperm Kit have been developed recently and are now available at a commercial level. Unfortunately, aimed at vulnerable couples with difficulty conceiving, many of these tests have not been clinically validated. Despite its plausible appeal and fervour of its supporters, the benefits of widespread DNA testing that only achieves the distressing of couples with the knowledge that effectual therapeutic strategies are absent are questionable. Commercially, however, it is no doubt lucrative. Analysis of gametes prior to the initiation of an IVF cycle may improve the quality of embryos transferred. The clinical and scientific community considers it a matter of urgency to translate the basic science behind how a cell prepares for fertilization into routine clinical practice. However, it is equally important, if not more, to allow the science behind such applications to draw level with its practice before its widespread implementation. PMID:21397561

  19. Sperm competition enhances functional capacity of mammalian spermatozoa

    E-print Network

    Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales

    there are differences in the proportion of spermatozoa that become ready to interact with the ovum (``capacitated to progesterone, an ovum-associated signal. Sperm competition thus favors a larger population of spermatozoa that are competent to fertilize, and spermatozoa that are more sensitive to the signals emitted by the ovum

  20. Effects of antiepileptic drugs on reproductive endocrine function, sexual function and sperm parameters in Chinese Han men with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Xiaotian, Xu; Hengzhong, Zhang; Yao, Xu; Zhipan, Zhao; Daoliang, Xu; Yumei, Wu

    2013-11-01

    The effects of the antiepileptic drugs sodium valproate (VPA) and levetiracetam (LEV) on reproductive endocrine function, sexual function, and spermatozoa were explored, together with their possible etiological mechanisms, in Chinese Han men with epilepsy. Following VPA treatment (n=32), luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone levels were significantly lower than in controls (n=30). The bioactive testosterone/luteinizing hormone ratio and the prolactin level were significantly elevated in the VPA treatment group. There were no significant differences in these hormones between the LEV treatment (n=20) and control groups. The rates of sperm morphologic abnormality (head, body, and tail) were significantly higher in the VPA treatment group than the control group but did not differ significantly between the LEV treatment and control groups. The sperm motility rate was significantly lower in the VPA treatment group (grade A sperm motility rate <25%, grade A+B sperm motility rate <50%) than in controls, as well as in the LEV treatment group (grade A sperm motility rate <25%). Patients in the VPA and LEV treatment groups had lower scores on questions 1, 2 and 3 of a simplified International Index of Erectile Function Scale than controls, but no significant difference on questions 4 or 5. The total International Index of Erectile Function Scale scores were significantly lower in the VPA and LEV treatment groups. We conclude that treatment with VPA adversely affects reproductive endocrine function, sperm parameters and sexual function to varying degrees in Chinese men with epilepsy. PMID:23938015

  1. SIGNIFICANCE OF INCORPORATING MEASURES OF SPERM PRODUCTION AND FUNCTION INTO RAT TOXICOLOGY STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rat is the preferred species for reproductive toxicity testing. The inclusion of measures of rat sperm quality, such as motility and morphology, into reproductive test protocols often increases the sensitivity of the test to detect effects, and provides the toxicologist and ...

  2. In vitro exposure to the organochlorine p,p'-DDE affects functional human sperm parameters.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Renata S; Amaral, Sandra; Paiva, Carla; Baptista, Marta; Ramalho-Santos, Joăo

    2015-02-01

    Although no information exists regarding the levels of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) on reproductive fluids of heavily exposed populations, they are possibly quite high given the serum levels reported so far. In these populations altered semen quality has been reported, although the direct effects of this DDT metabolite on crucial sperm parameters remain largely unexplored. With this in mind, a long-term in vitro incubation that better mimics the putative continuous exposure of spermatozoa to p,p'-DDE in the female reproductive tract in vivo was used. Before compromising sperm viability, continuous p,p'-DDE exposure remarkably decreased sperm motility, possibly due to the combined reduction in the proportion of sperm with high mitochondrial membrane potential and cellular ATP levels, all of which were clearly more affected at 50 and 100 ?M p,p'-DDE. Moreover, 25 ?M p,p'-DDE was also able to promote a decline in sperm with high MMP, however without significantly affecting motility. On the other hand, p,p'-DDE at the highest concentration strongly inhibited the process of capacitation following 24h of incubation. In conclusion, human sperm function is affected by continuous high p,p'-DDE exposure which may ultimately compromise male fertility. Given our previously findings that showed a non-regulated Ca(2+) entry in the presence of p,p'-DDE, we suggest that this organochlorine may promote mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload which may culminate in a general mitochondrial dysfunction and cellular ATP depletion, thus affecting sperm fertilizing potential. Our findings suggest a broader understanding of the non-genomic mechanism of p,p'-DDE action in human sperm. PMID:25240159

  3. Cytotoxic effects of benzene metabolites on human sperm function: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Mandani, Priyanka; Desai, Ketki; Highland, Hyacinth

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, individuals are rampantly exposed to vapours of benzene, through paint, plastic, petroleum industries, fuel exhaust, and tobacco smoke. Hence the present investigation was directed towards determining the effect of benzene metabolites, namely, phenol-hydroquinone and catechol, on the motility, viability, and nuclear integrity of the human spermatozoa. From the results obtained it was clear that exposure to phenol-hydroquinone caused a significant decline in both, sperm motility and viability. Exposure to a phenol-hydroquinone (Phase I) microenvironment may therefore inhibit metabolically active enzymes, thus impeding ATP production, and in turn lowers sperm motility and viability. In addition, the present study also revealed that both metabolites of benzene caused significant denaturation of sperm nuclear DNA. Hence, exposure to phenol-hydroquinone in vitro could have resulted in generation of free radicals and altered membrane function, which is reflected by a decline in the motility, viability, and loss of sperm nuclear DNA integrity. In Phase II, the exposure of human sperm in vitro to varied concentrations of catechol caused only insignificant changes in sperm motility and viability as compared to those observed on exposure to phenol-hydroquinone. Hence, exposure to catechol appeared to have less toxic effects than those of phenol-hydroquinone. PMID:24416599

  4. Tripeptidyl Peptidase II Regulates Sperm Function by Modulating Intracellular Ca2+ Stores via the Ryanodine Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yuchuan; Ru, Yanfei; Wang, Chunmei; Wang, Shoulin; Zhou, Zuomin; Zhang, Yonglian

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have identified Ca2+ stores in sperm cells; however, it is not clear whether these Ca2+ stores are functional and how they are mobilized. Here, in vitro and in vivo, we determined that tripeptidyl peptidase II antagonists strongly activated the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway that drives sperm capacitation-associated protein tyrosine phosphorylation. We demonstrated that in the absence of Ca2+, TPIII antagonists elevated the intracellular Ca2+ levels in sperm, resulting in a marked improvement in sperm movement, capacitation, acrosome reaction, and the in vitro fertilizing ability. This antagonist-induced release of intracellular Ca2+ could be blocked by the inhibitors of ryanodine receptors (RyRs) which are the main intracellular Ca2+ channels responsible for releasing stored Ca2+. Consistent with these results, indirect immunofluorescence assay using anti-RyR antibodies further validated the presence of RyR3 in the acrosomal region of mature sperm. Thus, TPPII can regulate sperm maturation by modulating intracellular Ca2+ stores via the type 3 RyR. PMID:23818952

  5. Cytotoxic Effects of Benzene Metabolites on Human Sperm Function: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Mandani, Priyanka; Desai, Ketki; Highland, Hyacinth

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, individuals are rampantly exposed to vapours of benzene, through paint, plastic, petroleum industries, fuel exhaust, and tobacco smoke. Hence the present investigation was directed towards determining the effect of benzene metabolites, namely, phenol-hydroquinone and catechol, on the motility, viability, and nuclear integrity of the human spermatozoa. From the results obtained it was clear that exposure to phenol-hydroquinone caused a significant decline in both, sperm motility and viability. Exposure to a phenol-hydroquinone (Phase I) microenvironment may therefore inhibit metabolically active enzymes, thus impeding ATP production, and in turn lowers sperm motility and viability. In addition, the present study also revealed that both metabolites of benzene caused significant denaturation of sperm nuclear DNA. Hence, exposure to phenol-hydroquinone in vitro could have resulted in generation of free radicals and altered membrane function, which is reflected by a decline in the motility, viability, and loss of sperm nuclear DNA integrity. In Phase II, the exposure of human sperm in vitro to varied concentrations of catechol caused only insignificant changes in sperm motility and viability as compared to those observed on exposure to phenol-hydroquinone. Hence, exposure to catechol appeared to have less toxic effects than those of phenol-hydroquinone. PMID:24416599

  6. Functional implications of membrane modification with semenogelins for inhibition of sperm motility in humans.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kaoru; Krasznai, Zoárd Tibor; Krasznai, Zoltán; Yoshiike, Miki; Kawano, Natsuko; Yoshida, Manabu; Morisawa, Masaaki; Tóth, Zoltán; Bazsáné, Zsuzsa Kassai; Márián, Teréz; Iwamoto, Teruaki

    2009-02-01

    Semenogelin I and II (Sgs) are the major component of human semen coagulum. The protein is rapidly cleaved after ejaculation by a prostate-specific antigen, resulting in liquefaction of the semen coagulum and the progressive release of motile spermatozoa. Sgs inhibit human sperm motility; however, there is currently no information on its effect on the sperm membrane. This study investigated the role of Sgs on human sperm motility through regulation of membrane potential and membrane permeability. Fresh semen samples were obtained from normozoospermic volunteers, and studies were conducted using motile cells selected using the swim-up method. Sgs changed the characteristics of sperm motion from circular to straightforward as evaluated by a computer-assisted motility analyzer, and all parameters were decreased more than 2.5 mg/mL. The results demonstrate that Sgs treatment immediately hyperpolarized the membrane potential of swim-up-selected sperm, changed the membrane structure, and time-dependently increased membrane permeability, as determined through flow cytometric analysis. The biphasic effects of Sgs were time- and dose-dependent and partially reversible. In addition, a monoclonal antibody against Sgs showed positive binding to cell membrane proteins in fixed cells, observed with confocal fluorescence microscopy. These results demonstrate that Sgs modifies the membrane structure, indirectly inhibiting motility, and provides suggestions for a therapy for male infertility through selection of a functional sperm population using Sgs. PMID:19089943

  7. Testes Mass, but Not Sperm Length, Increases with Higher Levels of Polyandry in an Ancient Sex Model

    PubMed Central

    Vrech, David E.; Olivero, Paola A.; Mattoni, Camilo I.; Peretti, Alfredo V.

    2014-01-01

    There is strong evidence that polyandrous taxa have evolved relatively larger testes than monogamous relatives. Sperm size may either increase or decrease across species with the risk or intensity of sperm competition. Scorpions represent an ancient direct mode with spermatophore-mediated sperm transfer and are particularly well suited for studies in sperm competition. This work aims to analyze for the first time the variables affecting testes mass, ejaculate volume and sperm length, according with their levels of polyandry, in species belonging to the Neotropical family Bothriuridae. Variables influencing testes mass and sperm length were obtained by model selection analysis using corrected Akaike Information Criterion. Testes mass varied greatly among the seven species analyzed, ranging from 1.6±1.1 mg in Timogenes dorbignyi to 16.3±4.5 mg in Brachistosternus pentheri with an average of 8.4±5.0 mg in all the species. The relationship between testes mass and body mass was not significant. Body allocation in testes mass, taken as Gonadosomatic Index, was high in Bothriurus cordubensis and Brachistosternus ferrugineus and low in Timogenes species. The best-fitting model for testes mass considered only polyandry as predictor with a positive influence. Model selection showed that body mass influenced sperm length negatively but after correcting for body mass, none of the variables analyzed explained sperm length. Both body mass and testes mass influenced spermatophore volume positively. There was a strong phylogenetic effect on the model containing testes mass. As predicted by the sperm competition theory and according to what happens in other arthropods, testes mass increased in species with higher levels of sperm competition, and influenced positively spermatophore volume, but data was not conclusive for sperm length. PMID:24736525

  8. Sperm parameters and epididymis function in transgenic rats overexpressing the Ca2+-binding protein regucalcin: a hidden role for Ca2+ in sperm maturation?

    PubMed

    Correia, S; Oliveira, P F; Guerreiro, P M; Lopes, G; Alves, M G; Canário, A V M; Cavaco, J E; Socorro, Sílvia

    2013-09-01

    Sperm undergo maturation acquiring progressive motility and the ability to fertilize oocytes through exposure to the components of the epididymal fluid (EF). Although the establishment of a calcium (Ca(2+)) gradient along the epididymis has been described, its direct effects on epididymal function remain poorly explored. Regucalcin (RGN) is a Ca(2+)-binding protein, regulating the activity of Ca(2+)-channels and Ca(2+)-ATPase, for which a role in male reproductive function has been suggested. This study aimed at comparing the morphology, assessed by histological analysis, and function of epididymis, by analysis of sperm parameters, antioxidant potential and Ca(2+) fluxes, between transgenic rats overexpressing RGN (Tg-RGN) and their wild-type littermates. Tg-RGN animals displayed an altered morphology of epididymis and lower sperm counts and motility. Tissue incubation with (45)Ca(2+) showed also that epididymis of Tg-RGN displayed a diminished rate of Ca(2+)-influx, indicating unbalanced Ca(2+) concentrations in the epididymal lumen. Sperm viability and the frequency of normal sperm, determined by the one-step eosin-nigrosin staining technique and the Diff-Quik staining method, respectively, were higher in Tg-RGN. Moreover, sperm of Tg-RGN rats showed a diminished incidence of tail defects. Western blot analysis demonstrated the presence of RGN in EF as well as its higher expression in the corpus region. The results presented herein demonstrated the importance of maintaining Ca(2+)-levels in the epididymal lumen and suggest a role for RGN in sperm maturation. Overall, a new insight into the molecular mechanisms driving epididymal sperm maturation was obtained, which could be relevant to development of better approaches in male infertility treatment and contraception. PMID:23615721

  9. Clinical and Consumer Trial Performance of a Sensitive Immunodiagnostic Home Test That Qualitatively Detects Low Concentrations of Sperm Following Vasectomy

    PubMed Central

    Klotz, Kenneth L.; Coppola, Michael A.; Labrecque, Michel; Brugh, Victor M.; Ramsey, Kim; Kim, Kyung-ah; Conaway, Mark R.; Howards, Stuart S.; Flickinger, Charles J.; Herr, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Compliance with post-vasectomy semen analysis could be improved with the availability of a simple, rapid and accurate home test. SpermCheck Vasectomy®, a highly sensitive lateral flow immunochromatographic diagnostic device, was designed to detect extreme oligospermia or azoospermia in men after vasectomy. We report the results of clinical and consumer testing of SpermCheck. Materials and Methods A prospective, noncomparative observational study assessed the ability of SpermCheck Vasectomy to predict post-vasectomy sperm counts obtained using a hemacytometer procedure based on standard World Health Organization methodology. Consumer studies evaluated ease of use. Results A cohort of 144 post-vasectomy semen samples was tested in the clinical trial. SpermCheck was 96% accurate in predicting whether sperm counts were greater or less than a threshold of 250,000 sperm per ml, a level associated with little or no risk of pregnancy. Sensitivity was 93% (95% CI 79% to 98%) and specificity was 97% (91% to 99%). The positive predictive value of the test was 93% (79% to 98%), and most importantly the negative predictive value was 97% (91% to 99%). The test gave a positive result 100% of the time at sperm concentrations of 385,000/ml or greater. Consumer studies with 109 lay volunteers showed that SpermCheck was easy to use. Volunteers obtained the correct or expected test result in every case and the correct response rate on a 20 question survey about the test was 97%. Conclusions SpermCheck Vasectomy, a simple and reliable immunodiagnostic test that can provide evidence of vasectomy success or failure, offers a useful alternative to improve compliance with post-vasectomy sperm monitoring. It is currently the only Food and Drug Administration approved test for this purpose. PMID:18930494

  10. Sperm competition and the evolution of testes size in birds T. E. PITCHER,* P. O. DUNN & L. A. WHITTINGHAM

    E-print Network

    Dunn, Peter O.

    ramifications for sexual selection, as it provides a mechanism for sperm competition (e.g. Parker et al., 1990 density is associated with greater sperm competition. After controlling for phylogenetic effects and other smaller testes than taxa with multiple social mates, and testes size tended to increase with clutch size

  11. An in vitro study of the effect of mifepristone and ulipristal acetate on human sperm functions.

    PubMed

    Ko, J K Y; Huang, V W; Li, R H W; Yeung, W S B; Ho, P C; Chiu, P C N

    2014-11-01

    Ulipristal acetate (UPA) and mifepristone are currently well-established agents for emergency contraception. Both drugs are selective progestogen receptor modulators which have been shown to have better efficacy than the widely used levonorgestrel in prevention of pregnancy. However, there is only limited information on the action of UPA on sperm function. The present study compared the in vitro biological effects of mifepristone and UPA on human sperm functions. Spermatozoa from semen samples with normal semen parameters were isolated. Capacitated spermatozoa were pre-incubated with 0.04, 0.4, 4 and 40 ?M mifepristone or UPA for 1 h. Sperm motility, viability, DNA integrity, capacitation, spontaneous acrosome reaction, spontaneous hyperactivation, zona pellucida (ZP) binding capability and intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) were determined. The effects of mifepristone and UPA on progesterone-induced acrosome reaction, hyperactivation and [Ca(2+)]i were also studied. Our results showed that mifepristone and UPA dose-dependently suppressed progesterone-induced acrosome reaction, hyperactivation and [Ca(2+)]i at concentrations ?0.4 ?M in human spermatozoa. Both compounds did not affect sperm motility, viability, DNA integrity, capacitation, spontaneous acrosome reaction, spontaneous hyperactivation, ZP binding capability and [Ca(2+)]i. This study demonstrated that UPA and mifepristone modulate human sperm functions by acting as progesterone antagonists. The results enable us to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms by which mifepristone and UPA work for emergency contraception, and provide a scientific basis for their clinical application. PMID:25168311

  12. Do highly ornamented and less parasitized males have high quality sperm? – an experimental test for parasite-induced reproductive trade-offs in European minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus)

    PubMed Central

    Kekäläinen, Jukka; Pirhonen, Juhani; Taskinen, Jouni

    2014-01-01

    Parasites take their resources from hosts and thus directly reduce available resources for hosts’ own body functions, such as growth and reproduction. Furthermore, parasite infections cause significant indirect costs to their hosts in terms of increased investments on immune defense. In this study, we investigated the impact of parasite infection on the sperm quality and expression of secondary sexual ornamentation (saturation of the red abdominal colouration and number of breeding tubercles) in the Eurasian minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus). We exposed minnows to a high and low dose of common nonspecific fish ectoparasite, the glochidia larvae of duck mussel (Anodonta anatina) and tested whether parasite infection leads to trade-off in sperm quality and/or ornamental expression. We found that glochidia infection reduces the curvature of the sperm swimming trajectory, number of breeding tubercles, and possibly male competitive ability, but does not affect expression of male color ornamentation. Furthermore, glochidia infection was found to reduce sperm motility, but only when all the noninfected individuals were excluded from the model. Supporting one of the predictions by phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis both in high-infection and low-infection group male breeding colouration was positively associated with sperm quality. Our results suggest that although glochidia infection may have negative impact on male reproductive success, parasite-induced costs may not create strong trade-off between breeding colouration and sperm quality or that such trade-off become detectable only in resource-limited conditions. PMID:25540686

  13. Is the Function of the Porcine Sperm Reservoir Restricted to the Ovulatory Period?

    PubMed Central

    BRÜSSOW, Klaus-Peter; EGERSZEGI, Istvan; RÁTKY, Jozsef

    2014-01-01

    The uterotubal junction (UTJ) and caudal isthmus are recognized as a functional pre-ovulatory sperm reservoir (SR). Spermatozoa are released from the SR in a complex and concerted action. However, whether this functionality is restricted only to the ovulatory period is still open to debate. Our study was aimed to analyze the presence of spermatozoa within the UTJ (SR), isthmus (ISTH) and ampulla (AMP) after laparoscopic intrauterine insemination (LIUI) either in the peri- (PERI) or post-ovulatory (POST) period or at mid cycle (MID). Each uterine horn of estrus synchronized gilts (n=12) was inseminated with 20 ml sperm (29.5×106 cells/ml). Oviducts were recovered 7 h after LIUI and separated into the UTJ, ISTH and AMP, and sections were flushed with 10 ml PBS+EDTA solution. After centrifugation, the sperm pellet was evaluated by ?e?ovský staining. The median sperm numbers in the PERI, POST and MID groups were 578, 171 and 789 in the UTJ; 545, 233 and 713 in the ISTH; and 496, 280 and 926 in the AMP, respectively, and there were differences between the POST and MID groups (P<0.05) but not between the oviductal sections of each group (P>0.05). Compared with the MID group, the percent of intact sperm cells was higher (P<0.01) in the PERI and POST groups (32.8 vs. 66.4 and 76.8%). Also, the percentages of aberrations in the acrosome and tail were higher (P<0.05) in the MID group. Based on this, it can be assumed that the sperm reservoir is active during different phases of the estrus cycle. However, the mid-cycle oviduct environment considerably impairs sperm cell quality. PMID:24964752

  14. Sperm Shape (Morphology): Does It Affect Fertility?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... test of a man’s fertility is a semen analysis. This measures many features of the sperm and semen (the fluid in which the sperm are contained). The most important of these are the number of sperm (sperm count), motility of the sperm (percentage of moving sperm), morphology of the sperm (percentage ...

  15. Flow cytometry for the assessment of animal sperm integrity and functionality: state of the art

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Md. Sharoare; Johannisson, Anders; Wallgren, Margareta; Nagy, Szabolcs; Siqueira, Amanda Pimenta; Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto

    2011-01-01

    Flow cytometry is now a recognized methodology within animal spermatology, and has moved from being a research tool to become routine in the assessment of animal semen destined to breeding. The availability of ‘bench-top' flow cytometers and of newer and versatile markers for cell structure and function had allowed the instrumentation to measure more sperm parameters, from viability to reactiveness when exposed to exogenous stimuli, and to increase our capabilities to sort spermatozoa for potential fertilizing capacity, or chromosomal sex. The present review summarizes the state of the art regarding flow cytometry applied to animal andrology, albeit keeping an open comparative intent. It critically evaluates the present and future capabilities of flow cytometry for the diagnostics of potential fertility and for the development of current reproductive technologies such as sperm freezing, sperm selection and sperm sorting. The flow cytometry methods will probably further revolutionize our understanding of the sperm physiology and their functionality, and will undoubtedly extend its application in isolating many uncharacterized features of spermatozoa. However, continuous follow-up of the methods is a necessity owing to technical developments and the complexity of mapping spermatozoa. PMID:21478895

  16. 1Sperm fate and function in reproductive isolation in Drosophila Corresponding author E-mail: tmarkow@arl.arizona.edu

    E-print Network

    Markow, Therese

    of the genus Drosophila provide an unusually attractive model system for studies of the reproductive isolating1Sperm fate and function in reproductive isolation in Drosophila Corresponding author E-mail: tmarkow@arl.arizona.edu Sperm fate and function in reproductive isolation in Drosophila Therese Ann Markow

  17. Methyl-parathion decreases sperm function and fertilization capacity after targeting spermatocytes and maturing spermatozoa

    SciTech Connect

    Pina-Guzman, Belem; Sanchez-Gutierrez, M.; Marchetti, Francesco; Hernandez-Ochoa, I.; Solis-Heredia, M.J .; Quintanilla-Vega, B.

    2009-05-03

    Paternal germline exposure to organophosphorous pesticides (OP) has been associated with reproductive failures and adverse effects in the offspring. Methyl parathion (Me-Pa), a worldwide-used OP, has reproductive adverse effects and is genotoxic to sperm. Oxidative damage has been involved in the genotoxic and reproductive effects of OP. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of Me-Pa on spermatozoa function and ability to fertilize. Male mice were exposed to Me-Pa (20 mg/kg bw, i.p.) and spermatozoa from epididymis-vas deferens were collected at 7 or 28 days post-treatment (dpt) to assess the effects on maturing spermatozoa and spermatocytes, respectively. DNA damage was evaluated by nick translation (NT-positive cells) and SCSA (percentDFI); lipoperoxidation (LPO) by malondialdehyde production; sperm function by spontaneous- and induced-acrosome reactions (AR); mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) by using the JC-1 flurochrome; and, fertilization ability by an in vitro assay and in vivo mating. Results showed alterations in DNA integrity (percentDFI and NT-positive cells) at 7 and 28 dpt, in addition to decreased sperm quality and a decrease in induced-AR; reduced MMP and LPO was observed only at 7 dpt. We found negative correlations between LPO and all sperm alterations. Altered sperm functional parameters were associated with reduced fertilization rates at both times, evaluated either in vitro or in vivo. These results show that Me-Pa exposure of maturing spermatozoa and spermatocytes affects many sperm functional parameters that result in a decreased fertilizing capacity. Oxidative stress seems to be a likely mechanism ofthe detrimental effects of Me-Pa in male germ cells.

  18. Metabolic Substrates Exhibit Differential Effects on Functional Parameters of Mouse Sperm Capacitation1

    PubMed Central

    Goodson, Summer G.; Qiu, Yunping; Sutton, Keith A.; Xie, Guoxiang; Jia, Wei; O'Brien, Deborah A.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although substantial evidence exists that sperm ATP production via glycolysis is required for mammalian sperm function and male fertility, conflicting reports involving multiple species have appeared regarding the ability of individual glycolytic or mitochondrial substrates to support the physiological changes that occur during capacitation. Several mouse models with defects in the signaling pathways required for capacitation exhibit reductions in sperm ATP levels, suggesting regulatory interactions between sperm metabolism and signal transduction cascades. To better understand these interactions, we conducted quantitative studies of mouse sperm throughout a 2-h in vitro capacitation period and compared the effects of single substrates assayed under identical conditions. Multiple glycolytic and nonglycolytic substrates maintained sperm ATP levels and comparable percentages of motility, but only glucose and mannose supported hyperactivation. These monosaccharides and fructose supported the full pattern of tyrosine phosphorylation, whereas nonglycolytic substrates supported at least partial tyrosine phosphorylation. Inhibition of glycolysis impaired motility in the presence of glucose, fructose, or pyruvate but not in the presence of hydroxybutyrate. Addition of an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation reduced motility with pyruvate or hydroxybutyrate as substrates but unexpectedly stimulated hyperactivation with fructose. Investigating differences between glucose and fructose in more detail, we demonstrated that hyperactivation results from the active metabolism of glucose. Differences between glucose and fructose appeared to be downstream of changes in intracellular pH, which rose to comparable levels during incubation with either substrate. Sperm redox pathways were differentially affected, with higher levels of associated metabolites and reactive oxygen species generated during incubations with fructose than during incubations with glucose. PMID:22837480

  19. A common mutation in the defensin DEFB126 causes impaired sperm function and subfertility.

    PubMed

    Tollner, Theodore L; Venners, Scott A; Hollox, Edward J; Yudin, Ashley I; Liu, Xue; Tang, Genfu; Xing, Houxun; Kays, Robert J; Lau, Tsang; Overstreet, James W; Xu, Xiping; Bevins, Charles L; Cherr, Gary N

    2011-07-20

    A glycosylated polypeptide, ?-defensin 126 (DEFB126), derived from the epididymis and adsorbed onto the sperm surface, has been implicated in immunoprotection and efficient movement of sperm in mucosal fluids of the female reproductive tract. Here, we report a sequence variant in DEFB126 that has a two-nucleotide deletion in the open reading frame, which generates an abnormal mRNA. The allele frequency of this variant sequence was high in both a European (0.47) and a Chinese (0.45) population cohort. Binding of the Agaricus bisporus lectin to the sperm surface glycocalyx was significantly lower in men with the homozygous variant (del/del) genotype than in those with either a del/wt or a wt/wt genotype, suggesting an altered sperm glycocalyx with fewer O-linked oligosaccharides in del/del men. Moreover, sperm from del/del carriers exhibited an 84% reduction in the rate of penetration of a hyaluronic acid gel, a surrogate for cervical mucus, compared to the other genotypes. This reduction in sperm performance in hyaluronic acid gels was not a result of decreased progressive motility (average curvilinear velocity) or morphological deficits. Nevertheless, DEFB126 genotype and lectin binding were correlated with sperm performance in the penetration assays. In a prospective cohort study of newly married couples who were trying to conceive by natural means, couples were less likely to become pregnant and took longer to achieve a live birth if the male partner was homozygous for the variant sequence. This common sequence variation in DEFB126, and its apparent effect of impaired reproductive function, will allow a better understanding, clinical evaluation, and possibly treatment of human infertility. PMID:21775668

  20. The use of the hypo-osmotic swelling test, water test, and supravital staining in the evaluation of drone sperm

    E-print Network

    of drone sperm Zekariya NUR 1 , Selvinar SEVEN-CAKMAK 2 , Burcu USTUNER 1 , Ibrahim CAKMAK 3 , Melih ERTURK was obtained from mature drones (16 days or older) collected from four colonies. The means of the per-drone evaluation in mammals. bee semen / HOS test / water test / viability 1. INTRODUCTION The quality of drone

  1. Rhesus monkey sperm cryopreservation with TEST-yolk extender in the absence of permeable cryoprotectant.

    PubMed

    Dong, Qiaoxiang; Correa, Liane M; VandeVoort, Catherine A

    2009-02-01

    Recently, there has been increased interest in ultra-rapid freezing with mammalian spermatozoa, especially for vitrification in the absence of cryoprotectants. Sperm cryopreservation in non-human primates has been successful, but the use of frozen-thawed sperm in standard artificial insemination (AI) remains difficult, and removal of permeable cryoprotectant may offer opportunities for increased AI success. The present study intended to explore the possibility of freezing rhesus monkey sperm in the absence of permeable cryoprotectants. Specifically, we evaluated various factors such as presence or absence of egg yolk, the percentage of egg yolk in the extenders, and the effect of cooling and thawing rate on the success of freezing without permeable cryoprotectants. Findings revealed that freezing with TEST in the absence of egg yolk offers little protection (<15% post-thaw motility). Egg yolk of 40% or more in TEST resulted in decreased motility, while egg yolk in the range of 20-30% yielded the most motile sperm. Cooling at a slow rate (29 degrees C/min) reduced post-thaw motility significantly for samples frozen with TEST-yolk alone, but had no effect for controls in the presence of glycerol. Similarly, slow thawing in room temperature air is detrimental for freezing without permeable cryoprotectant (<2% motility). In addition to motility, the ability of sperm to capacitate based on an increase in intracellular calcium levels upon activation with cAMP and caffeine suggested no difference between fresh and frozen-thawed motile sperm, regardless of treatment. In summary, the present study demonstrates that ejaculated and epididymal sperm from rhesus monkeys can be cryopreserved with TEST-yolk (20%) in the absence of permeable cryoprotectant when samples were loaded in a standard 0.25-mL straw, cooled rapidly in liquid nitrogen vapor at 220 degrees C/min, and thawed rapidly in a 37 degrees C water bath. This study also represents the first success of freezing without permeable cryoprotectant in non-human primates. PMID:18992734

  2. Semen Quality and Sperm Function Loss by Hypercholesterolemic Diet Was Recovered by Addition of Olive Oil to Diet in Rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Aida A.; Funes, Abi K.; Cid-Barria, Macarena; Cabrillana, María E.; Monclus, María A.; Simón, Layla; Vicenti, Amanda E.; Fornés, Miguel W.

    2013-01-01

    Fat increment (0.05% cholesterol, chol) in standard diet promoted a significant increase in serum and sperm membrane chol, which ultimately altered membrane-coupled sperm specific functions: osmotic resistance, acrosomal reaction, and sperm capacitation in White New Zealand rabbits. These changes were also associated with a reduction in motility percentage and appearance of abnormal sperm morphology. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of dietary olive oil (OO, 7% v/w) administration to several male hypercholesterolemic rabbits (hypercholesterolemic rabbits, HCR) with altered fertility parameters. These HCR males were achieved by feeding normal rabbits with a high-fat diet (0.05% chol). HCR were associated with a modest non-significant increase in body weight (standard diet, 4.08±0.17 Kg, versus high-fat diet, 4.37±0.24 Kg). Hypercholesterolemic rabbits presented a marked decrease in semen volume, sperm cell count, and percentage of sperm motility, associated with a significant increase in sperm cell abnormalities. Moreover, sperm capacitation measured by the characteristic phosphorylated protein pattern in and induced acrosomal reaction were also altered suggesting sperm dysfunction. However, the administration of OO (for 16 weeks) to rabbits that were fed with 50% of the high-fat diet normalized serum chol. Curiously, OO supply succeeded to attenuate the seminal and sperm alterations observed in HCR group. Administration of OO alone did not cause any significant changes in above mentioned parameters. These data suggest that OO administration to HCR male rabbits recovers the loss of semen quality and sperm functionality. PMID:23326331

  3. Variation in paternity in the field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus: no detectable influence of sperm numbers or sperm length

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leigh W. Simmons; Julie Wernham; Francisco Garci´a-Gonza´lez; Dan Kamien

    2003-01-01

    Recent attention has focused on the role that sperm competition may play in the evolution of sperm morphology. Theoretical analyses predict increased sperm size, decreased sperm size, and no change in sperm size in response to sperm competition, depending on the assumptions made concerning the life history and function of sperm. However, although there is good evidence that sperm morphology

  4. Human sperm competition: ejaculate adjustment by males and the function of masturbation (1993)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Robin Baker; Mark A. Bellis

    Sperm competition theory argues that the number of sperm inseminated into a female by a male is a trade-off between two opposing pressures. On the one hand, the risk that sperm may find themselves in competition with the sperm from another male favours the male inseminating more sperm. On the other hand, ejaculates are costly to produce and males are

  5. Differences in the fatty-acid composition of rodent spermatozoa are associated to levels of sperm competition

    PubMed Central

    delBarco-Trillo, Javier; Mateo, Rafael; Roldan, Eduardo R. S.

    2015-01-01

    Sperm competition is a prevalent phenomenon that drives the evolution of sperm function. High levels of sperm competition lead to increased metabolism to fuel higher sperm velocities. This enhanced metabolism can result in oxidative damage (including lipid peroxidation) and damage to the membrane. We hypothesized that in those species experiencing high levels of sperm competition there are changes in the fatty-acid composition of the sperm membrane that makes the membrane more resistant to oxidative damage. Given that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are the most prone to lipid peroxidation, we predicted that higher sperm competition leads to a reduction in the proportion of sperm PUFAs. In contrast, we predicted that levels of sperm competition should not affect the proportion of PUFAs in somatic cells. To test these predictions, we quantified the fatty-acid composition of sperm, testis and liver cells in four mouse species (genus Mus) that differ in their levels of sperm competition. Fatty-acid composition in testis and liver cells was not associated to sperm competition levels. However, in sperm cells, as predicted, an increase in sperm competition levels was associated with an increase in the proportion of saturated fatty-acids (the most resistant to lipid peroxidation) and by a concomitant decrease in the proportion of PUFAs. Two particular fatty acids were most responsible for this pattern (arachidonic acid and palmitic acid). Our findings thus indicate that sperm competition has a pervasive influence in the composition of sperm cells that ultimately may have important effects in sperm function. PMID:25795911

  6. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF THREE RAPID MARINE TOXICITY TESTS: SEA URCHIN EARLY EMBRYO GROWTH TEST, SEA URCHIN SPERM CELL TOXICITY TEST AND MICROTOX

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three rapid marine toxicity tests were evaluated to determine their potential usefulness in a toxicity testing program: early embryo growth test and sperm cell toxicity test, both using the sea urchin Arbacia punctulata, and Microtox. Toxicity values (EC50s) were derived for eigh...

  7. Chromomycin A3 staining, sperm chromatin structure assay and hyaluronic acid binding assay as predictors for assisted reproductive outcome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martine Nijs; Eva Creemers; Annemie Cox; Kim Franssen; Mia Janssen; Elke Vanheusden; Christopher De Jonge; Willem Ombelet

    2009-01-01

    Functional sperm tests such as the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA), chromomycin A3 staining (CMA3) and hyaluronic acid binding assay (HBA) have been suggested as predictive tests of fertility invitro. This study aimed to define the clinical role of these functional parameters in assisted reproduction in a prospective cohort study. Conventional sperm diagnosis (motility, morphology and concentration) as well as

  8. Plasma membrane integrity of cryopreserved human sperm: an investigation of the results of the hypoosmotic swelling test, the water test, and eosin-y staining

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming-Huei Lin; Mahmood Morshedi; Chartchai Srisombut; Ahmed Nassar; Sergio Oehninger

    1998-01-01

    Objective: [1] To examine the relationship between sperm membrane integrity and motion parameters before and after cryopreservation; [2] to determine the capacity of the membrane integrity tests to predict the outcome of cryopreservation in fertile and infertile men; and [3] to examine the degree of agreement between tail and head membrane integrity of testicular and ejaculated immotile sperm cryopreserved for

  9. Fenitrothion induced oxidative stress and morphological alterations of sperm and testes in male sprague-dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Taib, Izatus Shima; Budin, Siti Balkis; Ghazali, Ahmad Rohi; Jayusman, Putri Ayu; Louis, Santhana Raj; Mohamed, Jamaludin

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Fenitrothion residue is found primarily in soil, water and food products and can lead to a variety of toxic effects on the immune, hepatobiliary and hematological systems. However, the effects of fenitrothion on the male reproductive system remain unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of fenitrothion on the sperm and testes of male Sprague-Dawley rats. METHODS: A 20 mg/kg dose of fenitrothion was administered orally by gavages for 28 consecutive days. Blood sample was obtained by cardiac puncture and dissection of the testes and cauda epididymis was performed to obtain sperm. The effects of fenitrothion on the body and organ weight, biochemical and oxidative stress, sperm characteristics, histology and ultrastructural changes in the testes were evaluated. RESULTS: Fenitrothion significantly decreased the body weight gain and weight of the epididymis compared with the control group. Fenitrothion also decreased plasma cholinesterase activity compared with the control group. Fenitrothion altered the sperm characteristics, such as sperm concentration, sperm viability and normal sperm morphology, compared with the control group. Oxidative stress markers, such as malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl, total glutathione and glutathione S-transferase, were significantly increased and superoxide dismutase activity was significantly decreased in the fenitrothion-treated group compared with the control group. The histopathological and ultrastructural examination of the testes of the fenitrothion-treated group revealed alterations corresponding with the biochemical changes compared with the control group. CONCLUSION: A 20 mg/kg dose of fenitrothion caused deleterious effects on the sperm and testes of Sprague-Dawley rats. PMID:23420164

  10. Thermoresistance sperm tests are not predictive of potential fertility for cryopreserved bull semen.

    PubMed

    Vianna, F P; Papa, F O; Zahn, F S; Melo, C M; Dell'Aqua, J A

    2009-07-01

    Different studies demonstrate positive correlations between seminal variables determined in the laboratory and subsequent fertility after artificial insemination. It is clear, however, that there is still a deficiency in predicting in vivo fertility results of semen samples. The present study intended to verify the efficiency of rapid and slow thermoresistance tests in predicting fertility of frozen semen of bulls. Sperm from 64 ejaculates of 39 Nelore bulls (Bos indicus), aged 2-10 years, were cryopreserved in 0.5 mL straws. Thawed straws containing 30 x 10(6) sperm were analyzed for seminal variables in the laboratory and used to inseminate 4920 cows to evaluate fertility in the field. The ejaculates were frozen in a Tris-based extender and samples were evaluated for total motility after rapid (46 degrees C/30 min) and slow (38 degrees C/5h) thermoresistance tests by conventional and computerized (CASA) methods. Sperm samples were grouped according to their ability to retain motility after thermoresistance testing: group 0 (0% motility), group 1 (1-20% total motility), group 2 (21-40% total motility) and group 3 (>40% total motility). Correlation and association between these groups and fertility diagnosed by rectal palpation at 90 days were verified. Chi-square test demonstrated no association between motility groups and fertility (P>0.25) and both rapid and slow thermoresistance tests had a lesser correlation to fertility (r=0.11 and 0.14, respectively). These results demonstrated that these tests are not reliable in predicting in vivo behavior of bull frozen semen and are not effective to estimate fertility. PMID:18707830

  11. Enhanced Binding of Sperm With Superior Volume Regulation to Oviductal Epithelium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Y. Khalil; A. M. Petrunkina; E. Sahin; D. Waberski; E. Topfer-Petersen

    2006-01-01

    The plasma membrane is a key organelle with respect to sperm fertilizing ability. A sensitive way of testing plasma membrane functionality is to examine the sperm ability to moderate its swelling in response to hypo-osmotic stress (volume regulatory ability) using an electronic cell counter to assess cell volume changes. In this study of frozen-thawed bull sperm, we examined the relationship

  12. The evolution of sperm length in moths.

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, E H; Gage, M J

    2000-01-01

    Sperm form and function remain poorly understood despite being of fundamental biological importance. An instructive approach has been to examine evolutionary associations across comparable taxa between sperm characters and other, potentially selective reproductive traits. We adopt this approach here in a comparative study examining how sperm lengths are associated with male and female reproductive characters across moths. Primary data have revealed Lepidoptera to be an ideal order for examination: there is profound variation in the dimensions (but not organization) of the reproductive traits between closely related species which all share a monophyletic ancestry, for example, eupyrene sperm length varies from 110 to 12,675 microm. Eupyrene (normal fertilizing) and apyrene (anucleate and non-fertile) sperm lengths are positively correlated across taxa and both sperm types show positive associations with mating pattern (as measured by the residual testis size). At fertilization, eupyrene sperm must migrate down the often elongated female spermathecal duct from storage to unite with the ovum. Across taxa, the elongation of this duct is associated with increased eupyrene sperm length, suggesting a positive female influence on sperm size since longer, more powerful sperm may be selected to migrate and/or compete successfully down greater ductal lengths. Apyrene sperm length is not associated with female reproductive tract dimensions. However, we found a positive relationship between the residual testis volume and spermathecal volume, suggesting coevolution between male investment in spermatogenesis and the extent of the female sperm storage capacity. Within males, there is a positive association between the two organs which form the ejaculate-containing spermatophore: the testes and the accessory gland. The 'trade-up' in investment to these components is discussed in relation to paternal investment and mating patterns. PMID:10714886

  13. Reproductive Effects of Two Neonicotinoid Insecticides on Mouse Sperm Function and Early Embryonic Development In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Ju-fen; Yang, Jun; Diao, Hua; Yuan, Yao; Xu, Yan; Liu, Miao; Shi, Hui-juan; Xu, Wen-ping

    2013-01-01

    Acetamiprid (ACE) and imidacloprid (IMI) are two major members in the family of neonicotinoid pesticides, which are synthesized with a higher selectivity to insects. The present study determined and compared in vitro effects of ACE, IMI and nicotine on mammalian reproduction by using an integrated testing strategy for reproductive toxicology, which covered sperm quality, sperm penetration into oocytes and preimplantation embryonic development. Direct chemical exposure (500 µM or 5 mM) on spermatozoa during capacitation was performed, and in vitro fertilization (IVF) process, zygotes and 2-cell embryos were respectively incubated with chemical-supplemented medium until blastocyst formation to evaluate the reproductive toxicity of these chemicals and monitor the stages mainly affected. Generally, treatment of 500 µM or 5 mM chemicals for 30 min did not change sperm motility and DNA integrity significantly but the fertilization ability in in vitro fertilization (IVF) process, indicating that IVF process could detect and distinguish subtle effect of spermatozoa exposed to different chemicals. Culture experiment in the presence of chemicals in medium showed that fertilization process and zygotes are adversely affected by direct exposure of chemicals (P<0.05), in an order of nicotine>IMI>ACE, whereas developmental progression of 2-cell stage embryos was similar to controls (P>0.05). These findings unveiled the hazardous effects of neonicotinoid pesticides exposure on mammalian sperm fertilization ability as well as embryonic development, raising the concerns that neonicotinoid pesticides may pose reproductive risks on human reproductive health, especially in professional populations. PMID:23922925

  14. Hyaluronidase 2: a novel germ cell hyaluronidase with epididymal expression and functional roles in mammalian sperm.

    PubMed

    Modelski, Mark J; Menlah, Gladys; Wang, Yipei; Dash, Soma; Wu, Kathie; Galileo, Deni S; Martin-DeLeon, Patricia A

    2014-11-01

    To initiate the crucial cell adhesion events necessary for fertilization, sperm must penetrate extracellular matrix barriers containing hyaluronic acid (HA), a task thought to be accomplished by neutral-active hyaluronidases. Here we report that the ~57 kDa hyaluronidase 2 (HYAL2) that in somatic tissues has been highly characterized to be acid-active is present in mouse and human sperm, as detected by Western blot, flow cytometric, and immunoprecipitation assays. Immunofluorescence revealed its presence on the plasma membrane over the acrosome, the midpiece, and proximal principal piece in mice where protein fractionation demonstrated a differential distribution in subcellular compartments. It is significantly more abundant in the acrosome-reacted (P = 0.04) and soluble acrosomal fractions (P = 0.006) (microenvironments where acid-active hyaluronidases function) compared to that of the plasma membrane where neutral hyaluronidases mediate cumulus penetration. Using HA substrate gel electrophoresis, immunoprecipitated HYAL 2 was shown to have catalytic activity at pH 4.0. Colocalization and coimmunoprecipitation assays reveal that HYAL2 is associated with its cofactor, CD44, consistent with CD44-dependent HYAL2 activity. HYAL2 is also present throughout the epididymis, where Hyal2 transcripts were detected, and in the epididymal luminal fluids. In vitro assays demonstrated that HYAL2 can be acquired on the sperm membrane from epididymal luminal fluids, suggesting that it plays a role in epididymal maturation. Because similar biphasic kinetics are seen for HYAL2 and SPAM1 (Sperm adhesion molecule 1), it is likely that HYAL2 plays a redundant role in the catalysis of megadalton HA to its 20 kDa intermediate during fertilization. PMID:25232017

  15. Volume regulatory function and sperm membrane dynamics as parameters for evaluating cryoprotective efficiency of a freezing extender

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Petrunkina; B. Gröpper; E. Töpfer-Petersen; A.-R. Günzel-Apel

    2005-01-01

    In the past years a series of functional assays has been developed to determine the structural, morphological and functional integrity of the plasma membrane and sperm acrosomal membrane. Cell volume regulation is an important physiological function crucial for the success of cryopreservation. In this study, the effects induced by freezing-thawing were judged by evaluating the functional characteristics of frozen-thawed semen

  16. Ovarian Fluid Mediates the Temporal Decline in Sperm Viability in a Fish with Sperm Storage

    PubMed Central

    Gasparini, Clelia; Evans, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    A loss of sperm viability and functionality during sperm transfer and storage within the female reproductive tract can have important fitness implications by disrupting fertilization and impairing offspring development and survival. Consequently, mechanisms that mitigate the temporal decline in sperm function are likely to be important targets of selection. In many species, ovarian fluid is known to regulate and maintain sperm quality. In this paper, we use the guppy Poecilia reticulata, a highly polyandrous freshwater fish exhibiting internal fertilization and sperm storage, to determine whether ovarian fluid (OF) influences the decline in sperm viability (the proportion of live sperm in the ejaculate) over time and whether any observed effects depend on male sexual ornamentation. To address these questions we used a paired experimental design in which ejaculates from individual males were tested in vitro both in presence and absence of OF. Our results revealed that the temporal decline in sperm viability was significantly reduced in the presence of OF compared to a saline control. This finding raises the intriguing possibility that OF may play a role in mediating the decline in sperm quality due to the deleterious effects of sperm ageing, although other possible explanations for this observation are discussed. Interestingly, we also show that the age-related decline in sperm viability was contingent on male sexual ornamentation; males with relatively high levels of iridescence (indicating higher sexual attractiveness) exhibited a more pronounced decline in sperm viability over time than their less ornamented counterparts. This latter finding offers possible insights into the functional basis for the previously observed trade-off between these key components of pre- and postcopulatory sexual selection. PMID:23691216

  17. Selection of functional human sperm with higher DNA integrity and fewer reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Asghar, Waseem; Velasco, Vanessa; Kingsley, James L; Shoukat, Muhammad S; Shafiee, Hadi; Anchan, Raymond M; Mutter, George L; Tüzel, Erkan; Demirci, Utkan

    2014-10-01

    Fertilization and reproduction are central to the survival and propagation of a species. Couples who cannot reproduce naturally have to undergo in vitro clinical procedures. An integral part of these clinical procedures includes isolation of healthy sperm from raw semen. Existing sperm sorting methods are not efficient and isolate sperm having high DNA fragmentation and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and suffer from multiple manual steps and variations between operators. Inspired by in vivo natural sperm sorting mechanisms where vaginal mucus becomes less viscous to form microchannels to guide sperm towards egg, a chip is presented that efficiently sorts healthy, motile and morphologically normal sperm without centrifugation. Higher percentage of sorted sperm show significantly lesser ROS and DNA fragmentation than the conventional swim-up method. The presented chip is an easy-to-use high-throughput sperm sorter that provides standardized sperm sorting assay with less reliance on operators's skills, facilitating reliable operational steps. PMID:24753434

  18. How is plasminogen/plasmin system contributing to regulate sperm entry into the oocyte?

    PubMed

    Grullón, Luis A; Gadea, Joaquín; Mondéjar, Irene; Matás, Carmen; Romar, Raquel; Coy, Pilar

    2013-09-01

    Plasminogen is present in the oviduct, on the zona pellucida (ZP) and on oolemma, and reduces the number of sperm penetrating the oocyte during in vitro fertilization in pig and cow. It is unknown how this reduction occurs. We tested whether plasminogen (1) changed the ZP resistance to enzymatic digestion thus making the passage of the spermatozoa across it difficult; (2) reduced the sperm functionality, assessed by sperm viability, motility, spontaneous acrosome reaction and membrane lipid disorder; or (3) affected the sperm-ZP binding before or after sperm-ZP interaction. The mechanism by which plasminogen/plasmin system contributes to regulate sperm entry into the oocyte is not inducing a ZP hardening or a decrease in sperm functionality but detaching more than 50% of sperm bound to the ZP. It is suggested that the fertilizing spermatozoon activates plasminogen into plasmin at the oocyte surface and that plasmin removes additional spermatozoa attached to the ZP. PMID:23420828

  19. In vitro assessment of some sperm function following exposure to levonorgestrel in human fallopian tubes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The mechanism of action of levonorgestrel (LNG) as emergency contraception (EC) remains a subject of debate and its effect on sperm function has been only partially explained. The aim of this study was to assess whether LNG at a similar dose to those found in serum following oral intake for EC could affect spermatozoa when exposed to human fallopian tubes in vitro. Methods Fifteen mini-laparotomies were performed, the side on which ovulation occurred was recorded, and both tubes were removed and perfused with a suspension containing 1 × 10(6) motile spermatozoa, with or without LNG. Following 4-hour incubation, the tubes were sectioned to separate the isthmus and the ampulla. Each segment was flushed and the material was evaluated to quantify the number of motile sperm, the number of spermatozoa adhering to the oviductal epithelium and the acrosome reaction (AR) rate. Results The addition of LNG did not significantly alter the number of recovered motile spermatozoa either at the isthmus or at the ampulla, nor did it have any effect on the number of recovered spermatozoa adhered to the human tubal epithelium. Furthermore, LNG did not affect the AR rate. No significant differences were found even when the side on which ovulation occurred was taken into account. Conclusions In a similar dose to that observed in serum following oral intake for EC, LNG had no effect on the number of motile spermatozoa recovered from the human fallopian tubes in vitro, on their adhesion to the tubal epithelium, distribution or AR rate. The possible effect of LNG as EC on sperm function remains poorly understood. PMID:22289514

  20. Sperm morphology and sperm velocity in passerine birds.

    PubMed

    Lüpold, Stefan; Calhim, Sara; Immler, Simone; Birkhead, Tim R

    2009-03-22

    Sperm velocity is one of the main determinants of the outcome of sperm competition. Since sperm vary considerably in their morphology between and within species, it seems likely that sperm morphology is associated with sperm velocity. Theory predicts that sperm velocity may be increased by enlarged midpiece (energetic component) or flagellum length (kinetic component), or by particular ratios between sperm components, such as between flagellum length and head size. However, such associations have rarely been found in empirical studies. In a comparative framework in passerine birds, we tested these theoretical predictions both across a wide range of species and within a single family, the New World blackbirds (Icteridae). In both study groups, sperm velocity was influenced by sperm morphology in the predicted direction. Consistent with theoretical models, these results show that selection on sperm morphology and velocity are likely to be concomitant evolutionary forces. PMID:19129098

  1. Functional Task Test (FTT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Peters, Brian T.; Rescheke, Millard F.; Wood, Scott; Lawrence, Emily; Koffman, Igor; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Spiering, Barry A.; Feeback, Daniel L.; Platts, Steven H.; Stenger, Michael B.; Lee, Stuart M.C.; Arzeno, Natalia; Feiveson, Alan H.; Ryder, Jeffrey; Garcia, Yamil; Guilliams, Mark E.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Functional Task Test (FTT), an interdisciplinary testing regimen that has been developed to evaluate astronaut postflight functional performance and related physiological changes. The objectives of the project are: (1) to develop a set of functional tasks that represent critical mission tasks for the Constellation Program, (2) determine the ability to perform these tasks after space flight, (3) Identify the key physiological factors that contribute to functional decrements and (4) Use this information to develop targeted countermeasures.

  2. A Systematic Analysis of a Deep Mouse Epididymal Sperm Proteome

    SciTech Connect

    Chauvin, Theodore; Xie, Fang; Liu, Tao; Nicora, Carrie D.; Yang, Feng; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Roberts, Kenneth P.

    2012-12-21

    Spermatozoa are highly specialized cells that, when mature, are capable of navigating the female reproductive tract and fertilizing an oocyte. The sperm cell is thought to be largely quiescent in terms of transcriptional and translational activity. As a result, once it has left the male reproductive tract, the sperm cell is essentially operating with a static population of proteins. It is therefore theoretically possible to understand the protein networks contained in a sperm cell and to deduce its cellular function capabilities. To this end we have performed a proteomic analysis of mouse sperm isolated from the cauda epididymis and have confidently identified 2,850 proteins, which is the most comprehensive sperm proteome for any species reported to date. These proteins comprise many complete cellular pathways, including those for energy production via glycolysis, ?-oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation, protein folding and transport, and cell signaling systems. This proteome should prove a useful tool for assembly and testing of protein networks important for sperm function.

  3. Leukocytes and oxidative stress: dilemma for sperm function and male fertility

    PubMed Central

    Henkel, Ralf R

    2011-01-01

    Spermatozoa are constantly exposed to the interphase between oxidation through high amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and leukocytes, and reduction by means of scavengers and antioxidants. Considering the very special functions as being the only cells with such high polarization and exerting their functions outside the body, even in a different individual, the female genital tract, the membranes of these cells are chemically composed of an extraordinary high amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids. This in turn, renders them very susceptible to oxidative stress, which is defined as an imbalance between oxidation and reduction towards the oxidative status. As a result, ROS deriving from both leukocytes and the male germ cells themselves cause a process called ‘lipid peroxidation' and other damages to the sperm cell. On the other hand, a certain limited amount of ROS is essential in order to trigger vital physiological reactions in cells, including capacitation or the acrosome reaction in sperm. The treatment of patients with antioxidants to compensate the oxidative status caused by oxidative stress is highly debated as uncontrolled antioxidative treatment might derail the system towards the reduced status, which is also unphysiological and can even induce cancer. This paradox is called the ‘antioxidant paradox'. Therefore, a proper andrological diagnostic work-up, including the evaluation of ROS levels and the antioxidant capacity of the semen, has to be carried out beforehand, aimed at keeping the fine balance between oxidation and scavenging of vital amounts of ROS. PMID:21076433

  4. Identifying environmental risk to male reproductive function by occupational sperm studies: logistics and design options.

    PubMed Central

    Bonde, J P; Giwercman, A; Ernst, E

    1996-01-01

    Malfunction of the male reproductive system might be a sensitive marker of environmental hazards, the effects of which may extend beyond reproductive function. The testis is more vulnerable to heat and ionising radiation than any other organ of the body and several xenobiotics are known to disrupt spermatogenesis after low level exposure. Studies of environmental impact on human health are often most informative and accurate when carried out in the workplace where exposures can be high and easy to document. Semen analysis provides readily obtainable information on testicular function. The main advantages in comparison with functional measures such as fertility rates and time taken to conceive are the possibilities to examine men independently of marriage and pregnancy, to find changes of fecundity with different exposures within the same person and to detect adverse effects when no alteration of fertility is yet taking place. In the implementation of an occupational sperm study considerable attention must be paid to logistic issues. A mobile laboratory unit for initial semen preparation and processing may in some situations increase worker compliance and the quality of sperm cell motility. The cross sectional design which has been used in almost all male reproductive studies so far has several severe limitations including selection bias because of differential participation, difficulties in defining a suitable reference group, and lack of information about the time dimension of the cause-effect relation. The longitudinal design deals adequately with most of these constraints. Semen samples are collected before, during, and possibly after exposure to the risk factor of interest and causal inferences are based upon change of semen variables within a man over time rather than upon differences between men. The logistics of the longitudinal study may benefit from pre-employment health examinations to enrol newly hired workers and require fewer participants to obtain comparable statistical power. In conclusion, andrological methods and epidemiological designs are available for the implementation of valid studies concerned with environmental impact on human testicular function. Occupational sperm studies should probably not be the first choice when the objective is initial screening of environmental impact on fertility but should be implemented when their is a need to corroborate or refuse earlier evidence that specific exposures have impact on testicular function. Images p514-a PMID:8983461

  5. Protective effect of butylated hydroxytoluene on sperm function in human spermatozoa cryopreserved by vitrification technique.

    PubMed

    Merino, O; Aguagüińa, W E; Esponda, P; Risopatrón, J; Isachenko, E; Isachenko, V; Sánchez, R

    2015-03-01

    Butylhydroxytoluene (BHT), a synthetic analogue of vitamin E, shows antioxidant and antiviral properties and has been successfully used for mammalian sperm cryopreservation. In this study, BHT was included in a vitrification solution to determine its cryoprotective effect on human spermatozoa. Spermatozoa were selected by swim-up and vitrified in close sealed straw using either a combination of human tubal fluid (HTF), sucrose and BHT 1 mm (VMBHT), or only HTF and sucrose (VM). The optimal concentration of BHT was determined by the observation of preserved progressive sperm motility (PSM) after warming and detection of plasma membrane (PMI), membrane mitochondrial potential (??m) and DNA integrity. The presence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was also detected. The PSM was significantly higher in the VMBHT group (80.86 ± 5.41%) compared with the VM group (68.9 ± 3.67%) (P < 0.05). Butylhydroxytoluene significantly preserved DNA integrity (4.0 ± 0.1% versus 6.1 ± 1.6%; P < 0.05) and reduced ROS production (5.5 ± 2.2 versus 8.6 ± 1.8%; P < 0.05). Plasma membrane and ??m showed no statistical differences. One millimolar BHT effectively maintained cell function and due to its antioxidant and antiviral properties could be used in semen cryopreservation of patients with viral infections transmitted by seminal plasma. PMID:24612426

  6. Protein deubiquitination during oocyte maturation influences sperm function during fertilisation, antipolyspermy defense and embryo development.

    PubMed

    Yi, Young-Joo; Sutovsky, Miriam; Song, Won-Hee; Sutovsky, Peter

    2014-05-22

    Ubiquitination is a covalent post-translational modification of proteins by the chaperone protein ubiquitin. Upon docking to the 26S proteasome, ubiquitin is released from the substrate protein by deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs). We hypothesised that specific inhibitors of two closely related oocyte DUBs, namely inhibitors of the ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolases (UCH) UCHL1 (L1 inhibitor) and UCHL3 (L3 inhibitor), would alter porcine oocyte maturation and influence sperm function and embryo development. Aberrant cortical granule (CG) migration and meiotic spindle defects were observed in oocytes matured with the L1 or L3 inhibitor. Embryo development was delayed or blocked in oocytes matured with the general DUB inhibitor PR-619. Aggresomes, the cellular stress-inducible aggregates of ubiquitinated proteins, formed in oocytes matured with L1 inhibitor or PR-619, a likely consequence of impaired protein turnover. Proteomic analysis identified the major vault protein (MVP) as the most prominent protein accumulated in oocytes matured with PR-619, suggesting that the inhibition of deubiquitination altered the turnover of MVP. The mitophagy/autophagy of sperm-contributed mitochondria inside the fertilised oocytes was hindered by DUB inhibitors. It is concluded that DUB inhibitors alter porcine oocyte maturation, fertilisation and preimplantation embryo development. By regulating the turnover of oocyte proteins and mono-ubiquitin regeneration, the DUBs may promote the acquisition of developmental competence during oocyte maturation. PMID:24848520

  7. Prenatal testing in ICSI pregnancies: incidence of chromosomal anomalies in 1586 karyotypes and relation to sperm parameters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maryse Bonduelle; Elvire Van Assche; Hubert Joris; Kathelijn Keymolen; Paul Devroey; AndreVan Steirteghem; Inge Liebaers

    BACKGROUND: Prenatal testing was offered in all pregnancies obtained after ICSI with ejaculated or non- ejaculated sperm as part of the evaluation of the safety of ICSI. METHODS: Between 1990 and 2001, a chorionic villus sampling (CVS) or amniocentesis was offered for multiple or singleton pregnancies respectively during a genetic counselling session for all couples applying for ICSI. ICSI was

  8. Mammalian sperm morphometry.

    PubMed Central

    Gage, M J

    1998-01-01

    Understanding the adaptive significance of sperm form and function has been a challenge to biologists because sperm are highly specialized cells operating at a microscopic level in a complex environment. A fruitful course of investigation has been to use the comparative approach. This comparative study attempts to address some fundamental questions of the evolution of mammalian sperm morphometry. Data on sperm morphometry for 445 mammalian species were collated from published sources. I use contemporary phylogenetic analysis to control for the inherent non-independence of species and explore relationships between the morphometric dimensions of the three essential spermatozoal components: head, mid-piece and flagellum. Energy for flagellar action is metabolized by the mitochondrial-dense mid-piece and these combine to propel the sperm head, carrying the male haplotype, to the ovum. I therefore search for evolutionary associations between sperm morphometry and body mass, karyotype and the duration of oestrus. In contrast to previous findings, there is no inverse correlation between body weight and sperm length. Sperm mid-piece and flagellum lengths are positively associated with both head length and area, and the slopes of these relationships are discussed. Flagellum length is positively associated with mid-piece length but, in contrast to previous research and after phylogenetic control, I find no relationship between flagellum length and the volume of the mitochondrial sheath. Sperm head dimensions are not related to either genome mass or chromosome number, and there are no relationships between sperm morphometry and the duration of oestrus. PMID:9474794

  9. Patch clamp studies of human sperm under physiological ionic conditions reveal three functionally and pharmacologically distinct cation channels

    PubMed Central

    Mansell, S.A.; Publicover, S.J.; Barratt, C.L.R.; Wilson, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Whilst fertilizing capacity depends upon a K+ conductance (GK) that allows the spermatozoon membrane potential (Vm) to be held at a negative value, the characteristics of this conductance in human sperm are virtually unknown. We therefore studied the biophysical/pharmacological properties of the K+ conductance in spermatozoa from normal donors held under voltage/current clamp in the whole cell recording configuration. Our standard recording conditions were designed to maintain quasi-physiological, Na+, K+ and Cl? gradients. Experiments that explored the effects of ionic substitution/ion channel blockers upon membrane current/potential showed that resting Vm was dependent upon a hyperpolarizing K+ current that flowed via channels that displayed only weak voltage dependence and limited (?7-fold) K+ versus Na+ selectivity. This conductance was blocked by quinidine (0.3 mM), bupivacaine (3 mM) and clofilium (50 µM), NNC55-0396 (2 µM) and mibefradil (30 µM), but not by 4-aminopyridine (2 mM, 4-AP). Progesterone had no effect upon the hyperpolarizing K+ current. Repolarization after a test depolarization consistently evoked a transient inward ‘tail current’ (ITail) that flowed via a second population of ion channels with poor (?3-fold) K+ versus Na+ selectivity. The activity of these channels was increased by quinidine, 4-AP and progesterone. Vm in human sperm is therefore dependent upon a hyperpolarizing K+ current that flows via channels that most closely resemble those encoded by Slo3. Although 0.5 µM progesterone had no effect upon these channels, this hormone did activate the pharmacologically distinct channels that mediate ITail. In conclusion, this study reveals three functionally and pharmacologically distinct cation channels: Ik, ITail, ICatSper. PMID:24442342

  10. Improvement of Ram Sperm Cryopreservation Protocols Assessed by Sperm Quality Parameters and Heterogeneity Analysis

    E-print Network

    Zaragoza, Universidad de

    Improvement of Ram Sperm Cryopreservation Protocols Assessed by Sperm Quality Parameters, Spain Semen cryopreservation processes generally decrease sperm quality and fertility rate by the same volume of glycerol)] was tested, as well as the effect of adding various compounds (bovine

  11. Comparative evidence for the evolution of sperm swimming speed by sperm competition and female sperm storage duration in passerine birds.

    PubMed

    Kleven, Oddmund; Fossřy, Frode; Laskemoen, Terje; Robertson, Raleigh J; Rudolfsen, Geir; Lifjeld, Jan T

    2009-09-01

    Sperm swimming speed is an important determinant of male fertility and sperm competitiveness. Despite its fundamental biological importance, the underlying evolutionary processes affecting this male reproductive trait are poorly understood. Using a comparative approach in a phylogenetic framework, we tested the predictions that sperm swim faster with (1) increased risk of sperm competition, (2) shorter duration of female sperm storage, and (3) increased sperm length. We recorded sperm swimming speed in 42 North American and European free-living passerine bird species, representing 35 genera and 16 families. We found that sperm swimming speed was positively related to the frequency of extrapair paternity (a proxy for the risk of sperm competition) and negatively associated with clutch size (a proxy for the duration of female sperm storage). Sperm swimming speed was unrelated to sperm length, although sperm length also increased with the frequency of extrapair paternity. These results suggest that sperm swimming speed and sperm length are not closely associated traits and evolve independently in response to sperm competition in passerine birds. Our findings emphasize the significance of both sperm competition and female sperm storage duration as evolutionary forces driving sperm swimming speed. PMID:19453726

  12. Evolution of sperm morphology in anurans: insights into the roles of mating system and spawning location

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The degree of postcopulatory sexual selection, comprising variable degrees of sperm competition and cryptic female choice, is an important evolutionary force to influence sperm form and function. Here we investigated the effects of mating system and spawning location on the evolution of sperm morphology in 67 species of Chinese anurans. We also examined how relative testes size as an indicator of the level of sperm competition affected variation in sperm morphology across a subset of 29 species. Results We found a significant association of mating system and spawning location with sperm morphology. However, when removing the effects of body mass or absolute testes mass for species for which such data were available, this effect became non-significant. Consistent with predictions from sperm competition theory, we found a positive correlation between sperm morphology and relative testes size after taking phylogeny into account. Conclusions Our findings suggest that sexual selection in Chinese anurans favors longer sperm when the level of sperm competition is high. Pre-copulatory male-male competition and spawning location, on the other hand, do not affect the evolution of sperm morphology after taking body mass and absolute testes mass into account. PMID:24884745

  13. Infant Pulmonary Function Testing

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Stephanie D.

    2011-01-01

    Infant pulmonary function testing has evolved from a research technique into a diagnostic tool. As such, new current procedural terminology (CPT) codes have been created and are available for use as of January 1, 2010. The technology now available has a range of applications. Through a series of vignettes, this article illustrates the methodology of the tests, some of their applications, and how to code and bill for the procedures. PMID:21540218

  14. An in vivo assay of the mutagenic potential of imidacloprid using sperm head abnormality test and dominant lethal test.

    PubMed

    Bagri, Preeti; Kumar, Vinod; Sikka, Anil Kumar

    2014-10-15

    Abstract Objective: To assess the mutagenic effects of imidacloprid in germ cells of Swiss albino male mice by sperm head abnormality (SHA) assay and dominant lethal test (DLT). Methods: Swiss albino mice were exposed to imidacloprid (22, 11 and 5.5?mg/kg/day) along with 3% gum acacia as vehicle control through oral route for 7, 14 and 28 days for SHA assay and for 28 days for DLT. The epididymal sperm smear in 1% eosin stain was analyzed for SHAs. In DLT, male mice were allowed to mate with females after 1, 3 and 6 weeks of end of pesticide treatment. The uterine contents of the sacrificed females were observed for live and dead implants. The analysis of test and control groups data was done by one way ANOVA at p?

  15. Sperm Abnormalities in Retinitis Pigmentosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William E. Connor; Richard G. Weleber; Carol DeFrancesco; Don S. Lin; Don P. Wolf

    1997-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the fatty acid composition of erythrocytes and sperm, along with the functional characteristics of sperm, in patients with retinitis pigmentosa. Sperm and retinal cells share important homologies. Both are rich in the highly polyunsaturated fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6(n-3)), and both contain a structural component called the axoneme. Low concentrations of DHA in the retina of

  16. Rhesus monkey sperm cryopreservation with TEST-yolk extender in the absence of permeable cryoprotectant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiaoxiang Dong; Liane M. Correa; Catherine A. VandeVoort

    2009-01-01

    Recently, there has been increased interest in ultra-rapid freezing with mammalian spermatozoa, especially for vitrification in the absence of cryoprotectants. Sperm cryopreservation in non-human primates has been successful, but the use of frozen–thawed sperm in standard artificial insemination (AI) remains difficult, and removal of permeable cryoprotectant may offer opportunities for increased AI success. The present study intended to explore the

  17. Immune Activation Reduces Sperm Quality in the Great Tit

    PubMed Central

    Losdat, Sylvain; Richner, Heinz; Blount, Jonathan D.; Helfenstein, Fabrice

    2011-01-01

    Mounting an immune response against pathogens incurs costs to organisms by its effects on important life-history traits, such as reproductive investment and survival. As shown recently, immune activation produces large amounts of reactive species and is suggested to induce oxidative stress. Sperm are highly susceptible to oxidative stress, which can negatively impact sperm function and ultimately male fertilizing efficiency. Here we address the question as to whether mounting an immune response affects sperm quality through the damaging effects of oxidative stress. It has been demonstrated recently in birds that carotenoid-based ornaments can be reliable signals of a male's ability to protect sperm from oxidative damage. In a full-factorial design, we immune-challenged great tit males while simultaneously increasing their vitamin E availability, and assessed the effect on sperm quality and oxidative damage. We conducted this experiment in a natural population and tested the males' response to the experimental treatment in relation to their carotenoid-based breast coloration, a condition-dependent trait. Immune activation induced a steeper decline in sperm swimming velocity, thus highlighting the potential costs of an induced immune response on sperm competitive ability and fertilizing efficiency. We found sperm oxidative damage to be negatively correlated with sperm swimming velocity. However, blood resistance to a free-radical attack (a measure of somatic antioxidant capacity) as well as plasma and sperm levels of oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation) remained unaffected, thus suggesting that the observed effect did not arise through oxidative stress. Towards the end of their breeding cycle, swimming velocity of sperm of more intensely colored males was higher, which has important implications for the evolution of mate choice and multiple mating in females because females may accrue both direct and indirect benefits by mating with males having better quality sperm. PMID:21765955

  18. The evolution of sperm morphometry in pheasants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. IMMLER; M. SAINT-JALME; L. LESOBRE; G. SORCI; Y. ROMAN; T. R. BIRKHEAD

    2007-01-01

    Post-copulatory sexual selection is thought to be a potent evolutionary force driving the diversification of sperm shape and function across species. In birds, insemination and fertilization are separated in time and sperm storage increases the duration of sperm-female interaction and hence the opportunity for sperm competition and cryptic female choice. We performed a comparative study of 24 pheasant species (Phasianidae,

  19. PATHS OF MOTION AND VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION OF LIVING SPERM CELL STUDIED BY OPTICAL METHODS

    E-print Network

    of different motility. Experimental setup Water bath with the thermoregulations system for thawing the experiment the sperm specimen is warmed in a water bath at temperature of 37C. A 1:40 dilution of semen

  20. Comparison on the Effects and Safety of Tualang Honey and Tribestan in Sperm Parameters, Erectile Function, and Hormonal Profiles among Oligospermic Males

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Shaiful Bahari; Bakar, Mohd. Bustamanizan; Nik Hussain, Nik Hazlina; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Jaafar, Hasnan; Draman, Samsul; Ramli, Roszaman; Wan Yusoff, Wan Zahanim

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of Tualang honey on sperm parameters, erectile function, and hormonal and safety profiles. Methodology. A randomized control trial was done using Tualang honey (20 grams) and Tribestan (750?mg) over a period of 12 weeks. Sperm parameters including sperm concentration, motility, and morphology were analyzed and erectile function was assessed using IIEF-5 questionnaire. Hormonal profiles of testosterone, FSH, and LH were studied. The volunteers were randomized into two groups and the outcomes were analyzed using SPSS version 18. Results. A total of 66 participants were involved. A significant increment of mean sperm concentration (P < 0.001), motility (P = 0.015) and morphology (P = 0.008) was seen in Tualang honey group. In Tribestan group, a significant increment of mean sperm concentration (P = 0.007), and morphology (P = 0.009) was seen. No significant differences of sperm concentration, motility, and morphology were seen between Tualang honey and Tribestan group and similar results were also seen in erectile function and hormonal profile. All safety profiles were normal and no adverse event was reported. Conclusion. Tualang honey effect among oligospermic males was comparable with Tribestan in improving sperm concentration, motility, and morphology. The usage of Tualang honey was also safe with no reported adverse event. PMID:25505918

  1. The impact of epididymal and accessory sex gland function on sperm motility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Elzanaty; J. Richthoff; J. Malm; A. Giwercman

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the regulation of sperm motility, which is an important predictor of male fertility. However, both testicular and post-testicular factors may be involved, although the impact of the latter has been relatively poorly investigated. METHODS: In semen samples from 301 young men from the general Swedish population (mean SD age 18.2 0.4 years), we assessed sperm

  2. Semenogelin, the main protein of the human semen coagulum, regulates sperm function.

    PubMed

    de Lamirande, Eve

    2007-02-01

    Semenogelin (Sg), the main component of the human semen coagulum, is an important and versatile protein acting on several sperm parameters, both as intact or degraded Sg. Sg originates mostly from seminal vesicle and probably is responsible for sperm immobilization in the seminal coagulum. Purified Sg can be cross-linked by transglutaminase or phosphorylated by kinases, but the actual occurrence of these reactions in reproductive physiology is not clear. Experimental evidence demonstrates that prostate-specific antigen (PSA) rapidly cleaves Sg, an event temporally associated with semen liquefaction and initiation of sperm motility. Sg and its degradation peptides participate in various processes including Zn +2 shuttling, antibacterial activity, hyaluronidase activation, and so on. Sg inhibits sperm motility at the concentration found in the coagulum, but the rapid processing by PSA allows initiation of movement. The mechanism of Sg action and its targets are not known, but improper Sg degradation decreases fertility. Sg and its degradation peptides block sperm capacitation and associated events at concentrations much lower than those of seminal plasma and could play important role in preventing premature capacitation. The effects of Sg are dependent on time and proteolysis due to PSA, and any imbalance may affect sperm physiology and fertility. PMID:17253191

  3. Gamete evolution and sperm numbers: sperm competition versus sperm limitation.

    PubMed

    Parker, Geoff A; Lehtonen, Jussi

    2014-09-22

    Both gamete competition and gamete limitation can generate anisogamy from ancestral isogamy, and both sperm competition (SC) and sperm limitation (SL) can increase sperm numbers. Here, we compare the marginal benefits due to these two components at any given population level of sperm production using the risk and intensity models in sperm economics. We show quite generally for the intensity model (where N males compete for each set of eggs) that however severe the degree of SL, if there is at least one competitor for fertilization (N - 1 ? 1), the marginal gains through SC exceed those for SL, provided that the relationship between the probability of fertilization (F) and increasing sperm numbers (x) is a concave function. In the risk model, as fertility F increases from 0 to 1.0, the threshold SC risk (the probability q that two males compete for fertilization) for SC to be the dominant force drops from 1.0 to 0. The gamete competition and gamete limitation theories for the evolution of anisogamy rely on very similar considerations: our results imply that gamete limitation could dominate only if ancestral reproduction took place in highly isolated, small spawning groups. PMID:25100694

  4. Effect of short-term semen storage in salmon (Oncorhynchus mykiss) on sperm functional parameters evaluated by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Trigo, P; Merino, O; Figueroa, E; Valdebenito, I; Sánchez, R; Risopatrón, J

    2015-05-01

    The short-term storage of salmonid semen is a viable method for in vitro fertilisation. Previous studies have found that short-term storage affects sperm motility, compromising quality and fertilising capacity. However, the functional characteristics of the spermatozoa of O. mykiss during storage time and its relation to the spawning period are little known. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of in vitro short-term storage on sperm functional parameters in O. mykiss, determined by flow cytometry. Semen samples of the first spawning - undiluted (SSD) and diluted (SD) (Storfish(®) 1 : 2v/v; IMV AI solutions, France) - were stored at 4 °C for 14 days. Motility, viability (PMI: plasma membrane integrity) and mitochondrial membrane potential (??M) were assessed. On the fifth day of storage, spermatozoa showed a motility >70% (SSD: 78.3% versus SD 85.0%), PMI (81.5% SSD/87.2% SD) and ??M (72.5% SSD/SD 80.0%) (P < 0.05). However, a significant decline in the percentage of all functional parameters (P < 0.05) was observed after 5 days of storage for all samples of both undiluted (SSD) and diluted semen. In conclusion, the results here provide new data on O. mykiss sperm quality with respect to in vitro short-term storage evaluated by flow cytometry. PMID:24717099

  5. Sperm Competition Selects for Sperm Quantity and Quality in the Australian Maluridae

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Melissah; Pruett-Jones, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    When ejaculates from rival males compete for fertilization, there is strong selection for sperm traits that enhance fertilization success. Sperm quantity is one such trait, and numerous studies have demonstrated a positive association between sperm competition and both testes size and the number of sperm available for copulations. Sperm competition is also thought to favor increases in sperm quality and changes in testicular morphology that lead to increased sperm production. However, in contrast to sperm quantity, these hypotheses have received considerably less empirical support and remain somewhat controversial. In a comparative study using the Australian Maluridae (fairy-wrens, emu-wrens, grasswrens), we tested whether increasing levels of sperm competition were associated with increases in both sperm quantity and quality, as well as an increase in the relative amount of seminiferous tubule tissue contained within the testes. After controlling for phylogeny, we found positive associations between sperm competition and sperm numbers, both in sperm reserves and in ejaculate samples. Additionally, as sperm competition level increased, the proportion of testicular spermatogenic tissue also increased, suggesting that sperm competition selects for greater sperm production per unit of testicular tissue. Finally, we also found that sperm competition level was positively associated with multiple sperm quality traits, including the proportion of motile sperm in ejaculates and the proportion of both viable and morphologically normal sperm in sperm reserves. These results suggest multiple ejaculate traits, as well as aspects of testicular morphology, have evolved in response to sperm competition in the Australian Maluridae. Furthermore, our findings emphasize the importance of post-copulatory sexual selection as an evolutionary force shaping macroevolutionary differences in sperm phenotype. PMID:21283577

  6. Role of the epididymis in sperm competition.

    PubMed

    Jones, Russell C; Dacheux, Jean-Louis; Nixon, Brett; Ecroyd, Heath W

    2007-07-01

    Although it is generally understood that the testes recruited kidney ducts for reproductive function during the evolution of vertebrates, little is understood of the biological significance of the adaptation. In the context of the evolution of the mammalian epididymis, this report provides evidence that a major role of the epididymis is to enhance a male's chance of achieving paternity in a competitive mating system. A unique example of sperm cooperation in monotremes is used as evidence that the epididymis produces sperm competition proteins to form groups of 100 sperm into bundles that have a forward motility nearly thrice that of individual spermatozoa. As it required 3-h incubation in vitro under capacitation conditions to release motile sperm from the bundles, it is suggested that the monotremes provide an example of capacitation that is quite different from capacitation in higher mammals. It is suggested that variation between species in the intensity of sperm competition could explain the variation that occurs between species in the amount of post-testicular sperm maturation and storage in the epididymis, an explanation of why the human epididymis does not play as important a role in reproduction as the epididymis of most mammals. PMID:17589786

  7. Natural Variants of C. elegans Demonstrate Defects in Both Sperm Function and Oogenesis at Elevated Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Petrella, Lisa N.

    2014-01-01

    The temperature sensitivity of the germ line is conserved from nematodes to mammals. Previous studies in C. briggsae and Drosophila showed that isolates originating from temperate latitudes lose fertility at a lower temperature than strains originating from tropical latitudes. In order to investigate these relationships in C. elegans, analysis of the fertility of 22 different wild-type isolates of C. elegans isolated from equatorial, tropical and temperate regions was undertaken. It was found that there are significant temperature, genotype and temperature × genotype effects on fertility but region of isolation showed no significant effect on differences in fertility. For most isolates 100% of the population maintained fertility from 20°C to 26°C, but there was a precipitous drop in the percentage of fertile hermaphrodites at 27°C. In contrast, all isolates show a progressive decrease in brood size as temperature increases from 20°C to 26°C, followed by a brood size near zero at 27°C. Temperature shift experiments were performed to better understand the causes of high temperature loss of fertility. Males up-shifted to high temperature maintained fertility, while males raised at high temperature lost fertility. Down-shifting males raised at high temperature generally did not restore fertility. This result differs from that observed in Drosophila and suggested that in C. elegans spermatogenesis or sperm function is irreversibly impaired in males that develop at high temperature. Mating and down-shifting experiments with hermaphrodites were performed to investigate the relative contributions of spermatogenic and oogenic defects to high temperature loss of fertility. It was found that the hermaphrodites of all isolates demonstrated loss in both spermatogenic and oogenic germ lines that differed in their relative contribution by isolate. These studies uncovered unexpectedly high variation in both the loss of fertility and problems with oocyte function in natural variants of C. elegans at high temperature. PMID:25380048

  8. Exposure to Environmentally Relevant Concentrations of Genistein during Activation Does Not Affect Sperm Motility in the Fighting Fish Betta splendens

    PubMed Central

    Clotfelter, Ethan D.; Gendelman, Hannah K.

    2014-01-01

    Sperm collected from male fighting fish Betta splendens were activated in control water, water containing the ion-channel blocker gadolinium (a putative positive control), or water containing the isoflavone phytoestrogen genistein to determine the effects of acute genistein exposure on male reproductive function. Computer-assisted sperm analysis was used to quantify the proportion of sperm that were motile and the swimming velocity of those sperm. The highest concentration of gadolinium (100??M) tested was effective at reducing sperm motility and velocity, but neither concentration of genistein tested (3.7?nM or 3.7??M) significantly affected these sperm parameters. Our findings suggest that acute exposure to waterborne phytoestrogens during activation does not reduce the motility of fish sperm. PMID:24516856

  9. Exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of genistein during activation does not affect sperm motility in the fighting fish Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Clotfelter, Ethan D; Gendelman, Hannah K

    2014-01-01

    Sperm collected from male fighting fish Betta splendens were activated in control water, water containing the ion-channel blocker gadolinium (a putative positive control), or water containing the isoflavone phytoestrogen genistein to determine the effects of acute genistein exposure on male reproductive function. Computer-assisted sperm analysis was used to quantify the proportion of sperm that were motile and the swimming velocity of those sperm. The highest concentration of gadolinium (100 ? M) tested was effective at reducing sperm motility and velocity, but neither concentration of genistein tested (3.7 nM or 3.7 ? M) significantly affected these sperm parameters. Our findings suggest that acute exposure to waterborne phytoestrogens during activation does not reduce the motility of fish sperm. PMID:24516856

  10. Aneuploidy in human sperm: The use of multicolor FISH to test various theories of nondisjunction

    SciTech Connect

    Spriggs, E.L.; Martin, R.H. [Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada)] [and others

    1996-02-01

    While it is known that all chromosomes are susceptible to meiotic nondisjunction, it is not clear whether all chromosomes display the same frequency of nondisjunction. By use of multicolor FISH and chromosome-specific probes, the frequency of disomy in human sperm was determined for chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 9, 12, 15, 16, 18, 20, and 21, and the sex chromosomes. A minimum of 10,000 sperm nuclei were scored from each of five healthy, chromosomally normal donors for every chromosome studied, giving a total of 418,931 sperm nuclei. The mean frequencies of disomy obtained were 0.09% for chromosome 1; 0.08% for chromosome 2; 0.11% for chromosome 4; 0.14% for chromosome 9; 0.16% for chromosome 12; 0.11% for chromosomes 15, 16, and 18; 0.12% for chromosome 20; 0.29% for chromosome 21; and 0.43% for the sex chromosomes. Data for chromosomes 1, 12, 15, and 18, and the sex chromosomes have been published elsewhere. When the mean frequencies of disomy were compared, the sex chromosomes and chromosome 21 had significantly higher frequencies of disomy than that of any other autosome studied. These results corroborate the pooled data obtained from human sperm karyotypes and suggest that the sex chromosome bivalent and the chromosome 21 bivalent are more susceptible to nondisjunction during spermatogenesis. From these findings, theories proposed to explain the variable incidence of nondisjunction can be supported or discarded as improbable. 33 refs., 4 tabs.

  11. Third Party Reproduction: Sperm, Egg, and Embryo Donation and Surrogacy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... based genetic testing is standard in most sperm banks. It is recommended that all sperm donors, anonymous ... two types of samples offered by most sperm banks. Intracervical insemination specimens (ICI) are prepared for intracervical ...

  12. Thyroid Function Tests

    MedlinePLUS

    ... on Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases : Thyroid Tests Thyroid Tests On this page: What is the thyroid? What ... Top ] Why do health care providers perform thyroid tests? Health care providers perform thyroid tests to assess ...

  13. Sperm swimming speed and energetics vary with sperm competition risk in bluegill ( Lepomis macrochirus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary Burness; Stephen J. Casselman; Albrecht I. Schulte-Hostedde; Christopher D. Moyes; Robert Montgomerie

    2004-01-01

    Under sperm competition, a male’s fertilization success depends largely on the ejaculate characteristics of competing males. Theoretical models predict that, in external fertilizers, increased risk of sperm competition should result in selection for increased sperm swimming speed. To test this prediction, we studied the behavior of sperm from parental and sneaker male bluegill ( Lepomis macrochirus), a fish species characterized

  14. Novel and traditional traits of frozen-thawed porcine sperm related to in vitro fertilization success.

    PubMed

    Daigneault, Bradford W; McNamara, Kelli A; Purdy, Phillip H; Krisher, Rebecca L; Knox, Robert V; Miller, David J

    2014-07-15

    Cryopreserved semen allows the use of single ejaculates for repeated analyses, potentially improving IVF consistency by eliminating interejaculate variability observed with fresh semen. However, the freezing and thawing processes result in compromised sperm function and IVF success. Semen samples are often screened for motility before use for IVF. Samples that are below a designated motility threshold may be discarded. Our objectives were to determine if post-thaw sperm motility, other traits that may be indicative of sperm function, or a novel assay of oviduct binding were related to IVF success. Semen from 16 boars was cooled to 15 °C for overnight shipment before cryopreservation. Semen was thawed and motility was recorded microscopically and confirmed using computer-automated sperm assessment. Each sample was tested by IVF in two to three independent replicates. Regression and correlation analyses were employed to determine the interrelationships between sperm traits and the relationships between post-thaw motility, sperm-oviduct binding and IVF outcomes. Among the sperm traits examined, sperm acrosome integrity was negatively correlated with post-thaw motility (r(2) = 0.64) but not with IVF results. The number of sperm bound to oviduct aggregates was correlated with IVF polyspermy rates (r(2) = 0.62, P < 0.05) but less with overall IVF rates (r(2) = 0.31, P > 0.10). There was some relationship of post-thaw motility with IVF monospermic fertilization (P = 0.06, r(2) = 0.08) but not to other IVF outcomes. Our results indicate that post-thaw motility of frozen-thawed boar sperm is strongly related to acrosome integrity but has limited use for predicting IVF success. The number of sperm bound to oviduct cells was related to IVF polyspermy rates and may be more indicative of in vitro sperm function than traditional sperm motility and acrosome status evaluation. PMID:24839923

  15. Human sperm competition: ejaculate manipulation by females and a function for the female orgasm (1993)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Robin Baker; Mark A. Bellis

    Behavioural ecologists view monogamy as a subtle mixture of conflict and cooperation between the sexes. In part, conflict and cooperation is cryptic, taking place within the female’s reproductive tract. In this paper the cryptic interaction for humans was analysed using data from both a nationwide survey and counts of sperm inseminated into, and ejected by, females. On average, 35% of

  16. Effects of reactive oxygen species action on sperm function in spermatozoa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and lipid peroxidation have been recognized as problems for sperm survival and fertility. The precise roles and detection of superoxide (SO), hydrogen peroxide (HP), and membrane lipid peroxidation have been problematic because of the low specificity and sens...

  17. Thyroid Function Tests

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Organizations (PDF, 269 KB). Alternate Language URL Thyroid Tests Page Content On this page: What is the ... Top ] Why do health care providers perform thyroid tests? Health care providers perform thyroid tests to assess ...

  18. Pulmonary Function Tests

    MedlinePLUS

    ... like asthma, chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD), or cystic fibrosis on lung function. ? Identify early changes in lung function that might show a need for a change in treatment. ? Detect narrowing in the airways. ? Decide if a ...

  19. Thyroid Function Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Irving T.

    1979-01-01

    Describes two tests, T-4 and T-3, for hypothyroid based on the binding of the hormones by proteins. The tests were performed in courses for physicians, clinical chemists, laboratory technicians, and undergraduate science students by the individuals involved and on their own sera. These tests are commercially available in kit form. (GA)

  20. Protein-Tyrosine Kinase Signaling in the Biological Functions Associated with Sperm

    PubMed Central

    Ijiri, Takashi W.; Mahbub Hasan, A. K. M.; Sato, Ken-ichi

    2012-01-01

    In sexual reproduction, two gamete cells (i.e., egg and sperm) fuse (fertilization) to create a newborn with a genetic identity distinct from those of the parents. In the course of these developmental processes, a variety of signal transduction events occur simultaneously in each of the two gametes, as well as in the fertilized egg/zygote/early embryo. In particular, a growing body of knowledge suggests that the tyrosine kinase Src and/or other protein-tyrosine kinases are important elements that facilitate successful implementation of the aforementioned processes in many animal species. In this paper, we summarize recent findings on the roles of protein-tyrosine phosphorylation in many sperm-related processes (from spermatogenesis to epididymal maturation, capacitation, acrosomal exocytosis, and fertilization). PMID:23209895

  1. Maintenance of steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) sperm at different in vitro oxygen tensions alters ATP levels and cell functional characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. C. Bencic; M. Krisfalusi; J. G. Cloud; R. L. Ingermann

    1999-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels in sperm from steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were found to be 12.0 ± 1.4 pmol ATP per 106 sperm cells. Sperm were stored at 0–2 °C for up to 72 h under 100 and 21% O2, and 100% N2. The sperm ATP content of samples maintained under 100 and 21% O2 both decreased to about 70 and 50% of

  2. Functions and Vertical Line Test

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-01-17

    This lesson is designed to introduce students to the vertical line test for functions as well as practice plotting points and drawing simple functions. The lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to the vertical line test and functions as well as suggested ways to integrate them into the lesson.

  3. Sperm cleanup and centrifugation processing for cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Sieme, Harald; Oldenhof, Harriëtte

    2015-01-01

    Fertility rates with artificial insemination are highest with good-quality sperm samples. Therefore, nonviable sperm, cellular debris, and seminal plasma are preferably removed from semen samples prior to use or for preservation. Such compounds are sources where reactive oxygen species are generated during storage or upon cryopreservation, impairing sperm function. In this chapter we describe methods to remove seminal plasma and cellular debris from sperm samples, and for selecting morphologically normal motile sperm. The methods that are described here include: ordinary centrifugation, sperm swim-up, glass wool and Sephadex filtration/adherence, and single-layer as well as discontinuous two-layer iodixanol density gradient centrifugation. PMID:25428016

  4. Mammalian Sperm Fertility Related Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ashrafzadeh, Ali; Karsani, Saiful Anuar; Nathan, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    Infertility is an important aspect of human and animal reproduction and still presents with much etiological ambiguity. As fifty percent of infertility is related to the male partner, molecular investigations on sperm and seminal plasma can lead to new knowledge on male infertility. Several comparisons between fertile and infertile human and other species sperm proteome have shown the existence of potential fertility markers. These proteins have been categorized into energy related, structural and other functional proteins which play a major role in sperm motility, capacitation and sperm-oocyte binding. The data from these studies show the impact of sperm proteome studies on identifying different valuable markers for fertility screening. In this article, we review recent development in unraveling sperm fertility related proteins. PMID:24151436

  5. Platelet Function Tests

    MedlinePLUS

    ... This type of assay can be used to screen for von Willebrand disease and some platelet function ... present. Bleeding time In the past, the primary screen for platelet dysfunction was the bleeding time. This ...

  6. Liver function tests

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Tierno P, Fenelus M, Bowne WB, Bluth MH. Evaluation of liver function. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods . 22nd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap ...

  7. Differential Item Functioning vs Differential Test Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergstrom, Betty A.; And Others

    A problem that arises when a differential item functioning (DIF) study is done with samples of examinees differing in ability is examined. A test may function differently when the populations from which the items are calibrated are not of equal ability. Since the lower ability examinees get many difficult items incorrect, the spread (standard…

  8. Human spermatozoa contain multiple targets for protein S-nitrosylation: an alternative mechanism of the modulation of sperm function by nitric oxide?

    PubMed

    Lefičvre, Linda; Chen, Yongjian; Conner, Sarah J; Scott, Joanna L; Publicover, Steve J; Ford, W Christopher L; Barratt, Christopher L R

    2007-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) enhances human sperm motility and capacitation associated with increased protein phosphorylation. NO activates soluble guanylyl cyclase, but can also modify protein function covalently via S-nitrosylation of cysteine. Remarkably, this mechanism remains unexplored in sperm although they depend on post-translational protein modification to achieve changes in function required for fertilisation. Our objective was to identify targets for S-nitrosylation in human sperm. Spermatozoa were incubated with NO donors and S-nitrosylated proteins were identified using the biotin switch assay and a proteomic approach using MS/MS. 240 S-nitrosylated proteins were detected in sperm incubated with S-nitroso-glutathione. Minimal levels were observed in glutathione or untreated samples. Proteins identified consistently based on multiple peptides included established targets for S-nitrosylation in other cells e.g. tubulin, GST and HSPs but also novel targets including A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) types 3 and 4, voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein 3 and semenogelin 1 and 2. In situ localisation revealed S-nitrosylated targets on the postacrosomal region of the head and throughout the flagellum. Potential targets for S-nitrosylation in human sperm include physiologically significant proteins not previously reported in other cells. Their identification will provide novel insight into the mechanism of action of NO in spermatozoa. PMID:17683036

  9. A proper assessment of boar sperm function may not only require conventional analyses but also others focused on molecular markers of epididymal maturation.

    PubMed

    Bonet, S; Briz, M D; Yeste, M

    2012-06-01

    In swine, predicting the fertilizing ability of boar ejaculates before using seminal doses for artificial insemination purposes is very important for pork breeders. Routinely, semen quality is evaluated by means of sperm concentration, viability, motility and morphology. However, in some cases, these spermiogram parameters may not be precise enough to detect altered/non-functional spermatozoa within boar ejaculates that may yield lower reproductive performance. The present work reviews the conventional parameters most used for assessing porcine semen quality, and it also describes other markers recently found that may help for evaluating more accurately the boar sperm function and survival. These markers are related to alterations induced by defective spermatogenesis, epididymal maturation or sperm handling. PMID:22681299

  10. Sperm-Associated Antigen 6 (SPAG6) Deficiency and Defects in Ciliogenesis and Cilia Function: Polarity, Density, and Beat

    PubMed Central

    Teves, Maria E.; Sears, Patrick R.; Li, Wei; Zhang, Zhengang; Tang, Waixing; van Reesema, Lauren; Costanzo, Richard M.; Davis, C. William; Knowles, Michael R.; Strauss, Jerome F.; Zhang, Zhibing

    2014-01-01

    SPAG6, an axoneme central apparatus protein, is essential for function of ependymal cell cilia and sperm flagella. A significant number of Spag6-deficient mice die with hydrocephalus, and surviving males are sterile because of sperm motility defects. In further exploring the ciliary dysfunction in Spag6-null mice, we discovered that cilia beat frequency was significantly reduced in tracheal epithelial cells, and that the beat was not synchronized. There was also a significant reduction in cilia density in both brain ependymal and trachea epithelial cells, and cilia arrays were disorganized. The orientation of basal feet, which determines the direction of axoneme orientation, was apparently random in Spag6-deficient mice, and there were reduced numbers of basal feet, consistent with reduced cilia density. The polarized epithelial cell morphology and distribution of intracellular mucin, ?-tubulin, and the planar cell polarity protein, Vangl2, were lost in Spag6-deficient tracheal epithelial cells. Polarized epithelial cell morphology and polarized distribution of ?-tubulin in tracheal epithelial cells was observed in one-week old wild-type mice, but not in the Spag6-deficient mice of the same age. Thus, the cilia and polarity defects appear prior to 7 days post-partum. These findings suggest that SPAG6 not only regulates cilia/flagellar motility, but that in its absence, ciliogenesis, axoneme orientation, and tracheal epithelial cell polarity are altered. PMID:25333478

  11. Methods of sperm vitality assessment.

    PubMed

    Moskovtsev, Sergey I; Librach, Clifford L

    2013-01-01

    Sperm vitality is a reflection of the proportion of live, membrane-intact spermatozoa determined by either dye exclusion or osmoregulatory capacity under hypo-osmotic conditions. In this chapter we address the two most common methods of sperm vitality assessment: eosin-nigrosin staining and the hypo-osmotic swelling test, both utilized in clinical Andrology laboratories. PMID:22992899

  12. Novel Approaches of Sperm Selection for ART: The Role of Objective Biochemical Markers of Nuclear and Cytoplasmic Integrity and Sperm Function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabor Huszar; Denny Sakkas

    \\u000a With the technological advancements in assisted reproduction treatment, it is now feasible to cause fertilization and pregnancy\\u000a by injection of a single spermatozoon into the oocyte via the ICSI method. The ultimate goal in this respect is the selection\\u000a of a spermatozoon that has genetic and cellular attributes comparable to those sperm that interact with the zona pellucida\\u000a under physiological

  13. Cytometric analysis of shape and DNA content in mammalian sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Gledhill, B.L.

    1983-10-10

    Male germ cells respond dramatically to a variety of insults and are important reproductive dosimeters. Semen analyses are very useful in studies on the effects of drugs, chemicals, and environmental hazards on testicular function, male fertility and heritable germinal mutations. Sperm were analyzed by flow cytometry and slit-scan flow analysis for injury following the exposure of testes to mutagens. The utility of flow cytometry in genotoxin screening and monitoring of occupational exposure was evaluated. The technique proved valuable in separation of X- and Y-chromosome bearing sperm and the potential applicability of this technique in artificial insemination and a solution, of accurately assessing the DNA content of sperm were evaluated-with reference to determination of X- and Y-chromosome bearing sperm.

  14. Sperm storage in caecilian amphibians

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Female sperm storage has evolved independently multiple times among vertebrates to control reproduction in response to the environment. In internally fertilising amphibians, female salamanders store sperm in cloacal spermathecae, whereas among anurans sperm storage in oviducts is known only in tailed frogs. Facilitated through extensive field sampling following historical observations we tested for sperm storing structures in the female urogenital tract of fossorial, tropical caecilian amphibians. Findings In the oviparous Ichthyophis cf. kohtaoensis, aggregated sperm were present in a distinct region of the posterior oviduct but not in the cloaca in six out of seven vitellogenic females prior to oviposition. Spermatozoa were found most abundantly between the mucosal folds. In relation to the reproductive status decreased amounts of sperm were present in gravid females compared to pre-ovulatory females. Sperm were absent in females past oviposition. Conclusions Our findings indicate short-term oviductal sperm storage in the oviparous Ichthyophis cf. kohtaoensis. We assume that in female caecilians exhibiting high levels of parental investment sperm storage has evolved in order to optimally coordinate reproductive events and to increase fitness. PMID:22672478

  15. Subcellular preservation in giant ostracod sperm from an early Miocene cave deposit in Australia.

    PubMed

    Matzke-Karasz, Renate; Neil, John V; Smith, Robin J; Symonová, Radka; Mo?kovský, Libor; Archer, Michael; Hand, Suzanne J; Cloetens, Peter; Tafforeau, Paul

    2014-07-01

    Cypridoidean ostracods are one of a number of animal taxa that reproduce with giant sperm, up to 10 000 µm in length, but they are the only group to have aflagellate, filamentous giant sperm. The evolution and function of this highly unusual feature of reproduction with giant sperm are currently unknown. The hypothesis of long-term evolutionary persistence of this kind of reproduction has never been tested. We here report giant sperm discovered by propagation phase contrast X-ray synchrotron micro- and nanotomography, preserved in five Miocene ostracod specimens from Queensland, Australia. The specimens belong to the species Heterocypris collaris Matzke-Karasz et al. 2013 (one male and three females) and Newnhamia mckenziana Matzke-Karasz et al. 2013 (one female). The sperm are not only the oldest petrified gametes on record, but include three-dimensional subcellular preservation. We provide direct evidence that giant sperm have been a feature of this taxon for at least 16 Myr and provide an additional criterion (i.e. longevity) to test hypotheses relating to origin and function of giant sperm in the animal kingdom. We further argue that the highly resistant, most probably chitinous coats of giant ostracod sperm may play a role in delaying decay processes, favouring early mineralization of soft tissue. PMID:24827442

  16. Osmotic tolerance of avian spermatozoa: influence of time, temperature, cryoprotectant and membrane ion pump function on sperm viability.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Juan M; Long, Julie A; Gee, George; Donoghue, Ann M; Wildt, David E

    2008-02-01

    Potential factors influencing sperm survival under hypertonic conditions were evaluated in the Sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) and turkey (Meleagridis gallopavo). Sperm osmotolerance (300-3000 mOsm/kg) was evaluated after: (1) equilibration times of 2, 10, 45 and 60 min at 4 degrees C versus 21 degrees C; (2) pre-equilibrating with dimethylacetamide (DMA) or dimethylsulfoxide (Me2SO) at either 4 degrees C or 21 degrees C; and (3) inhibition of the Na+/K+ and the Na+/H+ antiporter membrane ionic pumps. Sperm viability was assessed using the eosin-nigrosin live/dead stain. Species-specific differences occurred in response to hypertonic conditions with crane sperm remaining viable under extreme hypertonicity (3000 mOsm/kg), whereas turkey sperm viability was compromised with only slightly hypertonic (500 mOsm/kg) conditions. The timing of spermolysis under hypertonic conditions was also species-specific, with a shorter interval for turkey (2 min) than crane (10 min) sperm. Turkey sperm osmotolerance was slightly improved by lowering the incubation temperature from 21 to 4 degrees C. Pre-equilibrating sperm with DMA reduced the incidence of hypertonic spermolysis only in the crane, at both room and refrigeration temperature. Inhibiting the Na+/K+ and the Na+/H+ antiporter membrane ion pumps did not impair resistance of crane and turkey spermatozoa to hypertonic stress; pump inhibition actually increased turkey sperm survival compared to control sperm. Results demonstrate marked species specificity in osmotolerance between crane and turkey sperm, as well as in the way temperature and time of exposure affect sperm survival under hypertonic conditions. Differences are independent of the role of osmotic pumps in these species. PMID:18005955

  17. Osmotic tolerance of avian spermatozoa: Influence of time, temperature, cryoprotectant and membrane ion pump function on sperm viability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blanco, J.M.; Long, J.A.; Gee, G.; Donoghue, A.M.; Wildt, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    Potential factors influencing sperm survival under hypertonic conditions were evaluated in the Sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) and turkey (Meleagridis gallopavo). Sperm osmotolerance (300-3000 mOsm/kg) was evaluated after: (1) equilibration times of 2, 10, 45 and 60 min at 4 ?C versus 21 ?C; (2) pre-equilibrating with dimethylacetamide (DMA) or dimethylsulfoxide (Me2SO) at either 4 ?C or 21 ?C; and (3) inhibition of the Na+/K+ and the Na+/H+ antiporter membrane ionic pumps. Sperm viability was assessed using the eosin-nigrosin live/dead stain. Species-specific differences occurred in response to hypertonic conditions with crane sperm remaining viable under extreme hypertonicity (3000 mOsm/kg), whereas turkey sperm viability was compromised with only slightly hypertonic (500 mOsm/kg) conditions. The timing of spermolysis under hypertonic conditions was also species-specific, with a shorter interval for turkey (2 min) than crane (10 min) sperm. Turkey sperm osmotolerance was slightly improved by lowering the incubation temperature from 21 to 4 ?C. Pre-equilibrating sperm with DMA reduced the incidence of hypertonic spermolysis only in the crane, at both room and refrigeration temperature. Inhibiting the Na+/K+ and the Na+/H+ antiporter membrane ion pumps did not impair resistance of crane and turkey spermatozoa to hypertonic stress; pump inhibition actually increased turkey sperm survival compared to control sperm. Results demonstrate marked species specificity in osmotolerance between crane and turkey sperm, as well as in the way temperature and time of exposure affect sperm survival under hypertonic conditions. Differences are independent of the role of osmotic pumps in these species.

  18. Evaluation of a spectrophotometric assay for the measurement of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxyalkenals in human spermatozoa: relationships with semen quality and sperm function.

    PubMed

    Gomez, E; Irvine, D S; Aitken, R J

    1998-04-01

    A spectrophotometric assay for the measurement of malondialdehyde and 4 hydroxyalkenals (MA + 4HA) has been evaluated for the detection of sperm pathologies involving oxidative stress. In order to make sensitive measurements of MA + 4HA on human spermatozoa, the stimulation of a lipid peroxidation cascade with a ferrous ion promoter was found to be necessary. The optimal configuration for the promoter was defined (0.64 mM FeSO4 + 20 mM ascorbate for 2 h in Ca2+ and Mg2 free Hanks' balanced salt solution) and the assay used in a series of studies to elucidate the functional significance of MA + 4HA determinations. Such measurements were found to give highly significant correlations (p < 0.001) with the loss of motility induced by oxidative stress created either with a xanthine oxidase, free radical generating system or by prolonged incubation under aerobic conditions. Experiments involving the stimulation and suppression of lipid peroxide release from human sperm suspensions, in concert with a bioassay for cytotoxicity, confirmed the strength and causative nature of these associations. Measurements of lipid peroxidation potential in highly purified, leucocyte-free sperm suspensions revealed the presence of inverse correlations with the motility of the spermatozoa, their viability, their competence for sperm-oocyte fusion and, most significantly, the quality of sperm movement in the original semen samples. Similar negative correlations were observed between sperm function and phorbol ester-stimulated reactive oxygen species generation but, unlike the MA + 4HA determinations, these relationships were obfuscated by the presence of leucocytes. We conclude that the measurement of MA + 4HA in human spermatozoa provides important information on the underlying quality of spermatogenesis and should be of value in the clinical diagnosis of infertility involving oxidative stress and the selection of patients for antioxidant therapy. PMID:9675617

  19. Identification and preparation of sperm for ART.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Akanksha; Sigman, Mark

    2014-02-01

    State-of-the-art techniques attempt to select sperm with the best functional capacity to produce pregnancy and, subsequently, healthy offspring. A variety of approaches are now being evaluated. Future approaches may allow for selection of sperm based on sperm DNA integrity, degree of aneuploidy, or apoptosis. Other approaches involve attempting to improve the in vitro function of sperm with exposure to compounds such as pentoxifylline or platelet activating factor. In the future, we are likely to see significant improvements in the ability to select the best sperm for assisted-reproductive-technology procedures and the use of these procedures in routine clinical practice. PMID:24286775

  20. Phenotypic engineering of sperm-production rate confirms evolutionary predictions of sperm competition theory

    PubMed Central

    Sekii, Kiyono; Vizoso, Dita B.; Kuales, Georg; De Mulder, Katrien; Ladurner, Peter; Schärer, Lukas

    2013-01-01

    Sperm production is a key male reproductive trait and an important parameter in sperm competition theory. Under sperm competition, paternity success is predicted to depend strongly on male allocation to sperm production. Furthermore, because sperm production is inherently costly, individuals should economize in sperm expenditure, and conditional adjustment of the copulation frequency according to their sperm availability may be expected. However, experimental studies showing effects of sperm production on mating behaviour and paternity success have so far been scarce, mainly because sperm production is difficult to manipulate directly in animals. Here, we used phenotypic engineering to manipulate sperm-production rate, by employing dose-dependent RNA interference (RNAi) of a spermatogenesis-specific gene, macbol1, in the free-living flatworm Macrostomum lignano. We demonstrate (i) that our novel dose-dependent RNAi approach allows us to induce high variability in sperm-production rate; (ii) that a reduced sperm-production rate is associated with a decreased copulation frequency, suggesting conditional adjustment of mating behaviour; and (iii) that both sperm production and copulation frequency are important determinants of paternity success in a competitive situation, as predicted by sperm competition theory. Our study clearly documents the potential of phenotypic engineering via dose-dependent RNAi to test quantitative predictions of evolutionary theory. PMID:23446521

  1. Sterols in spermatogenesis and sperm maturation

    PubMed Central

    Keber, Rok; Rozman, Damjana; Horvat, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian spermatogenesis is a complex developmental program in which a diploid progenitor germ cell transforms into highly specialized spermatozoa. One intriguing aspect of sperm production is the dynamic change in membrane lipid composition that occurs throughout spermatogenesis. Cholesterol content, as well as its intermediates, differs vastly between the male reproductive system and nongonadal tissues. Accumulation of cholesterol precursors such as testis meiosis-activating sterol and desmosterol is observed in testes and spermatozoa from several mammalian species. Moreover, cholesterogenic genes, especially meiosis-activating sterol-producing enzyme cytochrome P450 lanosterol 14?-demethylase, display stage-specific expression patterns during spermatogenesis. Discrepancies in gene expression patterns suggest a complex temporal and cell-type specific regulation of sterol compounds during spermatogenesis, which also involves dynamic interactions between germ and Sertoli cells. The functional importance of sterol compounds in sperm production is further supported by the modulation of sterol composition in spermatozoal membranes during epididymal transit and in the female reproductive tract, which is a prerequisite for successful fertilization. However, the exact role of sterols in male reproduction is unknown. This review discusses sterol dynamics in sperm maturation and describes recent methodological advances that will help to illuminate the complexity of sperm formation and function. PMID:23093550

  2. Why small males have big sperm: dimorphic squid sperm linked to alternative mating behaviours

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Sperm cells are the target of strong sexual selection that may drive changes in sperm structure and function to maximize fertilisation success. Sperm evolution is regarded to be one of the major consequences of sperm competition in polyandrous species, however it can also be driven by adaptation to the environmental conditions at the site of fertilization. Strong stabilizing selection limits intra-specific variation, and therefore polymorphism, among fertile sperm (eusperm). Here we analyzed reproductive morphology differences among males employing characteristic alternative mating behaviours, and so potentially different conditions of sperm competition and fertilization environment, in the squid Loligo bleekeri. Results Large consort males transfer smaller (average total length = 73 ?m) sperm to a female's internal sperm storage location, inside the oviduct; whereas small sneaker males transfer larger (99 ?m) sperm to an external location around the seminal receptacle near the mouth. No significant difference in swimming speed was observed between consort and sneaker sperm. Furthermore, sperm precedence in the seminal receptacle was not biased toward longer sperm, suggesting no evidence for large sperm being favoured in competition for space in the sperm storage organ among sneaker males. Conclusions Here we report the first case, in the squid Loligo bleekeri, where distinctly dimorphic eusperm are produced by different sized males that employ alternative mating behaviours. Our results found no evidence that the distinct sperm dimorphism was driven by between- and within-tactic sperm competition. We propose that presence of alternative fertilization environments with distinct characteristics (i.e. internal or external), whether or not in combination with the effects of sperm competition, can drive the disruptive evolution of sperm size. PMID:21831296

  3. Selection of Sperm Based on Hypo-Osmotic Swelling May Improve ICSI Outcome: A Preliminary Prospective Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Charehjooy, Nasim; Najafi, Mohammad Hassan; Tavalaee, Marziyeh; Deemeh, Mohammad Reza; Azadi, Leila; Shiravi, Abdol Hossein; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background The intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) technique selects sperm according to morphology and motility. However, these parameters cannot predict the chromatin integrity of sperm. Considering the detrimental effects of DNA-damaged sperm on reproductive outcomes, novel sperm selection procedures have been proposed to circumvent the possibility of inseminating DNA-damaged sperm. It has been shown that different potential hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST) patterns possess the potential to differentiate between sperm that have intact or damaged chromatin. Therefore, for the first time, this preliminary study evaluates the role of HOST as a sperm selection procedure in a clinical setting. Materials and Methods In this preliminary prospective clinical trial study, we divided infertile couples diagnosed with male infertility into two groups. In the treatment group (n=39), half of the oocytes were inseminated by sperm selected following density gradient centrifugation (DGC group). The remaining oocytes from the treatment group were inseminated by sperm chosen according to HOST pattern (c, d or e) following DGC processing (HOST group). In the control group (n=63), all oocytes were inseminated by sperm chosen after DGC. Results There was a significantly higher percentage of embryos that had good quality, implantation, and chemical pregnancy rates in the HOST group compared to the DGC group (p?0.05). Conclusion : This study has shown that selecting sperm according to membrane functionality (HOST pattern) rather morphology and viability may open a new window in our approach for determining the appropriate sperm for ICSI, particularly in individuals with severe male infertility (Registration Number: IRCT201307087223N2). PMID:24695913

  4. Lack of sperm production and sperm storage by arctic-nesting shorebirds during spring migration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James W. Rivers; James V. Briskie

    2003-01-01

    Birds nesting at high latitudes may copulate during migration to arrive on the nesting grounds ready to breed. We surveyed 12 species of shorebirds during spring migration to determine whether (1) males produced abundant sperm and (2) females harboured functional sperm storage tubules (SSTs). Sperm production by males on migration was rare. Only four of seven species (9.8% of 41

  5. Vestibular function test program evaluation

    E-print Network

    Schmidt, Glenn Frederic

    1990-01-01

    for the evaluation of vestibular and visual oculomotor reflexes [1]. For over eighty years vestibular function tests have been performed; however, accepted formal standards for manual and computerized clinical evaluation of vestibular dysfunction have not yet... comprehensive models for nystagmus induced by a variety of stimuli [1]. For example, the consistency and symmetry of saccade accuracy in normal subjects suggests that saccade accuracy measurements can be a sensitive clinical test of the oculomotor control...

  6. Evaluation of acrosomal status and sperm viability in fresh and cryopreserved specimens by the use of fluorescent peanut agglutinin lectin in conjunction with hypo-osmotic swelling test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandro C. Esteves; Rakesh K. Sharma; Anthony J. Thomas Jr; Ashok Agarwal

    2007-01-01

    Objective: In this study, we evaluated whether the hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST) can be used as a vital marker in combination with peanut agglutinin (PNA) - labeling in fresh and cryopreserved spermatozoa. Materials and Methods: Human sperm populations were exposed to a hypo-osmotic medium for 60 minutes, and then incubated in a 1 µg\\/mL solution of the fluorescent dye Hoescht

  7. Expression, localization and functions in acrosome reaction and sperm motility of CaV3.1 and CaV3.2 channels in sperm cells: an evaluation from CaV3.1 and CaV3.2

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Expression, localization and functions in acrosome reaction and sperm motility of CaV3.1 and CaV3.2 channels in sperm cells: an evaluation from CaV3.1 and CaV3.2 deficient mice Jessica Escoffier1 , Sylvie) 438 78 50 41 E-mail : carnoult@cea.fr Number of figures : 9 Number of words: 7077 Run header: CaV3

  8. Seasonal dynamics of sperm morphometric subpopulations and its association with sperm quality parameters in ram ejaculates.

    PubMed

    Martí, J I; Aparicio, I M; Leal, C L V; García-Herreros, M

    2012-08-01

    Sperm morphologic assessment is considered an irreplaceable part of standard laboratory routine analyses in the diagnosis of male fertility. Thus, in an attempt to quantify the effects of season on sperm morphology and its functional significance in relation to sperm quality parameters, sperm head morphometric traits were analyzed by using an objective computerized analysis combined with principal components analysis (PCA) cluster analysis to establish the relationship between the distribution of the subpopulations found and sperm quality in each season. There were slight variations on sperm motility and sperm membrane integrity indexes (P > 0.05). However, the mean values for sperm concentration substantially changed among seasons in all individuals studied (P < 0.01). There were significant differences in sperm morphometric parameters (P < 0.01) as well as in the distribution of morphometric subpopulations between seasons (P < 0.001). In conclusion, this study confirmed that there was an important seasonal effect on sperm morphometric traits. In addition, the distribution of these subpopulations seems to be related to the season studied and the ejaculate quality which would be a very important indicator of sperm function. The substantial information derived from these morphometric subpopulations has provided new knowledge which can be used in future studies using sperm morphometry as a seasonal indicator in ram ejaculates. PMID:22626774

  9. Anatase titanium dioxide nanoparticles in mice: evidence for induced structural and functional sperm defects after short-, but not long-, term exposure.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michelle A; Michael, Rowan; Aravindan, Rolands G; Dash, Soma; Shah, Syed I; Galileo, Deni S; Martin-DeLeon, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanoparticles (TNPs) are widely used commercially and exist in a variety of products. To determine if anatase TNPs (ATNPs) in doses smaller than previously used reach the scrotum after entry in the body at a distant location and induce sperm defects, 100% ATNP (2.5 or 5 mg kg-1 body weight) was administered intraperitoneally to adult males for three consecutive days, followed by sacrifice 1, 2, 3, or 5 weeks later (long-) or 24, 48 or 120 h (short-term exposure). Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of ANTP in scrotal adipose tissues collected 120 h postinjection when cytokine evaluation showed an inflammatory response in epididymal tissues and fluid. At 120 h and up to 3 weeks postinjection, testicular histology revealed enlarged interstitial spaces. Significantly increased numbers of terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling-positive (apoptotic) germ (P = 0.002) and interstitial space cells (P = 0.04) were detected in treated males. Caudal epididymal sperm from the short-term, but not a long-term, arm showed significantly (P < 0.001) increased frequencies of flagellar abnormalities, excess residual cytoplasm (ERC), and unreacted acrosomes in treated versus controls (dose-response relationship). A novel correlation between ERC and unreacted acrosomes was uncovered. At 120 h, there were significant decreases in hyperactivated motility (P < 0.001) and mitochondrial membrane potential (P < 0.05), and increased reactive oxygen species levels (P < 0.00001) in treated versus control sperm. These results indicate that at 4-8 days postinjection, ANTP induce structural and functional sperm defects associated with infertility, and DNA damage via oxidative stress. Sperm defects were transient as they were not detected 10 days to 5 weeks postinjection. PMID:25370207

  10. Exposure in utero to 2,2',3,3',4,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 132) impairs sperm function and alters testicular apoptosis-related gene expression in rat offspring

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, P.-C. [Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Pan, M.-H. [Department of Seafood Science, National Kaohsiung Marine University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Li, L.-A. [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Taiwan (China); Chen, C.-J. [Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Tsai, S.-S. [Department of Veterinary Medicine, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung, Taiwan (China); Guo, Y.L. [No. 1, Section 1, Jen-Ai Road, Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei 100, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: leonguo@ha.mc.ntu.edu.tw

    2007-05-15

    Toxicity of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) depends on their molecular structure. Mechanisms by prenatal exposure to a non-dioxin-like PCB, 2,2',3,4',5',6-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 132) that may act on reproductive pathways in male offspring are relatively unknown. The purpose was to determine whether epididymal sperm function and expression of apoptosis-related genes were induced or inhibited by prenatal exposure to PCB 132. Pregnant rats were treated with a single dose of PCB 132 at 1 or 10 mg/kg on gestational day 15. Male offspring were killed and the epididymal sperm counts, motility, velocity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, sperm-oocyte penetration rate (SOPR), testicular histopathology, apoptosis-related gene expression and caspase activation were assessed on postnatal day 84. Prenatal exposure to PCB 132 with a single dose of 1 or 10 mg/kg decreased cauda epididymal weight, epididymal sperm count and motile epididymal sperm count in adult offspring. The spermatozoa of PCB 132-exposed offspring produced significantly higher levels of ROS than the controls; ROS induction and SOPR reduction were dose-related. In the low-dose PCB 132 group, p53 was significantly induced and caspase-3 was inhibited. In the high-dose group, activation of caspase-3 and -9 was significantly increased, while the expressions of Fas, Bax, bcl-2, and p53 genes were significantly decreased. Gene expression and caspase activation data may provide insight into the mechanisms by which exposure to low-dose or high-dose PCB 132 affects reproduction in male offspring in rats. Because the doses of PCB 132 administered to the dams were approximately 625-fold in low-dose group and 6250-fold higher in high-dose group than the concentration in human tissue levels, the concentrations are not biologically or environmentally relevant. Further studies using environmentally relevant doses are needed for hazard identification.

  11. Mating behavior and the evolution of sperm design

    PubMed Central

    Schärer, Lukas; Littlewood, D. Timothy J.; Waeschenbach, Andrea; Yoshida, Wataru; Vizoso, Dita B.

    2011-01-01

    Sperm are the most diverse of all animal cell types, and much of the diversity in sperm design is thought to reflect adaptations to the highly variable conditions under which sperm function and compete to achieve fertilization. Recent work has shown that these conditions often evolve rapidly as a consequence of multiple mating, suggesting a role for sexual selection and sexual conflict in the evolution of sperm design. However, very little of the striking diversity in sperm design is understood functionally, particularly in internally fertilizing organisms. We use phylogenetic comparative analyses covering 16 species of the hermaphroditic flatworm genus Macrostomum to show that a complex sperm design is associated with reciprocal mating and that this complexity is lost secondarily when hypodermic insemination—sperm injection through the epidermis—evolves. Specifically, the complex sperm design, which includes stiff lateral bristles, is likely a male persistence trait associated with sexual conflicts over the fate of received ejaculates and linked to female resistance traits, namely an intriguing postcopulatory sucking behavior and a thickened epithelium of the sperm-receiving organ. Our results suggest that the interactions between sperm donor, sperm, and sperm recipient can change drastically when hypodermic insemination evolves, involving convergent evolution of a needle-like copulatory organ, a simpler sperm design, and a simpler female genital morphology. Our study documents that a shift in the mating behavior may alter fundamentally the conditions under which sperm compete and thereby lead to a drastic change in sperm design. PMID:21220334

  12. Structural and Functional Studies of the Protamine 2-Zinc Complex from Syrian Gold Hamster (Mesocricetus Auratus) Spermatids and Sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Dolan, C E

    2004-08-30

    The research described in this dissertation consists of four major areas: (1) sequence analysis of protamine 2 from Muroid rodents to identify potential zinc-binding domain(s) of protamine 2; (2) structural studies of the protamine 2-zinc complex from Syrian Gold hamster sperm and spermatids to elucidate the role of zinc during spermiogenesis; (3) structural studies of an unique protamine 2-zinc complex from chinchilla sperm; and (4) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) studies of soluble complexes of hairpin oligonucleotides with synthetic arginine-rich peptides or protamine 1 isolated from bull sperm. First, zinc was quantitated in spermatids and sperm by Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) to determine whether zinc is present in the early stages of spermiogenesis. The PIXE results revealed the zinc content varies proportionately with the amount of protamine 2 in both spermatid and sperm nuclei. An exception was chinchilla sperm containing twice the amount of protamine 2 than zinc. Further analyses by PIXE and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) of zinc bound to protamines isolated from hamster sperm confirmed the majority of the zinc is bound to protamine and identified the zinc ligands of protamine 2 in hamster spermatids and sperm in vivo. These studies established that zinc is bound to the protamine 2 precursor in hamster spermatids and the coordination of zinc by protamine 2 changes during spermiogenesis. Finally, the sequence analysis combined with the XAS results suggest that the zinc-binding domain in protamine 2 resides in the amino-terminus. Similar analyses of chinchilla sperm by XAS were performed to clarify the unusual PIXE results and revealed that chinchilla has an atypical protamine 2-zinc structure. Two protamine 2 molecules coordinate one zinc atom, forming homodimers that facilitate the binding of protamine 2 to DNA and provide an organizational scheme that would accommodate the observed species-specific protamine stoichiometry in mammalian sperm. Based on these results, we propose the binding of zinc to protamine 2 molecules stabilizes a dimerization domain in other mammalian sperm. Future experiments will use the knowledge we gained of the interactions between protamine 1 and DNA from the NMR studies to obtain structural data for the DNA-protamine 2-zinc complex.

  13. Osmotic tolerance of avian spermatozoa: Influence of time, temperature, cryoprotectant and membrane ion pump function on sperm viability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan M. Blanco; Julie A. Long; George Gee; Ann M. Donoghue; David E. Wildt

    2008-01-01

    Potential factors influencing sperm survival under hypertonic conditions were evaluated in the Sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) and turkey (Meleagridis gallopavo). Sperm osmotolerance (300–3000mOsm\\/kg) was evaluated after: (1) equilibration times of 2, 10, 45 and 60min at 4°C versus 21°C; (2) pre-equilibrating with dimethylacetamide (DMA) or dimethylsulfoxide (Me2SO) at either 4°C or 21°C; and (3) inhibition of the Na+\\/K+ and the

  14. Molecular Cloning of the Human and Monkey Sperm Surface Protein PH20

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ying Lin; Lida H. Kimmel; Diana G. Myles; Paul Primakoff

    1993-01-01

    The guinea pig sperm surface protein PH-20 has an essential function in sperm adhesion to the zona pellucida of guinea pig eggs. Fully effective contraception has been achieved by immunizing either male or female guinea pigs with purified guinea pig PH-20. Here we report the isolation of human and cynomolgus monkey PH-20 cDNAs as a key step toward testing the

  15. Sperm competitiveness in frogs: slow and steady wins the race

    PubMed Central

    Dziminski, Martin A.; Roberts, J. Dale; Beveridge, Maxine; Simmons, Leigh W.

    2009-01-01

    When sperm compete to fertilize available ova, selection is expected to favour ejaculate traits that contribute to a male's fertilization success. While there is much evidence to show that selection favours increased numbers of sperm, only a handful of empirical studies have examined how variation in sperm form and function contributes to competitive fertilization success. Here, we examine selection acting on sperm form and function in the externally fertilizing myobatrachid frog, Crinia georgiana. Using in vitro fertilization techniques and controlling for variation in the number of sperm contributed by males in competitive situations, we show that males with a greater proportion of motile sperm, and motile sperm with slower swimming velocities, have an advantage when competing for fertilizations. Sperm morphology and the degree of genetic similarity between putative sires and the female had no influence on competitive fertilization success. These unusual patterns of selection might explain why frog sperm typically exhibit relatively slow swimming speeds and sustained longevity. PMID:19710059

  16. Fruit flies and the sperm proteome.

    PubMed

    Karr, Timothy L

    2007-10-15

    Sperm have been studied for their obvious role in fertilization and as a model system for cell-cell interactions and cell signaling. Despite its central and critical role in reproduction, we know surprisingly little about the overall molecular composition of sperm. Interest in sperm function has greatly intensified for two reasons: first, it is becoming increasingly apparent that human infertility can be traced to male factors, including alterations in sperm proteins, and second, there is increasing empirical evidence that sperm provide essential factors, both nucleic acid- and protein-based, to early zygote development possibly beyond their role in fertilization. At the molecular level, study of the sperm proteome has revealed a variety of genetic mechanisms involved in the organization and evolution of sperm form and function. These discoveries are being augmented and expanded by the application of proteomics that directly identifies protein constituents of sperm. In this article I argue that sperm are ideal candidate cell types for proteomic analyses and describe the current state of the field focussing on the recently described sperm proteome in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. PMID:17911156

  17. Understanding sperm heterogeneity: biological and practical implications.

    PubMed

    Ramón, M; Jiménez-Rabadán, P; García-Álvarez, O; Maroto-Morales, A; Soler, A J; Fernández-Santos, M R; Pérez-Guzmán, M D; Garde, J J

    2014-10-01

    Sperm are the most diverse cell type known. This diversity is thought to reflect adaptation to conditions under which sperm function as a way to ensure the survival of sperm in fertilization environments and to maximize fertilizing capacity thereof. The existence of morphological diversity among species is widely assumed, although this diversity seems less clear as we go deeper (between males, between ejaculates from the same male and even within the same ejaculate), with different theories addressing this heterogeneity. Moreover, the development of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) has led to changes in the physiological conditions in which sperm fertilize, which could lead, ultimately, to a selection towards more favourable sperm design. Regardless of the origin of this diversity, when studying the relationship between shape and function of sperm, it is advisable to assess the degree of heterogeneity of sperm and takes into account to be more likely to identify those morphological characteristics determining the fertile ability of sperm. Otherwise, these relationships could be hidden as a result of considering an average shape not representative of morphological characteristics of sperm. In addition, the knowledge of this morphological diversity in terms of changes arising from modifications in the sperm environment and mechanisms that generate these changes could be useful for understanding the reproductive capacity of males but also in enhancing their fertile ability. PMID:25277430

  18. Investigation of the association between the outcomes of sperm chromatin condensation and decondensation tests, and assisted reproduction techniques.

    PubMed

    Irez, T; Sahmay, S; Ocal, P; Goymen, A; Senol, H; Erol, N; Kaleli, S; Guralp, O

    2015-05-01

    The main purpose of this prospective study is to examine possible influences of abnormalities of sperm nuclear condensation and chromatin decondensation with sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS)-EDTA on outcomes of intrauterine insemination (IUI) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. Semen samples from 122 IUI and 236 ICSI cycles were evaluated. Before semen preparation for IUI or ICSI, basic semen analysis was performed and a small portion from each sample was spared for fixation. The condensation of sperm nuclear chromatin was evaluated with acidic aniline blue, followed by sperm chromatin decondensation by SDS-EDTA and evaluation under light microscope. Ongoing pregnancy rate was 24% and 26.2% in the IUI and ICSI groups respectively. The chromatin condensation rate was significantly higher in the ongoing pregnancy-positive group compared to the negative group, both in IUI (P = 0.042) and ICSI groups (P = 0.027), and it was positively correlated with ongoing pregnancy rate in both IUI and ICSI groups (P = 0.015, r = 0.214 and P = 0.014, r = 0.312 respectively). Chromatin decondensation rates were not significantly different in neither of the groups. These results indicate that IUI and ICSI outcome is influenced by the rate of spermatozoa with abnormal chromatin condensation. Sperm chromatin condensation with aniline blue is useful for selecting assisted reproduction techniques (ART) patients. PMID:24766543

  19. Quantitative analysis of flagellar proteins in Drosophila sperm tails.

    PubMed

    Mendes Maia, Teresa; Paul-Gilloteaux, Perrine; Basto, Renata

    2015-01-01

    The cilium has a well-defined structure, which can still accommodate some morphological and molecular composition diversity to suit the functional requirements of different cell types. The sperm flagellum of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster appears as a good model to study the genetic regulation of axoneme assembly and motility, due to the wealth of genetic tools publically available for this organism. In addition, the fruit fly's sperm flagellum displays quite a long axoneme (?1.8mm), which may facilitate both histological and biochemical analyses. Here, we present a protocol for imaging and quantitatively analyze proteins, which associate with the fly differentiating, and mature sperm flagella. We will use as an example the quantification of tubulin polyglycylation in wild-type testes and in Bug22 mutant testes, which present defects in the deposition of this posttranslational modification. During sperm biogenesis, flagella appear tightly bundled, which makes it more challenging to get accurate measurements of protein levels from immunostained specimens. The method we present is based on the use of a novel semiautomated, macro installed in the image processing software ImageJ. It allows to measure fluorescence levels in closely associated sperm tails, through an exact distinction between positive and background signals, and provides background-corrected pixel intensity values that can directly be used for data analysis. PMID:25837396

  20. GALACSI integration and functional tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Penna, P.; Ströbele, S.; Aller Carpentier, E.; Argomedo, J.; Arsenault, R.; Conzelmann, R. D.; Delabre, B.; Donaldson, R.; Duchateau, M.; Fedrigo, E.; Gago, F.; Hubin, N.; Quentin, J.; Jolley, P.; Kiekebusch, M.; Kirchbauer, J. P.; Klein, B.; Kolb, J.; Kuntschner, H.; Le Louarn, M.; Lizon, J. L.; Madec, P.-.; Manescau, A.; Mehrgan, L.; Sedghi, B.; Suarez Valles, M.; Soenke, C.; Tordo, S.; Vernet, J.; Zampieri, S.

    2014-07-01

    GALACSI is the Adaptive Optics (AO) modules of the ESO Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF) that will correct the wavefront delivered to the MUSE Integral Field Spectrograph. It will sense with four 40×40 subapertures Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors the AOF 4 Laser Guide Stars (LGS), acting on the 1170 voice-coils actuators of the Deformable Secondary Mirror (DSM). GALACSI has two operating modes: in Wide Field Mode (WFM), with the four LGS at 64" off axis, the collected energy in a 0.2"×0.2" pixel will be enhanced by a factor 2 at 750 nm over a Field of View (FoV) of 1'×1' using the Ground Layer AO (GLAO) technique. The other mode, the Narrow Field Mode (NFM), provides an enhanced wavefront correction (Strehl Ratio (SR) of 5% (goal 10%) at 650 nm) but in a smaller FoV (7.5"×7.5"), using Laser Tomography AO (LTAO), with the 4 LGS located closer, at 10" off axis. Before being shipped to Paranal, GALACSI will be first integrated and fully tested in stand-alone, and then moved to a dedicated AOF facility to be tested with the DSM in Europe. At present the module is fully assembled, its main functionalities have been implemented and verified, and AO system tests with the DSM are starting. We present here the main system features and the results of the internal functional tests of GALACSI.

  1. A functional comparison of the hyolingual complex in pygmy and dwarf sperm whales (Kogia breviceps and K. sima), and bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus)

    PubMed Central

    Bloodworth, Brian E; Marshall, Christopher D

    2007-01-01

    The function of the hyolingual complex in three odontocete species was investigated to compare adaptations of divergent feeding strategies, suction and ram feeding. Pygmy and dwarf sperm whales, members of the genus Kogia (or kogiids), are known to be strong suction feeders. We tested the hypotheses that kogiids would have a larger, more robust hyolingual complex, and that hyolingual muscles would have a greater maximum theoretical muscle tension compared with ram-based feeders such as bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). A robustness index and surface area was calculated for bony hyoid elements in kogiids and bottlenose dolphins. The anatomy, muscle architecture, pinnation, two-dimensional angle of attachment and maximum theoretical muscle tension were measured in each hyolingual muscle. A functional model incorporating vector analyses of hyolingual musculature was created for kogiids and bottlenose dolphins to assess differences in function of their hyolingual complexes. Kogiid hyoid surface areas were significantly greater (P = 0.01) than in bottlenose dolphins. Most maximum theoretical muscle tensions of hyolingual complexes were not significantly different within or between species. The data suggest that associated orofacial and tongue morphology, particularly the relationship of hyoid shape and tongue retractor muscles, greatly influences suction capability in odontocetes. Kogiids demonstrated adaptations that occlude lateral gape, including a novel vertical ridge on each side of the mandible, and a shortened mandible that is capable of a large gape, and gape angle. These adaptations presumably assist in maintaining negative intraoral pressure generated by the depression and retraction of the relatively short and wide kogiid tongue. The tongues of kogiids should be capable of generating greater intraoral volume changes compared with the long, narrow tongue of bottlenose dolphins. PMID:17555545

  2. A Plasma Membrane-Associated Hyaluronidase Is Localized to the Posterior Acrosomal Region of Stallion Sperm and Is Associated with Spermatozoal Function 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stuart A. Meyers; Anne E. Rosenberger

    1999-01-01

    Sperm hyaluronidase has been implicated in sperm penetra- tion of the extracellular matrix of the cumulus oophorus and may play a crucial role in gamete interaction and fertility in mammals. The objectives of this study were to characterize the enzyme activity of equine sperm hyaluronidase and to investi- gate its cellular distribution. Zymography of stallion sperm plas- ma membrane extracts

  3. Female presence influences sperm velocity in the guppy

    PubMed Central

    Gasparini, Clelia; Peretti, Alfredo V.; Pilastro, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    As sperm production is costly, males are expected to strategically allocate resources to sperm production according to mating opportunities. While sperm number adjustments have been reported in several taxa, only a few studies investigated whether sperm quality shows adaptive plasticity as well. We tested this prediction in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata. A total of 46 males were initially stripped of all retrievable sperm before being randomly allocated to one of two treatments simulating different levels of mating opportunities (visual contact with females or female deprived). After 3 days, males were stripped and sperm velocity was assayed using Computer Assisted Sperm Analysis. Males in the presence of females produced significantly faster sperm than their counterparts. Implications for the evolution of this ejaculate plasticity in the light of results of sperm competition studies are discussed. PMID:19656863

  4. Sperm viability - Determination of sperm viability using fluorescence microscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine the percentage of viable sperm in a semen sample using stains that differentiates viable (live) sperm from nonviable (dead) sperm. Viable sperm are detected by SYBR-14, which stains the sperm nuclei green. Nonviable sperm are detected by propidium iodide (PI), which stains the sperm red...

  5. Identifying environmental risk to male reproductive function by occupational sperm studies: logistics and design options

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Bonde; A. Giwercman; E. Ernst; M. Joffe; L. Bisanti; Hoorne M van M; P. Thonneau; G. Zielhuis; P. Kiss; A. Abell; S. B. Larsen; G. Danscher; H. Kolstad

    1996-01-01

    Malfunction of the male reproductive system might be a sensitive marker of environmental hazards, the effects of which may extend beyond reproductive function. The testis is more vulnerable to heat and ionising radiation than any other organ of the body and several xenobiotics are known to disrupt spermatogenesis after low level exposure. Studies of environmental impact on human health are

  6. “OMICS” of Human Sperm: Profiling Protein Phosphatases

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Mónica; Pelech, Steven; Vieira, Sandra; Rebelo, Sandra; Korrodi-Gregorio, Luís; Sousa, Mário; Barros, Alberto; Silva, Vladimiro; da Cruz e Silva, Odete A. B.; da Cruz e Silva, Edgar F.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Phosphorylation is a major regulatory mechanism in eukaryotic cells performed by the concerted actions of kinases and phosphatases (PPs). Protein phosphorylation has long been relevant to sperm physiology, from acquisition of motility in the epididymis to capacitation in the female reproductive tract. While the precise kinases involved in the regulation of sperm phosphorylation have been studied for decades, the PPs have only recently received research interest. Tyrosine phosphorylation was first implicated in the regulation of several sperm-related functions, from capacitation to oocyte binding. Only afterwards, in 1996, the inhibition of the serine/threonine-PP phosphoprotein phosphatase 1 (PPP1) by okadaic acid and calyculin-A was shown to initiate motility in caput epididymal sperm. Today, the current mechanisms of sperm motility acquisition based on PPP1 and its regulators are still far from being fully understood. PPP1CC2, specifically expressed in mammalian sperm, has been considered to be the only sperm-specific serine/threonine-PP, while other PPP1 isoforms were thought to be absent from sperm. This article examines the “Omics” of human sperm, and reports, for the first time, the identification of three new serine/threonine-protein PPs, PPP1CB, PPP4C, and PPP6C, in human sperm, together with two tyrosine-PPs, MKP1 and PTP1C. We specifically localized in sperm PPP1CB and PPP1CC2 from the PPP1 subfamily, and PPP2CA, PPP4C, and PPP6C from the PPP2 subfamily of the serine/threonine-PPs. A semi-quantitative analysis was performed to determine the various PPs' differential expression in sperm head and tail. These findings contribute to a comprehensive understanding of human sperm PPs, and warrant further research for their clinical and therapeutic significance. PMID:23895272

  7. How to select the spermatozoon for intracytoplasmic sperm injection in 2015?

    PubMed

    Herbemont, C; Sifer, C

    2015-04-01

    The selection of the individual spermatozoon in intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is routinely performed by the observation of its motility and morphology. However, in case of severe oligoasthenozoospermia or non-obstructive azoospermia requiring the use of testicular sperm, other methods are necessary to help the embryologist making this choice. According to some authors, sperm processing before ICSI seems to limit the DNA fragmentation index, and in this way improves ICSI outcomes. Moreover, intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection is potentially a good option in some specific indications such as severe teratozoospermia, or repeated ICSI failures. Other methods based on sperm structure, as sperm head birefringence observation, or based on its function, like the hyaluronic acid or zona pellucida binding capacity, could be of interest, but still need to be evaluated. Finally, in case of akinetozoospermia, the use of functional tests, such as pentoxifylline test, HOS-test, or to a lesser extent laser touch, makes the selection of viable spermatozoa easier. Nevertheless, studies on larger series have to be conducted to evaluate and precise the interest of each of these methods and their indications, before considering an application on larger scale. PMID:25581325

  8. Changes in Gene Expression of Goat Developing Testes and Sperm During Breeding and Non-breeding Season

    E-print Network

    Faucette, Azure

    2012-07-16

    -peak (April) breeding season were analyzed on a 4 x 44K Agilent bovine microarray. One thousand three hundred and eighteen gene products were differentially expressed 2-fold or more (p ? 0.05 ) was expressed in mature goat sperm collected October and April...

  9. Functional significance of the outer dense fibers of mammalian sperm examined by computer simulations with the geometric clutch model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles B. Lindemann

    1996-01-01

    The flagella of mammalian sperm possess certain structural characteristics that distinguish them from simple flagella. Most notable of these features are the sheath (surrounding the axoneme), the outer dense fibers or ODFs (that are at- tached to the outer doublets), and the connecting piece (which anchors the ODFs at the base of the flagellum). In this study, the significance of

  10. Sperm cell toxicity test using sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus lamarck (Echinodermata: Echinoidea): sensitivity and discriminatory ability toward anionic and nonionic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Ghirardini, A V; Novelli, A A; Likar, B; Pojana, G; Ghetti, P F; Marcomini, A

    2001-03-01

    A reliable sperm cell toxicity test procedure has been developed for the Mediterranean sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. The sensitivity and discriminatory ability of the test were investigated with regard to surfactants and their biotransformation products. Aromatic and aliphatic surfactants of anionic (linear alkylbenzene sulfonates [LAS]) and nonionic (alcohol polyethoxylates [AE] and nonylphenol polyethoxylates [NPE]) types and their aerobic biodegradation products, i.e., sulfophenylcarboxylates (SPC), polyethylene glycols (PEG), carboxylated polyethylene glycols (PEGC), carboxylated AE (AEC), and nonylphenol (NP), were examined in order to elucidate the influence of their molecular structure on toxicity. Experimental results reveal that the sperm cell test showed good discriminatory ability among all tested compounds, median effective concentration (EC50) values differing by about four orders of magnitude. The toxicity of anionic surfactants depends on the length of the alkyl chain and that of nonionic surfactants is due to their length and branching. Much lower toxicity was shown by aerobic biodegradation products in comparison with that of their parent compounds, with the exception of NP. The obtained EC50s were comparable with available literature data and constitute new toxicity data regarding surfactants for sea urchins. PMID:11349867

  11. Functional Task Test: Data Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromwell, Ronita

    2014-01-01

    After space flight there are changes in multiple physiological systems including: Cardiovascular function; Sensorimotor function; and Muscle function. How do changes in these physiological system impact astronaut functional performance?

  12. Mass-Specific Metabolic Rate and Sperm Competition Determine Sperm Size in Marsupial Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Tourmente, Maximiliano; Gomendio, Montserrat; Roldan, Eduardo R. S.

    2011-01-01

    Two complementary hypotheses have been proposed to explain variation in sperm size. The first proposes that post-copulatory sexual selection favors an increase in sperm size because it enhances sperm swimming speed, which is an important determinant of fertilization success in competitive contexts. The second hypothesis proposes that mass-specific metabolic rate acts as a constraint, because large animals with low mass-specific metabolic rates will not be able to process resources at the rates needed to produce large sperm. This constraint is expected to be particularly pronounced among mammals, given that this group contains some of the largest species on Earth. We tested these hypotheses among marsupials, a group in which mass-specific metabolic rates are roughly 30% lower than those of eutherian mammals of similar size, leading to the expectation that metabolic rate should be a major constraint. Our findings support both hypotheses because levels of sperm competition are associated with increases in sperm size, but low mass-specific metabolic rate constrains sperm size among large species. We also found that the relationship between sperm size and mass-specific metabolic rate is steeper among marsupials and shallower among eutherian mammals. This finding has two implications: marsupials respond to changes in mass-specific metabolic rate by modifying sperm length to a greater extent, suggesting that they are more constrained by metabolic rate. In addition, for any given mass-specific metabolic rate, marsupials produce longer sperm. We suggest that this is the consequence of marsupials diverting resources away from sperm numbers and into sperm size, due to their efficient sperm transport along the female tract and the existence of mechanisms to protect sperm. PMID:21731682

  13. The monopulsed nature of sperm whale clicks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bertel Mřhl; Magnus Wahlberg; Peter T. Madsen; Anders Heerfordt; Anders Lund

    2003-01-01

    Traditionally, sperm whale clicks have been described as multipulsed, long duration, nondirectional signals of moderate intensity and with a spectrum peaking below 10 kHz. Such properties are counterindicative of a sonar function, and quite different from the properties of dolphin sonar clicks. Here, data are presented suggesting that the traditional view of sperm whale clicks is incomplete and derived from

  14. Integrating Model-Based Testing with Evolutionary Functional Testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Felix Lindlar; Andreas Windisch; Joachim Wegener

    2010-01-01

    Evolutionary Functional Testing (EFT) is a relatively recent approach to automating the testing process. The research presented in this paper aims at increasing the acceptability of EFT in industrial settings. An approach suitable for efficiently and effectively testing complex continuous control systems is introduced. The main focus is on generating realistic test stimuli, enabling interactivity between test driver and test

  15. High quality sperm for nonhuman primate ART: Production and assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine A VandeVoort

    2004-01-01

    Factors that affect sperm quality can include method of semen collection, conditions for capacitation and whether or not agglutination is present. Media and procedures for sperm washing can also impair or improve sperm function in assisted reproductive technologies. For example, the removal of seminal fluid through large volume washing is required to eliminate decapacitation activity of seminal plasma. The forces

  16. LOCALIZATION OF SP22 ON HUMAN SPERM OF DIFFERING QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    LOCALIZATION OF SP22 ON HUMAN SPERM OF DIFFERING QUALITY. AE Lavers*1, GR Klinefelter2, DW Hamilton1, KP Roberts1, 1University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN and 2US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC. SP22 is a sperm membrane protein that has been implicated in sperm function d...

  17. Sperm competition and ejaculate investment in red squirrels ( Tamiasciurus hudsonicus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vanessa L. Bonanno; Albrecht I. Schulte-Hostedde

    2009-01-01

    Sperm competition is widespread in mammals and occurs when ejaculates from two or more males compete within the female’s reproductive\\u000a tract to fertilize the ova. Enlarged testes are associated with sperm competition because they produce sperm, but the accessory\\u000a glands produce fluids and proteins that are also important for fertilization success. Sperm morphology can also have consequences\\u000a for fertilization success

  18. Turbidity as a method of preparing sperm dilutions in the echinoid sperm/egg bioassay

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, T.J.; Haley, R.K.; Battan, K.J. (National Council of the Paper Industry for Air and Stream Improvement, Anacortes, WA (United States))

    1993-11-01

    The use of turbidimeter for preparing sperm dilutions used in the echinoid sperm/egg bioassay was evaluated. Regression analyses of the relationship between sperm density and turbidity for the sea urchins Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis and the sand dollar Dendraster excentricus indicated that although there were slope differences for each species, each coefficient of determination was highly significant. For Dendraster excentricus, triplicate hemacytometer counts over a range of turbidities as well as repeated preparations of a single sperm turbidity indicated similar variability for each. The use of the turbidimeter has time-saving advantages over conventional hemacytometer methods without sacrificing precision. Sperm dilutions can be prepared rapidly, minimizing seawater sperm preactivation before test initiation, and may therefore contribute to increased test precision.

  19. Comparison of methods to evaluate the plasmalemma of bovine sperm and their relationship with in vitro fertilization rate.

    PubMed

    Brito, Leonardo F C; Barth, Albert D; Bilodeau-Goeseels, Sylvie; Panich, Paul L; Kastelic, John P

    2003-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare different methods of evaluating sperm plasmalemma and to determine their relationship with in vitro fertilization rate. A single batch of frozen semen from each of eight beef bulls was used for assessment of sperm viability and for in vitro fertilization. Conventional viability tests included sperm morphology, motility, acrosome integrity, and abnormal DNA condensation. Methods for evaluation of the sperm plasmalemma included eosin/nigrosin (EN) and trypan-blue (TB) vital stains, propidium iodide (PI) in combination with carboxyfluorescein diacetate (CFDA) or SYBR-14 (SYBR) fluorescent vital stains, and the hypoosmotic swelling test (HOST). A total of 133-150 oocytes were fertilized in vitro with sperm from each bull and cleavage rates were determined. There were high correlations between the results obtained with vital stains and good to excellent interclass correlation coefficients of agreement, indicating that these stains provide measures of the same sperm attribute, i.e. plasmalemma integrity. However, the proportions of membrane-intact sperm identified by EN or TB stains were greater (P<0.0001) than identified by CFDA/PI or SYBR/PI fluorescent stains. The results obtained with the HOST had moderate correlations but poor agreement with the results of the vital stains. The proportion of viable sperm identified by the HOST was lower (P<0.05) than the proportion identified by vital stains, indicating that response to the HOST did not depend only on the integrity of the plasmalemma. Although there were significant differences in fertilization rates and sperm viability among bulls, there was no sharp distinction for the results of sperm viability tests from bulls producing different in vitro fertilization rates. Proportions of normal, motile, acrosome-intact, and HOST-responsive sperm were identified as significant predictors of in vitro fertilizing potential; each of these endpoints explained 12-18% of the variation when evaluated separately (linear regression) and 48% when evaluated collectively (stepwise regression). In conclusion, EN and TB stains overestimated the proportion of plasmalemma-intact sperm compared to PI-based fluorescent stains. Vital stains evaluated the morphological integrity of the plasmalemma, whereas the HOST assessed plasmalemma function. In that regard, the HOST was the only plasmalemma evaluation method that significantly contributed to conventional sperm quality tests in predicting in vitro fertilization rate, indicating that the test could be incorporated to the routine of semen analysis. PMID:14519474

  20. Evaluation of maize grain and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) as energy sources for breeding rams based on hormonal, sperm functional parameters and fertility.

    PubMed

    Selvaraju, Sellappan; Raju, Priyadarshini; Rao, Somu Bala Nageswara; Raghavendra, Subbarao; Nandi, Sumantha; Dineshkumar, Dhanasekaran; Thayakumar, Allen; Parthipan, Shivashanmugam; Ravindra, Janivara Parameswaraiah

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to elucidate the effect of different sources of dietary energy (maize vs polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) on semen functional parameters and fertility of adult rams. Eighteen adult rams were divided into two groups (maize and PUFA, n=9). The main energy source for the rams in the maize group was coarsely ground maize grain, whereas in the PUFA group it was sunflower oil (rich in 18:2 linoleic acid, an omega-6 acid). The ration was fed for a minimum period of 60 days and thereafter semen was collected for evaluation. The proportion of progressive forward motility was significantly (P<0.05) higher in the PUFA group compared with the maize group. Sperm lipid peroxidation as measured by malondialdehyde formation (µM per 1×10(9) spermatozoa) was significantly (P<0.05) higher in the PUFA group compared with the maize group. When the semen was diluted with Tris-egg yolk-citrate buffer and incubated for 24h at 4°C, the proportions of plasmalemma integrity, the sperm subpopulation positive for functional membrane and acrosomal integrities, and mitochondrial membrane potential were significantly (P<0.05) higher in PUFA-fed than in maize-fed animals. The different sources of energy did not influence the serum and seminal plasma IGF-I levels. The cleavage rate (percentage) did not differ significantly between PUFA- (45.4±4.91) and maize- (44.63±6.8) fed animals. In conclusion, PUFA feeding influenced sperm quality by altering or stabilising membrane integrity. The present study indicates that PUFA may improve semen quality but did not improve in vitro fertilisation. PMID:22697117

  1. The sperm structure of Cryptocercus punctulatus Scudder (Blattodea) and sperm evolution in Dictyoptera.

    PubMed

    Dallai, Romano; Thipaksorn, Apisit; Gottardo, Marco; Mercati, David; Machida, Ryuichiro; Beutel, Rolf Georg

    2015-04-01

    Sperm of the dictyopteran key taxon Cryptocercus punctulatus was examined. It has largely maintained a blattodean groundplan condition, with a three-layered acrosome, an elongate nucleus, a single centriole, a conspicuous centriole adjunct material, two connecting bands (=accessory bodies), and a long functional flagellum with a 9+9+2 axoneme provided with accessory tubules with 16 protofilaments and intertubular material. These sperm characters are shared with several other polyneopterans. The sperm of C. punctulatus is very similar to what is found in Periplaneta americana and species of other groups of roaches, including the sperm of Loboptera decipiens described here for the first time. The general sperm organization here described can be assumed for the groundplan of Insecta and Pterygota. The following evolutionary path can be suggested: after the split between Cryptocercidae and the common ancestor of Isoptera, the typical pattern of sperm formation was altered very distinctly, resulting in a duplication or multiplication (Mastotermitidae) of the centrioles. Mastotermes has maintained a certain sperm motility, but with a very unusual apparatus of multiple flagella with a 9+0 axoneme pattern. After the split into Mastotermitidae and the remaining Isoptera, sperm motility was completely abandoned, and different modifications of sperm components occurred, and even the loss of the sperm flagellum. J. Morphol. 276:361-369, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25503102

  2. Track/train dynamics test procedure transfer function test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vigil, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    A transfer function vibration test was made on an 80 ton open hopper freight car in an effort to obtain validation data on the car's nonlinear elastic model. Test configuration, handling, test facilities, test operations, and data acquisition/reduction activities necessary to meet the conditions of test requirements are given.

  3. Characterization of sperm motility in sea bass: the effect of heavy metals and physicochemical

    E-print Network

    Villefranche sur mer

    Characterization of sperm motility in sea bass: the effect of heavy metals and physicochemical of several physicochemical variables and heavy metals on sperm swimming performance. Duration of sperm. Two of the heavy metals tested, Cu2ţ and Pb2ţ , did not affect sperm motility when the activating

  4. Sperm motility inhibitory effect of the benzene chromatographic fraction of the chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya in langur monkey, Presbytis entellus entellus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nirmal K. Lohiya; Boomi Manivannan; Shipra Goyal; Abdul S. Ansari

    2008-01-01

    Aim:To assess the contraceptive efficacy of the benzene chromatographic fraction of the chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya in langur monkeys.Methods:The test substance was given p.o. to five monkeys at 50 mg\\/kg body weight\\/day for 360 days. Control animals (n = 3) received olive oil as vehicle. Sperm parameters as per World Health Organization standards, sperm functional tests,

  5. New era in sperm selection for ICSI.

    PubMed

    Nasr-Esfahani, M H; Deemeh, M R; Tavalaee, M

    2012-08-01

    Spermatozoa contribute to approximately half of the genome of future progeny, and therefore, have a profound impact on embryo development post-fertilization. Sperm selection based on viability and normal morphology does not eliminate the chance for DNA damaged spermatozoa to be inseminated and may account for a considerable percentage of failed embryo development post-ICSI (Intra cytoplasmic sperm injection). Therefore, sperm selection based on functional sperm characteristics to preclude insemination of DNA damaged spermatozoa have paved the way for successful ICSI outcomes. In regard to this, different laboratories have introduced novel procedures to replace traditional or orthodox sperm selection methods. This review attempts to provide information on the scientific bases of each procedure, and pinpoint their advantages and disadvantages. In addition to data from our research, a systematic search on the literature, publications and presentations was carried out using such databases as PubMed and ISI-Web. PMID:22804455

  6. Sperm output of older men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. K. Ng; R. Donat; L. Chan; A. Lalak; I. Di Pierro; D. J. Handelsman

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Declining fertility of couples from the fourth decade of life is largely attributable to the drop in female fertility. However, increasing numbers of men, whose fertility theoretically lasts until death, are seeking fer- tility treatment at older ages, yet there is little information on sperm production and function past the age of 50 years. The few studies of such

  7. Discriminating males alter sperm production between species.

    PubMed

    Aspbury, Andrea S; Gabor, Caitlin R

    2004-11-01

    Prezygotic reproductive isolation and its importance in speciation is traditionally approached from the viewpoint of those events that occur before mating. However, recent interest in sperm competition theory has shown that prezygotic isolation can be affected by mechanisms that occur after mating but before fertilization. One neglected aspect of these studies is how the cost of sperm production might play a role in species isolation. We examined differential sperm production in a species whose males are sexually parasitized by a unisexual gynogenetic species. Gynogens are clonal females that require sperm from males of closely related bisexual species to initiate embryogenesis. We tested for differential sperm production by male sailfin mollies (Poecilia latipinna) when they were in the presence of either a heterospecific, gynogenetic female (Poecilia formosa, Amazon molly) or a conspecific female. We found that previously demonstrated male mate choice for conspecific over heterospecific females also is revealed in sperm production. Males from both an allopatric and a sympatric population produce more sperm when in the presence of a conspecific female than when in the presence of a heterospecific female. We suggest that differential sperm production also could play a role in prezygotic reproductive isolation in bisexual species complexes that occur in sympatry. PMID:15520395

  8. Discriminating males alter sperm production between species

    PubMed Central

    Aspbury, Andrea S.; Gabor, Caitlin R.

    2004-01-01

    Prezygotic reproductive isolation and its importance in speciation is traditionally approached from the viewpoint of those events that occur before mating. However, recent interest in sperm competition theory has shown that prezygotic isolation can be affected by mechanisms that occur after mating but before fertilization. One neglected aspect of these studies is how the cost of sperm production might play a role in species isolation. We examined differential sperm production in a species whose males are sexually parasitized by a unisexual gynogenetic species. Gynogens are clonal females that require sperm from males of closely related bisexual species to initiate embryogenesis. We tested for differential sperm production by male sailfin mollies (Poecilia latipinna) when they were in the presence of either a heterospecific, gynogenetic female (Poecilia formosa, Amazon molly) or a conspecific female. We found that previously demonstrated male mate choice for conspecific over heterospecific females also is revealed in sperm production. Males from both an allopatric and a sympatric population produce more sperm when in the presence of a conspecific female than when in the presence of a heterospecific female. We suggest that differential sperm production also could play a role in prezygotic reproductive isolation in bisexual species complexes that occur in sympatry. PMID:15520395

  9. SPE-44 Implements Sperm Cell Fate

    PubMed Central

    Guevel, Katie; Smith, Harold E.

    2012-01-01

    The sperm/oocyte decision in the hermaphrodite germline of Caenorhabditis elegans provides a powerful model for the characterization of stem cell fate specification and differentiation. The germline sex determination program that governs gamete fate has been well studied, but direct mediators of cell-type-specific transcription are largely unknown. We report the identification of spe-44 as a critical regulator of sperm gene expression. Deletion of spe-44 causes sperm-specific defects in cytokinesis, cell cycle progression, and organelle assembly resulting in sterility. Expression of spe-44 correlates precisely with spermatogenesis and is regulated by the germline sex determination pathway. spe-44 is required for the appropriate expression of several hundred sperm-enriched genes. The SPE-44 protein is restricted to the sperm-producing germline, where it localizes to the autosomes (which contain sperm genes) but is excluded from the transcriptionally silent X chromosome (which does not). The orthologous gene in other Caenorhabditis species is similarly expressed in a sex-biased manner, and the protein likewise exhibits autosome-specific localization in developing sperm, strongly suggestive of an evolutionarily conserved role in sperm gene expression. Our analysis represents the first identification of a transcriptional regulator whose primary function is the control of gamete-type-specific transcription in this system. PMID:22570621

  10. Evolution of sperm structure and energetics in passerine birds

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Melissah; Laskemoen, Terje; Johnsen, Arild; Lifjeld, Jan T.

    2013-01-01

    Spermatozoa exhibit considerable interspecific variability in size and shape. Our understanding of the adaptive significance of this diversity, however, remains limited. Determining how variation in sperm structure translates into variation in sperm performance will contribute to our understanding of the evolutionary diversification of sperm form. Here, using data from passerine birds, we test the hypothesis that longer sperm swim faster because they have more available energy. We found that sperm with longer midpieces have higher levels of intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP), but that greater energy reserves do not translate into faster-swimming sperm. Additionally, we found that interspecific variation in sperm ATP concentration is not associated with the level of sperm competition faced by males. Finally, using Bayesian methods, we compared the evolutionary trajectories of sperm morphology and ATP content, and show that both traits have undergone directional evolutionary change. However, in contrast to recent suggestions in other taxa, we show that changes in ATP are unlikely to have preceded changes in morphology in passerine sperm. These results suggest that variable selective pressures are likely to have driven the evolution of sperm traits in different taxa, and highlight fundamental biological differences between taxa with internal and external fertilization, as well as those with and without sperm storage. PMID:23282997

  11. Evolution of sperm structure and energetics in passerine birds.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Melissah; Laskemoen, Terje; Johnsen, Arild; Lifjeld, Jan T

    2013-02-22

    Spermatozoa exhibit considerable interspecific variability in size and shape. Our understanding of the adaptive significance of this diversity, however, remains limited. Determining how variation in sperm structure translates into variation in sperm performance will contribute to our understanding of the evolutionary diversification of sperm form. Here, using data from passerine birds, we test the hypothesis that longer sperm swim faster because they have more available energy. We found that sperm with longer midpieces have higher levels of intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP), but that greater energy reserves do not translate into faster-swimming sperm. Additionally, we found that interspecific variation in sperm ATP concentration is not associated with the level of sperm competition faced by males. Finally, using Bayesian methods, we compared the evolutionary trajectories of sperm morphology and ATP content, and show that both traits have undergone directional evolutionary change. However, in contrast to recent suggestions in other taxa, we show that changes in ATP are unlikely to have preceded changes in morphology in passerine sperm. These results suggest that variable selective pressures are likely to have driven the evolution of sperm traits in different taxa, and highlight fundamental biological differences between taxa with internal and external fertilization, as well as those with and without sperm storage. PMID:23282997

  12. Flow cytometry of sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Gledhill, B.L.

    1987-09-21

    This brief paper summarizes automated flow cytometric determination of sperm morphology and flow cytometry/sorting of sperm with application to sex preselection. In the latter context, mention is made of results of karyotypic determination of sex chromosome ratios in albumin-processed human sperm. 23 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  13. Direct action of endocrine disrupting chemicals on human sperm.

    PubMed

    Schiffer, Christian; Müller, Astrid; Egeberg, Dorte L; Alvarez, Luis; Brenker, Christoph; Rehfeld, Anders; Frederiksen, Hanne; Wäschle, Benjamin; Kaupp, U Benjamin; Balbach, Melanie; Wachten, Dagmar; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Almstrup, Kristian; Strünker, Timo

    2014-07-01

    Synthetic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), omnipresent in food, household, and personal care products, have been implicated in adverse trends in human reproduction, including infertility and increasing demand for assisted reproduction. Here, we study the action of 96 ubiquitous EDCs on human sperm. We show that structurally diverse EDCs activate the sperm-specific CatSper channel and, thereby, evoke an intracellular Ca(2+) increase, a motility response, and acrosomal exocytosis. Moreover, EDCs desensitize sperm for physiological CatSper ligands and cooperate in low-dose mixtures to elevate Ca(2+) levels in sperm. We conclude that EDCs interfere with various sperm functions and, thereby, might impair human fertilization. PMID:24820036

  14. HEALTH SIGNIFICANCE OF PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    As the sensitivity and precision of functional tests improves, we become increasingly able to measure responses to pollutant exposures with little, if any, demonstrable health significance. Proper interpretation of such functional responses generally requires an ability to evalua...

  15. What Are Lung Function Tests?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... COPD How the Lungs Work Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Sarcoidosis Send a link to NHLBI to someone by ... caused by conditions such as pulmonary fibrosis and sarcoidosis (sar-koy-DOE-sis). Also, these tests might ...

  16. Functional Assays for Neurotoxicity Testing*

    EPA Science Inventory

    Neurobehavioral and pathological evaluations of the nervous system are complementary components of basic research and toxicity testing of pharmaceutical and environmental chemicals. While neuropathological assessments provide insight as to cellular changes in neurons, behavioral ...

  17. Functional Assays for Neurotoxicity Testing

    EPA Science Inventory

    Neurobehavioral and pathological evaluations of the nervous system are complementary components of basic research and toxicity testing of pharmaceutical and environmental chemicals. While neuropathological assessments provide insight as to cellular changes in neurons, behavioral ...

  18. Adaptive plasticity of mammalian sperm production in response to social experience

    PubMed Central

    Ramm, Steven A.; Stockley, Paula

    2008-01-01

    Sperm competition theory predicts that males should invest prudently in ejaculates according to levels of female promiscuity. Males may therefore be sensitive to cues in their social environment associated with sexual competition, and tailor investment in sperm production accordingly. We tested this idea experimentally for the first time, to our knowledge, in a mammal by comparing reproductive traits of male house mice (Mus musculus domesticus) that had experienced contrasting encounter regimes with potential sexual competitors. We found that daily sperm production and numbers of sperm in the caput epididymis were significantly higher in subjects that had experienced a high encounter rate of social cues from three other males compared to those that had experienced a low encounter rate of social cues from just one other male. Epididymal sperm counts were negatively correlated with the frequency of scent-marking behaviour across all males in our study, suggesting that investment in ejaculate production may be traded off against traits that function in gaining copulations, although there was no difference in overall levels of scent marking between treatment groups. We conclude that social experience-mediated phenotypic plasticity in mammalian spermatogenesis is likely to be adaptive under sperm competition, enabling males to balance the energetic costs and paternity-enhancing benefits of ejaculate production, and is a potentially widespread explanation for intraspecific variation in ejaculate expenditure. PMID:18986975

  19. Sperm selection and genetic incompatibility: does relatedness of mates affect male success in sperm competition?

    PubMed Central

    Stockley, P.

    1999-01-01

    Sperm selection may be said to occur if females influence the relative success of ejaculates competing to fertilize their ova. Most evidence that female animals or their ova are capable of sperm selection relates to male genetic incompatibility, although relatively few studies focus on competition between conspecific males. Here I look for evidence of sperm selection with respect to relatedness of mates. Reduced fitness or inbreeding effects in offspring resulting from copulations between close relatives are well documented. If females are capable of sperm selection, they might therefore be expected to discriminate against the sperm of sibling males during sperm competition. I describe an experimental protocol designed to test for evidence of sperm selection while controlling for inbreeding effects. Using decorated field crickets (Gryllodes supplicans), I found that sibling males achieved lower fertilization success in competition with a male unrelated to the female than in competition with another sibling more frequently than expected by chance, although the mean paternity values did not differ significantly between treatments. The tendancy for sibling males to achieve relatively lower fertilization success in competition with males unrelated to the female could not be explained by the effects of increased ejaculate allocation, female control of sperm transfer or inbreeding. This study therefore provides some evidence in support of the idea that female insects (or their ova) may be capable of selection against sperm on the basis of genetic similarity of conspecific males.

  20. Motile sperm organelle morphology examination (MSOME) and sperm head vacuoles: state of the art in 2013.

    PubMed

    Perdrix, Anne; Rives, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Approximately 10 years after the first publication introducing the motile sperm organelle morphology examination (MSOME), many questions remained about sperm vacuoles: frequency, size, localization, mode of occurrence, biological significance and impact on male fertility potential. Many studies have tried to characterize sperm vacuoles, to determine the sperm abnormalities possibly associated with vacuoles, to test the diagnostic value of MSOME for male infertility or to question the benefits of intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI). METHODS We searched PubMed for articles in the English language published in 2001-2012 regarding human sperm head vacuoles, MSOME and IMSI. RESULTS A bibliographic analysis revealed consensus for the following findings: (i) sperm vacuoles appeared frequently, often multiple and preferentially anterior; (ii) sperm vacuoles and sperm chromatin immaturity have been associated, particularly in the case of large vacuoles; (iii) teratozoospermia was a preferred indication of MSOME and IMSI. CONCLUSION The high-magnification system appears to be a powerful method to improve our understanding of human spermatozoa. However, its clinical use remains unclear in the fields of male infertility diagnosis and assisted reproduction techniques (ARTs). PMID:23825157

  1. Sperm competition and sperm midpiece size: no consistent pattern in passerine birds

    PubMed Central

    Immler, Simone; Birkhead, Tim R

    2006-01-01

    Sperm competition is thought to be a major force driving the evolution of sperm shape and function. However, previous studies investigating the relationship between the risk of sperm competition and sperm morphometry revealed inconclusive results and marked differences between taxonomic groups. In a comparative study of two families of passerines (Fringillidae and Sylviidae) and also across species belonging to different passerine families, we investigated the relative importance of the phylogenetic background on the relationship between sperm morphometry and the risk of sperm competition. The risk of sperm competition was inferred from relative testis mass as an indicator of investment in sperm production. We found: (i) a significant positive association between both midpiece length and flagellum length and relative testis mass in the Fringillidae, (ii) a significant negative association between sperm trait dimensions and relative testis mass in the Sylviidae, and (iii) no association across all species. Despite the striking difference in the patterns shown by the Sylviidae and the Fringillidae, the relationship between midpiece length and flagellum length was positive in both families and across all species with positive allometry. Reasons for the differences and similarities between passerine families are discussed. PMID:17476777

  2. Functional Performance Testing in Athletes with Functional Ankle Instability

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Nidhi; Sharma, Archna; Singh Sandhu, Jaspal

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To determine if functional performance deficits are present in athletes with functional ankle instability (FAI) compared to healthy athletes using various functional performance tests. Methods Sixty two athletes (mean age-21.7±1.8years; height-168.2±9.1cm; weight-63.8±11.0kg) participated in this case control study. Athletes were divided into two groups: athletes with FAI (FAI group, n=31) and healthy athletes (Non-FAI group, n=31). The FAI group was further divided into two subgroups: FAI with giving way (FAI-GW), FAI with no giving way (FAI-NGW). Functional performance was assessed with the single-limb hopping test, figure-of-8 hop test, side-hop test, single-limb hurdle test, square hop test and single hop test. Results Significant differences (P<0.05) were observed for all the functional performance tests (FPTs) except the single hop test between FAI and Non-FAI groups; between FAI-GW, FAI-NGW and Non-FAI groups. Additionally, the involved limb performed significantly worse (P<0.05) than the contra-lateral uninvolved limb of the FAI-GW group for the above-mentioned FPTs. Conclusion Significant functional performance deficits were observed in the FAI group in all tests except single hop test with greater deficits observed in the FAI-GW group. Hence, these tests can be used to determine the presence of FAI. However no deficits were identified for the test involving sagittal plane functional activities suggesting that this test can not be used as a criterion to discriminate individuals with FAI. It was further ascertained that functional performance was not affected by limb dominance. PMID:22375246

  3. The Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta) Sperm Proteome*

    PubMed Central

    Skerget, Sheri; Rosenow, Matthew; Polpitiya, Ashoka; Petritis, Konstantinos; Dorus, Steve; Karr, Timothy L.

    2013-01-01

    Mass spectrometry based proteomics has facilitated sperm composition studies in several mammalian species but no studies have been undertaken in non-human primate species. Here we report the analysis of the 1247 proteins that comprise the Rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) sperm proteome (termed the MacSP). Comparative analysis with previously characterized mouse and human sperm proteomes reveals substantial levels of orthology (47% and 40% respectively) and widespread overlap of functional categories based on Gene Ontology analyses. Approximately 10% of macaque sperm genes (113/1247) are significantly under-expressed in the testis as compared with other tissues, which may reflect proteins specifically acquired during epididymal maturation. Phylogenetic and genomic analyses of three MacSP ADAMs (A-Disintegrin and Metalloprotease proteins), ADAM18-, 20- and 21-like, provides empirical support for sperm genes functioning in non-human primate taxa which have been subsequently lost in the lineages leading to humans. The MacSP contains proteasome proteins of the 20S core subunit, the 19S proteasome activator complex and an alternate proteasome activator PA200, raising the possibility that proteasome activity is present in mature sperm. Robust empirical characterization of the Rhesus sperm proteome should greatly expand the possibility for targeted molecular studies of spermatogenesis and fertilization in a commonly used model species for human infertility. PMID:23816990

  4. Sperm competition, male prudence, and sperm-limited females (2002)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nina Wedell; Matthew Gage; Geoffrey Parker

    Sperm are produced in astronomical numbers compared with eggs, and there is good evidence that sperm competition is the force behind the evolution of many tiny sperm. However, sperm production inevitably has costs. Recent research shows that male ejaculate expenditure is dynamic in both time and space, and that males are sensitive to risks of sperm competition and can vary

  5. Sperm competition and the evolution of sperm design in mammals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maximiliano Tourmente; Montserrat Gomendio; Eduardo RS Roldan

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The influence of sperm competition upon sperm size has been a controversial issue during the last 20 years which remains unresolved for mammals. The hypothesis that, when ejaculates compete with rival males, an increase in sperm size would make sperm more competitive because it would increase sperm swimming speed, has generated contradictory results from both theoretical and empirical studies.

  6. Positive Association of Sperm Dysfunction in the Pathogenesis of Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

    PubMed Central

    P, Kavitha

    2014-01-01

    Background: Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is one of the most frustrating and difficult areas in reproductive medicine, because the aetiology is often unknown and there are few evidence-based diagnostic and treatment strategies. RPL diagnosis is mainly focused on the female partner. The male factor contributing in evaluation of RPL has been less investigated, it is restricted to karyotype and basic semen analysis, assessment of functionality of sperm is largely ignored. Aim and Objective: To investigate the role of sperm factors in RPL through regular semen analysis preceded with sperm function tests. Materials and Methods: We performed a case control study of 95 males whose partner has experienced two or more pregnancy loss as case and 37 volunteers who had fathered child/children without the history of RPL as control group. Basic semen analysis and sperm function test (Nuclear chromatin decondensation {NCD}, Hypo osmotic swelling {HOS} and Acrosome intactness test {AIT} was performed. The results were analysed by performing Independent-sample t-test using SPSS (version 14.0). Results: One individual had anatomical abnormality which was confirmed through trans-rectal ultrasound scanning and RPL group showed statistically significant (p<0.05) value for NCD, HOS and AIT and 36.8% of RPL individuals had reduced score for sperm count and motility. Less than 4% normal morphology was recorded in 16.8% individuals of RPL group. Conclusion: Our study revealed that the positive association of sperm dysfunction in RPL cases, hence male may be considered for a routine part of the evaluation along with his partner in the near future in order to achieve desirable outcome. PMID:25584272

  7. Collection and freezing of epididymal stallion sperm.

    PubMed

    Bruemmer, Jason E

    2006-12-01

    The ability to harvest and preserve epididymal sperm from a stallion after simple elective castration, a catastrophic injury, or severe acute illness and subsequent death has been realized, allowing for the preservation of genetics that would have been lost otherwise.Currently, the care taken to collect the testes and epididymides properly, coupled with proper packaging and shipping, could make the greatest contribution to salvaging viable sperm. As advances in assisted reproductive techniques continue, more offspring may be obtained from stored epididymal sperm from valuable stallions. PMID:17129795

  8. Use of Fluorescent Dyes for Readily Recognizing Sperm Damage

    PubMed Central

    Farah, Omar Ibrahim; Cuiling, Li; Jiaojiao, Wang; Huiping, Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Sperm is produced by the testis and mature in the epididymis. For having a successful conception, the fertilizing sperm should have functional competent membranes, intact acrosome, functional mitochondria and an intact haploid genome. The effects of genetic and environmental factors result in sperm vulnerability to damage in the process of spermatogenesis and maturation. In recent years, the feasibility of detecting sperm damage is enhanced through the advances in technologies like fluoscerent staining techniques assisted with fluorescence microscope, flow cytometry and computer analysis systems. Fluoscerent staining techniques involve the use of fluorescent dyes, either directly or indirectly for binding them with some ingredients of sperm and evaluating the damage of the structure or function of the sperm, i.e. membrane, acrosome, mitochondria, chromosome or DNA. PMID:24163795

  9. Are sperm chromatin and DNA defects relevant in the clinic?

    PubMed

    Zini, Armand

    2011-02-01

    There has been an increase in the use of sperm DNA and chromatin integrity tests in the evaluation of the infertile man with the hypothesis that these tests may better diagnose infertility and predict reproductive outcomes. This review discusses the etiology of sperm DNA damage, briefly describing the tests of sperm DNA damage, and evaluates the relationship between sperm DNA damage and reproductive outcomes. A systematic review of the literature allows us to conclude that sperm DNA damage is associated with lower natural, intra-uterine insemination (IUI), and in vitro fertilization (IVF) pregnancy rates. Studies to date have not shown a clear association between sperm DNA and chromatin defects and pregnancy outcomes after intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). However, we cannot exclude the possibility that very high levels of DNA damage will impact on ICSI outcomes. In couples undergoing IVF or ICSI, there is evidence to show that sperm DNA damage is associated with an increased risk of pregnancy loss. A limitation of this systematic review and meta-analysis is that it does not address the heterogeneity of the individual study characteristics. Although the clinical utility of tests of sperm DNA damage remains to be firmly established, the data suggest that there is clinical value in testing couples prior to assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs IUI, IVF, and ICSI) and in those couples with recurrent miscarriages. Additional, well-designed prospective studies are needed before testing becomes a routine part of patient care. PMID:21208147

  10. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase-S, a sperm-specific glycolytic enzyme, is required for sperm motility and male fertility

    PubMed Central

    Miki, Kiyoshi; Qu, Weidong; Goulding, Eugenia H.; Willis, William D.; Bunch, Donna O.; Strader, Lillian F.; Perreault, Sally D.; Eddy, Edward M.; O'Brien, Deborah A.

    2004-01-01

    Although glycolysis is highly conserved, it is remarkable that several unique isozymes in this central metabolic pathway are found in mammalian sperm. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase-S (GAPDS) is the product of a mouse gene expressed only during spermatogenesis and, like its human ortholog (GAPD2), is the sole GAPDH isozyme in sperm. It is tightly bound to the fibrous sheath, a cytoskeletal structure that extends most of the length of the sperm flagellum. We disrupted Gapds expression by gene targeting to selectively block sperm glycolysis and assess its relative importance for in vivo sperm function. Gapds–/– males were infertile and had profound defects in sperm motility, exhibiting sluggish movement without forward progression. Although mitochondrial oxygen consumption was unchanged, sperm from Gapds–/– mice had ATP levels that were only 10.4% of those in sperm from WT mice. These results imply that most of the energy required for sperm motility is generated by glycolysis rather than oxidative phosphorylation. Furthermore, the critical role of glycolysis in sperm and its dependence on this sperm-specific enzyme suggest that GAPDS is a potential contraceptive target, and that mutations or environmental agents that disrupt its activity could lead to male infertility. PMID:15546993

  11. [Role of sperm passage through cervical mucus: fertilizing capacity tested by in vitro fertilization with zona-free hamster eggs].

    PubMed

    Ikuma, K; Suno, S; Hasegawa, A; Koyama, K; Isojima, S

    1989-02-01

    The effect of sperm passage through cervical mucus (CM) on the fertilizing capacity of human spermatozoa was examined in the in vitro fertilization system of zona-free hamster eggs. Each drop of ejaculated semen and BWW culture medium was connected by a small capillary tube filled with preovulatory CM, egg white or BWW medium under liquid paraffin oil in a plastic petri dish. After 2 hours, zona-free hamster eggs were added to the drop of BWW culture medium containing spermatozoa which had passed through the capillary tube and the mixture was incubated for various lengths of time at 37 degrees C under 5% CO2 in air. Human spermatozoa, which were washed and preincubated for 2 hours in BWW medium, were capable of fertilizing zona-free hamster eggs but needed a longer incubation time than spermatozoa which had passed through CM. Fertilization rates of spermatozoa which had passed through CM and egg white were very similar, but no fertilization occurred in the drop containing spermatozoa which had passed through BWW medium, presumably because of the contamination with seminal plasma. These results indicate that the most important role of CM may be to separate motile spermatozoa from seminal plasma components hostile to fertilization. PMID:2723485

  12. Intra-specific variation of sperm length in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae: males with shorter sperm have higher reproductive success

    PubMed Central

    Voordouw, Maarten J; Koella, Jacob C; Hurd, Hilary

    2008-01-01

    Background Intra-specific variation in sperm length influences male reproductive success in several species of insects. In males of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae, sperm length is highly variable but the significance of this variation is unknown. Understanding what determines the reproductive success of male mosquitoes is critical for controlling malaria, and in particular for replacing natural populations with transgenic, malaria-resistant mosquitoes. Methods A laboratory population of A. gambiae males was tested for intra-specific variation in sperm length. A full-sib quantitative genetic design was used to test for a genetic component of sperm length in A. gambiae males and estimate its heritability. This study also tested for a relationship between sperm length and male reproductive success in A. gambiae. Male reproductive success was measured as the proportions of inseminated and ovipositing females. Results There was intra-specific variation of sperm length in A. gambiae. There was no significant genetic variation in sperm length and its heritability was low (h2 = 0.18) compared to other insects. Sperm length was correlated with male body size (measured as wing length). Males with short sperm had significantly higher reproductive success than males with long sperm and this was independent of body size. Conclusion This is the first study to demonstrate intra-specific variation in sperm length in A. gambiae and that males with short sperm have higher reproductive success. That sperm length influences female oviposition is important for any strategy considering the release of transgenic males. PMID:18939985

  13. cDNA cloning reveals the molecular structure of a sperm surface protein, PH20, involved in sperm-egg adhesion and the wide distribution of its gene among mammals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William E Lathrop; Ellen P. Carmichael; Diana G. Myles; Paul Primakoff

    1990-01-01

    Sperm binding to the egg zona pellucida in mammals is a cell-cell adhesion process that is gener- ally species specific. The guinea pig sperm protein PH-20 has a required function in sperm adhesion to the zona pellucida of guinea pig eggs. PH-20 is lo- cated on both the sperm plasma membrane and acrosomal membrane. We report here the isolation and

  14. Ocean acidification impacts on sperm mitochondrial membrane potential bring sperm swimming behaviour near its tipping point.

    PubMed

    Schlegel, Peter; Binet, Monique T; Havenhand, Jonathan N; Doyle, Christopher J; Williamson, Jane E

    2015-04-01

    Broadcast spawning marine invertebrates are susceptible to environmental stressors such as climate change, as their reproduction depends on the successful meeting and fertilization of gametes in the water column. Under near-future scenarios of ocean acidification, the swimming behaviour of marine invertebrate sperm is altered. We tested whether this was due to changes in sperm mitochondrial activity by investigating the effects of ocean acidification on sperm metabolism and swimming behaviour in the sea urchin Centrostephanus rodgersii. We used a fluorescent molecular probe (JC-1) and flow cytometry to visualize mitochondrial activity (measured as change in mitochondrial membrane potential, MMP). Sperm MMP was significantly reduced in ?pH -0.3 (35% reduction) and ?pH -0.5 (48% reduction) treatments, whereas sperm swimming behaviour was less sensitive with only slight changes (up to 11% decrease) observed overall. There was significant inter-individual variability in responses of sperm swimming behaviour and MMP to acidified seawater. We suggest it is likely that sperm exposed to these changes in pH are close to their tipping point in terms of physiological tolerance to acidity. Importantly, substantial inter-individual variation in responses of sperm swimming to ocean acidification may increase the scope for selection of resilient phenotypes, which, if heritable, could provide a basis for adaptation to future ocean acidification. PMID:25833135

  15. Influence of Thyroid Function on Different Kidney Function Tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Kimmel; Niko Braun; Mark Dominik Alscher

    2012-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: The commonly used kidney function tests have limitations, especially in thyroid dysfunction. Therefore, we studied the most commonly used kidney function tests in patients with hypo- and hyperthyroidism and after reaching euthyroidism. Methods: Prospective case series in 16 patients with thyroid dysfunction. Serum creatinine, 24-hour creatinine clearance, calculated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by Cockroft-Gault, estimated GFR (eGFR) by the

  16. Rheotaxis guides mammalian sperm

    PubMed Central

    Miki, Kiyoshi; Clapham, David E

    2013-01-01

    Background In sea urchins, spermatozoan motility is altered by chemotactic peptides, giving rise to the assumption that mammalian eggs also emit chemotactic agents that guide spermatozoa through the female reproductive tract to the mature oocyte. Mammalian spermatozoa indeed undergo complex adaptations within the female (the process of capacitation) that are initiated by agents ranging from pH to progesterone, but these factors are not necessarily taxic. Currently, chemotaxis, thermotaxis, and rheotaxis have not been definitively established in mammals. Results Here, we show that positive rheotaxis, the ability of organisms to orient and swim against the flow of surrounding fluid, is a major taxic factor for mouse and human sperm. This flow is generated within 4 hours of sexual stimulation and coitus in female mice; prolactin-triggered oviductal fluid secretion clears the oviduct of debris, lowers viscosity, and generates the stream that guides sperm migration in the oviduct. Rheotaxic movement is demonstrated in capacitated and uncapacitated spermatozoa in low and high viscosity medium. Finally, we show that a unique sperm motion we quantify using the sperm head's rolling rate reflects sperm rotation that generates essential force for positioning the sperm in the stream. Rotation requires CatSper channels, presumably by enabling Ca2+ influx. Conclusions We propose that rheotaxis is a major determinant of sperm guidance over long distances in the mammalian female reproductive tract. Coitus induces fluid flow to guide sperm in the oviduct. Sperm rheotaxis requires rotational motion during CatSper channel-dependent hyperactivated motility. PMID:23453951

  17. Functional and nonfunctional testing of ATM networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricardo, Manuel; Ferreira, M. E. P.; Guimaraes, Francisco E.; Mamede, J.; Henriques, M.; da Silva, Jorge A.; Carrapatoso, E.

    1995-02-01

    ATM network will support new multimedia services that will require new protocols, those services and protocols will need different test strategies and tools. In this paper, the concepts of functional and non-functional testers of ATM networks are discussed, a multimedia service and its requirements are presented and finally, a summary description of an ATM network and of the test tool that will be used to validate it are presented.

  18. Thyroid Function Testing in Ambulatory Practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angela M. Leung; Alan P. Farwell

    \\u000a Thyroid function tests are commonly obtained by both primary care physicians and various specialists in ambulatory practice\\u000a for both the evaluation of symptomatic and screening assessment of asymptomatic thyroid disease. Abnormalities of thyroid\\u000a function testing, including those which may not be clinically apparent, are common in the general population. Epidemiological\\u000a studies have identified hypothyroidism (subclinical and overt) in 4.6–9.5% and

  19. A quantitative test of upper extremity function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DOUGLAS CARROLL

    1965-01-01

    IN A number of clinical situations, there is a need for a simple semi-quantitative test of upper extremity function. Measurement of function is of particular importance in evaluating the results of hand surgery and upper extremity prosthesis, in following the development of hand deformities in rheumatoid arthritis and neurological diseases, and in judging the effectiveness of different forms of therapy.

  20. Functional testing of digital microfluidic biochips

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tao Xu; Krishnendu Chakrabarty

    2007-01-01

    Dependability is an important attribute for microfluidic biochips that are used for safety-critical applications such as point-of-care health assessment, air-quality monitoring, and food-safety testing. Therefore, these devices must be adequately tested after manufacture and during bioassay operations. Known techniques for biochip testing are all function-oblivious, i.e., while they can detect and locate defect sites on a microfluidic array, they cannot

  1. The Full Function Test Explosive Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Reisman, D B; Javedani, J B; Griffith, L V; Ellsworth, G F; Kuklo, R M; Goerz, D A; White, A D; Tallerico, L J; Gidding, D A; Murphy, M J; Chase, J B

    2009-12-13

    We have conducted three tests of a new pulsed power device called the Full Function Test (FFT). These tests represented the culmination of an effort to establish a high energy pulsed power capability based on high explosive pulsed power (HEPP) technology. This involved an extensive computational modeling, engineering, fabrication, and fielding effort. The experiments were highly successful and a new US record for magnetic energy was obtained.

  2. Dynamics of sperm transfer in the ant Leptothorax gredleri

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angelika Oppelt; Jürgen Heinze

    2007-01-01

    Mating tactics differ remarkably between and within species of social Hymenoptera (bees, wasps, ants) concerning, e.g., mating\\u000a frequencies, sperm competition, and the degree of male sperm limitation. Although social Hymenoptera might, therefore, potentially\\u000a be ideal model systems for testing sexual selection theory, the dynamics of mating and sperm transfer have rarely been studied\\u000a in species other than social bees, and

  3. Dexmedetomidine for infant pulmonary function testing.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Patrick; Pinto, Swaroop J; Kurland, Geoffrey; Cain, James G; Motoyama, Etsuro K; Weiner, Daniel J

    2015-02-01

    For the last thirty years, oral chloral hydrate has been used for sedation of infants for lung function testing. Recently, however, availability of chloral hydrate became severely limited in the United States after two manufacturers discontinued manufacturing in 2012. Due to these limitations and the recent and ongoing shortage of chloral hydrate, other medications have been proposed for lung function testing, including midazolam and propofol. Herein, we describe our limited experience using intravenous dexmedetomedine (DMED), a medication thus far described as having minimal effect on pulmonary function or respiratory drive. PMID:25187360

  4. Rapid selection of sperm with high DNA integrity.

    PubMed

    Nosrati, Reza; Vollmer, Marion; Eamer, Lise; San Gabriel, Maria C; Zeidan, Krista; Zini, Armand; Sinton, David

    2014-03-21

    Sperm selection is essential to assisted reproductive technology (ART), influencing treatment outcomes and the health of offspring. The fundamental challenge of sperm selection is dictated by biology: a heterogeneous population of ~10(8) sperm per milliliter with a short lifetime in vitro. However, conventional sperm selection approaches result in less than 50% improvement in DNA integrity. Here, a clinically applicable microfluidic device is presented that selects sperm based on the progressive motility in 500 parallel microchannels. The result is a one-step procedure for semen purification and high DNA integrity sperm selection from 1 mL of raw semen in under 20 minutes. Experiments with bull sperm indicate more than 89% improvement in selected sperm vitality. Clinical tests with human sperm show more than 80% improvement in human DNA integrity, significantly outperforming the best current practices. These results demonstrate the presence of a sub-population of sperm with nearly intact chromatin and DNA integrity, and a simple clinically-applicable lab-on-a-chip method to select this population. PMID:24464038

  5. Dynamics of sperm transfer in the ant Leptothorax gredleri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppelt, Angelika; Heinze, Jürgen

    2007-09-01

    Mating tactics differ remarkably between and within species of social Hymenoptera (bees, wasps, ants) concerning, e.g., mating frequencies, sperm competition, and the degree of male sperm limitation. Although social Hymenoptera might, therefore, potentially be ideal model systems for testing sexual selection theory, the dynamics of mating and sperm transfer have rarely been studied in species other than social bees, and basic information needed to draw conclusions about possible sperm competition and female choice is lacking. We investigated sperm transfer in the ant Leptothorax gredleri, a species in which female sexuals attract males by “female calling.” The analysis of 38 female sexuals fixed immediately or up to 7 days after copulation with a single male each revealed that the sperm is transferred into the female bursa copulatrix embedded in a gelatinous mass, presumably a spermatophore. Sperm cells rapidly start to migrate from the tip of the spermatophore towards the spermatheca, but transfer is drastically slowed down by an extreme constriction of the spermathecal duct, through which sperm cells have to pass virtually one by one. This results in the spermatheca being filled only between one and several hours after mating. During this time, the posterior part of the spermatophore seals the junction between bursa copulatrix and spermathecal duct and prevents sperm loss. The prolonged duration of sperm transfer might allow female sexuals to chose between ejaculates and explain previously reported patterns of single paternity of the offspring of multiply mated queens.

  6. Suprazero Cooling Rate, Rather Than Freezing Rate, Determines Post Thaw Quality Of Rhesus Macaque Sperm

    PubMed Central

    Martorana, Kelly; Klooster, Katie; Meyers, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Sperm become most sensitive to cold shock when cooled from 37şC to 5şC at rates that are too fast or too slow; cold shock increases the susceptibility to oxidative damage due to its influence on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production ([1]. ROS are significant stress factors that are generated during cooling and low temperature storage, and may be a main cause of decreased motility and fertility upon warming. ROS have been shown to change cellular function through the disruption of the sperm plasma membrane and through damage to proteins and DNA. The objective of this study was to determine which cryopreservation rates result in the lowest degree of oxidative damage and greatest sperm quality. In the rhesus model it has not been determined whether suprazero cooling or subzero freezing rates causes a significant amount of ROS damage to sperm. Semen samples were collected from male rhesus macaques, washed, and resuspended in TEST-yolk cryopreservation buffer to 100 x 106 sperm/mL. Sperm were frozen in 0.5mL straws at four different combinations of suprazero and subzero rates. Three different suprazero rates were used between 22şC and 0şC: 0.5şC/min (Slow), 45şC/min (Medium), and 93şC/min (Fast). These suprazero rates were used in combination with two different subzero rates for temperatures 0şC to ?110şC: 42şC/min (Medium) and 87şC/min (Fast). The different freezing groups were as follows: Slow-Med (SM), Slow-Fast (SF), Med-Med (MM), and Fast-Fast (FF). Flow cytometry was used to detect lipid peroxidation (LPO), a result of ROS generation. Motility was evaluated using a computer assisted sperm motion analyzer. The MM and FF treated sperm had less viable (P < 0.0001) and motile sperm (P < 0.001) than the SM, SF, or fresh sperm. Sperm exposed to MM and FF treatments demonstrated significantly higher oxidative damage than SM, SF, or fresh sperm (P < 0.05). The SM and SF treated sperm showed decreased motility, membrane integrity, and LPO compared to fresh semen (P<0.001). Slow cooling from room temperature promotes higher membrane integrity and motility post thaw, compared to medium or fast cooling rates. Cells exposed to similar cooling rates with differing freezing rates were not different in motility and membrane integrity, whereas comparison of cells exposed to differing cooling rates with similar freezing rates indicated significant differences in motility, membrane integrity, and LPO. These data suggest that sperm quality appears to be more sensitive to the cooling, rather than freezing rate and highlight the role of the suprazero cooling rate in post thaw sperm quality. PMID:24239181

  7. Suprazero cooling rate, rather than freezing rate, determines post thaw quality of rhesus macaque sperm.

    PubMed

    Martorana, Kelly; Klooster, Katie; Meyers, Stuart

    2014-02-01

    Sperm become most sensitive to cold shock when cooled from 37 °C to 5 °C at rates that are too fast or too slow; cold shock increases the susceptibility to oxidative damage owing to its influence on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which are significant stress factors generated during cooling and low temperature storage. In addition, ROS may be a main cause of decreased motility and fertility upon warming. They have been shown to change cellular function through the disruption of the sperm plasma membrane and through damage to proteins and DNA. The objective of this study was to determine which cryopreservation rates result in the lowest degree of oxidative damage and greatest sperm quality. In the rhesus model, it has not been determined whether suprazero cooling or subzero freezing rates causes a significant amount of ROS damage to sperm. Semen samples were collected from male rhesus macaques, washed, and resuspended in TEST-yolk cryopreservation buffer to 100 × 10(6) sperm/mL. Sperm were frozen in 0.5-mL straws at four different combinations of suprazero and subzero rates. Three different suprazero rates were used between 22 °C and 0 °C: 0.5 °C/min (slow), 45 °C/min (medium), and 93 °C/min (fast). These suprazero rates were used in combination with two different subzero rates for temperatures 0 °C to -110 °C: 42 °C/min (medium) and 87 °C/min (fast). The different freezing groups were as follows: slow-med (SM), slow-fast (SF), med-med (MM), and fast-fast (FF). Flow cytometry was used to detect lipid peroxidation (LPO), a result of ROS generation. Motility was evaluated using a computer assisted sperm motion analyzer. The MM and FF treated sperm had less viable (P < 0.0001) and motile sperm (P < 0.001) than the SM, SF, or fresh sperm. Sperm exposed to MM and FF treatments demonstrated significantly higher oxidative damage than SM, SF, or fresh sperm (P < 0.05). The SM- and SF-treated sperm showed decreased motility, membrane integrity, and LPO compared with fresh semen (P < 0.001). Slow cooling from room temperature promotes higher membrane integrity and motility post thaw, compared with medium or fast cooling rates. Cells exposed to similar cooling rates with differing freezing rates were not different in motility and membrane integrity, whereas comparison of cells exposed to differing cooling rates with similar freezing rates indicated significant differences in motility, membrane integrity, and LPO. These data suggest that sperm quality seems to be more sensitive to the cooling, rather than freezing rate and highlight the role of the suprazero cooling rate in post thaw sperm quality. PMID:24239181

  8. Effects of extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate on human sperm motility.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Scott E; Buffone, Mariano G; Knee, Gerald R; Rossato, Marco; Bonanni, Guglielmo; Masiero, Stefano; Ferasin, Sergio; Gerton, George L; Moss, Stuart B; Williams, Carmen J

    2007-10-01

    Extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) previously has been shown to increase the fertilization percentage in human in vitro fertilization (IVF) performed for male factor infertility. The objective of this study is to determine the effects of extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATPe) on human sperm function by examining its effects on end points of sperm capacitation. Sperm obtained from healthy volunteers with normal semen parameters, asthenozoospermic men, and cryopreserved samples were incubated in medium with or without 2.5 mM ATPe. The effects of ATPe on acrosomal exocytosis, protein tyrosine phosphorylation, and sperm motility parameters were quantified. Although ATPe did not affect acrosomal exocytosis or protein tyrosine phosphorylation in sperm from healthy donors, it significantly altered several motility parameters, with the largest effects manifested in increased curvilinear velocity and percentage hyperactivation. ATPe similarly affected sperm selected for poor motility and thawed cryopreserved sperm but to a lesser extent than its effects on sperm with normal motility. ATPe increased straight-line velocity and linearity of sperm obtained from asthenozoospermic men. Human sperm motility characteristics are altered by ATPe; this finding may explain its previously reported beneficial effect on human IVF. These results suggest that ATPe could constitute a new therapeutic modality in the treatment of male infertility. PMID:18000227

  9. Haplotype analysis of beta-actin gene for its association with sperm quality and boar fertility.

    PubMed

    Lin, C-L; Jennen, D G J; Ponsuksili, S; Tholen, E; Tesfaye, D; Schellander, K; Wimmers, K

    2006-12-01

    beta-actin (ACTB) was examined as a direct functional candidate gene for the possible association with sperm concentration, motility (MOT), semen volume per ejaculate, plasma droplet rate, abnormal sperm rate (ASR) and the fertility traits, non-return rate and number of piglets born alive (NBA). Three polymorphisms in intron 3 (T>C) and one polymorphism in exon 4 (T>C) of porcine ACTB gene were identified by comparative sequencing of animals of the breeds Pietrain and Hampshire. Association analysis revealed that haplotypes affected the variation of the traits MOT, ASR and NBA. The beneficial haplotypes may provide considerable improvement of sperm quality and fertility in the tested commercial boar population. PMID:17177693

  10. Sperm Patch-Clamp

    PubMed Central

    Lishko, Polina; Clapham, David E.; Navarro, Betsy; Kirichok, Yuriy

    2014-01-01

    Sperm intracellular pH and calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) are two central factors that control sperm activity within the female reproductive tract. As such, the ion channels of the sperm plasma membrane that alter intracellular sperm [Ca2+] and pH play important roles in sperm physiology and the process of fertilization. Indeed, sperm ion channels regulate sperm motility, control sperm chemotaxis toward the egg in some species, and may trigger the acrosome reaction. Until recently, our understanding of these important molecules was rudimentary due to the inability to patch-clamp spermatozoa and directly record the activity of these ion channels under voltage clamp. Recently, we overcame this technical barrier and developed a method for reproducible application of the patch-clamp technique to mouse and human spermatozoa. This chapter covers important aspects of application of the patch-clamp technique to spermatozoa, such as selection of the electrophysiological equipment, isolation of spermatozoa for patch-clamp experiments, formation of the gigaohm seal with spermatozoa, and transition into the whole-cell mode of recording. We also discuss potential pitfalls in application of the patch-clamp technique to flagellar ion channels. PMID:23522465

  11. Track/train dynamics test report transfer function test. Volume 1: Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vigil, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    A description is presented of the transfer function test performed on an open hopper freight car loaded with 80 tons of coal. Test data and a post-test update of the requirements document and test procedure are presented. Included are a statement of the test objective, a description of the test configurations, test facilities, test methods, data acquisition/reduction operations, and a chronological test summary. An index to the data for the three test configurations (X, Y, and Z-axis tests) is presented along with test sequence, run number, test reference, and input parameters.

  12. CIT photoheliograph functional verification unit test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Tests of the 2/3-meter photoheliograph functional verification unit FVU were performed with the FVU installed in its Big Bear Solar Observatory vacuum chamber. Interferometric tests were run both in Newtonian (f/3.85) and Gregorian (f/50) configurations. Tests were run in both configurations with optical axis horizontal, vertical, and at 45 deg to attempt to determine any gravity effects on the system. Gravity effects, if present, were masked by scatter in the data associated with the system wavefront error of 0.16 lambda rms ( = 6328A) apparently due to problems in the primary mirror. Tests showed that the redesigned secondary mirror assembly works well.

  13. Sperm from pheromone primed brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) produce more larvae.

    PubMed

    Hellström, Gustav; Prestegaard, Tore; Dannewitz, Johan; Olsén, K Hĺkan

    2013-06-01

    Male goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposed to female hormonal pheromones express increased milt volumes and their sperm fertilize more eggs than sperm from unprimed males. Ovulated salmonid females also release odours that increase volumes of strippable milt in males. It is, however, not known if the priming pheromones affect the ability of sperm to fertilize eggs in salmonids. In this study, we compare the proportion of larvae produced from in vitro fertilization tests between primed brown trout (Salmo trutta) males exposed to a mix of female urine and ovarian fluids, and control males exposed only to 0.9 % sodium chloride. We also investigate priming effects on milt yield and sperm motility. Fertilization tests with sperm from single males, as well as sperm from two males (i.e., sperm competition), were performed. Primed males generated more larvae in both the single male and competition fertilization tests. No differences between treatments in milt yield and sperm motility could be established. PMID:22976196

  14. Elaboration of a new culture medium for physiological studies on human sperm motility and capacitation.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, D

    1986-06-01

    The formulation of a new medium based upon published data on human tubal fluid and blood plasma is described. Sperm motility was well maintained for periods of up to 6 h in this 'synthetic tubal fluid' (STF), and movement characteristics (velocity of progression and amplitude of lateral head displacement) were quantitatively and qualitatively similar to values previously reported for other complex media. STF also supported human sperm capacitation and the spontaneous acrosome reaction as determined using the zona-free hamster egg penetration test. Spermatozoa pre-incubated in STF containing blood plasma levels of taurine (86 microM) for 3 h penetrated significantly more oocytes than parallel sperm populations pre-incubate in STF lacking taurine (P less than 0.001). This difference was no longer significant after 5 h of pre-incubation. These findings indicate a possible role for taurine in human sperm capacitation, and demonstrate the potential value of STF for performing more physiological invitro studies on human sperm function. PMID:3558765

  15. Correlation between Sperm Parameters and Protein Expression of Antioxidative Defense Enzymes in Seminal Plasma: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Macanovic, Biljana; Vucetic, Milica; Jankovic, Aleksandra; Buzadzic, Biljana; Garalejic, Eliana; Otasevic, Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Background. Semen analysis is the cornerstone in the evaluation of male (in)fertility. However, there are men with normal semen tests but with impaired fertilizing ability, as well as fertile men with poor sperm characteristics. Thus, there is rising interest to find novel parameters that will help to predict and define the functional capacity of spermatozoa. Methods. We examined whether there is a correlation between semen parameters (count, progressive motility, and morphology) and protein expression/activity of antioxidative defense enzymes in seminal plasma from 10 normospermic subjects. Results. Sperm progressive motility was in positive correlation with seminal plasma protein expression of both superoxide dismutase (SOD) isoforms (MnSOD and CuZnSOD) and catalase. Also, positive correlation was observed between sperm count and MnSOD protein expression, as well as between sperm morphology and protein expression of catalase in seminal plasma. In contrast, protein expression of glutathione peroxidase was not in correlation with any sperm parameter, while its activity negatively correlated with sperm morphology and motility. Conclusions. These data suggest that evaluation of protein expression of antioxidative defense enzymes in seminal plasma might be of importance in the evaluation of male fertility status and that could be used as an additional biomarker along with classic semen analysis in assessment of semen quality. PMID:25691806

  16. Sexual Selection IV: Sperm Competition

    E-print Network

    Blouin-Demers, Gabriel

    Sexual Selection IV: Sperm Competition BIO3176 - University of Ottawa Prof. Gabriel Blouin and extra-pair paternity are common, even in socially monogamous species Sperm Competition 2 Proof of Sperm Competition Harcourt et al 1981 Nature 293: 55-57 3 · Primates · Selection on ejaculate volume Proof of Sperm

  17. A new predictive test for in-vitro fertilization based on the induction of sperm acrosome reaction by N-acetylglucosamine-neoglycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Brandelli, A; Miranda, P V; Ańón-Vazquez, M G; Marín-Briggiler, C I; Sanjurjo, C; Gonzalez-Echeverría, F; Blaquier, J A; Tezón, J G

    1995-07-01

    Neoglycoproteins with N-acetylglucosamine residues (BSA-GlcNAc) induced specifically the acrosome reaction (AR) in human spermatozoa. Our objective was to investigate the relationship between this phenomenon and the invitro fertilization (IVF) rate. Sperm suspensions from IVF protocols were incubated with BSA-GlcNAc (t), using calcium ionophore (i) or medium alone (c) as positive or negative controls. When the normalized AR percentage ratio (STIM) (% ARt-%ARc):(%ARi-%ARc) was compared with fertilization rate in 31 couples from our IVF programme, a positive correlation was found (r = 0.46, P < 0.01). The fertilization rate in patients with STIM > or = 0.2 was higher than in non-responders (STIM < 0.2); 72 +/- 7% compared with 5 +/- 3%. The overall predictive value of this test for adequate fertilization rate (> 30%) was 87%, sensitivity 91% and specificity 78%. False positives were 9% and false negatives 22%. For successful fertilization rates (> 60%), the results were: overall predictive value, 84%; sensitivity 100%; specificity 64%. False positives were 23% and no false negatives were found. The results indicated that the induction of AR in human spermatozoa by GlcNAc-neoglycoproteins could be used to predict their fertilizing ability in vitro. PMID:8582974

  18. Evolutionary Testing of Hydraulic Simulator Functionality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikolai B. Gorev; Inna F. Kodzhespirova; Yuriy Kovalenko; Rogelio Álvarez; Eugenio Prokhorov; Alfredo Ramos

    2011-01-01

    A method for automatic functional testing of hydraulic simulators is proposed. The method is based on using genetic algorithms\\u000a to search for network parameter values at which the simulator under test computes solutions that do not satisfy the governing\\u000a network equations. The search is made by maximizing the residual of the governing equations. The application of the method\\u000a to the

  19. An automated system for pulmonary function testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauldin, D. G.

    1974-01-01

    An experiment to quantitate pulmonary function was accepted for the space shuttle concept verification test. The single breath maneuver and the nitrogen washout are combined to reduce the test time. Parameters are defined from the forced vital capacity maneuvers. A spirometer measures the breath volume and a magnetic section mass spectrometer provides definition of gas composition. Mass spectrometer and spirometer data are analyzed by a PDP-81 digital computer.

  20. Impact of adrenalectomy and dexamethasone treatment on testicular morphology and sperm parameters in rats: insights into the adrenal control of male reproduction.

    PubMed

    Silva, E J R; Vendramini, V; Restelli, A; Bertolla, R P; Kempinas, W G; Avellar, M C W

    2014-11-01

    Here we investigated the hypothesis that normal levels of glucocorticoids, a class of adrenal steroid hormones, are required for normal testicular and epididymal functions. We examined the effects of the manipulation of glucocorticoid plasma levels by bilateral adrenalectomy (1, 2, 7 and 15 days) alone or in combination with daily treatment with the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone (DEX; 5 ?g/kg, i.p., 6 days) on the morphology of the testis and sperm parameters in rats. We showed that adrenalectomy led to a reduction in testicular sperm count and daily sperm production starting 2 days after surgery and a differential decrease in sperm count in the epididymis, according to the region and time post-adrenalectomy analysed. In parallel, testes from 7-day adrenalectomized (ADX) rats displayed a higher frequency of damaged seminiferous tubules and the presence of elongated spermatids retained in the basal epithelial compartment in stages IX-XVII, which is indicative of defective spermiation. The alkaline comet assay revealed a late effect of adrenalectomy on epididymal sperm DNA fragmentation, which was increased only 15 days after surgery. DEX treatment prevented the changes in testicular and epididymal sperm count observed in 7-day ADX rats, but failed to protect the testis from ADX-induced morphological abnormalities. Thus, our results indicated that glucocorticoids may be involved in events related to the maintenance of spermatogenesis and sperm maturation during adulthood. These findings provide new insights into the importance of adrenal steroids to male fertility. PMID:24925687

  1. Ejaculate-hormonal traits in the leopard cat (Felis bengalensis) and sperm function as measured by in vitro penetration of zona-free hamster ova and zona-intact domestic cat oocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jogayle Howard; David E. Wildt

    1990-01-01

    Electroejaculate traits and cir- culating follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), lutein- izing hormone (LhH), and testosterone concentra- tions were analyzed in adult leopard cats {Fells bengalensis), a rare felid species indigenous to east Asia. The ability of leopard cat sperm to bind and penetrate zona-free hamster ova and zona- intact domestic cat oocytes in vitro was examined as a means of testing

  2. Sperm competition in bats.

    PubMed Central

    Hosken, D J

    1997-01-01

    Sperm competition is a widespread phenomenon influencing the evolution of male anatomy, physiology and behaviour. Bats are an ideal group for studying sperm competition. Females store fertile sperm for up to 200 days and the size of social groups varies from single animals to groups of hundreds of thousands. This study examines the relationship between social group size and investment in spermatogenesis across 31 species of microchiropteran bat using new and published data on testis mass and sperm length. In addition to male competition, I examined the effects of female reproductive biology on characteristics of spermatogenesis. Comparative studies indicate that relative testis mass is positively related to sperm competition risk in a wide range of taxa. Social group size may also influence the level of sperm competition, and one of the costs of living in groups may be decreased confidence of paternity. I used comparative analysis of independent contrast (CAIC) to control for phylogeny. Using two possible phylogenies and two measures of social group size, I found a significant positive relationship between social group size and testis mass. There was no relationship between testis mass and the dimension of the female reproductive tract or oestrus duration. Sperm length was not significantly related to body mass or group size, nor was it related to oestrus duration. PMID:9107054

  3. Gas Test Loop Functional and Technical Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Glen R. Longhurst; Soli T. Khericha; James L. Jones

    2004-09-01

    This document defines the technical and functional requirements for a gas test loop (GTL) to be constructed for the purpose of providing a high intensity fast-flux irradiation environment for developers of advanced concept nuclear reactors. This capability is needed to meet fuels and materials testing requirements of the designers of Generation IV (GEN IV) reactors and other programs within the purview of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). Space nuclear power development programs may also benefit by the services the GTL will offer. The overall GTL technical objective is to provide developers with the means for investigating and qualifying fuels and materials needed for advanced reactor concepts. The testing environment includes a fast-flux neutron spectrum of sufficient intensity to perform accelerated irradiation testing. Appropriate irradiation temperature, gaseous environment, test volume, diagnostics, and access and handling features are also needed. This document serves to identify those requirements as well as generic requirements applicable to any system of this kind.

  4. Sperm variation within a single ejaculate affects offspring development in Atlantic salmon

    PubMed Central

    Immler, Simone; Hotzy, Cosima; Alavioon, Ghazal; Petersson, Erik; Arnqvist, Göran

    2014-01-01

    It is generally believed that variation in sperm phenotype within a single ejaculate has no consequences for offspring performance, because sperm phenotypes are thought not to reflect sperm genotypes. We show that variation in individual sperm function within an ejaculate affects the performance of the resulting offspring in the Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. We experimentally manipulated the time between sperm activation and fertilization in order to select for sperm cohorts differing in longevity within single ejaculates of wild caught male salmon. We found that within-ejaculate variation in sperm longevity significantly affected offspring development and hence time until hatching. Whether these effects have a genetic or epigenetic basis needs to be further evaluated. However, our results provide experimental evidence for transgenerational effects of individual sperm function. PMID:24522632

  5. 14 CFR 35.40 - Functional test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...40 Functional test. The variable-pitch propeller system must be subjected...cycles must be made across the range of pitch and rotational speed. (b) Governing...cycles must be made across the range of pitch and rotational speed. (c)...

  6. 14 CFR 35.40 - Functional test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...40 Functional test. The variable-pitch propeller system must be subjected...cycles must be made across the range of pitch and rotational speed. (b) Governing...cycles must be made across the range of pitch and rotational speed. (c)...

  7. 14 CFR 35.40 - Functional test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...40 Functional test. The variable-pitch propeller system must be subjected...cycles must be made across the range of pitch and rotational speed. (b) Governing...cycles must be made across the range of pitch and rotational speed. (c)...

  8. 14 CFR 35.40 - Functional test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...40 Functional test. The variable-pitch propeller system must be subjected...cycles must be made across the range of pitch and rotational speed. (b) Governing...cycles must be made across the range of pitch and rotational speed. (c)...

  9. Supporters of sperm

    PubMed Central

    Lřvlie, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    The Biology of Spermatozoa (BoS) meetings have run on a biannual basis since the early 1990s. They are dedicated to the fascinating research topic of sperm and their complicated route to fertilization. The BoS meetings focus on sperm, but they also explore additional supporting factors important in fertilization, such as those present in seminal and ovarian fluid, as well as the genomic bases of sperm biology. Here, I present a report of the recent BoS meeting, and showcase some of the highlights of this year’s meeting. PMID:25225623

  10. Sperm preparation: state-of-the-art—physiological aspects and application of advanced sperm preparation methods

    PubMed Central

    Henkel, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    For assisted reproduction technologies (ART), numerous techniques were developed to isolate spermatozoa capable of fertilizing oocytes. While early methodologies only focused on isolating viable, motile spermatozoa, with progress of ART, particularly intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), it became clear that these parameters are insufficient for the identification of the most suitable spermatozoon for fertilization. Conventional sperm preparation techniques, namely, swim-up, density gradient centrifugation and glass wool filtration, are not efficient enough to produce sperm populations free of DNA damage, because these techniques are not physiological and not modeled on the stringent sperm selection processes taking place in the female genital tract. These processes only allow one male germ cell out of tens of millions to fuse with the oocyte. Sites of sperm selection in the female genital tract are the cervix, uterus, uterotubal junction, oviduct, cumulus oophorus and the zona pellucida. Newer strategies of sperm preparation are founded on: (i) morphological assessment by means of ‘motile sperm organelle morphological examination (MSOME)' (ii) electrical charge; and (iii) molecular binding characteristics of the sperm cell. Whereas separation methods based on electrical charge take advantage of the sperm's adherence to a test tube surface or separate in an electrophoresis, molecular binding techniques use Annexin V or hyaluronic acid (HA) as substrates. Techniques in this category are magnet-activated cell sorting, Annexin V-activated glass wool filtration, flow cytometry and picked spermatozoa for ICSI (PICSI) from HA-coated dishes and HA-containing media. Future developments may include Raman microspectrometry, confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy and polarization microscopy. PMID:22138904

  11. Eliminating the effect of pathomorphologically formed sperm on resulting gravidity using the intracytoplasmic sperm injection method

    PubMed Central

    BLAHOVÁ, EVA; MÁCHAL, JAN; MÁCHAL, LADISLAV; MILAKOVI?, IRENA; HANULÁKOVÁ, ŠÁRKA

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test whether it is possible to eliminate a high percentage of morphologically abnormal sperm in male ejaculate by assisted reproduction using the intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) method. Treatment success was evaluated by comparing fertilization, clinical pregnancy and reproduction rates between males with heavy teratospermia (?1% morphologically normal spermatozoa) and males with a higher percentage (>1%) of normal sperm. In total, 174 patients who had previously undergone 174 ICSI cycles (1 per each pair) were evaluated retrospectively. In the group of patients with heavily impaired sperm morphology (n=37), the percentage of normal spermatozoa was ?1%. In the second group, males with >1% normal spermatozoa (n=137) were considered as patients with mildly impaired sperm morphology. The results of partner fertilization in these two groups were compared and a lower number of fertilized oocytes was identified in the patients with heavily impaired sperm morphology (P=0.038). However, neither the gravidity nor the take-home baby rates of the partners differed between the patients with mildly and heavily impaired sperm morphology. Trends opposite to that for fertilization were observed for gravidity and delivery [odds ratio (OR), 0.62; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.29–1.30; OR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.26–1.24, respectively]. This indicates that the lower number of fertilized oocytes was not associated with the overall outcome of fertilization and that patients with heavily impaired sperm morphology experience the same benefit from ICSI as patients with mildly impaired sperm morphology. PMID:24669266

  12. Effects of Sexual Selection Upon Sperm Morphology and Sexual Skin Morphology in Primates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan F. Dixson; Matthew J. Anderson

    2004-01-01

    We review possible effects of sexual selection upon sperm morphology, and sexual skin morphology, in primates. Comparative morphometric studies, involving 31 species representing 21 primate genera, revealed a positive relationship between volume of the sperm midpiece, occurrences of multiple partner matings by females, and large relative testes sizes, which indicate sperm competition. The midpiece houses the mitochondria required to power

  13. Factors affecting sperm fertilizing capacity in men infected with HIV.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dian; Li, Lianbing; Xie, Qingdong; Hou, Zhiwei; Yu, Xiaojun; Ma, Mingfu; Huang, Tianhua

    2014-09-01

    Studies on the sperm-fertilizing capacity of HIV-seropositive men show conflicting results for reasons that are not yet clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and relationships of some factors such as patient age, CD4(+) cells count, fathering offspring, concomitant sexually transmitted diseases (STD), and receipt of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) on sperm fertilizing capacity. Semen samples were collected from 33 HIV-seropositive men. Data on the above factors were acquired from a self-designed questionnaire. Computer-assisted sperm analysis, a hypo-osmotic swelling, and zona-free hamster oocyte penetration tests were performed according to criteria of the World Health Organization. CD4(+) cells in peripheral blood were examined using a flow cytometric (FCM) analyzer. Sperm vitality, sperm motility (grades a?+?b), total sperm motility, and sperm penetration rates were significantly higher in patients whose CD4(+) counts were ?350/µl than in those whose CD4(+) counts were <350/µl (P?sperm count and sperm tail swelling rate between patients co-infected with STD and without STD were observed (P?Sperm penetration rate in patients receiving HAART was significantly higher than in those not receiving HAART (P?sperm fertilizing capacity of HIV-seropositive men. After receiving HAART, the sperm penetration rate of HIV-seropositive men can be improved. PMID:24898681

  14. Human Sperm Tail Proteome Suggests New Endogenous Metabolic Pathways*

    PubMed Central

    Amaral, Alexandra; Castillo, Judit; Estanyol, Josep Maria; Ballescŕ, José Luís; Ramalho-Santos, Joăo; Oliva, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Proteomic studies are contributing greatly to our understanding of the sperm cell, and more detailed descriptions are expected to clarify additional cellular and molecular sperm attributes. The aim of this study was to characterize the subcellular proteome of the human sperm tail and, hopefully, identify less concentrated proteins (not found in whole cell proteome studies). Specifically, we were interested in characterizing the sperm metabolic proteome and gaining new insights into the sperm metabolism issue. Sperm were isolated from normozoospermic semen samples and depleted of any contaminating leukocytes. Tail fractions were obtained by means of sonication followed by sucrose-gradient ultracentrifugation, and their purity was confirmed via various techniques. Liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry of isolated sperm tail peptides resulted in the identification of 1049 proteins, more than half of which had not been previously described in human sperm. The categorization of proteins according to their function revealed two main groups: proteins related to metabolism and energy production (26%), and proteins related to sperm tail structure and motility (11%). Interestingly, a great proportion of the metabolic proteome (24%) comprised enzymes involved in lipid metabolism, including enzymes for mitochondrial beta-oxidation. Unexpectedly, we also identified various peroxisomal proteins, some of which are known to be involved in the oxidation of very long chain fatty acids. Analysis of our data using Reactome suggests that both mitochondrial and peroxisomal pathways might indeed be active in sperm, and that the use of fatty acids as fuel might be more preponderant than previously thought. In addition, incubation of sperm with the fatty acid oxidation inhibitor etomoxir resulted in a significant decrease in sperm motility. Contradicting a common concept in the literature, we suggest that the male gamete might have the capacity to obtain energy from endogenous pools, and thus to adapt to putative exogenous fluctuations. PMID:23161514

  15. Alterations in the estrogen environment of the testis contribute to declining sperm production in aging rats.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Michael; Pearl, Christopher A

    2014-04-01

    Testicular function, specifically, production of testosterone by Leydig cells, diminishes during aging. Estradiol is also produced by the testis and potentially acts in an autocrine or paracrine manner to help regulate spermatogenesis. However, changes in estradiol concentration or receptor expression within the testis during aging remain unclear. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that the estrogen environment of the testis is altered during aging and that these changes are associated with declining sperm production. Sprague Dawley rats were examined at three, 15, 18, and 21 months of age to detail changes in sperm production and testicular concentration of testosterone and estradiol; five rats were used at three and 21 months and three rats were used at 15 and 18 months. Daily sperm production declined 49% from 15 to 21 months of age. Testicular concentrations of estradiol declined 53% from 15 to 21 months of age; testosterone concentrations were not significantly different. These results suggest that declines in intra-testicular estradiol may contribute to declining sperm production. We further tested our hypothesis by treating rats once every third day with a subcutaneous injection of estradiol valerate (1?µg/kg) from 15 to 18 months of age. Estradiol was increased 54% in treated animals while testosterone was unaffected. Estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) expression was significantly reduced from 15 to 18 months and expression in estrogen-treated animals was significantly higher than age-matched controls. Additionally, ESR1 expression in 18 month treated animals was not different from 15 months of age. Importantly, daily sperm production in 18 month treated animals was 22% higher than age-matched controls; thus, treatment prevented approximately half of the decline observed in control animals. Collectively, our results suggest that estrogen is involved in maintaining optimum spermatogenesis in adult rats and that estrogen treatment may attenuate the age-associated loss in sperm production. PMID:24499511

  16. Long-lived sperm in the geothermal bryophyte Pohlia nutans.

    PubMed

    Rosenstiel, Todd N; Eppley, Sarah M

    2009-12-23

    Non-vascular plants rely on sperm to cross the distance between male and female reproductive organs for fertilization and sexual reproduction to occur. The majority of non-vascular plants have separate sexes, and thus, this distance may be a few millimetres to many metres. Because sperm need water for transport, it has been assumed that sperm lifespans are short and that this type of sexual reproduction limits the expansion of non-vascular plants in terrestrial environments. However, little data is available on the lifespan of sperm in non-vascular plants, and none is available for bryophytes, the group thought to have first colonized terrestrial habitats. Here, we documented the lifespan of sperm of Pohlia nutans, collected from a geothermal spring's area, and tested the effects of variation under environmental conditions on this lifespan. Surprisingly, 20 per cent of the sperm were still motile after 100 h, and sperm lifespan was not significantly affected by temperature variation between 22 and 60 degrees C. Lifespan was significantly affected by sperm dilution and temperatures above 75 degrees C. These results suggest the need to reconsider the importance of sperm motility in bryophyte fertilization. PMID:19640871

  17. Long-lived sperm in the geothermal bryophyte Pohlia nutans

    PubMed Central

    Rosenstiel, Todd N.; Eppley, Sarah M.

    2009-01-01

    Non-vascular plants rely on sperm to cross the distance between male and female reproductive organs for fertilization and sexual reproduction to occur. The majority of non-vascular plants have separate sexes, and thus, this distance may be a few millimetres to many metres. Because sperm need water for transport, it has been assumed that sperm lifespans are short and that this type of sexual reproduction limits the expansion of non-vascular plants in terrestrial environments. However, little data is available on the lifespan of sperm in non-vascular plants, and none is available for bryophytes, the group thought to have first colonized terrestrial habitats. Here, we documented the lifespan of sperm of Pohlia nutans, collected from a geothermal spring's area, and tested the effects of variation under environmental conditions on this lifespan. Surprisingly, 20 per cent of the sperm were still motile after 100 h, and sperm lifespan was not significantly affected by temperature variation between 22 and 60°C. Lifespan was significantly affected by sperm dilution and temperatures above 75°C. These results suggest the need to reconsider the importance of sperm motility in bryophyte fertilization. PMID:19640871

  18. A new scintigraphic test of neorectal function

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connell, P.R.; Omdahl, A.L.; Brown, M.L.; Kelly, K.A.

    1985-05-01

    Current tests of neorectal function after colectomy, mucosal rectectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis are inadequate. The authors developed a new scintigraphic test that uses an artificial stool made of aluminium magnesium silicate gel (Veegum). Solutions of the gel were labeled with 1 mCi Tc-99m by stirring Veegum powder into water containing the isotope at 37/sup 0/C. Excellent binding was obtained with the sulfur colloid form of the isotope compared with the pertechnetate or ovalbumin forms (Table). The sulfur colloid isotope in 7.5% gel was used in subsequent tests. The volume given to the patients corresponded to the maximum capacity of the ileal pouch as measured manometrically; it averaged 300 ml. Ten patients have been studied to date with minimal patient discomfort. The gel was introduced over a 2 minute period via a 16Fr. transanal tube with the patient in the left lateral position. After 5 minutes AP standing and R lateral scans were taken. Then a dynamic scan was taken while the patient evacuated the gel into a commode. After evacuation AP and R lateral scans were repeated. Computer analysis was used to determine both the functional pouch capacity and the rates of emptying of the pouch and the more proximal ileum. The test has proven useful in the assessment of neorectal anatomy and function after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis.

  19. Sperm Quality Control

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Update (AAAS; )

    2008-05-06

    New research from the University of Missouri-Columbia suggests how defective sperm are tagged for destruction. This 57 second audio recording from Science Update originally aired on Monday, February 11, 2008.

  20. Under-nutrition reduces spermatogenic efficiency and sperm velocity, and increases sperm DNA damage in sexually mature male sheep.

    PubMed

    Guan, Yongjuan; Malecki, Irek A; Hawken, Penelope A R; Linden, Matthew D; Martin, Graeme B

    2014-10-01

    We tested whether the quality of spermatozoa from mature male sheep would be affected during nutrition-induced changes in testicular mass. Merino rams were fed for 65 days with diets that increased, maintained or decreased body and testis mass (n=8 per group). In semen collected on Days 56 and 63, underfed rams had less sperms per ejaculate than well-fed rams (P<0.05) and a lower sperm velocity (computer-assisted semen analysis) than well-fed or maintenance-fed rams (P<0.05). Sperm chromatin structure assay revealed more sperm DNA damage in underfed rams than in well-fed rams (P<0.05). The amount of sperm DNA damage was inversely correlated with change in scrotal circumference (r=-0.6, P<0.05), the percentages of progressive motile sperm (r=-0.8; P<0.01) and motile sperm (r=-0.6, P<0.05), and the numbers of sperms per gram of testis (r=-0.55, P<0.05). In testicular tissue collected on Day 65, underfed rams had fewer sperm per gram of testis than rams in the other two groups (P<0.001). We conclude that, in adult rams, underfeeding reduces spermatogenic efficiency and that this response is associated with a reduction in spermatozoal quality. PMID:25086661

  1. Sperm studies in anesthesiologists

    SciTech Connect

    Wyrobek, A.J. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA); Brodsky, J.; Gordon, l.; Moore, D.H., II; Watchmaker, G.; Cohen, E.N.

    1981-11-01

    Semen samples were collected from 46 anesthesiologists each of whom had worked a minimum of one year in hospital operating rooms ventilated with modern gas-scavenging devices. Samples collected from 26 beginning residents in anesthesiology served as controls. Concentrations of sperm and percentage of sperm having abnormal head shapes were determined for each sample. No significant differences were found between anesthesiologists and beginning residents. Limiting the analyses to men having no confounding factors (varicocele, recent illness, medications, heavy smoking, frequent sauna use) did not change the results. The sperm concentration and morphology in 13 men did not change signficantly after one year of exposure to anesthetic gases. However, the group of men who had one or more confounding factors (excluding exposure to anesthetic gases) showed significantly higher percentages of sperm abnormalities than did the group of men without such factors. These results suggest that limited exposure to anesthetic gases does not significantly affect sperm production as judged by changes in sperm concentration and morphology. These data are reassuring, but since the hospitals surveyed used modern gas-scavenging devices, men who are occupationally exposed to anesthetic gases without this protection should be studied for fuller assessment of the possible human spermatotoxic effects.

  2. The rapid detection of cytotoxicity using a modified human sperm survival assay.

    PubMed

    Iemmolo, Melissa; Simmons, Leigh; Matson, Phillip

    2005-04-01

    Sperm were cultured at room temperature in seminal plasma, in the presence or absence of a test item or solution. Progressive motility of the sperm was measured using a Sperm Quality Analyser IIB. A progressive decline in motility of sperm was seen under control conditions from 0 hr to 24 hrs. Culture medium did not cause a significant decline in sperm survival index during the first 6 hrs of culture but did after 24 hrs. A dose dependent reduction in sperm survival index was then seen with formaldehyde. Powder-free rubber gloves proved extremely toxic unlike the associated rubber plunger of a non-pyrogenic syringe. It is concluded that the use of unwashed human sperm in survival studies allows detection of toxicity within 6 hrs, a time much less than conventional methods using washed human sperm. PMID:16021863

  3. COMET, TUNEL, and TEM analysis of an infertile male with short tail sperm

    PubMed Central

    Durmaz, Ay?en; M?ç?l?, Serap Cilaker; Vatansever, Seda; Gündüz, Cumhur; Ba?r?yan?k, Hüsnü Alper; Dikmen, Nurten; Göker, Ege Nazan Tavmergen; Tavmergen, Erol

    2015-01-01

    Male infertility is correlated with sperm morphology and sperm DNA damage, which are completely different from that of fertile individuals. An accurate sperm DNA damage analysis and ultrastructural examination of the ejaculate provide important support in the clinical evaluation. It is supposed that in the near future, the fertilization rate, pregnancy rate, and miscarriages could be predicted using the combination of these types of tests in assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs). For this purpose, we report a very rare case of an infertile man having short tail sperm. The infertile man and his wife underwent in vitro fertilization (IVF) with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). During this process, we examined the ultrastructure of the ejaculated sperm with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and calculated the sperm DNA damage with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and COMET assays. Then, we evaluated the association between sperm DNA damage and embryo quality.

  4. Functional performance testing following knee ligament injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas C Clark

    2001-01-01

    Outcome measurement in sports physiotherapy is directed at identifying an athlete's ability to tolerate the physical demands inherent in sport-specific activity and prevent re-injury on return-to-competition. Outcome measures currently utilized following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury include clinical, functional performance test (FPT), and subjective measures. The FPT simulates the forces encountered during sport-specific activity under controlled clinical conditions, the use

  5. Pulmonary Function Testing in Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernando J. Martinez; Kevin Flaherty

    2006-01-01

    Diffuse parenchymal lung diseases are a group of disorders that involve the space between the epithelial and endothelial basement membranes and are generally segregated into four major catego- ries. These include the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, which are further categorized into seven clinical\\/radiologic\\/pathologic subsets.Thesedisordersgenerallyshareacommonpatternofphysi- ologic abnormality characterized by a restrictive ventilatory defect and reduced diffusing capacity (DLCO). Pulmonary function testing is

  6. Human papilloma virus in the sperm cryobank: an emerging problem?

    PubMed

    Foresta, C; Ferlin, A; Bertoldo, A; Patassini, C; Zuccarello, D; Garolla, A

    2011-06-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection is very common worldwide, but the actual incidence and significance of HPV infection in sperm are poorly understood. In this study, we evaluated the presence of HPV in spermatozoa from thawed semen samples previously stored in our sperm bank. We performed polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization for HPV detection in cryovials belonging to 98 oncology patients and in 60 semen samples from healthy controls. Statistical analysis was performed by two-tailed Student's t-test and Fisher's exact test. The frequency of HPV semen infection was 6.1% in thawed cryovials from patients and 3.3% in semen samples from controls. Among the patients, four were found positive for high-risk HPV, one for medium-risk HPV and another for low-risk HPV. Patients had a significantly higher percentage of infected sperm than controls. In conclusion, this report shows the presence of HPV in sperm cells from cryovials of a sperm bank. It is still unclear if HPV-infected sperm are able to cross-contaminate cryovials and impair the outcome of assisted reproduction techniques or to infect partners. Further studies are needed to understand whether screening for HPV should be performed in all semen samples before sperm banking or before intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection procedures. PMID:20522126

  7. Diisopropyl fluorophosphate labeling of sperm-associated proteinases

    SciTech Connect

    Odem, R.R.; Willand, J.L.; Polakoski, K.L. (Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (USA))

    1990-02-01

    Proteinase inhibitors have been shown to be capable of preventing various aspects of fertilization. Diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP) is an irreversible inhibitor of trypsin-like enzymes that is commercially available in a radiolabeled form. The experiments described herein were designed to determine if DFP would prevent sperm function in live, motile sperm and to identify the sperm proteins bound with DFP. DFP at 5 mM concentrations had no observable effect on sperm motility, but inhibited the penetration of zona-free hamster ova by human sperm (5.5%) compared to controls (33.5%). Acid extracts of motile sperm that had been incubated with radiolabeled DFP and collected by the swim-up procedure demonstrated the presence of radiolabeled DFP, and the autoradiography of the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gels of these extracts localized the uptake of radiolabeled DFP to proteins in the molecular weight region of the proacrosin-acrosin system. Acid-extracted proteinases from semen samples incubated with DFP demonstrated a concentration-dependent inhibition of both esterolytic hydrolysis of benzoyl-arginine ethyl ester on spectrophotometric analysis and proteolytic activity on gelatin SDS-PAGE zymography. DFP-labeled proteins were precipitated by highly specific antibodies to proacrosin. These results demonstrated that DFP is capable of inhibiting sperm function, and that it associates with the proacrosin-acrosin system in live motile sperm.

  8. Retinol might stabilize sperm acrosomal membrane in situations of oxidative stress because of high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Maya-Soriano, M J; Taberner, E; Sabés-Alsina, M; López-Béjar, M

    2013-01-15

    High temperatures have negative effects on sperm quality leading to temporary or permanent sterility. The study tried to confirm the harmful effects of high temperatures on epididymal sperm cells in comparison with other temperatures (scrotal, environmental, and refrigeration temperatures), the main objective was the assessment of the addition of retinol as an antioxidant agent to improve sperm quality parameters. Testes from 10 bulls were collected from a slaughterhouse. Sperm cells were flushed from the cauda epididymis and deferent duct and assessed for sperm quality parameters at recovery. Afterward, sperm cell samples were exposed to one of four different temperatures (4 °C, 22 °C, 32 °C, and 41.5 °C for 3 hours) in presence or absence of retinol in the storage extender. Percentages of viability and morphologic abnormalities were determined using eosin-nigrosin staining. Acrosome integrity and sperm plasma membrane integrity were assessed by fluorescence Pisum sativum agglutinin lectin (FITC-PSA) staining and the hypo-osmotic swelling test, respectively. Total and progressive motility were analyzed by computer-assisted sperm analysis. Sperm quality parameters were mainly affected by high temperatures (41.5 °C). The addition of all-trans-retinol to the storage extender did not show any effect on sperm quality parameters. However, the percentage of sperm cells with altered acrosome was significantly reduced when retinol was present in the extender under heat stress conditions (41.5 °C). In conclusion, retinol might stabilize sperm acrosomal membrane in situations of oxidative stress because of high temperatures. PMID:23149412

  9. Na,K-ATPase ?4 isoform is essential for sperm fertility

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, Tamara; McDermott, Jeffrey P.; Sánchez, Gladis; Blanco, Gustavo

    2011-01-01

    Regulation of ion balance in spermatozoa has been shown to be essential for sperm motility and fertility. Control of intracellular ion levels requires the function of distinct ion-transport mechanisms at the cell plasma membrane. Active Na+ and K+ exchange in sperm is under the control of the Na,K-ATPase. Two molecular variants of the catalytic subunit of the Na,K-ATPase, ?1 and ?4, coexist in sperm. These isoforms exhibit different biochemical properties; however, their function in sperm fertility is unknown. In this work, we show that Na,K-ATPase ?4 is essential for sperm fertility. Knockout male mice lacking ?4 are completely sterile and spermatozoa from these mice are unable of fertilizing eggs in vitro. Furthermore, ?4 deletion results in severe reduction in sperm motility and hyperactivation typical of sperm capacitation. In addition, absence of ?4 causes a characteristic bend in the sperm flagellum, indicative of abnormal sperm ion regulation. Accordingly, ?4-null sperm present increased intracellular Na+ and cell plasma membrane depolarization. These results are unique in demonstrating the absolute requirement of ?4 for sperm fertility. Moreover, the inability of ?1 to compensate for ?4 suggests that ?4 is the Na,K-ATPase-? isoform directly involved in sperm fertility. Our findings show ?4 as an attractive target for male contraception and open the possibility for the potential use of this Na,K-ATPase isoform as a biomarker for male fertility. PMID:21187400

  10. Reconstructing paternal genotypes to infer patterns of sperm storage and sexual selection in the hawksbill turtle.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Karl P; Jorgensen, Tove H; Jolliffe, Kevin G; Jolliffe, San-Marie; Henwood, Jock; Richardson, David S

    2013-04-01

    Postcopulatory sperm storage can serve a range of functions, including ensuring fertility, allowing delayed fertilization and facilitating sexual selection. Sperm storage is likely to be particularly important in wide-ranging animals with low population densities, but its prevalence and importance in such taxa, and its role in promoting sexual selection, are poorly known. Here, we use a powerful microsatellite array and paternal genotype reconstruction to assess the prevalence of sperm storage and test sexual selection hypotheses of genetic biases to paternity in one such species, the critically endangered hawksbill turtle, Eretmochelys imbricata. In the majority of females (90.7%, N = 43), all offspring were sired by a single male. In the few cases of multiple paternity (9.3%), two males fertilized each female. Importantly, the identity and proportional fertilization success of males were consistent across all sequential nests laid by individual females over the breeding season (up to five nests over 75 days). No males were identified as having fertilized more than one female, suggesting that a large number of males are available to females. No evidence for biases to paternity based on heterozygosity or relatedness was found. These results indicate that female hawksbill turtles are predominantly monogamous within a season, store sperm for the duration of the nesting season and do not re-mate between nests. Furthermore, females do not appear to be using sperm storage to facilitate sexual selection. Consequently, the primary value of storing sperm in marine turtles may be to uncouple mating and fertilization in time and avoid costly re-mating. PMID:23379838

  11. Sperm count and sperm motility decrease in old rats.

    PubMed

    Lucio, Rosa Angélica; Tlachi-López, José L; Eguibar, Jose R; Ĺgmo, Anders

    2013-02-17

    Sexual behavior declines with age in male rats. The rate and magnitude of this decline may depend on the amount of prior sexual experience and a number of other, unidentified factors. Age-dependent changes in the characteristics of ejaculate quality in rats have not been described earlier, and the relationship between such changes and modifications of sexual behavior is likewise unknown. We have recently developed a technique for the detailed analysis of parameters of ejaculate in rats, and this technique was used for the determination of semen and seminal plug characteristics in rats of different ages. Sexually experienced Wistar rats were tested for sex behavior at the ages of 3, 12 and 24 months. Semen was obtained from the female partner immediately after ejaculation at these tests. Between tests, the males were offered the opportunity to copulate once every 3-4 weeks. The behavioral data showed that the latency to ejaculation was increased only at 24 months. Concerning the characteristics of semen, there was a substantial increase in the proportion of immobile spermatozoa and motility of those moving was much reduced, both at 12 and 24 months of age. There was no relationship between parameters of sexual behavior and those of the ejaculate. Likewise, the size of the seminal plug did not affect the amount of intrauterine spermatozoa. The reduced sperm number together with the increased sperm immobility diminishes the ejaculate quality of old males, which could influence fertility. PMID:23296084

  12. Therapeutic ultrasound as a potential male contraceptive: power, frequency and temperature required to deplete rat testes of meiotic cells and epididymides of sperm determined using a commercially available system

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies published in the 1970s by Mostafa S. Fahim and colleagues showed that a short treatment with ultrasound caused the depletion of germ cells and infertility. The goal of the current study was to determine if a commercially available therapeutic ultrasound generator and transducer could be used as the basis for a male contraceptive. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized and their testes were treated with 1 MHz or 3 MHz ultrasound while varying power, duration and temperature of treatment. Results We found that 3 MHz ultrasound delivered with 2.2 Watt per square cm power for fifteen minutes was necessary to deplete spermatocytes and spermatids from the testis and that this treatment significantly reduced epididymal sperm reserves. 3 MHz ultrasound treatment reduced total epididymal sperm count 10-fold lower than the wet-heat control and decreased motile sperm counts 1,000-fold lower than wet-heat alone. The current treatment regimen provided nominally more energy to the treatment chamber than Fahim's originally reported conditions of 1 MHz ultrasound delivered at 1 Watt per square cm for ten minutes. However, the true spatial average intensity, effective radiating area and power output of the transducers used by Fahim were not reported, making a direct comparison impossible. We found that germ cell depletion was most uniform and effective when we rotated the therapeutic transducer to mitigate non-uniformity of the beam field. The lowest sperm count was achieved when the coupling medium (3% saline) was held at 37 degrees C and two consecutive 15-minute treatments of 3 MHz ultrasound at 2.2 Watt per square cm were separated by 2 days. Conclusions The non-invasive nature of ultrasound and its efficacy in reducing sperm count make therapeutic ultrasound a promising candidate for a male contraceptive. However, further studies must be conducted to confirm its efficacy in providing a contraceptive effect, to test the result of repeated use, to verify that the contraceptive effect is reversible and to demonstrate that there are no detrimental, long-term effects from using ultrasound as a method of male contraception. PMID:22289508

  13. Efficacy of sperm wash media in improving sperm motility.

    PubMed

    Daru, J; Mathur, S; Williamson, H O

    1988-01-01

    Spermatozoa from 15 fertile men were washed with Ham's F10 and incubated with two commercially available sperm nutrient media for 2, 4, 6, and 24 h. Both sperm capacitation medium (Irvine Scientific Co., Santa Ana, CA) and Pro-ception (Milex Products, Inc., Chicago, IL) proved to be capable of improving sperm motion characteristics. These media may be used for incubating sperm for intrauterine insemination or for in vitro fertilization. PMID:3395154

  14. Chimeras of sperm PLC? reveal disparate protein domain functions in the generation of intracellular Ca2+ oscillations in mammalian eggs at fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Theodoridou, Maria; Nomikos, Michail; Parthimos, Dimitris; Gonzalez-Garcia, J. Raul; Elgmati, Khalil; Calver, Brian L.; Sideratou, Zili; Nounesis, George; Swann, Karl; Lai, F. Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Phospholipase C-zeta (PLC?) is a sperm-specific protein believed to cause Ca2+ oscillations and egg activation during mammalian fertilization. PLC? is very similar to the somatic PLC?1 isoform but is far more potent in mobilizing Ca2+ in eggs. To investigate how discrete protein domains contribute to Ca2+ release, we assessed the function of a series of PLC?/PLC?1 chimeras. We examined their ability to cause Ca2+ oscillations in mouse eggs, enzymatic properties using in vitro phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) hydrolysis and their binding to PIP2 and PI(3)P with a liposome interaction assay. Most chimeras hydrolyzed PIP2 with no major differences in Ca2+ sensitivity and enzyme kinetics. Insertion of a PH domain or replacement of the PLC? EF hands domain had no deleterious effect on Ca2+ oscillations. In contrast, replacement of either XY-linker or C2 domain of PLC? completely abolished Ca2+ releasing activity. Notably, chimeras containing the PLC? XY-linker bound to PIP2-containing liposomes, while chimeras containing the PLC? C2 domain exhibited PI(3)P binding. Our data suggest that the EF hands are not solely responsible for the nanomolar Ca2+ sensitivity of PLC? and that membrane PIP2 binding involves the C2 domain and XY-linker of PLC?. To investigate the relationship between PLC enzymatic properties and Ca2+ oscillations in eggs, we have developed a mathematical model that incorporates Ca2+-dependent InsP3 generation by the PLC chimeras and their levels of intracellular expression. These numerical simulations can for the first time predict the empirical variability in onset and frequency of Ca2+ oscillatory activity associated with specific PLC variants. PMID:24152875

  15. Development of genetically engineered human sperm immunocontraceptives

    PubMed Central

    Naz, Rajesh K.

    2009-01-01

    Contraceptive vaccines targeting sperm are an exciting proposition. This review is focused on anti-sperm contraceptive vaccines and genetically engineered human antibodies that can be used as immunocontraceptives. Various methods of vaccinology and antibody engineering have been used to obtain multi-epitope contraceptive vaccines and human single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibodies from immunoinfertile and vasectomized men. Contraceptive vaccines comprised of various sperm antigens, peptide epitopes or DNA have shown various degrees of reversible contraceptive effect in the mouse model and their efficacy is enhanced with the multi-epitope combination vaccine. Failure to achieve a complete fertility block is probably due to variability in the host immune response. Using phage display technology, our laboratory has synthesized in vitro at least four novel scFv antibodies with unique complementarity determining regions (CDRs) that react with specific fertility-related sperm antigens employing cDNA from immunoinfertile and vasectomized men. These antibodies inhibit human sperm function in vitro, and their immunocontraceptive effect in vivo is being investigated. If these human scFv antibodies block fertility in vivo they may provide unique and novel immunocontraceptives, a first-in-kind for human use. The multi-epitope contraceptive vaccines and preformed engineered antibodies of defined specificity may eliminate concern related to inter-individual variability of the immune response. PMID:19853924

  16. Sperm Nuclear Vacuoles in relation to Acrosome Reactions and Sperm Motility

    PubMed Central

    Kawauchi, Yoko; Kato, Tomonori; Tanii, Ichiro; Fuse, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    We investigated sperm nuclear vacuolation in relation to acrosome reactions and the maintenance of sperm motility. Thirty male patients who visited our Male Infertility Clinic were enrolled. These patients underwent conventional semen analyses, Acrobeads tests, and high-magnification observation of the sperm head to evaluate the degree of nuclear vacuolation on the Acrobeads test scoring after 24 hours of incubation. The presence of acrosome reactions was evaluated using the Acrobeads test. The spermatozoa were classified into three groups: (I) those bound to MH61-beads, (II) motile spermatozoa that did not bind to MH61-beads, and (III) immotile spermatozoa that did not bind to MH61-beads. The percentage of spermatozoa with large nuclear vacuoles (%LNV) was compared between the three groups. The degree of sperm nuclear vacuolation was evaluated in 17,992 ejaculated spermatozoa. The mean %LNVs were 2.4% in group I, 5.8% in group II, and 9.8% in group III. These values were significantly different from each other (P < 0.001, paired t-test). There were no correlations between the %LNV values and the Acrobeads scores. In conclusion, the degree of sperm nuclear vacuolation was significantly lower in the acrosome-reacted spermatozoa and spermatozoa with maintained motility, and higher in the immotile spermatozoa that did not bind to MH61-beads. PMID:25097868

  17. Sound production in neonate sperm whales (L)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, P. T.; Carder, D. A.; Au, W. W. L.; Nachtigall, P. E.; Mřhl, B.; Ridgway, S. H.

    2003-06-01

    Acoustic data from two sperm whale neonates (Physeter macrocephalus) in rehabilitation are presented and implications for sound production and function are discussed. The clicks of neonate sperm whale are very different from usual clicks of adult specimens in that neonate clicks are of low directionality [SL anomaly (0°-90°) <8 dB], long duration (2-12 ms), and low frequency (centroid frequency between 300 and 1700 Hz) with estimated SLs between 140 and 162 dB//1 ?Pa (rms). Such neonate clicks are unsuited for biosonar, but can potentially convey homing information between calves and submerged conspecifics in open ocean waters at ranges of some 2 km. Moreover, it is demonstrated that sperm whale clicks are produced at the anterior placed monkey lips, thereby substantiating a key point in the modified Norris and Harvey theory and supporting the unifying theory of sound production in odontocetes.

  18. Sexual behavior, reproductive physiology and sperm competition in male mammals.

    PubMed

    Dixson, Alan F; Anderson, Matthew J

    2004-11-15

    Sperm competition involves competition between the gametes of two or more males of a species for fertilization of a given set of ova. Sperm competition is widespread among mammals, as in many other groups of vertebrates. Effects of sexual selection, via sperm competition, upon the evolution of reproductive physiology and behavior are much better understood in invertebrates (and especially in insects) than is the case for mammals. However, if the reproductive organs of male mammals are viewed as an integrated system for production and delivery of spermatozoa (and accessory glandular secretions) to females, then it is logical to assume that sperm competition might influence the evolution of all parts of the system, as well as associated physiological mechanisms (e.g., testicular endocrinology) and behavior (e.g., copulatory patterns). Here we analyze and review relationships between mating systems, relative testes sizes and sperm morphology, phallic morphology, circulating testosterone levels and sexual behavior in male mammals. PMID:15488551

  19. Functional Task Test: 2. Spaceflight-Induced Cardiovascular Change and Recovery During NASA's Functional Task Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Tiffany; Arzeno, Natalia M.; Stenger, Michael; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Platts, Steven H.

    2011-01-01

    The overall objective of the functional task test (FTT) is to correlate spaceflight-induced physiological adaptations with changes in performance of high priority exploration mission-critical tasks. This presentation will focus on the recovery from fall/stand test (RFST), which measures the cardiovascular response to the transition from the prone posture (simulated fall) to standing in normal gravity, as well as heart rate (HR) during 11 functional tasks. As such, this test describes some aspects of spaceflight-induced cardiovascular deconditioning and the course of recovery in Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) astronauts. The sensorimotor and neuromuscular components of the FTT are described in two separate abstracts: Functional Task Test 1 and 3.

  20. Research Report Learning Effects on Sperm

    E-print Network

    Crews, David

    conditioning on reproductive fitness in a sperm-competition situation. Typically, two males mat- ing it is evolutionarily adaptive (Pappini, 2002). However, with few exceptions (Davey, 1989), investigators have, contextual cues served as the CSs. For the sexual-competition test, each female was mated with 2 males

  1. Seminal plasma proteins and sperm resistance to stress.

    PubMed

    Muińo-Blanco, T; Pérez-Pé, R; Cebrián-Pérez, J A

    2008-10-01

    The role of seminal plasma (SP) in mammalian sperm function remains largely a matter of speculation as both inhibitory and stimulating effects have been found. Specific components of SP, particularly proteins, are adsorbed onto the surface of ejaculated sperm as they pass through the male and female reproductive tracts. These sperm coating components seem to have the important function of maintaining the stability of the membrane up to the process of capacitation (decapacitation factors). Therefore, they must be removed, modified or masked before the spermatozoa undergo the acrosome reaction, an essential process for successful fertilization. It is well known that low temperatures alter the function of spermatozoa. Cold shock results in the destabilization of sperm membranes and impairment of sperm function, and it is also well known that ram spermatozoa are more sensitive to cold-shock stress than those of other species. The addition of SP proteins to spermatozoa before and/or after cooling is able to minimize cryoinjury effects. The major proteins in ram SP which are able to protect and repair the cold-shock damage to sperm contain fibronectin-II domains. The significance of this domain and the role of these proteins in sperm capacitation and gamete interaction are discussed. PMID:18803753

  2. Effects of hypothermic storage of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) sperm on intracellular calcium, reactive oxygen species formation, mitochondrial function, motility, and viability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were conducted to determine the effect of hypothermic 24 h storage of striped bass sperm cells on viability, intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i), mitochondrial membrane potential (D'm), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation (oxidation of hydroethidine to ethidium) as determined by flow cy...

  3. Effect of method and clinician on stallion sperm morphology evaluation.

    PubMed

    Brito, Leonardo F C; Greene, Lauren M; Kelleman, Audrey; Knobbe, Marc; Turner, Regina

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of method and clinician on stallion sperm morphology evaluation. Five clinicians evaluated 60 semen samples using wet-mount preparations with phase-contrast, eosin/nigrosin-stained semen smears, and Papanicolaou-stained semen smears. There were significant differences among methods for all sperm morphology categories and most intra-class correlation coefficients were only fair to moderate. The use of wet-mount preparations facilitated detection of acrosome defects, nuclear vacuoles, and cytoplasmic droplets when compared to stained smears. Smearing stallion semen samples onto slides increased the proportion of detached sperm heads. In addition, acrosome defects, nuclear vacuoles, rough/swollen midpieces, and cytoplasmic droplets were difficult to observe with Papanicolaou stain; this method resulted in overestimation of normal sperm when compared to other methods. There were significant differences among clinicians for all sperm morphology classification categories. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that sperm morphology evaluation results varied, depending on the evaluation method and clinician. Wet-mount preparation with phase-contrast microscopy appeared to be more sensitive for identification of abnormal stallion sperm when compared to stained smears. Veterinary andrology laboratories should invest in training, continuing education, proficiency testing, and other quality control measures to minimize the variation of sperm morphology evaluation results among clinicians. PMID:21612814

  4. Epidemiological assessment of occupationally related, chemically induced sperm count suppression

    SciTech Connect

    Milby, T.H.; Whorton, D.

    1980-02-01

    Occupationally related, chemically induced sperm count suppression is a recently recognized problem, first brought to light in connection with the manufacture and formulation of dibromochloropropane (DBCP). The authors studied sperm count data from four occupational cohorts - two exposed to DBCP and two exposed to epichlorohydrin (ECH). In both DBCP cohorts there was a significant difference (alpha = 0.05) between sperm count distribution functions of the exposed group and of the non-exposed group. A much higher percentage of exposed men was oligospermic and the median sperm count for each exposed group was substantially lower than that for the respective non-exposed group. In the ECH cohorts there was no significant difference between sperm count data for the exposed group and for the non-exposed group. The authors concluded that exposure to DBCP, but not to ECH, was positively associated with detectable sperm count suppression. It is suggested that the key to identifying and assessing occupationally related sperm count suppression lies in the proper classification and interpretation of group sperm count data.

  5. Role of human- and animal-sperm studies in the evaluation of male reproductive hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Wyrobek, A.J.; Gordon, L.; Watchmaker, G.

    1982-04-07

    Human sperm tests provide a direct means of assessing chemically induced spermatogenic dysfunction in man. Available tests include sperm count, motility, morphology (seminal cytology), and Y-body analyses. Over 70 different human exposures have been monitored in various groups of exposed men. The majority of exposures studied showed a significant change from control in one or more sperm tests. When carefully controlled, the sperm morphology test is statistically the most sensitive of these human sperm tests. Several sperm tests have been developed in nonhuman mammals for the study of chemical spermatotoxins. The sperm morphology test in mice has been the most widely used. Results with this test seem to be related to germ-cell mutagenicity. In general, animal sperm tests should play an important role in the identification and assessment of potential human reproductive hazards. Exposure to spermatotoxins may lead to infertility, and more importantly, to heritable genetic damage. While there are considerable animal and human data suggesting that sperm tests may be used to detect agents causing infertility, the extent to which these tests detect heritable genetic damage remains unclear. (ERB)

  6. Oviducal sperm storage in poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hens are capable of fertilizing a daily succession of ovulated ova due to their ability to store sperm in the oviduct for several weeks. However, the precise biological mechanisms describing how sperm are selected and survive in the oviduct, and which sperm actually reach the site of fertilization c...

  7. The computational sperm cell.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Luis; Friedrich, Benjamin M; Gompper, Gerhard; Kaupp, U Benjamin

    2014-03-01

    Sperm are guided to the egg by a gradient of chemical attractants - a process called chemotaxis. The binding of the chemoattractant to receptors on the surface of the flagellum triggers a cascade of signaling events that eventually lead to an influx of Ca(2+) ions. Based on these Ca(2+) surges, which control the waveform of the flagellar beat, sperm adjust their swimming path toward the egg. In past years, many components of chemotactic signaling have been identified. Moreover, kinetic spectroscopy and imaging techniques unraveled the sequence of cellular events controlling swimming behavior. During navigation in a chemical gradient, sperm perform a surprising variety of computational operations. Here we discuss theoretical concepts of navigation strategies and the cellular underpinnings. PMID:24342435

  8. Accuracy of the normal sperm morphology value by Sperm Quality Analyzer IIC: comparison with the strict criteria.

    PubMed

    Shibahara, Hiroaki; Suzuki, Tatsuya; Obara, Hiromi; Hirano, Yuki; Onagawa, Tamaho; Taneichi, Akiyo; Takamizawa, Satoru; Sato, Ikuo

    2002-02-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the accuracy of the normal sperm morphology value by Sperm Quality Analyzer IIC (SQA IIC), which was developed to provide a rapid and low-cost quantitative evaluation of semen quality. Normal sperm morphology was assessed using SQA IIC in comparison with that by the strict criteria in 62 semen samples. Normal sperm morphology value by SQA IIC was based on the studies of three traditional sperm parameters from over 4000 fresh, untreated semen samples, while the strict criteria was based on the method by Kruger et al. The mean +/- SD of percent normal morphology by SQA IIC and the strict criteria were 37.6 +/- 10.9% (range 15-52) and 19.9 +/- 8.2 (range 1-34), respectively. There was a significant correlation of the sperm morphology assessment between the two methods (r=0.454, p < 0.001). Using the cut-off value of >30% normal morphology by SQA IIC, the positive predictive value and the negative predictive value of the 'normal' strict criteria were 79.6% (39/49) and 46.2% (6/13), respectively. These results indicate that SQA IIC might be used as an initial screening test for the evaluation of sperm morphology. However, sperm morphological assessment by the strict criteria should be performed in order to make decisions in planning strategies for the treatment of infertile couples. PMID:11869376

  9. Integrated Locomotor Function Tests for Countermeasure Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Cohen, H. S.; Landsness, E. C.; Black, F. O.

    2005-01-01

    Following spaceflight crewmembers experience locomotor dysfunction due to inflight adaptive alterations in sensorimotor function. Countermeasures designed to mitigate these postflight gait alterations need to be assessed with a new generation of tests that evaluate the interaction of various sensorimotor sub-systems central to locomotor control. The goal of the present study was to develop new functional tests of locomotor control that could be used to test the efficacy of countermeasures. These tests were designed to simultaneously examine the function of multiple sensorimotor systems underlying the control of locomotion and be operationally relevant to the astronaut population. Traditionally, gaze stabilization has been studied almost exclusively in seated subjects performing target acquisition tasks requiring only the involvement of coordinated eye-head movements. However, activities like walking involve full-body movement and require coordination between lower limbs and the eye-head-trunk complex to achieve stabilized gaze during locomotion. Therefore the first goal of this study was to determine how the multiple, interdependent, full-body sensorimotor gaze stabilization subsystems are functionally coordinated during locomotion. In an earlier study we investigated how alteration in gaze tasking changes full-body locomotor control strategies. Subjects walked on a treadmill and either focused on a central point target or read numeral characters. We measured: temporal parameters of gait, full body sagittal plane segmental kinematics of the head, trunk, thigh, shank and foot, accelerations along the vertical axis at the head and the shank, and the vertical forces acting on the support surface. In comparison to the point target fixation condition, the results of the number reading task showed that compensatory head pitch movements increased, peak head acceleration was reduced and knee flexion at heel-strike was increased. In a more recent study we investigated the adaptive remodeling of the full-body gaze control systems following exposure to visual-vestibular conflict. Subjects walked on a treadmill before and after a 30- minute exposure to 0.5X minifying during which self-generated sinusoidal vertical head rotations were performed while seated. Following exposure to visual-vestibular conflict subjects showed a restriction in compensatory head movements, increased knee and ankle flexion after heel-strike and a decrease in the rate of body loading during the rapid weight transfer phase after the heel strike event. Taken together, results from both studies provide evidence that the full body contributes to gaze stabilization during locomotion, and that different functional elements are responsive to changes in visual task constraints and are subject to adaptive alterations following exposure to visual-vestibular conflict. This information provides the basis for the design of a new generation of integrative tests that incorporate the evaluation of multiple neural control systems relevant to astronaut operational performance.

  10. COMP-1 promotes competitive advantage of nematode sperm

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Jody M; Chavez, Daniela R; Stanfield, Gillian M

    2015-01-01

    Competition among sperm to fertilize oocytes is a ubiquitous feature of sexual reproduction as well as a profoundly important aspect of sexual selection. However, little is known about the cellular mechanisms sperm use to gain competitive advantage or how these mechanisms are regulated genetically. In this study, we utilize a forward genetic screen in Caenorhabditis elegans to identify a gene, comp-1, whose function is specifically required in competitive contexts. We show that comp-1 functions in sperm to modulate their migration through and localization within the reproductive tract, thereby promoting their access to oocytes. Contrary to previously described models, comp-1 mutant sperm show no defects in size or velocity, thereby defining a novel pathway for preferential usage. Our results indicate not only that sperm functional traits can influence the outcome of sperm competition, but also that these traits can be modulated in a context-dependent manner depending on the presence of competing sperm. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05423.001 PMID:25789512

  11. Characterization of Na+K+-ATPase in bovine sperm.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Katie D; Buhr, Mary M

    2012-04-15

    Existing as a ubiquitous transmembrane protein, Na(+)K(+)-ATPase affects sperm fertility and capacitation through ion transport and a recently identified signaling function. Functional Na(+)K(+)-ATPase is a dimer of ? and ? subunits, each with isoforms (four and three, respectively). Since specific isoform pairings and locations may influence or indicate function, the objective of this study was to identify and localize subunits of Na(+)K(+)-ATPase in fresh bull sperm by immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry using antibodies against ?1 and 3, and all ? isoforms. Relative quantity of Na(+)K(+)-ATPase in head plasma membranes (HPM's) from sperm of different bulls was determined by densitometry of immunoblot bands, and compared to bovine kidney. Sperm and kidney specifically bound all antibodies at kDa equivalent to commercial controls, and to additional lower kDa bands in HPM. Immunofluorescence of intact sperm confirmed that all isoforms were present in the head region of sperm and that ?3 was also uniformly distributed post-equatorially. Permeabilization exposing internal membranes typically resulted in an increase in fluorescence, indicating that some antibody binding sites were present on the inner surface of the HPM or the acrosomal membrane. Deglycosylation of ?1 reduced the kDa of bands in sperm, rat brain and kidney, with the kDa of the deglycosylated bands differing among tissues. Two-dimensional blots of ?1 revealed three distinct spots. Based on the unique quantity, location and structure Na(+)K(+)-ATPase subunits in sperm, we inferred that this protein has unique functions in sperm. PMID:22284223

  12. Hanford tanks initiative test facility functions and requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Krieg, S.A., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-01

    This document presents the functions and requirements for a test facility for testing single-shell tank waste retrieval equipment and systems for the Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) project. This effort includes review of previous test facility functions and requirements and conducting a workshop to develop specific functions and requirements for HTI testing needs. Functions and requirements for testing future retrieval systems that follow HTI are also identified.

  13. The secretory products of Trichomonas vaginalis decrease fertilizing capacity of mice sperm in vitro.

    PubMed

    Roh, Jaesook; Lim, Young-Su; Seo, Min-Young; Choi, Yuri; Ryu, Jae-Sook

    2015-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis infection is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections in humans and is now recognized as an important cause of infertility in men. There is little information about the effect of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from T. vaginalis on sperm, but previous reports do not provide a conclusive description of the functional integrity of the sperm. To investigate the impact of EPS on the fertilizing capacity of sperm, we assessed sperm motility, acrosomal status, hypo-osmotic swelling, and in vitrofertilization rate after incubating the sperm with EPS in vitrousing mice. The incubation of sperm with EPS significantly decreased sperm motility, viability, and functional integrity in a concentration and time-dependent manner. These effects on sperm quality also resulted in a decreased fertilization rate in vitro. This is the first report that demonstrates the direct negative impact of the EPS of T. vaginalis on the fertilization rate of sperm in vitro. However, further study should be performed using human sperm to determine if EPS has similar negative impact on human sperm fertilizing capacity in vitro. PMID:25578937

  14. Cotton embryogenesis: The sperm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William A. Jensen; Donald B. Fisher

    1968-01-01

    Summary The sperm of cotton were observed in the pollen tube in the style. They are true cells but relatively simple in organization. The nuclei are small and each contains a single, very small nucleolus. Nuclear pores are common and heterochromatin lines the nuclear membrane. The plastids and mitochondria are so reduced in internal structure that it is impossible to

  15. Sperm Whale (Physeter macrocephalus)

    E-print Network

    .3.2 Listing history Original Listing The sperm whale was listed under the precursor to the Endangered Species Act (ESA), the Endangered Species Conservation Act of 1969, and remained listed after the passage catodon=macrocephalus) Classification: Endangered 1.3.3 Associated rulemakings: N/A #12;2 1.3.4 Review

  16. Equine sperm-neutrophil binding.

    PubMed

    Alghamdi, Abdorrahman S; Madill, Scott; Foster, Douglas N; Troedsson, Mats H T

    2015-04-01

    When mares are inseminated repeatedly, protein molecules from the seminal plasma (SP) prevent sperm-neutrophil binding and reduced fertility. The molecule(s) responsible for sperm-neutrophil binding is not known and the identification of beneficial SP proteins is complicated by their large numbers and abundant variation. We examined several important aspects of sperm-neutrophil binding to ultimately facilitate the identification and isolation of the molecule(s) responsible. First, we raised anti-equine P-selectin antibodies to determine the involvement of this adhesion molecule in sperm-neutrophil binding. While these antibodies identified equine P-selectin, they did not inhibit sperm-neutrophil binding. However, acrosome-reacted equine sperm expressed a molecule similar to the ligand recognition unit of P-selectin. Second, we attempted to characterize SP protein binding to equine sperm and gauge their affinity. Biotinylated SP proteins were incubated with fresh sperm, washed over a viscous medium, electrophoresed, and probed with avidin. Several SP proteins bound to sperm with a strong affinity to withstand these treatments. This finding may prove valuable for future attempts to identify and characterize specific SP molecules. Lastly, we compared the secretions from male sex organs/glands on sperm motility, sperm-neutrophil binding, and their protein profile. We expected fewer proteins from individual organs/glands, which would facilitate isolation and identification of target molecules. While each secretion had a varying effect on motility and sperm-neutrophil binding, the protein profile was as complex as that seen in whole SP, indicating that collection of proteins from individual sources will not facilitate this work. Together, these experiments answer several important questions related to sperm-neutrophil binding, sperm-SP proteins interaction, and the complexity of the SP proteome. PMID:25695722

  17. Post-thaw sperm characteristics following long-term storage of boar semen in liquid nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Fraser, L; Strze?ek, J; Kordan, W

    2014-06-30

    This study investigated the effect of long-term liquid nitrogen storage of semen from individual boars on post-thaw sperm characteristics. Ejaculates, collected from five Polish large white (PLW) and five Polish landrace (PLR) boars, were frozen using a standard cryopreservation protocol. Post-thaw analysis was performed within a week (Period 1) and 42-48 months (Period 2) of semen storage in liquid nitrogen. Post-thaw sperm assessments included total motility, mitochondrial function (JC-1/PI assay), plasma membrane integrity (SYBR-14/PI assay), osmotic resistance test (ORT), lipid peroxidation (LPO) status and DNA fragmentation, analysed by the neutral Comet assay. Individual boar variability within breed and cryostorage periods had significant effects on the analysed parameters of frozen-thawed spermatozoa. Prolonged semen storage in liquid nitrogen (Period 2) induced a marked reduction in post-thaw sperm motility, mitochondrial function and plasma membrane integrity in most of the boars. Post-thaw semen of eight boars exhibited a marked decrease in osmotic resistance of the sperm acrosomal membrane, whereas a significant increase in the sperm cryo-susceptibility to induced LPO and DNA fragmentation was observed only in three boars after long-term semen storage. Additionally, frozen-thawed spermatozoa of PLR boars exhibited significantly lower osmotic resistance of the acrosomal membrane than PLW boars following prolonged semen storage in liquid nitrogen. The results of this study provide evidence of ageing processes in frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa following prolonged cryostorage. It seems that, even though cryopreservation allows long-term semen storage in liquid nitrogen, spermatozoa from individual boars are more susceptible to cryo-induced damage. PMID:24819551

  18. Esophageal function testing using multichannel intraluminal impedance.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, R; Vela, M F; Katz, P O; Tutuian, R; Castell, J A; Castell, D O

    2001-03-01

    Multichannel intraluminal impedance (MII) is a new technique for evaluation of bolus transport. We evaluated esophageal function using bolus transport time (BTT) and contraction wave velocity (CWV) of liquid, semisolid, and solid boluses. Ten healthy subjects underwent MII swallow evaluation with various boluses of sterile water (pH 5), applesauce, three different sized marshmallows, and iced and 130 degrees F water. The effect of bethanechol was also studied. There was no difference in BTT or CWV for all water volumes from 1 to 20 ml. There was significant linear increase of BTT with progressively larger volumes of applesauce, and BTT of applesauce was longer than for water. BTT was significantly longer with large marshmallows vs. small and medium and was longer than for water. BTT for iced water was similar to 130 degrees F water. Applesauce showed a significant linear decrease of CWV with progressively larger volumes and was slower than water. Marshmallow showed significantly slower CWV with the large vs. small, and CWV for ice water was significantly slower than 130 degrees F water. Therefore, BTT of liquid is constant, whereas BTT of semisolid and solid are volume dependent and longer than liquids. CWV of semisolids and solids are slower than liquids. CWV of cold liquids is slower than warm liquids. MII can be used as a discriminating test of esophageal function. PMID:11171628

  19. The effect of pH on sperm motility of white suckers, Catostomus commersoni , in the Experimental Lakes Area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lloyd C. Mohr; Sandra M. Chalanchuk

    1985-01-01

    This study examined the effects of various pH values on sperm motility times of white suckers,Catostomus commersoni, from two artificially acidified lakes in the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA), northwestern Ontario. White sucker sperm were active (motile) in water at all pH values tested (3.0–7.0). The maximum sperm motility time was 76.9 seconds and the minimum time was 51.9 seconds. Sperm

  20. Formal functional test designs with a test representation language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hops, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    The application of the category-partition method to the test design phase of hardware, software, or system test development is discussed. The method provides a formal framework for reducing the total number of possible test cases to a minimum logical subset for effective testing. An automatic tool and a formal language were developed to implement the method and produce the specification of test cases.

  1. Sperm and Spermatids Contain Different Proteins and Bind Distinct Egg Factors

    PubMed Central

    Teperek, Marta; Miyamoto, Kei; Simeone, Angela; Feret, Renata; Deery, Michael J.; Gurdon, John B.; Jullien, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    Spermatozoa are more efficient at supporting normal embryonic development than spermatids, their immature, immediate precursors. This suggests that the sperm acquires the ability to support embryonic development during spermiogenesis (spermatid to sperm maturation). Here, using Xenopus laevis as a model organism, we performed 2-D Fluorescence Difference Gel Electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and mass spectrometry analysis of differentially expressed proteins between sperm and spermatids in order to identify factors that could be responsible for the efficiency of the sperm to support embryonic development. Furthermore, benefiting from the availability of egg extracts in Xenopus, we also tested whether the chromatin of sperm could attract different egg factors compared to the chromatin of spermatids. Our analysis identified: (1) several proteins which were present exclusively in sperm; but not in spermatid nuclei and (2) numerous egg proteins binding to the sperm (but not to the spermatid chromatin) after incubation in egg extracts. Amongst these factors we identified many chromatin-associated proteins and transcriptional repressors. Presence of transcriptional repressors binding specifically to sperm chromatin could suggest its preparation for the early embryonic cell cycles, during which no transcription is observed and suggests that sperm chromatin has a unique protein composition, which facilitates the recruitment of egg chromatin remodelling factors. It is therefore likely that the acquisition of these sperm-specific factors during spermiogenesis makes the sperm chromatin suitable to interact with the maternal factors and, as a consequence, to support efficient embryonic development. PMID:25244019

  2. Comprehensive profiling of accessible surface glycans of mammalian sperm using a lectin microarray

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that cell surface glycans or glycocalyx play important roles in sperm motility, maturation and fertilization. A comprehensive profile of the sperm surface glycans will greatly facilitate both basic research (sperm glycobiology) and clinical studies, such as diagnostics of infertility. As a group of natural glycan binders, lectin is an ideal tool for cell surface glycan profiling. However, because of the lack of effective technology, only a few lectins have been tested for lectin-sperm binding profiles. To address this challenge, we have developed a procedure for high-throughput probing of mammalian sperm with 91 lectins on lectin microarrays. Normal sperm from human, boar, bull, goat and rabbit were collected and analyzed on the lectin microarrays. Positive bindings of a set of ~50 lectins were observed for all the sperm of 5 species, which indicated a wide range of glycans are on the surface of mammalian sperm. Species specific lectin bindings were also observed. Clustering analysis revealed that the distances of the five species according to the lectin binding profiles are consistent with that of the genome sequence based phylogenetic tree except for rabbit. The procedure that we established in this study could be generally applicable for sperm from other species or defect sperm from the same species. We believe the lectin binding profiles of the mammalian sperm that we established in this study are valuable for both basic research and clinical studies. PMID:24629138

  3. Sperm competition effects on sperm production and expenditure in sailfin mollies, Poecilia latipinna

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea S. Aspbury

    2007-01-01

    Sperm competition risk (SCR) models predict that if there is a low probability a male's ejaculate will compete with another male, individuals should invest less sperm in a mating, whereas if the probability of competition is high, males should invest more sperm. Alternatively, models of sperm competition intensity (SCI) predict that increased intensity of sperm competition leads to maximal sperm

  4. Sex-sorted canine sperm cryopreservation: Limits and procedural considerations.

    PubMed

    Merlo, Barbara; Zambelli, Daniele; Cunto, Marco; Iacono, Eleonora; Nasi, Ludovica; Giaretta, Elisa; Galeati, Giovanna; Bucci, Diego; Spinaci, Marcella

    2015-04-15

    The aim of this study was to define a protocol to store dog sperm before and after sorting to obtain an insemination dose sufficient to allow the conception by artificial insemination. Experiment 1 and 2 were performed to evaluate the more appropriate extender for preserving at room temperature dog sperm before and after sorting. Four extenders were tested: (1) Tris-fructose-citrate (TFC), (2) Tris-glucose-citrate (TGC), (3) modified Tyrode's albumin lactate pyruvate medium (mTALP), and (4) third fraction of the ejaculate (after centrifugation at 5000× g for 10 minutes; III FRAC). Experiment 3 and 4 were performed to evaluate the ability of dog semen to withstand sex sorting and freezing/thawing. Modified Tyrode's albumin lactate pyruvate medium was the best extender for canine sperm storage at room temperature (20 °C-25 °C) before (total motility: TFC, 8.3 ± 1.7; TGC, 50.0 ± 11.5; mTALP, 70.0 ± 0.1; III FRAC, 25.0 ± 1 0.4; P < 0.05) and after sorting (total motility: TFC, 7.3 ± 1.5; TGC, 10.3 ± 1.5; mTALP, 33.3 ± 6.7; III FRAC, 8.7 ± 5.8; P < 0.05), even if at 24-hour sorted sperm quality was impaired in all extenders tested herein. Sperm quality decreased after sorting (total motility: control, 92.5 ± 0.9; sorted, 52.9 ± 6.0; P < 0.05) and, especially, after freezing/thawing (total motility: frozen control, 25.7 ± 4.1; frozen sorted, 2.4 ± 1.2; P < 0.05). In conclusion, mTALP is an appropriate medium for canine sperm storage before and soon after sorting (hours), but a long storage period of sexed sperm at room temperature is not adequate. Cryopreservation greatly impaired sperm quality, and further studies are needed to optimize the freezing protocol for sexed dog sperm. PMID:25586638

  5. A Neuronal Pathway that Controls Sperm Ejection and Storage in Female Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kang-Min; Daubnerová, Ivana; Isaac, R Elwyn; Zhang, Chen; Choi, Sekyu; Chung, Jongkyeong; Kim, Young-Joon

    2015-03-16

    In polyandrous females, sperm storage permits competition between sperm of different mates, and in some species females influence the relative fertilization success of competing sperm in favor of a preferred mate [1, 2]. In female Drosophila melanogaster, sperm competition is strongly influenced by the timing of sperm ejection from the uterus [3, 4]. Understanding how female behavior influences sperm competition requires knowledge of the neuronal mechanisms controlling sperm retention and storage, which is currently lacking. Here, we show that D. melanogaster females eject male ejaculates from the uterus 1-6 hr after mating with a stereotypic behavior regulated by a brain signaling pathway composed of diuretic hormone 44 (Dh44), a neuropeptide related to vertebrate corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), and its receptor, Dh44R1. Suppression of Dh44 signals in the brain expedites sperm ejection from the uterus, resulting in marked reduction of sperm in the storage organs and decreased fecundity, whereas enhancement of Dh44 signals delays sperm expulsion. The Dh44 function was mapped to six neurons located in the pars intercerebralis of the brain together with a small subset of Dh44R1 neurons that express the sex-specific transcription factor doublesex. This study identifies a neuronal pathway by which females can control sperm retention and storage and provides new insight into how the female might exercise post-copulatory sexual selection. PMID:25702579

  6. Protective effect of esterified glucomannan on aflatoxin-induced changes in testicular function, sperm quality, and seminal plasma biochemistry in rams.

    PubMed

    Ataman, Mehmet Bozkurt; Dönmez, Hasan Hüseyin; Dönmez, Nurcan; Sur, Emrah; Bucak, Mustafa Numan; Coyan, Kenan

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of aflatoxin (AF) on spermatologic, biochemical, and testis parameters in rams, and the protective efficiency of esterified glucomannan (EG) co-administered with AF. Thirty-two Merino rams (12-14 months old) were used. The experimental design consisted of four dietary treatments. The control group was fed commercial feed. The AF group was fed with commercial feed plus 250 ?g/d of total AF. The EG group received commercial feed plus 2 g/d of EG. The AF + EG group was given commercial feed plus 250 ?g/d of total AF and 2 g/d of EG. There were treatment, time, and treatment-by-time interaction effects on sperm motility, abnormal spermatozoa, damaged acrosome, and dead spermatozoa (P < 0.01). The percentage of motile sperm was lower and the percentages of abnormal sperm, sperm with damaged acrosomes, and dead sperm were greater in the AF group than in the control, AF+EG, and EG groups, as from week 3 until the end of week 12 (P < 0.05). As from week 3, hyaluronidase activity in the seminal plasma increased significantly in the AF group, compared with the control. The co-administration of AF+EG was found to be effective in preventing the increase in hyaluronidase activity. As week 4, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were significantly higher in the AF group compared with the control. The combined administration of AF+EG was found to be effective in lowering the MDA levels, increased by AF, to the levels measured in the control (P < 0.05). Although glutathione (GSH) levels were determined to have significantly decreased in the AF group in comparison to the control, it was observed that, in the group co-administered with AF and EG, particularly after week 7, the GSH levels, which had decreased owing to AF, were largely ameliorated (P < 0.05). In conclusion, AF adversely affected spermatologic, biochemical, and testis parameters, and the combined administration of EG with AF reversibly eliminated these adverse effects in rams. PMID:24210915

  7. Sexing sperm of domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Cervantes, Román; Córdova-Izquierdo, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    The ability to preselect or predetermine the sex of offspring prior to conception is a highly desired technological tool for assisted female breeding programs specifically for milk production, and in males, for meat production and increasing livestock numbers. The current technology is based on the well-known differences in X- and Y-sperm in the amount of DNA. The technology uses modified flow cytometric instrumentation for sorting X- and Y-bearing sperm. The method can be validated on the basis of live births, laboratory reanalysis of sorted sperm for DNA content, and embryo biopsy for sex determination. Currently, the sex of animals has been predetermined with 90 % accuracy by sexing spermatozoa. In the bovine breeding industry, flow cytometric sperm sexing has not fulfilled its original promise. Sexed sperm doses are too expensive for widespread application while the fertility of sexed sperm doses is lower than unsexed ones. Essentially all bovine sexed semen is frozen and then applied through artificial insemination (AI) or in vitro fertilization. There is still a need in the animal breeding industry to develop a technique for sperm sexing that provides sufficient spermatozoa for AI doses, does not compromise sperm fertility, and is widely applicable to a range of species. In this review, we will summarize the current state-of-the-art in sex preselection in domestic animals and some wildlife species using flow cytometric sperm-sorting of X from Y sperm based on DNA differences. PMID:22829354

  8. Pulmonary function tests in ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Amra, Babak; Ataabadi, Ghazal; Emami, Mohamad Hassan; Hassanzadeh, Akbar; Golshan, Mohammad; Soltaninejad, Forogh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pulmonary impairment in patients suffering ulcerative colitis (UC) has been suggested by several investigators using standard pulmonary function tests (PFTs). This changes in pulmonary function associated with minimal respiratory symptoms have been documented, especially in patients with active disease. The aim of this prospective study was to determine airway resistance and lung volumes in patients with UC who have no respiratory symptoms in comparisons to a healthy control group. Materials and Methods: We evaluated a total of 30 patients with UC by means of spirometry, body plethysmography, and impulse oscillometry. The patients were not complaining of any pulmonary symptoms and did not present any history of previous respiratory diseases. As controls we examined 30 healthy subjects matched for gender, age, and smoking status. The relationship between PFT, lung volume, and airway resistance; and the activity, localization, and duration of the UC disease were analyzed. Results: There was a significant difference between airway resistances (kPa/L/s) measured by body plethysmography in patients with UC and those of the controls (R5hz; 0.60 ± 0.44 vs. 0.39 ± 0.13; P < 0.001) and R20hz (0.37 ± 0.19 vs. 0.29 ± 0.1, P = 0.02). There were no correlation between PFT, airway resistance and site and scoring activity (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Despite the lack of pulmonary symptoms, increased airway resistance was found in UC patients. We also have not found correlation between PFT, lung volume and airway resistance values and scoring of UC activity. PMID:25364358

  9. CRYPTIC CHOICE OF CONSPECIFIC SPERM CONTROLLED BY THE IMPACT OF OVARIAN FLUID ON SPERM SWIMMING BEHAVIOR

    PubMed Central

    Yeates, Sarah E; Diamond, Sian E; Einum, Sigurd; Emerson, Brent C; Holt, William V; Gage, Matthew J G

    2013-01-01

    Despite evidence that variation in male–female reproductive compatibility exists in many fertilization systems, identifying mechanisms of cryptic female choice at the gamete level has been a challenge. Here, under risks of genetic incompatibility through hybridization, we show how salmon and trout eggs promote fertilization by conspecific sperm. Using in vitro fertilization experiments that replicate the gametic microenvironment, we find complete interfertility between both species. However, if either species’ ova were presented with equivalent numbers of both sperm types, conspecific sperm gained fertilization precedence. Surprisingly, the species’ identity of the eggs did not explain this cryptic female choice, which instead was primarily controlled by conspecific ovarian fluid, a semiviscous, protein-rich solution that bathes the eggs and is released at spawning. Video analyses revealed that ovarian fluid doubled sperm motile life span and straightened swimming trajectory, behaviors allowing chemoattraction up a concentration gradient. To confirm chemoattraction, cell migration tests through membranes containing pores that approximated to the egg micropyle showed that conspecific ovarian fluid attracted many more spermatozoa through the membrane, compared with heterospecific fluid or water. These combined findings together identify how cryptic female choice can evolve at the gamete level and promote reproductive isolation, mediated by a specific chemoattractive influence of ovarian fluid on sperm swimming behavior. PMID:24299405

  10. The alteration of profile analysis to accommodate testing functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, R. H.

    1979-01-01

    The development of a methodology was studied for testing differences among several pilot functions, where the data points represent averages at various frequencies. Topics discussed include: basic assumptions, hypothesis, profile analysis, alteration of profile analysis to accommodate testing functions, test and procedures, and power of tests.

  11. Update on surgical sperm recovery--the European view.

    PubMed

    Tournaye, Herman

    2010-12-01

    Surgical sperm recovery has become a well-established procedure to obtain spermatozoa for intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Although a tendency exists to treat all azoospermic patients by ICSI using surgically retrieved sperm, vasovasostomy remains the gold standard for post-vasectomy azoospermia. In men with obstructive azoospermia in whom vasovasostomy is not indicated, sperm can be easily obtained by either aspiration from epididymis or testis, or a testicular biopsy. In about half of men with non-obstructive azoospermia, sperm may be obtained by testicular biopsy but unfortunately no accurate tests are currently available to predict successful recovery. In these patients, not only recovery rates are limited but also the chance to establish an ongoing pregnancy is decreased compared to men with normal spermatogenesis. When no spermatozoa are recovered after testicular sperm extraction (TESE), the use of donor sperm or adoption is indicated. Given the extremely low pregnancy rates, ICSI using round spermatids is not an option and remains unlawful in some countries. PMID:21117934

  12. Identification of Peroxiredoxin-5 in Bovine Cauda Epididymal Sperm

    PubMed Central

    Nagdas, Subir K; Buchanan, Teresa; Raychoudhury, Samir

    2013-01-01

    Developing spermatozoa require a series of post-testicular modifications within the luminal environment of the epididymis to achieve maturation; this involves several surface modifications including changes in plasma membrane lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, and alterations in the outer acrosomal membrane. Epididymal maturation can therefore allow sperm to gain forward motility and fertilization capabilities. The objective of this study was to identify maturation dependent protein(s) and to investigate their role with the production of functionally competent spermatozoa. Lectin blot analyses of caput and cauda sperm plasma membrane fractions identified a 17.5kDa Wheat Germ Agglutinin (WGA) binding polypeptide present in the cauda sperm plasma membrane not in the caput sperm plasma membrane. Among the several WGA stained bands, the presence of a 17.5kDa WGA binding polypeptide band was detected only in cauda epididymal fluid not in caput epididymal fluid suggesting that the 17.5kDa WGA-binding polypeptide is secreted from the cauda epididymis and binds to the cauda sperm plasma membrane during epididymal transit. Proteomic identification of the 17.5kDa polypeptide yielded 13 peptides that matched the sequence of peroxiredoxin-5 (PRDX5) protein (Bos Taurus). We propose that bovine cauda sperm PRDX5 acts as an antioxidant enzyme in the epididymal environment, which is crucial in protecting the viable sperm population against the damage caused by endogeneous or exogeneous peroxide. PMID:24186847

  13. Effect of various commercial buffers on sperm viability and capacitation.

    PubMed

    Andrisani, Alessandra; Donŕ, Gabriella; Ambrosini, Guido; Bonanni, Guglielmo; Bragadin, Marcantonio; Cosmi, Erich; Clari, Giulio; Armanini, Decio; Bordin, Luciana

    2014-08-01

    A wide variety of sperm preparation protocols are currently available for assisted conception. They include density gradient separation and washing methods. Both aim at isolating and capacitating as much motile sperm as possible for subsequent oocyte fertilization. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of four commercial sperm washing buffers on sperm viability and capacitation. Semen samples from 48 healthy donors (normal values of sperm count, motility, morphology, and volume) were analyzed. After separation (density gradient 40/80%), sperm were incubated in various buffers then analysed for reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, viability, tyrosine phosphorylation (Tyr-P), cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) labeling, and the acrosome reaction (AR). The buffers affected ROS generation in various ways resulting either in rapid cell degeneration (when the amount of ROS was too high for cell survival) or the inability of the cells to maintain correct functioning (when ROS were too few). Only when the correct ROS generation curve was maintained, suitable membrane reorganization, evidenced by CTB labeling was achieved, leading to the highest percentages of both Tyr-P- and acrosome-reacted-cells. Distinguishing each particular pathological state of the sperm sample would be helpful to select the preferred buffer treatment since both ROS production and membrane reorganization can be significantly altered by commercial buffers. PMID:24673547

  14. Short-term preservation of fowl sperm in buffered potassium chloride.

    PubMed

    Froman, D P

    2013-05-01

    Previous research demonstrated that sperm motility is dependent upon mitochondrial calcium cycling. Thus, sperm are inactivated when extracellular calcium ions are chelated. Mitochondrial calcium cycling, however, is driven by extracellular sodium ions. The hypothesis that sperm inactivation is subject to 2 variables was tested in the present work. Sperm motility was evaluated with computer-assisted sperm motion analysis in the first experiment. Sperm became immotile within minutes when suspended in buffered isotonic potassium chloride containing calcium ions. This outcome set the stage for the second experiment in which sperm were inactivated by centrifugation through 12% (wt/vol) Accudenz prepared with potassium chloride and tetrasodium 1,2-bis-(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA). Sperm mobility was the end point in the second and subsequent experiments. Potassium chloride was a suitable medium in regard to sperm inactivation with BAPTA followed by storage for 2 h at 10°C. Consequently, sperm so inactivated were reactivated after 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 h of storage in the third experiment. Whereas pre- and postwash sperm mobility were equivalent, sperm mobility declined with time (P < 0.001) without exogenous energy in the storage medium. Therefore, the effect of 5 mM glucose was tested in the fourth experiment. In this case, recovery of sperm mobility was independent of time when sperm were stored at 10°C for 5 h (P > 0.05). Potassium chloride was replaced with potassium glutamate in the last experiment. Whereas reactivation was once again independent of time when sperm were stored with glucose (P > 0.05), greater variability was observed among observations in comparison with the potassium chloride-based medium. In summary, sperm motility was inactivated when calcium was chelated and extracellular sodium was replaced with potassium. Sperm reactivation was most consistent when chloride was the predominant extracellular anion. Collectively, these experiments demonstrate that short-term sperm storage can be achieved with simple media that promote sperm glycolysis and minimize energy demands imposed by the active transport of calcium and sodium ions. PMID:23571344

  15. Frozen-thawed rhinoceros sperm exhibit DNA damage shortly after thawing when assessed by the sperm chromatin dispersion assay.

    PubMed

    Portas, T; Johnston, S D; Hermes, R; Arroyo, F; López-Fernadez, C; Bryant, B; Hildebrandt, T B; Göritz, F; Gosalvez, J

    2009-09-15

    This study reports on the successful validation (via in situ nick translation and neutral comet assay) of the equine Sperm-Halomax kit as an appropriate methodology for the assessment of sperm DNA fragmentation in three species of rhinoceros. Rhinoceros sperm nuclei with fragmented DNA (validated using in situ nick translation) were evident as large halos with dispersed DNA fragments, whereas those with nonfragmented DNA displayed small halos of nondispersed DNA within the microgel. There was a high correlation (r) of 0.974 (R(2) value=0.949; P<0.01; n=16) between the respective assessments of the Sperm Chromatin Dispersion test (SCDt) and the neutral comet assay. Application of the SCDt to determine the DNA fragmentation dynamics of rhinoceros (n=6) sperm frozen in liquid nitrogen vapor and incubated postthaw at 37 degrees C for up to 48 h to mimic in vitro conditions in the female reproductive tract, revealed an increase (P=0.001) in DNA damage, as soon as 4h after the start of incubation. Linear regression equations were calculated for all six rhinoceroses over the first 6h of incubation and revealed individual animal variation. Freshly collected and incubated (37 degrees C) rhinoceros (n=3) sperm had no increase in the basal level of DNA fragmentation for up to 48 h, indicating that the cryopreservation of rhinoceros sperm in liquid nitrogen vapor, as used in this study, appeared to result in freeze-thaw DNA damage. PMID:19560805

  16. Diagnostic value of sperm DNA fragmentation and sperm high-magnification for predicting outcome of assisted reproduction treatment

    PubMed Central

    López, Gemma; Lafuente, Rafael; Checa, Miguel A; Carreras, Ramón; Brassesco, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Over the last years, major improvements in the field of male infertility diagnosis have been achieved. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic usefulness of sperm DNA integrity and sperm vacuolisation for predicting outcome in infertile couples undergoing in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatments. A cohort study from 152 infertile couples undergoing sperm DNA fragmentation and high-magnification tests prior to an assisted reproduction treatment was designed. We found that the most predictive cutoff for pregnancy was 25.5% of DNA fragmentation with a negative predictive value of 72.7% (P=0.02). For the degree of vacuolisation, the best predictor of pregnancy was 73.5% of vacuolated sperm grades III+IV with a negative predictive value of 39.4% (P=0.09), which was not statistically significant. In conclusion, sperm DNA fragmentation greater than 25.5% could be associated with higher probability of failure IVF treatment. Regarding the results of the sperm analysis at high magnification, they do not allow us to predict whether or not patients will become pregnant. PMID:23912311

  17. Effect of different monosaccharides and disaccharides on boar sperm quality after cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Fernández, José; Gómez-Izquierdo, Emilio; Tomás, Cristina; Mocé, Eva; de Mercado, Eduardo

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cryoprotectant effect of different non-permeating sugars for boar sperm. Pooled semen from three boars was used for the experiments. In the first experiment, the sperm quality of boar sperm cryopreserved with an egg-yolk based extender supplemented with different monosaccharides (glucose, galactose or fructose) was compared to a control cryopreserved in lactose-egg yolk extender. In the second experiment, the effect of five disaccharides (lactose, sucrose, lactulose, trehalose or melibiose) on boar sperm cryosurvival was studied. Several sperm quality parameters were assessed by flow cytometry in samples incubated for 30 and 150 min at 37°C after thawing: percentages of sperm with intact plasma membrane (SIPM), sperm presenting high plasma membrane fluidity (HPMF), sperm with intracellular reactive oxygen substances production (IROSP) and apoptotic sperm (AS). In addition, the percentages of total motile (TMS) and progressively motile sperm (PMS) were assessed at the same incubation times with a computer-assisted sperm analysis system. Freezing extenders supplemented with each of the monosaccharide presented smaller cryoprotective effect than the control extender supplemented with lactose (P<0.05). However, from the three monosaccharides tested, glucose provided the best sperm quality after freezing-thawing. With respect to the disaccharides studied, samples frozen with the extender supplemented with lactulose exhibited in general the lowest sperm quality, except for the percentage of capacitated sperm, which was highest (P<0.05) in the samples cryopreserved with the trehalose extender. Our results suggest that disaccharides have higher cryoprotective effect than monosaccharides, although the monosaccharide composition of the disaccharides is also important, since the best results were obtained with those disaccharides presenting glucose in their composition. PMID:22771077

  18. Variation in sperm displacement and its association with accessory gland protein loci in Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, A.G. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Prout, T.; Harshman, L.G. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-01-01

    Genes that influence mating and/or fertilization success may be targets for strong natural selection. If females remate frequently relative to the duration of sperm storage and rate of sperm use, sperm displacement may be an important component of male reproductive success. Although it has long been known that mutant laboratory stocks of Drosophila differ in sperm displacement, the magnitude of the naturally occurring genetic variation in this character has not been systematically quantified. Here we report the results of a screen for variation in sperm displacement among 152 lines of Drosophila melanogaster that were made homozygous for second and/or third chromosomes recovered from natural populations. Sperm displacement was assayed by scoring the progeny of cn;bw females that had been mated sequentially to cn;bw and tested males in either order. Highly significant differences were seen in both the ability to displace sperm that is resident in the female`s reproductive tract and in the ability to resist displacement by subsequent sperm. Most lines exhibited nearly complete displacement, having nearly all progeny sired by the second male, but several lines had as few as half the progeny fathered by the second male. Lines that were identified in the screen for naturally occurring variation in sperm displacement were also characterized for single-strand conformation polymorphisms (SSCP) at seven accessory gland protein (Acp) genes. Significant associations were found between particular Acp alleles at four different loci (Acp26Aa/Ab, Acp29B, Acp36DE and Acp53E) and the ability of males to resist displacement by subsequent sperm. There was no correlation between the ability to displace resident sperm and the ability to resist being displaced by subsequent sperm. This lack of correlation, and the association of Acp alleles with resisting subsequent sperm only, suggests that different mechanisms mediate the two components of sperm displacement. 36 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. Sperm Chromatin and Environmental Factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aleksander Giwercman

    \\u000a Available experimental and human data show that a number of lifestyle- and environment-related exposures may have negative\\u000a effects on sperm DNA integrity. The extent of the sperm DNA damage seems to differ between different studies. Such a discrepancy\\u000a may partly be due to the use of ­several methods for assessment of sperm DNA integrity, techniques that do not measure exactly

  20. Nanoparticle incorporation of melittin reduces sperm and vaginal epithelium cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Jallouk, Andrew P; Moley, Kelle H; Omurtag, Kenan; Hu, Grace; Lanza, Gregory M; Wickline, Samuel A; Hood, Joshua L

    2014-01-01

    Melittin is a cytolytic peptide component of bee venom which rapidly integrates into lipid bilayers and forms pores resulting in osmotic lysis. While the therapeutic utility of free melittin is limited by its cytotoxicity, incorporation of melittin into the lipid shell of a perfluorocarbon nanoparticle has been shown to reduce its toxicity in vivo. Our group has previously demonstrated that perfluorocarbon nanoparticles containing melittin at concentrations <10 µM inhibit HIV infectivity in vitro. In the current study, we assessed the impact of blank and melittin-containing perfluorocarbon nanoparticles on sperm motility and the viability of both sperm and vaginal epithelial cells. We found that free melittin was toxic to sperm and vaginal epithelium at concentrations greater than 2 µM (p<0.001). However, melittin nanoparticles were not cytotoxic to sperm (p?=?0.42) or vaginal epithelium (p?=?0.48) at an equivalent melittin concentration of 10 µM. Thus, nanoparticle formulation of melittin reduced melittin cytotoxicity fivefold and prevented melittin toxicity at concentrations previously shown to inhibit HIV infectivity. Melittin nanoparticles were toxic to vaginal epithelium at equivalent melittin concentrations ?20 µM (p<0.001) and were toxic to sperm at equivalent melittin concentrations ?40 µM (p<0.001). Sperm cytotoxicity was enhanced by targeting of the nanoparticles to the sperm surface antigen sperm adhesion molecule 1. While further testing is needed to determine the extent of cytotoxicity in a more physiologically relevant model system, these results suggest that melittin-containing nanoparticles could form the basis of a virucide that is not toxic to sperm and vaginal epithelium. This virucide would be beneficial for HIV serodiscordant couples seeking to achieve natural pregnancy. PMID:24748389

  1. Nanoparticle Incorporation of Melittin Reduces Sperm and Vaginal Epithelium Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Jallouk, Andrew P.; Moley, Kelle H.; Omurtag, Kenan; Hu, Grace; Lanza, Gregory M.; Wickline, Samuel A.; Hood, Joshua L.

    2014-01-01

    Melittin is a cytolytic peptide component of bee venom which rapidly integrates into lipid bilayers and forms pores resulting in osmotic lysis. While the therapeutic utility of free melittin is limited by its cytotoxicity, incorporation of melittin into the lipid shell of a perfluorocarbon nanoparticle has been shown to reduce its toxicity in vivo. Our group has previously demonstrated that perfluorocarbon nanoparticles containing melittin at concentrations <10 µM inhibit HIV infectivity in vitro. In the current study, we assessed the impact of blank and melittin-containing perfluorocarbon nanoparticles on sperm motility and the viability of both sperm and vaginal epithelial cells. We found that free melittin was toxic to sperm and vaginal epithelium at concentrations greater than 2 µM (p<0.001). However, melittin nanoparticles were not cytotoxic to sperm (p?=?0.42) or vaginal epithelium (p?=?0.48) at an equivalent melittin concentration of 10 µM. Thus, nanoparticle formulation of melittin reduced melittin cytotoxicity fivefold and prevented melittin toxicity at concentrations previously shown to inhibit HIV infectivity. Melittin nanoparticles were toxic to vaginal epithelium at equivalent melittin concentrations ?20 µM (p<0.001) and were toxic to sperm at equivalent melittin concentrations ?40 µM (p<0.001). Sperm cytotoxicity was enhanced by targeting of the nanoparticles to the sperm surface antigen sperm adhesion molecule 1. While further testing is needed to determine the extent of cytotoxicity in a more physiologically relevant model system, these results suggest that melittin-containing nanoparticles could form the basis of a virucide that is not toxic to sperm and vaginal epithelium. This virucide would be beneficial for HIV serodiscordant couples seeking to achieve natural pregnancy. PMID:24748389

  2. Role of FYN Kinase in Spermatogenesis: Defects Characteristic of Fyn-Null Sperm in Mice1

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jinping; Gupta, Vijayalaxmi; Kern, Brian; Tash, Joseph S.; Sanchez, Gladis; Blanco, Gustavo; Kinsey, William H.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT FYN kinase is highly expressed in the testis and has been implicated in testis and sperm function, yet specific roles for this kinase in testis somatic and germ cells have not been defined. The purpose of the present investigation was to identify aspects of spermatogenesis, spermiation, or sperm fertilizing capacity that required FYN for normal reproductive function. Matings between Fyn-null males and wild-type females resulted in normal litter sizes, despite the fact that Fyn-null males exhibited reduced epididymal size and sperm count. Morphological analysis revealed a high frequency of abnormal sperm morphology among Fyn-null sperm, and artificial insemination competition studies demonstrated that Fyn-null sperm possessed reduced fertilizing capacity. Fyn-null sperm exhibited nearly normal motility during capacitation in vitro but reduced ability to undergo the acrosome reaction and fertilize oocytes. The typical pattern of capacitation-induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation was slightly modified in Fyn-null sperm, with reduced abundance of several minor phosphoproteins. These findings are consistent with a model in which FYN kinase plays an important role in proper shaping of the head and acrosome within the testis and possibly an additional role in the sperm acrosome reaction, events required for development of full fertilizing capacity in sperm. PMID:21918125

  3. Test Functions Space in Noncommutative Quantum Field Theory

    E-print Network

    M. Chaichian; M. Mnatsakanova; A. Tureanu; Yu. Vernov

    2008-07-26

    It is proven that the $\\star$-product of field operators implies that the space of test functions in the Wightman approach to noncommutative quantum field theory is one of the Gel'fand-Shilov spaces $S^{\\beta}$ with $\\beta test functions smears the noncommutative Wightman functions, which are in this case generalized distributions, sometimes called hyperfunctions. The existence and determination of the class of the test function spaces in NC QFT is important for any rigorous treatment in the Wightman approach.

  4. Mitochondrial Hydrogen Peroxide and Defective Cholesterol Efflux Prevent In Vitro Fertilization by Cryopreserved Inbred Mouse Sperm1

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Jeffrey E.; Starmer, Joshua; Lin, Vivian S.; Dickinson, Bryan C.; Magnuson, Terry

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recent advances in the cryopreservation of mouse sperm have resulted in dramatically improved in vitro fertilization (IVF) rates, but the biological mechanisms underlying the techniques remain unclear. Two different classes of compounds have been widely utilized to improve the IVF rates of cryopreserved mouse sperm: antioxidants and cyclodextrins. To determine how cryopreservation reduces mouse sperm IVF and how antioxidants and cyclodextrins mitigate this effect, we examined sperm function and oxidative damage after cryopreservation, with and without treatments, in mouse strains important for biomedical research. Our investigation revealed mouse strain-specific effects on IVF by modulation of oxidative stress and cholesterol efflux of cryopreserved sperm. Antioxidants improved IVF rates of C57Bl6/J cryopreserved mouse sperm by reducing hydrogen peroxide produced by sperm mitochondria and ameliorating peroxidative damage to the sperm acrosome. Enhancing cholesterol efflux with cyclodextrin restored capacitation-dependent sperm function and IVF after cryopreservation of C57Bl/6J, C57Bl/6N, and 129X1 mouse sperm. Our results highlight two accessible pathways for continued development of IVF techniques for mouse sperm and provide novel endpoints prognostic of IVF success. These insights may improve sperm cryopreservation methods of other mouse strains and species. PMID:23740947

  5. The biologically active form of the sea urchin egg receptor for sperm is a disulfide-bonded homo-multimer

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Since many cell surface receptors exist in their active form as oligomeric complexes, we have investigated the subunit composition of the biologically active sperm receptor in egg plasma membranes from Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Electrophoretic analysis of the receptor without prior reduction of disulfide bonds revealed that the surface receptor exists in the form of a disulfide-bonded multimer, estimated to be a tetramer. These findings are in excellent agreement with the fact that the NH2-terminus of the extracellular domain of the sperm receptor is rich in cysteine residues. Studies with cross-linking agents of various length and hydrophobicity suggest that no other major protein is tightly associated with the receptor. Given the multimeric structure of the receptor, we investigated the effect of disulfide bond reduction on its biological activity. Because in quantitative bioassays fertilization was found to be inhibited by treatment of eggs with 5 mM dithiothreitol, we undertook more direct studies of the effect of reduction on properties of the receptor. First, we studied the effect of addition of isolated, pure receptor on fertilization. Whereas the non-reduced, native receptor complex inhibited fertilization in a dose- dependent manner, the reduced and alkylated receptor was inactive. Second, we tested the ability of the isolated receptor to mediate binding of acrosome-reacted sperm to polystyrene beads. Whereas beads coated with native receptor bound sperm, those containing reduced and alkylated receptor did not. Thus, these results demonstrate that the biologically active form of the sea urchin sperm receptor consists only of 350 kD subunits and that these must be linked as a multimer via disulfide bonds to produce a complex that is functional in sperm recognition and binding. PMID:8188748

  6. DECREASING EPIDIDYMAL SPERM RESERVES ENHANCES THE DETECTION OF ETHOXYETHANOL-INDUCED SPERMATOTOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current test strategies for assessing male reproductive toxicity may be inadequate for estimating risk in humans. High levels of sperm production and existence of large epididymal sperm reserves in most test species may impede the detection of spermatoxicity at low doses. The cur...

  7. Significant reduction of sperm disomy in six men: effect of traditional Chinese medicine?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen G. Tempest; Sheryl T. Homa; Xiao-Ping Zhai; Darren K. Griffin

    2005-01-01

    Aim:To test the hypothesis that levels of sperm disomy fell significantly in six men treated by traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).Methods:Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was done on the sperm heads of six men before and during treatment by TCM.Results:There was a significant reduction in sperm disomy in all six men. This coincided with TCM treatment.Conclusion:This is the first study reporting

  8. Secondary sexual characters and sperm traits in coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. E. Pitcher; S. M. Doucet; J.-M. J. Beausoleil; D. Hanley

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT The sperm,competition,hypothesis predicts that males likely to occupy,disfavored spawning positions, as indicated by reduced expression of secondary sexual characters, would allocate more,resources to sperm production and velocity to compensate,for relatively poor access to spawning females. To test these predictions, body size metrics and red abdominal spawning colouration were examined,in relation to sperm related metrics in coho salmon,(Oncorhynchus kisutch). Males

  9. Flow cytometry evidence about sperm competition in honey bee ( Apis mellifera )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam Tofilski; Bo?ena Chuda-Mickiewicz; Krystyna Czeko?ska; Pawe? Chorbi?ski

    We tested whether flow cytometry can be used for assessment of viability of honey bee (Apis mellifera) sperm. The method was used to detect possible competition between the sperm of different drones. The flow cytometry analysis\\u000a of semen stained with SYBR-14\\/propidium iodide revealed significant differences between fresh and freeze-thawed samples. The\\u000a identification of populations corresponding to viable and nonviable sperm

  10. STANDARDIZED FUNCTIONAL TESTS OF PAD CONDITIONERS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vishal Khosla; Norm Gitis; Suresh Kuiry; Michael Vinogradov

    Characterization of CMP pad conditioners using the latest achievements of tribo-metrology is important for improvement of wafer yield and process consistency. The latest draft of an ASTM standard test method for pad conditioners includes two parameters determined during instrumented CMP tests, namely: 1- pad wear (cut) rate during continuous conditioning of a reference pad, which characterizes the conditioner abrasiveness (aggressiveness),

  11. Ejaculate Oxidative Stress Is Related with Sperm DNA Fragmentation and Round Cells

    PubMed Central

    Iommiello, Valeria Maria; Albani, Elena; Di Rosa, Alessandra; Marras, Alessandra; Menduni, Francesca; Morreale, Giovanna; Levi, Shanti Lia; Pisano, Benedetta; Levi-Setti, Paolo Emanuele

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) plays an essential role in male infertility aetiology by affecting sperm quality, function, and also the integrity of sperm DNA. The assessment of oxidative stress in semen may be an important tool to improve the evaluation of sperm reproductive capacity. The purpose of this study was the evaluation of any possible relation between the unbalance of oxidative stress caused by superoxide anion in the ejaculate with the presence of sperm DNA fragmentation and high concentration of round cells. 56 semen samples from males from couples suffering from infertility were evaluated according to World Health Organisation (WHO) 2010 guidelines. Oxidative stress levels from N1 (low) to N4 (high) were assessed in ejaculates using oxiSperm; DFI (sperm DNA fragmentation index) as assessed by the SCSA (Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay) was used for evaluation of sperm chromatin integrity. Our data show that high oxidative stress (N3-N4 levels) correlated positively with a DFI ? 30% (P = 0.0379) and round cells ?1.500.000/mL (P = 0.0084). In conclusion, OS increases sperm DNA damage. Thus evaluation of semen OS extent of sperm DNA damage in infertile man could be useful to develop new therapeutic strategies and improve success of assisted reproduction techniques (ART).

  12. 10/24/2006 02:59 PMBig Testes or Big Horns? It's One or the Other for Male Beetles Page 1 of 3http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2006/10/061016-beetle-sperm.html

    E-print Network

    Emlen, Douglas J.

    ://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2006/10/061016-beetle-sperm.html Enlarge Photo Email to a Friend RELATED For Dung Beetles, Monkey at the University of Western Australia in Perth, examined the trade-offs between investment in weapons and sperm://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2006/10/061016-beetle-sperm.html CONTACT US Email the News Staff Contact Other Staff Onthophagus. (See

  13. Reliability and validity of functional balance tests post stroke

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah F Tyson; Lorraine H DeSouza

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To contribute to the reliability and validity of a series of functional balance tests for use post stroke.Design: Within-session, test-retest and intertester reliability was tested using the kappa coefficient and intraclass correlations. The tests were performed three times and the first and third attempts compared to test the within-session reliability. The tests were repeated a few days later to

  14. Sperm mitochondrial integrity is not required for hyperactivated motility, zona binding, or acrosome reaction in the rhesus macaque.

    PubMed

    Hung, Pei-hsuan; Miller, Marion G; Meyers, Stuart A; VandeVoort, Catherine A

    2008-08-01

    Whether the main energy source for sperm motility is from oxidative phosphorylation or glycolysis has been long-debated in the field of reproductive biology. Using the rhesus monkey as a model, we examined the role of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation in sperm function by using alpha-chlorohydrin (ACH), a glycolysis inhibitor, and pentachlorophenol (PCP), an oxidative phosphorylation uncoupler. Sperm treated with ACH showed no change in percentage of motile sperm, although sperm motion was impaired. The ACH-treated sperm did not display either hyperactivity- or hyperactivation-associated changes in protein tyrosine phosphorylation. When treated with PCP, sperm motion parameters were affected by the highest level of PCP (200 microM); however, PCP did not cause motility impairments even after chemical activation. Sperm treated with PCP were able to display hyperactivity and tyrosine phosphorylation after chemical activation. In contrast with motility measurements, treatment with either the glycolytic inhibitor or the oxidative phosphorylation inhibitor did not affect sperm-zona binding and zona-induced acrosome reaction. The results suggest glycolysis is essential to support sperm motility, hyperactivity, and protein tyrosine phosphorylation, while energy from oxidative phosphorylation is not necessary for hyperactivated sperm motility, tyrosine phosphorylation, sperm-zona binding, and acrosome reaction in the rhesus macaque. PMID:18480469

  15. Sperm Mitochondrial Integrity Is Not Required for Hyperactivated Motility, Zona Binding, or Acrosome Reaction in the Rhesus Macaque1

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Pei-hsuan; Miller, Marion G.; Meyers, Stuart A.; VandeVoort, Catherine A.

    2008-01-01

    Whether the main energy source for sperm motility is from oxidative phosphorylation or glycolysis has been long-debated in the field of reproductive biology. Using the rhesus monkey as a model, we examined the role of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation in sperm function by using alpha-chlorohydrin (ACH), a glycolysis inhibitor, and pentachlorophenol (PCP), an oxidative phosphorylation uncoupler. Sperm treated with ACH showed no change in percentage of motile sperm, although sperm motion was impaired. The ACH-treated sperm did not display either hyperactivity- or hyperactivation-associated changes in protein tyrosine phosphorylation. When treated with PCP, sperm motion parameters were affected by the highest level of PCP (200 ?M); however, PCP did not cause motility impairments even after chemical activation. Sperm treated with PCP were able to display hyperactivity and tyrosine phosphorylation after chemical activation. In contrast with motility measurements, treatment with either the glycolytic inhibitor or the oxidative phosphorylation inhibitor did not affect sperm-zona binding and zona-induced acrosome reaction. The results suggest glycolysis is essential to support sperm motility, hyperactivity, and protein tyrosine phosphorylation, while energy from oxidative phosphorylation is not necessary for hyperactivated sperm motility, tyrosine phosphorylation, sperm-zona binding, and acrosome reaction in the rhesus macaque. PMID:18480469

  16. IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DISEASE USING PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Pulmonary function testing is used routinely in human medicine to objectively define functional deficits in individuals with respiratory disease. Despite the fact that respiratory disease is a common problem in veterinary medicine, evaluation of the small animal pa...

  17. A Comparison of Statistical Significance Tests for Selecting Equating Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Tim

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the accuracies of nine previously proposed statistical significance tests for selecting identity, linear, and equipercentile equating functions in an equivalent groups equating design. The strategies included likelihood ratio tests for the loglinear models of tests' frequency distributions, regression tests, Kolmogorov-Smirnov…

  18. Impaired swimming behaviour and morphology of sperm from barn swallows Hirundo rustica in Chernobyl.

    PubMed

    Mřller, A P; Mousseau, T A; Lynn, C; Lynnn, C; Ostermiller, S; Rudolfsen, G

    2008-02-29

    We investigated the motility and morphology of live sperm from barn swallows Hirundo rustica breeding in radioactively contaminated areas around Chernobyl and control areas in Ukraine in order to test the hypothesis that swimming behaviour and morphology of sperm was impaired by radioactive contamination. We obtained sperm samples from 98% of sampled birds, thus avoiding sampling bias due to the fraction of males not producing sperm samples. Analyses of within- and between-sample repeatability revealed significant and intermediate to large estimates for all sperm parameters. There were significant differences between the Chernobyl area and the control area for two of 11 sperm behaviour parameters, and significant interactions between area and year for six of these parameters. The proportion of sperm with abnormal morphology was elevated in barn swallows from Chernobyl. A principal component (PC) analysis revealed four significant axes that explained 88% of the variance in sperm behaviour parameters. One of these principal components differed between areas, and three components showed significant year by area interactions. PC2 representing the frequency of slow sperm increased with increasing radiation in one year, but not another. PC3 representing sperm with high linearity, small amplitude of lateral head displacement and low track velocity decreased with increasing background radiation level. PC4 reflecting a large proportion of static sperm with high beat cross frequency increased with increasing background radiation level. Sperm behaviour as reflected by principal components was predictable among years from information on level of radiation, and it was predictable among sites in different years. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that sperm behaviour and morphology have been affected by radiation due to the Chernobyl accident. PMID:18218334

  19. Spermatangium formation and sperm discharge in the Japanese pygmy squid Idiosepius paradoxus.

    PubMed

    Sato, Noriyosi; Kasugai, Takashi; Munehara, Hiroyuki

    2014-06-01

    In cephalopods, sperm discharge is an important event not only for sperm transfer but also influencing sperm storage capacity of attached spermatangia (everted spermatophores). To investigate sperm discharge from spermatangia and the condition of naturally attached spermatangia in Japanese pygmy squid (Idiosepius paradoxus) we (i) investigated the morphology of spermatophores and spermatangia, and the process of spermatophore evagination and sperm discharge from spermatangia obtained in vitro; (ii) observed spermatangia that were naturally attached to female squids at 6, 12, 18, 24 and 48 h after copulation to investigate alterations in naturally attached spermatangia with time. The spermatophore of I. paradoxus is slender and cylindrical and consists of a sperm mass, a cement body and an ejaculatory apparatus, which is similar to those of loliginid squids. The spermatangium is fishhook-shaped, its distal end being open and narrow. After the spermatangium is formed, the sperm mass gradually moves to the open end of the spermatangium, from where sperm are released. Sperm discharge is a rapid process immediately after the beginning of sperm release, but within 5 min changes to an intermittent release of sperm. Although the volume of residual spermatozoa differed among spermatangia that were naturally attached to a single individual, the probability that spermatangia would be empty increased with time. Most naturally attached spermatangia discharged almost all of their spermatozoa within 24h after copulation, and no spermatangia were attached to females 48 h after copulation. These results suggest that sperm transfer from the spermatangium to the seminal receptacle must occur within 24h, and that the spermatangium functions as a transient sperm storage organ in pygmy squids. PMID:24813852

  20. Sperm mRNA transcripts are indicators of sub-chronic low dose testicular injury in the Fischer 344 rat.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Sara E; Anderson, Linnea M; Sandrof, Moses A; Vantangoli, Marguerite M; Hall, Susan J; Boekelheide, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Current human reproductive risk assessment methods rely on semen and serum hormone analyses, which are not easily comparable to the histopathological endpoints and mating studies used in animal testing. Because of these limitations, there is a need to develop universal evaluations that reliably reflect male reproductive function. We hypothesized that toxicant-induced testicular injury can be detected in sperm using mRNA transcripts as indicators of insult. To test this, we exposed adult male Fischer 344 rats to low doses of model testicular toxicants and classically characterized the testicular injury while simultaneously evaluating sperm mRNA transcripts from the same animals. Overall, this study aimed to: 1) identify sperm transcripts altered after exposure to the model testicular toxicant, 2,5-hexanedione (HD) using microarrays; 2) expand on the HD-induced transcript changes in a comprehensive time course experiment using qRT-PCR arrays; and 3) test these injury indicators after exposure to another model testicular toxicant, carbendazim (CBZ). Microarray analysis of HD-treated adult Fischer 344 rats identified 128 altered sperm mRNA transcripts when compared to control using linear models of microarray analysis (q<0.05). All transcript alterations disappeared after 3 months of post-exposure recovery. In the time course experiment, time-dependent alterations were observed for 12 candidate transcripts selected from the microarray data based upon fold change and biological relevance, and 8 of these transcripts remained significantly altered after the 3-month recovery period (p<0.05). In the last experiment, 8 candidate transcripts changed after exposure to CBZ (p<0.05). The two testicular toxicants produced distinct molecular signatures with only 4 overlapping transcripts between them, each occurring in opposite directions. Overall, these results suggest that sperm mRNA transcripts are indicators of low dose toxicant-induced testicular injury in the rat. PMID:22952946

  1. Sperm mRNA Transcripts Are Indicators of Sub-Chronic Low Dose Testicular Injury in the Fischer 344 Rat

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, Sara E.; Anderson, Linnea M.; Sandrof, Moses A.; Vantangoli, Marguerite M.; Hall, Susan J.; Boekelheide, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Current human reproductive risk assessment methods rely on semen and serum hormone analyses, which are not easily comparable to the histopathological endpoints and mating studies used in animal testing. Because of these limitations, there is a need to develop universal evaluations that reliably reflect male reproductive function. We hypothesized that toxicant-induced testicular injury can be detected in sperm using mRNA transcripts as indicators of insult. To test this, we exposed adult male Fischer 344 rats to low doses of model testicular toxicants and classically characterized the testicular injury while simultaneously evaluating sperm mRNA transcripts from the same animals. Overall, this study aimed to: 1) identify sperm transcripts altered after exposure to the model testicular toxicant, 2,5-hexanedione (HD) using microarrays; 2) expand on the HD-induced transcript changes in a comprehensive time course experiment using qRT-PCR arrays; and 3) test these injury indicators after exposure to another model testicular toxicant, carbendazim (CBZ). Microarray analysis of HD-treated adult Fischer 344 rats identified 128 altered sperm mRNA transcripts when compared to control using linear models of microarray analysis (q<0.05). All transcript alterations disappeared after 3 months of post-exposure recovery. In the time course experiment, time-dependent alterations were observed for 12 candidate transcripts selected from the microarray data based upon fold change and biological relevance, and 8 of these transcripts remained significantly altered after the 3-month recovery period (p<0.05). In the last experiment, 8 candidate transcripts changed after exposure to CBZ (p<0.05). The two testicular toxicants produced distinct molecular signatures with only 4 overlapping transcripts between them, each occurring in opposite directions. Overall, these results suggest that sperm mRNA transcripts are indicators of low dose toxicant-induced testicular injury in the rat. PMID:22952946

  2. Male infertility testing: reactive oxygen species and antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Ko, Edmund Y; Sabanegh, Edmund S; Agarwal, Ashok

    2014-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are an integral component of sperm developmental physiology, capacitation, and function. Elevated ROS levels, from processes such as infection or inflammation, can be associated with aberrations of sperm development, function, and fertilizing capacity. We review the impact of ROS on sperm physiology, its place in infertility evaluation, the implications for reproductive outcomes, and antioxidant therapy. Our systematic review of PubMed literature from the last 3 decades focuses on the physiology and etiology of ROS and oxidative stress (OS), evaluation of ROS, and antioxidants. ROS is normally produced physiologically and is used to maintain cellular processes such as sperm maturation, capacitation, and sperm-oocyte interaction. When ROS production exceeds the buffering capacity of antioxidants, OS occurs and can have a negative impact on sperm and fertility. ROS and antioxidant capacity testing can potentially add additional prognostic information to standard laboratory testing for the infertile male, although its role as standard part of an evaluation has yet to be determined. Elevated ROS levels have been implicated with abnormal semen parameters and male infertility, but the impact of ROS on fertilization rates and pregnancy is controversial. This is partly because of the lack of consensus on what type of patients may be suitable for ROS testing and assay standardization. Routine ROS testing for the infertile male is not currently recommended. PMID:25458618

  3. Strategic ejaculation in simultaneously hermaphroditic land snails: more sperm into virgin mates

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It has been theorised that sperm competition promotes the strategic usage of costly sperm. Although sperm competition is thought to be an important driving force of reproductive traits in simultaneous hermaphrodites as well as in species with separate sexes, empirical studies on strategic ejaculation in simultaneous hermaphrodites are scarce. Results In the present study, we tested whether the simultaneously hermaphroditic land snail Euhadra quaesita adjusts the number of sperm donated according to the condition of the mate and whether the pattern of strategic ejaculation is in line with previously suggested theories. We found that individuals donated much more sperm when they copulated with a virgin mate than when they copulated with a non-virgin. Conclusion The virgin-biased pattern of ejaculation matches the theoretical prediction and suggests that sperm competition significantly influence the reproductive traits of simultaneously hermaphroditic land snails. PMID:24304518

  4. Sperm mitochondria in reproduction: good or bad and where do they go?

    PubMed

    Luo, Shi-Ming; Schatten, Heide; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2013-11-20

    The mitochondrion is the major energy provider to power sperm motility. In mammals, aside from the nuclear genome, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) also contributes to oxidative phosphorylation to impact production of ATP by coding 13 polypeptides. However, the role of sperm mitochondria in fertilization and its final fate after fertilization are still controversial. The viewpoints that sperm bearing more mtDNA will have a better fertilizing capability and that sperm mtDNA is actively eliminated during early embryogenesis are widely accepted. However, this may be not true for several mammalian species, including mice and humans. Here, we review the sperm mitochondria and their mtDNA in sperm functions, and the mechanisms of maternal mitochondrial inheritance in mammals. PMID:24238608

  5. Delayed male maturity is a cost of producing large sperm in Drosophila.

    PubMed Central

    Pitnick, S; Markow, T A; Spicer, G S

    1995-01-01

    Among fruit-fly species of the genus Drosophila there is remarkable variation in sperm length, with some species producing gigantic sperm (e.g., > 10 times total male body length). These flies are also unusual in that males of some species exhibit a prolonged adult nonreproductive phase. We document sperm length, body size, and sex-specific ages of reproductive maturity for 42 species of Drosophila and, after controlling for phylogeny, test hypotheses to explain the variation in rates of sexual maturation. Results suggest that delayed male maturity is a cost of producing long sperm. A possible physiological mechanism to explain the observed relationship is discussed. PMID:7479851

  6. Delineating the roles of males and females in sperm competition

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Jonathan P.; Rosengrave, Patrice; Gasparini, Clelia; Gemmell, Neil J.

    2013-01-01

    Disentangling the relative roles of males, females and their interactive effects on competitive fertilization success remains a challenge in sperm competition. In this study, we apply a novel experimental framework to an ideally suited externally fertilizing model system in order to delineate these roles. We focus on the chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, a species in which ovarian fluid (OF) has been implicated as a potential arbiter of cryptic female choice for genetically compatible mates. We evaluated this predicted sexually selected function of OF using a series of factorial competitive fertilization trials. Our design involved a series of 10 factorial crosses, each involving two ‘focal’ rival males whose sperm competed against those from a single ‘standardized’ (non-focal) rival for a genetically uniform set of eggs in the presence of OF from two focal females. This design enabled us to attribute variation in competitive fertilization success among focal males, females (OF) and their interacting effects, while controlling for variation attributable to differences in the sperm competitive ability of rival males, and male-by-female genotypic interactions. Using this experimental framework, we found that variation in sperm competitiveness could be attributed exclusively to differences in the sperm competitive ability of focal males, a conclusion supported by subsequent analyses revealing that variation in sperm swimming velocity predicts paternity success. Together, these findings provide evidence that variation in paternity success can be attributed to intrinsic differences in the sperm competitive ability of rival males, and reveal that sperm swimming velocity is a key target of sexual selection. PMID:24266039

  7. Odorant receptors and desensitization proteins colocalize in mammalian sperm.

    PubMed Central

    Walensky, L. D.; Roskams, A. J.; Lefkowitz, R. J.; Snyder, S. H.; Ronnett, G. V.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The identification of transcripts encoding putative olfactory receptors in mammalian germ cells (1) has generated the hypothesis that olfactory receptors may serve a chemosensory role in sperm chemotaxis during fertilization. We have sought to identify and localize these receptors and their regulatory machinery in rat sperm in order to gain further insight into mammalian sperm chemotaxis and odorant receptor physiology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using degenerate primers directed against sequences conserved across members of the known odorant receptor family to identify transcripts from testis and round spermatids. Western analysis and immunohistochemistry were performed using antibodies raised against two peptide sequences conserved among odorant receptors and using fusion protein antibodies to G-protein receptor kinase 3 (GRK3/beta ARK2) and beta-arrestin2. RESULTS: We detected transcripts encoding putative odorant receptors in both testis and round spermatids of the adult rat. Restriction digests of the PCR products demonstrated the existence of multiple gene products. Two anti-odorant receptor antibodies specifically recognized a 64 kD band in rat sperm preparations by Western blot. The proteins GRK3 and beta-arrestin2, implicated in olfactory desensitization, were detected in sperm cytosolic extracts using Western analysis. Immunohistochemistry colocalized putative odorant receptors, GRK3 and beta-arrestin2 to elongating spermatids in the testis and to the midpiece of mature sperm. CONCLUSIONS: The specific localization of odorant receptors to the respiratory center of mature sperm is consistent with a role for these proteins in transducing chemotactic signals. Based on the colocalization, it is plausible that GRK3 and beta-arrestin2 function in sperm to regulate putative chemoreceptor responses. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 PMID:8529092

  8. Delineating the roles of males and females in sperm competition.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jonathan P; Rosengrave, Patrice; Gasparini, Clelia; Gemmell, Neil J

    2013-12-01

    Disentangling the relative roles of males, females and their interactive effects on competitive fertilization success remains a challenge in sperm competition. In this study, we apply a novel experimental framework to an ideally suited externally fertilizing model system in order to delineate these roles. We focus on the chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, a species in which ovarian fluid (OF) has been implicated as a potential arbiter of cryptic female choice for genetically compatible mates. We evaluated this predicted sexually selected function of OF using a series of factorial competitive fertilization trials. Our design involved a series of 10 factorial crosses, each involving two ‘focal’ rival males whose sperm competed against those from a single ‘standardized’ (non-focal) rival for a genetically uniform set of eggs in the presence of OF from two focal females. This design enabled us to attribute variation in competitive fertilization success among focal males, females (OF) and their interacting effects, while controlling for variation attributable to differences in the sperm competitive ability of rival males, and male-by-female genotypic interactions. Using this experimental framework, we found that variation in sperm competitiveness could be attributed exclusively to differences in the sperm competitive ability of focal males, a conclusion supported by subsequent analyses revealing that variation in sperm swimming velocity predicts paternity success. Together, these findings provide evidence that variation in paternity success can be attributed to intrinsic differences in the sperm competitive ability of rival males, and reveal that sperm swimming velocity is a key target of sexual selection. PMID:24266039

  9. Sperm Proteomics: Road to Male Fertility and Contraception

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Md Saidur; Lee, June-Sub

    2013-01-01

    Spermatozoa are highly specialized cells that can be easily obtained and purified. Mature spermatozoa are transcriptionally and translationally inactive and incapable of protein synthesis. In addition, spermatozoa contain relatively higher amounts of membrane proteins compared to other cells; therefore, they are very suitable for proteomic studies. Recently, the application of proteomic approaches such as the two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, and differential in-gel electrophoresis has identified several sperm-specific proteins. These findings have provided a further understanding of protein functions involved in different sperm processes as well as of the differentiation of normal state from an abnormal one. In addition, studies on the sperm proteome have demonstrated the importance of spermatozoal posttranslational modifications and their ability to induce physiological changes responsible for fertilization. Large-scale proteomic studies to identify hundreds to thousands of sperm proteins will ultimately result in the development of novel biomarkers that may help to detect fertility, the state of complete contraception, and beyond. Eventually, these protein biomarkers will allow for a better diagnosis of sperm dysfunctions and aid in drug development. This paper reviews the recent scientific publications available from the PubMed database to address sperm proteomics and its potential application to characterize male fertility and contraception. PMID:24363670

  10. Sexual colouration and sperm traits in guppies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. E. Pitcher; F. H. Rodd; L. Rowe

    2007-01-01

    The relationships among the area, hue, saturation and brightness of orange colouration and sperm traits in the guppy Poecilia reticulata were investigated. Males with greater areas of orange colouration had significantly larger sperm loads, more motile sperm and longer sperm relative to males with relatively little orange colouration. Males with greater areas of orange colouration did not possess more viable

  11. Semen searching when sperm is absent.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Pilar; Santiago, Begońa; Alcalá, Belén; Atienza, Inmaculada

    2015-03-01

    Sexual assault cases have varying factors that may mask semen findings when analysing evidence at the forensic laboratory. Semenogelin (Sg) is a potential marker for the identification of semen even at azoospermy or when few sperm cells are found. The current study examined Sg in normospermic and azoospermic donors as an internal evaluation of sensitivity, specificity and interference. The impact of a historical review of 53 judicial sexual assault cases over a five-year period was also analysed. The use of varying tests was of importance to prioritize certain samples within cases. Semen findings by Sg were then compared to prostate-specific antigen (PSA), phosphatase enzyme (AP) and Y-chromosome presence, the latter being used in an attempt to link semen fluid identification with obtaining a male DNA profile. Test findings were the highest ever registered for Sg (1:400,000), PSA (1:800,000), AP (1:25,000) and sperm cytology (SC) (1:50,000). Our results demonstrated the usefulness of using the Sg marker to avoid a false semen-negative result (6% cases), particularly in cases where sperm was absent or scarce (11% spermatozoa positive cases). Results were expressed in categories according to the set: Sg-PSA-AP. Thus, categories I (full positive, 46%), VI (full negative, 27%) and III (Sg/PSA positive; 11%) were the most frequent and Y-chromosome was obtained in 59%, 12% and 12% ratios, respectively. In conclusion, Sg was recommended for the workflow procedure of semen investigation when sperm absence is expected either from azoospermic/oligospermic or normospermic semen, especially before/after ejaculation. PMID:25753997

  12. Postcopulatory Sexual Selection Is Associated with Reduced Variation in Sperm Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Calhim, Sara; Immler, Simone; Birkhead, Tim R.

    2007-01-01

    Background The evolutionary role of postcopulatory sexual selection in shaping male reproductive traits, including sperm morphology, is well documented in several taxa. However, previous studies have focused almost exclusively on the influence of sperm competition on variation among species. In this study we tested the hypothesis that intraspecific variation in sperm morphology is driven by the level of postcopulatory sexual selection in passerine birds. Methodology/Findings Using two proxy measures of sperm competition level, (i) relative testes size and (ii) extrapair paternity level, we found strong evidence that intermale variation in sperm morphology is negatively associated with the degree of postcopulatory sexual selection, independently of phylogeny. Conclusions/Significance Our results show that the role of postcopulatory sexual selection in the evolution of sperm morphology extends to an intraspecific level, reducing the variation towards what might be a species-specific ‘optimum’ sperm phenotype. This finding suggests that while postcopulatory selection is generally directional (e.g., favouring longer sperm) across avian species, it also acts as a stabilising evolutionary force within species under intense selection, resulting in reduced variation in sperm morphology traits. We discuss some potential evolutionary mechanisms for this pattern. PMID:17476335

  13. Nonparametric spatial covariance functions: Estimation and testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ottar N. BjŘrnstad; Wilhelm Falck

    2001-01-01

    Spatial autocorrelation techniques are commonly used to describe genetic and ecological patterns. To improve statistical inference about spatial covariance, we propose a continuous nonparametric estimator of the covariance function in place of the spatial correlogram. The spline correlogram is an adaptation of a recent development in spatial statistics and is a generalization of the commonly used correlogram. We propose a

  14. Complex female genitalia indicate sperm dumping in armored goblin spiders (Arachnida, Araneae, Oonopidae).

    PubMed

    Burger, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    In promiscuous females, sperm ejection from the sperm storage site can be a strong mechanism to influence sperm priority patterns. Sperm dumping is reported from different animals including birds, insects, and humans. In spiders, it has been documented for four species including the oonopid Silhouettella loricatula. Oonopidae are a diverse spider family comprising many species with peculiar female genitalia. Especially in species where studies of mating behavior are difficult, morphological investigations of the genitalia help to understand their function and evolution. In the present study, the genitalia of the oonopids Myrmopopaea sp., Grymeus sp., and Lionneta sp. are investigated by means of histological serial sections and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results are compared with previous findings on S. loricatula. In Myrmopopaea sp. and Grymeus sp., the same morphological components are present that are involved in sperm dumping in S. loricatula. Inside the receptaculum, sperm are enclosed in a secretory sac which can be moved to the genital opening and dumped during copulation by muscle contractions. The female genitalia of Lionneta sp. are asymmetric. They show the same characteristics as S. loricatula but all the investigated females were unmated. The results strongly suggest that sperm dumping occurs in Myrmopopaea sp., Grymeus sp., and Lionneta sp. and happens by the same mechanism as in S. loricatula. Sperm dumping might even be common within a clade of oonopids. As in S. loricatula, the sperm transfer forms in the investigated species consist of several spermatozoa. Papillae with unknown function occur on the receptacula of all females. PMID:19939658

  15. Mating systems and protein–protein interactions determine evolutionary rates of primate sperm proteins

    PubMed Central

    Schumacher, Julia; Rosenkranz, David; Herlyn, Holger

    2014-01-01

    To assess the relative impact of functional constraint and post-mating sexual selection on sequence evolution of reproductive proteins, we examined 169 primate sperm proteins. In order to recognize potential genome-wide trends, we additionally analysed a sample of altogether 318 non-reproductive (brain and postsynaptic) proteins. Based on cDNAs of eight primate species (Anthropoidea), we observed that pre-mating sperm proteins engaged in sperm composition and assembly show significantly lower incidence of site-specific positive selection and overall lower non-synonymous to synonymous substitution rates (dN/dS) across sites as compared with post-mating sperm proteins involved in capacitation, hyperactivation, acrosome reaction and fertilization. Moreover, database screening revealed overall more intracellular protein interaction partners in pre-mating than in post-mating sperm proteins. Finally, post-mating sperm proteins evolved at significantly higher evolutionary rates than pre-mating sperm and non-reproductive proteins on the branches to multi-male breeding species, while no such increase was observed on the branches to unimale and monogamous species. We conclude that less protein–protein interactions of post-mating sperm proteins account for lowered functional constraint, allowing for stronger impact of post-mating sexual selection, while the opposite holds true for pre-mating sperm proteins. This pattern is particularly strong in multi-male breeding species showing high female promiscuity. PMID:24307672

  16. Impact of sperm chromatin evaluation on fertilization rate in intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    PubMed Central

    Iranpour, Farhad Golshan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sperm DNA in human beings and most vertebrates is packed by protamines into highly compact form of chromatin. There are many staining methods to assess sperm chromatin. Three different methods of staining were used simultaneously in this study and the goal was to determine which of these sperm tests has a relation with fertilization rate in intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Materials and Methods: Thirty couples who referred to Yamagata University Hospital (Yamagata, Japan) for ICSI were included in this study. The greater part of semen was prepared for ICSI. The remaining part was used for staining with aniline blue, acridine orange, and chromomycin A3 (CMA3). For evaluation of abnormal morphology and abnormality of head, Papanicolaou-stained smears were used. The analysis of data was done using Spearman coefficient of correlation and logistic regression model. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve was used for discrimination of CMA3 staining power to identify ICSI rates. Results: Percentage of CMA3 positivity, unlike those of aniline blue and acridine orange, showed significant negative correlation with fertilization rate. Moreover, the percentage of CMA3 positivity showed a positive correlation with the percentage of abnormal morphology and abnormality of head. By dividing patients into CMA3 <48% and CMA3> 48% groups, the area under the curve was 0.646. Conclusions: CMA3 staining (protamine deficiency) could be considered as a useful tool for evaluation of male fertility prior to infertility treatment. PMID:25538915

  17. Effect of osmotic immobilization on refrigerated storage and cryopreservation of sperm from a viviparous fish, the green swordtail Xiphophorus helleri.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huiping; Hazlewood, Leona; Walter, Ronald B; Tiersch, Terrence R

    2006-04-01

    In this study, refrigerated storage and cryopreservation of sperm from the green swordtail Xiphophorus helleri were investigated. Previous cryopreservation research in this species utilized motile sperm because unlike in most fish species, Xiphophorus sperm can remain continuously motile after collection for a week with refrigerated storage. However, this species reproduces by internal fertilization, and given the significant requirements for motility within the female reproductive tract and potential limitations on sperm energetic capacities, immobilization of sperm prior to insemination could be used to improve fertilization success. Thus, the goal in this study was to use osmotic pressure to inhibit the motility of sperm after collection from X. helleri, and to test the effect of immobilization on refrigerated storage and cryopreservation. The objectives were to: (1) estimate the motility of sperm at different osmotic pressures, and determine an osmotic pressure suitable for immobilization; (2) cryopreserve the immobilized sperm, and estimate the motility after thawing with or without dilution, and (3) compare motility of non-immobilized and immobilized sperm after thawing, centrifugation, and washing to remove cryoprotectant. Motility was determined when sperm were suspended in 11 different osmotic pressures (24-500 mOsmol/kg) of Hanks' balanced salt solution (HBSS). Motility was observed between 116 and 425 mOsmol/kg. Sperm were not motile when the osmolality was lower than 116 or higher than 425 mOsmol/kg. Motility of the immobilized (non-motile) sperm could be activated by changing the osmotic pressure to 291-316 mOsmol/kg, and motility of immobilized sperm from hypertonic HBSS (425 mOsmol/kg) was significantly higher than that from hypotonic HBSS (145 mOsmol/kg) after 48 h of storage. At an osmolality of 500 mOsmol/kg, HBSS was used as extender to maintain immobilized sperm during cryopreservation with glycerol as the cryoprotectant. High motility (approximately 55%) was obtained in sperm after thawing when cryopreserved with 10-15% glycerol, and dilution of thawed sperm in fresh HBSS (1:4; V:V) was found to decrease the motility significantly. No difference was found in the motility of thawed sperm cryopreserved with 14% glycerol and extended in 310 and 500 mOsmol/kg HBSS. Washing by centrifugation prolonged the motility of thawed sperm from 24 to 72 h in HBSS at 310 and 500 mOsmol/kg. This study showed that sperm from X. helleri could be immobilized by use of specific osmotic pressures, and that the immobilization did not affect sperm motility after thawing. The immobilization of sperm by osmotic pressure could minimize reduction of the energetic capacities necessary for insemination, traversal, and residence within the female reproductive tract, and fertilization. PMID:16375884

  18. Ethical issues in lung function testing in children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. S. Beardsmore

    2000-01-01

    Most lung function tests are non-invasive and they are widely performed in children and adults for clinical reasons. The prevalence of respiratory disorders is such that there is a considerable amount of research in the area. For both clinical and research applications, professionals involved in lung function testing in children need to be aware of ethical issues pertaining to such

  19. Atrazine in sub-acute exposure results in sperm DNA disintegrity and nuclear immaturity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Feyzi-Dehkhargani, Sajad; Shahrooz, Rasoul; Malekinejad, Hassan; Sadrkhanloo, Rajab-Ali

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the detrimental effect of atrazine (ATR) on germinal epitheliums (GE) cytoplasmic carbohydrate (CH) and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) ratio and to clarify the effect of ATR on serum levels of FSH, LH, testosterone and inhibin-B (INH-B). The impact of ATR exposure on total antioxidant capacity (TAC), sperm DNA packing and integrity were also investigated. Seventy two Wistar rats were used. The rats in control group received vehicle and the animals in test groups received 100, 200 and 300 mg kg-1 BW of ATR orally on daily bases for 12, 24 and 48 days. In ATR-received groups the spermatogenesis cell were presented with dense reactive sites for lipidophilic staining associated with faint cytoplasmic CH accumulation. Dissociated germinal epithelium, negative tubular and repopulation indexes were manifested. The serum levels of testosterone, FSH, LH and INH-B decreased by 85% after 48 days exposure to high dose of ATR. TAC was reduced in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The sperm DNA damage was marked in animals which exposed to high dose of ATR (72.50 ± 2.25%) and the percentage of nuclear immature sperm increased up to 83.40 ± 0.89%. In conclusion, ATR not only induced its detrimental effect on the endocrine function of the testes and pituitary gland but also affected the cytoplasmic CH ratio and consequently leads to inadequate energy supplement in spermatogenesis cells. Therefore the imbalanced oxidative stress occurs in testicular tissue, which in turn enhances the sperm DNA disintegrity and nuclear immaturity. PMID:25653741

  20. Automated Functional Testing based on the Navigation of Web Applications

    E-print Network

    García, Boni; 10.4204/EPTCS.61.4

    2011-01-01

    Web applications are becoming more and more complex. Testing such applications is an intricate hard and time-consuming activity. Therefore, testing is often poorly performed or skipped by practitioners. Test automation can help to avoid this situation. Hence, this paper presents a novel approach to perform automated software testing for web applications based on its navigation. On the one hand, web navigation is the process of traversing a web application using a browser. On the other hand, functional requirements are actions that an application must do. Therefore, the evaluation of the correct navigation of web applications results in the assessment of the specified functional requirements. The proposed method to perform the automation is done in four levels: test case generation, test data derivation, test case execution, and test case reporting. This method is driven by three kinds of inputs: i) UML models; ii) Selenium scripts; iii) XML files. We have implemented our approach in an open-source testing fra...

  1. THE NUCLEOPROTAMINE OF TROUT SPERM

    PubMed Central

    Pollister, A. W.; Mirsky, A. E.

    1946-01-01

    The nucleoprotamine of trout sperm can be extracted completely with 1 M sodium chloride. On reducing the salt concentration to 0.14 M, physiological saline, the nucleoprotamine precipitates in long, fibrous strands. When the nucleoprotamine, dissolved in M NaCl, is dialyzed all the protamine diffuses through the membrane leaving behind highly polymerized, protein-free desoxyribose nucleic acid. The nucleoprotamine constitutes 91 per cent of the lipid-free mass of the sperm nucleus. While nucleoprotamine is being extracted by M NaCl a stage is reached at which the sperm chromosomes are clearly visible. PMID:19873480

  2. Uneven distribution of desmosterol and docosahexaenoic acid in the heads and tails of monkey sperm 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William E. Connor; Don S. Lin; D. P. Wolf; M. Alexander

    Previously we demonstrated high concentrations of desmosterol and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) in monkey testes and sperm. Desmosterol, a cholesterol precursor, is not present elsewhere in the body. High con- centrations of DHA are found elsewhere only in the retina and brain. To examine the distribution of these compounds in the heads and tails of sperm, we separated them

  3. SPERM COUNT, MORPHOLOGY AND FLUORESCENT BODY FREQUENCY IN AUTOPSY SERVICE WORKERS EXPOSED TO FORMALDEHYDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability of a battery of genetic monitoring tests to detect occupational formaldehyde exposure in a population of a hospital autopsy service workers was investigated. Eleven exposed individuals and 11 matched controls were evaluated for sperm count, abnormal sperm morphology a...

  4. DIBROMOACETIC ACID AFFECTS REPRODUCTIVE COMPETENCE AND SPERM QUALITY IN THE MALE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have recently shown that Dibromoacetic acid (DBAA) alters sperm quality in short duration tests. n this study, male rats were gavaged with 0, 2, 10, 50, 250 mg DBAA/kg/d for up to 49 d. Interim. and terminal measurements of sperm quality & reproductive outcome were made. BAA c...

  5. Effect of Multiple Testing Adjustment in Differential Item Functioning Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jihye; Oshima, T. C.

    2013-01-01

    In a typical differential item functioning (DIF) analysis, a significance test is conducted for each item. As a test consists of multiple items, such multiple testing may increase the possibility of making a Type I error at least once. The goal of this study was to investigate how to control a Type I error rate and power using adjustment…

  6. Failed Sperm Development as a Reproductive Isolating Barrier between Species

    PubMed Central

    Wünsch, Lisa K.; Pfennig, Karin S.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Hybrid male sterility is a common reproductive isolating barrier between species. Yet, little is known about the actual developmental causes of this phenomenon, especially in naturally hybridizing species. We sought to evaluate the developmental causes of hybrid male sterility, using spadefoot toads as our study system. Plains spadefoot toads (S. bombifrons) and Mexican spadefoot toads (S. multiplicata) hybridize where they co-occur in the southwestern USA. Hybrids are viable, but hybrid males suffer reduced fertility. We compared testes size and developmental stages of sperm cell maturation between hybrid males and males of each species. We found that testes of hybrid males did not differ in mean size from pure-species males. However, hybrids showed a greater range of within-individual variation in testes size than pure-species males. Moreover, although hybrids produced similar numbers of early stage sperm cells, hybrids produced significantly fewer mature spermatozoids than pure-species males. Interestingly, an introgressed individual produced numbers of live sperm comparable to pure-species males, but the majority of these sperm cells were abnormally shaped and non-motile. These results indicate that hybrid incompatibilities in late sperm development serve as a reproductive isolating barrier between species. The nature of this breakdown highlights the possibilities that hybrid males may vary in fertility and that fertility could possibly be recovered in introgressed males. PMID:24261446

  7. Failed sperm development as a reproductive isolating barrier between species.

    PubMed

    Wünsch, Lisa K; Pfennig, Karin S

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid male sterility is a common reproductive isolating barrier between species. Yet, little is known about the actual developmental causes of this phenomenon, especially in naturally hybridizing species. We sought to evaluate the developmental causes of hybrid male sterility, using spadefoot toads as our study system. Plains spadefoot toads (Spea bombifrons) and Mexican spadefoot toads (S. multiplicata) hybridize where they co-occur in the southwestern USA. Hybrids are viable, but hybrid males suffer reduced fertility. We compared testes size and developmental stages of sperm cell maturation between hybrid males and males of each species. We found that testes of hybrid males did not differ in mean size from pure-species males. However, hybrids showed a greater range of within-individual variation in testes size than pure-species males. Moreover, although hybrids produced similar numbers of early stage sperm cells, hybrids produced significantly fewer mature spermatozoids than pure-species males. Interestingly, an introgressed individual produced numbers of live sperm comparable to pure-species males, but the majority of these sperm cells were abnormally shaped and non-motile. These results indicate that hybrid incompatibilities in late sperm development serve as a reproductive isolating barrier between species. The nature of this breakdown highlights the possibilities that hybrid males may vary in fertility and that fertility could possibly be recovered in introgressed males. PMID:24261446

  8. Memory Hazard Functions: A Vehicle for Theory Development and Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chechile, Richard A.

    2006-01-01

    A framework is developed to rigorously test an entire class of memory retention functions by examining hazard properties. Evidence is provided that the memory hazard function is not monotonically decreasing. Yet most of the proposals for retention functions, which have emerged from the psychological literature, imply that memory hazard is…

  9. Possible cytoskeletal structures of rainbow trout sperm revealed by electron microscopic observation after detergent extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maya D. Markova; Ralitsa S. Zhivkova

    2003-01-01

    Despite the considerable research interest in fish sperm ultrastructure, little is known about the functions of different sperm cell components. Our electron microscopic study was aimed at identifying possible tissue-specific cytoskeletal structures in spermatozoa of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Teleostei, Salmoniformes, Salmonidae; formerly Salmo gairdneri). Based on the known resistance of the cytoskeleton to nonionic detergents, we compared the ultrastructure

  10. Identification of calcium-binding proteins associated with the human sperm plasma membrane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Soren Naaby-Hansen; Alan Diekman; Jagathpala Shetty; Charles J Flickinger; Anne Westbrook; John C Herr

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The precise composition of the human sperm plasma membrane, the molecular interactions that define domain specific functions, and the regulation of membrane associated proteins during the capacitation process, still remain to be fully understood. Here, we investigated the repertoire of calcium-regulated proteins associated with the human sperm plasma membrane. METHODS: Surface specific radioiodination was combined with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis,

  11. Axial force measurement for esophageal function testing

    PubMed Central

    Gravesen, Flemming H; Funch-Jensen, Peter; Gregersen, Hans; Drewes, Asbjřrn Mohr

    2009-01-01

    The esophagus serves to transport food and fluid from the pharynx to the stomach. Manometry has been the “golden standard” for the diagnosis of esophageal motility diseases for many decades. Hence, esophageal function is normally evaluated by means of manometry even though it reflects the squeeze force (force in radial direction) whereas the bolus moves along the length of esophagus in a distal direction. Force measurements in the longitudinal (axial) direction provide a more direct measure of esophageal transport function. The technique used to record axial force has developed from external force transducers over in-vivo strain gauges of various sizes to electrical impedance based measurements. The amplitude and duration of the axial force has been shown to be as reliable as manometry. Normal, as well as abnormal, manometric recordings occur with normal bolus transit, which have been documented using imaging modalities such as radiography and scintigraphy. This inconsistency using manometry has also been documented by axial force recordings. This underlines the lack of information when diagnostics are based on manometry alone. Increasing the volume of a bag mounted on a probe with combined axial force and manometry recordings showed that axial force amplitude increased by 130% in contrast to an increase of 30% using manometry. Using axial force in combination with manometry provides a more complete picture of esophageal motility, and the current paper outlines the advantages of using this method. PMID:19132762

  12. Improved sperm cryopreservation using cold cryoprotectant.

    PubMed

    Clarke, G N; Liu, D Y; Baker, H W G

    2003-01-01

    It has generally been assumed that very rapid cooling above freezing point would be deleterious to human sperm because it would result in cold shock. Consequently, most routine cryopreservation protocols involve the use of warm (20-30 degrees C) cryoprotectant and slow cooling above the freezing point in order to minimise the risk of cold shock. In order to test this assumption, we added an equal volume of cold (4 degrees C) cryoprotectant in a single aliquot to warm (20, 30 or 37 degrees C) semen to induce rapid cooling. The results of this procedure were compared with those obtained using warm cryoprotectant or with the routine cryopreservation protocol used in this laboratory. The use of cold cryoprotectant resulted in a significant (P = 0.016) improvement (mean 63%, range 42%-79%) in post-thaw motility recovery compared with a standard procedure(mean 47%, range 35%-67%) and a significant (P = 0.016) improvement in post-thaw sperm velocity. A cold glycerol/egg yolk/citrate (GEYC) mixture also gave significantly higher motility recovery than GEYC equilibrated to either room temperature (20 degrees C) or body temperature (37 degrees C). Sperm frozen using the cold cryoprotectant protocol were as efficient at binding to and penetrating the human zona pellucida as sperm frozen with a standard protocol. The modified cryopreservation procedure may lead to improved pregnancy rates in donor insemination and in vitro fertilisation. Further investigation is required to determine how the cold cryoprotectant improves the cryopreservation outcome. PMID:14984694

  13. Cryopreservation with ?-tocopherol and Sephadex filtration improved the quality of boar sperm.

    PubMed

    Satorre, M M; Breininger, E; Beconi, M T

    2012-10-15

    The objectives were to evaluate postthaw sperm quality and the response to an inducer of in vitro sperm capacitation in boar sperm, cryopreserved with (T) or without (C) ?-tocopherol. Boar sperm frozen in 0.2-mL pellets were thawed and washed (W) or selected by three methods: Percoll discontinuous gradient (PS) or Sephadex (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA) (neutral [S] or with ion exchange [S+IO] columns). All separation methods enhanced sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity, and functionality and acrosome integrity for both C and T samples (P < 0.05). The best results were obtained with S and ionic Sephadex column. There was a decrease (P < 0.05) in capacitation-like changes in C samples separated with Sephadex (W: 19 ± 0.9%, PS: 22 ± 2.5%, S: 17 ± 1.2%, and S+IO: 17 ± 2.0%). Cryopreservation with ?-tocopherol decreased (P < 0.05) the percentage of cryocapacitated sperm (W: 14 ± 0.7%, PS: 14 ± 1.0%, S: 13 ± 1.0%, and S+IO: 14 ± 0.9%) compared with C samples, without differences among selection techniques. Freezing with ?-tocopherol and subsequent selection decreased lipid peroxidation (W: 20.79 ± 2.64 nmol thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)/10(8) sperm; PS: 13.15 ± 2.39 nmol TBARS/10(8) sperm; S: 13.20 ± 2.18 nmol TBARS/10(8) sperm, and S+IO: 13.62 ± 2.76 nmol TBARS/10(8) sperm), with respect to washed and selected C samples (W: 37.69 ± 5.34 nmol TBARS/10(8) sperm, PS: 25.61 ± 5.85 nmol TBARS/10(8) sperm, S: 19.16 ± 3.28 nmol TBARS/10(8) sperm, and S+IO: 22.16 ± 6.09 nmol TBARS/10(8) sperm). In vitro capacitation levels were significantly higher for neutral Sephadex-selected T samples in comparison with C and unselected samples. These results were confirmed with a follicular fluid-induced acrosome reaction. In conclusion, cryopreserved sperm with ?-tocopherol and subsequent Sephadex selection, improved postthaw quality and functionality of boar sperm, which could be useful for assisted reproductive techniques. PMID:22925635

  14. Mammalian sperm energy resources management and survival during conservation in refrigeration.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Gil, J E

    2006-10-01

    The present review has as its main aim to present an overview regarding the mechanisms utilized by mammalian sperm to manage its intracellular energy levels. This management will strongly influence the sperm's ability to maintain its overall function during its entire life span. Thus, the precise knowledge of these mechanisms will be of the utmost interest to optimize the systems utilized to conserve mammalian sperm for a medium-to-long time-lapse. Briefly, utilization of hexoses as energy substrates by mammalian sperm is very finely regulated from the very first step of its metabolization. Furthermore, the equilibrium among the separate, monosaccharide metabolization pathways in mammalian sperm depends on many factors. This prevents the possibility to draw a general vision of sperm energy utilization, which explains the results of all mammalian species in all points of the sperm life-cycle. To complicate the matter further, there are separate energy phenotypes among mammalian spermatozoa. The precise knowledge of these phenotypes is of the greatest importance in order to optimize the design of new extenders for sperm conservation in refrigerated conditions. Moreover, sugars can act on sperm not only as passive metabolic substrates, but also as direct function activators through mechanisms like specific changes in the tyrosine phosphorylation status of distinct proteins. Finally, mammalian sperm utilizes non-glucidic substrates like citrate and lactate to obtain energy in a regular form. This utilization is also finely regulated and of importance to maintain overall sperm function. This implies that the exact proportion of glucidic and non-glucidic energy substrates could be very important to optimize the survival ability of these cells in conservation. PMID:16984465

  15. Sperm speed is associated with sex bias of siblings in a human population

    PubMed Central

    Mossman, Jim A; Slate, Jon; Birkhead, Tim R; Moore, Harry D; Pacey, Allan A

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies investigating possible causes of male subfertility have largely focused on how lifestyle or environmental factors impact on the process of spermatogenesis. Markedly, fewer studies have investigated those risk factors that result in reduced sperm quality, such as poor sperm motility. The speed at which sperm swim is a major predictor of fertility and is extremely variable in human populations. It has been hypothesized that offspring sex may be adaptively manipulated to maximize the offspring's reproductive fitness (e.g., parents with genes for good male fertility traits, such as high sperm speed, would produce primarily sons and fewer daughters because the offspring will inherit advantageous male fertility genes). Conversely, parents with poor male fertility genes would produce primarily daughters. We tested whether there was an association between how fast a man's sperm swam and the sex bias of his siblings in a sample of men attending clinic for fertility investigations with their partner and with a wide range of semen characteristics, including sperm speed. We found that the sex bias of a man's siblings is associated with his sperm speed; men with female-biased siblings had significantly slower sperm (judged using computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA)) than men from male-biased sibships. This observation suggests family composition is an important factor that needs to be considered in future epidemiological and clinical studies of human fertility. PMID:23202700

  16. No Experimental Evidence for Sneaking in a West African Cichlid Fish with Extremely Long Sperm

    PubMed Central

    Langen, Kathrin; Thünken, Timo; Bakker, Theo C. M.

    2013-01-01

    Alternative reproductive tactics are widespread in fishes, increasing the potential for sperm competition. Sperm competition has enormous impact on both variation in sperm numbers and sperm size. In cichlids, the sperm competition risk is very divergent and longer sperm are usually interpreted as adaptation to sperm competition. Here we examined whether sneaking tactics exist in Pelvicachromis taeniatus, a socially monogamous cichlid with biparental brood care from West Africa. The small testis indicates low gonadal investment which is typical for genetically monogamous species. In contrast, sperm length with up to 85??m is extraordinarily long. We examined the reproductive behaviour of ten groups with a male-biased sex ratio under semi-natural conditions via continuous video recording. We recorded spawning site preferences and correlates of reproductive success and conducted paternity tests using microsatellites. Safe breeding sites that could be successfully defended were preferred. All offspring could be assigned to their parents and no multiple paternities were detected. Body size of spawning pairs predicted their spawning probability and offspring hatching rate suggesting benefits from mating with large individuals. Our study suggests low risk of sperm competition under the given conditions in P. taeniatus and thus first evidence for genetic monogamy in a substrate breeding cichlid. PMID:24386589

  17. Sperm competition and the evolution of male reproductive anatomy in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Ramm, Steven A; Parker, Geoffrey A; Stockley, Paula

    2005-01-01

    Sperm competition is a pervasive selective force in evolution, shaping reproductive anatomy, physiology and behaviour. Here, we present comparative evidence that varying sperm competition levels account for variation in the male reproductive anatomy of rodents, the largest and most diverse mammalian order. We focus on the sperm-producing testes and the accessory reproductive glands, which produce the seminal fluid fraction of the ejaculate. We demonstrate a positive association between relative testis size and the prevalence of within-litter multiple paternity, consistent with previous analyses in which relative testis size has been found to correlate with sperm competition levels inferred from social organization and mating systems. We further demonstrate an association between sperm competition level and the relative size of at least two accessory reproductive glands: the seminal vesicles and anterior prostate. The size of the major product of these glands—the copulatory plug—is also found to vary with sperm competition level. Our findings thus suggest that selection for larger plugs under sperm competition may explain variation in accessory gland size, and highlight the need to consider both sperm and non-sperm components of the male ejaculate in the context of post-copulatory sexual selection. PMID:16024351

  18. Sperm Competition in Humans: Mate Guarding Behavior Negatively Correlates with Ejaculate Quality

    PubMed Central

    Leivers, Samantha; Rhodes, Gillian; Simmons, Leigh W.

    2014-01-01

    In species where females mate with multiple males, the sperm from these males must compete to fertilise available ova. Sexual selection from sperm competition is expected to favor opposing adaptations in males that function either in the avoidance of sperm competition (by guarding females from rival males) or in the engagement in sperm competition (by increased expenditure on the ejaculate). The extent to which males may adjust the relative use of these opposing tactics has been relatively neglected. Where males can successfully avoid sperm competition from rivals, one might expect a decrease in their expenditure on tactics for the engagement in sperm competition and vice versa. In this study, we examine the relationship between mate guarding and ejaculate quality using humans as an empirical model. We found that men who performed fewer mate guarding behaviors produced higher quality ejaculates, having a greater concentration of sperm, a higher percentage of motile sperm and sperm that swam faster and less erratically. These effects were found independent of lifestyle factors or factors related to male quality. Our findings suggest that male expenditure on mate guarding and on the ejaculate may represent alternative routes to paternity assurance in humans. PMID:25250582

  19. The Effect of Curcumin on Intracellular pH (pHi), Membrane Hyperpolarization and Sperm Motility

    PubMed Central

    Naz, Rajesh K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Curcumin has shown to affect sperm motility and function in vitro and fertility in vivo. The molecular mechanism(s) by which curcumin affects sperm motility has not been delineated. Since modulation of intracellular pH (pHi) and plasma membrane polarization is involved in sperm motility, the present study was conducted to investigate the effect of curcumin on these sperm (human and murine) parameters. Methods The effect of curcumin on sperm forward motility was examined by counting percentages of forward moving sperm. The effect of curcumin on intracellular pH (pHi) was measured by the fluorescent pH indicator 2,7-bicarboxyethyl-5,6-carboxyfluorescein-acetoxymethyl ester (BCECF-AM). The effect of curcumin on plasma membrane polarization was examined using the fluorescence sensitive dye bis (1,3-dibarbituric acid)-trimethine oxanol [DiBAC4(3)]. Results Curcumin caused a concentration-dependent (p<0.05) decrease in forward motility of both human and mouse sperm. It also caused a concentration-dependent decrease in intracellular pH (pHi) in both human and mouse sperm. Curcumin induced significant (p<0.05) hyperpolarization of the plasma membrane in both human and mouse sperm. Conclusion These findings indicate that curcumin inhibits sperm forward motility by intracellular acidification and hyperpolarization of sperm plasma membrane. This is the first study to our knowledge which examined the effect of curcumin on sperm pHi and membrane polarization that affect sperm forward motility. These exciting findings will have application in deciphering the signal transduction pathway involved in sperm motility and function and in development of a novel non-steroidal contraceptive for infertility. PMID:24918078

  20. Diagnostic tools in male infertility—the question of sperm dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Barratt, Christopher LR; Mansell, Steven; Beaton, Catherine; Tardif, Steve; Oxenham, Senga K

    2011-01-01

    Sperm dysfunction is the single most common cause of infertility, yet what is remarkable is that, there is no drug a man can take or add to his spermatozoa in vitro to improve fertility. One reason for the lack of progress in this area is that our understanding of the cellular and molecular workings of the mature spermatazoon is limited. However, over the last few years there has been considerable progress in our knowledge base and in addressing new methods to diagnose sperm dysfunction. We review the current state of the field and provide insights for further development. We conclude that: (i) there is little to be gained from more studies identifying/categorizing various populations of men using a basic semen assessment, where an effort is required in making sure the analysis is performed in an appropriate high quality way; (ii) technological development is likely to bring the reality of sperm function testing closer to implementation into the clinical pathways. In doing this, these assays must be robust, cheap (or more appropriately termed cost effective), easy to use and clinically useful; and (iii) clinical necessity, e.g., the need to identify the highest quality spermatozoon for injection is driving basic research forward. This is an exciting time to be an andrologist and, likely, a fruitful one. PMID:21102478

  1. Significance of testing platelet functions in vitro.

    PubMed

    Holmsen, H

    1994-02-01

    Platelets respond through discrete receptors to a number of physiological agonists and foreign surfaces with a sequence of measurable responses: shape change, aggregation, secretion and arachidonate liberation. Three secretory responses are distinguished: exocytosis of substances from (1) dense granules, (2) alpha-granules and (3) lysosomes. Free arachidonate, liberated from phospholipids by phospholipase A2, is rapidly converted (by oxygenation) to prostaglandins and thromboxanes which, together with secreted ADP and close cell contact, will cause further platelet activation through 'positive feedback' (autocrine stimulation). Some agonists are classified as 'weak' (ADP, vasopressin, platelet-activating factor [PAF], serotonin) because they depend on autocrine stimulation to promote the full sequence of responses, while others are 'strong' agonists (thrombin, collagen) and activate all responses directly without autocrine stimulation. Adrenaline, long thought to be a platelet agonist per se, most probably acts by amplifying the activation brought about by other, proper, agonists. Such synergistic interaction among agonists is very typical for platelet activation and most likely takes place in vivo. Shape change, aggregation and secretion(s) may be tested by flow cytometry or electron microscopy in vitro under conditions that probably reflect the in vivo situation. However, the aggregation response to weak agonists in vitro is dependent on the extracellular [Ca2+], with biphasic aggregation at the low [Ca2+] present when citrate is used as anticoagulant (or in suspension of washed platelets) but not at the physiological [Ca2+] present in platelet-rich plasma from heparinized blood. PMID:8013528

  2. The Sperm Whale, Physeter macrocephalus

    E-print Network

    , implying the presence of a good food supply (Clarke, 1956; Berzin and Rovnin, 1966). Deep-water cephalopods (squids) are the major food of sperm whales. Global cephalopod distribution is in- fluenced

  3. Surgical sperm retrieval: Techniques and their indications.

    PubMed

    Shah, Rupin

    2011-01-01

    Men with azoospermia can father a child through intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection if sperm can be retrieved from their epididymis or testis. Several percutaneous and open surgical procedures have been described to retrieve sperm. The various techniques and their merits are discussed in this review. In men with obstructive azoospermia, epididymal sperm can usually be retrieved by percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA). If PESA fails then testicular sperm are obtained by needle aspiration biopsy (NAB). In men with non-obstructive azoospermia, there will be no sperm in the epididymis and testicular sperm retrieval is required. Percutaneous retrieval by NAB can be tried first. If that fails then testicular sperm extraction (TESE) from open microsurgical biopsies is performed using the single seminiferous tubule (SST) or the microdissection TESE techniques. The simplest, least invasive procedure should be tried first. PMID:21716933

  4. Reduced heterozygosity impairs sperm quality in endangered mammals.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, John L; Evans, Jonathan P

    2009-06-23

    Inbreeding causes increases in homozygosity and is commonly associated with reductions in fertility and embryogenesis. Although the mechanisms underlying such effects are unknown, recent work has suggested that inbred males may suffer impaired ejaculate quality, thus providing a functional explanation for reductions in reproductive function in inbred populations. However, the relationship between inbreeding and sperm quality remains controversial, particularly in wild populations where the level of inbreeding is typically estimated using neutral molecular markers. Such markers are thought to reflect genome-wide levels of heterozygosity only under restricted conditions, and rarely in outbred populations. Here we employ a comparative approach that takes account of these criticisms and evaluates the evidence linking inbreeding to reductions in sperm quality in 20 mammal species. We focus on sperm abnormalities and sperm motility, which are key determinants of male fertility in many species. We show that species with reduced mean heterozygosity have impaired ejaculated quality, although subsequent analyses revealed that these effects were confined to endangered populations. Our findings therefore support the notion that inbreeding can severely impair sperm quality while concomitantly addressing criticisms surrounding the use of heterozygosity estimates to estimate the level of inbreeding. PMID:19324650

  5. Identifying X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm by DNA content: retrospective perspectives and prospective opinions

    SciTech Connect

    Gledhill, B.L.; Pinkel, D.; Garner, D.L.

    1982-03-05

    Theoretically, since DNA should be the most constant component, quantitatively, of normal sperm, then genotoxic agents arising from energy production and consumption, and chemical and physical mutagens, could be identified by measuring variability in the DNA content of individual sperm from exposed men or test animals. The difference between the DNA content of X and Y sperm seemed a biologically significant benchmark for the measurement technology. Several methods are available for determining the genetic activity of agents in male germ cells, but these tests are generally laborious. Sperm-based methods provide an attractive alternate since they are not invasive, and are directly applicable to the study of human exposure. Slide-based assay of DNA content suggests that human sperm with X, Y, or YY chromosome constitutions can be distinguished by their fluorescence with quinacrine. Subsequent measurement of the dry mass of human sperm heads is performed. Dry mass is proportional to DNA content. While the study showed that human sperm with none and one quinacrine-fluorescent spot are X- and Y-bearing, respectively, the dry mass measurements indicated that many of the sperm with two quinacrine-fluorescent spots are not YY-bearing. While several reports on the initial application of flow cytometry of sperm to the investigation of mammalian infertility have appeared recently, emphasis here has been on the development of an in vivo sperm-based flow cytometric bioassay for mutations, and has not centered on andrological applications. In this review, the ability to differentiate between two equally sized populations of sperm, one bearing X and the other Y chromosomes with mean DNA content differing by about 3 to 4% is described. It has direct application to the preselection of sex of offspring, and could likely have a profound impact on animal improvement. (ERB)

  6. Safety and Function Test Report for the SWIFT Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Mendoza, I.; Hur, J.

    2013-01-01

    This test was conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Independent Testing project. This project was established to help reduce the barriers of wind energy expansion by providing independent testing results for small turbines. Three turbines where selected for testing at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) as a part of round two of the Small Wind Turbine Independent Testing project. Safety and Function testing is one of up to 5 tests that may be performed on the turbines. Other tests include power performance, duration, noise, and power quality. The results of the testing will provide the manufacturers with reports that may be used for small wind turbine certification.

  7. Platelet Function Tests: A Review of Progresses in Clinical Application

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jae-Lim; Li, Shuhua

    2014-01-01

    The major goal of traditional platelet function tests has been to screen and diagnose patients who present with bleeding problems. However, as the central role of platelets implicated in the etiology of arterial thrombotic diseases such as myocardial infarction and stroke became widely known, platelet function tests are now being promoted to monitor the efficacy of antiplatelet drugs and also to potentially identify patients at increased risk of thrombosis. Beyond hemostasis and thrombosis, an increasing number of studies indicate that platelets play an integral role in intercellular communication, are mediators of inflammation, and have immunomodulatory activity. As new potential biomarkers and technologies arrive at the horizon, platelet functions testing appears to take on a new aspect. This review article discusses currently available clinical application of platelet function tests, placing emphasis on essential characteristics. PMID:24895576

  8. Interpreting sperm DNA damage in a diverse range of mammalian sperm by means of the two-tailed comet assay

    PubMed Central

    Cortés-Gutiérrez, Elva I.; López-Fernández, Carmen; Fernández, José Luis; Dávila-Rodríguez, Martha I.; Johnston, Stephen D.; Gosálvez, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    Key Concepts The two-dimensional Two-Tailed Comet assay (TT-comet) protocol is a valuable technique to differentiate between single-stranded (SSBs) and double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) on the same sperm cell.Protein lysis inherent with the TT-comet protocol accounts for differences in sperm protamine composition at a species-specific level to produce reliable visualization of sperm DNA damage.Alkaline treatment may break the sugar–phosphate backbone in abasic sites or at sites with deoxyribose damage, transforming these lesions into DNA breaks that are also converted into ssDNA. These lesions are known as Alkali Labile Sites “ALSs.”DBD–FISH permits the in situ visualization of DNA breaks, abasic sites or alkaline-sensitive DNA regions.The alkaline comet single assay reveals that all mammalian species display constitutive ALS related with the requirement of the sperm to undergo transient changes in DNA structure linked with chromatin packing.Sperm DNA damage is associated with fertilization failure, impaired pre-and post- embryo implantation and poor pregnancy outcome.The TT is a valuable tool for identifying SSBs or DSBs in sperm cells with DNA fragmentation and can be therefore used for the purposes of fertility assessment. Sperm DNA damage is associated with fertilization failure, impaired pre-and post- embryo implantation and poor pregnancy outcome. A series of methodologies to assess DNA damage in spermatozoa have been developed but most are unable to differentiate between single-stranded DNA breaks (SSBs) and double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) on the same sperm cell. The two-dimensional Two-Tailed Comet assay (TT-comet) protocol highlighted in this review overcomes this limitation and emphasizes the importance in accounting for the difference in sperm protamine composition at a species-specific level for the appropriate preparation of the assay. The TT-comet is a modification of the original comet assay that uses a two dimensional electrophoresis to allow for the simultaneous evaluation of DSBs and SSBs in mammalian spermatozoa. Here we have compiled a retrospective overview of how the TT-comet assay has been used to investigate the structure and function of sperm DNA across a diverse range of mammalian species (eutheria, metatheria, and prototheria). When conducted as part of the TT-comet assay, we illustrate (a) how the alkaline comet single assay has been used to help understand the constitutive and transient changes in DNA structure associated with chromatin packing, (b) the capacity of the TT-comet to differentiate between the presence of SSBs and DSBs (c) and the possible implications of SSBs or DSBs for the assessment of infertility. PMID:25505901

  9. A Functional Test Platform for the Community Land Model

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yang [ORNL] [ORNL; Thornton, Peter E [ORNL] [ORNL; King, Anthony Wayne [ORNL] [ORNL; Steed, Chad A [ORNL] [ORNL; Gu, Lianhong [ORNL] [ORNL; Schuchart, Joseph [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    A functional test platform is presented to create direct linkages between site measurements and the process-based ecosystem model within the Community Earth System Models (CESM). The platform consists of three major parts: 1) interactive user interfaces, 2) functional test model and 3) observational datasets. It provides much needed integration interfaces for both field experimentalists and ecosystem modelers to improve the model s representation of ecosystem processes within the CESM framework without large software overhead.

  10. Effects of a maximal exercise test on neurocognitive function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tracey Covassin; Leigh Weiss; John Powell; Christopher Womack; M. R Lovell

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of a maximal exercise test on cognitive function in recreational athletes.Design: A repeated-measures design was used to compare baseline with post-cognitive function and fatigue symptoms after a maximal exercise test.Setting: Division 1 American Midwestern University, (Michigan State University, Michigan, USA).Participants: 102 male and female recreational athletes.Intervention: Participants in the experimental group (n = 54) were

  11. Calcium Signaling in Sperm: Help from Prostasomes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dejian Ren (University of Pennsylvania; Department of Biology REV)

    2011-05-17

    Mammalian sperm cells are equipped with sophisticated Ca2+ signaling mechanisms that are fundamental to sperm’s success in fertilization. Unlike most other cells, however, mature sperm generally do not have the luxury of synthesizing new proteins. New evidence indicates that human sperm have a very clever way to solve the conflict between the critical demand for Ca2+ signaling tools and the silence of protein translation. Just before encountering the female reproductive tract, sperm acquire some of the key molecules for Ca2+ signaling from the male reproductive tract itself: prostasomes secreted by the prostate gland.

  12. No Evidence of Conpopulation Sperm Precedence between Allopatric Populations of House Mice

    PubMed Central

    Firman, Renée C.; Simmons, Leigh W.

    2014-01-01

    Investigations into the evolution of reproductive barriers have traditionally focused on closely related species, and the prevalence of conspecific sperm precedence. The effectiveness of conspecific sperm precedence at limiting gene exchange between species suggests that gametic isolation is an important component of reproductive isolation. However, there is a paucity of tests for evidence of sperm precedence during the earlier stages of divergence, for example among isolated populations. Here, we sourced individuals from two allopatric populations of house mice (Mus domesticus) and performed competitive in vitro fertilisation assays to test for conpopulation sperm precedence specifically at the gametic level. We found that ova population origin did not influence the outcome of the sperm competitions, and thus provide no evidence of conpopulation or heteropopulation sperm precedence. Instead, we found that males from a population that had evolved under a high level of postcopulatory sexual selection consistently outcompeted males from a population that had evolved under a relatively lower level of postcopulatory sexual selection. We standardised the number of motile sperm of each competitor across the replicate assays. Our data therefore show that competitive fertilizing success was directly attributable to differences in sperm fertilizing competence. PMID:25295521

  13. Electrophysiological Evidence for the Presence of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) in Mouse Sperm

    PubMed Central

    Dulce, Figueiras Fierro; José, Acevedo Juan; Pablo, Martínez; Escoffier, Jessica; Sepúlveda, Francisco V.; Enrique, Balderas; Gerardo, Orta; Pablo, Visconti; Alberto, Darszon

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian sperm must undergo a maturational process, named capacitation, in the female reproductive tract to fertilize the egg. Sperm capacitation is regulated by a cAMP/PKA pathway and involves increases in intracellular Ca2+, pH, Cl?, protein tyrosine phosphorylation, and in mouse and some other mammals a membrane potential hyperpolarization. The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a Cl? channel modulated by cAMP/PKA and ATP, was detected in mammalian sperm and proposed to modulate capacitation. Our whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from testicular mouse sperm now reveal a Cl? selective component to membrane current that is ATP-dependent, stimulated by cAMP, cGMP and genistein (a CFTR agonist, at low concentrations), and inhibited by DPC and CFTRinh-172, two well-known CFTR antagonists. Furthermore, the Cl? current component activated by cAMP and inhibited by CFTRinh-172 is absent in recordings on testicular sperm from mice possessing the CFTR ?F508 loss-of-function mutation, indicating that CFTR is responsible for this component. A Cl? selective like current component displaying CFTR characteristics was also found in wild type epididymal sperm bearing the cytoplasmatic droplet. Capacitated sperm treated with CFTRinh-172 undergo a shape change, suggesting that CFTR is involved in cell volume regulation. These findings indicate that functional CFTR channels are present in mouse sperm and their biophysical properties are consistent with their proposed participation in capacitation. PMID:22833409

  14. Transfer function tests of the Joy longwall shearer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, P. H., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A series of operational tests was performed on the Joy longwall shearer located at the Bureau of Mines in Bructon, Pennsylvania. The purpose of these tests was to determine the transfer function and operational characteristics of the system. These characteristics will be used to generate a simulation model of the longwall shearer used in the development of the closed-loop vertical control system.

  15. Operating Characteristics of Executive Functioning Tests Following Traumatic Brain Injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason A. Demery; Michael J. Larson; Neha K. Dixit; Russell M. Bauer; William M. Perlstein

    2010-01-01

    The primary purposes of this study were to determine if controls, and mild and moderate\\/severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients performed differently on a battery of executive functioning (EF) tests, and to identify the operating characteristics of EF tests in this population. Participants consisted of 46 brain-injured individuals and 24 healthy controls. All participants completed an extensive battery of EF

  16. Randomization tests for quantifying species importance to ecosystem function

    E-print Network

    Gotelli, Nicholas J.

    of species interactions and the recognition that certain `keystone species' (sensu Paine 1969) or `ecosystemRandomization tests for quantifying species importance to ecosystem function Nicholas J. Gotelli1´stoles, Spain Summary 1. Quantifying the contribution of different species to ecosystem function is an important

  17. The Kid's Times: Volume II, Issue 8 Sperm Whale

    E-print Network

    The Kid's Times: Volume II, Issue 8 Sperm Whale How did the sperm whale get its name? Sperm whales they look like? Sperm whales are the largest of the odonto- cetes. The large head is the primary feature of a Sperm whale. Up to one-third of the sperm whale's total body length and more than one-third of its mass

  18. Fault Modeling and Functional Test Methods for Digital Microfluidic Biochips

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tao Xu; Krishnendu Chakrabarty

    2009-01-01

    Dependability is an important attribute for microfluidic biochips that are used for safety-critical applications, such as point-of-care health assessment, air-quality monitoring, and food-safety testing. Therefore, these devices must be adequately tested after manufacture and during bioassay operations. Known techniques for biochip testing are all function oblivious (i.e., while they can detect and locate defect sites on a microfluidic array, they

  19. Simulation analysis of a printed circuit board functional test process

    E-print Network

    Brinkley, Paul Andrew

    1991-01-01

    requiring a constant repair time. Mean repair time varied greatly among boards in the test area, and typically was measured in hours as opposed to minutes for first pass testing. Failure percentages for printed circuit boards were obtained by analyzing...SIMULATION ANALYSIS OF A PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD FUNCTIONAL TEST PROCESS A Thesis by PAUL ANDREW BRINKLEY Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER...

  20. Interrelationships between apoptosis and fertility in bull sperm.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Sule; Mason, Melissa C; Govindaraju, Aruna; Belser, Lauren; Kaya, Abdullah; Stokes, John; Rowe, Dennis; Memili, Erdogan

    2013-01-01

    Male fertility, the ability of sperm to fertilize and activate the egg and support early embryogenesis, is vital for mammalian reproduction. Despite producing adequate numbers of sperm with normal motility and morphology, some males suffer from low fertility whose molecular mechanisms are not known. The objective was to determine apoptosis in sperm from high and low fertility bulls and its relationship with male fertility. DNA damage, phosphatidylserine (PS) translocation, and expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins (BAX and BCL-2) in the sperm were determined using TUNEL, Annexin V, and immunoblotting approaches, respectively. Amounts of apoptotic spermatozoa were 2.86 (± 1.31) and 3.00 (± 0.96) in high and low fertility bulls, respectively (P=0.548), and were not correlated with fertility. There was a negative correlation between early necrotic spermatozoa and viable spermatozoa (r = -0.99, P<0.0001). Fertility scores were correlated with live spermatozoa detected by eosin-nigrosin test and necrotic spermatozoa determined via flow cytometry (r = -0.49, P<0.006 and r = -0.266, P<0.0113, respectively). BAX level was higher in low fertile group than high fertile group; however, this difference was not statistically significant due to the variations of bull samples (Bull 1-3 vs. Bull 4-5) in low fertile group (P<0.283). BCL-2 was not detectable in any of the sperm samples. The results shed light onto molecular and cellular underpinnings of male fertility. PMID:22986927

  1. [A brief protocol for sperm cryopreservation and revival in zebrafish].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Nai-Zhong; Zhang, Bo

    2012-09-01

    Zebrafish is an important vertebrate model organism for the study of embryonic development and the underlying genetic mechanism. Numerous mutants and transgenics have been generated in recent years, long-term and safe storage of these fish lines is of crucial importance for every zebrafish community/lab. Sperm cryopreservation and revival has become a preferred method for this purpose, which provides extra and reliable security as a backup for the cost-effective maintenance of genetic stocks in addition to reducing space demanding for housing large amount of live fish. This is especially critical for invaluable fish lines against accidental loss. Generally, the sperm are obtained by either squeezing the male fish or dissecting out and homogenizing the testes, then they are mixed with the freezing medium before gradually frozen as aliquots in liquid nitrogen. They can be easily revived through in vitro fertilization whenever necessary. This technique was introduced into zebrafish research three decades ago and has gradually become mature and more reliable following the im-provement of many critical factors and steps, including cryoprotectants and conditions for freezing and revival. Base on pioneers' work, our lab has established and improved a simple method for sperm cryopreservation and revival which shows high recovery rate after relatively long storage time. Here we briefly summarize the history and development of the methods for sperm cryopreservation and revival in zebrafish and present a brief protocol for the practice of sperm cryopreservation and revival, which is routinely used in our lab. PMID:23017463

  2. The test of functional health literacy in adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruth M. Parker; David W. Baker; Mark V. Williams; Joanne R. Nurss

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a valid, reliable instrument to measure the functional health literacy of patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN: The Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA) was developed using actual hospital materials. The TOFHLA consists\\u000a of a 50-item reading comprehension and 17-item numerical ability test, taking up to 22 minutes to administer. The TOFHLA,\\u000a the Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised (WRAT-R), and

  3. Sea urchin sperm antigens mediating the acrosome reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Trimmer, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    The study of sea urchin sperm antigens mediating the acrosome reactions (AR) has been undertaken. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been isolated reacting with a number of sperm surface antigens. These mAbs have been used in functional assays to attempt to infer the roles of these proteins in the induction of the AR. These mAbs have also been used to isolate protein for biochemical characterization and reconstitution studies. mAbs reacting with a 210 kD protein of the sea urchin sperm plasma membrane have been used to identify this protein as playing a role in the regulation of ion fluxes during the induction of the AR. mAbs reacting with certain extracellular regions inhibit the induction of: the AR, the long duration {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} uptake into the mitochondrion, and H{sup +} efflux. Addition of these same mAbs, however, induces an increase in sperm (Ca{sup 2+}){sub i} to levels much higher than those induced by FSG, as monitored by the fluorescent Ca{sup 2+} indicators fura 2 and indo 1. This (Ca{sup 2+}){sub i} increase occurs without an increase in pH{sub i}, and thus allows for the first time the analysis of the effects of increasing sperm (Ca{sup 2+}){sub i} ion the absence of increased pH{sub i}.

  4. Isolation and Proteomic Characterization of the Mouse Sperm Acrosomal Matrix*

    PubMed Central

    Guyonnet, Benoit; Zabet-Moghaddam, Masoud; SanFrancisco, Susan; Cornwall, Gail A.

    2012-01-01

    A critical step during fertilization is the sperm acrosome reaction in which the acrosome releases its contents allowing the spermatozoa to penetrate the egg investments. The sperm acrosomal contents are composed of both soluble material and an insoluble material called the acrosomal matrix (AM). The AM is thought to provide a stable structure from which associated proteins are differentially released during fertilization. Because of its important role during fertilization, efforts have been put toward isolating the AM for biochemical study and to date AM have been isolated from hamster, guinea pig, and bull spermatozoa. However, attempts to isolate AM from mouse spermatozoa, the species in which fertilization is well-studied, have been unsuccessful possibly because of the small size of the mouse sperm acrosome and/or its fusiform shape. Herein we describe a procedure for the isolation of the AM from caput and cauda mouse epididymal spermatozoa. We further carried out a proteomic analysis of the isolated AM from both sperm populations and identified 501 new proteins previously not detected by proteomics in mouse spermatozoa. A comparison of the AM proteome from caput and cauda spermatozoa showed that the AM undergoes maturational changes during epididymal transit similar to other sperm domains. Together, our studies suggest the AM to be a dynamic and functional structure carrying out a variety of biological processes as implied by the presence of a diverse group of proteins including proteases, chaperones, hydrolases, transporters, enzyme modulators, transferases, cytoskeletal proteins, and others. PMID:22707618

  5. Effect of Cryopreservation on the Sperm DNA Fragmentation Dynamics of the Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Calabuig, M J; López-Fernández, C; Johnston, S D; Blyde, D; Cooper, J; Harrison, K; de la Fuente, J; Gosálvez, J

    2015-04-01

    Sperm DNA fragmentation is one of the major causes of infertility; the sperm chromatin dispersion test (SCDt) evaluates this parameter and offers the advantage of species-specific validated protocol and ease of use under field conditions. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate sperm DNA fragmentation dynamics in both fresh and post-thaw bottlenose dolphin sperm using the SCDt following different cryopreservation protocols to gain new information about the post-thaw differential sperm DNA longevity in this species. Fresh and cryopreserved semen samples from five bottlenose dolphins were examined for sperm DNA fragmentation dynamics using the SCDt (Halomax(®) ). Sperm DNA fragmentation was assessed immediately at collection and following cryopreservation (T0) and then after 0.5, 1, 4, 8, 24, 48 and 72 h incubation at 37°C. Serially collected ejaculates from four dolphins were frozen using different cryopreservation protocols in a TES-TRIS-fructose buffer (TTF), an egg-yolk-free vegetable lipid LP1 buffer (LP1) and human sperm preservation medium (HSPM). Fresh ejaculated spermatozoa initially showed low levels of DNA fragmentation for up to 48 h. Lower Sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) was found in the second fresh ejaculate compared to the first when more than one sample was collected on the same day (p < 0.05); this difference was not apparent in any other seminal characteristic. While there was no difference observed in SDF between fresh and frozen-thawed sperm using the different cryopreservation protocols immediately after thawing (T0), frozen-thawed spermatozoa incubated at 37°C showed an increase in the rate of SDF after 24 h. Sperm frozen in the LP1(?) buffer had higher levels (p < 0.05) of DNA fragmentation after 24- and 48-h incubation than those frozen in TTF or HSPM. No correlation was found between any seminal characteristic and DNA fragmentation in either fresh and/or frozen-thawed samples. PMID:25604784

  6. Evolution of protamine genes and changes in sperm head phenotype in rodents.

    PubMed

    Lüke, Lena; Vicens, Alberto; Tourmente, Maximiliano; Roldan, Eduardo R S

    2014-03-01

    Little is known about the genetic basis of evolutionary changes in sperm phenotype. Postcopulatory sexual selection is associated with differences in protamine gene sequences and promoters and is a powerful force acting on sperm form and function, although links between protamine evolution and sperm phenotype are scarce. Protamines are involved in sperm chromatin condensation, and protamine deficiency negatively affects sperm morphology and male fertility, thus suggesting that they are important for sperm design and function. We examined changes in protamine genes and sperm phenotype in rodents to understand the role of sexual selection on protamine evolution and sperm design. We performed a genotype-phenotype association study using root-to-tip dN/dS (nonsynonymous/synonymous substitutions rate ratio) to account for evolutionary rates and phylogenetic generalized least squares analyses to compare genetic and morphometric data. Evolutionary rates of protamine 1 and the protamine 2 domain cleaved off during chromatin condensation correlated with head size and elongation. Protamine 1 exhibited restricted positive selection on some functional sites, which seemed sufficient to preserve its role in head design. The cleaved-protamine 2, whose relaxation is halted by sexual selection, seems to ensure small, elongated heads that would make sperm more competitive. No association existed between mature-protamine 2 and head phenotype, suggesting little involvement during chromatin condensation and a likely role maintaining the condensed state. Our results suggest that evolutionary changes in protamines could be related to complex developmental modifications in the sperm head. This represents an important step toward understanding the role of changes in gene coding sequences in the divergence of germ cell phenotype. PMID:24522148

  7. State of the Art in Platelet Function Testing

    PubMed Central

    E. Kehrel, Beate; F. Brodde, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Summary Platelets perform many functions in hemostasis but also in other areas of physiology and pathology. Therefore, it is obvious that many different function tests have been developed, each one conceived and standardized for a special purpose. This review will summarize the different fields in which platelet function testing is currently in use; diagnostics of patients with bleeding disorders, monitoring patients’ response to anti-platelet therapy, monitoring in transfusion medicine (blood donors, platelet concentrates, and after transfusion), and monitoring in perioperative medicine to predict bleeding tendency. The second part of the review outlines different methods for platelet function testing, spanning bleeding time, and platelet counting as well as determining platelet adhesion, platelet secretion, platelet aggregation, platelet morphology, platelet signal transduction, platelet procoagulant activity, platelet apoptosis, platelet proteomics, and molecular biology. PMID:23653569

  8. No evidence of sperm conjugate formation in an Australian mouse bearing sperm with three hooks

    PubMed Central

    Firman, Renée C; Bentley, Blair; Bowman, Faye; Marchant, Fernando García-Solís; Parthenay, Jahmila; Sawyer, Jessica; Stewart, Tom; O'Shea, James E

    2013-01-01

    Sperm conjugation occurs when two or more sperm physically unite for motility or transport through the female reproductive tract. In many muroid rodent species, sperm conjugates have been shown to form by a single, conspicuous apical hook located on the sperm head. These sperm “trains” have been reported to be highly variable in size and, despite all the heads pointing in roughly the same direction, exhibit a relatively disordered arrangement. In some species, sperm “trains” have been shown to enhance sperm swimming speed, and thus have been suggested to be advantageous in sperm competition. Here, we assessed the behavior of sperm in the sandy inland mouse (Pseudomys hermannsburgensis), a muroid rodent that bears sperm with three apical hooks. First, we accrued genetic evidence of multiple paternity within “wild” litters to unequivocally show that sperm competition does occur in this species. Following this we utilized both in vitro and in vivo methodologies to determine whether sandy inland mouse sperm conjugate to form motile trains. Our observations of in vitro preparations of active sperm revealed that sandy inland mouse sperm exhibit rapid, progressive motility as individual cells only. Similarly, histological sections of the reproductive tracts of mated females revealed no in vivo evidence of sperm conjugate formation. We conclude that the unique, three-hooked morphology of the sandy inland mouse sperm does not facilitate the formation of motile conjugates, and discuss our findings in relation to the different hypotheses for the evolution of the muroid rodent hook/s. PMID:23919134

  9. Variation in sperm displacement and its association with accessory gland protein loci in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Clark, A G; Aguadé, M; Prout, T; Harshman, L G; Langley, C H

    1995-01-01

    Genes that influence mating and/or fertilization success may be targets for strong natural selection. If females remate frequently relative to the duration of sperm storage and rate of sperm use, sperm displacement may be an important component of male reproductive success. Although it has long been known that mutant laboratory stocks of Drosophila differ in sperm displacement, the magnitude of the naturally occurring genetic variation in this character has not been systematically quantified. Here we report the results of a screen for variation in sperm displacement among 152 lines of Drosophilia melanogaster that were made homozygous for second and/or third chromosomes recovered from natural populations. Sperm displacement was assayed by scoring the progeny of cn;bw females that had been mated sequentially to cn;bw and tested males in either order. Highly significant differences were seen in both the ability to displace sperm that is resident in the female's reproductive tract and in the ability to resist displacement by subsequent sperm. Most lines exhibited nearly complete displacement, having nearly all progeny sired by the second male, but several lines had as few as half the progeny fathered by the second male. Lines that were identified in the screen for naturally occurring variation in sperm displacement were also characterized for single-strand conformation polymorphisms (SSCP) at seven accessory gland protein (Acp) genes, Glucose dehydrogenase (Gld), and Esterase-6 (Est-6). Acp genes encode proteins that are in some cases known to be transmitted to the female in the seminal fluid and are likely candidates for genes that might mediate the phenomenon of sperm displacement. Significant associations were found between particular Acp alleles at four different loci (Acp26Aa/Ab, Acp29B, Acp36DE and Acp53E) and the ability of males to resist displacement by subsequent sperm. There was no correlation between the ability to displace resident sperm and the ability to resist being displaced by subsequent sperm. This lack of correlation, and the association of Acp alleles with resisting subsequent sperm only, suggests that different mechanisms mediate the two components of sperm displacement. PMID:7705622

  10. The effects of opiate consumption on serum reproductive hormone levels, sperm parameters, seminal plasma antioxidant capacity and sperm DNA integrity.

    PubMed

    Safarinejad, Mohammad Reza; Asgari, Seyyed Alaeddin; Farshi, Alireza; Ghaedi, Gholamhossein; Kolahi, Ali Asghar; Iravani, Shahrokh; Khoshdel, Ali Reza

    2013-04-01

    We evaluated the effects of opiate consumption on semen quality, sperm function, seminal plasma antioxidant capacity, and sperm DNA integrity. A total of 142 opiate addict men (group 1) were enrolled in the study and 146 healthy age matched male volunteers (group 2) served as controls. Two semen analyses were performed in all participants. Sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) was used to identify sperm DNA integrity. The mean±SD sperm concentration in opiate users and in control subjects was 22.2±4.4 and 66.3±8.3 million per ml, respectively (P=0.002). A significant increase in the amount of fragmented DNA was found in opiate consumers compared with that in controls (36.4±3.8% vs. 27.1±2.4%, P=0.004). Significantly decreased levels of catalase-like and superoxide dismutase-like (SOD) activity were observed in group 1 compared with group 2. Opiate consumption has significant adverse effects on semen quality. In cases of unexplained infertility in men, opium consumption should be considered as a possible factor. PMID:23207164

  11. Low paternal dietary folate alters the mouse sperm epigenome and is associated with negative pregnancy outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Lambrot, R.; Xu, C.; Saint-Phar, S.; Chountalos, G.; Cohen, T.; Paquet, M.; Suderman, M.; Hallett, M.; Kimmins, S.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that a father’s diet can influence offspring health. A proposed mechanism for paternal transmission of environmental information is via the sperm epigenome. The epigenome includes heritable information such as DNA methylation. We hypothesize that the dietary supply of methyl donors will alter epigenetic reprogramming in sperm. Here we feed male mice either a folate-deficient or folate-sufficient diet throughout life. Paternal folate deficiency is associated with increased birth defects in the offspring, which include craniofacial and musculoskeletal malformations. Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis and the subsequent functional analysis identify differential methylation in sperm of genes implicated in development, chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, autism and schizophrenia. While >300 genes are differentially expressed in offspring placenta, only two correspond to genes with differential methylation in sperm. This model suggests epigenetic transmission may involve sperm histone H3 methylation or DNA methylation and that adequate paternal dietary folate is essential for offspring health. PMID:24326934

  12. Extraordinarily long sperm in the socially monogamous cichlid fish Pelvicachromis taeniatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thünken, Timo; Bakker, Theo C. M.; Kullmann, Harald

    2007-06-01

    The main function of the spermatozoon is the transfer of the male haploid genome during fertilisation. In animals in general and in fishes in particular, there is huge variation in sperm size. In fishes, sperm size ranges from 13 ?m in Mugil cephlus to nearly 100 ?m in the channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. We examined intra-specific variation in sperm morphometry in the socially monogamous cichlid Pelvicachromis taeniatus using scanning electron microscopy. The mean total sperm length of nearly 70 ?m was extraordinarily large for cichlids. Furthermore, within-male variation was remarkably high. To our knowledge, P. taeniatus produces the longest cichlid sperm ever documented. Several hypotheses concerning the adaptive significance of these results are presented.

  13. Ultrarapid freezing of very low numbers of sperm using cryoloops

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy G. Schuster; Laura M. Keller; Rodney L. Dunn; Dana A. Ohl; Gary D. Smith

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With the availability of ICSI, men with severe oligozoospermia (<53106\\/ml) are able to repro- duce. Current methods for cryopreservation of severe oligozoospermic samples are labour intensive and costly. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether freezing small numbers of motile sperm (~100) was feasible using cryoloops. METHODS: Initial tests assessed the effect of various dilutions of cryoprotectants

  14. Current status of plant products reported to inhibit sperm.

    PubMed

    Farnsworth, N R; Waller, D P

    1982-06-01

    This report reviews research on plant-derived agents that prevent sperm production if taken orally by the male or that incapacitate or kill sperm on contact if used vaginally by the female. It would be of great value to develop fertility inhibitors that are totally selective for reproductive systems and enzymes, and there is a possibility that a plant-derived drug may have this effect. Plants that have been studied for their fertility inhibiting effects in the male include: Aristolochia indica L. (Aristolochiaceae); Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae); Balanites roxburghii Planch. (Zygophyllaceae); Calotropis procera (Ait) R.Br. (Asclepiadaceae); Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae); Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don (Apocynaceae); Dieffenbachia seguine (Jacquin) Schott. (Araceae); Ecaballium elaterium A. Richard (Cucurbitaceae); Gossypium species (Malvaceae); Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (Malvaceae); Hippophae salicifolia D. Don (Elaeagnaceae); Leucaena glauca (L.) Benth. (Leguminosae); Lonicera ciliosa Poir. (Caprifoliaceae); Lupinus termis Forsk. (Leguminosae); Malvaviscus conzattii Greenm. (Malvaceae); Momordica charantia L. (Curcurbitaceae); Ocimum sanctum L. (Labiatae); Prunus emarginata Walp. (Rosaceae); and Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (Solanaceae). A large number of plants have been randomly selected and screened for spermicidal activity "in vitro" and several seem promising. Those species found to be active and the nature of the active principle(s), when known, are presented in a table as are plant-derived chemical substances of known or partially known structure reported to be spermicidal "in vitro." Plants warrant systematic study as potential sources of sperm-agglutinating compounds. Of 1600 Indian plants tested, 90 showed positive semen coagulating properties. There seems to be a lack of correlation among experimental results obtained by different groups of investigators, between data obtained "in vitro" and "in vivo," and between experimental results and information found in folklore. Factors complicating the adequate assessment of plants affecting male fertility are inadequate numbers of vehicle-treated controls, poor experimental design, problems related to insolubility of crude plant extracts, variation in routes of administration, diversity in reproductive function and control among various laboratory species, and problems in identifying plant names consistently. PMID:12179631

  15. Is intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI) beneficial in the first ART cycle? a multicentric randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Leandri, R D; Gachet, A; Pfeffer, J; Celebi, C; Rives, N; Carre-Pigeon, F; Kulski, O; Mitchell, V; Parinaud, J

    2013-09-01

    Intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI), by selecting spermatozoa at high magnification improves the outcome of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) mainly after several failures. However, only few monocentric randomized studies are available and they do not analyse results as a function of sperm characteristics. In 255 couples attempting their first assisted reproductive technology (ART) attempt for male infertility (motile sperm count <1×10? after sperm selection, but at least 3×10? spermatozoa per ejaculate to allow a detailed analysis of sperm characteristics), a prospective randomized trial was performed to compare the clinical outcomes of IMSI and ICSI and to evaluate the influence of sperm characteristics on these outcomes. IMSI did not provide any significant improvement in the clinical outcomes compared with ICSI neither for implantation (24% vs. 23%), nor clinical pregnancy (31% vs. 33%) nor live birth rates (27% vs. 30%). Moreover, the results of IMSI were similar to the ICSI ones whatever the degree of sperm DNA fragmentation, nuclear immaturity and sperm morphology. These results show that IMSI instead of ICSI has no advantage in the first ART attempts. However, this does not rule out IMSI completely and more randomized trials must be performed especially regarding patients carrying severe teratozoospermia, or high sperm DNA fragmentation levels or having previous ICSI failures. PMID:23788532

  16. [Semenogelin and sperm motility inhibition: an update].

    PubMed

    Yi, Cheng; He, Ren-Song; Zhao, Hui; Hao, Li-Na

    2010-11-01

    Semen liquefaction and sperm capacitation are the key processes for sperm to acquire forward movement ability. In these processes, semenogelin plays a vital role by directly participating in the formation of semen coagulation, collaborating with other protease and metal ions from the male reproductive tract, and then reacting with the surface of sperm cells, finally involved in the regulation of these processes and ensuring sperm's acquisition of forward movement ability. PMID:21218648

  17. Effect of proctodeal gland foam on sperm kinetics in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Farooq, U; Cho, S; Rybnik-Trzaskowska, P K; Singh, R P; Malecki, I A

    2015-01-15

    The proctodeal gland of the male Japanese quail produces thick foam that accompanies semen when it is transferred to the female. It is thought that this foam enhances fertilization by improving the motility of the sperm, but reports are conflicting because the effect of foam on sperm motility has only been assessed subjectively The velocity of individual sperm was not able to be measured accurately, variations were large, and small changes in motility could not be accurately evaluated. So, we tested the hypothesis that foam affects the motility of spermatozoa of Japanese quail by analyzing motility objectively using computer-assisted semen analysis and determining changes in sperm kinetics in the presence of different concentrations of proctodeal gland foam. The addition of 5% or 10% foam to the sperm suspension increased (P < 0.05) all sperm kinetic parameters (the curvilinear velocity, straight line velocity, the velocity of the average path, linearity, straightness, and beat cross frequency). As a result, the percentage of motile and progressive motile sperm also increased. All these parameters declined (P < 0.05) with a further increase in the concentration of foam to 15% and 20%. Furthermore, this effect was similar in males that were 8, 16, or 26 weeks of age. We conclude that sperm motility is enhanced by proctodeal gland foam, and this enhancement depends on its concentration. PMID:25301249

  18. cSrc is necessary for epididymal development and is incorporated into sperm during epididymal transit

    PubMed Central

    Krapf, Dario; Ruan, Ye Chun; Wertheimer, Eva V.; Battistone, Maria A.; Pawlak, John B.; Sanjay, Archana; Pilder, Stephen H.; Cuasnicu, Patricia; Breton, Sylvie; Visconti, Pablo E.

    2012-01-01

    Changes that occur to mammalian sperm upon epididymal transit and maturation render these cells capable of moving progressively and capacitating. Signaling events leading to mammalian sperm capacitation depend on the modulation of proteins by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation cascades. Recent experiments have demonstrated that the Src family of kinases plays an important role in the regulation of these events. However, sperm from cSrc null mice display normal tyrosine phosphorylation associated with capacitation. We report here that, despite normal phosphorylation, sperm from cSrc null mice display a severe reduction in forward motility, and are unable to fertilize in vitro. Histological analysis of seminiferous tubules in the testes, caput and corpus epididymis do not reveal obvious defects. However, the cauda epididymis is significantly smaller, and expression of key transport proteins in the epithelial cells lining this region is reduced in cSrc null mice compared to wild type littermates. Although previously, we and others have shown the presence of cSrc in mature sperm from cauda epididymis, a closer evaluation indicates that this tyrosine kinase is not present in sperm from the caput epididymis, suggesting that this protein is acquired by sperm later during epididymal maturation. Consistent with this observation, cSrc is enriched in vesicles released by the epididymal epithelium known as epididymosomes. Altogether, these observations indicate that cSrc is essential for cauda epididymal development and suggest an essential role of this kinase in epididymal sperm maturation involving cSrc extracellular trafficking. PMID:22750823

  19. Sorbitol Can Fuel Mouse Sperm Motility and Protein Tyrosine Phosphorylation via Sorbitol Dehydrogenase1

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Wenlei; Aghajanian, Haig K.; Haig-Ladewig, Lisa A.; Gerton, George L.

    2008-01-01

    Energy sources that can be metabolized to yield ATP are essential for normal sperm functions such as motility. Two major monosaccharides, sorbitol and fructose, are present in semen. Furthermore, sorbitol dehydrogenase (SORD) can convert sorbitol to fructose, which can then be metabolized via the glycolytic pathway in sperm to make ATP. Here we characterize Sord mRNA and SORD expression during mouse spermatogenesis and examine the ability of sorbitol to support epididymal sperm motility and tyrosine phosphorylation. Sord mRNA levels increased during the course of spermatogenic differentiation. SORD protein, however, was first detected at the condensing spermatid stage. By indirect immunofluorescence, SORD was present along the length of the flagella of caudal epididymal sperm. Furthermore, immunoelectron microscopy showed that SORD was associated with mitochondria and the plasma membranes of sperm. Sperm incubated with sorbitol maintained motility, indicating that sorbitol was utilized as an energy source. Sorbitol, as well as glucose and fructose, were not essential to induce hyperactive motility. Protein tyrosine phosphorylation increased in a similar manner when sorbitol was substituted for glucose in the incubation medium used for sperm capacitation. These results indicate that sorbitol can serve as an alternative energy source for sperm motility and protein tyrosine phosphorylation. PMID:18799757

  20. A sperm GPI-anchored protein elicits sperm-cumulus cross-talk leading to the acrosome reaction.

    PubMed

    Yin, L; Chung, C M; Huo, R; Liu, H; Zhou, C; Xu, W; Zhu, H; Zhang, J; Shi, Q; Wong, H Y C; Chen, J; Lu, Y; Bi, Y; Zhao, C; Du, Y; Ma, M; Cai, Y; Chen, W Y; Fok, K L; Tsang, L L; Li, K; Ni, Y; Chung, Y W; Zhou, Z; Sha, J; Chan, H C

    2009-03-01

    The acrosome reaction has long been thought to be induced by the zona pellucida. Here we report the identification and function of a novel human sperm glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane protein, NYD-SP8. The release of the protein during sperm-egg interaction and its binding to the cumulus, the first layer of egg investment, elicits cross-talk between the gametes and produces calcium dependant release of progesterone, which lead to the acrosome reaction. An in vivo mouse model of NYD-SP8 immunization is also established showing a reduced fertility rate. Thus, contrary to accepted dogma, our study demonstrates for the first time that, prior to reaching the zona pellucida, sperm may release a surface protein that acts on the cumulus cells leading to the acrosome reaction, which may be important for determining the outcome of fertilization. PMID:19153666

  1. Psychological adaptation to human sperm competition (2002)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Todd K. Shackelford; Gregory J. LeBlanc; Viviana Weekes-Shackelford; April L. Bleske-Rechek; Harald A. Euler; Sabine Hoier

    Sperm competition occurs when the sperm of two or more males simultaneously occupy the reproductive tract of a female and compete to fertilize an egg. We used a questionnaire to investigate psychological responses to the risk of sperm competition for 194 men in committed, sexual relationships in the United States and in Germany. As predicted, a man who spends a

  2. Airborne sperm of Conocephalum conicum (Conocephalaceae).

    PubMed

    Shimamura, Masaki; Yamaguchi, Tomio; Deguchi, Hironori

    2008-01-01

    We have obtained the first momentary photographs of sperms just as they are discharged from the antheridium of a liverwort, Conocephalum conicum, and have succeeded in monitoring the airborne sperms of bryophytes under field conditions. Airborne sperm of liverworts seems to be an effective strategy for raising the efficiency of fertilization between male and female plants separated in a drought environment. PMID:18058191

  3. DNA-fluorometry of mammalian sperm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jtirgen Zante; Johannes Schumann; Wolfgang Göhde; Ursula Hacker

    1977-01-01

    The DNA-content of sperm and testicular cells was measured by pulse-cytophotometry with high resolution. From flat sperm symmetric and narrow fluorescence distributions were obtained. Enzymatic treatment with papain or pronase and staining with an ethidiumbromide-mithramycin dye solution generate stoichiometric DNA-staining including that of mature sperm with a coefficient of variation below 2%.

  4. Issues affecting commercialization of sexed sperm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. P. Amann

    1999-01-01

    A decision tree for genetics or sperm-sexing entities considering sales of sexed sperm is discussed in terms of: (a) how best to avoid harm; (b) how best to do good; (c) needed synergy with other assisted reproductive technologies; (d) constraints on biotechnology; and (e) costs with current and likely technologies versus potential benefits to producers. The sexed-sperm industry might wish

  5. SPERM COUNT DISTRIBUTIONS IN FERTILE MEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sperm concentration and count are often used as indicators of environmental impacts on male reproductive health. Existing clinical databases may be biased towards subfertile men with low sperm counts and less is known about expected sperm count distributions in cohorts of fertil...

  6. Assessment of basic seminal characteristics, sperm cryopreservation and heterologous in vitro fertilisation in the fishing cat (Prionailurus viverrinus).

    PubMed

    Thiangtum, Khongsak; Swanson, William F; Howard, JoGayle; Tunwattana, Wanchai; Tongthainan, Dakara; Wichasilpa, Wisid; Patumrattanathan, Pornchai; Pinyopoommintr, Tanu

    2006-01-01

    Conservation of the fishing cat, a threatened south-east Asian felid, could benefit from effective ex situ genetic management and breeding programmes, including the use of assisted reproduction. The aims of the present study were to: (1) characterise basal seminal traits of fishing cats in Thailand zoos; and (2) investigate the effect of cryopreservation on sperm motility, acrosomal integrity and in vitro function. Seminal traits were evaluated in electroejaculates collected from eight males. Spermatozoa were diluted in n-tris(hydroxymethyl)-methyl-2-aminoethanesulfonic acid Tris (TEST)-yolk buffer (TYB) without glycerol, then diluted further with TYB with glycerol (4% final concentration) at either 25 degrees C or after slow cooling to 5 degrees C and frozen in straws over liquid nitrogen vapour. After thawing, sperm function was assessed by insemination of viable domestic cat oocytes. Fishing cat ejaculates averaged (+/- s.e.m.) 43.6 +/- 14.2 x 10(6) motile spermatozoa with 33.5 +/- 6.8% normal sperm morphology. Semen processing had a negligible effect (P > 0.05) on sperm motility and acrosomal integrity, but values were reduced (P < 0.05) after thawing. All thawed samples fertilised domestic cat oocytes, with 62.1% (36/58) of mature oocytes cleaving. Glycerol addition at 5 degrees C resulted in higher (P < 0.05) post-thaw motility and intact acrosomes than glycerol addition at 25 degrees C. In conclusion, good-quality ejaculates can be obtained from Thai fishing cats and their spermatozoa exhibit adequate function after cryopreservation for in vitro fertilisation procedures. PMID:16554013

  7. Bioenergetics of Mammalian Sperm Capacitation

    PubMed Central

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Zara, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    After ejaculation, the mammalian male gamete must undergo the capacitation process, which is a prerequisite for egg fertilization. The bioenergetics of sperm capacitation is poorly understood despite its fundamental role in sustaining the biochemical and molecular events occurring during gamete activation. Glycolysis and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) are the two major metabolic pathways producing ATP which is the primary source of energy for spermatozoa. Since recent data suggest that spermatozoa have the ability to use different metabolic substrates, the main aim of this work is to present a broad overview of the current knowledge on the energy-producing metabolic pathways operating inside sperm mitochondria during capacitation in different mammalian species. Metabolism of glucose and of other energetic substrates, such as pyruvate, lactate, and citrate, is critically analyzed. Such knowledge, besides its obvious importance for basic science, could eventually translate into the development of novel strategies for treatment of male infertility, artificial reproduction, and sperm selection methods. PMID:24791005

  8. Executive function on the Psychology Experiment Building Language tests.

    PubMed

    Piper, Brian J; Li, Victoria; Eiwaz, Massarra A; Kobel, Yuliyana V; Benice, Ted S; Chu, Alex M; Olsen, Reid H J; Rice, Douglas Z; Gray, Hilary M; Mueller, Shane T; Raber, Jacob

    2012-03-01

    The measurement of executive function has a long history in clinical and experimental neuropsychology. The goal of the present report was to determine the profile of behavior across the lifespan on four computerized measures of executive function contained in the recently developed Psychology Experiment Building Language (PEBL) test battery http://pebl.sourceforge.net/ and evaluate whether this pattern is comparable to data previously obtained with the non-PEBL versions of these tests. Participants (N = 1,223; ages, 5-89 years) completed the PEBL Trail Making Test (pTMT), the Wisconsin Card Sort Test (pWCST; Berg, Journal of General Psychology, 39, 15-22, 1948; Grant & Berg, Journal of Experimental Psychology, 38, 404-411, 1948), the Tower of London (pToL), or a time estimation task (Time-Wall). Age-related effects were found over all four tests, especially as age increased from young childhood through adulthood. For several tests and measures (including pToL and pTMT), age-related slowing was found as age increased in adulthood. Together, these findings indicate that the PEBL tests provide valid and versatile new research tools for measuring executive functions. PMID:21534005

  9. Executive function on the Psychology Experiment Building Language tests

    PubMed Central

    Li, Victoria; Eiwaz, Massarra A.; Kobel, Yuliyana V.; Benice, Ted S.; Chu, Alex M.; Olsen, Reid H. J.; Rice, Douglas Z.; Gray, Hilary M.; Mueller, Shane T.

    2013-01-01

    The measurement of executive function has a long history in clinical and experimental neuropsychology. The goal of the present report was to determine the profile of behavior across the lifespan on four computerized measures of executive function contained in the recently developed Psychology Experiment Building Language (PEBL) test battery http://pebl.sourceforge.net/ and evaluate whether this pattern is comparable to data previously obtained with the non-PEBL versions of these tests. Participants (N = 1,223; ages, 5–89 years) completed the PEBL Trail Making Test (pTMT), the Wisconsin Card Sort Test (pWCST; Berg, Journal of General Psychology, 39, 15–22, 1948; Grant & Berg, Journal of Experimental Psychology, 38, 404–411, 1948), the Tower of London (pToL), or a time estimation task (Time-Wall). Age-related effects were found over all four tests, especially as age increased from young childhood through adulthood. For several tests and measures (including pToL and pTMT), age-related slowing was found as age increased in adulthood. Together, these findings indicate that the PEBL tests provide valid and versatile new research tools for measuring executive functions. PMID:21534005

  10. Comparative cryopreservation of avian spermatozoa: effects of freezing and thawing rates on turkey and sandhill crane sperm cryosurvival.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Juan M; Long, Julie A; Gee, George; Wildt, David E; Donoghue, Ann M

    2012-03-01

    A comparative approach was used to evaluate semen cooling rates, thawing rates and freezing volume on the cryosurvival of avian sperm. Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) and sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) sperm were cryopreserved with dimethylacetamide (DMA) concentrations ranging from 6% to 26%. Experiments evaluated the efficacy of (1) rapid, moderate and slow cooling rates, (2) rapid and slow thawing rates, and (3) final volume of semen frozen (0.2 mL compared to 0.5 mL). For crane sperm only, additional experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of sucrose on cryosurvival. The functionality of frozen/thawed crane sperm was evaluated by fertility trials. For all studies, sperm viability was assessed using the nigrosin-eosin stain. Higher percentages of crane and turkey sperm maintained intact membranes when frozen with moderate or slow cooling rates compared to rapid cooling rates (P<0.05), regardless of DMA concentration. Turkey sperm viability was not affected by thawing rate at any DMA concentration (P>0.05). Crane sperm viability was only affected by thawing rate for the 24% DMA treatment, where moderate thawing was better than slow thawing (P<0.05). Sperm viability was not affected by the semen volume used for freezing for either species (P>0.05). The percentage of membrane-intact crane sperm at lower DMA concentrations was improved by addition of 0.1M sucrose (P<0.05) but not 0.29 M NaCl. The mean fertility rate from frozen/thawed crane semen was 57.5%, and 71.4% of the fertile eggs hatched. The viability of crane sperm was always greater than turkey sperm, regardless of cooling rate, thawing rate or volume of semen frozen. These data verify avian-specific differences in sperm cryosurvival, further emphasize the need for species specific studies to optimize cryopreservation protocols. PMID:22406423

  11. No Change with Age in Semen Volume, Sperm Count and Sperm Motility in Individual Men Consulting an Infertility Clinic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter Krause; Barbara Habermann

    2000-01-01

    In the human male, Leydig cell function of the testis declines slowly but significantly with age. A similar decline in the spermatogenic activity, however, is not well proven by consistent data. Cross-section studies quoted in the literature mostly describe only minor changes in different sperm parameters with age. In our database we identified 253 men who had attended our department

  12. The importance of functional tests in personalized medicine.

    PubMed

    Widmer, R Jay; Lerman, Amir

    2013-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the most prevalent disease mainly in the Western society and becoming the leading cause of death worldwide. Standard methods by which healthcare providers screen for cardiovascular disease have only minimally reduced the burden of disease while exponentially increasing costs. As such, more specific and individualized methods for functionally assessing cardiovascular threats are needed to identify properly those at greatest risk, and appropriately treat these patients so as to avoid a fate such as heart attack, stroke, or death. Currently, endothelial function testing-in both the coronary and peripheral circulation-is well established as being associated with the disease process and future cardiovascular events. Improving such testing can lead to a reduction in the risk of future events. Combining this functional assessment of vascular fitness with other, more personalized, testing methods should serve to identify those at the greatest risk of cardiovascular disease earlier and subsequently reduce the affliction of such diseases worldwide. PMID:23908864

  13. The Importance of Functional Tests in Personalized Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Widmer, R. Jay; Lerman, Amir

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the most prevalent disease mainly in the Western society and becoming the leading cause of death worldwide. Standard methods by which healthcare providers screen for cardiovascular disease have only minimally reduced the burden of disease while exponentially increasing costs. As such, more specific and individualized methods for functionally assessing cardiovascular threats are needed to identify properly those at greatest risk, and appropriately treat these patients so as to avoid a fate such as heart attack, stroke, or death. Currently, endothelial function testing—in both the coronary and peripheral circulation—is well established as being associated with the disease process and future cardiovascular events. Improving such testing can lead to a reduction in the risk of future events. Combining this functional assessment of vascular fitness with other, more personalized, testing methods should serve to identify those at the greatest risk of cardiovascular disease earlier and subsequently reduce the affliction of such diseases worldwide. PMID:23908864

  14. S-allyl cysteine ameliorates the quality of sperm and provides protection from age-related sperm dysfunction and oxidative stress in rats

    PubMed Central

    Takemura, Shigekazu; Ichikawa, Hiroshi; Naito, Yuji; Takagi, Tomohisa; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Minamiyama, Yukiko

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species play a central role in the pathophysiology of the age-related decrease in male fertility. It has been reported that the total protein of DJ-1 was decreased in a proteomic analysis of seminal plasma from asthenozoospermia patients and a DJ-1 protein acts as a sensor of cellular redox homeostasis. Therefore, we evaluated the age-related changes in the ratio of the oxidized/reduced forms of the DJ-1 protein in the epididymis. In addition, the protective effects of S-allyl cysteine (SAC), a potent antioxidant, were evaluated against sperm dysfunction. Male rats aged 15–75 weeks were used to assess age-associated sperm function and oxidative stress. Sperm count increased until 25 weeks, but then decreased at 50 and 75 weeks. The rate of sperm movement at 75 weeks was decreased to approximately 60% of the rate observed at 25 weeks. Expression of DJ-1 decreased, but oxidized-DJ-1 increased with age. In addition, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal modified proteins in the epididymis increased until 50 weeks of age. The total number and DNA synthetic potential of the sperm increased until 25 weeks, and then decreased. In rats 75 weeks of age, SAC (0.45% diet) attenuated the decrease in the number, motility, and DNA synthesis of sperm and inhibited the oxidized proteins. These results suggest that SAC ameliorates the quality of sperm subjected to age-associated oxidative stress. PMID:25411519

  15. Aging of vestibular function evaluated using correlational vestibular autorotation test

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Li-Chun; Lin, Hung-Ching; Lee, Guo-She

    2014-01-01

    Background Imbalance from degeneration of vestibular end organs is a common problem in the elderly. However, the decline of vestibular function with aging was revealed in few vestibular function tests such as vestibular autorotation test (VAT). In the current VAT, there are drawbacks of poor test–retest reliability, slippage of the sensor at high-speed rotations, and limited data about the effect of aging. We developed a correlational-VAT (cVAT) system that included a small, light sensor (less than 20 g) with wireless data transmission technique to evaluate the aging of vestibular function. Material and methods We enrolled 53 healthy participants aged between 25 and 75 years and divided them into five age groups. The test conditions were vertical and horizontal head autorotations of frequencies from 0 to 3 Hz with closed eyes or open eyes. The cross-correlation coefficient (CCC) between eye velocity and head velocity was obtained for the head autorotations between 1 Hz and 3 Hz. The mean of the CCCs was used to represent the vestibular function. Results Age was significantly and negatively correlated with the mean CCC for all test conditions, including horizontal or vertical autorotations with open eyes or closed eyes (P<0.05). The mean CCC with open eyes declined significantly at 55–65 years old and the mean CCC with closed eyes declined significantly at 65–75 years old. Conclusion Vestibular function evaluated using mean CCC revealed a decline with age, and the function of visual-vestibulo-ocular reflex declined 10 years earlier than the function of vestibulo-ocular reflex. PMID:25214774

  16. GROUND-WATER MODEL TESTING: SYSTEMATIC EVALUATION AND TESTING OF CODE FUNCTIONALITY AND PERFORMANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effective use of ground-water simulation codes as management decision tools requires the establishment of their functionality, performance characteristics, and applicability to the problem at hand. This is accomplished through application of a systematic code-testing protocol and...

  17. Sperm protein 17 is expressed in the sperm fibrous sheath

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maurizio Chiriva-Internati; Nicoletta Gagliano; Elena Donetti; Francesco Costa; Fabio Grizzi; Barbara Franceschini; Elena Albani; Paolo E Levi-Setti; Magda Gioia; Marjorie Jenkins; Everardo Cobos; W Martin Kast

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sperm protein 17 (Sp17) is a highly conserved mammalian protein characterized in rabbit, mouse, monkey, baboon, macaque, human testis and spermatozoa. mRNA encoding Sp17 has been detected in a range of murine and human somatic tissues. It was also recognized in two myeloma cell lines and in neoplastic cells from patients with multiple myeloma and ovarian carcinoma. These data

  18. Boar sperm cryosurvival is better after exposure to seminal plasma from selected fractions than to those from entire ejaculate.

    PubMed

    Alkmin, Diego V; Perez-Patińo, Cristina; Barranco, Isabel; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Vazquez, Juan M; Martinez, Emilio A; Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto; Roca, Jordi

    2014-10-01

    Boar bulk ejaculates are now being collected instead of usual sperm-rich fractions (SRF) for artificial insemination purpose. The present study evaluated the influence of holding boar sperm samples before freezing surrounded in their own seminal plasma (SP), from either fractions/portions or the entire ejaculate, on post-thawing sperm quality and functionality. Ejaculates collected as bulk (BE) or as separate (first 10 mL of SRF [P1] and rest of SRF [P2]) from 10 boars were held 24h at 15-17°C and then frozen. Some bulk ejaculate samples were frozen immediately after collections as Control. In addition, epididymal sperm samples from the same 10 boars were collected post-mortem and extended in SP from P1 (EP1), P2 (EP2) and post SRF (EP3), and also held 24h before freezing for a better understanding of the influence of SP on boar sperm cryopreservation. The sperm quality (motility, evaluated by CASA, and viability, evaluated by flow cytometry) and functionality (flow cytometry assessment of plasma membrane fluidity, mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species [ROS] in viable sperm) were evaluated at 30, 150 and 300 min post-thaw. Post-thawing sperm quality and functionality of P1 and P2 were similar but higher (p < 0.01) than BE samples. Control samples showed higher (p < 0.01) post-thaw sperm quality and functionality than BE samples. Post-thawing sperm quality and functionality of EP1 and EP2 were similar but higher (p < 0.05) than EP3. These results showed that boar sperm from BE are more cryosensitive than those from the SRF, particularly when held 24h before freezing, which would be attributable to the cryonegative effects exerted by the SP from post SRF. PMID:25037026

  19. Seminal plasma proteins of adult boars and correlations with sperm parameters.

    PubMed

    González-Cadavid, Verónica; Martins, Jorge A M; Moreno, Frederico B; Andrade, Tiago S; Santos, Antonio C L; Monteiro-Moreira, Ana Cristina O; Moreira, Renato A; Moura, Arlindo A

    2014-09-15

    The present study was conducted to identify the major seminal plasma protein profile of boars and its associations with semen criteria. Semen samples were collected from 12 adult boars and subjected to evaluation of sperm parameters (motility, morphology, vitality, and percent of cells with intact acrosome). Seminal plasma was obtained by centrifugation, analyzed by two-dimensional SDS-PAGE, and proteins identified by mass spectrometry (electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight). We tested regression models using spot intensities related to the same proteins as independent variables and semen parameters as dependent variables (P ? 0.05). One hundred twelve spots were identified in the boar seminal plasma gels, equivalent to 39 different proteins. Spermadhesin porcine seminal protein (PSP)-I and PSP-II, as well as spermadhesins AQN-1, AQN-3 and AWN-1 represented 45.2 ± 8% of the total intensity of all spots. Other proteins expressed in the boar seminal plasma included albumin, complement proteins (complement factor H precursor, complement C3 precursor and adipsin/complement factor D), immunoglobulins (IgG heavy chain precursor, IgG delta heavy chain membrane bound form, IgG gamma-chain, Ig lambda chain V-C region PLC3, and CH4 and secreted domains of swine IgM), IgG-binding proteins, epididymal-specific lipocalin 5, epididymal secretory protein E1 precursor, epididymal secretory glutathione peroxidase precursor, transferrin, lactotransferrin and fibronectin type 1 (FN1). On the basis of the regression analysis, the percentage of sperm with midpiece defects was related to the amount of CH4 and secreted domains of swine IgM and FN1 (r˛ = 0.58, P = 0.006), IgG-binding protein (r˛ = 0.41, P = 0.024), complement factor H precursor (r˛ = 0.61, P = 0.014) and lactadherin (r˛ = 0.45, P = 0.033). The percentage of sperm with tail defects was also related to CH4 and secreted domains of swine IgM and FN1 (r˛ = 0.40, P = 0.034), IgG-binding protein (r˛ = 0.35, P = 0.043) and lactadherin (r˛ = 0.74, P = 0.001). Sperm motility, in turn, had association with the intensities of spots identified as lactadherin (r˛ = 0.48, P = 0.027). In conclusion, we presently describe the major proteome of boar seminal plasma and significant associations between specific seminal plasma proteins and semen parameters. Such relationships will serve as the basis for determination of molecular markers of sperm function in the swine species. PMID:25034516

  20. Bull sperm binding to oviductal epithelium is mediated by a Ca2+-dependent lectin on sperm that recognizes Lewis-a trisaccharide.

    PubMed

    Suarez, S S; Revah, I; Lo, M; Kölle, S

    1998-07-01

    Sperm binding to oviductal epithelium produces a reservoir in vivo that may serve to maintain sperm fertility and provide sperm for fertilization when ovulation occurs. Previously, it was determined that bull sperm binding could be blocked by fucoidan and its component fucose; furthermore, treatment of epithelium with fucosidase prevented binding. The present study was conducted to further characterize binding. Because fucose would probably be present on the epithelium as part of oligosaccharide moieties of glycoproteins and/or glycolipids, competitive binding inhibition activity was tested for fucose in five linkages commonly found in oligosaccharides. Binding inhibition was assayed by determining the concentration of motile, frozen/thawed sperm bound to fresh epithelial explants in the presence of test inhibitors. Initially, 5 monosaccharides were tested at 30 mM (fucose, mannose, sialic acid, glucose, N-acetyl glucosamine, and galactose), and only fucose significantly reduced sperm binding compared to vehicle control (p = 0.03). Of the oligosaccharides tested (lacto-N-fucopentaose I, 3-fucosyllactose, Lewis-X, Lewis-a, and GlcNAcbeta1-4[Fucalpha1-6]GlcNAc-O-Me), only Lewis-a significantly reduced binding, and it did so in a dose-dependent fashion (p = 0.009 at 12.5 mM). Ca2+ dependency of binding was examined. Sperm were incubated with explants in Tyrode's albumin lactate pyruvate (TALP) containing 2 mM CaCl2 or lacking CaCl2 and containing 2 mM EGTA. Sperm-binding density was reduced significantly in EGTA (p < 0.03) but could be restored by readdition of CaCl2. Also, live sperm were labeled with the oligosaccharide ligand Lewis-a conjugated to fluorescein isothiocyanate-tagged polyacrylamide. Sperm exhibited labeling on the head only in the presence of Ca2+. Labeling could be blocked by fucose or Lewis-a-polyacrylamide. It was concluded that bull sperm bind to an oligosaccharide ligand on the oviductal epithelium that resembles Lewis-a and that binding is Ca2+-dependent. PMID:9674991

  1. Rescue of germline transmission from chimeras by IVF after sperm analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming-Wen; Willis, Brandon J; Evans, Kristin D; Araiza, Renee S; Lee, Angus Yiu-Fai; Lloyd, K C Kent

    2015-02-01

    Successful production of genetically modified mouse lines is dependent on germline transmission (GLT) of mutant alleles from chimeras. When natural mating fails to achieve GLT due to male infertility, sickness, or other problems, sperm can be harvested from chimeras and used for assisted reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) to attempt to "rescue" GLT. However, a rational, evidence-based approach to determine if such extraordinary efforts should be attempted on a chimera has not been established. Therefore, in the present study we assessed the production, quality and genotype of epididymal sperm harvested from male chimeras generated by blastocyst or morula microinjection of gene targeted embryonic stem (ES) cell clones containing a LacZ expression cassette and that failed to achieve GLT. Results of this analysis enabled us to determine the cause of GLT failure, correlate coat color chimerism with the proportion of LacZ-positive sperm, and test the likelihood of achieving GLT by IVF. In 415 chimeras, 332 (80%) produced no offspring by natural mating ("infertile"), while 83 (20%) produced only wildtype offspring ("fertile"). Of the 332 infertile chimeras, 209 (63%) failed to produce any sperm whatsoever, 48 (15%) had extremely poor quality sperm, and 75 (23%) had good quality sperm. These results indicate that most chimeras that do not achieve GLT by natural mating are infertile, and the primary cause of infertility is failed spermatogenesis. Genotyping of sperm from 519 chimeras revealed a significant positive linear correlation between coat color chimerism and mean percentage of LacZ-positive sperm (R(2) = 0.95). Finally, IVF using good quality, LacZ-positive sperm from fertile and infertile chimeras "rescued" GLT for 19 out of 56 genes. We conclude that an assessment of coat color chimerism together with sperm quality and genotype can better inform the selection of chimeras for IVF to rescue GLT than coat color chimerism alone. PMID:25080098

  2. The Functional Task Test (FTT): An Interdisciplinary Testing Protocol to Investigate the Factors Underlying Changes in Astronaut Functional Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Lawrence, E. L.; Arzeno, N. M.; Buxton, R. E.; Feiveson, A. H.; Kofman, I. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Platts. S. H.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Reschke, M. F.; Ryder, J. W.; Spiering, B. A.; Stenger, M. B.; Taylor, L. C.; Wood, S. J.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to space flight causes adaptations in multiple physiological systems including changes in sensorimotor, cardiovascular, and neuromuscular systems. These changes may affect a crewmember s ability to perform critical mission tasks immediately after landing on a planetary surface. The overall goal of this project is to determine the effects of space flight on functional tests that are representative of high priority exploration mission tasks and to identify the key underlying physiological factors that contribute to decrements in performance. To achieve this goal we developed an interdisciplinary testing protocol (Functional Task Test, FTT) that evaluates both astronaut functional performance and related physiological changes. Functional tests include ladder climbing, hatch opening, jump down, manual manipulation of objects and tool use, seat egress and obstacle avoidance, recovery from a fall and object translation tasks. Physiological measures include assessments of postural and gait control, dynamic visual acuity, fine motor control, plasma volume, orthostatic intolerance, upper- and lower-body muscle strength, power, endurance, control, and neuromuscular drive. Crewmembers perform this integrated test protocol before and after short (Shuttle) and long-duration (ISS) space flight. Data are collected on two sessions before flight, on landing day (Shuttle only) and 1, 6 and 30 days after landing. Preliminary results from both Shuttle and ISS crewmembers indicate decrement in performance of the functional tasks after both short and long-duration space flight. On-going data collection continues to improve the statistical power required to map changes in functional task performance to alterations in physiological systems. The information obtained from this study will be used to design and implement countermeasures that specifically target the physiological systems most responsible for the altered functional performance associated with space flight.

  3. Evaluation of morphological criteria of sperm quality before in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    PubMed

    Lasiene, K; Gedrimas, V; Vitkus, A; Glinskyte, S; Lasys, V; Valanciute, A; Sienkiewicz, W

    2013-01-01

    The quality of sperm has a direct influence on the fertilization and developmental competence of embryos. In the literature we did not find defined criteria for evaluation of normal sperm parameters in various species of domestic mammals. Therefore we attempted to review evaluation of criteria of morphologically normal human sperm and their abnormalities. All sperm cells observed in the stained sample are classified as normal or abnormal. Any abnormalities in morphology of sperm have a negative effect on the outcome in in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Abnormal sperm are categorized into subgroups according to the observed defects (concerning the head and/or midpiece and/or tail). Most morphologically abnormal sperm have multiple defects. This article can be considered as guideline for the manual of sperm quality evaluation in different species of domestic mammals. PMID:24597318

  4. Sperm competition promotes diversity of sperm bundles in Ohomopterus ground beetles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takami, Yasuoki; Sota, Teiji

    2007-07-01

    Diversification of sperm morphology has been investigated in the context of sperm competition, but the adaptive significance of sperm bundles is still unclear. In analyzing 10 taxa of the genus Carabus subgenus Ohomopterus and one related Carabus ground beetles, we found that dimorphic sperm bundles occurred in most species with varied degrees of bimodality, whereas sperm were generally monomorphic. Comparative analyses with phylogenetically independent contrasts revealed that the sizes of large and small sperm bundles evolved more rapidly than, and were not correlated with, the length of sperm, suggesting more intense selection on sperm bundle sizes and their independent responses to different evolutionary forces. The size of large sperm bundles was positively correlated with male genital morphology (pertinent to displacement of rival spermatophores) and postcopulatory guarding duration as well as male body length, suggesting that larger sperm bundles have been favored when the risk of spermatophore displacement is high. Larger sperm bundles may be advantageous because of their ability to migrate more rapidly into the spermatheca. In contrast, no clear association was detected between the small sperm bundle size and mating traits despite its rapid diversification. The present study provides the first record of heteromorphic sperm bundles, the diversity of which may be promoted by sperm competition.

  5. Studies on Brahma rasayana in male swiss albino mice: Chromosomal aberrations and sperm abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Guruprasad, K P; Mascarenhas, Roshan; Gopinath, P M; Satyamoorthy, K

    2010-01-01

    Ayurveda, the Indian holistic healthcare system encompasses traditional medicines with a principle of creating harmony and maintaining balance within the natural rhythms of the body. Rasayana is one of the branches of Ayurveda frequently used as rejuvenant therapy to overcome many discomforts and prevent diseases. It has been reported that rasayanas have immunomodulatory, antioxidant and antitumor functions. However, the genotoxic potential of many rasayanas remains to be evaluated. The present study was undertaken to assess the role of Brahma rasayana(BR) on genotoxicity in vivo in a mouse test system. The older mice (9 months) were orally fed with rasayana for 8 weeks. The treated groups showed no signs of dose-dependent toxicity at the dosage levels tested. The body weight loss/gain and feed consumption were unaffected at tested doses. Furthermore, sperm abnormalities and chromosomal aberrations were insignificant in the treatment group when compared to controls. However, there was a marginal increase in sperm count in the BR treated animals. These findings clearly indicate that there are no observed adverse genotoxic effects elicited by BR in experimental animals such as mice. PMID:21829300

  6. Construct Validity of the Florida Functional Literacy Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hills, John R.; King, F. J.

    The 1977 edition of the Florida Functional Literacy Test is a 117-item multiple-choice measure of 13 mathematics and 11 communication skills required for minimal acceptable performance for students to graduate from state high schools. A student must pass at least half of the skills in mathematics and communications and get 70 percent of the items…

  7. Development of a brief test to measure functional health literacy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David W Baker; Mark V Williams; Ruth M Parker; Julie A Gazmararian; Joanne Nurss

    1999-01-01

    We describe the development of an abbreviated version of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA) to measure patients' ability to read and understand health-related materials. The TOFHLA was reduced from 17 Numeracy items and 3 prose passages to 4 Numeracy items and 2 prose passages (S-TOFHLA). The maximum time for administration was reduced from 22 minutes to

  8. Trunk control test as a functional predictor in stroke patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Duarte; E. Marco; J. M. Muniesa; R. Belmonte; P. Diaz; M. Tejero; F. Escalada

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate prospectively the Trunk Control Test (TCT) correlation at admission to rehabilitation with length of stay, functional independence measure (FIM), gait velocity, walking distance and balance measured at discharge in 28 hemiparetic patients. FIM and TCT were registered on admission. Outcome measures at discharge were: FIM, gait velocity, walking distance and balance assessed

  9. Executive Function in Preschool Children: Test-Retest Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Danielle M.; Schaefer, Catherine; Pang, Karen; Carlson, Stephanie M.

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that executive function (EF) may distinguish between children who are well- or ill-prepared for kindergarten; however, little is known about the test-retest reliability of measures of EF for children. We aimed to establish a battery of EF measures that are sensitive to both development and individual differences across the…

  10. Numerical Distribution Functions for Unit Root and Cointegration Tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James G. MacKinnon

    1996-01-01

    This paper employs response surface regressions based on simulation experiments to calculate distribution functions for some well-known unit root and cointegration test statistics. The principal contributions of the paper are a set of data files that contain estimated response surface coefficients and a computer program for utilizing them. This program, which is freely available via the Internet, can easily be

  11. PROJECT GOALS Test the applicability of the Landscape Function Analysis

    E-print Network

    types in the Sullivans Creek Catchment. Estimation of land cover underneath tree canopies MeasurementsPROJECT GOALS Test the applicability of the Landscape Function Analysis methodology to the urban of landscape features at ANU and surrounds Soil surface assessments at 88 sites ­ covering urban land cover

  12. MUSCULOSKELETAL MODELING OF SMILODON FATALIS FOR VIRTUAL FUNCTIONAL PERFORMANCE TESTING

    E-print Network

    Krovi, Venkat

    MUSCULOSKELETAL MODELING OF SMILODON FATALIS FOR VIRTUAL FUNCTIONAL PERFORMANCE TESTING by KIRAN in studying the behavioral patterns of extinct animals. In the absence of living specimens, typically two approaches can be adopted. One approach is to study the behavior of a living animal from a closely related

  13. GENETIC VARIATION IN SPERM PRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In boars, the primary determinant of daily sperm production is number of Sertoli cells, which establishes testicular weight. The only breed comparison of fetal testicular development in boars contrasted two diverse breeds, White composite (WC, Landrace-Yorkshire) with Meishan, a Chinese breed that u...

  14. Behavioral tests of hippocampal function: simple paradigms complex problems.

    PubMed

    Gerlai, R

    2001-11-01

    Behavioral tests have become important tools for the analysis of functional effects of induced mutations in transgenic mice. However, depending on the type of mutation and several experimental parameters, false positive or negative findings may be obtained. Given the fact that molecular neurobiologists now make increasing use of behavioral paradigms in their research, it is imperative to revisit such problems. In this review three tests, T-maze spontaneous alternation task (T-CAT), Context dependent fear conditioning (CDFC), and Morris water maze (MWM) sensitive to hippocampal function, serve as illustrative examples for the potential problems. Spontaneous alternation tests are sometimes flawed because the handling procedure makes the test dependent on fear rather than exploratory behavior leading to altered alternation rates independent of hippocampal function. CDFC can provide misleading results because the context test, assumed to be a configural task dependent on the hippocampus, may have a significant elemental, i.e. cued, component. MWM may pose problems if its visible platform task is disproportionately easier for the subjects to solve than the hidden platform task, if the order of administration of visible and hidden platform tasks is not counterbalanced, or if inappropriate parameters are measured. Without attempting to be exhaustive, this review discusses such experimental problems and gives examples on how to avoid them. PMID:11682118

  15. Analysis and significance of mRNA in human ejaculated sperm from normozoospermic donors: relationship to sperm motility and capacitation.

    PubMed

    Lambard, S; Galeraud-Denis, I; Martin, G; Levy, R; Chocat, A; Carreau, S

    2004-07-01

    The existence of a complex population of mRNA in human sperm is well documented but their role is not yet elucidated. Using discontinuous density gradients, we have isolated high and low motile sperm from the same semen sample. The levels of different transcripts coding for molecules either involved in nuclear condensation (protamines 1 and 2) or in capacitation [endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and c-myc] were then assessed in the two populations using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Sperm viability was estimated by eosin-nigrosin staining and by hypo-osmotic swelling test; apoptosis percentage was measured by the TdT (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase)-mediated dUDP nick-end labelling technique. The contamination by somatic and germ cells was assessed by looking for specific molecular markers of these cells, respectively CD-45 and E-cadherin for somatic cells and c-kit for germ cells. The viability of sperm was unchanged in high and low motile fractions, as well as DNA fragmentation percentage. The amount of Prm-1 mRNA was significantly higher in low density motile than in the high motile fraction. In most of high motile sperm samples eNOS and nNOS transcripts were undetectable whereas they were present in the low motile sperm. In contrast, no significant variation was found in the c-myc/Prm-2 mRNA ratio between the two populations. Moreover, a partial or complete disappearance of c-myc transcripts was observed after capacitation. Thus analysing mRNA profiles could be helpful as a diagnostic tool and prognosis value for fertilization. PMID:15100385

  16. SLO3 K+ channels control calcium entry through CATSPER channels in sperm.

    PubMed

    Chávez, Julio César; Ferreira, Juan José; Butler, Alice; De La Vega Beltrán, José Luis; Trevińo, Claudia L; Darszon, Alberto; Salkoff, Lawrence; Santi, Celia M

    2014-11-14

    Here we show how a sperm-specific potassium channel (SLO3) controls Ca(2+) entry into sperm through a sperm-specific Ca(2+) channel, CATSPER, in a totally unanticipated manner. The genetic deletion of either of those channels confers male infertility in mice. During sperm capacitation SLO3 hyperpolarizes the sperm, whereas CATSPER allows Ca(2+) entry. These two channels may be functionally connected, but it had not been demonstrated that SLO3-dependent hyperpolarization is required for Ca(2+) entry through CATSPER channels, nor has a functional mechanism linking the two channels been shown. In this study we show that Ca(2+) entry through CATSPER channels is deficient in Slo3 mutant sperm lacking hyperpolarization; we also present evidence supporting the hypothesis that SLO3 channels activate CATSPER channels indirectly by promoting a rise in intracellular pH through a voltage-dependent mechanism. This mechanism may work through a Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (sNHE) and/or a bicarbonate transporter, which utilizes the inward driving force of the Na(+) gradient, rendering it intrinsically voltage-dependent. In addition, the sperm-specific Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (sNHE) possess a putative voltage sensor that might be activated by membrane hyperpolarization, thus increasing the voltage sensitivity of internal alkalization. PMID:25271166

  17. Flow cytometric evaluation of antibiotic effects on viability and mitochondrial function of refrigerated spermatozoa of Nile tilapia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Segovia, M.; Jenkins, J.A.; Paniagua-Chavez, C.; Tiersch, T.R.

    2000-01-01

    Improved techniques for storage and evaluation of fish sperm would enhance breeding programs around the world. The goal of this study was to test the effect of antibiotics on refrigerated sperm from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) by use of flow cytometry with 2 dual-staining protocols for objective assessment of sperm quality. Concentrations of 1 x 109 sperm/mL were suspended in Ringer's buffer at 318 mOsmol/kg (pH 8.0). The fluorescent stains Sybr 14 (10 ??M), propidium iodide (2.4 mM), and rhodamine 123 (0.13 ??M) were used to assess cell viability and mitochondrial function. Three concentrations of ampicillin, gentamicin, and an antibiotic/antimycotic solution were added to fresh spermatozoa. Motility estimates and flow cytometry measurements were made daily during 7 d of refrigerated storage (4 ??C). The highest concentrations of gentamicin and antibiotic/antimycotic and all 3 concentrations of ampicillin significantly reduced sperm viability. The highest of each of the 3 antibiotic concentrations significantly reduced mitochondrial function. This study demonstrates that objective sperm quality assessments can be made using flow cytometry and that addition of antibiotics at appropriate concentrations can lengthen refrigerated storage time for tilapia spermatozoa. With minor modifications, these protocols can be adapted for use with sperm from other species and with other tissue types.

  18. Examining the Relationship between Differential Item Functioning and Differential Test Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pae, Tae-Il; Park, Gi-Pyo

    2006-01-01

    The present study utilized both the IRT-LR (item response theory likelihood ratio) and a series of CFA (confirmatory factor analysis) multi-sample analyses to systematically examine the relationships between DIF (differential item functioning) and DTF (differential test functioning) with a random sample of 15 000 Korean examinees. Specifically,…

  19. An in vivo and in vitro investigation into the effects of alpha- chlorohydrin on sperm motility and correlation with fertility in the Han Wistar rat.

    PubMed

    Woods, J; Garside, D A

    1996-01-01

    Following a recommendation from the International Conference on Harmonisation, pharmaceutical companies are now monitoring possible drug effects on sperm motility in the rat during preclinical safety studies by assessing sperm motility (velocity). However, it is not known precisely how changes in sperm motility relate to fertility. Therefore, the effects of alpha-chlorohydrin on sperm motility were investigated and related to fertility both in vivo and in vitro. alpha-Chlorohydrin was given orally to male rats using a range of doses: 0, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg for at least 5 consecutive days. Sperm were than assessed for motility using a standard scoring system (operators' observation of sperm) that graded degree of motility (i.e., 0 = i mmotile to 4 = very motile). The results showed a dose-related decrease in sperm motility. The sperm also appeared to move with a "jerky" action. Surprisingly, when this was correlated to fertility, none of the females mated with treated males became pregnant. A dose-related decrease in pregnancy would perhaps have been expected. There was no effect on sperm morphology, and testicular and epididymal pathology were only seen after doses of 20 mg/kg. When sperm from untreated rats were incubated with alpha-chlorohydrin in vitro at concentrations of 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mM, sperm motility and motion were similarly affected as observed in vivo. However, the fertilization capacity (in vitro fertilization) of the treated sperm showed a concentration-related reduction in percentage fertilization, and there was also evidence of abnormal embryo development. These findings suggest that the present standard scoring system used in preclinical safety studies is not a comprehensive indicator of sperm function and/or fertility. A better understanding of sperm movement, therefore, is desirable so effects on sperm motility can be related to fertility. PMID:8738556

  20. Evaluation of a bedside test of utricular function – the bucket test – in older individuals

    PubMed Central

    SUN, DANIEL Q.; ZUNIGA, M. GERALDINE; DAVALOS-BICHARA, MARCELA; CAREY, JOHN P.; AGRAWAL, YURI

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion As a bedside test of subjective visual vertical (SVV), the ‘bucket test’ has a role as a viable and cost-effective clinical test of unilateral utricular dysfunction in older individuals. Objective To investigate whether the bucket test as a test of the SVV is a valid bedside test of utricular function in older individuals. Methods This was a diagnostic validation study at a tertiary academic medical center. Vestibular function was evaluated using sound-evoked cervical and tap-evoked ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP and oVEMP, respectively) asymmetry ratios, the bucket test of SVV, and the Dizziness Handicap Index (DHI), in 51 older individuals aged 70–95 years. Results Bucket test scores are correlated in both magnitude and direction with utricle-selective tap-evoked oVEMP asymmetry ratios, but not with sound-evoked cVEMP asymmetry ratios, which are saccule-selective, or with the DHI. Receiver operating characteristics analysis suggests that the bucket test is more specific than sensitive for utricular dysfunction, and a bucket test SVV score of 2° may maximize diagnostic yield relative to the currently accepted score of 3. PMID:24460151

  1. A NOVEL SYSTEM FOR THE CO-CULTURE OF EPIDIDYMAL EPITHELIAL CELLS AND SPERM FROM ADULT RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To study interactions which occur between the epididymal epithelial cells and sperm within the epididymis during sperm maturation, a specialized co-culture system capable of supporting the differentiated function of these cell types must be utilized. A multifaceted approach has b...

  2. Freezing dog semen in presence of the antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene improves postthaw sperm membrane integrity.

    PubMed

    Neagu, V R; García, B Macías; Sandoval, C Salazar; Rodríguez, A Morillo; Ferrusola, C Ortega; Fernández, L González; Tapia, J A; Peńa, F J

    2010-03-15

    In an attempt to evaluate the protective effect of a lipid-soluble antioxidant (butylated hydroxytoluene; BHT), semen from four dogs (Canis familiaris) was frozen in two different extenders (Uppsala or INRA-96 plus glycerol) with or without 1mM BHT. Sperm membrane integrity using flow cytometry and motility using a computerized system were evaluated in each experimental group. The Uppsala extender was superior in all aspects of sperm function. The percentage of sperm membranes was significantly higher in semen samples frozen in presence of BHT. Our results suggest that the Uppsala extender can be improved with the addition of BHT. PMID:20018359

  3. In vitro inhibition of sperm motility by some local mineral water drinks.

    PubMed

    Oyelola, O O; Ayangade, S O; Amole, F

    1987-10-01

    The effect of eight common local mineral water drinks in Ile-Ife, Nigeria (seven cola and one lemon-based) on sperm motility in vitro was carried out. There was no significant difference in the pH values of all the drinks, the pH ranged between 2.30-2.50. After one minute, Pepsi-Cola had the least inhibitory effect on sperm motility, Bitter-lemon had the strongest effect, while the other brands had varying effects between the two extremes. The percentage motility inhibition by the mineral water drinks is also a function of the initial total sperm count in the semen. PMID:3442980

  4. Testing the Link between Functional Diversity and Ecosystem Functioning in a Minnesota Grassland Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Butterfield, Bradley J.; Reich, Peter B.

    2012-01-01

    The functional diversity of a community can influence ecosystem functioning and reflects assembly processes. The large number of disparate metrics used to quantify functional diversity reflects the range of attributes underlying this concept, generally summarized as functional richness, functional evenness, and functional divergence. However, in practice, we know very little about which attributes drive which ecosystem functions, due to a lack of field-based tests. Here we test the association between eight leading functional diversity metrics (Rao’s Q, FD, FDis, FEve, FDiv, convex hull volume, and species and functional group richness) that emphasize different attributes of functional diversity, plus 11 extensions of these existing metrics that incorporate heterogeneous species abundances and trait variation. We assess the relationships among these metrics and compare their performances for predicting three key ecosystem functions (above- and belowground biomass and light capture) within a long-term grassland biodiversity experiment. Many metrics were highly correlated, although unique information was captured in FEve, FDiv, and dendrogram-based measures (FD) that were adjusted by abundance. FD adjusted by abundance outperformed all other metrics in predicting both above- and belowground biomass, although several others also performed well (e.g. Rao’s Q, FDis, FDiv). More generally, trait-based richness metrics and hybrid metrics incorporating multiple diversity attributes outperformed evenness metrics and single-attribute metrics, results that were not changed when combinations of metrics were explored. For light capture, species richness alone was the best predictor, suggesting that traits for canopy architecture would be necessary to improve predictions. Our study provides a comprehensive test linking different attributes of functional diversity with ecosystem function for a grassland system. PMID:23300787

  5. Regulation of salmonid fish sperm motility by osmotic shock-induced water influx across the plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Takei, Gen Leon; Mukai, Chinatsu; Okuno, Makoto

    2015-04-01

    The motility of salmonid fish sperm is initiated by a decrease in the extracellular K(+) concentration. However, our previous studies revealed that salmonid fish sperm motility could be initiated in the presence of an inhibitory concentration of K(+) by drastic osmotic shock induced by suspension in a hypertonic glycerol solution and subsequent dilution in a hypotonic solution (glycerol-treatment). In the present study, we examined if an osmotic shock-induced water influx is involved in the regulation of salmonid fish sperm motility. HgCl2, a common inhibitor of aquaporins (AQPs), decreased the duration of salmonid fish sperm motility. Dilution of sperm cells in a hypotonic solution increased the cellular volume, whereas HgCl2 inhibited such an increase in cellular volume. Furthermore, the expression of AQP 1a and 10 in rainbow trout testes was confirmed. In contrast, HgCl2 did not affect glycerol-treated sperm motility, indicating that AQPs are not involved in glycerol-treated sperm motility. We also explored the possibility of aquaporin-independent water influx in glycerol-treated sperm by assessing the sperm membrane permeability using propidium iodide. The plasma membrane of glycerol-treated sperm was considerably permeabilized. The cellular volume was decreased in a hypertonic glycerol solution and increased upon subsequent hypoosmotic shock, indicating an AQP-independent water flux across the plasma membrane upon glycerol-treatment. Taken together, these results showed that water influx across the plasma membrane via AQP is crucial for the maintenance of salmonid fish sperm motility under normal conditions, whereas water influx by osmotic shock-induced membrane permeation is critical for the initiation of glycerol-treated sperm motility. PMID:25522712

  6. Total RNA isolation from stallion sperm and testis biopsies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pranab J. Das; Nandina Paria; Ashley Gustafson-Seabury; Monika Vishnoi; Sankar P. Chaki; Charles C. Love; Dickson D. Varner; Bhanu P. Chowdhary; Terje Raudsepp

    2010-01-01

    Sperm mRNA transcriptional profiles can be used to evaluate male fertility, yet differences between species in sperm attributes and packaging require adjustments in sperm RNA isolation protocols. The objective was to optimize RNA isolation methodology for fresh, frozen, and extended ejaculates, and epididymal sperm of stallions. Additionally, a protocol for RNA isolation from testis biopsies was established. Separation of sperm

  7. Potential Changes in Rat Spermatogenesis and Sperm Parameters after Inhalation of Boswellia papyrifera and Boswellia carterii Incense

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Mukhtar; Al-Daghri, Nasser; Alokail, Majed S.; Hussain, Tajamul

    2013-01-01

    In this study the effect of Boswellia papyrifera (B. papyrifera) and Boswellia carterii (B. carterii) smoke exposure on spermatogenesis and sperm parameters in male albino rats was investigated. Rats (n = 11) were exposed daily in smoking chambers to smoke emanated by burning 4 g each of either B. papyrifera or B. carterii for 48 days. At the end of exposure duration rats were killed, and the testes were excised and analysed for histopathological and ultrastructural changes. Sperm analysis including total sperm count, motility, velocity and relative percentage of abnormal sperms were recorded. Rats exposed to B. papyrifera and B. carterii showed significant disturbances in spermatogenetic patterns and changes in sperm kinetics compared to unexposed rats. Atrophied seminiferous tubules with dynamic changes were also noticed. The boundaries of intercellular and intracellular vacuoles were seen in the Sertoli cells. Furthermore, in spermatids acrosomal vesicles were not fully formed. Degenerating spermatids were devoid of their nuclear membrane with electron dense matrix and vacuolization. Structural changes in Leydig cells were observed. Sperm analysis in exposed rats exhibited significant decrease in the sperm count, motility, speed and an increase in sperm anomalies when compare to controls. These findings demonstrate that the B. papyrifera and B. carterii smoke affects the process of spermatogenesis and sperm parameters and indicate the detrimental effects of these incense materials on human reproductive system. PMID:23449005

  8. Potential changes in rat spermatogenesis and sperm parameters after inhalation of Boswellia papyrifera and Boswellia carterii incense.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Mukhtar; Al-Daghri, Nasser; Alokail, Majed S; Hussain, Tajamul

    2013-03-01

    In this study the effect of Boswellia papyrifera (B. papyrifera) and Boswellia carterii (B. carterii) smoke exposure on spermatogenesis and sperm parameters in male albino rats was investigated. Rats (n = 11) were exposed daily in smoking chambers to smoke emanated by burning 4 g each of either B. papyrifera or B. carterii for 48 days. At the end of exposure duration rats were killed, and the testes were excised and analysed for histopathological and ultrastructural changes. Sperm analysis including total sperm count, motility, velocity and relative percentage of abnormal sperms were recorded. Rats exposed to B. papyrifera and B. carterii showed significant disturbances in spermatogenetic patterns and changes in sperm kinetics compared to unexposed rats. Atrophied seminiferous tubules with dynamic changes were also noticed. The boundaries of intercellular and intracellular vacuoles were seen in the Sertoli cells. Furthermore, in spermatids acrosomal vesicles were not fully formed. Degenerating spermatids were devoid of their nuclear membrane with electron dense matrix and vacuolization. Structural changes in Leydig cells were observed. Sperm analysis in exposed rats exhibited significant decrease in the sperm count, motility, speed and an increase in sperm anomalies when compare to controls. These findings demonstrate that the B. papyrifera and B. carterii smoke affects the process of spermatogenesis and sperm parameters and indicate the detrimental effects of these incense materials on human reproductive system. PMID:23449005

  9. Effect of Post-Thaw Storage Time on Motility and Fertility of Cryopreserved Beluga Sturgeon (Huso huso) Sperm.

    PubMed

    Aramli, M S; Nazari, R M; Gharibi, M R

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to test the influence of post-thaw storage time on the duration of sperm motility, percentage of motile sperm, and fertilization and hatching rates of fresh sperm and sperm stored for 0, 30 and 60 min at 4°C post-thawing. After being frozen in liquid nitrogen and then thawed, the percentage of motile sperm and duration of motility were not affected by 30 min of storage at 4°C, whereas a significant decline in these parameters was observed after 60 min of storage. Similarly, fertilization and hatching rates were significantly affected within 60 min of storage at 4°C, and the fertility of frozen-thawed sperm was significantly lower than that of fresh sperm. We conclude that cryopreserved sperm of beluga sturgeon could be stored for 30 min without the loss of sperm quality. This described procedure for beluga sturgeon cryopreservation is reliable and efficient and therefore can be recommended for hatchery practice after scaling up this technique. PMID:25612010

  10. Use of neonatal tolerization and chemical immunosuppression for the production of monoclonal antibodies to maturation-specific sperm surface molecules.

    PubMed

    Ensrud, K M; Hamilton, D W

    1991-01-01

    Mammalian sperm acquire functional maturity as they move from the caput to the cauda epididymidis. Changes occur in the protein/glycoprotein composition of the sperm plasma membrane during this time, and may be essential to the maturation process. The production of monoclonal antibody (Mab) probes to the maturation-specific molecules has been difficult since new proteins comprise a minor portion of total membrane proteins. This report describes a protocol for enhancing the production of Mabs to maturation specific molecules. By injecting neonatal mice with caput epididymal sperm plasma membranes, in combination with chemical immunosuppression at adulthood, the mice were made tolerant to the antigens expressed on the caput sperm membranes. Subsequent immunization with cauda epididymal sperm plasma membranes allowed the production of Mabs to the maturation-specific moieties without the necessity for extensive antigen purification procedures. The majority of the resulting Mabs recognize cauda, not caput, epididymal sperm plasma membranes as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunocytochemistry on unfixed cells, and Western blot analyses, even though the protein profile from caput epididymal sperm plasma membranes is very similar to that from cauda membranes. The five Mabs described also recognize cauda fluid antigens, suggesting that the maturational changes on the sperm plasma membranes arise from interactions with the epididymal fluid. Use of the tolerization/immunosuppression protocol has provided Mab tools to assist in the study of sperm maturation during epididymal transit. PMID:1765566

  11. Copulatory behavior in a pholcid spider: males use specialized genitalic movements for sperm removal and copulatory courtship.

    PubMed

    Calbacho-Rosa, Lucía; Galicia-Mendoza, Ivette; Dutto, María Sofía; Córdoba-Aguilar, Alex; Peretti, Alfredo V

    2013-05-01

    Sexual selection may operate on pre-copulatory, copulatory, and post-copulatory traits. An example of a copulatory target of sexual selection is the genitalic movements a male performs during copulation. These movements may function either to prevent sperm competition or to influence a female's fertilization decision. Here we investigated how copulation duration, pedipalp movements, and abdominal movements that males of the pholcid spider Holocnemus pluchei produce during copulation influence sperm removal and/or patterns of successful sperm transfer. We compared mating events with virgin and mated females for differences in copulatory and post-copulatory behavior. We expected longer copulation duration, longer pedipalp movement duration, and more complex and frequent pedipalp and abdominal movements when males mated with mated females compared to virgin females. Except for abdominal movements, our results corroborated these predictions. Furthermore, when we investigated mating events with mated females, we observed sperm mass ejection from the female gonopore and physical removal of sperm by males' procursi. Females with interrupted second mating events showed a significant reduction of stored sperm masses compared to females with completed mating events. We suggest that males use alternating pedipalp movements to remove most of the rival sperm stored by mated females prior to sperm transfer. Copulation duration and pedipalp movements can be further used to transfer sperm and/or as a form of genitalic copulatory courtship. PMID:23571707

  12. Imbalanced lipid homeostasis in the conditional Dicer1 knockout mouse epididymis causes instability of the sperm membrane.

    PubMed

    Björkgren, Ida; Gylling, Helena; Turunen, Heikki; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo; Strauss, Leena; Poutanen, Matti; Sipilä, Petra

    2015-02-01

    During epididymal sperm maturation, the lipid content of the sperm membrane is modified, which facilitates sperm motility and fertility. However, little is known about the mechanisms regulating the maturation process. By generating a conditional knockout (cKO) of Dicer1 in the proximal part of the mouse epididymis, we studied the role of RNA interference in epididymal functions. The Dicer1 cKO epididymis displayed an altered lipid homeostasis associated with a 0.6-fold reduction in the expression of the gene elongation of very long chain fatty acids-like 2, an enzyme needed for production of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Furthermore, the expression of several factors involved in cholesterol synthesis was up-regulated. Accordingly, the Dicer1 cKO sperm membrane showed a 0.7-fold decrease in long-chain PUFAs, whereas the amount of cholesterol in acrosome-reacted sperm displayed a 1.7-fold increase. The increased cholesterol:PUFA ratio of the sperm membrane caused breakage of the neck and acrosome region and immotility of sperm. Dicer1 cKO mice sperm also displayed reduced ability to bind to and fertilize the oocyte in vitro. This study thus shows that Dicer1 is critical for lipid synthesis in the epididymis, which directly affects sperm membrane integrity and male fertility. PMID:25366345

  13. Insights into female sperm storage from the spermathecal fluid proteome of the honeybee Apis mellifera

    PubMed Central

    Baer, Boris; Eubel, Holger; Taylor, Nicolas L; O'Toole, Nicholas; Millar, A Harvey

    2009-01-01

    Background Female animals are often able to store sperm inside their body - in some species even for several decades. The molecular basis of how females keep non-own cells alive is largely unknown, but since sperm cells are reported to be transcriptionally silenced and, therefore, limited in their ability to maintain their own function, it is likely that females actively participate in sperm maintenance. Because female contributions are likely to be of central importance for sperm survival, molecular insights into the process offer opportunities to observe mechanisms through which females manipulate sperm. Results We used the honeybee, Apis mellifera, in which queens are highly polyandrous and able to maintain sperm viable for several years. We identified over a hundred proteins representing the major constituents of the spermathecal fluid, which females contribute to sperm in storage. We found that the gel profile of proteins from spermathecal fluid is very similar to the secretions of the spermathecal gland and concluded that the spermathecal glands are the main contributors to the spermathecal fluid proteome. A detailed analysis of the spermathecal fluid proteins indicate that they fall into a range of different functional groups, most notably enzymes of energy metabolism and antioxidant defense. A metabolic network analysis comparing the proteins detected in seminal fluid and spermathecal fluid showed a more integrated network is present in the spermathecal fluid that could facilitate long-term storage of sperm. Conclusions We present a large-scale identification of proteins in the spermathecal fluid of honeybee queens and provide insights into the molecular regulation of female sperm storage. PMID:19538722

  14. Ion Permeabilities in Mouse Sperm Reveal an External Trigger for SLO3-Dependent Hyperpolarization

    PubMed Central

    Chávez, Julio C.; de la Vega-Beltrán, José L.; Escoffier, Jessica; Visconti, Pablo E.; Trevińo, Claudia L.; Darszon, Alberto; Salkoff, Lawrence; Santi, Celia M.

    2013-01-01

    Unlike most cells of the body which function in an ionic environment controlled within narrow limits, spermatozoa must function in a less controlled external environment. In order to better understand how sperm control their membrane potential in different ionic conditions, we measured mouse sperm membrane potentials under a variety of conditions and at different external K+ concentrations, both before and after capacitation. Experiments were undertaken using both wild-type, and mutant mouse sperm from the knock-out strain of the sperm-specific, pH-sensitive, SLO3 K+ channel. Membrane voltage data were fit to the Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz equation. Our study revealed a significant membrane permeability to both K+ and Cl? before capacitation, as well as Na+. The permeability to both K+ and Cl? has the effect of preventing large changes in membrane potential when the extracellular concentration of either ion is changed. Such a mechanism may protect against undesired shifts in membrane potential in changing ionic environments. We found that a significant portion of resting membrane potassium permeability in wild-type sperm was contributed by SLO3 K+ channels. We also found that further activation of SLO3 channels was the essential mechanism producing membrane hyperpolarization under two separate conditions, 1) elevation of external pH prior to capacitation and 2) capacitating conditions. Both conditions produced a significant membrane hyperpolarization in wild-type which was absent in SLO3 mutant sperm. Hyperpolarization in both conditions may result from activation of SLO3 channels by raising intracellular pH; however, demonstrating that SLO3-dependent hyperpolarization is achieved by an alkaline environment alone shows that SLO3 channel activation might occur independently of other events associated with capacitation. For example sperm may undergo stages of membrane hyperpolarization when reaching alkaline regions of the female genital tract. Significantly, other events associated with sperm capacitation, occur in SLO3 mutant sperm and thus proceed independently of hyperpolarization. PMID:23577126

  15. Microfluidic single sperm entrapment and analysis.

    PubMed

    de Wagenaar, B; Berendsen, J T W; Bomer, J G; Olthuis, W; van den Berg, A; Segerink, L I

    2015-02-16

    Selection of healthy spermatozoa is of crucial importance for the success rates of assisted reproduction technologies (ART) such as in vitro fertilization and intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection. Although sperm selection for ART procedures is predominantly based on sperm motility, successful fertilization is not predicted by good motility alone. For example, sperm characteristics such as the acrosome state and DNA integrity have shown significant impact on ART outcome. Although fertilization can be achieved with a single spermatozoon of high quality, current quality assessments are population-based and do not allow investigation of multiple sperm characteristics on a single spermatozoon simultaneously. In order to study sperm cells on the single cell level, we designed and characterized a PDMS microfluidic platform that allows single sperm entrapment. After spatially confining individual sperm cells within microfluidic cell traps, the cell viability, chromosomal content and acrosome state were studied. This platform is suitable for the analysis of individual sperm cells, which could be exploited for (non-invasive) sperm analysis and selection by impedance or Raman spectroscopy. PMID:25578490

  16. Functional MRI neuroanatomic correlates of the Hooper Visual Organization Test.

    PubMed

    Moritz, Chad H; Johnson, Sterling C; McMillan, Kathryn M; Haughton, Victor M; Meyerand, M Elizabeth

    2004-11-01

    The Hooper Visual Organization Test (VOT), a commonly applied neuropsychological test of visual spatial ability, is used for assessing patients with suspected right hemisphere, or parietal lobe involvement. A controversy has developed over whether the inferences of this test metric can be assumed to involve global, lateralized, or regional functionality. In this study, the characteristic visual organization and object naming aspects of the VOT task presentation were adapted to a functional MR imaging (fMRI) paradigm to probe the neuroanatomic correlates of this neuropsychological test. Whole brain fMRI mapping results are reported on a cohort of normal subjects. Bilateral fMRI responses were found predominantly in the posterior brain, in regions of superior parietal lobules, ventral temporal-occipital cortex, and posterior visual association areas, and to a lesser extent, the frontal eye fields bilaterally, and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. The results indicate a general brain region or network in which VOT impairment, due to its visuospatial and object identification demands, is possible to be detected. Discussion is made of interpretive limitations when adapting neuropsychological tests to fMRI analysis. PMID:15803557

  17. A fully automated, quantitative test of upper limb function.

    PubMed

    Prochazka, Arthur; Kowalczewski, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The Rehabilitation Joystick for Computerized Exercise (ReJoyce, Rehabtronics Inc., Edmonton, Alberta, Canada), is a workstation on which participants exercise dexterous movement tasks in the guise of computer games. The system incorporates the ReJoyce Arm and Hand Function Test (RAHFT). Here the authors evaluate the RAHFT against the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT) and the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA). All 3 tests were performed in 36 separate sessions in 13 tetraplegic individuals. Concurrent and criterion validities of the RAHFT were supported by a high level of correlation with the ARAT (r2 = .88). Regarding responsiveness, the effect size of the RAHFT at week 6