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1

Semen analysis and sperm function tests: How much to test?  

PubMed Central

Semen analysis as an integral part of infertility investigations is taken as a surrogate measure for male fecundity in clinical andrology, male fertility, and pregnancy risk assessments. Clearly, laboratory seminology is still very much in its infancy. In as much as the creation of a conventional semen profile will always represent the foundations of male fertility evaluation, the 5th edition of the World Health Organization (WHO) manual is a definitive statement on how such assessments should be carried out and how the quality should be controlled. A major advance in this new edition of the WHO manual, resolving the most salient critique of previous editions, is the development of the first well-defined reference ranges for semen analysis based on the analysis of over 1900 recent fathers. The methodology used in the assessment of the usual variables in semen analysis is described, as are many of the less common, but very valuable, sperm function tests. Sperm function testing is used to determine if the sperm have the biologic capacity to perform the tasks necessary to reach and fertilize ova and ultimately result in live births. A variety of tests are available to evaluate different aspects of these functions. To accurately use these functional assays, the clinician must understand what the tests measure, what the indications are for the assays, and how to interpret the results to direct further testing or patient management. PMID:21716889

Vasan, S. S.

2011-01-01

2

Generation of functional eggs and sperm from cryopreserved whole testes  

PubMed Central

The conservation of endangered fish is of critical importance. Cryobanking could provide an effective backup measure for use in conjunction with the conservation of natural populations; however, methodology for cryopreservation of fish eggs and embryos has not yet been developed. The present study established a methodology capable of deriving functional eggs and sperm from frozen type A spermatogonia (ASGs). Whole testes taken from rainbow trout were slowly frozen in a cryomedium, and the viability of ASGs within these testes did not decrease over a 728-d freezing period. Frozen-thawed ASGs that were intraperitoneally transplanted into sterile triploid hatchlings migrated toward, and were incorporated into, recipient genital ridges. Transplantability of ASGs did not decrease after as much as 939 d of cryopreservation. Nearly half of triploid recipients produced functional eggs or sperm derived from the frozen ASGs and displayed high fecundity. Fertilization of resultant gametes resulted in the successful production of normal, frozen ASG-derived offspring. Feasibility and simplicity of this methodology will call for an immediate application for real conservation of endangered wild salmonids. PMID:23319620

Lee, Seungki; Iwasaki, Yoshiko; Shikina, Shinya; Yoshizaki, Goro

2013-01-01

3

Generation of functional eggs and sperm from cryopreserved whole testes.  

PubMed

The conservation of endangered fish is of critical importance. Cryobanking could provide an effective backup measure for use in conjunction with the conservation of natural populations; however, methodology for cryopreservation of fish eggs and embryos has not yet been developed. The present study established a methodology capable of deriving functional eggs and sperm from frozen type A spermatogonia (ASGs). Whole testes taken from rainbow trout were slowly frozen in a cryomedium, and the viability of ASGs within these testes did not decrease over a 728-d freezing period. Frozen-thawed ASGs that were intraperitoneally transplanted into sterile triploid hatchlings migrated toward, and were incorporated into, recipient genital ridges. Transplantability of ASGs did not decrease after as much as 939 d of cryopreservation. Nearly half of triploid recipients produced functional eggs or sperm derived from the frozen ASGs and displayed high fecundity. Fertilization of resultant gametes resulted in the successful production of normal, frozen ASG-derived offspring. Feasibility and simplicity of this methodology will call for an immediate application for real conservation of endangered wild salmonids. PMID:23319620

Lee, Seungki; Iwasaki, Yoshiko; Shikina, Shinya; Yoshizaki, Goro

2013-01-29

4

Semen analysis in 21st century medicine: the need for sperm function testing  

PubMed Central

Sperm function testing, once commonly performed for the infertile couple before employing assisted reproductive technology (ART), has fallen out of favour in many reproductive medicine centers throughout the world. Indeed, the most recent addition of the 'World Health Organisation (WHO) Laboratory Manual for the Examination and Processing of Human Semen' now groups many of these procedures into a section termed Research Procedures. In large part, this reflects the current clinical practice of bypassing the in-depth evaluation of the male partner, while assuming that if a spermatozoon can be found for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), it must be a healthy cell capable of achieving fertilization. Nevertheless, sperm function testing can provide valuable clinical insights into defects causing male infertility. Admittedly, in some cases, functional sperm deficiencies can be overcome using an ART. In other cases, couples will be empowered by the knowledge of the cause of their infertility, and for some couples, perhaps even the likelihood of ICSI success (relative to the spermatozoa). The knowledge allows them to make truly informed reproductive decisions, including (perhaps) the decision to seek donor insemination, to adopt or to remain childless. Knowledge of the cause of their infertility may provide closure for couples and a sense of confidence regarding their choice of reproductive treatment. PMID:20111083

Lamb, Dolores J.

2010-01-01

5

Toona sinensis Leaf Aqueous Extract Improves the Functions of Sperm and Testes via Regulating Testicular Proteins in Rats under Oxidative Stress  

PubMed Central

Toona sinensis leaf (TSL) is commonly used as a vegetable and in spice in Asia. In this study, feeding with aqueous extract of TSL (TSL-A) alleviated oxidative stress and recovered the motility and functions of sperm in rats under oxidative stress. Protein expressions in testes identified by proteomic analysis and verified by Western blot demonstrated that TSL-A not only downregulated the level of glutathione transferase mu6 (antioxidant system), heat shock protein 90?kDa-? (protein misfolding repairing system), cofilin 2 (spermatogenesis), and cyclophilin A (apoptosis) but also upregulated crease3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase 2 (steroidogenesis), heat shock glycoprotein 96, and pancreatic trypsin 1 (sperm-oocyte interaction). These results indicate that TSL-A promotes the functions of sperm and testes via regulating multiple testicular proteins in rats under oxidative stress, suggesting that TSL-A is a valuable functional food supplement to improve functions of sperm and testes for males under oxidative stress. PMID:23093985

Yu, Bu-Chin; Yu, Wen-Jen; Huang, Chun-Yung; Chen, Ying-Hsin; Tsai, Yun-Ching; Chang, Chen-Chin; Chang, Sue-Joan

2012-01-01

6

Sperm select penetration test reveals differences in sperm quality in strains with different Y chromosome genotype in mice.  

PubMed

Mouse sperm penetration into a hyaluronic acid polymer (Sperm Select), hypoosmotic swelling in distilled water (water test), and eosin-Y staining were studied in sperm samples from males belonging to five inbred strains of mice (CBA, KE, KE-YCBA, B10.BR, and B10.BR-Ydel), which differ in the proportion of abnormal sperm heads and in efficiency of fertilization. Correlation coefficients, calculated from mean values for each strain, showed that Sperm Select penetration (to the depth of 1-2 cm) was significantly correlated with both sperm motility and fertilization efficiency, while correlation with the proportion of normal spermatozoa did not reach the level of significance. The indices of the water test and erosin Y staining were correlated with each other but not with Sperm Select penetration. In comparison with the B10.BR strain, its mutant strain B10.BR-Ydel, with a large deletion in the long arm of the Y chromosome and characterized by highly elevated proportion of abnormal sperm and low fertilization efficiency, showed lower values of the indices of all tests, suggesting that the partial deletion of the Y chromosome has affected various aspects of sperm morphology and function. On the other hand, for two consomic strains (KE and KE-YCBA with the Y chromosome introduced from the CBA strain), the difference in sperm morphology and fertilization rate was correlated with Sperm Select penetration but not with hypoosmotic swelling or eosin-Y staining; this suggests that only some aspects of sperm physiology are due to genetic differences between YKE and YCBA chromosomes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8579471

Styrna, J; Krzanowska, H

1995-01-01

7

Importance of ?-defensins in sperm function.  

PubMed

Recent work in humans and mouse has confirmed the involvement of the host defence ?-defensin peptides in male fertility. We discuss here the work that has implicated ?-defensins in sperm function including the identification of the epididymis as the predominant site of expression of the peptides and the in vivo consequences of mutation and deletion. The potential dual role of these peptides in the regulation of infection and control of sperm maturation is compelling and may combine their antimicrobial activity with the ability of these molecules to interact with cell membrane receptors and modulate ion transport. PMID:25009294

Dorin, Julia R; Barratt, Christopher L R

2014-09-01

8

The sperm chromatin dispersion test: a simple method for the determination of sperm DNA fragmentation.  

PubMed

Sperm DNA fragmentation is being increasingly recognized as an important cause of infertility. We herein describe the Sperm Chromatin Dispersion (SCD) test, a novel assay for sperm DNA fragmentation in semen. The SCD test is based on the principle that sperm with fragmented DNA fail to produce the characteristic halo of dispersed DNA loops that is observed in sperm with non-fragmented DNA, following acid denaturation and removal of nuclear proteins. This was confirmed by the analysis of DNA fragmentation using the specific DNA Breakage Detection-Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (DBD-FISH) assay, which allows the detection of DNA breaks in lysed sperm nuclei. Sperm suspensions either prepared from semen or isolated from semen by gradient centrifugation were embedded in an agarose microgel on slides and treated with 0.08 N HCl and lysing solutions containing 0.8 M dithiothreitol (DTT), 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and 2 M NaCl. Then, the slides were sequentially stained with DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) and/or the Diff-Quik reagent, and the percentages of sperm with nondispersed and dispersed chromatin loops were monitored by fluorescence and brightfield microscopy, respectively. The results indicate that all sperm with nondispersed chromatin displayed DNA fragmentation, as measured by DBD-FISH. Conversely, all sperm with dispersed chromatin had very low to undetectable DBD-FISH labeling. SCD test values were significantly higher in patients being screened for infertility than in normozoospermic sperm donors who had participated in a donor insemination program. The coefficient of variation obtained using 2 different observers, either by digital image analysis (DIA) or by brightfield microscopy scoring, was less than 3%. In conclusion, the SCD test is a simple, accurate, highly reproducible, and inexpensive method for the analysis of sperm DNA fragmentation in semen and processed sperm. Therefore, the SCD test could potentially be used as a routine test for the screening of sperm DNA fragmentation in the andrology laboratory. PMID:12514084

Fernández, Jose Luis; Muriel, Lourdes; Rivero, Maria Teresa; Goyanes, Vicente; Vazquez, Rosana; Alvarez, Juan G

2003-01-01

9

Protective function of alpha-lipoic acid on sperm motility and mitochondrial function during goat sperm-mediated gene transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sperm-mediated gene transfer is a promising technology to generate transgenic animals, but the incubation of the sperm cell with target gene plasmids often impairs the sperm motility and mitochondrial function. Alpha-lipoic acid is one of the beneficial antioxidants, which has been used to protect many types of cells from impairment of their function. The objective of this study was to

Huiming Ma; Fusheng Quan; Dongmei Chen; Yanling Zheng; Bowei Zhang; Yongsheng Wang; Yong Zhang

2011-01-01

10

Sperm competition: linking form to function  

PubMed Central

Background Using information from physics, biomechanics and evolutionary biology, we explore the implications of physical constraints on sperm performance, and review empirical evidence for links between sperm length and sperm competition (where two or more males compete to fertilise a female's eggs). A common theme in the literature on sperm competition is that selection for increased sperm performance in polyandrous species will favour the evolution of longer, and therefore faster swimming, sperm. This argument is based on the common assumption that sperm swimming velocity is directly related to sperm length, due to the increased thrust produced by longer flagella. Results We critically evaluate the evidence for links between sperm morphology and swimming speed, and draw on cross-disciplinary studies to show that the assumption that velocity is directly related to sperm length will rarely be satisfied in the microscopic world in which sperm operate. Conclusion We show that increased sperm length is unlikely to be driven by selection for increased swimming speed, and that the relative lengths of a sperm's constituent parts, rather than their absolute lengths, are likely to be the target of selection. All else being equal, we suggest that a simple measure of the ratio of head to tail length should be used to assess the possible link between morphology and speed. However, this is most likely to be the case for external fertilizers in which females have relatively limited opportunity to influence a sperm's motility. PMID:19032741

2008-01-01

11

Sperm from neonatal mammalian testes grafted in mice.  

PubMed

Spermatogenesis is a productive and highly organized process that generates virtually unlimited numbers of sperm during adulthood. Continuous proliferation and differentiation of germ cells occur in a delicate balance with other testicular compartments, especially the supporting Sertoli cells. Many complex aspects of testis function in humans and large animals have remained elusive because of a lack of suitable in vitro or in vivo models. Germ cell transplantation has produced complete donor-derived spermatogenesis in rodents but not in other mammalian species. Production of sperm in grafted tissue from immature mammalian testes and across species has not yet been accomplished. Here we report the establishment of complete spermatogenesis by grafting testis tissue from newborn mice, pigs or goats into mouse hosts. This approach maintains structural integrity and provides the accessibility that is essential for studying and manipulating the function of testes and for preserving the male germ line. Our results indicate that this approach is applicable to diverse mammalian species. PMID:12181567

Honaramooz, Ali; Snedaker, Amy; Boiani, Michele; Schöler, Hans; Dobrinski, Ina; Schlatt, Stefan

2002-08-15

12

Ejaculate Economics: Testing the Effects of Male Sexual History on the Trade-Off between Sperm and Immune Function in Australian Crickets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trade-offs between investment into male sexual traits and immune function provide the foundation for some of the most prominent models of sexual selection. Post-copulatory sexual selection on the male ejaculate is intense, and therefore trade-offs should occur between investment into the ejaculate and the immune system. Examples of such trade-offs exist, including that between sperm quality and immunity in the

Damian K. Dowling; Leigh W. Simmons

2012-01-01

13

Functional evidence that a recently evolved Drosophila sperm-specific gene boosts sperm competition  

PubMed Central

In many species, both morphological and molecular traits related to sex and reproduction evolve faster in males than in females. Ultimately, rapid male evolution relies on the acquisition of genetic variation associated with differential reproductive success. Many newly evolved genes are associated with novel functions that might enhance male fitness. However, functional evidence of the adaptive role of recently originated genes in males is still lacking. The Sperm dynein intermediate chain multigene family, which encodes a Sperm dynein intermediate chain presumably involved in sperm motility, originated from complex genetic rearrangements in the lineage that leads to Drosophila melanogaster within the last 5.4 million years since its split from Drosophila simulans. We deleted all the members of this multigene family resident on the X chromosome of D. melanogaster by chromosome engineering and found that, although the deletion does not result in a reduction of progeny number, it impairs the competence of the sperm in the presence of sperm from wild-type males. Therefore, the Sperm dynein intermediate chain multigene family contributes to the differential reproductive success among males and illustrates precisely how quickly a new gene function can be incorporated into the genetic network of a species. PMID:22308475

Yeh, Shu-Dan; Do, Tiffanie; Chan, Carolus; Cordova, Adriana; Carranza, Francisco; Yamamoto, Eugene A.; Abbassi, Mashya; Gandasetiawan, Kania A.; Librado, Pablo; Damia, Elisabetta; Dimitri, Patrizio; Rozas, Julio; Hartl, Daniel L.; Roote, John; Ranz, Jose M.

2012-01-01

14

Sperm Chromatin Dispersion Test: Technical Aspects and Clinical Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Sperm DNA damage has been connected, among other things, with an increased incidence of miscarriage and enhanced risk of disease\\u000a in the offspring. However, its occurrence is multifaceted and many of the variable consequences it has for fertility are as\\u000a yet not fully understood. Tests that assess sperm quality should identify not only the ability of spermatozoa to reach the

Jaime Gosálvez; Carmen López-Fernández; José Luís Fernández

15

Presence and Function of Dopamine Transporter (DAT) in Stallion Sperm: Dopamine Modulates Sperm Motility and Acrosomal Integrity  

PubMed Central

Dopamine is a catecholamine with multiple physiological functions, playing a key role in nervous system; however its participation in reproductive processes and sperm physiology is controversial. High dopamine concentrations have been reported in different portions of the feminine and masculine reproductive tract, although the role fulfilled by this catecholamine in reproductive physiology is as yet unknown. We have previously shown that dopamine type 2 receptor is functional in boar sperm, suggesting that dopamine acts as a physiological modulator of sperm viability, capacitation and motility. In the present study, using immunodetection methods, we revealed the presence of several proteins important for the dopamine uptake and signalling in mammalian sperm, specifically monoamine transporters as dopamine (DAT), serotonin (SERT) and norepinephrine (NET) transporters in equine sperm. We also demonstrated for the first time in equine sperm a functional dopamine transporter using 4-[4-(Dimethylamino)styryl]-N-methylpyridinium iodide (ASP+), as substrate. In addition, we also showed that dopamine (1 mM) treatment in vitro, does not affect sperm viability but decreases total and progressive sperm motility. This effect is reversed by blocking the dopamine transporter with the selective inhibitor vanoxerine (GBR12909) and non-selective inhibitors of dopamine reuptake such as nomifensine and bupropion. The effect of dopamine in sperm physiology was evaluated and we demonstrated that acrosome integrity and thyrosine phosphorylation in equine sperm is significantly reduced at high concentrations of this catecholamine. In summary, our results revealed the presence of monoamine transporter DAT, NET and SERT in equine sperm, and that the dopamine uptake by DAT can regulate sperm function, specifically acrosomal integrity and sperm motility. PMID:25402186

Covarrubias, Alejandra A.; Rodríguez-Gil, Joan Enric; Ramírez-Reveco, Alfredo; Concha, Ilona I.

2014-01-01

16

Evaluation of DNA fragmentation in llama (Lama glama) sperm using the sperm chromatin dispersion test.  

PubMed

The integrity of sperm chromatin is now viewed as an important factor in male fertility and in early embryonic development. The objectives of this study were: (1) adapt the simple and inexpensive sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) test to evaluate DNA fragmentation in llama sperm and establish the halo patterns observed in this species, (2) determine an effective and reliable positive control for this technique and (3) evaluate correlation between the SCD test and the toluidine blue (TB) stain. To adapt the SCD test, three different mercaptoethanol (ME) concentrations were assayed (2.5%, 5% and 10% ME). To determine an effective positive control, three treatments (incubation at 100 °C for 30 min, incubation with 0.3 M NaOH for 30 min at room temperature and exposure to UV light for 2h) were assayed. The concentration selected to use in the SCD test was 5% ME, because it produced the largest halo while still conserving the structure of the core. Four DNA dispersion patterns were clearly observed: (I) nuclei with large DNA dispersion halos; (II) nuclei with medium halos; (III) nuclei with very small halos and (IV) nuclei with no halo. All treatments used as positive controls were effective in producing DNA fragmentation. A high correlation (r=0.84, P=0.03) was observed between spermatozoa without halos and TB positive cells. To conclude, SCD patterns in llama sperm have been established as well as a repeatable positive control for the assay. The SCD test and TB stain are simple and inexpensive techniques that can be used to evaluate DNA damage in llama sperm. PMID:22437148

Carretero, M I; Lombardo, D; Arraztoa, C C; Giuliano, S M; Gambarotta, M C; Neild, D M

2012-03-01

17

Characterisation of a subpopulation of sperm with massive nuclear damage, as recognised with the sperm chromatin dispersion test.  

PubMed

Assessment of human sperm DNA fragmentation by the sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) test is based on the detection of haloes of spreading DNA loops after sequential DNA denaturing and protamine removal. After the SCD test, sperm without DNA fragmentation show chromatin haloes emerging from the central nuclear core, while sperm containing fragmented DNA present small or no haloes. The nuclear degraded sperm are recognised as a differentiated category within the sperm with fragmented DNA, whose cores appear irregularly and/or faintly stained. This subpopulation is more prevalent in patients with varicocele. Protein staining with 2.7-dibrom-4-hydroxy-mercury-fluorescein demonstrated that degraded sperm intensely lose nuclear core proteins after the SCD processing. Moreover, degraded sperm are 65% more faintly labelled for DNA breaks after in situ nick translation (ISNT) on average, due to extensive DNA loss. A two-dimensional comet assay under sequential neutral and alkaline conditions demonstrated that degraded sperm contain both massive double- and single-strand DNA breaks. The degraded sperm appear as a subpopulation with stronger nuclear damage, affecting both DNA and protein fractions, possibly due to intense intratesticular oxidative stress, what could explain its higher proportion in patients with varicocele. PMID:23710631

Gosálvez, J; Rodríguez-Predreira, M; Mosquera, A; López-Fernández, C; Esteves, S C; Agarwal, A; Fernández, J L

2014-08-01

18

Evaluation of sperm functional attributes in relation to in vitro sperm-zona pellucida binding ability and cleavage rate in assessing frozen thawed buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) semen quality.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate sperm functional attributes in relation to in vitro sperm-zona binding ability and cleavage rate in assessing frozen thawed buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) semen quality. Frozen-thawed forty-eight ejaculates from eight Surti buffalo bulls (six ejaculates/bull) obtained by artificial vagina were used. Frozen semen from each bull was thawed, pooled, and subjected for sperm functional (six replicates) and in vitro fertilization (four replicates) tests. The progressive forward motility, plasmalemma functional integrity assessed by fluorogenic [6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate (CFDA), and propidium iodide (PI)], hypoosmotic swelling (HOS), and hypoosmotic swelling-Giemsa (HOS-G) test, mitochondrial membrane potential, sperm nuclear morphology, the number of sperm bound to zona and cleavage rate differed significantly (P<0.05) between bulls. When the animals were grouped based on cleavage rate (group I, >40% cleavage rate, n=5, and group II, <40% cleavage rate, n=3), in vitro fertility parameters and all the sperm functional attributes except sperm nuclear morphology differed significantly (P<0.05). The proportions of sperm with functional plasmalemma in the tail and intact acrosome assessed by HOS-G test (25.33, range: 17.48-40.27) were significantly (P<0.001) lower than the functional plasmalemma in the tail assessed by HOS test (39.80, range: 27.85-54.67). The number of sperm bound to zona had significant correlations with the mitochondrial membrane potential (r=0.90, P<0.01) and plasmalemma integrity (fluorogenic, r=0.74 and HOS, r=0.79, P<0.05) and HOS-G, r=0.87, P<0.01). The cleavage rate had significant (P<0.05) correlations with the mitochondrial membrane potential (r=0.70) and plasmalemma integrity measured by HOS-G test (r=0.68). The present study indicates that these attributes could represent important determinants of buffalo sperm quality influencing cleavage rate. PMID:17576042

Selvaraju, S; Ravindra, J P; Ghosh, J; Gupta, P S P; Suresh, K P

2008-07-01

19

Stallion Sperm Transcriptome Comprises Functionally Coherent Coding and Regulatory RNAs as Revealed by Microarray Analysis and RNA-seq  

PubMed Central

Mature mammalian sperm contain a complex population of RNAs some of which might regulate spermatogenesis while others probably play a role in fertilization and early development. Due to this limited knowledge, the biological functions of sperm RNAs remain enigmatic. Here we report the first characterization of the global transcriptome of the sperm of fertile stallions. The findings improved understanding of the biological significance of sperm RNAs which in turn will allow the discovery of sperm-based biomarkers for stallion fertility. The stallion sperm transcriptome was interrogated by analyzing sperm and testes RNA on a 21,000-element equine whole-genome oligoarray and by RNA-seq. Microarray analysis revealed 6,761 transcripts in the sperm, of which 165 were sperm-enriched, and 155 were differentially expressed between the sperm and testes. Next, 70 million raw reads were generated by RNA-seq of which 50% could be aligned with the horse reference genome. A total of 19,257 sequence tags were mapped to all horse chromosomes and the mitochondrial genome. The highest density of mapped transcripts was in gene-rich ECA11, 12 and 13, and the lowest in gene-poor ECA9 and X; 7 gene transcripts originated from ECAY. Structural annotation aligned sperm transcripts with 4,504 known horse and/or human genes, rRNAs and 82 miRNAs, whereas 13,354 sequence tags remained anonymous. The data were aligned with selected equine gene models to identify additional exons and splice variants. Gene Ontology annotations showed that sperm transcripts were associated with molecular processes (chemoattractant-activated signal transduction, ion transport) and cellular components (membranes and vesicles) related to known sperm functions at fertilization, while some messenger and micro RNAs might be critical for early development. The findings suggest that the rich repertoire of coding and non-coding RNAs in stallion sperm is not a random remnant from spermatogenesis in testes but a selectively retained and functionally coherent collection of RNAs. PMID:23409192

Das, Pranab J.; McCarthy, Fiona; Vishnoi, Monika; Paria, Nandina; Gresham, Cathy; Li, Gang; Kachroo, Priyanka; Sudderth, A. Kendrick; Teague, Sheila; Love, Charles C.; Varner, Dickson D.; Chowdhary, Bhanu P.; Raudsepp, Terje

2013-01-01

20

The impact of testicular and accessory sex gland function on sperm chromatin integrity as assessed by the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) provides an objective assessment of sperm chromatin integrity, which is essential for normal sperm function. SCSA is valuable as a fertility marker in epidemiological studies and in the clinical situation. Little is known about the impact of testicular and post-testicular function on SCSA parameters. METHODS: Ejaculates from 278 military conscripts of median age

J. Richthoff; M. Spano; Y. L. Giwercman; B. Frohm; K. Jepson; J. Malm; S. Elzanaty; M. Stridsberg; A. Giwercman

2002-01-01

21

Functional features and protein network of human sperm-egg interaction.  

PubMed

Abstract Elucidation of the sperm-egg interaction at the molecular level is one of the unresolved problems in sexual reproduction, and understanding the molecular mechanism is crucial in solving problems in infertility and failed in vitro fertilization (IVF). Many molecular interactions in the form of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) mediate the sperm-egg membrane interaction. Due to the complexity of the problem such as difficulties in analyzing in vivo membrane PPIs, many efforts have failed to comprehensively elucidate the fusion mechanism and the molecular interactions that mediate sperm-egg membrane fusion. The main purpose of this study was to reveal possible protein interactions and associated molecular function during sperm-egg interaction using a protein interaction network approach. Different databases have been used to construct the human sperm-egg interaction network. The constructed network revealed new interactions. These included CD151 and CD9 in human oocyte that interact with CD49 in sperm, and CD49 and ITGA4 in sperm that interact with CD63 and CD81, respectively, in the oocyte. These results showed that the different integrins in sperm may be involved in human sperm-egg interaction. It was also suggested that sperm ADAM2 plays a role as a protein candidate involved in sperm-egg membrane interaction by interacting with CD9 in the oocyte. Interleukin-4 receptor activity, receptor signaling protein tyrosine kinase activity, and manganese ion transmembrane transport activity are the major molecular functions in sperm-egg interaction protein network. The disease association analysis indicated that sperm-egg interaction defects are also reflected in other disease networks such as cardiovascular, hematological, and breast cancer diseases. By analyzing the network, we identified the major molecular functions and disease association genes in sperm-egg interaction protein. Further experimental studies will be required to confirm the significance of these new computationally resolved interactions and the genetic links between sperm-egg interaction abnormalities and the associated disease. PMID:25222562

Sabetian, Soudabeh; Shamsir, Mohd Shahir; Naser, Mohammed Abu

2014-12-01

22

Morphology and function of the reproductive tract of the spider crab Libinia spinosa (Crustacea, Brachyura, Majoidea): pattern of sperm storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Morphology and function of the male reproductive tract, female spermatheca and patterns of sperm storage were assessed in the crab Libinia spinosa using histological methods. Testes are characterized by the presence of peripheral spermatogonia and different sequences of sperm maturity. Spermatophores begin to be packed in the last portion. The vas deferens consists of three sections: anterior, with undeveloped spermatophores and free sperm; median, with well-developed spermatophores; and posterior with granular secretions. Female spermathecae are of the ventral type, with a velum separating dorsal and ventral chambers. Live individuals were kept in the laboratory and arranged in pairs. An experiment was conducted toward the end of the reproductive season, in which males with the right gonopod excised were placed with receptive females. After mating, females were killed and the spermathecae dissected for histological study and observation of the pattern of sperm storage. Spermatozoa were found forming discrete sperm packages. New ejaculates can fill the entire spermatheca or be restricted to the ventral chamber; sperm are rounded, with a distinguishable acrosomal core. Old ejaculates are restricted to the dorsal chamber and are of irregular shape and larger size; an acrosomal core was not distinguishable. The secretions produced by the glandular epithelium of the dorsal chamber of the spermathecae are likely to have a role in the removal of dead sperm.

Sal Moyano, M. P.; Gavio, M. A.; Cuartas, E. I.

2010-09-01

23

Relative testis size and sperm morphometry across mammals: no evidence for an association between sperm competition and sperm length.  

PubMed Central

Understanding why there is extensive variation in sperm form and function across taxa has been a challenge because sperm are specialized cells operating at a microscopic level in a complex environment. This comparative study collates published data to determine whether the evolution of sperm morphometry (sperm total length and separate component dimensions) is associated with sperm competition (when different males' sperm mix and compete for a female's ova) across 83 mammalian species. We use relative testes mass as an indicator of the intensity of sperm competition across taxa: relative investment into testes is widely accepted to predict the level of sperm competition that a species or population endures. Although we found evidence for positive associations between relative testes mass (controlling for allometry) and sperm morphometry across 83 mammalian species, these relationships were phylogenetically dependent. When we appropriately controlled for phylogenetic association using multiple regression within a phylogenetic framework, there was no relationship between relative testes mass and sperm length across mammals. Furthermore, we found no evidence for associations between relative testes mass and sperm head, mid-piece or flagellar lengths, nor was there a relationship with mid-piece or mitochondrial volumes. Results, therefore, indicate that sperm competition does not select for longer or shorter sperm across mammals, and alternative forces selecting on sperm form and function are discussed. PMID:12769463

Gage, Matthew J G; Freckleton, Robert P

2003-01-01

24

Alternative splicing, promoter methylation, and functional SNPs of sperm flagella 2 gene in testis and mature spermatozoa of Holstein bulls.  

PubMed

The sperm flagella 2 (SPEF2) gene is essential for development of normal sperm tail and male fertility. In this study, we characterized first the splice variants, promoter and its methylation, and functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the SPEF2 gene in newborn and adult Holstein bulls. Four splice variants were identified in the testes, epididymis, sperm, heart, spleen, lungs, kidneys, and liver tissues through RT-PCR, clone sequencing, and western blot analysis. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the SPEF2 was specifically expressed in the primary spermatocytes, elongated spermatids, and round spermatids in the testes and epididymis. SPEF2-SV1 was differentially expressed in the sperms of high-performance and low-performance adult bulls; SPEF2-SV2 presents the highest expression in testis and epididymis; SPEF2-SV3 was only detected in testis and epididymis. An SNP (c.2851G>T) in exon 20 of SPEF2, located within a putative exonic splice enhancer, potentially produced SPEF2-SV3 and was involved in semen deformity rate and post-thaw cryopreserved sperm motility. The luciferase reporter and bisulfite sequencing analysis suggested that the methylation pattern of the core promoter did not significantly differ between the full-sib bulls that presented hypomethylation in the ejaculated semen and testis. This finding indicates that sperm quality is unrelated to SPEF2 methylation pattern. Our data suggest that alternative splicing, rather than methylation, is involved in the regulation of SPEF2 expression in the testes and sperm and is one of the determinants of sperm motility during bull spermatogenesis. The exonic SNP (c.2851G>T) produces aberrant splice variants, which can be used as a candidate marker for semen traits selection breeding of Holstein bulls. PMID:24277870

Guo, F; Yang, B; Ju, Z H; Wang, X G; Qi, C; Zhang, Y; Wang, C F; Liu, H D; Feng, M Y; Chen, Y; Xu, Y X; Zhong, J F; Huang, J M

2014-02-01

25

Effect of polyvinylpyrrolidone on sperm function and early embryonic development following intracytoplasmic sperm injection in human assisted reproduction.  

PubMed

The objective here was to review the effects of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) upon sperm function and embryonic development in humans. PVP has been used successfully in intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) to facilitate the handling and immobilization of sperm for both domestic animals and humans. In our previous reports, PVP solution exists locally in embryos injected during the early developmental period, and also exerts influence over the developmental capacity of such embryos. In other reports, PVP causes significant damage to sperm membranes that can be detected by transmission electron microscopy, and has been associated with chromosomal abnormalities in pregnancy derived from ICSI embryos. In some Japanese clinics, PVP-free media has been used for sperm immobilization in order to optimise safety. Consequently, it is strongly suggested that the success rate of fertilization and clinical pregnancy could be improved by using PVP-free solution for human ICSI. In conclusion, our interpretation of the available data is to perform ICSI without PVP or select a lower concentration of PVP solution in order to reduce safety for pregnancy and children born via ICSI. PMID:23483084

Kato, Yoku; Nagao, Yoshikazu

2012-10-01

26

Picomolar gradients of progesterone select functional human sperm even in subfertile samples.  

PubMed

More than 1 million infertility treatments are practiced around the world per year, but only 30% of the couples succeed in taking a baby home. Reproductive technology depends in part on sperm quality, which influences not only fertilization but also embryo development and implantation. In order to provide a better quality sperm subpopulation, innovative sperm selection techniques based on physiological sperm features are needed. Spermatozoa at an optimum state may be selected by following an increasing concentration gradient of picomolar progesterone, a steroid secreted by the cumulus cells at the time of ovulation. In this study we developed a method to recruit spermatozoa at the best functional state, based on sperm guidance toward progesterone. The sperm selection assay (SSA) consists of a device with two wells connected by a tube. One well was filled with the sperm suspension and the other with picomolar progesterone, which diffused inside the connecting tube as a gradient. The sperm quality after the SSA was analyzed in normal and subfertile semen samples. Several sperm parameters indicative of sperm physiological state were determined before and after the SSA: capacitation, DNA integrity and oxidative stress. After the SSA, the mean level of capacitated spermatozoa increased three times in normal and in subfertile samples. The level of sperm with intact DNA was significantly increased, while sperm oxidative stress was decreased after sperm selection. Interestingly, the exposure to a progesterone gradient stimulated the completion of capacitation in some spermatozoa that could not do it by themselves. Thus, the SSA supplies a sperm population enriched with spermatozoa at an optimum physiological state that may improve the assisted reproductive technology outcome. PMID:23729411

Gatica, L V; Guidobaldi, H A; Montesinos, M M; Teves, M E; Moreno, A I; Uńates, D R; Molina, R I; Giojalas, L C

2013-09-01

27

Is Manganese (II) Pentaazamacrocyclic Superoxide Dismutase Mimic Beneficial for Human Sperm Mitochondria Function and Motility?  

PubMed Central

Abstract Mitochondria play an important role in sperm cell maturation and function. Here, we examined whether (and how) changes in sperm redox milieu affect the functional status of sperm mitochondria, that is, sperm functionality. Compared with the control, incubation in Tyrode's medium for 3?h, under noncapacitating conditions, decreased sperm motility, the amount of nitric oxide (•NO), the number of MitoTracker® Green FM (MT-G) positive mitochondria, and the expression of complexes I and IV of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. In turn, superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimic (M40403) treatment restored/increased these parameters, as well as the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, manganese SOD, and catalase. These data lead to the hypothesis that M40403 improves mitochondrial functional state and motility of spermatozoa, as well as •NO might be involved in the observed effects of the mimic. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 170–178. PMID:22563824

Otasevic, Vesna; Korac, Aleksandra; Vucetic, Milica; Macanovic, Biljana; Garalejic, Eliana; Ivanovic-Burmazovic, Ivana; Filipovic, Milos R.; Buzadzic, Biljana; Stancic, Ana; Jankovic, Aleksandra; Velickovic, Ksenija; Golic, Igor; Markelic, Milica

2013-01-01

28

p,p?-DDE activates CatSper and compromises human sperm function at environmentally relevant concentrations  

PubMed Central

STUDY QUESTION Is the environmental endocrine disruptor p,p?-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p?-DDE) able to induce non-genomic changes in human sperm and consequently affect functional sperm parameters? SUMMARY ANSWER p,p?-DDE promoted Ca2+ flux into human sperm by activating CatSper channels even at doses found in human reproductive fluids, ultimately compromising sperm parameters important for fertilization. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY p,p?-DDE may promote non-genomic actions and interact directly with pre-existing signaling pathways, as already observed in other cell types. However, although often found in both male and female reproductive fluids, its effects on human spermatozoa function are not known. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION Normozoospermic sperm samples from healthy individuals were included in this study. Samples were exposed to several p,p?-DDE concentrations for 3 days at 37°C and 5% CO2 in vitro to mimic the putative continuous exposure to this toxicant in the female reproductive tract in vivo. Shorter p,p?-DDE incubation periods were also performed in order to monitor sperm rapid Ca2+ responses. All experiments were repeated on a minimum of five sperm samples from different individuals. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS All healthy individuals were recruited at the Biosciences School, University of Birmingham, the Medical Research Institute, University of Dundee and in the Human Reproduction Service at University Hospitals of Coimbra. Intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) was monitored by imaging single spermatozoa loaded with Oregon Green BAPTA-1AM and further whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were performed to validate our results. Sperm viability and acrosomal integrity were assessed using the LIVE/DEAD sperm vitality kit and the acrosomal content marker PSA-FITC, respectively. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE p,p?-DDE rapidly increased [Ca2+]i (P < 0.05) even at extremely low doses (1 pM and 1 nM), with magnitudes of response up to 200%, without affecting sperm viability, except after 3 days of continuous exposure to the highest concentration tested (P < 0.05). Furthermore, experiments performed in a low Ca2+ medium demonstrated that extracellular Ca2+ influx was responsible for this Ca2+ increase (P < 0.01). Mibefradil and NNC 55-0396, both inhibitors of the sperm-specific CatSper channel, reversed the p,p?-DDE-induced [Ca2+]i rise, suggesting the participation of CatSper in this process (P < 0.05). In fact, whole-cell patch-clamp recordings confirmed CatSper as a target of p,p?-DDE action by monitoring an increase in CatSper currents of >100% (P < 0.01). Finally, acrosomal integrity was adversely affected after 2 days of exposure to p,p?-DDE concentrations, suggesting that [Ca2+]i rise may cause premature acrosome reaction (P < 0.05). LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION This is an in vitro study, and caution must be taken when extrapolating the results. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS A novel non-genomic p,p?-DDE mechanism specific to sperm is shown in this study. p,p?-DDE was able to induce [Ca2+]i rise in human sperm through the opening of CatSper consequently compromising male fertility. The promiscuous nature of CatSper activation may predispose human sperm to the action of some persistent endocrine disruptors. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S) The study was supported by both the Portuguese National Science Foundation (FCT; PEst-C/SAU/LA0001/2011) and the UK Wellcome Trust (Grant #86470). SM was supported by the Infertility Research Trust. RST is a recipient of a PhD fellowship from FCT (SFRH/BD/46002/2008). None of the authors has any conflict of interest to declare. PMID:24067601

Tavares, Renata S.; Mansell, Steven; Barratt, Christopher L.R.; Wilson, Stuart M.; Publicover, Stephen J.; Ramalho-Santos, Joao

2013-01-01

29

Positive selection in the adhesion domain of Mus sperm Adam genes through gene duplications and function-driven gene complex formations  

PubMed Central

Background Sperm and testes-expressed Adam genes have been shown to undergo bouts of positive selection in mammals. Despite the pervasiveness of positive selection signals, it is unclear what has driven such selective bouts. The fact that only sperm surface Adam genes show signals of positive selection within their adhesion domain has led to speculation that selection might be driven by species-specific adaptations to fertilization or sperm competition. Alternatively, duplications and neofunctionalization of Adam sperm surface genes, particularly as it is now understood in rodents, might have contributed to an acceleration of evolutionary rates and possibly adaptive diversification. Results Here we sequenced and conducted tests of selection within the adhesion domain of sixteen known sperm-surface Adam genes among five species of the Mus genus. We find evidence of positive selection associated with all six Adam genes known to interact to form functional complexes on Mus sperm. A subset of these complex-forming sperm genes also displayed accelerated branch evolution with Adam5 evolving under positive selection. In contrast to our previous findings in primates, selective bouts within Mus sperm Adams showed no associations to proxies of sperm competition. Expanded phylogenetic analysis including sequence data from other placental mammals allowed us to uncover ancient and recent episodes of adaptive evolution. Conclusions The prevailing signals of rapid divergence and positive selection detected within the adhesion domain of interacting sperm Adams is driven by duplications and potential neofunctionalizations that are in some cases ancient (Adams 2, 3 and 5) or more recent (Adams 1b, 4b and 6). PMID:24079728

2013-01-01

30

METHOD OF SPERM COLLECTION SIGNIFICANTLY INFLUENCES SPERM MOTION PARAMETERS FOLLOWING ETHANE DIMETHANESULPHONATE ADMINISTRATION IN THE RAT  

EPA Science Inventory

Sperm motion analysis following exposure to a reproductive toxicant is one means of evaluating the functional integrity of the testes and epididymis. n this study we sought to determine whether the method used to collect sperm from the proximal cauda epididymidis, where sperm are...

31

The micronutrient supplements, zinc sulphate and folic acid, did not ameliorate sperm functional parameters in oligoasthenoteratozoospermic men.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of folic acid and zinc sulphate supplementation on the improvement of sperm function in subfertile oligoasthenoteratozoospermic (OAT) men. Eighty-three OAT men participated in a 16-week intervention randomised, double-blind clinical trial with daily treatment of folic acid (5 mg day(-1) ) and zinc sulphate (220 mg day(-1) ), or placebo. Before and after treatment, semen and blood samples were obtained for determining sperm concentration, motility, and morphology, sperm viability, sperm mitochondrial function, sperm chromatin status using toluidine blue, aniline blue, acridine orange and chromomycin A3 staining; and semen and blood folate, zinc, B12 , total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations. Sperm concentration (×10(6)  ml(-1) ) increased in subfertile men receiving the combined treatment of folic acid and zinc sulphate and also in the group receiving only folic acid treatment; however, it was not statistically significant (P = 0.056 and P = 0.05, respectively). Sperm chromatin integrity (%) increased significantly in subfertile men receiving only zinc sulphate treatment (P = 0.048). However, this improvement in sperm quality was not significant after adjusting placebo effect. This study showed that zinc sulphate and folic acid supplementation did not ameliorate sperm quality in infertile men with severely compromised sperm parameters, OAT. Male infertility is a multifactorial disorder, and also nutritional factors play an important role in results of administration of supplementation on sperm parameters. However, these results should be confirmed by multiple studies in larger populations of OAT men. PMID:24147895

Raigani, M; Yaghmaei, B; Amirjannti, N; Lakpour, N; Akhondi, M M; Zeraati, H; Hajihosseinal, M; Sadeghi, M R

2014-11-01

32

Effects of antiepileptic drugs on reproductive endocrine function, sexual function and sperm parameters in Chinese Han men with epilepsy.  

PubMed

The effects of the antiepileptic drugs sodium valproate (VPA) and levetiracetam (LEV) on reproductive endocrine function, sexual function, and spermatozoa were explored, together with their possible etiological mechanisms, in Chinese Han men with epilepsy. Following VPA treatment (n=32), luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone levels were significantly lower than in controls (n=30). The bioactive testosterone/luteinizing hormone ratio and the prolactin level were significantly elevated in the VPA treatment group. There were no significant differences in these hormones between the LEV treatment (n=20) and control groups. The rates of sperm morphologic abnormality (head, body, and tail) were significantly higher in the VPA treatment group than the control group but did not differ significantly between the LEV treatment and control groups. The sperm motility rate was significantly lower in the VPA treatment group (grade A sperm motility rate <25%, grade A+B sperm motility rate <50%) than in controls, as well as in the LEV treatment group (grade A sperm motility rate <25%). Patients in the VPA and LEV treatment groups had lower scores on questions 1, 2 and 3 of a simplified International Index of Erectile Function Scale than controls, but no significant difference on questions 4 or 5. The total International Index of Erectile Function Scale scores were significantly lower in the VPA and LEV treatment groups. We conclude that treatment with VPA adversely affects reproductive endocrine function, sperm parameters and sexual function to varying degrees in Chinese men with epilepsy. PMID:23938015

Xiaotian, Xu; Hengzhong, Zhang; Yao, Xu; Zhipan, Zhao; Daoliang, Xu; Yumei, Wu

2013-11-01

33

Cytotoxic Effects of Benzene Metabolites on Human Sperm Function: An In Vitro Study  

PubMed Central

In recent years, individuals are rampantly exposed to vapours of benzene, through paint, plastic, petroleum industries, fuel exhaust, and tobacco smoke. Hence the present investigation was directed towards determining the effect of benzene metabolites, namely, phenol-hydroquinone and catechol, on the motility, viability, and nuclear integrity of the human spermatozoa. From the results obtained it was clear that exposure to phenol-hydroquinone caused a significant decline in both, sperm motility and viability. Exposure to a phenol-hydroquinone (Phase I) microenvironment may therefore inhibit metabolically active enzymes, thus impeding ATP production, and in turn lowers sperm motility and viability. In addition, the present study also revealed that both metabolites of benzene caused significant denaturation of sperm nuclear DNA. Hence, exposure to phenol-hydroquinone in vitro could have resulted in generation of free radicals and altered membrane function, which is reflected by a decline in the motility, viability, and loss of sperm nuclear DNA integrity. In Phase II, the exposure of human sperm in vitro to varied concentrations of catechol caused only insignificant changes in sperm motility and viability as compared to those observed on exposure to phenol-hydroquinone. Hence, exposure to catechol appeared to have less toxic effects than those of phenol-hydroquinone. PMID:24416599

Mandani, Priyanka; Desai, Ketki; Highland, Hyacinth

2013-01-01

34

SIGNIFICANCE OF INCORPORATING MEASURES OF SPERM PRODUCTION AND FUNCTION INTO RAT TOXICOLOGY STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The rat is the preferred species for reproductive toxicity testing. The inclusion of measures of rat sperm quality, such as motility and morphology, into reproductive test protocols often increases the sensitivity of the test to detect effects, and provides the toxicologist and ...

35

An in vitro study of the effect of mifepristone and ulipristal acetate on human sperm functions.  

PubMed

Ulipristal acetate (UPA) and mifepristone are currently well-established agents for emergency contraception. Both drugs are selective progestogen receptor modulators which have been shown to have better efficacy than the widely used levonorgestrel in prevention of pregnancy. However, there is only limited information on the action of UPA on sperm function. The present study compared the in vitro biological effects of mifepristone and UPA on human sperm functions. Spermatozoa from semen samples with normal semen parameters were isolated. Capacitated spermatozoa were pre-incubated with 0.04, 0.4, 4 and 40 ?m mifepristone or UPA for 1 h. Sperm motility, viability, DNA integrity, capacitation, spontaneous acrosome reaction, spontaneous hyperactivation, zona pellucida (ZP) binding capability and intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+) ]i ) were determined. The effects of mifepristone and UPA on progesterone-induced acrosome reaction, hyperactivation and [Ca(2+) ]i were also studied. Our results showed that mifepristone and UPA dose-dependently suppressed progesterone-induced acrosome reaction, hyperactivation and [Ca(2+) ]i at concentrations ?0.4 ?m in human spermatozoa. Both compounds did not affect sperm motility, viability, DNA integrity, capacitation, spontaneous acrosome reaction, spontaneous hyperactivation, ZP binding capability and [Ca(2+) ]i . This study demonstrated that UPA and mifepristone modulate human sperm functions by acting as progesterone antagonists. The results enable us to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms by which mifepristone and UPA work for emergency contraception, and provide a scientific basis for their clinical application. PMID:25168311

Ko, J K Y; Huang, V W; Li, R H W; Yeung, W S B; Ho, P C; Chiu, P C N

2014-11-01

36

Is the function of the porcine sperm reservoir restricted to the ovulatory period?  

PubMed

The uterotubal junction (UTJ) and caudal isthmus are recognized as a functional pre-ovulatory sperm reservoir (SR). Spermatozoa are released from the SR in a complex and concerted action. However, whether this functionality is restricted only to the ovulatory period is still open to debate. Our study was aimed to analyze the presence of spermatozoa within the UTJ (SR), isthmus (ISTH) and ampulla (AMP) after laparoscopic intrauterine insemination (LIUI) either in the peri- (PERI) or post-ovulatory (POST) period or at mid cycle (MID). Each uterine horn of estrus synchronized gilts (n=12) was inseminated with 20 ml sperm (29.5×10(6) cells/ml). Oviducts were recovered 7 h after LIUI and separated into the UTJ, ISTH and AMP, and sections were flushed with 10 ml PBS+EDTA solution. After centrifugation, the sperm pellet was evaluated by ?e?ovský staining. The median sperm numbers in the PERI, POST and MID groups were 578, 171 and 789 in the UTJ; 545, 233 and 713 in the ISTH; and 496, 280 and 926 in the AMP, respectively, and there were differences between the POST and MID groups (P<0.05) but not between the oviductal sections of each group (P>0.05). Compared with the MID group, the percent of intact sperm cells was higher (P<0.01) in the PERI and POST groups (32.8 vs. 66.4 and 76.8%). Also, the percentages of aberrations in the acrosome and tail were higher (P<0.05) in the MID group. Based on this, it can be assumed that the sperm reservoir is active during different phases of the estrus cycle. However, the mid-cycle oviduct environment considerably impairs sperm cell quality. PMID:24964752

Brüssow, Klaus-Peter; Egerszegi, Istvan; Rátky, Jozsef

2014-10-23

37

Flow cytometry for the assessment of animal sperm integrity and functionality: state of the art  

PubMed Central

Flow cytometry is now a recognized methodology within animal spermatology, and has moved from being a research tool to become routine in the assessment of animal semen destined to breeding. The availability of ‘bench-top' flow cytometers and of newer and versatile markers for cell structure and function had allowed the instrumentation to measure more sperm parameters, from viability to reactiveness when exposed to exogenous stimuli, and to increase our capabilities to sort spermatozoa for potential fertilizing capacity, or chromosomal sex. The present review summarizes the state of the art regarding flow cytometry applied to animal andrology, albeit keeping an open comparative intent. It critically evaluates the present and future capabilities of flow cytometry for the diagnostics of potential fertility and for the development of current reproductive technologies such as sperm freezing, sperm selection and sperm sorting. The flow cytometry methods will probably further revolutionize our understanding of the sperm physiology and their functionality, and will undoubtedly extend its application in isolating many uncharacterized features of spermatozoa. However, continuous follow-up of the methods is a necessity owing to technical developments and the complexity of mapping spermatozoa. PMID:21478895

Hossain, Md. Sharoare; Johannisson, Anders; Wallgren, Margareta; Nagy, Szabolcs; Siqueira, Amanda Pimenta; Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto

2011-01-01

38

Metabolic Substrates Exhibit Differential Effects on Functional Parameters of Mouse Sperm Capacitation1  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Although substantial evidence exists that sperm ATP production via glycolysis is required for mammalian sperm function and male fertility, conflicting reports involving multiple species have appeared regarding the ability of individual glycolytic or mitochondrial substrates to support the physiological changes that occur during capacitation. Several mouse models with defects in the signaling pathways required for capacitation exhibit reductions in sperm ATP levels, suggesting regulatory interactions between sperm metabolism and signal transduction cascades. To better understand these interactions, we conducted quantitative studies of mouse sperm throughout a 2-h in vitro capacitation period and compared the effects of single substrates assayed under identical conditions. Multiple glycolytic and nonglycolytic substrates maintained sperm ATP levels and comparable percentages of motility, but only glucose and mannose supported hyperactivation. These monosaccharides and fructose supported the full pattern of tyrosine phosphorylation, whereas nonglycolytic substrates supported at least partial tyrosine phosphorylation. Inhibition of glycolysis impaired motility in the presence of glucose, fructose, or pyruvate but not in the presence of hydroxybutyrate. Addition of an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation reduced motility with pyruvate or hydroxybutyrate as substrates but unexpectedly stimulated hyperactivation with fructose. Investigating differences between glucose and fructose in more detail, we demonstrated that hyperactivation results from the active metabolism of glucose. Differences between glucose and fructose appeared to be downstream of changes in intracellular pH, which rose to comparable levels during incubation with either substrate. Sperm redox pathways were differentially affected, with higher levels of associated metabolites and reactive oxygen species generated during incubations with fructose than during incubations with glucose. PMID:22837480

Goodson, Summer G.; Qiu, Yunping; Sutton, Keith A.; Xie, Guoxiang; Jia, Wei; O'Brien, Deborah A.

2012-01-01

39

Methyl-parathion decreases sperm function and fertilization capacity after targeting spermatocytes and maturing spermatozoa  

SciTech Connect

Paternal germline exposure to organophosphorous pesticides (OP) has been associated with reproductive failures and adverse effects in the offspring. Methyl parathion (Me-Pa), a worldwide-used OP, has reproductive adverse effects and is genotoxic to sperm. Oxidative damage has been involved in the genotoxic and reproductive effects of OP. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of Me-Pa on spermatozoa function and ability to fertilize. Male mice were exposed to Me-Pa (20 mg/kg bw, i.p.) and spermatozoa from epididymis-vas deferens were collected at 7 or 28 days post-treatment (dpt) to assess the effects on maturing spermatozoa and spermatocytes, respectively. DNA damage was evaluated by nick translation (NT-positive cells) and SCSA (percentDFI); lipoperoxidation (LPO) by malondialdehyde production; sperm function by spontaneous- and induced-acrosome reactions (AR); mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) by using the JC-1 flurochrome; and, fertilization ability by an in vitro assay and in vivo mating. Results showed alterations in DNA integrity (percentDFI and NT-positive cells) at 7 and 28 dpt, in addition to decreased sperm quality and a decrease in induced-AR; reduced MMP and LPO was observed only at 7 dpt. We found negative correlations between LPO and all sperm alterations. Altered sperm functional parameters were associated with reduced fertilization rates at both times, evaluated either in vitro or in vivo. These results show that Me-Pa exposure of maturing spermatozoa and spermatocytes affects many sperm functional parameters that result in a decreased fertilizing capacity. Oxidative stress seems to be a likely mechanism ofthe detrimental effects of Me-Pa in male germ cells.

Pina-Guzman, Belem; Sanchez-Gutierrez, M.; Marchetti, Francesco; Hernandez-Ochoa, I.; Solis-Heredia, M.J .; Quintanilla-Vega, B.

2009-05-03

40

Semen Quality and Sperm Function Loss by Hypercholesterolemic Diet Was Recovered by Addition of Olive Oil to Diet in Rabbit  

PubMed Central

Fat increment (0.05% cholesterol, chol) in standard diet promoted a significant increase in serum and sperm membrane chol, which ultimately altered membrane-coupled sperm specific functions: osmotic resistance, acrosomal reaction, and sperm capacitation in White New Zealand rabbits. These changes were also associated with a reduction in motility percentage and appearance of abnormal sperm morphology. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of dietary olive oil (OO, 7% v/w) administration to several male hypercholesterolemic rabbits (hypercholesterolemic rabbits, HCR) with altered fertility parameters. These HCR males were achieved by feeding normal rabbits with a high-fat diet (0.05% chol). HCR were associated with a modest non-significant increase in body weight (standard diet, 4.08±0.17 Kg, versus high-fat diet, 4.37±0.24 Kg). Hypercholesterolemic rabbits presented a marked decrease in semen volume, sperm cell count, and percentage of sperm motility, associated with a significant increase in sperm cell abnormalities. Moreover, sperm capacitation measured by the characteristic phosphorylated protein pattern in and induced acrosomal reaction were also altered suggesting sperm dysfunction. However, the administration of OO (for 16 weeks) to rabbits that were fed with 50% of the high-fat diet normalized serum chol. Curiously, OO supply succeeded to attenuate the seminal and sperm alterations observed in HCR group. Administration of OO alone did not cause any significant changes in above mentioned parameters. These data suggest that OO administration to HCR male rabbits recovers the loss of semen quality and sperm functionality. PMID:23326331

Romero, Aida A.; Funes, Abi K.; Cid-Barria, Macarena; Cabrillana, María E.; Monclus, María A.; Simón, Layla; Vicenti, Amanda E.; Fornés, Miguel W.

2013-01-01

41

The use of the hypo-osmotic swelling test, water test, and supravital staining in the evaluation of drone sperm  

E-print Network

of drone sperm Zekariya NUR 1 , Selvinar SEVEN-CAKMAK 2 , Burcu USTUNER 1 , Ibrahim CAKMAK 3 , Melih ERTURK was obtained from mature drones (16 days or older) collected from four colonies. The means of the per-drone evaluation in mammals. bee semen / HOS test / water test / viability 1. INTRODUCTION The quality of drone

42

The relationship between sperm morphology and chromatin integrity in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) as assessed by the Sperm Chromatin Dispersion test (SCDt).  

PubMed

Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) sperm nuclei show a tendency to swell after cryopreservation, but it is uncertain whether this phenomenon is associated with DNA fragmentation. In this study, we validated a modified version of the sperm chromatin dispersion test (SCDt) for use with koala spermatozoa, which is the first use of the test for a marsupial. Cryopreserved spermatozoa (multiple straws) from a single koala were used to explore the relationship between sperm morphology, viability, chromatin dispersion, and DNA fragmentation. A SCDt prototype kit (Sperm Halomax) was specifically developed for koala spermatozoa with the use of a lysing solution that did not contain dithiothreitol. DNA fragmentation of lysed and nonlysed spermatozoa was examined in microgel slides and validated by means of in situ nick translation (ISNT). The SCDt was then applied to the analysis of extended and frozen-thawed semen samples of 3 different koalas. Spermatozoa were classified into 3 distinct koala sperm morphotypes (KSMs) after the SCDt: 1) KSM-1, rod-shaped cells with no halo of DNA; 2) KSM-2, rounded nuclei with various degrees of halo formation about a dense chromatin core; and 3) KSM-3, rod-shaped or rounded nuclei consisting of an inner chromatin core but with large dispersed halos of stellar chromatin. Although ISNT after the SCDt did not label KSM-1, both KSM-2 and KSM-3 stained positively for DNA fragmentation. ISNT was not able to differentiate between KSM-2 and KSM-3. Although application of the SCDt to the spermatozoa of another 3 koalas showed no difference in the percentage of the 3 sperm morphotypes found between extended and frozen-thawed semen, thawed spermatozoa incubated at 35 degrees C for 2 hours showed an increase in the incidence of KSM-3 and a corresponding decrease in KSM-2. We propose that KSM-1 and KSM-2 represent nuclei that show either no, or only limited, sperm DNA fragmentation, respectively. It is likely that the halos formed around KSM-2 are from DNA that is damaged as part of the normal processing of the spermatozoa and is a consequence of the lack of cysteine residues and associated stabilizing disulfide bonds in marsupial sperm DNA. "True" sperm DNA damage is most likely associated with KSM-3, which shows a massive dispersion of chromatin similar to that described in other species. A model of koala sperm chromatin structure is proposed to explain the behavior of the sperm nuclei after the SCDt. Further studies are required to determine whether DNA damage found in KSM-2 is indicative of single-stranded DNA breakage associated with an inherent lack of cysteine residues in marsupial sperm chromatin. Conversely, it will also be important to establish whether KSM-3 is caused by an increased incidence of double-stranded DNA breakage and whether this abnormality is correlated with impaired fertility as it is in other species. PMID:17609294

Johnston, Stephen D; López-Fernández, Carmen; Gosálbez, Altea; Zee, Yengpeng; Holt, William V; Allen, Camryn; Gosálvez, Jaime

2007-01-01

43

Long-term effects of triptolide on spermatogenesis, epididymal sperm function, and fertility in male rats.  

PubMed

Prior studies had suggested that triptolide, a diterpene triepoxide isolated from a Chinese medicinal plant, might be an attractive candidate as a post-testicular male contraceptive agent. Despite the promise that triptolide would not affect testis function, nagging concerns remained that a delayed onset of testicular effect might exist. The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of relatively longer treatment duration of triptolide on fertility, spermatogenesis, and epididymal sperm pathophysiology; and to evaluate the reversibility of these effects after the cessation of treatment. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed daily with either 30% gum acacia as a vehicle control (n = 12) or 100 microg/kg body weight (BW) of triptolide for 82 days (n = 12) followed by a recovery period of up to 14 weeks (n = 6). At the end of the treatment period, all rats treated with triptolide were sterile. Cauda epididymal sperm content decreased by 84.8% and sperm motility was reduced to zero. In addition, virtually all cauda epididymal sperm in the triptolide-treated group exhibited severe structural abnormalities. The most striking changes observed were head-tail separation, premature chromatin decondensation of sperm nuclei, a complete absence of the plasma membrane of the entire middle and principle pieces, disorganization of the mitochondrial sheath, and aggregation of many sperm tails. Longer treatment duration of triptolide also affected spermatogenesis, with marked variability in the response of individual animals. The degree of damage ranged from apparently normal-looking seminiferous tubules to flattened seminiferous epithelium lined by a single layer of cells consisting of Sertoli cells and a few spermatogonia. Affected tubules exhibited intraepithelial vacuoles of varying sizes, multinucleated giant cells, germ cell exfoliation, and tubular atrophy. Recovery occurred as early as 6 weeks after cessation of treatment. By 14 weeks, 4 out of 6 triptolide-treated males were fertile and the females that were impregnated by 3 out of 4 triptolide-treated male rats produced apparently normal litters. These results suggest that triptolide has 2 phenotypic effects on mature and maturing germ cells. The first action appears earlier and manifests mainly in epididymal sperm. The second action presumably is directly on germ cells in testis and causes a variable impairment of spermatogenesis that may not be completely reversible. It is unclear if the earlier effect is a delayed manifestation of subtle testicular injury or post-testicular action. PMID:10975416

Huynh, P N; Hikim, A P; Wang, C; Stefonovic, K; Lue, Y H; Leung, A; Atienza, V; Baravarian, S; Reutrakul, V; Swerdloff, R S

2000-01-01

44

Hyaluronidase 2: a novel germ cell hyaluronidase with epididymal expression and functional roles in Mammalian sperm.  

PubMed

To initiate the crucial cell adhesion events necessary for fertilization, sperm must penetrate extracellular matrix barriers containing hyaluronic acid (HA), a task thought to be accomplished by neutral-active hyaluronidases. Here we report that the ?57 kDa hyaluronidase 2 (HYAL2) that in somatic tissues has been highly characterized to be acid-active is present in mouse and human sperm, as detected by Western blot, flow cytometric, and immunoprecipitation assays. Immunofluorescence revealed its presence on the plasma membrane over the acrosome, the midpiece, and proximal principal piece in mice where protein fractionation demonstrated a differential distribution in subcellular compartments. It is significantly more abundant in the acrosome-reacted (P = 0.04) and soluble acrosomal fractions (P = 0.006) (microenvironments where acid-active hyaluronidases function) compared to that of the plasma membrane where neutral hyaluronidases mediate cumulus penetration. Using HA substrate gel electrophoresis, immunoprecipitated HYAL 2 was shown to have catalytic activity at pH 4.0. Colocalization and coimmunoprecipitation assays reveal that HYAL2 is associated with its cofactor, CD44, consistent with CD44-dependent HYAL2 activity. HYAL2 is also present throughout the epididymis, where Hyal2 transcripts were detected, and in the epididymal luminal fluids. In vitro assays demonstrated that HYAL2 can be acquired on the sperm membrane from epididymal luminal fluids, suggesting that it plays a role in epididymal maturation. Because similar biphasic kinetics are seen for HYAL2 and SPAM1 (Sperm adhesion molecule 1), it is likely that HYAL2 plays a redundant role in the catalysis of megadalton HA to its 20 kDa intermediate during fertilization. PMID:25232017

Modelski, Mark J; Menlah, Gladys; Wang, Yipei; Dash, Soma; Wu, Kathie; Galileo, Deni S; Martin-DeLeon, Patricia A

2014-11-01

45

Fenitrothion induced oxidative stress and morphological alterations of sperm and testes in male sprague-dawley rats  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Fenitrothion residue is found primarily in soil, water and food products and can lead to a variety of toxic effects on the immune, hepatobiliary and hematological systems. However, the effects of fenitrothion on the male reproductive system remain unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of fenitrothion on the sperm and testes of male Sprague-Dawley rats. METHODS: A 20 mg/kg dose of fenitrothion was administered orally by gavages for 28 consecutive days. Blood sample was obtained by cardiac puncture and dissection of the testes and cauda epididymis was performed to obtain sperm. The effects of fenitrothion on the body and organ weight, biochemical and oxidative stress, sperm characteristics, histology and ultrastructural changes in the testes were evaluated. RESULTS: Fenitrothion significantly decreased the body weight gain and weight of the epididymis compared with the control group. Fenitrothion also decreased plasma cholinesterase activity compared with the control group. Fenitrothion altered the sperm characteristics, such as sperm concentration, sperm viability and normal sperm morphology, compared with the control group. Oxidative stress markers, such as malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl, total glutathione and glutathione S-transferase, were significantly increased and superoxide dismutase activity was significantly decreased in the fenitrothion-treated group compared with the control group. The histopathological and ultrastructural examination of the testes of the fenitrothion-treated group revealed alterations corresponding with the biochemical changes compared with the control group. CONCLUSION: A 20 mg/kg dose of fenitrothion caused deleterious effects on the sperm and testes of Sprague-Dawley rats. PMID:23420164

Taib, Izatus Shima; Budin, Siti Balkis; Ghazali, Ahmad Rohi; Jayusman, Putri Ayu; Louis, Santhana Raj; Mohamed, Jamaludin

2013-01-01

46

Selection of functional human sperm with higher DNA integrity and fewer reactive oxygen species.  

PubMed

Fertilization and reproduction are central to the survival and propagation of a species. Couples who cannot reproduce naturally have to undergo in vitro clinical procedures. An integral part of these clinical procedures includes isolation of healthy sperm from raw semen. Existing sperm sorting methods are not efficient and isolate sperm having high DNA fragmentation and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and suffer from multiple manual steps and variations between operators. Inspired by in vivo natural sperm sorting mechanisms where vaginal mucus becomes less viscous to form microchannels to guide sperm towards egg, a chip is presented that efficiently sorts healthy, motile and morphologically normal sperm without centrifugation. Higher percentage of sorted sperm show significantly lesser ROS and DNA fragmentation than the conventional swim-up method. The presented chip is an easy-to-use high-throughput sperm sorter that provides standardized sperm sorting assay with less reliance on operators's skills, facilitating reliable operational steps. PMID:24753434

Asghar, Waseem; Velasco, Vanessa; Kingsley, James L; Shoukat, Muhammad S; Shafiee, Hadi; Anchan, Raymond M; Mutter, George L; Tüzel, Erkan; Demirci, Utkan

2014-10-01

47

Andrology Lab Corner* The Clinical Implementation of Sperm Chromosome Aneuploidy Testing: Pitfalls and Promises  

Microsoft Academic Search

Severe male infertility has been shown to be associated with improper meiotic recombination and elevated sperm chromosome aneuploidy. Elevated sperm aneuploidy increases the risk of embryo lethality or fetal anomalies. Although difficulties in interpreting aneuploidy data still exist, advances in fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technology have facilitated the study of sperm from patients with severe spermatogenesis defects, which has

DOUGLAS T. CARRELL

48

Leukocytes and oxidative stress: dilemma for sperm function and male fertility  

PubMed Central

Spermatozoa are constantly exposed to the interphase between oxidation through high amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and leukocytes, and reduction by means of scavengers and antioxidants. Considering the very special functions as being the only cells with such high polarization and exerting their functions outside the body, even in a different individual, the female genital tract, the membranes of these cells are chemically composed of an extraordinary high amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids. This in turn, renders them very susceptible to oxidative stress, which is defined as an imbalance between oxidation and reduction towards the oxidative status. As a result, ROS deriving from both leukocytes and the male germ cells themselves cause a process called ‘lipid peroxidation' and other damages to the sperm cell. On the other hand, a certain limited amount of ROS is essential in order to trigger vital physiological reactions in cells, including capacitation or the acrosome reaction in sperm. The treatment of patients with antioxidants to compensate the oxidative status caused by oxidative stress is highly debated as uncontrolled antioxidative treatment might derail the system towards the reduced status, which is also unphysiological and can even induce cancer. This paradox is called the ‘antioxidant paradox'. Therefore, a proper andrological diagnostic work-up, including the evaluation of ROS levels and the antioxidant capacity of the semen, has to be carried out beforehand, aimed at keeping the fine balance between oxidation and scavenging of vital amounts of ROS. PMID:21076433

Henkel, Ralf R

2011-01-01

49

Kidney function tests  

MedlinePLUS

Kidney function tests are common lab tests used to evaluate how well the kidneys are working. Such tests include: ... 2011:chap 8. Oh MS. Evaluation of renal function, water, electrolytes and acid-base balance. In: McPherson ...

50

Clomiphene citrate challenge test in the assessment of ovarian reserve before controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for intracytoplasmic sperm injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of clomiphene citrate (CC) challenge test to predict diminished ovarian reserve before controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). The 198 women who underwent the CC challenge test fulfilled the following criteria: over 35 years of age, removal of one ovary or previous ovarian surgery, the presence of ovarian

Semra Kahraman; Kubilay Vicdan; Ahmet Z I?ik; Osman D Özgün; Levent Alaybeyo?lu; Gurur Polat; Kutay Bibero?lu

1997-01-01

51

Melatonin improve the sperm quality in forced swimming test induced oxidative stress in nandrolone treated Wistar rats.  

PubMed

This study investigates the effects of melatonin on the sperm quality and testis weight after the combination of swimming exercise and nandrolone decanoate (DECA). Two groups of male Wistar rats were treated for eight weeks as follows; group A consist of CO (control), Sham, N (DECA), S (swimming) and NS (DECA plus swimming); and group B: Sham M (sham melatonin), M (melatonin), MN (melatonin plus DECA), MS (melatonin plus swimming), MNS (melatonin, DECA plus swimming). The motility of sperm was significantly improved in melatonin groups in comparison to N, S and NS groups (P?0.05).  The left testes weight was decreased in N, NS and MNS groups, and the right testes weight was decreased in N,S,NS, MS and MNS groups in compare with the control group. This study concluded that melatonin probably could improve the sperm motility and sex organs weight after the combination of DECA and exercise. PMID:25135257

Minaii, Bagher; Moayeri, Ardeshir; Shokri, Saeed; Habibi Roudkenar, Mehryar; Golmohammadi, Taghi; Malek, Fatemeh; Barbarestani, Mohammad

2014-01-01

52

Patch clamp studies of human sperm under physiological ionic conditions reveal three functionally and pharmacologically distinct cation channels  

PubMed Central

Whilst fertilizing capacity depends upon a K+ conductance (GK) that allows the spermatozoon membrane potential (Vm) to be held at a negative value, the characteristics of this conductance in human sperm are virtually unknown. We therefore studied the biophysical/pharmacological properties of the K+ conductance in spermatozoa from normal donors held under voltage/current clamp in the whole cell recording configuration. Our standard recording conditions were designed to maintain quasi-physiological, Na+, K+ and Cl? gradients. Experiments that explored the effects of ionic substitution/ion channel blockers upon membrane current/potential showed that resting Vm was dependent upon a hyperpolarizing K+ current that flowed via channels that displayed only weak voltage dependence and limited (?7-fold) K+ versus Na+ selectivity. This conductance was blocked by quinidine (0.3 mM), bupivacaine (3 mM) and clofilium (50 µM), NNC55-0396 (2 µM) and mibefradil (30 µM), but not by 4-aminopyridine (2 mM, 4-AP). Progesterone had no effect upon the hyperpolarizing K+ current. Repolarization after a test depolarization consistently evoked a transient inward ‘tail current’ (ITail) that flowed via a second population of ion channels with poor (?3-fold) K+ versus Na+ selectivity. The activity of these channels was increased by quinidine, 4-AP and progesterone. Vm in human sperm is therefore dependent upon a hyperpolarizing K+ current that flows via channels that most closely resemble those encoded by Slo3. Although 0.5 µM progesterone had no effect upon these channels, this hormone did activate the pharmacologically distinct channels that mediate ITail. In conclusion, this study reveals three functionally and pharmacologically distinct cation channels: Ik, ITail, ICatSper. PMID:24442342

Mansell, S.A.; Publicover, S.J.; Barratt, C.L.R.; Wilson, S.M.

2014-01-01

53

Patch clamp studies of human sperm under physiological ionic conditions reveal three functionally and pharmacologically distinct cation channels.  

PubMed

Whilst fertilizing capacity depends upon a K(+) conductance (GK) that allows the spermatozoon membrane potential (Vm) to be held at a negative value, the characteristics of this conductance in human sperm are virtually unknown. We therefore studied the biophysical/pharmacological properties of the K(+) conductance in spermatozoa from normal donors held under voltage/current clamp in the whole cell recording configuration. Our standard recording conditions were designed to maintain quasi-physiological, Na(+), K(+) and Cl(-) gradients. Experiments that explored the effects of ionic substitution/ion channel blockers upon membrane current/potential showed that resting Vm was dependent upon a hyperpolarizing K(+) current that flowed via channels that displayed only weak voltage dependence and limited (?7-fold) K(+) versus Na(+) selectivity. This conductance was blocked by quinidine (0.3 mM), bupivacaine (3 mM) and clofilium (50 µM), NNC55-0396 (2 µM) and mibefradil (30 µM), but not by 4-aminopyridine (2 mM, 4-AP). Progesterone had no effect upon the hyperpolarizing K(+) current. Repolarization after a test depolarization consistently evoked a transient inward 'tail current' (ITail) that flowed via a second population of ion channels with poor (?3-fold) K(+) versus Na(+) selectivity. The activity of these channels was increased by quinidine, 4-AP and progesterone. Vm in human sperm is therefore dependent upon a hyperpolarizing K(+) current that flows via channels that most closely resemble those encoded by Slo3. Although 0.5 µM progesterone had no effect upon these channels, this hormone did activate the pharmacologically distinct channels that mediate ITail. In conclusion, this study reveals three functionally and pharmacologically distinct cation channels: Ik, ITail, ICatSper. PMID:24442342

Mansell, S A; Publicover, S J; Barratt, C L R; Wilson, S M

2014-05-01

54

Prenatal testing in ICSI pregnancies: incidence of chromosomal anomalies in 1586 karyotypes and relation to sperm parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Prenatal testing was offered in all pregnancies obtained after ICSI with ejaculated or non- ejaculated sperm as part of the evaluation of the safety of ICSI. METHODS: Between 1990 and 2001, a chorionic villus sampling (CVS) or amniocentesis was offered for multiple or singleton pregnancies respectively during a genetic counselling session for all couples applying for ICSI. ICSI was

Maryse Bonduelle; Elvire Van Assche; Hubert Joris; Kathelijn Keymolen; Paul Devroey; AndreVan Steirteghem; Inge Liebaers

55

Volume regulatory function and sperm membrane dynamics as parameters for evaluating cryoprotective efficiency of a freezing extender.  

PubMed

In the past years a series of functional assays has been developed to determine the structural, morphological and functional integrity of the plasma membrane and sperm acrosomal membrane. Cell volume regulation is an important physiological function crucial for the success of cryopreservation. In this study, the effects induced by freezing-thawing were judged by evaluating the functional characteristics of frozen-thawed semen samples submitted to secondary stress such as osmotic challenge or incubation under capacitating conditions, following cryopreservation. Prior to freezing, dog semen samples were diluted in the presence or absence of Equex STM Paste, which contains sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) as the active ingredient. Cell volume regulation and capacitation and calcium ionophore-induced membrane dynamics were assessed in freshly diluted and frozen-thawed semen samples by electronic volume measurement and flow cytometry. Cryopreservation led to a disturbance of the volume regulatory function and to a rapid decrease in the proportion of acrosome-reacted live spermaotozoa. Extender containing Equex STM Paste had a protective effect on isotonic cell volume, on regulatory function under hypertonic conditions, and on the proportion of live acrosome-reacted cells. The evaluation of the functional state of sperm submitted to secondary stress after freezing-thawing leads to a more subtle characterization of sperm function and helps improve the cryoprotective efficiency of the extender. PMID:15725446

Petrunkina, A M; Gröpper, B; Töpfer-Petersen, E; Günzel-Apel, A-R

2005-03-15

56

Evolution of sperm morphology in anurans: insights into the roles of mating system and spawning location  

PubMed Central

Background The degree of postcopulatory sexual selection, comprising variable degrees of sperm competition and cryptic female choice, is an important evolutionary force to influence sperm form and function. Here we investigated the effects of mating system and spawning location on the evolution of sperm morphology in 67 species of Chinese anurans. We also examined how relative testes size as an indicator of the level of sperm competition affected variation in sperm morphology across a subset of 29 species. Results We found a significant association of mating system and spawning location with sperm morphology. However, when removing the effects of body mass or absolute testes mass for species for which such data were available, this effect became non-significant. Consistent with predictions from sperm competition theory, we found a positive correlation between sperm morphology and relative testes size after taking phylogeny into account. Conclusions Our findings suggest that sexual selection in Chinese anurans favors longer sperm when the level of sperm competition is high. Pre-copulatory male-male competition and spawning location, on the other hand, do not affect the evolution of sperm morphology after taking body mass and absolute testes mass into account. PMID:24884745

2014-01-01

57

Liver function tests  

MedlinePLUS

... the liver is working. This is called liver function. Tests include: Albumin Alpha-1 antitrypsin ALP ALT ... M, Bowne WB, Bluth MH. Evaluation of liver function. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical ...

58

Thyroid Function Tests  

MedlinePLUS

... T4 TSH Thyroid 2 Thyroid Tests Why do health care providers perform thyroid tests? Health care providers perform thyroid tests to assess how well ... at www.endocrine.niddk.nih.gov. What blood tests do health care providers use to check a person’s thyroid function? ...

59

Microscale integrated sperm sorter.  

PubMed

This chapter describes the design and fabrication of a passively driven microfluidic sperm sorter using soft lithographic microfabrication techniques. This self-contained device can separate motile sperm from nonmotile sperm and other cellular debris. The sorting system is small (coin sized) and structurally simple. It comprises two inlets; two outlets; a sorting channel; and arrays of horizontally oriented reservoirs that function as passively driven, constant-flow-rate pumps. Sperm with higher motility are sorted out from the rest of the semen samples based on their ability to swim through interfaces between adjacent laminar streams into separate streamlines, whereas the nonmotile sperm and debris remain in their initial streamlines. The device, which we call a microscale integrated sperm sorter, does not rely on any external power sources or controllers and incorporates all sample loading and sorting functions necessary to prepare high-quality sperm for in vitro fertilization. This self-contained, inexpensive, and portable device may also be useful for developing convenient sperm motility assays that can be used at the point of care or at home. PMID:16508075

Chung, Yaokuang; Zhu, Xiaoyue; Gu, Wei; Smith, Gary D; Takayama, Shuichi

2006-01-01

60

Infertile Men With Varicocele Show a High Relative Proportion of Sperm Cells With Intense Nuclear Damage Level, Evidenced by the Sperm Chromatin Dispersion Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The frequency of sperm cells with fragmented DNA was studied in a group of 18 infertile patients with varicocele and compared with those obtained in a group of 51 normozoospermic patients, 103 patients with abnormal standard semen parameters, and 22 fertile men. The spermatozoa were processed to discriminate different levels of DNA fragmentation using the HalospermT kit, an improved Sperm

MARIA ENCISO; LOURDES MURIEL; JOSELUIS FERNANDEZ; VICENTE GOYANES; ENRIQUE SEGRELLES; MERCEDES MARCOS; JUAN MANUEL MONTEJO; MANOLO ARDOY; ALBERTO PACHECO; JAIME GOSALVEZ

61

Pulmonary Function Tests  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary function tests are valuable investigations in the management of patients with suspected or previously diagnosed respiratory disease. They aid diagnosis, help monitor response to treatment and can guide decisions regarding further treatment and intervention. The interpretation of pulmonary functions tests requires knowledge of respiratory physiology. In this review we describe investigations routinely used and discuss their clinical implications. PMID:22347750

Ranu, Harpreet; Wilde, Michael; Madden, Brendan

2011-01-01

62

Gamete evolution and sperm numbers: sperm competition versus sperm limitation.  

PubMed

Both gamete competition and gamete limitation can generate anisogamy from ancestral isogamy, and both sperm competition (SC) and sperm limitation (SL) can increase sperm numbers. Here, we compare the marginal benefits due to these two components at any given population level of sperm production using the risk and intensity models in sperm economics. We show quite generally for the intensity model (where N males compete for each set of eggs) that however severe the degree of SL, if there is at least one competitor for fertilization (N - 1 ? 1), the marginal gains through SC exceed those for SL, provided that the relationship between the probability of fertilization (F) and increasing sperm numbers (x) is a concave function. In the risk model, as fertility F increases from 0 to 1.0, the threshold SC risk (the probability q that two males compete for fertilization) for SC to be the dominant force drops from 1.0 to 0. The gamete competition and gamete limitation theories for the evolution of anisogamy rely on very similar considerations: our results imply that gamete limitation could dominate only if ancestral reproduction took place in highly isolated, small spawning groups. PMID:25100694

Parker, Geoff A; Lehtonen, Jussi

2014-09-22

63

Immune Activation Reduces Sperm Quality in the Great Tit  

PubMed Central

Mounting an immune response against pathogens incurs costs to organisms by its effects on important life-history traits, such as reproductive investment and survival. As shown recently, immune activation produces large amounts of reactive species and is suggested to induce oxidative stress. Sperm are highly susceptible to oxidative stress, which can negatively impact sperm function and ultimately male fertilizing efficiency. Here we address the question as to whether mounting an immune response affects sperm quality through the damaging effects of oxidative stress. It has been demonstrated recently in birds that carotenoid-based ornaments can be reliable signals of a male's ability to protect sperm from oxidative damage. In a full-factorial design, we immune-challenged great tit males while simultaneously increasing their vitamin E availability, and assessed the effect on sperm quality and oxidative damage. We conducted this experiment in a natural population and tested the males' response to the experimental treatment in relation to their carotenoid-based breast coloration, a condition-dependent trait. Immune activation induced a steeper decline in sperm swimming velocity, thus highlighting the potential costs of an induced immune response on sperm competitive ability and fertilizing efficiency. We found sperm oxidative damage to be negatively correlated with sperm swimming velocity. However, blood resistance to a free-radical attack (a measure of somatic antioxidant capacity) as well as plasma and sperm levels of oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation) remained unaffected, thus suggesting that the observed effect did not arise through oxidative stress. Towards the end of their breeding cycle, swimming velocity of sperm of more intensely colored males was higher, which has important implications for the evolution of mate choice and multiple mating in females because females may accrue both direct and indirect benefits by mating with males having better quality sperm. PMID:21765955

Losdat, Sylvain; Richner, Heinz; Blount, Jonathan D.; Helfenstein, Fabrice

2011-01-01

64

Sperm-Associated Antigen-17 Gene Is Essential for Motile Cilia Function and Neonatal Survival  

PubMed Central

Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), resulting from defects in cilia assembly or motility, is caused by mutations in a number of genes encoding axonemal proteins. PCD phenotypes are variable, and include recurrent respiratory tract infections, bronchiectasis, hydrocephaly, situs inversus, and male infertility. We generated knockout mice for the sperm-associated antigen–17 (Spag17) gene, which encodes a central pair (CP) protein present in the axonemes of cells with “9 + 2” motile cilia or flagella. The targeting of Spag17 resulted in a severe phenotype characterized by immotile nasal and tracheal cilia, reduced clearance of nasal mucus, profound respiratory distress associated with lung fluid accumulation and disruption of the alveolar epithelium, cerebral ventricular expansion consistent with emerging hydrocephalus, failure to suckle, and neonatal demise within 12 hours of birth. Ultrastructural analysis revealed the loss of one CP microtubule in approximately one quarter of tracheal cilia axonemes, an absence of a C1 microtubule projection, and other less frequent CP structural abnormalities. SPAG6 and SPAG16 (CP proteins that interact with SPAG17) were increased in tracheal tissue from SPAG17-deficient mice. We conclude that Spag17 plays a critical role in the function and structure of motile cilia, and that neonatal lethality is likely explained by impaired airway mucociliary clearance. PMID:23418344

Teves, Maria Eugenia; Zhang, Zhibing; Costanzo, Richard M.; Henderson, Scott C.; Corwin, Frank D.; Zweit, Jamal; Sundaresan, Gobalakrishnan; Subler, Mark; Salloum, Fadi N.; Rubin, Bruce K.

2013-01-01

65

Rosmarinic acid improves function and in vitro fertilising ability of boar sperm after cryopreservation.  

PubMed

During cryopreservation, oxidative stress exerts physical and chemical changes on sperm functionality. In the present study we investigated the antioxidant effect of rosmarinic acid (RA) on quality and fertilising ability of frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa. Ejaculates collected from mature boar were cryopreserved in lactose-egg yolk buffer supplemented with different concentrations of RA (0 ?M, 26.25 ?M, 52.5 ?M and 105 ?M). Motion parameters, acrosome and plasma membrane integrity, lipoperoxidation levels, DNA oxidative damage (8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine base lesion) and in vitro fertilisation ability were evaluated. Total and progressive motility were significantly higher in experimental extenders with RA than in the control (P<0.05) at 0 and 120 min post-thawing. The plasma and acrosomal membrane integrity were improved by supplementation with 105 ?MRA (P<0.05). Negative correlation between RA and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration were determined (P<0.05). After thawing, the percentage of spermatozoa with oxidised DNA did not differ between extenders, however, at 120 and 240 min post-thawing, the samples supplemented with 105 ?MRA showed the lowest DNA oxidation rate (P<0.05). The penetration rate was significantly higher on spermatozoa cryopreserved with 105 ?MRA (P<0.05). The results suggest that RA provides a protection for boar spermatozoa against oxidative stress during cryopreservation by their antioxidant properties. PMID:25019219

Luńo, Victoria; Gil, Lydia; Olaciregui, Maite; González, Noelia; Jerez, Rodrigo Alberto; de Blas, Ignacio

2014-08-01

66

Pulmonary function tests  

MedlinePLUS

... measured to estimate the lung volume. To measure diffusion capacity , you breathe a harmless gas, called a ... on your report after pulmonary function tests include: Diffusion capacity to carbon monoxide (DLCO) Expiratory reserve volume ( ...

67

Natural Variants of C. elegans Demonstrate Defects in Both Sperm Function and Oogenesis at Elevated Temperatures  

PubMed Central

The temperature sensitivity of the germ line is conserved from nematodes to mammals. Previous studies in C. briggsae and Drosophila showed that isolates originating from temperate latitudes lose fertility at a lower temperature than strains originating from tropical latitudes. In order to investigate these relationships in C. elegans, analysis of the fertility of 22 different wild-type isolates of C. elegans isolated from equatorial, tropical and temperate regions was undertaken. It was found that there are significant temperature, genotype and temperature × genotype effects on fertility but region of isolation showed no significant effect on differences in fertility. For most isolates 100% of the population maintained fertility from 20°C to 26°C, but there was a precipitous drop in the percentage of fertile hermaphrodites at 27°C. In contrast, all isolates show a progressive decrease in brood size as temperature increases from 20°C to 26°C, followed by a brood size near zero at 27°C. Temperature shift experiments were performed to better understand the causes of high temperature loss of fertility. Males up-shifted to high temperature maintained fertility, while males raised at high temperature lost fertility. Down-shifting males raised at high temperature generally did not restore fertility. This result differs from that observed in Drosophila and suggested that in C. elegans spermatogenesis or sperm function is irreversibly impaired in males that develop at high temperature. Mating and down-shifting experiments with hermaphrodites were performed to investigate the relative contributions of spermatogenic and oogenic defects to high temperature loss of fertility. It was found that the hermaphrodites of all isolates demonstrated loss in both spermatogenic and oogenic germ lines that differed in their relative contribution by isolate. These studies uncovered unexpectedly high variation in both the loss of fertility and problems with oocyte function in natural variants of C. elegans at high temperature. PMID:25380048

Petrella, Lisa N.

2014-01-01

68

Diet and exercise in an obese mouse fed a high-fat diet improve metabolic health and reverse perturbed sperm function.  

PubMed

Male obesity is associated with reduced sperm motility and morphology and increased sperm DNA damage and oxidative stress; however, the reversibility of these phenotypes has never been studied. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the reversibility of obesity and its associated sperm physiology and function in mice in response to weight loss through diet and exercise. C57BL6 male mice (n = 40) were fed either a control diet (CD; 6% fat) or a high-fat diet (HFD; 21% fat) for 10 wk before allocation to either diet and/or swimming exercise interventions for 8 wk. Diet alone reduced adiposity (1.6-fold) and serum cholesterol levels (1.7-fold, P < 0.05), while exercise alone did not alter these, but exercise plus diet also improved glucose tolerance (1.3-fold, P < 0.05). Diet and/or exercise improved sperm motility (1.2-fold) and morphology (1.1-fold, P < 0.05), and reduced sperm DNA damage (1.5-fold), reactive oxygen species (1.1-fold), and mitochondrial membrane potential (1.2-fold, P < 0.05) and increased sperm binding (1.4-fold) (P < 0.05). Sperm parameters were highly correlated with measures of glycemia, insulin action, and serum cholesterol (all P < 0.05) regardless of adiposity or intervention, suggesting a link between systemic metabolic status and sperm function. This is the first study to show that the abnormal sperm physiology resulting from obesity can be reversed through diet and exercise, even in the presence of ongoing obesity, suggesting that diet and lifestyle interventions could be a combined approach to target subfertility in overweight and obese men. PMID:22252945

Palmer, Nicole O; Bakos, Hassan W; Owens, Julie A; Setchell, Brian P; Lane, Michelle

2012-04-01

69

Addition of Tempol in semen cryopreservation medium improves the post-thaw sperm function.  

PubMed

Despite extensive research carried out for optimization and commercialization of sperm cryopreservation media, percentage of motility and viability remain low following cryopreservation. These adverse effects have been partially ascribed to reactive oxygen species (ROS) production during cryopreservation. Therefore, we proposed that addition of a cell permeable antioxidant like Tempol, with superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic action, may overcome these effects in an optimized commercially available cryo-protective medium. Therefore, semen samples were cryopreserved in the presence or absence of Tempol. A concentration of 5??M Tempol was defined as optimal since it significantly improved motility and viability post thawing and reduced DNA fragmented sperm. In addition, percentage of ROS positive sperm was reduced. These effects of Tempol can be attributed to cell permeability characteristic and ability to reduce superoxide production both at intra- and extra-cellular levels. Tempol may hold the potential for clinical applications. PMID:24702585

Bateni, Zahra; Azadi, Leila; Tavalaee, Marziyeh; Kiani-Esfahani, Abbas; Fazilati, Mohammad; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein

2014-08-01

70

Sperm Competition Selects for Sperm Quantity and Quality in the Australian Maluridae  

PubMed Central

When ejaculates from rival males compete for fertilization, there is strong selection for sperm traits that enhance fertilization success. Sperm quantity is one such trait, and numerous studies have demonstrated a positive association between sperm competition and both testes size and the number of sperm available for copulations. Sperm competition is also thought to favor increases in sperm quality and changes in testicular morphology that lead to increased sperm production. However, in contrast to sperm quantity, these hypotheses have received considerably less empirical support and remain somewhat controversial. In a comparative study using the Australian Maluridae (fairy-wrens, emu-wrens, grasswrens), we tested whether increasing levels of sperm competition were associated with increases in both sperm quantity and quality, as well as an increase in the relative amount of seminiferous tubule tissue contained within the testes. After controlling for phylogeny, we found positive associations between sperm competition and sperm numbers, both in sperm reserves and in ejaculate samples. Additionally, as sperm competition level increased, the proportion of testicular spermatogenic tissue also increased, suggesting that sperm competition selects for greater sperm production per unit of testicular tissue. Finally, we also found that sperm competition level was positively associated with multiple sperm quality traits, including the proportion of motile sperm in ejaculates and the proportion of both viable and morphologically normal sperm in sperm reserves. These results suggest multiple ejaculate traits, as well as aspects of testicular morphology, have evolved in response to sperm competition in the Australian Maluridae. Furthermore, our findings emphasize the importance of post-copulatory sexual selection as an evolutionary force shaping macroevolutionary differences in sperm phenotype. PMID:21283577

Rowe, Melissah; Pruett-Jones, Stephen

2011-01-01

71

A New Method for Sperm Characterization for Infertility Treatment: Hypothesis Testing by Using Combination of Watershed Segmentation and Graph Theory  

PubMed Central

Shape and movement features of sperms are important parameters for infertility study and treatment. In this article, a new method is introduced for characterization sperms in microscopic videos. In this method, first a hypothesis framework is defined to distinguish sperms from other particles in captured video. Then decision about each hypothesis is done in following steps: Selecting some primary regions as candidates for sperms by watershed-based segmentation, pruning of some false candidates during successive frames using graph theory concept and finally confirming correct sperms by using their movement trajectories. Performance of the proposed method is evaluated on real captured images belongs to semen with high density of sperms. The obtained results show the proposed method may detect 97% of sperms in presence of 5% false detections and track 91% of moving sperms. Furthermore, it can be shown that better characterization of sperms in proposed algorithm doesn’t lead to extracting more false sperms compared to some present approaches.

Shojaedini, Seyed Vahab; Heydari, Masoud

2014-01-01

72

Competition drives cooperation among closely related sperm of deer mice.  

PubMed

Among the extraordinary adaptations driven by sperm competition is the cooperative behaviour of spermatozoa. By forming cooperative groups, sperm can increase their swimming velocity and thereby gain an advantage in intermale sperm competition. Accordingly, selection should favour cooperation of the most closely related sperm to maximize fitness. Here we show that sperm of deer mice (genus Peromyscus) form motile aggregations, then we use this system to test predictions of sperm cooperation. We find that sperm aggregate more often with conspecific than heterospecific sperm, suggesting that individual sperm can discriminate on the basis of genetic relatedness. Next, we provide evidence that the cooperative behaviour of closely related sperm is driven by sperm competition. In a monogamous species lacking sperm competition, Peromyscus polionotus, sperm indiscriminately group with unrelated conspecific sperm. In contrast, in the highly promiscuous deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, sperm are significantly more likely to aggregate with those obtained from the same male than with sperm from an unrelated conspecific donor. Even when we test sperm from sibling males, we continue to see preferential aggregations of related sperm in P. maniculatus. These results suggest that sperm from promiscuous deer mice discriminate among relatives and thereby cooperate with the most closely related sperm, an adaptation likely to have been driven by sperm competition. PMID:20090679

Fisher, Heidi S; Hoekstra, Hopi E

2010-02-11

73

Human sperm competition: ejaculate manipulation by females and a function for the female orgasm (1993)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioural ecologists view monogamy as a subtle mixture of conflict and cooperation between the sexes. In part, conflict and cooperation is cryptic, taking place within the female’s reproductive tract. In this paper the cryptic interaction for humans was analysed using data from both a nationwide survey and counts of sperm inseminated into, and ejected by, females. On average, 35% of

R. Robin Baker; Mark A. Bellis

74

Mitochondrial fusion protein MFN2 interacts with the mitostatin-related protein MNS1 required for mouse sperm flagellar structure and function  

PubMed Central

Background Cilia and the sperm flagellum share many structural properties. Meiosis-specific nuclear structural 1 (MNS1) is a recently characterized protein that is abundantly expressed in post-meiotic spermatids and is required for proper flagellar and motile cilia formation. To explore the possible functions of MNS1, we performed a BLAST search and determined it is homologous to the conserved domain pfam13868, exemplified by mitostatin. This protein interacts with mitofusin 2 (MFN2), a protein that participates in regulating mitochondrial associations to subcellular organelles. We hypothesized that an association between MFN2 and MNS1 in the sperm is involved in flagellar biogenesis and function. Results In the studies reported here, MFN2 was found in murine reproductive and somatic tissues high in ciliary content while MNS1 was present as two closely migrating bands in reproductive tissues. Interestingly, mitostatin was also present in reproductive tissues. Similar to Mns1 and mitostatin, Mfn2 was expressed in the testis as detected by RT-PCR. In addition, Mfn2 and Mns1 decreased in expression from pachytene spermatocytes to condensing spermatids as assessed by quantitative RT-PCR. Co-immunoprecipitation demonstrated an association between MFN2 and MNS1 in spermatogenic cells. Indirect immunofluorescence indicated that MFN2 and MNS1 co-localized to the sperm flagellum in freshly collected cauda epididymal sperm. MFN2 associated with the midpiece while MNS1 was present throughout the sperm tail in caput and cauda epididymal sperm. In spermatogenic cells, MFN2 was seen in the mitochondria, and MNS1 was present throughout the cell cytoplasm. MFN2 and MNS1 were present in detergent-resistant flagellar structures of the sperm. Conclusions These results demonstrate that MFN2 and MNS1 are present in spermatogenic cells and are an integral part of the sperm flagellum, indicating they play a role in flagellar biogenesis and/or function. PMID:24876927

2014-01-01

75

Exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of genistein during activation does not affect sperm motility in the fighting fish Betta splendens.  

PubMed

Sperm collected from male fighting fish Betta splendens were activated in control water, water containing the ion-channel blocker gadolinium (a putative positive control), or water containing the isoflavone phytoestrogen genistein to determine the effects of acute genistein exposure on male reproductive function. Computer-assisted sperm analysis was used to quantify the proportion of sperm that were motile and the swimming velocity of those sperm. The highest concentration of gadolinium (100 ? M) tested was effective at reducing sperm motility and velocity, but neither concentration of genistein tested (3.7 nM or 3.7 ? M) significantly affected these sperm parameters. Our findings suggest that acute exposure to waterborne phytoestrogens during activation does not reduce the motility of fish sperm. PMID:24516856

Clotfelter, Ethan D; Gendelman, Hannah K

2014-01-01

76

Exposure to Environmentally Relevant Concentrations of Genistein during Activation Does Not Affect Sperm Motility in the Fighting Fish Betta splendens  

PubMed Central

Sperm collected from male fighting fish Betta splendens were activated in control water, water containing the ion-channel blocker gadolinium (a putative positive control), or water containing the isoflavone phytoestrogen genistein to determine the effects of acute genistein exposure on male reproductive function. Computer-assisted sperm analysis was used to quantify the proportion of sperm that were motile and the swimming velocity of those sperm. The highest concentration of gadolinium (100??M) tested was effective at reducing sperm motility and velocity, but neither concentration of genistein tested (3.7?nM or 3.7??M) significantly affected these sperm parameters. Our findings suggest that acute exposure to waterborne phytoestrogens during activation does not reduce the motility of fish sperm. PMID:24516856

Clotfelter, Ethan D.; Gendelman, Hannah K.

2014-01-01

77

Infant Pulmonary Function Testing  

PubMed Central

Infant pulmonary function testing has evolved from a research technique into a diagnostic tool. As such, new current procedural terminology (CPT) codes have been created and are available for use as of January 1, 2010. The technology now available has a range of applications. Through a series of vignettes, this article illustrates the methodology of the tests, some of their applications, and how to code and bill for the procedures. PMID:21540218

Davis, Stephanie D.

2011-01-01

78

Lipid Peroxidation and Nitric Oxide Levels in Male Smokers' Spermatozoa and their Relation with Sperm Motility  

PubMed Central

Background Nitric oxide (NO) is synthesized from L-arginine by a family of enzymes known as nitric oxide synthases. Low concentrations of NO is essential in biology and physiology of spermatozoa, but high amounts of NO is toxic and has negative effects on sperm functions. Moreover, sperm membrane contains high concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids that are highly susceptible to oxidative damage that interferes with fertilization ability. Therefore, we investigated the correlation between levels of sperm malondialdehyde (MDA) and NO with sperm motility in male smokers. Methods Semen samples were collected from normozoospermic smoker (n=64) and nonsmoker (n=83) men. The content of sperm lipid peroxidation was determined by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA). The sperm NO were also measured using Griess reagent. Data was analyzed by SPSS, (version 15.0), using independent t-test and Pearson analysis. Results The mean MDA and NO concentrations in the sperm of normozoospermic male smokers were significantly higher than the control group or normozoospermic nonsmokers, (p <0.001). A significant negative relationship was noted between sperm motility and sperm MDA levels (r=?0.32, p=0.01); and sperm motility and sperm NO concentration (for nitrite, r=?0.34, p=0.006 and for nitrate, r=?0.38, p=0.002). Conclusion It was concluded that the increase in MDA and NO production in sperm can influence sperm motility in normozoospermic smokers. Therefore, it seems that cigarette smoking may affect the fertility of male smokers via increasing the amount of sperm MDA/lipid peroxidation and NO concentrations. PMID:23926529

Ghaffari, Mohammad Ali; Rostami, Morad

2012-01-01

79

Sperm preparation for ART  

PubMed Central

The onset of clinical assisted reproduction, a quarter of a century ago, required the isolation of motile spermatozoa. As the indication of assisted reproduction shifted from mere gynaecological indications to andrological indications during the years, this urged andrological research to understand the physiology of male germ cell better and develop more sophisticated techniques to separate functional spermatozoa from those that are immotile, have poor morphology or are not capable to fertilize oocytes. Initially, starting from simple washing of spermatozoa, separation techniques, based on different principles like migration, filtration or density gradient centrifugation evolved. The most simple and cheapest is the conventional swim-up procedure. A more sophisticated and most gentle migration method is migration-sedimentation. However, its yield is relatively small and the technique is therefore normally only limited to ejaculates with a high number of motile spermatozoa. Recently, however, the method was also successfully used to isolate spermatozoa for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Sperm separation methods that yield a higher number of motile spermatozoa are glass wool filtration or density gradient centrifugation with different media. Since Percoll® as a density medium was removed from the market in 1996 for clinical use in the human because of its risk of contamination with endotoxins, other media like IxaPrep®, Nycodenz, SilSelect®, PureSperm® or Isolate® were developed in order to replace Percoll®. Today, an array of different methods is available and the selection depends on the quality of the ejaculates, which also includes production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by spermatozoa and leukocytes. Ejaculates with ROS production should not be separated by means of conventional swim-up, as this can severely damage the spermatozoa. In order to protect the male germ cells from the influence of ROS and to stimulate their motility to increase the yield, a number of substances can be added to the ejaculate or the separation medium. Caffeine, pentoxifylline and 2-deoxyadenosine are substances that were used to stimulate motility. Recent approaches to stimulate spermatozoa include bicarbonate, metal chelators or platelet-activating factor (PAF). While the use of PAF already resulted in pregnancies in intrauterine insemination, the suitability of the other substances for the clinical use still needs to be tested. Finally, the isolation of functional spermatozoa from highly viscous ejaculates is a special challenge and can be performed enzymatically to liquefy the ejaculate. The older method, by which the ejaculate is forcefully aspirated through a narrow-gauge needle, should be abandoned as it can severely damage spermatozoa, thus resulting in immotile sperm. PMID:14617368

Henkel, Ralf R; Schill, Wolf-Bernhard

2003-01-01

80

Methamidophos alters sperm function and DNA at different stages of spermatogenesis in mice.  

PubMed

Methamidophos (MET) is a highly toxic organophosphate (OP) pesticide that is widely used in developing countries. MET has male reproductive effects, including decreased fertility. We evaluated MET effects on sperm quality, fertilization and DNA integrity, exploring the sensitivity of different stages of spermatogenesis. Adult male mice received MET (3.75 or 5mg/kg-bw/ip/day/4days) and were euthanized 1, 28 or 45days post-treatment (dpt) to evaluate MET's effects on epididymal maturation, meiosis or mitosis, respectively. Spermatozoa were obtained from the cauda epididymis-vas deferens and were evaluated for sperm quality, acrosome reaction (AR; Coomassie staining), mitochondrial membrane potential (by JC-1), DNA damage (comet assay), oxidative damage (malondialdehyde (MDA) production), in vitro fertilization and protein phosphorylation (immunodetection), and erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. At 1-dpt, MET inhibited AChE (43-57%) and increased abnormal cells (6%). While at 28- and 45-dpt, sperm motility and viability were significantly reduced with an increasing MET dose, and abnormal morphology increased at 5mg/kg/day/4days. MDA and mitochondrial activity were not affected at any dose or time. DNA damage (OTM and %DNA) was observed at 5mg/kg/day/4days in a time-dependent manner, whereas both parameters were altered in cells from mice exposed to 3.75mg/kg/day/4days only at 28-dpt. Depending on the time of collection, initial-, spontaneous- and induced-AR were altered at 5mg/kg/day/4days, and the fertilization capacity also decreased. Sperm phosphorylation (at serine and tyrosine residues) was observed at all time points. Data suggest that meiosis and mitosis are the more sensitive stages of spermatogenesis for MET reproductive toxicity compared to epididymal maturation. PMID:24998973

Urióstegui-Acosta, Mayrut; Hernández-Ochoa, Isabel; Sánchez-Gutiérrez, Manuel; Pińa-Guzmán, Belem; Rafael-Vázquez, Leticia; Solís-Heredia, M J; Martínez-Aguilar, Gerardo; Quintanilla-Vega, Betzabet

2014-09-15

81

Pulmonary Function Testing in Children  

MedlinePLUS

... is spirometry? Spirometry is the most common lung function test done. It measures how much air is ... a number like you get when you Pulmonary Function Testing in Children Pulmonary function tests (PFT’s) measure ...

82

Functional human sperm capacitation requires both bicarbonate-dependent PKA activation and down-regulation of Ser/Thr phosphatases by Src family kinases  

PubMed Central

In all mammalian species studied so far, sperm capacitation correlates with an increase in protein tyrosine (Tyr) phosphorylation mediated by a bicarbonate-dependent cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) pathway. Recent studies in mice revealed, however, that a Src family kinase (SFK)-induced inactivation of serine/threonine (Ser/Thr) phosphatases is also involved in the signaling pathways leading to Tyr phosphorylation. In view of these observations and with the aim of getting a better understanding of the signaling pathways involved in human sperm capacitation, in the present work we investigated the involvement of both the cAMP/PKA and SFK/phosphatase pathways in relation to the capacitation state of the cells. For this purpose, different signaling events and sperm functional parameters were analyzed as a function of capacitation time. Results revealed a very early bicarbonate-dependent activation of PKA indicated by the rapid (1 min) increase in both phospho-PKA substrates and cAMP levels (P < 0.05). However, a complete pattern of Tyr phosphorylation was detected only after 6-h incubation at which time sperm exhibited the ability to undergo the acrosome reaction (AR) and to penetrate zona-free hamster oocytes. Sperm capacitated in the presence of the SFK inhibitor SKI606 showed a decrease in both PKA substrate and Tyr phosphorylation levels, which was overcome by exposure of sperm to the Ser/Thr phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid (OA). However, OA was unable to induce phosphorylation when sperm were incubated under PKA-inhibitory conditions (i.e. in the absence of bicarbonate or in the presence of PKA inhibitor). Moreover, the increase in PKA activity by exposure to a cAMP analog and a phosphodiesterase inhibitor did not overcome the inhibition produced by SKI606. Whereas the presence of SKI606 during capacitation produced a negative effect (P < 0.05) on sperm motility, progesterone-induced AR and fertilizing ability, none of these inhibitions were observed when sperm were exposed to SKI606 and OA. Interestingly, different concentrations of inhibitors were required to modulate human and mouse capacitation revealing the species specificity of the molecular mechanisms underlying this process. In conclusion, our results describe for the first time the involvement of both PKA activation and Ser/Thr phosphatase down-regulation in functional human sperm capacitation and provide convincing evidence that early PKA-dependent phosphorylation is the convergent regulatory point between these two signaling pathways. PMID:23630234

Battistone, M.A.; Da Ros, V.G.; Salicioni, A.M.; Navarrete, F.A.; Krapf, D.; Visconti, P.E.; Cuasnicu, P.S.

2013-01-01

83

Functional human sperm capacitation requires both bicarbonate-dependent PKA activation and down-regulation of Ser/Thr phosphatases by Src family kinases.  

PubMed

In all mammalian species studied so far, sperm capacitation correlates with an increase in protein tyrosine (Tyr) phosphorylation mediated by a bicarbonate-dependent cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) pathway. Recent studies in mice revealed, however, that a Src family kinase (SFK)-induced inactivation of serine/threonine (Ser/Thr) phosphatases is also involved in the signaling pathways leading to Tyr phosphorylation. In view of these observations and with the aim of getting a better understanding of the signaling pathways involved in human sperm capacitation, in the present work we investigated the involvement of both the cAMP/PKA and SFK/phosphatase pathways in relation to the capacitation state of the cells. For this purpose, different signaling events and sperm functional parameters were analyzed as a function of capacitation time. Results revealed a very early bicarbonate-dependent activation of PKA indicated by the rapid (1 min) increase in both phospho-PKA substrates and cAMP levels (P < 0.05). However, a complete pattern of Tyr phosphorylation was detected only after 6-h incubation at which time sperm exhibited the ability to undergo the acrosome reaction (AR) and to penetrate zona-free hamster oocytes. Sperm capacitated in the presence of the SFK inhibitor SKI606 showed a decrease in both PKA substrate and Tyr phosphorylation levels, which was overcome by exposure of sperm to the Ser/Thr phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid (OA). However, OA was unable to induce phosphorylation when sperm were incubated under PKA-inhibitory conditions (i.e. in the absence of bicarbonate or in the presence of PKA inhibitor). Moreover, the increase in PKA activity by exposure to a cAMP analog and a phosphodiesterase inhibitor did not overcome the inhibition produced by SKI606. Whereas the presence of SKI606 during capacitation produced a negative effect (P < 0.05) on sperm motility, progesterone-induced AR and fertilizing ability, none of these inhibitions were observed when sperm were exposed to SKI606 and OA. Interestingly, different concentrations of inhibitors were required to modulate human and mouse capacitation revealing the species specificity of the molecular mechanisms underlying this process. In conclusion, our results describe for the first time the involvement of both PKA activation and Ser/Thr phosphatase down-regulation in functional human sperm capacitation and provide convincing evidence that early PKA-dependent phosphorylation is the convergent regulatory point between these two signaling pathways. PMID:23630234

Battistone, M A; Da Ros, V G; Salicioni, A M; Navarrete, F A; Krapf, D; Visconti, P E; Cuasnicú, P S

2013-09-01

84

[Sperm DNA damage and assisted reproductive technology].  

PubMed

With the introduction of assisted reproductive technology (ART), sperm assessment has developed progressively, from conventional semen routine tests to novel cellular and molecular measures. Sperm DNA damage is a new marker of male fertility, whose genetic mechanism involves abnormal package and segregation of chromatin, oxidative stress, abnormal cell apoptosis, etc. Sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) is one of the common techniques to measure sperm DNA damage. Sperm DNA damage might be associated with the pregnancy outcome of ART, recurrent spontaneous abortion and potential genetic risk of ICSI offspring. Some treatment strategies might reduce the percentage of sperm DNA damage and increase the success rate of ART, including oral administration of antioxygen drugs, ICSI with testis sperm, sperm freezing and preservation, removing of etiological factors, traditional Chinese medicine, and so on. This review focuses on the mechanism and detection of sperm DNA damage, its association with reproductive outcomes, and relevant treatment strategies in assisted reproductive technology. PMID:18488344

Xu, Zhi-Peng; Sun, Hai-Xiang; Zhang, Ning-Yuan

2008-03-01

85

Mammalian Sperm Fertility Related Proteins  

PubMed Central

Infertility is an important aspect of human and animal reproduction and still presents with much etiological ambiguity. As fifty percent of infertility is related to the male partner, molecular investigations on sperm and seminal plasma can lead to new knowledge on male infertility. Several comparisons between fertile and infertile human and other species sperm proteome have shown the existence of potential fertility markers. These proteins have been categorized into energy related, structural and other functional proteins which play a major role in sperm motility, capacitation and sperm-oocyte binding. The data from these studies show the impact of sperm proteome studies on identifying different valuable markers for fertility screening. In this article, we review recent development in unraveling sperm fertility related proteins. PMID:24151436

Ashrafzadeh, Ali; Karsani, Saiful Anuar; Nathan, Sheila

2013-01-01

86

Pediatric Arm Function Test  

PubMed Central

Objective Although there are several validated upper-extremity measures in young children with cerebral palsy (CP), none primarily assess capacity to carry out actions and tasks with the more-affected arm. To address this need, we developed the Pediatric Arm Function Test (PAFT), which involves behavioral observation of how children use their more-affected arm during structured play in the laboratory or clinic. This paper evaluates the reliability and validity of the PAFT Functional Ability scale. Design In Study 1, 20 children between 2–8 years with a wide range of upper-extremity hemiparesis due to CP completed the PAFT on two occasions separated by three weeks. In Study 2, 41 children between 2–6 years with similar characteristics completed the PAFT and received a grade reflecting severity of more-affected arm motor impairment. Results In Study 1, the PAFT test-retest reliability correlation coefficient was 0.74. In Study 2, convergent validity was supported by a strong, inverse correlation (r = ?0.6, p < .001) between PAFT scores and grade of impairment. Conclusions The PAFT Functional Ability scale is a reliable and valid measure of more-affected arm motor capacity in children with CP between 2–6 years. It can be employed to measure upper-extremity neurorehabilitation outcome. PMID:23103486

Uswatte, Gitendra; Taub, Edward; Griffin, Angi; Rowe, Jan; Vogtle, Laura; Barman, Joydip

2012-01-01

87

Sperm epigenomics: challenges and opportunities  

PubMed Central

Sperm is a highly differentiated cell type whose function is to deliver a haploid genome to the oocyte. The sperm “epigenomes” were traditionally considered to be insignificant – the sperm is transcriptionally inactive, its genome is packaged in sperm-specific protamine toroids instead of nucleosomes, and its DNA methylation profile is erased immediately post-fertilization. Yet, in recent years there has been an increase in the number of reported cases of apparent epigenetic inheritance through the male germline, suggesting that the sperm epigenome may transmit information between generations. At the same time, technical advances have made the genome-wide profiling of different layers of the sperm epigenome feasible. As a result, a large number of datasets have been recently generated and analyzed with the aim to better understand what non-genetic material is contained within the sperm and whether it has any function post-fertilization. Here, we provide an overview of the current knowledge of the sperm epigenomes as well as the challenges in analysing them and the opportunities in understanding the potential non-genetic carriers of information in sperm. PMID:25278962

Casas, Eduard; Vavouri, Tanya

2014-01-01

88

Cryopreservation of epididymal stallion sperm.  

PubMed

Any event that makes semen collection or mating impossible, such as death, castration, or injury, may terminate a stallion's breeding career. Fortunately, stallion sperm which are capable of fertilization can be harvested from the epididymis, and frozen for future use. However, the fertility of frozen-thawed epididymal sperm has been found to be lower than that of ejaculated sperm. Therefore, this study aimed to optimize the fertility of frozen epididymal stallion sperm by investigating the effects of different cryoprotectants and freezing protocols on sperm quality. Dimethylformamide was tested alone or combination with pasteurized egg yolk as substitute of fresh egg yolk. In addition, the effect of the pre-freeze stabilization on sperm quality was analyzed. Heterospermic samples obtained from stallion epididymis were collected and cryopreserved in lactose-egg-yolk extender or in the same extender with varying content of cryoprotectant and content of egg yolk, stabilized and no-stabilized. Sperm motility, viability, hypoosmotic swelling test (HOST) and acrosome integrity were evaluated post-thawing. No improvement was observed on the replacement of fresh yolk by pasteurized egg yolk, whereas the results suggest that dimethylformamide is a cryoprotectant suitable for cryopreservation of equine epididymal semen, even better than glycerol. In addition, we found that the stabilization before freezing on epididymal stallion sperm, can improve sperm quality parameters. PMID:24412395

Olaciregui, M; Gil, L; Montón, A; Luńo, V; Jerez, R A; Martí, J I

2014-02-01

89

Human Spermatozoa Contain Multiple Targets for Protein S-Nitrosylation: An Alternative Mechanism of the Modulation of Sperm Function by Nitric Oxide?  

PubMed Central

Nitric oxide (NO) enhances human sperm motility and capacitation associated with increased protein phosphorylation. NO activates soluble guanylyl cyclase, but can also modify protein function covalently via S-nitrosylation of cysteine. Remarkably, this mechanism remains unexplored in sperm although they depend on post-translational protein modification to achieve changes in function required for fertilisation. Our objective was to identify targets for S-nitrosylation in human sperm. Spermatozoa were incubated with NO donors and S-nitrosylated proteins were identified using the biotin switch assay and a proteomic approach using tandem mass spectrometry. 240 S-nitrosylated proteins were detected in sperm incubated with S-nitrosoglutathione. Minimal levels were observed in glutathione or untreated samples. Proteins identified consistently based on multiple peptides included established targets for S-nitrosylation in other cells e.g. tubulin,, glutathione-S-transferase and heat shock proteins but also novel targets including A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) types 3 and 4, voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein 3 and semenogelin 1 and 2. In situ localisation revealed S-nitrosylated targets on the post-acrosomal region of the head and throughout the flagellum. Potential targets for S-nitrosylation in human sperm include physiologically significant proteins not previously reported in other cells. Their identification will provide novel insight into the mechanism of action of NO in spermatozoa. PMID:17683036

Lefievre, Linda; Chen, Yongjian; Conner, Sarah J; Scott, Joanna L; Publicover, Steve J; Ford, W Christopher L; Barratt, Christopher LR

2009-01-01

90

Sperm-Associated Antigen 6 (SPAG6) Deficiency and Defects in Ciliogenesis and Cilia Function: Polarity, Density, and Beat  

PubMed Central

SPAG6, an axoneme central apparatus protein, is essential for function of ependymal cell cilia and sperm flagella. A significant number of Spag6-deficient mice die with hydrocephalus, and surviving males are sterile because of sperm motility defects. In further exploring the ciliary dysfunction in Spag6-null mice, we discovered that cilia beat frequency was significantly reduced in tracheal epithelial cells, and that the beat was not synchronized. There was also a significant reduction in cilia density in both brain ependymal and trachea epithelial cells, and cilia arrays were disorganized. The orientation of basal feet, which determines the direction of axoneme orientation, was apparently random in Spag6-deficient mice, and there were reduced numbers of basal feet, consistent with reduced cilia density. The polarized epithelial cell morphology and distribution of intracellular mucin, ?-tubulin, and the planar cell polarity protein, Vangl2, were lost in Spag6-deficient tracheal epithelial cells. Polarized epithelial cell morphology and polarized distribution of ?-tubulin in tracheal epithelial cells was observed in one-week old wild-type mice, but not in the Spag6-deficient mice of the same age. Thus, the cilia and polarity defects appear prior to 7 days post-partum. These findings suggest that SPAG6 not only regulates cilia/flagellar motility, but that in its absence, ciliogenesis, axoneme orientation, and tracheal epithelial cell polarity are altered. PMID:25333478

Teves, Maria E.; Sears, Patrick R.; Li, Wei; Zhang, Zhengang; Tang, Waixing; van Reesema, Lauren; Costanzo, Richard M.; Davis, C. William; Knowles, Michael R.; Strauss, Jerome F.; Zhang, Zhibing

2014-01-01

91

Sperm storage in caecilian amphibians  

PubMed Central

Background Female sperm storage has evolved independently multiple times among vertebrates to control reproduction in response to the environment. In internally fertilising amphibians, female salamanders store sperm in cloacal spermathecae, whereas among anurans sperm storage in oviducts is known only in tailed frogs. Facilitated through extensive field sampling following historical observations we tested for sperm storing structures in the female urogenital tract of fossorial, tropical caecilian amphibians. Findings In the oviparous Ichthyophis cf. kohtaoensis, aggregated sperm were present in a distinct region of the posterior oviduct but not in the cloaca in six out of seven vitellogenic females prior to oviposition. Spermatozoa were found most abundantly between the mucosal folds. In relation to the reproductive status decreased amounts of sperm were present in gravid females compared to pre-ovulatory females. Sperm were absent in females past oviposition. Conclusions Our findings indicate short-term oviductal sperm storage in the oviparous Ichthyophis cf. kohtaoensis. We assume that in female caecilians exhibiting high levels of parental investment sperm storage has evolved in order to optimally coordinate reproductive events and to increase fitness. PMID:22672478

2012-01-01

92

Linking sperm length and velocity: the importance of intramale variation  

PubMed Central

Selection imposed through sperm competition is commonly thought to promote the evolution of longer sperm, since sperm length is assumed to be positively associated with sperm swimming velocity. Yet, the basis for this assumption remains controversial, and there is surprisingly little intraspecific evidence demonstrating such a link between sperm form and function. Here, we show that sperm length and velocity are highly correlated in the sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma, but importantly we report that failure to account for within-male variation in these sperm traits can obscure this relationship. These findings, in conjunction with the mounting evidence for extremely high levels of intra-specific variance in sperm traits, suggest that a functional link between sperm morphology and velocity may be more prevalent than what current evidence suggests. Our findings also suggest that selection for faster swimming sperm may promote the evolution of longer sperm, thereby supporting recent findings from macroevolutionary studies. PMID:20484233

Fitzpatrick, John L.; Garcia-Gonzalez, Francisco; Evans, Jonathan P.

2010-01-01

93

Thyroid Function Tests  

MedlinePLUS

... on Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases : Thyroid Tests Thyroid Tests On this page: What is the thyroid? What ... Top ] Why do health care providers perform thyroid tests? Health care providers perform thyroid tests to assess ...

94

Osmotic tolerance of avian spermatozoa: influence of time, temperature, cryoprotectant and membrane ion pump function on sperm viability.  

PubMed

Potential factors influencing sperm survival under hypertonic conditions were evaluated in the Sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) and turkey (Meleagridis gallopavo). Sperm osmotolerance (300-3000 mOsm/kg) was evaluated after: (1) equilibration times of 2, 10, 45 and 60 min at 4 degrees C versus 21 degrees C; (2) pre-equilibrating with dimethylacetamide (DMA) or dimethylsulfoxide (Me2SO) at either 4 degrees C or 21 degrees C; and (3) inhibition of the Na+/K+ and the Na+/H+ antiporter membrane ionic pumps. Sperm viability was assessed using the eosin-nigrosin live/dead stain. Species-specific differences occurred in response to hypertonic conditions with crane sperm remaining viable under extreme hypertonicity (3000 mOsm/kg), whereas turkey sperm viability was compromised with only slightly hypertonic (500 mOsm/kg) conditions. The timing of spermolysis under hypertonic conditions was also species-specific, with a shorter interval for turkey (2 min) than crane (10 min) sperm. Turkey sperm osmotolerance was slightly improved by lowering the incubation temperature from 21 to 4 degrees C. Pre-equilibrating sperm with DMA reduced the incidence of hypertonic spermolysis only in the crane, at both room and refrigeration temperature. Inhibiting the Na+/K+ and the Na+/H+ antiporter membrane ion pumps did not impair resistance of crane and turkey spermatozoa to hypertonic stress; pump inhibition actually increased turkey sperm survival compared to control sperm. Results demonstrate marked species specificity in osmotolerance between crane and turkey sperm, as well as in the way temperature and time of exposure affect sperm survival under hypertonic conditions. Differences are independent of the role of osmotic pumps in these species. PMID:18005955

Blanco, Juan M; Long, Julie A; Gee, George; Donoghue, Ann M; Wildt, David E

2008-02-01

95

Motility and fertilization ability of sterlet Acipenser ruthenus testicular sperm after cryopreservation.  

PubMed

Sturgeon spermatozoa are immotile in the testis and acquire the potential for motility after contact with urine in Wolffian duct. The present study tested if in vitro incubation of testicular sperm in seminal fluid from Wolffian duct sperm leads to the acquisition of sperm fertilization ability. Sterlet sperm was taken from the testes, matured in vitro and cryopreserved. The fertility and motility of cryopreserved semen were tested. Matured testicular sperm showed freeze-thaw survival rates similar to Wolffian duct sperm, which is commonly used in sturgeon artificial propagation. Matured testicular sperm and Wolffian duct sperm post-thaw motility rate and curvilinear velocity were not significantly different, while duration of matured testicular sperm motility was significantly shorter than that of Wolffian duct sperm. Development rates of embryos obtained with post-thaw matured testicular sperm and Wolffian duct sperm were not significantly different. In vitro maturation of sterlet testicular sperm can potentially be useful in sperm cryobanking. PMID:25058859

Dzyuba, B; Boryshpolets, S; Cosson, J; Dzyuba, V; Fedorov, P; Saito, T; Psenicka, M; Linhart, O; Rodina, M

2014-10-01

96

Subcellular preservation in giant ostracod sperm from an early Miocene cave deposit in Australia.  

PubMed

Cypridoidean ostracods are one of a number of animal taxa that reproduce with giant sperm, up to 10 000 µm in length, but they are the only group to have aflagellate, filamentous giant sperm. The evolution and function of this highly unusual feature of reproduction with giant sperm are currently unknown. The hypothesis of long-term evolutionary persistence of this kind of reproduction has never been tested. We here report giant sperm discovered by propagation phase contrast X-ray synchrotron micro- and nanotomography, preserved in five Miocene ostracod specimens from Queensland, Australia. The specimens belong to the species Heterocypris collaris Matzke-Karasz et al. 2013 (one male and three females) and Newnhamia mckenziana Matzke-Karasz et al. 2013 (one female). The sperm are not only the oldest petrified gametes on record, but include three-dimensional subcellular preservation. We provide direct evidence that giant sperm have been a feature of this taxon for at least 16 Myr and provide an additional criterion (i.e. longevity) to test hypotheses relating to origin and function of giant sperm in the animal kingdom. We further argue that the highly resistant, most probably chitinous coats of giant ostracod sperm may play a role in delaying decay processes, favouring early mineralization of soft tissue. PMID:24827442

Matzke-Karasz, Renate; Neil, John V; Smith, Robin J; Symonová, Radka; Mo?kovský, Libor; Archer, Michael; Hand, Suzanne J; Cloetens, Peter; Tafforeau, Paul

2014-07-01

97

Phenotypic engineering of sperm-production rate confirms evolutionary predictions of sperm competition theory  

PubMed Central

Sperm production is a key male reproductive trait and an important parameter in sperm competition theory. Under sperm competition, paternity success is predicted to depend strongly on male allocation to sperm production. Furthermore, because sperm production is inherently costly, individuals should economize in sperm expenditure, and conditional adjustment of the copulation frequency according to their sperm availability may be expected. However, experimental studies showing effects of sperm production on mating behaviour and paternity success have so far been scarce, mainly because sperm production is difficult to manipulate directly in animals. Here, we used phenotypic engineering to manipulate sperm-production rate, by employing dose-dependent RNA interference (RNAi) of a spermatogenesis-specific gene, macbol1, in the free-living flatworm Macrostomum lignano. We demonstrate (i) that our novel dose-dependent RNAi approach allows us to induce high variability in sperm-production rate; (ii) that a reduced sperm-production rate is associated with a decreased copulation frequency, suggesting conditional adjustment of mating behaviour; and (iii) that both sperm production and copulation frequency are important determinants of paternity success in a competitive situation, as predicted by sperm competition theory. Our study clearly documents the potential of phenotypic engineering via dose-dependent RNAi to test quantitative predictions of evolutionary theory. PMID:23446521

Sekii, Kiyono; Vizoso, Dita B.; Kuales, Georg; De Mulder, Katrien; Ladurner, Peter; Scharer, Lukas

2013-01-01

98

Thyroid Function Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes two tests, T-4 and T-3, for hypothyroid based on the binding of the hormones by proteins. The tests were performed in courses for physicians, clinical chemists, laboratory technicians, and undergraduate science students by the individuals involved and on their own sera. These tests are commercially available in kit form. (GA)

Glover, Irving T.

1979-01-01

99

Platelet Function Tests  

MedlinePLUS

... medications unless instructed to do so by your health care provider. The Test Sample What is being tested? Platelets (also known ... medications unless instructed to do so by your health care provider. The Test How is it used? When is it ordered? ...

100

Structure, material characteristics and function of the upper respiratory tract of the pygmy sperm whale.  

PubMed

Cetaceans are neckless, so the trachea is very short. The upper respiratory tract is separate from the mouth and pharynx, and the dorsal blowhole connects, via the vestibular and nasopalatine cavities, directly to the larynx. Toothed cetaceans (Odontoceti) are capable of producing sounds at depth, either for locating prey or for communication. It has been suggested that during dives, air from the lungs and upper respiratory tract can be moved to the vestibular and nasal cavities to permit sound generation to continue when air volume within these cavities decreases as ambient pressure rises. The pygmy sperm whale, Kogia breviceps, is a deep diver (500-1000 m) that is known to produce hunting clicks. Our study of an immature female shows that the upper respiratory tract is highly asymmetrical: the trachea and bronchi are extremely compressible, whereas the larynx is much more rigid. Laryngeal and tracheal volumes were established. Calculations based on Boyle's Law imply that all air from the lungs and bronchi would be transferred to the larynx and trachea by a depth of 270 m and that the larynx itself could not accommodate all respiratory air mass at a depth of 1000 m. This suggests that no respiratory air would be available for vocalisation. However, the bronchi, trachea and part of the larynx have a thick vascular lining featuring large, thin-walled vessels. We propose that these vessels may become dilated during dives to reduce the volume of the upper respiratory tract, permitting forward transfer of air through the larynx. PMID:24072789

Davenport, John; Cotter, Liz; Rogan, Emer; Kelliher, Denis; Murphy, Colm

2013-12-15

101

Drosophila pericentrin requires interaction with calmodulin for its function at centrosomes and neuronal basal bodies but not at sperm basal bodies  

PubMed Central

Pericentrin is a critical centrosomal protein required for organizing pericentriolar material (PCM) in mitosis. Mutations in pericentrin cause the human genetic disorder Majewski/microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II, making a detailed understanding of its regulation extremely important. Germaine to pericentrin's function in organizing PCM is its ability to localize to the centrosome through the conserved C-terminal PACT domain. Here we use Drosophila pericentrin-like-protein (PLP) to understand how the PACT domain is regulated. We show that the interaction of PLP with calmodulin (CaM) at two highly conserved CaM-binding sites in the PACT domain controls the proper targeting of PLP to the centrosome. Disrupting the PLP-CaM interaction with single point mutations renders PLP inefficient in localizing to centrioles in cultured S2 cells and Drosophila neuroblasts. Although levels of PCM are unaffected, it is highly disorganized. We also demonstrate that basal body formation in the male testes and the production of functional sperm does not rely on the PLP-CaM interaction, whereas production of functional mechanosensory neurons does. PMID:25031429

Galletta, Brian J.; Guillen, Rodrigo X.; Fagerstrom, Carey J.; Brownlee, Chris W.; Lerit, Dorothy A.; Megraw, Timothy L.; Rogers, Gregory C.; Rusan, Nasser M.

2014-01-01

102

Lack of sperm production and sperm storage by arctic-nesting shorebirds during spring migration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Birds nesting at high latitudes may copulate during migration to arrive on the nesting grounds ready to breed. We surveyed 12 species of shorebirds during spring migration to determine whether (1) males produced abundant sperm and (2) females harboured functional sperm storage tubules (SSTs). Sperm production by males on migration was rare. Only four of seven species (9.8% of 41

James W. Rivers; James V. Briskie

2003-01-01

103

Functions and Vertical Line Test  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to introduce students to the vertical line test for functions as well as practice plotting points and drawing simple functions. The lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to the vertical line test and functions as well as suggested ways to integrate them into the lesson.

2010-01-01

104

Comparing functional and structural tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an experimental study to understand i ssues a nd r equirements f or structural-based testing using low cost testers, compared to functional-based testing using expensive testers. Several studies have been directed at the effectiveness of various test methods, but none explicitly addressed issues involved in attempting to replace functional vectors with scan vectors and none carried the

Peter C. Maxwell; Ismed Hartanto; Lee Bentz

2000-01-01

105

Automated sperm head morphology analyzer for open-source software  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sperm head morphology has been identified as a characteristic that can be used to predict a male's semen quality. In the present study, we have developed an automated sperm head morphology analysis (ASMA) plug-in for open-source ImageJ software (http:\\/\\/rsbweb.nih.gov\\/ij\\/). We describe the plug-in's functionality, and confirm its validity for sperm head morphology analysis using fish sperm. Sperm head morphological measurements

I. A. E. Butts; M. A. R. Ward; M. K. Litvak; T. E. Pitcher; S. M. H. Alavi; E. A. Trippel; R. M. Rideout

2011-01-01

106

Comparative Transcriptomics of Arabidopsis Sperm Cells1[C][W  

PubMed Central

In flowering plants, the two sperm cells are embedded within the cytoplasm of the growing pollen tube and as such are passively transported to the embryo sac, wherein double fertilization occurs upon their release. Understanding the mechanisms and conditions by which male gametes mature and take part in fertilization are crucial goals in the study of plant reproduction. Studies of gene expression in male gametes of maize (Zea mays) and Plumbago and in lily (Lilium longiflorum) generative cells already showed that the previously held view of transcriptionally inert male gametes was not true, but genome-wide studies were lacking. Analyses in the model plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) were hindered, because no method to isolate sperm cells was available. Here, we used fluorescence-activated cell sorting to isolate sperm cells from Arabidopsis, allowing GeneChip analysis of their transcriptome at a genome-wide level. Comparative analysis of the sperm cell transcriptome with those of representative sporophytic tissues and of pollen showed that sperm has a distinct and diverse transcriptional profile. Functional classifications of genes with enriched expression in sperm cells showed that DNA repair, ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, and cell cycle progression are overrepresented Gene Ontology categories. Moreover, analysis of the small RNA and DNA methylation pathways suggests that distinct mechanisms might be involved in regulating the epigenetic state of the paternal genome. We identified numerous candidate genes whose involvement in sperm cell development and fertilization can now be directly tested in Arabidopsis. These results provide a roadmap to decipher the role of sperm-expressed proteins. PMID:18667720

Borges, Filipe; Gomes, Gabriela; Gardner, Rui; Moreno, Nuno; McCormick, Sheila; Feijo, Jose A.; Becker, Jorg D.

2008-01-01

107

Sialidases on Mammalian Sperm Mediate Deciduous Sialylation during Capacitation*  

PubMed Central

Sialic acids (Sias) mediate many biological functions, including molecular recognition during development, immune response, and fertilization. A Sia-rich glycocalyx coats the surface of sperm, allowing them to survive as allogeneic cells in the female reproductive tract despite female immunity. During capacitation, sperm lose a fraction of their Sias. We quantified shed Sia monosaccharides released from capacitated sperm and measured sperm sialidase activity. We report the presence of two sialidases (neuraminidases Neu1 and Neu3) on mammalian sperm. These are themselves shed from sperm during capacitation. Inhibiting sialidase activity interferes with sperm binding to the zona pellucida of the ovum. A survey of human sperm samples for the presence of sialidases NEU1 and NEU3 identified a lack of one or both sialidases in sperm of some male idiopathic infertility cases. The results contribute new insights into the dynamic remodeling of the sperm glycocalyx prior to fertilization. PMID:22989879

Ma, Fang; Wu, Diana; Deng, Liwen; Secrest, Patrick; Zhao, June; Varki, Nissi; Lindheim, Steven; Gagneux, Pascal

2012-01-01

108

Decoding mechanisms of loss of fertilization ability of cryopreserved mouse sperm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cryopreservation of mouse sperm is an important technology for management of biomedical research resources. Dramatic progress has been made recently in the development of protocols that combat mouse-strain specific reduction of IVF after cryopreservation. Equal emphasis, however, has not been placed on investigating the biological mechanisms underlying these improvements to IVF. This dissertation broadly investigates the basic question of how mouse-strain specific reduction of IVF occurs after cryopreservation, and how recently developed protocols prevent this process. My research investigated the effects of antioxidants, the cholesterol-acceptor CD, reduced calcium media, and TYH capacitation media on sperm function and oxidative stress after cryopreservation in a variety of mouse strains. I found that reduced IVF was associated with loss of capacitation-dependent sperm function in three strains, B6/J, B6/N, and 129X1, and CD improved sperm function and IVF in all three strains. These findings suggest that cryopreservation inhibits cholesterol efflux resulting in reduced IVF of many mouse strains. I also found that cryopreservation induces uniquely high production of mitochondrial H2O2 by B6/J sperm. H2O2 present in other cellular compartments of B6/J sperm was not elevated compared to other strains. High levels of mitochondrial H2O2 were associated with lipid peroxidation of the sperm head and inability to acrosome react. Antioxidants reduced mitochondrial H2O2 production, decreased sperm head lipid peroxidation, and improved acrosome reaction. The cryopreservation-induced increase in mitochondrial H2O2 production of B6/J and B6129XF1 sperm was associated with elevation of intracellular calcium after cryopreservation and dependent on mitochondrial metabolic substrates. Reducing intracellular calcium levels or removing mitochondrial metabolic substrates decreased mitochondrial H2O2 production and increased IVF rates of cryopreserved B6/J sperm. Many of the strains I tested exhibited increased H2O2 production after cryopreservation, but cryopreservation-induced H2O2 only interfered with IVF of B6/J sperm. This dissertation describes two means to improve IVF of cryopreserved sperm, mitigation of oxidative stress in B6/J sperm and improvement of capacitation-dependent sperm function for several mouse strains.

Gray, Jeffrey Earl

109

Osmotic tolerance of avian spermatozoa: Influence of time, temperature, cryoprotectant and membrane ion pump function on sperm viability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential factors influencing sperm survival under hypertonic conditions were evaluated in the Sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) and turkey (Meleagridis gallopavo). Sperm osmotolerance (300–3000mOsm\\/kg) was evaluated after: (1) equilibration times of 2, 10, 45 and 60min at 4°C versus 21°C; (2) pre-equilibrating with dimethylacetamide (DMA) or dimethylsulfoxide (Me2SO) at either 4°C or 21°C; and (3) inhibition of the Na+\\/K+ and the

Juan M. Blanco; Julie A. Long; George Gee; Ann M. Donoghue; David E. Wildt

2008-01-01

110

Effect of the addition of beta-mercaptoethanol to a thawing solution supplemented with caffeine on the function of frozen-thawed boar sperm and on the fertility of sows after artificial insemination.  

PubMed

We have reported that artificial insemination (AI) with frozen-thawed boar semen supplemented with caffeine increased the number of uterine sperm by inhibiting the migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) into the uterine lumen, thereby improving the fertility of gilts and sows. The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of the addition of the antioxidant beta-mercaptoethanol (bME) and caffeine to the thawing solution on the function of frozen-thawed sperm, on the phagocytic activity of PMNs for sperm, and on the fertility of sows after AI. When frozen-thawed sperm were cultured in the presence of 25 or 50 ?m bME, sperm capacitation and spontaneous acrosome reactions were inhibited (P < 0.01). There was no effect of bME on phagocytic activity of PMNs for sperm in vitro. When hormonally treated (400 IU of equine chorionic gonadotropin + 200 IU of human chorionic gonadotropin) weaned sows experienced a single intrauterine insemination with frozen-thawed sperm (25 × 10(8) sperm per 50 ml dose) 40 h after subsequent hCG administration, pregnancy and farrowing rates were unaffected by the addition of 50 ?m bME (pregnancy rate, 20 vs 21% in controls; farrowing rate, 20 vs 21%; n = 15 and 14, respectively). However, litter size tended to be higher than in the presence of 50 ?m bME compared to its absence (10.0 ± 1.0 vs 5.7 ± 1.5, respectively; P < 0.07). Thus, the addition of bME to the thawing solution containing caffeine could be of benefit for improving the function of frozen-thawed sperm without influencing the phagocytic activity of PMNs for sperm. Although there were no statistically significant effects of bME on pregnancy or farrowing rates, the litter size tended to be higher in the sows subjected to a fixed-time single AI treatment with synchronized ovulation. PMID:22115816

Yamaguchi, S; Funahashi, H

2012-03-15

111

Persistence and intergenerational transmission of differentially expressed genes in the testes of intracytoplasmic sperm injection conceived mice*  

PubMed Central

Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is commonly used to solve male infertility problems. Previous studies showed that early environmental exposure of an embryo may influence postnatal development. To detect whether ICSI operations affect the reproductive health of a male or his offspring, we established assisted reproductive technologies (ART) conceived mouse models, and analyzed gene expression profiles in the testes of both ICSI and naturally conceived (NC) newborn F1 mice using micro-array analysis. Among the differentially expressed genes, we focused on the expression of eight male reproduction-related genes. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to analyze the expression of these genes in the testes of both adult and old F1 generation mice and adult F2 generation mice. Our results showed that down-regulated and somatic cell-expressed genes in newborn mice retained their differential expression patterns in adult and old F1 generation individuals, implying the persistence and fetal origin of the alteration in the expression of these genes. The intergenerational transmission of differential gene expression was observed, but most changes tended to be reduced in adult F2 generations. Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) mice models were added to explore the precise factors contributing to the differences in ICSI offspring. The data demonstrated that superovulation, in vitro culture, and mechanical stimulation involved in ICSI had a cumulative effect on the differential expression of these male reproductive genes. PMID:23645174

Wang, Li-ya; Wang, Ning; Le, Fang; Li, Lei; Li, Le-jun; Liu, Xiao-zhen; Zheng, Ying-ming; Lou, Hang-ying; Xu, Xiang-rong; Zhu, Xiao-ming; Zhu, Yi-min; Huang, He-feng; Jin, Fan

2013-01-01

112

Understanding sperm heterogeneity: biological and practical implications.  

PubMed

Sperm are the most diverse cell type known. This diversity is thought to reflect adaptation to conditions under which sperm function as a way to ensure the survival of sperm in fertilization environments and to maximize fertilizing capacity thereof. The existence of morphological diversity among species is widely assumed, although this diversity seems less clear as we go deeper (between males, between ejaculates from the same male and even within the same ejaculate), with different theories addressing this heterogeneity. Moreover, the development of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) has led to changes in the physiological conditions in which sperm fertilize, which could lead, ultimately, to a selection towards more favourable sperm design. Regardless of the origin of this diversity, when studying the relationship between shape and function of sperm, it is advisable to assess the degree of heterogeneity of sperm and takes into account to be more likely to identify those morphological characteristics determining the fertile ability of sperm. Otherwise, these relationships could be hidden as a result of considering an average shape not representative of morphological characteristics of sperm. In addition, the knowledge of this morphological diversity in terms of changes arising from modifications in the sperm environment and mechanisms that generate these changes could be useful for understanding the reproductive capacity of males but also in enhancing their fertile ability. PMID:25277430

Ramón, M; Jiménez-Rabadán, P; García-Álvarez, O; Maroto-Morales, A; Soler, Aj; Fernández-Santos, Mr; Pérez-Guzmán, Md; Garde, Jj

2014-10-01

113

Sperm competitiveness in frogs: slow and steady wins the race  

PubMed Central

When sperm compete to fertilize available ova, selection is expected to favour ejaculate traits that contribute to a male's fertilization success. While there is much evidence to show that selection favours increased numbers of sperm, only a handful of empirical studies have examined how variation in sperm form and function contributes to competitive fertilization success. Here, we examine selection acting on sperm form and function in the externally fertilizing myobatrachid frog, Crinia georgiana. Using in vitro fertilization techniques and controlling for variation in the number of sperm contributed by males in competitive situations, we show that males with a greater proportion of motile sperm, and motile sperm with slower swimming velocities, have an advantage when competing for fertilizations. Sperm morphology and the degree of genetic similarity between putative sires and the female had no influence on competitive fertilization success. These unusual patterns of selection might explain why frog sperm typically exhibit relatively slow swimming speeds and sustained longevity. PMID:19710059

Dziminski, Martin A.; Roberts, J. Dale; Beveridge, Maxine; Simmons, Leigh W.

2009-01-01

114

Bridging the gap between chemistry, physiology, and evolution: quantifying the functionality of sperm whale myoglobin mutants.  

PubMed

This work merges a large set of previously reported thermochemical data for myoglobin (Mb) mutants with a physiological model of O(2)-transport and -storage. The model allows a quantification of the functional proficiency of myoglobin (Mb) mutants under various physiological conditions, i.e. O(2)-consumption rate resembling workload, O(2) partial pressure resembling hypoxic stress, muscle cell size, and Mb concentration, resembling different organism-specific and compensatory variables. We find that O(2)-storage and -transport are distinct functions that rank mutants and wild type differently depending on O(2) partial pressure. Specifically, the wild type is near-optimal for storage at all conditions, but for transport only at severely hypoxic conditions. At normoxic conditions, low-affinity mutants are in fact better O(2)-transporters because they still have empty sites for O(2), giving rise to a larger [MbO(2)] gradient (more varying saturation curve). The distributions of functionality reveal that many mutants are near-neutral with respect to function, whereas only a few are strongly affected, and the variation in functionality increases dramatically at lower O(2) pressure. These results together show that conserved residues in wild type (WT) Mb were fixated under a selection pressure of low P(O2). PMID:21903173

Dasmeh, Pouria; Kepp, Kasper P

2012-01-01

115

Vestibular function test program evaluation  

E-print Network

Subject: Bioengineering VESTIBULAR FUNCTION TEST PROGRAM EVALUATION A Thesis by GLENN FREDERIC SCMIDT Approved as to style and content by: Charles S. Lessard (Chair of Committee) Edward M. O' Brien (Member) rry Christensen (Member) G. K le Benne... Subject: Bioengineering VESTIBULAR FUNCTION TEST PROGRAM EVALUATION A Thesis by GLENN FREDERIC SCMIDT Approved as to style and content by: Charles S. Lessard (Chair of Committee) Edward M. O' Brien (Member) rry Christensen (Member) G. K le Benne...

Schmidt, Glenn Frederic

2012-06-07

116

"OMICS" of Human Sperm: Profiling Protein Phosphatases  

PubMed Central

Abstract Phosphorylation is a major regulatory mechanism in eukaryotic cells performed by the concerted actions of kinases and phosphatases (PPs). Protein phosphorylation has long been relevant to sperm physiology, from acquisition of motility in the epididymis to capacitation in the female reproductive tract. While the precise kinases involved in the regulation of sperm phosphorylation have been studied for decades, the PPs have only recently received research interest. Tyrosine phosphorylation was first implicated in the regulation of several sperm-related functions, from capacitation to oocyte binding. Only afterwards, in 1996, the inhibition of the serine/threonine-PP phosphoprotein phosphatase 1 (PPP1) by okadaic acid and calyculin-A was shown to initiate motility in caput epididymal sperm. Today, the current mechanisms of sperm motility acquisition based on PPP1 and its regulators are still far from being fully understood. PPP1CC2, specifically expressed in mammalian sperm, has been considered to be the only sperm-specific serine/threonine-PP, while other PPP1 isoforms were thought to be absent from sperm. This article examines the “Omics” of human sperm, and reports, for the first time, the identification of three new serine/threonine-protein PPs, PPP1CB, PPP4C, and PPP6C, in human sperm, together with two tyrosine-PPs, MKP1 and PTP1C. We specifically localized in sperm PPP1CB and PPP1CC2 from the PPP1 subfamily, and PPP2CA, PPP4C, and PPP6C from the PPP2 subfamily of the serine/threonine-PPs. A semi-quantitative analysis was performed to determine the various PPs' differential expression in sperm head and tail. These findings contribute to a comprehensive understanding of human sperm PPs, and warrant further research for their clinical and therapeutic significance. PMID:23895272

Ferreira, Monica; Pelech, Steven; Vieira, Sandra; Rebelo, Sandra; Korrodi-Gregorio, Luis; Sousa, Mario; Barros, Alberto; Silva, Vladimiro; da Cruz e Silva, Odete A. B.; da Cruz e Silva, Edgar F.

2013-01-01

117

How nematode sperm crawl  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sperm of the nematode, Ascaris suum, crawl using lamellipodial protrusion, adhesion and retraction, a process analogous to the amoeboid motility of other eukaryotic cells. However, rather than employing an actin cytoskeleton to generate locomotion, nematode sperm use the major sperm protein (MSP). Moreover, nematode sperm lack detectable molecular motors or the battery of actin-binding proteins that characterize actin-based motility. The

Dean Bottino; Alexander Mogilner; Tom Roberts; Murray Stewart; George Oster

118

21 CFR 866.5800 - Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...purposes to identify and differentiate animal and human semen. The test results may be used as court evidence in alleged instances of rape and other sex-related crimes. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the...

2011-04-01

119

21 CFR 866.5800 - Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...purposes to identify and differentiate animal and human semen. The test results may be used as court evidence in alleged instances of rape and other sex-related crimes. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the...

2010-04-01

120

Changes in Gene Expression of Goat Developing Testes and Sperm During Breeding and Non-breeding Season  

E-print Network

-peak (April) breeding season were analyzed on a 4 x 44K Agilent bovine microarray. One thousand three hundred and eighteen gene products were differentially expressed 2-fold or more (p ? 0.05 ) was expressed in mature goat sperm collected October and April...

Faucette, Azure

2012-07-16

121

Microdissection testicular sperm extraction: an update  

PubMed Central

Patients with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) were once considered to be infertile with few treatment options due to the absence of sperm in the ejaculate. In the last two decades, the advent of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and the application of various testicular sperm retrieval techniques, including fine needle aspiration (FNA), conventional testicular sperm extraction (TESE) and microdissection testicular sperm extraction (micro-TESE) have revolutionized treatment in this group of men. Because most men with NOA will have isolated regions of spermatogenesis within the testis, studies have illustrated that sperm can be retrieved in most men with NOA, including Klinefelter's syndrome (KS), prior history of chemotherapy and cryptorchidism. Micro-TESE, when compared with conventional TESE has a higher sperm retrieval rate (SRR) with fewer postoperative complications and negative effects on testicular function. In this article, we will compare the efficacy of the different procedures of sperm extraction, discuss the medical treatment and the role of testosterone optimization in men with NOA and describe the micro-TESE surgical technique. Furthermore, we will update our overall experience to allow counseling on the prognosis of sperm retrieval for the specific subsets of NOA. PMID:23241638

Dabaja, Ali A; Schlegel, Peter N

2013-01-01

122

LOCALIZATION OF SP22 ON HUMAN SPERM OF DIFFERING QUALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

LOCALIZATION OF SP22 ON HUMAN SPERM OF DIFFERING QUALITY. AE Lavers*1, GR Klinefelter2, DW Hamilton1, KP Roberts1, 1University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN and 2US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC. SP22 is a sperm membrane protein that has been implicated in sperm function d...

123

Testing and learning Boolean functions  

E-print Network

Given a function f on n inputs, we consider the problem of testing whether f belongs to a concept class C, or is far from every member of C. An algorithm that achieves this goal for a particular C is called a property ...

Matulef, Kevin Michael

2009-01-01

124

Senescent sperm performance in old male birds.  

PubMed

Senescence is the deterioration of the phenotype with age caused by negative effects of mutations acting late in life or the physiological deterioration of vital processes. Birds have traditionally been assumed to senescence slowly despite their high metabolic rates, high blood sugar levels and high body temperature. Here we investigate the patterns of age-related performance of sperm of a long distance migrant, the barn swallow Hirundo rustica, varying in age from 1 to 6 years, analysed by the computer-assisted sperm analysis equipment. Sperm showed deteriorating performance in terms of linear movement, track velocity, straight line velocity and reduced proportions of rapidly moving, progressive and motile sperm with age. In a second series of experiments, we assessed performance of sperm from the same males in neutral medium and in medium derived from the reproductive tract of females in an attempt to test if sperm of old males performed relatively better in female medium, as expected from extra-pair paternity being negatively related to male age, but not to female age. Older males showed consistently better performance in female medium than in neutral medium in terms of track velocity, straight line velocity and reduced proportions of rapidly moving, progressive and motile sperm, whereas young males showed better performance in neutral medium. These results provide evidence of declining sperm performance for important reproductive variables not only with age, but also with the sperm of old males performing differentially better in female medium than young males. PMID:19032491

Mřller, A P; Mousseau, T A; Rudolfsen, G; Balbontín, J; Marzal, A; Hermosell, I; De Lope, F

2009-02-01

125

Sperm competition and sex allocation in simultaneous hermaphrodites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Sex allocation theory is developed for hermaphrodites having frequent copulations and long-term sperm storage. Provided the sperm displacement mechanisms are similar to those known in insects, the ESS allocation to sperm versus eggs satisfies a rather simple rule. There are no data to test this rule, as yet.

Eric L. Charnov

1996-01-01

126

Sperm allocation in the simultaneously hermaphroditic land snail Arianta arbustorum  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test the idea that individuals of the simultaneously hermaphroditic land snailArianta arbustorumcan control the number of spermatozoa in their spermatophores, we investigated whether they differentially release sperm to virgin or nonvirgin partners with respect to the potential risk of sperm competition in a given mating. The number of sperm transferred ranged from 802620 to 3968800 (X= 2185100;N=91), but was

BRUNO BAUR; ROLF LOCHER; ANETTE BAUR

1998-01-01

127

In vitro sperm maturation in sterlet, Acipenser ruthenus.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to examine sperm maturation in sturgeon and to establish the localization of the maturation. We demonstrated that sperm maturation occurs in sturgeon outside the testes via dilution of sperm by urine. The process involves the participation of high molecular weight (>10kDa) substances and calcium ions. PMID:24856476

Dzyuba, Borys; Cosson, Jacky; Boryshpolets, Sergii; Bondarenko, Olga; Dzyuba, Viktoriya; Prokopchuk, Galina; Gazo, Ievgeniia; Rodina, Marek; Linhart, Otomar

2014-04-01

128

Competition drives cooperation among closely related sperm of deer mice  

E-print Network

with unrelated conspecific sperm. In contrast, in the highly promiscuous deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus of deer mice (genus Peromyscus) form motile aggregations, then we use this system to test predictions. In a monogamous species lacking sperm competition, Peromyscus polionotus, sperm indiscrimi- nately group

Hoekstra, Hopi E.

129

Sperm competition and ejaculate investment in red squirrels ( Tamiasciurus hudsonicus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sperm competition is widespread in mammals and occurs when ejaculates from two or more males compete within the female’s reproductive\\u000a tract to fertilize the ova. Enlarged testes are associated with sperm competition because they produce sperm, but the accessory\\u000a glands produce fluids and proteins that are also important for fertilization success. Sperm morphology can also have consequences\\u000a for fertilization success

Vanessa L. Bonanno; Albrecht I. Schulte-Hostedde

2009-01-01

130

Turbidity as a method of preparing sperm dilutions in the echinoid sperm/egg bioassay  

SciTech Connect

The use of turbidimeter for preparing sperm dilutions used in the echinoid sperm/egg bioassay was evaluated. Regression analyses of the relationship between sperm density and turbidity for the sea urchins Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis and the sand dollar Dendraster excentricus indicated that although there were slope differences for each species, each coefficient of determination was highly significant. For Dendraster excentricus, triplicate hemacytometer counts over a range of turbidities as well as repeated preparations of a single sperm turbidity indicated similar variability for each. The use of the turbidimeter has time-saving advantages over conventional hemacytometer methods without sacrificing precision. Sperm dilutions can be prepared rapidly, minimizing seawater sperm preactivation before test initiation, and may therefore contribute to increased test precision.

Hall, T.J.; Haley, R.K.; Battan, K.J. (National Council of the Paper Industry for Air and Stream Improvement, Anacortes, WA (United States))

1993-11-01

131

DNA fragmentation and sperm head morphometry in cat epididymal spermatozoa.  

PubMed

Sperm DNA fragmentation is an important parameter to assess sperm quality and can be a putative fertility predictor. Because the sperm head consists almost entirely of DNA, subtle differences in sperm head morphometry might be related to DNA status. Several techniques are available to analyze sperm DNA fragmentation, but they are labor-intensive and require expensive instrumentations. Recently, a kit (Sperm-Halomax) based on the sperm chromatin dispersion test and developed for spermatozoa of different species, but not for cat spermatozoa, became commercially available. The first aim of the present study was to verify the suitability of Sperm-Halomax assay, specifically developed for canine semen, for the evaluation of DNA fragmentation of epididymal cat spermatozoa. For this purpose, DNA fragmentation indexes (DFIs) obtained with Sperm-Halomax and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick-end labeling (TUNEL) were compared. The second aim was to investigate whether a correlation between DNA status, sperm head morphology, and morphometry assessed by computer-assisted semen analysis exists in cat epididymal spermatozoa. No differences were observed in DFIs obtained with Sperm-Halomax and TUNEL. This result indicates that Sperm-Halomax assay provides a reliable evaluation of DNA fragmentation of epididymal feline spermatozoa. The DFI seems to be independent from all the measured variables of sperm head morphology and morphometry. Thus, the evaluation of the DNA status of spermatozoa could effectively contribute to the completion of the standard analysis of fresh or frozen semen used in assisted reproductive technologies. PMID:25129872

Vernocchi, Valentina; Morselli, Maria Giorgia; Lange Consiglio, Anna; Faustini, Massimo; Luvoni, Gaia Cecilia

2014-10-15

132

Two types of assays for detecting frog sperm chemoattraction.  

PubMed

Sperm chemoattraction in invertebrates can be sufficiently robust that one can place a pipette containing the attractive peptide into a sperm suspension and microscopically visualize sperm accumulation around the pipette. Sperm chemoattraction in vertebrates such as frogs, rodents and humans is more difficult to detect and requires quantitative assays. Such assays are of two major types - assays that quantitate sperm movement to a source of chemoattractant, so-called sperm accumulation assays, and assays that actually track the swimming trajectories of individual sperm. Sperm accumulation assays are relatively rapid allowing tens or hundreds of assays to be done in a single day, thereby allowing dose response curves and time courses to be carried out relatively rapidly. These types of assays have been used extensively to characterize many well established chemoattraction systems - for example, neutrophil chemotaxis to bacterial peptides and sperm chemotaxis to follicular fluid. Sperm tracking assays can be more labor intensive but offer additional data on how chemoattractancts actually alter the swimming paths that sperm take. This type of assay is needed to demonstrate the orientation of sperm movement relative to the chemoattrractant gradient axis and to visualize characteristic turns or changes in orientation that bring the sperm closer to the egg. Here we describe methods used for each of these two types of assays. The sperm accumulation assay utilized is called a "two-chamber" assay. Amphibian sperm are placed in a tissue culture plate insert with a polycarbonate filter floor having 12 ?m diameter pores. Inserts with sperm are placed into tissue culture plate wells containing buffer and a chemoatttractant carefully pipetted into the bottom well where the floor meets the wall (see Fig. 1). After incubation, the top insert containing the sperm reservoir is carefully removed, and sperm in the bottom chamber that have passed through the membrane are removed, pelleted and then counted by hemocytometer or flow cytometer. The sperm tracking assay utilizes a Zigmond chamber originally developed for observing neutrophil chemotaxis and modified for observation of sperm by Giojalas and coworkers. The chamber consists of a thick glass slide into which two vertical troughs have been machined. These are separated by a 1 mm wide observation platform. After application of a cover glass, sperm are loaded into one trough, the chemoattractant agent into the other and movement of individual sperm visualized by video microscopy. Video footage is then analyzed using software to identify two-dimensional cell movements in the x-y plane as a function of time (xyt data sets) that form the trajectory of each sperm. PMID:22231741

Burnett, Lindsey A; Tholl, Nathan; Chandler, Douglas E

2011-01-01

133

GALACSI integration and functional tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GALACSI is the Adaptive Optics (AO) modules of the ESO Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF) that will correct the wavefront delivered to the MUSE Integral Field Spectrograph. It will sense with four 40×40 subapertures Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors the AOF 4 Laser Guide Stars (LGS), acting on the 1170 voice-coils actuators of the Deformable Secondary Mirror (DSM). GALACSI has two operating modes: in Wide Field Mode (WFM), with the four LGS at 64" off axis, the collected energy in a 0.2"×0.2" pixel will be enhanced by a factor 2 at 750 nm over a Field of View (FoV) of 1'×1' using the Ground Layer AO (GLAO) technique. The other mode, the Narrow Field Mode (NFM), provides an enhanced wavefront correction (Strehl Ratio (SR) of 5% (goal 10%) at 650 nm) but in a smaller FoV (7.5"×7.5"), using Laser Tomography AO (LTAO), with the 4 LGS located closer, at 10" off axis. Before being shipped to Paranal, GALACSI will be first integrated and fully tested in stand-alone, and then moved to a dedicated AOF facility to be tested with the DSM in Europe. At present the module is fully assembled, its main functionalities have been implemented and verified, and AO system tests with the DSM are starting. We present here the main system features and the results of the internal functional tests of GALACSI.

La Penna, P.; Ströbele, S.; Aller Carpentier, E.; Argomedo, J.; Arsenault, R.; Conzelmann, R. D.; Delabre, B.; Donaldson, R.; Duchateau, M.; Fedrigo, E.; Gago, F.; Hubin, N.; Quentin, J.; Jolley, P.; Kiekebusch, M.; Kirchbauer, J. P.; Klein, B.; Kolb, J.; Kuntschner, H.; Le Louarn, M.; Lizon, J. L.; Madec, P.-.; Manescau, A.; Mehrgan, L.; Sedghi, B.; Suarez Valles, M.; Soenke, C.; Tordo, S.; Vernet, J.; Zampieri, S.

2014-07-01

134

Contraceptive vaccines targeting sperm.  

PubMed

Overpopulation is a global problem of significant magnitude, with grave implications for the future. Development of new contraceptives is necessary, as existing forms of birth control are unavailable, impractical and/or too expensive for many individuals due to sociological, financial or educational limitations. Immunocontraception and, in particular, the targeting of antibodies to sperm-specific antigens implicated in sperm-egg binding and fertilisation offers an attractive approach to control fertility. Sperm-specific antibodies may impair fertility by inhibiting sperm motility, by reducing penetration of the cervical mucus by sperm, or by interfering in sperm capacitation or the acrosome reaction; alternatively, antisperm antibodies may invoke the complement cascade, resulting in sperm lysis. The antibodies raised against sperm-specific antigens have proved to be extremely effective at reducing sperm-egg interactions in vitro; fertility trials in subhuman primates will eventually be needed to prove the effectiveness of the sperm antigens in terms of contraceptive efficacy before trials in humans can be justified. In addition, existing and emerging strategies (such as sperm proteomics, the determination of molecular and structural details of sperm proteins, and the modelling of protein-ligand interactions using X-ray and/or NMR structures to name a few) are expected to provide the experimental foundation for the design of small molecule inhibitors with antifertility effects. The technology underpinning vaccine development is constantly being developed and the introduction of DNA/RNA vaccines is certain to impact upon the field of immunocontraception. PMID:15833075

Suri, Anil

2005-03-01

135

Biparental Inheritance of ?-Tubulin during Human Fertilization: Molecular Reconstitution of Functional Zygotic Centrosomes in Inseminated Human Oocytes and in Cell-free Extracts Nucleated by Human Sperm  

PubMed Central

Human sperm centrosome reconstitution and the parental contributions to the zygotic centrosome are examined in mammalian zygotes and after exposure of spermatozoa to Xenopus laevis cell-free extracts. The presence and inheritance of the conserved centrosomal constituents ?-tubulin, centrin, and MPM-2 (which detects phosphorylated epitopes) are traced, as is the sperm microtubule-nucleating capability on reconstituted centrosomes. ?-Tubulin is biparentally inherited in humans (maternal >> than paternal): Western blots detect the presence of paternal ?-tubulin. Recruitment of maternal ?-tubulin to the sperm centrosome occurs after sperm incorporation in vivo or exposure to cell-free extract, especially after sperm “priming” induced by disulfide bond reduction. Centrin is found in the proximal sperm centrosomal region, demonstrates expected calcium sensitivity, but appears absent from the zygotic centrosome after sperm incorporation or exposure to extracts. Sperm centrosome phosphorylation is detected after exposure of primed sperm to egg extracts as well as during the early stages of sperm incorporation after fertilization. Finally, centrosome reconstitution in cell-free extracts permits sperm aster microtubule assembly in vitro. Collectively, these results support a model of a blended zygotic centrosome composed of maternal constituents attracted to an introduced paternal template after insemination. PMID:10473639

Simerly, Calvin; Zoran, Sara S.; Payne, Chris; Dominko, Tanja; Sutovsky, Peter; Navara, Christopher S.; Salisbury, Jeffery L.; Schatten, Gerald

1999-01-01

136

Sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA®).  

PubMed

The SCSA(®) is the pioneering assay for the detection of damaged sperm DNA and altered proteins in sperm nuclei via flow cytometry of acridine orange (AO) stained sperm. The SCSA(®) is considered to be the most precise and repeatable test providing very unique, dual parameter data (red vs. green fluorescence) on a 1,024 × 1,024 channel scale, not only on DNA fragmentation but also on abnormal sperm characterized by lack of normal exchange of histones to protamines. Raw semen/sperm aliquots or purified sperm can be flash frozen, placed in a box with dry ice and shipped by overnight courier to an experienced SCSA(®) lab. The samples are individually thawed, prepared, and analyzed in ?10 min. Of significance, data on 5,000 individual sperm are recorded on a 1,024 × 1,024 dot plot of green (native DNA) and red (broken DNA) fluorescence. Repeat measurements have virtually identical dot plot patterns demonstrating that the low pH treatment that opens up the DNA strands at the sites of breaks and staining by acridine orange (AO) are highly precise and repeatable (CVs of 1-3%) and the same between fresh and frozen samples. SCSAsoft(®) software transforms the X-Y data to total DNA stainability versus red/red + green fluoresence (DFI) providing a more accurate determination of % DFI as well as the more sensitive value of standard deviation of DFI (SD DFI) as demonstrated by animal fertility and dose-response toxicology studies. The current established clinical threshold is 25% DFI for placing a man into a statistical probability of the following: (a) longer time to natural pregnancy, (b) low odds of IUI pregnancy, (c) more miscarriages, or (d) no pregnancy. Changes in lifestyle as well as medical intervention can lower the %DFI to increase the probability of natural pregnancy. Couples of men with >25% DFI are counseled to try ICSI and when in the >50% range may consider TESE/ICSI. The SCSA(®) simultaneously determines the % of sperm with high DNA stainability (%HDS) related to retained nuclear histones consistent with immature sperm; high HDS values are predictive of pregnancy failure.The SCSA(®) is considered to be the most technician friendly, time- and cost-efficient, precise and repeatable DNA fragmentation assay, with the most data and the only fragmentation assay with an accepted clinical threshold for placing a man at risk for infertility. SCSA(®) data are more predictive of male factor infertility than classical semen analyses. PMID:22992911

Evenson, Donald P

2013-01-01

137

New era in sperm selection for ICSI.  

PubMed

Spermatozoa contribute to approximately half of the genome of future progeny, and therefore, have a profound impact on embryo development post-fertilization. Sperm selection based on viability and normal morphology does not eliminate the chance for DNA damaged spermatozoa to be inseminated and may account for a considerable percentage of failed embryo development post-ICSI (Intra cytoplasmic sperm injection). Therefore, sperm selection based on functional sperm characteristics to preclude insemination of DNA damaged spermatozoa have paved the way for successful ICSI outcomes. In regard to this, different laboratories have introduced novel procedures to replace traditional or orthodox sperm selection methods. This review attempts to provide information on the scientific bases of each procedure, and pinpoint their advantages and disadvantages. In addition to data from our research, a systematic search on the literature, publications and presentations was carried out using such databases as PubMed and ISI-Web. PMID:22804455

Nasr-Esfahani, M H; Deemeh, M R; Tavalaee, M

2012-08-01

138

Deficiency of SPAG16L causes male infertility associated with impaired sperm motility.  

PubMed

The axonemes of cilia and flagella contain a "9+2" structure of microtubules and associated proteins. Proteins associated with the central doublet pair have been identified in Chlamydomonas that result in motility defects when mutated. The murine orthologue of the Chlamydomonas PF20 gene, sperm-associated antigen 16 (Spag16), encodes two proteins of M(r) approximately 71 x 10(3) (SPAG16L) and M(r) approximately 35 x 10(3) (SPAG16S). In sperm, SPAG16L is found in the central apparatus of the axoneme. To determine the function of SPAG16L, gene targeting was used to generate mice lacking this protein but still expressing SPAG16S. Mutant animals were viable and showed no evidence of hydrocephalus, lateralization defects, sinusitis, bronchial infection, or cystic kidneys-symptoms typically associated with ciliary defects. However, males were infertile with a lower than normal sperm count. The sperm had marked motility defects, even though ultrastructural abnormalities of the axoneme were not evident. In addition, the testes of some nullizygous animals showed a spermatogenetic defect, which consisted of degenerated germ cells in the seminiferous tubules. We conclude that SPAG16L is essential for sperm flagellar function. The sperm defect is consistent with the motility phenotype of the Pf20 mutants of Chlamydomonas, but morphologically different in that the mutant algal axoneme lacks the central apparatus. PMID:16382026

Zhang, Zhibing; Kostetskii, Igor; Tang, Waixing; Haig-Ladewig, Lisa; Sapiro, Rossana; Wei, Zhangyong; Patel, Aatish M; Bennett, Jean; Gerton, George L; Moss, Stuart B; Radice, Glenn L; Strauss, Jerome F

2006-04-01

139

Abnormality on Liver Function Test  

PubMed Central

Children with abnormal liver function can often be seen in outpatient clinics or inpatients wards. Most of them have respiratory disease, or gastroenteritis by virus infection, accompanying fever. Occasionally, hepatitis by the viruses causing systemic infection may occur, and screening tests are required. In patients with jaundice, the tests for differential diagnosis and appropriate treatment are important. In the case of a child with hepatitis B virus infection vertically from a hepatitis B surface antigen positive mother, the importance of the recognition of immune clearance can't be overstressed, for the decision of time to begin treatment. Early diagnosis changes the fate of a child with Wilson disease. So, screening test for the disease should not be omitted. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which is mainly discovered in obese children, is a new strong candidate triggering abnormal liver function. Muscular dystrophy is a representative disease mimicking liver dysfunction. Although muscular dystrophy is a progressive disorder, and early diagnosis can't change the fate of patients, it will be better to avoid parent's blame for delayed diagnosis. PMID:24511518

2013-01-01

140

Left-handed sperm removal by male Calopteryx damselflies (Odonata).  

PubMed

Male genitalia in several insect species are asymmetry in right and left shape. However, the function of such asymmetric male genitalia is still unclear. We found that the male genitalia of the damselfly Calopteryx cornelia (Odonata: Calopterygidae) are morphologically symmetric just after emergence but asymmetric after reproductive maturation. Males remove rival sperm stored in the female bursa copulatrix (single spherical sac) and the following spermatheca (Y-shaped tubular sac) prior to their own ejaculation to prevent sperm competition. Males possess the aedeagus with a recurved head to remove bursal sperm and a pair of spiny lateral processes to remove spermathecal sperm. The right lateral process is less developed than the left, and sperm stored in the right spermathecal tube are rarely removed. Experiments involving surgical cutting of each lateral process demonstrated that only the left process functions in spermathecal sperm removal. Thus, males of C. cornelia are left-handed in their sperm removal behaviour at copulation. PMID:24711986

Tsuchiya, Kaori; Hayashi, Fumio

2014-01-01

141

Evolution of sperm structure and energetics in passerine birds  

PubMed Central

Spermatozoa exhibit considerable interspecific variability in size and shape. Our understanding of the adaptive significance of this diversity, however, remains limited. Determining how variation in sperm structure translates into variation in sperm performance will contribute to our understanding of the evolutionary diversification of sperm form. Here, using data from passerine birds, we test the hypothesis that longer sperm swim faster because they have more available energy. We found that sperm with longer midpieces have higher levels of intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP), but that greater energy reserves do not translate into faster-swimming sperm. Additionally, we found that interspecific variation in sperm ATP concentration is not associated with the level of sperm competition faced by males. Finally, using Bayesian methods, we compared the evolutionary trajectories of sperm morphology and ATP content, and show that both traits have undergone directional evolutionary change. However, in contrast to recent suggestions in other taxa, we show that changes in ATP are unlikely to have preceded changes in morphology in passerine sperm. These results suggest that variable selective pressures are likely to have driven the evolution of sperm traits in different taxa, and highlight fundamental biological differences between taxa with internal and external fertilization, as well as those with and without sperm storage. PMID:23282997

Rowe, Melissah; Laskemoen, Terje; Johnsen, Arild; Lifjeld, Jan T.

2013-01-01

142

The stochastic dance of circling sperm cells: sperm chemotaxis in the plane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological systems such as single cells must function in the presence of fluctuations. It has been shown in a two-dimensional experimental setup that sea urchin sperm cells move toward a source of chemoattractant along planar trochoidal swimming paths, i.e. drifting circles. In these experiments, a pronounced variability of the swimming paths is observed. We present a theoretical description of sperm

B. M. Friedrich; F. Jülicher

2008-01-01

143

Variational modularity at the cell level: insights from the sperm head of the house mouse  

PubMed Central

Background Modularity is an important feature in the evolvability of organisms, since it allows the occurrence of complex adaptations at every single level of biological systems. While at the cellular level the modular organization of molecular interactions has been analyzed in detail, the phenotypic modularity (or variational modularity) of cell shape remains unexplored. The mammalian spermatozoon constitutes one of the most complex and specialized cell types found in organisms. The structural heterogeneity found in the sperm head suggests an association between its inner composition, shape and specificity of function. However, little is known about the extent of the connections between these features. Taking advantage of the house mouse sperm morphology, we analyzed the variational modularity of the sperm head by testing several hypotheses related to its structural and functional organization. Because chromosomal rearrangements can affect the genotype-phenotype map of individuals and thus modify the patterns of covariation between traits, we also evaluate the effect of Robertsonian translocations on the modularity pattern of the sperm head. Results The results indicated that the house mouse sperm head is divided into three variational modules (the acrosomal, post-acrosomal and ventral spur module), which correspond to the main regions of the cytoskeletal mesh beneath the plasma membrane, i.e., the perinuclear theca. Most of the covariation is concentrated between the ventral spur and the acrosomal and post-acrosomal modules. Although the Rb fusions did not alter the main modularity pattern, they did affect the percentages of covariation between pairs of modules. Conclusions The structural heterogeneity of the cytoskeleton is responsible for the modular organization of the sperm head shape, corroborating the role that this structure has in maintaining the cell shape. The reduction in percentages of shape covariation between pairs of modules in Rb sperms suggests that chromosomal rearrangements could induce changes in the genotype-phenotype map. Nevertheless, how these variations affect sperm fertilization success is yet to be elucidated. PMID:24004811

2013-01-01

144

Sperm competition and sperm midpiece size: no consistent pattern in passerine birds  

PubMed Central

Sperm competition is thought to be a major force driving the evolution of sperm shape and function. However, previous studies investigating the relationship between the risk of sperm competition and sperm morphometry revealed inconclusive results and marked differences between taxonomic groups. In a comparative study of two families of passerines (Fringillidae and Sylviidae) and also across species belonging to different passerine families, we investigated the relative importance of the phylogenetic background on the relationship between sperm morphometry and the risk of sperm competition. The risk of sperm competition was inferred from relative testis mass as an indicator of investment in sperm production. We found: (i) a significant positive association between both midpiece length and flagellum length and relative testis mass in the Fringillidae, (ii) a significant negative association between sperm trait dimensions and relative testis mass in the Sylviidae, and (iii) no association across all species. Despite the striking difference in the patterns shown by the Sylviidae and the Fringillidae, the relationship between midpiece length and flagellum length was positive in both families and across all species with positive allometry. Reasons for the differences and similarities between passerine families are discussed. PMID:17476777

Immler, Simone; Birkhead, Tim R

2006-01-01

145

Motile sperm organelle morphology examination (MSOME) and sperm head vacuoles: state of the art in 2013.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND Approximately 10 years after the first publication introducing the motile sperm organelle morphology examination (MSOME), many questions remained about sperm vacuoles: frequency, size, localization, mode of occurrence, biological significance and impact on male fertility potential. Many studies have tried to characterize sperm vacuoles, to determine the sperm abnormalities possibly associated with vacuoles, to test the diagnostic value of MSOME for male infertility or to question the benefits of intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI). METHODS We searched PubMed for articles in the English language published in 2001-2012 regarding human sperm head vacuoles, MSOME and IMSI. RESULTS A bibliographic analysis revealed consensus for the following findings: (i) sperm vacuoles appeared frequently, often multiple and preferentially anterior; (ii) sperm vacuoles and sperm chromatin immaturity have been associated, particularly in the case of large vacuoles; (iii) teratozoospermia was a preferred indication of MSOME and IMSI. CONCLUSION The high-magnification system appears to be a powerful method to improve our understanding of human spermatozoa. However, its clinical use remains unclear in the fields of male infertility diagnosis and assisted reproduction techniques (ARTs). PMID:23825157

Perdrix, Anne; Rives, Nathalie

2013-01-01

146

Sperm competition, male prudence, and sperm-limited females (2002)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sperm are produced in astronomical numbers compared with eggs, and there is good evidence that sperm competition is the force behind the evolution of many tiny sperm. However, sperm production inevitably has costs. Recent research shows that male ejaculate expenditure is dynamic in both time and space, and that males are sensitive to risks of sperm competition and can vary

Nina Wedell; Matthew Gage; Geoffrey Parker

147

Functional Task Test: Data Review  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After space flight there are changes in multiple physiological systems including: Cardiovascular function; Sensorimotor function; and Muscle function. How do changes in these physiological system impact astronaut functional performance?

Cromwell, Ronita

2014-01-01

148

The ability of sperm selection techniques to remove single- or double-strand DNA damage  

PubMed Central

A wide variety of techniques for the preparation of sperm are currently available, of which the most commonly employed are density–gradient centrifugation (DGC) and swim-up (SUP). To date, these methods appear to be effective in selecting functional sperm for assisted reproduction techniques (ART), but they may have negative effects on sperm DNA. In this study, the ability of these semen processing techniques to eliminate spermatozoa containing single- and double-strand DNA damage was assessed by the two-tailed comet assay and the sperm chromatin dispersion test in 157 semen samples from patients seeking assisted reproduction treatment. Our results indicated that SUP and DGC are equally efficient in eliminating spermatozoa containing double-strand DNA damage and sperm with highly damaged (degraded) DNA, as characterized by the presence of both single- and double-strand DNA breaks. However, DGC is more efficient than SUP in selecting spermatozoa that are free from single-strand DNA damage. Future studies should characterise the importance of the various types of DNA damage and examine the sperm processing protocols used in each laboratory to determine their ability to eliminate DNA damage and hence, prevent the potential transmission of genetic mutations via ART. PMID:21725332

Enciso, Maria; Iglesias, Miriam; Galan, Isabel; Sarasa, Jonas; Gosalvez, Antonio; Gosalvez, Jaime

2011-01-01

149

Adaptive plasticity of mammalian sperm production in response to social experience  

PubMed Central

Sperm competition theory predicts that males should invest prudently in ejaculates according to levels of female promiscuity. Males may therefore be sensitive to cues in their social environment associated with sexual competition, and tailor investment in sperm production accordingly. We tested this idea experimentally for the first time, to our knowledge, in a mammal by comparing reproductive traits of male house mice (Mus musculus domesticus) that had experienced contrasting encounter regimes with potential sexual competitors. We found that daily sperm production and numbers of sperm in the caput epididymis were significantly higher in subjects that had experienced a high encounter rate of social cues from three other males compared to those that had experienced a low encounter rate of social cues from just one other male. Epididymal sperm counts were negatively correlated with the frequency of scent-marking behaviour across all males in our study, suggesting that investment in ejaculate production may be traded off against traits that function in gaining copulations, although there was no difference in overall levels of scent marking between treatment groups. We conclude that social experience-mediated phenotypic plasticity in mammalian spermatogenesis is likely to be adaptive under sperm competition, enabling males to balance the energetic costs and paternity-enhancing benefits of ejaculate production, and is a potentially widespread explanation for intraspecific variation in ejaculate expenditure. PMID:18986975

Ramm, Steven A.; Stockley, Paula

2008-01-01

150

Reactive oxygen species and sperm cells  

PubMed Central

There is a dynamic interplay between pro- and anti-oxidant substances in human ejaculate. Excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation can overwhelm protective mechanism and initiate changes in lipid and/or protein layers of sperm plasma membranes. Additionally, changes in DNA can be induced. The essential steps of lipid peroxidation have been listed as well as antioxidant substances of semen. A variety of detection techniques of lipid peroxidation have been summarized together with the lipid components of sperm membranes that can be subjected to stress. It is unsolved, a threshold for ROS levels that may induce functional sperm ability or may lead to male infertility. PMID:15038829

Sanocka, Dorota; Kurpisz, Maciej

2004-01-01

151

Processing, localization and binding activity of zonadhesin suggest a function in sperm adhesion to the zona pellucida during exocytosis of the acrosome.  

PubMed Central

Zonadhesin is a sperm protein that binds in a species-specific manner to the extracellular matrix ZP (zona pellucida) of the mammalian oocyte. The pig zonadhesin precursor is a 267000-Da mosaic protein with a Type I membrane topology and a large extracellular region comprising meprin/A5 antigen/mu receptor tyrosine phosphatase, mucin and five tandem von Willebrand D (VWD) domains. Multiple mature forms of zonadhesin in the sperm head differ in their avidities for the ZP. To determine the potential functions of zonadhesin forms in gamete adhesion, we characterized the processing, activation and localization of protein in pig spermatozoa. The predominant polypeptides of processed zonadhesin were M(r) 300000 (p300), 105000 (p105) and 45000 (p45). p45 and p105, comprised primarily the D1, D2-D3 domains respectively, and were N-glycosylated. p300 was heavily O-glycosylated, and spanned the meprin/A5 antigen/mu receptor tyrosine phosphatase, mucin and D0 domains. Hydrolysis of the precursor polypeptide occurred in the testis, and N-terminal sequencing of p45 and p105 identified Asp806-Pro and Asp1191-Pro in the D1 and D2 domains respectively as bonds cleaved in the protein's functional maturation. Testicular zonadhesin was extractable with non-ionic detergents, and localized to the developing outer acrosomal membrane of round and elongating spermatids. As spermatozoa transited the epididymis, most of the protein became incorporated into an extraction-resistant fraction, and the proportions of active and of multimeric zonadhesins in the cells increased. Zonadhesin localized to the perimeter of the acrosome in intact ejaculated spermatozoa and to the leading edge of acrosomal matrix overlying cells with disrupted acrosomal membranes. We conclude that the zonadhesin precursor is specifically proteolysed, glycosylated and assembled into particulate structures in the distal parts of the acrosome where it may mediate specific adhesion to the ZP during the initial stages of acrosomal exocytosis. PMID:12882646

Bi, Ming; Hickox, John R; Winfrey, Virginia P; Olson, Gary E; Hardy, Daniel M

2003-01-01

152

Traditional intracytoplasmic sperm injection provides equivalent outcomes compared with human zona pellucida-bound selected sperm injection.  

PubMed

Summary The capability of human zona pellucida (ZP) to bind selectively to normal functional sperm with normal chromatin has been reported widely in the literature. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether ZP-binding sperm selection may represent a method to retrieve superior spermatozoa for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Patients were divided into two groups: a ZP-ICSI and a conventional ICSI group. In the ZP-ICSI group, spermatozoa for injection were selected after ZP-sperm incubation and spermatozoa that were tightly bound to the ZP were used for ICSI (ZP-ICSI). Clinical outcomes of ZP-ICSI were compared with the outcomes of traditional scientist-selected sperm injection (conventional ICSI). Results did not show any significant difference in fertilization, pregnancy, implantation and take-home-baby rates between conventional ICSI and ZP-ICSI. However, when data relative to patients who received ZP-ICSI were analyzed, an interesting result was observed: higher sperm concentration and morphology correlated with higher ZP-sperm binding. Additionally, patients with higher ZP-sperm binding seem to have improved pregnancy and take-home-baby rates. In conclusion, this study shows that ZP-ICSI is not a superior method compared with conventional ICSI. However, clinical ICSI outcomes were apparently improved in the presence of good ZP-sperm binding. We therefore speculate that sperm competence to ICSI could be reduced when the sperm's ability to bind the ZP is impaired. PMID:23659189

Casciani, Valentina; Minasi, Maria Giulia; Fabozzi, Gemma; Scarselli, Filomena; Colasante, Alessandro; Lobascio, Anna Maria; Greco, Ermanno

2014-11-01

153

The influence of direct mobile phone radiation on sperm quality  

PubMed Central

Introduction It is impossible to imagine a modern socially–active man who does not use mobile devices and/or computers with Wi–Fi function. The effect of mobile phone radiation on male fertility is the subject of recent interest and investigations. The aim of this study was to investigate the direct in vitro influence of mobile phone radiation on sperm DNA fragmentation and motility parameters in healthy subjects with normozoospermia. Material and methods 32 healthy men with normal semen parameters were selected for the study. Each sperm sample was divided into two equal portions (A and B). Portions A of all involved men were placed for 5 hours in a thermostat, and portions B were placed into a second thermostat for the same period of time, where a mobile phone in standby/talk mode was placed. After 5 hours of incubation the sperm samples from both thermostats were re–evaluated regarding basic motility parameters. The presence of DNA fragmentation in both A and B portions of each sample was determined each hour using a standard sperm chromatin dispersion test. Results The number of spermatozoa with progressive movement in the group, influenced by electromagnetic radiation, is statistically lower than the number of spermatozoa with progressive movement in the group under no effect of the mobile phone. The number of non–progressive movement spermatozoa was significantly higher in the group, which was influenced by cell phone radiation. The DNA fragmentation was also significantly higher in this group. Conclusions A correlation exists between mobile phone radiation exposure, DNA–fragmentation level and decreased sperm motility. PMID:24982785

Gorpinchenko, Igor; Nikitin, Oleg; Shulyak, Alexander

2014-01-01

154

Intra-specific variation of sperm length in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae: males with shorter sperm have higher reproductive success  

PubMed Central

Background Intra-specific variation in sperm length influences male reproductive success in several species of insects. In males of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae, sperm length is highly variable but the significance of this variation is unknown. Understanding what determines the reproductive success of male mosquitoes is critical for controlling malaria, and in particular for replacing natural populations with transgenic, malaria-resistant mosquitoes. Methods A laboratory population of A. gambiae males was tested for intra-specific variation in sperm length. A full-sib quantitative genetic design was used to test for a genetic component of sperm length in A. gambiae males and estimate its heritability. This study also tested for a relationship between sperm length and male reproductive success in A. gambiae. Male reproductive success was measured as the proportions of inseminated and ovipositing females. Results There was intra-specific variation of sperm length in A. gambiae. There was no significant genetic variation in sperm length and its heritability was low (h2 = 0.18) compared to other insects. Sperm length was correlated with male body size (measured as wing length). Males with short sperm had significantly higher reproductive success than males with long sperm and this was independent of body size. Conclusion This is the first study to demonstrate intra-specific variation in sperm length in A. gambiae and that males with short sperm have higher reproductive success. That sperm length influences female oviposition is important for any strategy considering the release of transgenic males. PMID:18939985

Voordouw, Maarten J; Koella, Jacob C; Hurd, Hilary

2008-01-01

155

Sperm quality improvement after date seed oil in vitro supplementation in spontaneous and induced oxidative stress  

PubMed Central

In vitro supplementation with date seed oil (DSO) can protect spermatozoa against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-mediated damage and can improve sperm function, possibly owing to antioxidant properties. We tested the antioxidant effects of DSO on human sperm motility, sperm viability, reacted acrosome and lipid peroxidation assessed in vitro after H2O2-mediated oxidative damage in spermatozoa. Sixteen patients (mean age: 35 years; range: 25–45 years) referred to the Histology–Embryology Laboratory of the Medicine Faculty of Sfax for semen analysis after 12–24 months of sexual intercourse without conception were selected. After spermiogram, sperm selection by two-interface discontinuous Sill Select gradient was performed, and selected spermatozoa were used in four experimental assays: control; incubation with 100 ?m H2O2; incubation with 0.1% DSO; and co-incubation with 0.1% DSO and 100 ?m H2O2. Motility and viability were determined using World Health Organization criteria. Acrosome reaction and lipid peroxidation were assessed by staining with fluorescein isothiocyanate-Pisum sativum and spectrophotometric measurement of malondialdehyde, respectively. Results showed that incubation with H2O2 alone led to a significant increase in lipid peroxidation (57.83%, P < 0.05) associated with a significant decrease in sperm motility, sperm viability (after 30 min and 24 h) and percentage of reacted acrosome (P < 0.05). Date seed oil improved sperm motility after 24 h of incubation (P < 0.05) and protected spermatozoa against the deleterious effects of H2O2 on motility, viability, acrosome reaction and lipid peroxidation. We conclude that supplementation with DSO may have a function in antioxidant protection against male infertility. PMID:19151733

Fatma, Ben A.; Nozha, Chakroun F.; Ines, Dammak; Hamadi, Attia; Basma, Hentati; Leila, Ammar K.

2009-01-01

156

The testicular sperm ducts and genital kidney of male Ambystoma maculatum (Amphibia, Urodela, Ambystomatidae).  

PubMed

The ducts associated with sperm transport from the testicular lobules to the Wolffian ducts in Ambystoma maculatum were examined with transmission electron microscopy. Based on the ultrastructure and historical precedence, new terminology for this network of ducts is proposed that better represents primary hypotheses of homology. Furthermore, the terminology proposed better characterizes the distinct regions of the sperm transport ducts in salamanders based on anatomy and should, therefore, lead to more accurate comparisons in the future. While developing the above ontology, we also tested the hypothesis that nephrons from the genital kidney are modified from those of the pelvic kidney due to the fact that the former nephrons function in sperm transport. Our ultrastructural analysis of the genital kidney supports this hypothesis, as the basal plasma membrane of distinct functional regions of the nephron (proximal convoluted tubule, distal convoluted tubule, and collecting tubule) appear less folded (indicating decreased surface area and reduced reabsorption efficiency) and the proximal convoluted tubule possesses ciliated epithelial cells along its entire length. Furthermore, visible luminal filtrate is absent from the nephrons of the genital kidney throughout their entire length. Thus, it appears that the nephrons of the genital kidney have reduced reabsorptive capacity and ciliated cells of the proximal convoluted tubule may increase the movement of immature sperm through the sperm transport ducts or aid in the mixing of seminal fluids within the ducts. PMID:23192852

Siegel, Dustin S; Aldridge, Robert D; Rheubert, Justin L; Gribbins, Kevin M; Sever, David M; Trauth, Stanley E

2013-03-01

157

Functional Assays for Neurotoxicity Testing*  

EPA Science Inventory

Neurobehavioral and pathological evaluations of the nervous system are complementary components of basic research and toxicity testing of pharmaceutical and environmental chemicals. While neuropathological assessments provide insight as to cellular changes in neurons, behavioral ...

158

Functional Assays for Neurotoxicity Testing  

EPA Science Inventory

Neurobehavioral and pathological evaluations of the nervous system are complementary components of basic research and toxicity testing of pharmaceutical and environmental chemicals. While neuropathological assessments provide insight as to cellular changes in neurons, behavioral ...

159

Assessing risks of invasion through gamete performance: farm Atlantic salmon sperm and eggs show equivalence in function, fertility, compatibility and competitiveness to wild Atlantic salmon  

PubMed Central

Adaptations at the gamete level (a) evolve quickly, (b) appear sensitive to inbreeding and outbreeding and (c) have important influences on potential to reproduce. We apply this understanding to problems posed by escaped farm salmon and measure their potential to reproduce in the wild. Farm Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are a threat to biodiversity, because they escape in large numbers and can introgress, dilute or disrupt locally adapted wild gene pools. Experiments at the whole fish level have found farm reproductive potential to be significant, but inferior compared to wild adults, especially for males. Here, we assess reproductive performance at the gamete level through detailed in vitro comparisons of the form, function, fertility, compatibility and competitiveness of farm versus wild Atlantic salmon sperm and eggs, in conditions mimicking the natural gametic microenvironment, using fish raised under similar environmental conditions. Despite selective domestication and reduced genetic diversity, we find functional equivalence in all farm fish gamete traits compared with their wild ancestral strain. Our results identify a clear threat of farm salmon reproduction with wild fish and therefore encourage further consideration of using triploid farm strains with optimized traits for aquaculture and fish welfare, as triploid fish remain reproductively sterile following escape. PMID:24822083

Yeates, Sarah E; Einum, Sigurd; Fleming, Ian A; Holt, William V; Gage, Matthew JG

2014-01-01

160

Assessing risks of invasion through gamete performance: farm Atlantic salmon sperm and eggs show equivalence in function, fertility, compatibility and competitiveness to wild Atlantic salmon.  

PubMed

Adaptations at the gamete level (a) evolve quickly, (b) appear sensitive to inbreeding and outbreeding and (c) have important influences on potential to reproduce. We apply this understanding to problems posed by escaped farm salmon and measure their potential to reproduce in the wild. Farm Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are a threat to biodiversity, because they escape in large numbers and can introgress, dilute or disrupt locally adapted wild gene pools. Experiments at the whole fish level have found farm reproductive potential to be significant, but inferior compared to wild adults, especially for males. Here, we assess reproductive performance at the gamete level through detailed in vitro comparisons of the form, function, fertility, compatibility and competitiveness of farm versus wild Atlantic salmon sperm and eggs, in conditions mimicking the natural gametic microenvironment, using fish raised under similar environmental conditions. Despite selective domestication and reduced genetic diversity, we find functional equivalence in all farm fish gamete traits compared with their wild ancestral strain. Our results identify a clear threat of farm salmon reproduction with wild fish and therefore encourage further consideration of using triploid farm strains with optimized traits for aquaculture and fish welfare, as triploid fish remain reproductively sterile following escape. PMID:24822083

Yeates, Sarah E; Einum, Sigurd; Fleming, Ian A; Holt, William V; Gage, Matthew Jg

2014-04-01

161

Sperm competition and the evolution of sperm design in mammals  

PubMed Central

Background The influence of sperm competition upon sperm size has been a controversial issue during the last 20 years which remains unresolved for mammals. The hypothesis that, when ejaculates compete with rival males, an increase in sperm size would make sperm more competitive because it would increase sperm swimming speed, has generated contradictory results from both theoretical and empirical studies. In addition, the debate has extended to which sperm components should increase in size: the midpiece to accommodate more mitochondria and produce more energy to fuel motility, or the principal piece to generate greater propulsion forces. Results In this study we examined the influence of sperm competition upon sperm design in mammals using a much larger data set (226 species) than in previous analyses, and we corrected for phylogenetic effects by using a more complete and resolved phylogeny, and more robust phylogenetic control methods. Our results show that, as sperm competition increases, all sperm components increase in an integrated manner and sperm heads become more elongated. The increase in sperm length was found to be associated with enhanced swimming velocity, an adaptive trait under sperm competition. Conclusions We conclude that sperm competition has played an important role in the evolution of sperm design in mammals, and discuss why previous studies have failed to detect it. PMID:21232104

2011-01-01

162

Sperm competition in bats.  

PubMed Central

Sperm competition is a widespread phenomenon influencing the evolution of male anatomy, physiology and behaviour. Bats are an ideal group for studying sperm competition. Females store fertile sperm for up to 200 days and the size of social groups varies from single animals to groups of hundreds of thousands. This study examines the relationship between social group size and investment in spermatogenesis across 31 species of microchiropteran bat using new and published data on testis mass and sperm length. In addition to male competition, I examined the effects of female reproductive biology on characteristics of spermatogenesis. Comparative studies indicate that relative testis mass is positively related to sperm competition risk in a wide range of taxa. Social group size may also influence the level of sperm competition, and one of the costs of living in groups may be decreased confidence of paternity. I used comparative analysis of independent contrast (CAIC) to control for phylogeny. Using two possible phylogenies and two measures of social group size, I found a significant positive relationship between social group size and testis mass. There was no relationship between testis mass and the dimension of the female reproductive tract or oestrus duration. Sperm length was not significantly related to body mass or group size, nor was it related to oestrus duration. PMID:9107054

Hosken, D J

1997-01-01

163

Functional Testing Protocols for Commercial Building Efficiency  

E-print Network

1 Functional Testing Protocols for Commercial Building Efficiency Baseline Modeling Software, Jessica Granderson and Michael Sohn Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Environmental Energy Technologies Division Berkeley, CA 94720 September

164

Adverse Effects of 5-Aza-2'Deoxycytidine on Spermatogenesis Include Reduced Sperm Function and Selective Inhibition of de Novo DNA Methylation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anticancer agent, 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine (5-azaCdR, de- citabine), causes DNA hypomethylation and a robust, dose- dependent disruption of spermatogenesis. Previously, we have shown that altered testicular histology and reduced sperm pro- duction in 5-azaCdR-treated animals is associated with de- creased global sperm DNA methylation and an increase in infertility and\\/or a decreased ability to support preimplantation embryonic development. The goal of

Christopher C. Oakes; Tamara L. J. Kelly; Bernard Robaire; Jacquetta M. Trasler

2007-01-01

165

Family of sperm associated antigens: relevance in sperm-egg interaction and immunocontraception.  

PubMed

Overpopulation is a global problem of significant magnitude, with grave implications for the future. Development of new contraceptives is necessary, since current forms of birth control are unavailable, impractical and/or too expensive to many individuals due to sociological, financial, or educational limitations. A novel contraceptive strategy that is receiving considerable attention is that of immunocontraception. The targeting of antibodies to gamete-specific antigens implicated in sperm function, sperm-egg binding and fertilization offers an attractive approach to the growing global problem of over population. The sermatozoon has proteins that are unique, cell specific, immunogenic and accessible to antibodies. Immunological interaction with such molecules can cause block of sperm binding to the oocyte and thus fertilization. Modern biotechnologies (such as sperm proteomics, the determination of molecular and structural details of sperm proteins, and the modelling of protein-ligand interaction using X-ray and/or NMR structures to name a few) are trying to make intervention into the domain of human reproduction possible through the development of a variety of new methods and products to control fertility. The present article highlights the various sperm associated antigens involved in various aspects of sperm-egg interaction. PMID:17566289

Suri, A

2007-01-01

166

Precious Essences: Female Secretions Promote Sperm Storage in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Sperm that females receive during mating are stored in special places in the females' reproductive tracts. These storage sites serve to support and retain the sperm, maintaining the sperms' motility and, in mammals, permitting final sperm-maturation. The molecules that attract sperm to these sites and mediate what happens to them there have remained elusive. New research, using elegant genetic tools in Drosophila, shows that secretory cells associated with a sperm storage organ are important in sperm-supportive functions. When females lack function of these cells, they do not store sperm, or the sperm that they do store lose motility. Intriguingly, these effects influence gametes beyond the secretory cells' immediate vicinity. Loss of these cells eliminates the motility of sperm stored elsewhere in the reproductive tract and prevents the movement of eggs through the tract to exit the female. As a result of the latter problem, fertilized eggs hatch inside female flies that lack these secretory cells: instead of laying eggs, these females can “give birth” to live offspring. Because the cellular source of these gamete-regulating substances is now known, future studies can identify the specific molecules and mechanisms by which a female attracts sperm into storage and regulates the movement of sperm and eggs within her reproductive tract. It will be fascinating to determine how these molecules and mechanisms maintain gametes in active and viable forms and how evolution can modulate this to result in diverse reproductive strategies. Identification of these molecules also has potential practical implications for strategies to regulate the reproduction of insects of medical or agricultural importance. PMID:22087072

Wolfner, Mariana F.

2011-01-01

167

Sperm from pheromone primed brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) produce more larvae.  

PubMed

Male goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposed to female hormonal pheromones express increased milt volumes and their sperm fertilize more eggs than sperm from unprimed males. Ovulated salmonid females also release odours that increase volumes of strippable milt in males. It is, however, not known if the priming pheromones affect the ability of sperm to fertilize eggs in salmonids. In this study, we compare the proportion of larvae produced from in vitro fertilization tests between primed brown trout (Salmo trutta) males exposed to a mix of female urine and ovarian fluids, and control males exposed only to 0.9 % sodium chloride. We also investigate priming effects on milt yield and sperm motility. Fertilization tests with sperm from single males, as well as sperm from two males (i.e., sperm competition), were performed. Primed males generated more larvae in both the single male and competition fertilization tests. No differences between treatments in milt yield and sperm motility could be established. PMID:22976196

Hellström, Gustav; Prestegaard, Tore; Dannewitz, Johan; Olsén, K Hĺkan

2013-06-01

168

Sperm Quality Control  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

New research from the University of Missouri-Columbia suggests how defective sperm are tagged for destruction. This 57 second audio recording from Science Update originally aired on Monday, February 11, 2008.

Science Update (AAAS;)

2008-05-06

169

Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)  

MedlinePLUS

... injection (ICSI) can be done along with in vitro fertilization (IVF) to help fertilize the egg. During ... regardless of the condition of the sperm. • In vitro matured eggs are being used. • Previously frozen eggs ...

170

Cigarette smoke affects posttranslational modifications and inhibits capacitation-induced changes in human sperm proteins.  

PubMed

Sperm are highly dependent on posttranslational modifications of proteins. Massive phosphorylation on tyrosine residue is required for sperm capacitation. Sumoylation has also been recently implicated in spermatogenesis and sperm functions. Cigarette smoke is known to cause oxidative stress in different tissues, and several studies suggest that it causes oxidative stress in sperm. Whether tobacco affects posttranslational modifications in human sperm is currently unknown. In this study, we show that a short exposure of human sperm to physiological concentrations of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) causes the partial de-sumoylation of many sperm proteins. Furthermore, the presence of a low concentration of CSE in the human tubal fluid during an induction of in vitro capacitation inhibits the capacitation-associated increase in protein phosphorylation. Collectively, changes in posttranslational modifications may be one of the mechanisms through which exposure to tobacco can negatively affect sperm functions and cause fertility problems. PMID:24345728

Shrivastava, Vibha; Marmor, Hannah; Chernyak, Sholom; Goldstein, Marc; Feliciano, Miriam; Vigodner, Margarita

2014-01-01

171

Impact of adrenalectomy and dexamethasone treatment on testicular morphology and sperm parameters in rats: insights into the adrenal control of male reproduction.  

PubMed

Here we investigated the hypothesis that normal levels of glucocorticoids, a class of adrenal steroid hormones, are required for normal testicular and epididymal functions. We examined the effects of the manipulation of glucocorticoid plasma levels by bilateral adrenalectomy (1, 2, 7 and 15 days) alone or in combination with daily treatment with the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone (DEX; 5 ?g/kg, i.p., 6 days) on the morphology of the testis and sperm parameters in rats. We showed that adrenalectomy led to a reduction in testicular sperm count and daily sperm production starting 2 days after surgery and a differential decrease in sperm count in the epididymis, according to the region and time post-adrenalectomy analysed. In parallel, testes from 7-day adrenalectomized (ADX) rats displayed a higher frequency of damaged seminiferous tubules and the presence of elongated spermatids retained in the basal epithelial compartment in stages IX-XVII, which is indicative of defective spermiation. The alkaline comet assay revealed a late effect of adrenalectomy on epididymal sperm DNA fragmentation, which was increased only 15 days after surgery. DEX treatment prevented the changes in testicular and epididymal sperm count observed in 7-day ADX rats, but failed to protect the testis from ADX-induced morphological abnormalities. Thus, our results indicated that glucocorticoids may be involved in events related to the maintenance of spermatogenesis and sperm maturation during adulthood. These findings provide new insights into the importance of adrenal steroids to male fertility. PMID:24925687

Silva, E J R; Vendramini, V; Restelli, A; Bertolla, R P; Kempinas, W G; Avellar, M C W

2014-11-01

172

Human Sperm Tail Proteome Suggests New Endogenous Metabolic Pathways*  

PubMed Central

Proteomic studies are contributing greatly to our understanding of the sperm cell, and more detailed descriptions are expected to clarify additional cellular and molecular sperm attributes. The aim of this study was to characterize the subcellular proteome of the human sperm tail and, hopefully, identify less concentrated proteins (not found in whole cell proteome studies). Specifically, we were interested in characterizing the sperm metabolic proteome and gaining new insights into the sperm metabolism issue. Sperm were isolated from normozoospermic semen samples and depleted of any contaminating leukocytes. Tail fractions were obtained by means of sonication followed by sucrose-gradient ultracentrifugation, and their purity was confirmed via various techniques. Liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry of isolated sperm tail peptides resulted in the identification of 1049 proteins, more than half of which had not been previously described in human sperm. The categorization of proteins according to their function revealed two main groups: proteins related to metabolism and energy production (26%), and proteins related to sperm tail structure and motility (11%). Interestingly, a great proportion of the metabolic proteome (24%) comprised enzymes involved in lipid metabolism, including enzymes for mitochondrial beta-oxidation. Unexpectedly, we also identified various peroxisomal proteins, some of which are known to be involved in the oxidation of very long chain fatty acids. Analysis of our data using Reactome suggests that both mitochondrial and peroxisomal pathways might indeed be active in sperm, and that the use of fatty acids as fuel might be more preponderant than previously thought. In addition, incubation of sperm with the fatty acid oxidation inhibitor etomoxir resulted in a significant decrease in sperm motility. Contradicting a common concept in the literature, we suggest that the male gamete might have the capacity to obtain energy from endogenous pools, and thus to adapt to putative exogenous fluctuations. PMID:23161514

Amaral, Alexandra; Castillo, Judit; Estanyol, Josep Maria; Ballesca, Jose Luis; Ramalho-Santos, Joao; Oliva, Rafael

2013-01-01

173

The ability of sperm selection techniques to remove single- or double-strand DNA damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wide variety of techniques for the preparation of sperm are currently available, of which the most commonly employed are density–gradient centrifugation (DGC) and swim-up (SUP). To date, these methods appear to be effective in selecting functional sperm for assisted reproduction techniques (ART), but they may have negative effects on sperm DNA. In this study, the ability of these semen

María Enciso; Miriam Iglesias; Isabel Galán; Jonás Sarasa; Antonio Gosálvez; Jaime Gosálvez

2011-01-01

174

Long-lived sperm in the geothermal bryophyte Pohlia nutans  

PubMed Central

Non-vascular plants rely on sperm to cross the distance between male and female reproductive organs for fertilization and sexual reproduction to occur. The majority of non-vascular plants have separate sexes, and thus, this distance may be a few millimetres to many metres. Because sperm need water for transport, it has been assumed that sperm lifespans are short and that this type of sexual reproduction limits the expansion of non-vascular plants in terrestrial environments. However, little data is available on the lifespan of sperm in non-vascular plants, and none is available for bryophytes, the group thought to have first colonized terrestrial habitats. Here, we documented the lifespan of sperm of Pohlia nutans, collected from a geothermal spring's area, and tested the effects of variation under environmental conditions on this lifespan. Surprisingly, 20 per cent of the sperm were still motile after 100 h, and sperm lifespan was not significantly affected by temperature variation between 22 and 60°C. Lifespan was significantly affected by sperm dilution and temperatures above 75°C. These results suggest the need to reconsider the importance of sperm motility in bryophyte fertilization. PMID:19640871

Rosenstiel, Todd N.; Eppley, Sarah M.

2009-01-01

175

Impaired swimming behaviour and morphology of sperm from barn swallows Hirundo rustica in Chernobyl  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the motility and morphology of live sperm from barn swallows Hirundo rustica breeding in radioactively contaminated areas around Chernobyl and control areas in Ukraine in order to test the hypothesis that swimming behaviour and morphology of sperm was impaired by radioactive contamination. We obtained sperm samples from 98% of sampled birds, thus avoiding sampling bias due to the

A. P. Mřller; T. A. Mousseau; C. Lynnn; S. Ostermiller; G. Rudolfsen

2008-01-01

176

Comprehensive mapping of the bull sperm surface proteome.  

PubMed

While the mechanisms that underpin maturation, capacitation, and sperm-egg interactions remain elusive it is known that these essential fertilisation events are driven by the protein complement of the sperm surface. Understanding these processes is critical to the regulation of animal reproduction, but few studies have attempted to define the full repertoire of sperm surface proteins in animals of agricultural importance. Recent developments in proteomics technologies, subcellular fractionation, and optimised solubilisation strategies have enhanced the potential for the comprehensive characterisation of the sperm surface proteome. Here we report the identification of 419 proteins from a mature bull sperm plasma membrane fraction. Protein domain enrichment analyses indicate that 67% of all the proteins identified may be membrane associated. A large number of the proteins identified are conserved between mammalian species and are reported to play key roles in sperm-egg communication, capacitation and fertility. The major functional pathways identified were related to protein catabolism (26S proteasome complex), chaperonin-containing TCP-1 (CCT) complex and fundamental metabolic processes such as glycolysis and energy production. We have also identified 118 predicted transmembrane proteins, some of which are implicated in cell adhesion, acrosomal exocytosis, vesicle transport and immunity and fertilisation events, while others have not been reported in mammalian LC-MS-derived sperm proteomes to date. Comparative proteomics and functional network analyses of these proteins expand our system's level of understanding of the bull sperm proteome and provide important clues toward finding the essential conserved function of these proteins. PMID:23081703

Byrne, Keren; Leahy, Tamara; McCulloch, Russell; Colgrave, Michelle L; Holland, Michael K

2012-12-01

177

Under-nutrition reduces spermatogenic efficiency and sperm velocity, and increases sperm DNA damage in sexually mature male sheep.  

PubMed

We tested whether the quality of spermatozoa from mature male sheep would be affected during nutrition-induced changes in testicular mass. Merino rams were fed for 65 days with diets that increased, maintained or decreased body and testis mass (n=8 per group). In semen collected on Days 56 and 63, underfed rams had less sperms per ejaculate than well-fed rams (P<0.05) and a lower sperm velocity (computer-assisted semen analysis) than well-fed or maintenance-fed rams (P<0.05). Sperm chromatin structure assay revealed more sperm DNA damage in underfed rams than in well-fed rams (P<0.05). The amount of sperm DNA damage was inversely correlated with change in scrotal circumference (r=-0.6, P<0.05), the percentages of progressive motile sperm (r=-0.8; P<0.01) and motile sperm (r=-0.6, P<0.05), and the numbers of sperms per gram of testis (r=-0.55, P<0.05). In testicular tissue collected on Day 65, underfed rams had fewer sperm per gram of testis than rams in the other two groups (P<0.001). We conclude that, in adult rams, underfeeding reduces spermatogenic efficiency and that this response is associated with a reduction in spermatozoal quality. PMID:25086661

Guan, Yongjuan; Malecki, Irek A; Hawken, Penelope A R; Linden, Matthew D; Martin, Graeme B

2014-10-01

178

Thyroid Function Testing in Ambulatory Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Thyroid function tests are commonly obtained by both primary care physicians and various specialists in ambulatory practice\\u000a for both the evaluation of symptomatic and screening assessment of asymptomatic thyroid disease. Abnormalities of thyroid\\u000a function testing, including those which may not be clinically apparent, are common in the general population. Epidemiological\\u000a studies have identified hypothyroidism (subclinical and overt) in 4.6–9.5% and

Angela M. Leung; Alan P. Farwell

179

Functional Testing of Semiconductor Random Access Memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overview of the problem of testing semiconductor random access memories (RAMs). An important aspect of this test procedure is the detection of permanent faults that cause the memory to function incorrectly. Functional-level fault models are very useful for describing a wide variety of RAM faults. Several fault models are &scussed throughout the paper, including the stuck-at-0\\/1

Magdy S. Abadir; Hassan K. Reghbati

1983-01-01

180

Male sperm storage compromises sperm motility in guppies.  

PubMed

Sperm senescence can have important evolutionary implications due to its deleterious effects on sperm quality and offspring performance. Consequently, it has been argued that polyandry (female multiple mating) may facilitate the selection of younger, and therefore competitively superior, sperm when ejaculates from multiple males compete for fertilization. Surprisingly, however, unequivocal evidence that sperm ageing influences traits that underlie sperm competitiveness is lacking. Here, we used a paired experimental design that compares sperm quality between 'old' and 'young' ejaculates from individual male guppies (Poecilia reticulata). We show that older sperm exhibit significant reductions in sperm velocity compared with younger sperm from the same males. We found no evidence that the brightness of the male's orange (carotenoid) spots, which are thought to signal resistance to oxidative stress (and thus age-related declines in sperm fitness), signals a male's ability to withstand the deleterious effects of sperm ageing. Instead, polyandry may be a more effective strategy for females to minimize the likelihood of being fertilized by aged sperm. PMID:25392314

Gasparini, Clelia; Kelley, Jennifer L; Evans, Jonathan P

2014-11-01

181

A quantitative test of upper extremity function  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN A number of clinical situations, there is a need for a simple semi-quantitative test of upper extremity function. Measurement of function is of particular importance in evaluating the results of hand surgery and upper extremity prosthesis, in following the development of hand deformities in rheumatoid arthritis and neurological diseases, and in judging the effectiveness of different forms of therapy.

DOUGLAS CARROLL

1965-01-01

182

PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTING IN SMALL LABORATORY MAMMALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The lung is the primary organ likely to be exposed by inhalation studies and, therefore, measurement of changes in lung function are of particular interest to the pulmonary physiologist and toxicologist. Tests of pulmonary function have been developed which can be used with small...

183

Methods for evaluating the effects of environmental chemicals on human sperm production.  

PubMed Central

Sperm tests provide a direct and effective way of identifying chemical agents that induce spermatogenic damage in man. Four human sperm tests are available: sperm count, motility, morphology (seminal cytology) and the Y-body test. These sperm tests have numerous advantages over other approaches for assessing spermatogenic damage, and they have already been used to assess the effects of at least 85 different occupational, environmental, and drug-related chemical exposures. When carefully controlled, seminal cytology appears to be statistically more sensitive than the other human sperm tests and should be considered an integral part of semen analysis when assessing induced spermatogenic damage. Human sperm studies have complex requirements and, before sampling, careful consideration should be given to exposure details, group size and makeup, as well as animal and human data that indicate spermatogenic effects. Several study designs are possible and should include questionnaires covering medical and reproductive histories as well as known confounding factors. Animal sperm tests, such as the mouse morphology test, may be used to identify the toxic components of a complex mixture. Animal tests may also help assess the chemical effects on fertility and reproductive outcome in cases when human data are incomplete. Further efforts are needed in these areas to develop improved human sperm tests sensitive to induced spermatogenic damage, to develop improved animal models of induced spermatogenic damage, to understand the relationships among sperm changes, fertility, and reproductive outcome, and to develop sperm tests with express mutational end points. PMID:6825635

Wyrobek, A J

1983-01-01

184

Effect of donkey seminal plasma on sperm movement and sperm-polymorphonuclear neutrophils attachment in vitro.  

PubMed

To evaluate the effect of seminal plasma in endometrial inflammation in donkeys, samples from fresh pure, fresh diluted and frozen-thawed semen of three different jackasses were co-incubated in water bath at 37°C with uterine Jennie's secretions collected 6h after artificial insemination with frozen-thawed donkey semen. Individual sperm movement parameters using the computerised sperm analysis system (CASA) and sperm-polymorphonuclear neutrophils (sperm-PMN) attachment observed in Diff-Quick stained smears were evaluated at 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4h of co-incubation. Controls consisted of incubating diluted or frozen-thawed sperm in the absence of uterine secretions. For data analyses, a repeated measures ANOVA was performed with incubation time as intra-subject factor and with treatment and donkey as inter-subject factor, followed by a post-hoc Bonferroni's test. Greater values (P<0.05) of sperm-PMN percentages and a loss of progressive motility were observed in frozen-thawed semen compared with pure and diluted fresh semen samples throughout the incubation time. In addition, the presence of seminal plasma in fresh and diluted semen samples reduced the inflammatory response of polymorphonuclear neutrophils produced after insemination by suppressing the sperm-PMN attachment in vitro. Motility sperm parameters analysed by CASA were also less affected than those in frozen-thawed semen samples. In conclusion, seminal plasma in jennies appears to have a modulation on the endometrial response after artificial insemination with frozen-thawed donkey semen. As a result, spermatozoa with the greater motility characteristics are selected. PMID:23891218

Miró, Jordi; Vilés, Karina; García, Wilber; Jordana, Jordi; Yeste, Marc

2013-08-01

185

TRPM8, a Versatile Channel in Human Sperm  

PubMed Central

Background The transient receptor potential channel (TRP) family includes more than 30 proteins; they participate in various Ca2+ dependent processes. TRPs are functionally diverse involving thermal, chemical and mechanical transducers which modulate the concentration of intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i). Ca2+ triggers and/or regulates principal sperm functions during fertilization such as motility, capacitation and the acrosome reaction. Nevertheless, the presence of the TRPM subfamily in sperm has not been explored. Principal Findings Here we document with RT-PCR, western blot and immunocitochemistry analysis the presence of TRPM8 in human sperm. We also examined the participation of this channel in sperm function using specific agonists (menthol and temperature) and antagonists (BCTC and capsazepine). Computer-aided sperm analysis revealed that menthol did not significantly alter human sperm motility. In contrast, menthol induced the acrosome reaction in human sperm. This induction was inhibited about 70% by capsazepine (20 µM) and 80% by BCTC (1.6 µM). Activation of TRPM8 either by temperature or menthol induced [Ca2+]i increases in human sperm measured by fluorescence in populations or individual sperm cells, effect that was also inhibited by capsazepine (20 µM) and BCTC (1.6 µM). However, the progesterone and ZP3-induced acrosome reaction was not inhibited by capsazepine or BCTC, suggesting that TRPM8 activation triggers this process by a different signaling pathway. Conclusions This is the first report dealing with the presence of a thermo sensitive channel (TRPM8) in human sperm. This channel could be involved in cell signaling events such as thermotaxis or chemotaxis. PMID:19582168

Ocampo, Ana Y.; Serrano, Carmen J.; Castellano, Laura E.; Hernandez-Gonzalez, Enrique O.; Chirinos, Mayel; Larrea, Fernando; Beltran, Carmen; Trevino, Claudia L.

2009-01-01

186

Comparison of four fluorochromes for the detection of the inner mitochondrial membrane potential in human spermatozoa and their correlation with sperm motility  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Sperm motility evaluation is associated with fertility in IVF programmes. The visual estimation of sperm motility is extremely subjective. Hence, alternative methods are required. Among them, determination of mitochondrial membrane potential (Dcm) changes of spermatozoa using potentiometric dyes may be a reliable test to determine sperm quality. However, the use of the potentiometric dyes in sperm samples has not

Carole Marchetti; Nathalie Jouy; Brigitte Leroy-Martin; Pierre Formstecher; Philippe Marchetti

2004-01-01

187

Reliability of lower extremity functional performance tests.  

PubMed

Clinicians routinely have used functional performance tests as an evaluation tool in deciding when an athlete can safely return to unrestricted sporting activities. These practitioners assumed that these tests provide a reliable measure of lower extremity performance; however, little research has been reported on the reliability of these measures. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the reliability of lower extremity functional performance tests. Five male and 15 female volunteers were evaluated using the single hop for distance, triple hop for distance, 6-m timed hop, and cross-over hop for distance as described by Noyes (10). One clinician measured each subject's performance using a standardized protocol and retested subjects in the same manner approximately 48 hours later. The order of testing was randomly determined. Subjects' average and individual scores on each functional performance test were used for statistical analysis. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and standard error of measurement (SEM) values based on average day 1 and day 2 scores were used to estimate the reliability of each functional performance test. Intraclass correlation coefficients were .96, .95, and .96, and SEMs were 4.56 cm, 15.44 cm, and 15.95 cm, respectively, for the single hop, triple hop, and cross-over hop for distance tests. An ICC of .66 and SEM of .13 seconds for the 6-m timed hop resulted from limited variability between measurements; however, its small SEM value inferred that the inconsistency of measurement would occur in an acceptably small range. A repeated measures analysis of variance revealed no significant difference ( p > .05) between individual trial scores except for the single hop for distance. We concluded that this difference represented a learning effect not found with the other tests. The results of this investigation demonstrate that clinicians can use functional performance testing to obtain reliable measures of lower extremity performance when using a standardized protocol. PMID:9276854

Bolgla, L A; Keskula, D R

1997-09-01

188

Sperm nuclear vacuoles in relation to acrosome reactions and sperm motility.  

PubMed

We investigated sperm nuclear vacuolation in relation to acrosome reactions and the maintenance of sperm motility. Thirty male patients who visited our Male Infertility Clinic were enrolled. These patients underwent conventional semen analyses, Acrobeads tests, and high-magnification observation of the sperm head to evaluate the degree of nuclear vacuolation on the Acrobeads test scoring after 24 hours of incubation. The presence of acrosome reactions was evaluated using the Acrobeads test. The spermatozoa were classified into three groups: (I) those bound to MH61-beads, (II) motile spermatozoa that did not bind to MH61-beads, and (III) immotile spermatozoa that did not bind to MH61-beads. The percentage of spermatozoa with large nuclear vacuoles (%LNV) was compared between the three groups. The degree of sperm nuclear vacuolation was evaluated in 17,992 ejaculated spermatozoa. The mean %LNVs were 2.4% in group I, 5.8% in group II, and 9.8% in group III. These values were significantly different from each other (P < 0.001, paired t-test). There were no correlations between the %LNV values and the Acrobeads scores. In conclusion, the degree of sperm nuclear vacuolation was significantly lower in the acrosome-reacted spermatozoa and spermatozoa with maintained motility, and higher in the immotile spermatozoa that did not bind to MH61-beads. PMID:25097868

Komiya, Akira; Kawauchi, Yoko; Kato, Tomonori; Watanabe, Akihiko; Tanii, Ichiro; Fuse, Hideki

2014-01-01

189

Sperm Nuclear Vacuoles in relation to Acrosome Reactions and Sperm Motility  

PubMed Central

We investigated sperm nuclear vacuolation in relation to acrosome reactions and the maintenance of sperm motility. Thirty male patients who visited our Male Infertility Clinic were enrolled. These patients underwent conventional semen analyses, Acrobeads tests, and high-magnification observation of the sperm head to evaluate the degree of nuclear vacuolation on the Acrobeads test scoring after 24 hours of incubation. The presence of acrosome reactions was evaluated using the Acrobeads test. The spermatozoa were classified into three groups: (I) those bound to MH61-beads, (II) motile spermatozoa that did not bind to MH61-beads, and (III) immotile spermatozoa that did not bind to MH61-beads. The percentage of spermatozoa with large nuclear vacuoles (%LNV) was compared between the three groups. The degree of sperm nuclear vacuolation was evaluated in 17,992 ejaculated spermatozoa. The mean %LNVs were 2.4% in group I, 5.8% in group II, and 9.8% in group III. These values were significantly different from each other (P < 0.001, paired t-test). There were no correlations between the %LNV values and the Acrobeads scores. In conclusion, the degree of sperm nuclear vacuolation was significantly lower in the acrosome-reacted spermatozoa and spermatozoa with maintained motility, and higher in the immotile spermatozoa that did not bind to MH61-beads. PMID:25097868

Kawauchi, Yoko; Kato, Tomonori; Tanii, Ichiro; Fuse, Hideki

2014-01-01

190

Pulmonary function testing in small laboratory mammals.  

PubMed Central

The lung is the primary organ likely to be exposed by inhalation studies and, therefore, measurement of changes in lung function are of particular interest to the pulmonary physiologist and toxicologist. Tests of pulmonary function have been developed which can be used with small animals to measure spirometry (lung volumes), mechanics, distribution of ventilation, gas exchange or control of ventilation. These tests were designed on the basis of similar tests which are used in humans to diagnose and manage patients with lung disease. A major difference is that many of the measurements are performed in anesthetized animals, while human pulmonary function is usually measured in awake cooperating individuals. In addition, the measurement of respiratory events in small animals requires sensitive and rapidly responding equipment, because signals may be small and events can occur quickly. In general, the measurements described provide information on the change in normal lung function which results primarily from structural changes. These tests of pulmonary function can be repetitively and routinely accomplished and the results appear to be highly reproducible. Although some are quite sophisticated, many can be undertaken with relatively inexpensive equipment and provide useful information for toxicological testing. PMID:6434299

O'Neil, J J; Raub, J A

1984-01-01

191

CIT photoheliograph functional verification unit test program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tests of the 2/3-meter photoheliograph functional verification unit FVU were performed with the FVU installed in its Big Bear Solar Observatory vacuum chamber. Interferometric tests were run both in Newtonian (f/3.85) and Gregorian (f/50) configurations. Tests were run in both configurations with optical axis horizontal, vertical, and at 45 deg to attempt to determine any gravity effects on the system. Gravity effects, if present, were masked by scatter in the data associated with the system wavefront error of 0.16 lambda rms ( = 6328A) apparently due to problems in the primary mirror. Tests showed that the redesigned secondary mirror assembly works well.

1973-01-01

192

Effects of viscosity on sperm motility studied with optical tweezers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study is to analyze human sperm motility and energetics in media with different viscosities. Multiple experiments were performed to collect motility parameters using customized computer tracking software that measures the curvilinear velocity (VCL) and the minimum laser power (Pesc) necessary to hold an individual sperm in an optical trap. The Pesc was measured by using a 1064 nm Nd:YVO4 continuous wave laser that optically traps motile sperm at a power of 450 mW in the focused trap spot. The VCL was measured frame by frame before trapping. In order to study sperm energetics under different viscous conditions sperm were labeled with the fluorescent dye DiOC6(3) to measure membrane potentials of mitochondria in the sperm midpiece. Fluorescence intensity was measured before and during trapping. The results demonstrate a decrease in VCL but an increase in Pesc with increasing viscosity. Fluorescent intensity is the same regardless of the viscosity level indicating no change in sperm energetics. The results suggest that, under the conditions tested, viscosity physically affects the mechanical properties of sperm motility rather than the chemical pathways associated with energetics.

Hyun, Nicholas; Chandsawangbhuwana, Charlie; Zhu, Qingyuan; Shi, Linda Z.; Yang-Wong, Collin; Berns, Michael W.

2012-02-01

193

Sperm competition in Odonata (Insecta): the evolution of female sperm storage and rivals' sperm displacement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Odonates (dragonflies) are well known for the ability of the males to displace sperm stored in the female's sperm- storage organs during copulation. By this means, copulating males are able to increase their fertilization success. This ability has been used as an example to illustrate a conflict of interests between the sexes in which males have evolved sperm-displacement mechanisms whilst

E. Uh ´ őa; A. Cordero River; E. U. E. T. Forestal

2003-01-01

194

The Effect of Cigarette Smoking on Human Sperm Creatine Kinase Activity: As An ATP Buffering System in Sperm  

PubMed Central

Background: Spermatozoa are a group of cells that consume adenosine triphosphate (ATP) rapidly. Creatine kinase (CK), produced by creatine phosphate, is an energy reservoir for the rapid buffering and regeneration of ATP and can play an important role in sperm motility. Therefore, this study investigates the effects of cigarette smoking on human sperm CK activity in males who smoke. Materials and Methods: In this case - control study, we obtained semen samples from male smokers (n=64) and nonsmokers (n=83). Smokers were categorized as light, moderate, or heavy smokers according to the daily number of cigarettes smoked and the number of years they have smoked. Data were analyzed by the independent t test and Pearson’s analysis. Results: This investigation showed significantly lower sperm CK activity and movement in male smokers compared to nonsmokers. In addition, it was demonstrated that cigarette smoking had a dose-dependent effect on these parameters. There was a positive relation, although not significant, between sperm CK activity and its motility in male smokers. Conclusion: Smoking, by diminishing sperm CK activity, may potentially impair sperm energy homeostasis and have an association with damage to sperm motility. This effect can be an important mechanism that may cause infertility in male smokers. However, further research is necessary to elucidate the underlying mechanism of sperm motility damage caused by cigarette smoking. PMID:24520449

Ghaffari, Mohammad Ali; Rostami, Morad

2013-01-01

195

Sperm Proteases that May Be Involved in the Initiation of Sperm Motility in the Newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster  

PubMed Central

A protease of sperm in the newt Cynops pyrrhogaster that is released after the acrosome reaction (AR) is proposed to lyse the sheet structure on the outer surface of egg jelly and release sperm motility-initiating substance (SMIS). Here, we found that protease activity in the sperm head was potent to widely digest substrates beneath the sperm. The protease activity measured by fluorescein thiocarbamoyl-casein digestion was detected in the supernatant of the sperm after the AR and the activity was inhibited by 4-(2-aminoethyl) benzenesulfonyl fluoride (AEBSF), an inhibitor for serine or cysteine protease, suggesting the release of serine and/or cysteine proteases by AR. In an in silico analysis of the testes, acrosins and 20S proteasome were identified as possible candidates of the acrosomal proteases. We also detected another AEBSF-sensitive protease activity on the sperm surface. Fluorescence staining with AlexaFluor 488-labeled AEBSF revealed a cysteine protease in the principal piece; it is localized in the joint region between the axial rod and undulating membrane, which includes an axoneme and produces powerful undulation of the membrane for forward sperm motility. These results indicate that AEBSF-sensitive proteases in the acrosome and principal piece may participate in the initiation of sperm motility on the surface of egg jelly. PMID:25170808

Yokoe, Misato; Sano, Makoto; Shibata, Honami; Shibata, Daisuke; Takayama-Watanabe, Eriko; Inaba, Kazuo; Watanabe, Akihiko

2014-01-01

196

The flagellar beat of rat sperm is organized by the interaction of two functionally distinct populations of dynein bridges with a stable central axonemal partition.  

PubMed

Two distinct patterns of microtubular sliding were observed in rat sperm flagellar axonemes. The particular pattern of sliding was determined by the extraction conditions used to prepare the sperm for axoneme disintegration. Sperm prepared by incubating concentrated suspensions of Triton X-100-extracted sperm at pH 9.0 disintegrated by extruding the doublets and outer dense fibers numbered 4 through 7 in response to Mg-ATP. Sperm prepared by incubating motile Triton X-100-extracted models at 37 degrees C for 1 to 3 hours extruded doublets and outer dense fibers 9, 1 and 2. Axonemes disintegrated by both regimens tended to have doublets 3 and 8 (with their corresponding outer dense fibers), as well as the central pair, in place. In numerous instances, the 3-central-8 complex with outer dense fibers 3 and 8 could be found isolated in midpiece sections prepared from both methods. The 3-central-8 partition was also sometimes seen in isolation in cross-sections of the principal piece where it remained attached to the fibrous sheath. The flagellar remnant produced by extrusion of fibers 4 through 7 under high pH conditions was generally straight or randomly curved. In contrast, the flagellar remnant produced by extrusion of the 9-1-2 bundle of fibers was most often curved into a hook in the midpiece region. While the hook-like configuration was not Ca(2+)-dependent, it may be based on a related mechanism. The sliding of the 9-1-2 group of fibers is a consequence of dynein-tubulin sliding between the 2 and 3 doublets. This sliding pattern appears to be preferentially activated in the motile sperm models in EGTA, but seldom if ever produced sliding in the high-pH-extracted models. We conclude that the 3-central pair-8 complex and associated outer dense fibers form an I-beam-like partition that does not participate in sliding, but acts as a structural foundation for organizing a planar beat. In addition, it is clear that preferential activation of certain dynein arms can be evoked, depending on the treatment regimen employed. This shows definitively that the types of microtubule sliding in the two bend directions are not identical. PMID:1400632

Lindemann, C B; Orlando, A; Kanous, K S

1992-06-01

197

Testing the Fit of a Parametric Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

General methods for testing the fit of a parametric function are proposed. The idea underlying each method is to “accept” the prescribed parametric model if and only if it is chosen by a model selection criterion. Several different selection criteria are considered, including one based on a modified version of the Akaike information criterion and others based on various score

Marc Aerts; Gerda Claeskens; Jeffrey D. Hart

1999-01-01

198

Variability of routine pulmonary function tests.  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary function tests sometimes indicate a progressive deterioration and at other times a 'stepwise' worsening which may be followed by improvement. Interpretation depends on the extent of random or diurnal variations in function. Routing pulmonary function tests (VC, FEV1, FRC, and airway resistance (Raw)) were repeatedly measured in normal subjects, patients with stable irreversible airways obstruction, and patients with stable restrictive disease. In all groups there was a significant (P less than 0.001) diurnal variation in Raw, with high values in the morning, low values at noon, and rising values in the evening. The midday Raw values were about 80% of the highest daily values. The considerable random and diurnal variability seen in all tests is reflected in the range of high and low values (% of mean individual response) in individuals. The largest variation in an individual between measurements taken at two different times was 81% in Raw (range: 40% above to 41% below the mean). There was less variation in FEV1 (29%), FRC (62%), and VC (30%). Thus the finding of a stepwise change in function could reflect its natrual variability. When repeated studies are done to assess progress or the effects of therapy on disease, there are many factors, including the time of day at which the tests are performed, which should be standardized as far as possible. PMID:1198395

Hruby, J; Butler, J

1975-01-01

199

Gas Test Loop Functional and Technical Requirements  

SciTech Connect

This document defines the technical and functional requirements for a gas test loop (GTL) to be constructed for the purpose of providing a high intensity fast-flux irradiation environment for developers of advanced concept nuclear reactors. This capability is needed to meet fuels and materials testing requirements of the designers of Generation IV (GEN IV) reactors and other programs within the purview of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). Space nuclear power development programs may also benefit by the services the GTL will offer. The overall GTL technical objective is to provide developers with the means for investigating and qualifying fuels and materials needed for advanced reactor concepts. The testing environment includes a fast-flux neutron spectrum of sufficient intensity to perform accelerated irradiation testing. Appropriate irradiation temperature, gaseous environment, test volume, diagnostics, and access and handling features are also needed. This document serves to identify those requirements as well as generic requirements applicable to any system of this kind.

Glen R. Longhurst; Soli T. Khericha; James L. Jones

2004-09-01

200

Hepatitis B Virus S Protein Enhances Sperm Apoptosis and Reduces Sperm Fertilizing Capacity In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Objective Studying the impact of Hepatitis B virus S protein (HBs) on early apoptotic events in human spermatozoa and sperm fertilizing capacity. Methodology/Principal Findings Spermatozoa were exposed to HBs (0, 25, 50, 100 µg/ml) for 3 h, and then fluo-4 AM calcium assay, Calcein/Co2+ assay, protein extraction and ELISA, ADP/ATP ratio assay, sperm motility and hyperactivation and sperm-zona pellucida (ZP) binding and ZP-induced acrosome reaction (ZPIAR) tests were performed. The results showed that in the spermatozoa, with increasing concentration of HBs, (1) average cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) rose; (2) fluorescence intensity of Cal-AM declined; (3) average levels of cytochrome c decreased in mitochondrial fraction and increased in cytosolic fraction; (4) ADP/ATP ratios rose; (5) average rates of total motility and mean hyperactivation declined; (6) average rate of ZPIAR declined. In the above groups the effects of HBs exhibited dose dependency. However, there was no significant difference in the number of sperms bound to ZP between the control and all test groups. Conclusion HBs could induce early events in the apoptotic cascade in human spermatozoa, such as elevation of [Ca2+]i, opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP), release of cytochrome c (cyt c) and increase of ADP/ATP ratio, but exerted a negative impact on sperm fertilizing capacity. PMID:23874723

Huang, JiHua; Zhong, Ying; Fang, XiaoWu; Xie, QingDong; Kang, XiangJin; Wu, RiRan; Li, FangZheng; Xu, XiaoQin; Lu, Hui; Xu, Lan; Huang, TianHua

2013-01-01

201

Lysozyme activities and immunoglobulin concentrations in seminal plasma and spermatozoa of different teleost species and indications on its significance for sperm function.  

PubMed

The occurrence of lysozyme and immunoglobulin (Ig) in semen of different teleost species (brown trout-Salmo trutta, perch-Perca fluviatilis, burbot-Lota lota) was studied. In all investigated species lysozyme activities (1.13-1.45 U ml(-1)) and Ig concentrations (T-Ig: 1.11-1.61 microg ml(-1), IgG [measured only in brown trout]: 1.49 microg ml(-1)) were detected in seminal plasma. Ig was also found in spermatozoa (T-Ig: 0.234-0.357 microg/g protein, IgG: 0.198 microg ml(-1)) while spermatozoal lysozyme activities were low and fluctuating (0.093-0.164 U/g protein). In Salmo trutta lysozyme activities and immunoglobulin levels were compared between semen samples with high and low sperm motility as motility is an indicator for sperm fertility. Lysozyme activities were higher in seminal plasma of samples with high motility than in those with low motility while seminal plasma and spermatozoal immunoglobulin concentrations (T-Ig, IgG) were increased in samples with low motility in comparison to samples with high motility. Seminal plasma and spermatozoal IgG concentrations and seminal plasma lysozyme activities showed significant correlations with the sperm motility rate and swimming velocity. Moreover, lysozyme improved the viability of spermatozoa in in vitro experiments. Possible physiological meanings of these results are discussed. PMID:20416943

Lahnsteiner, F; Radner, M

2010-07-15

202

Post-thaw sperm characteristics following long-term storage of boar semen in liquid nitrogen.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effect of long-term liquid nitrogen storage of semen from individual boars on post-thaw sperm characteristics. Ejaculates, collected from five Polish large white (PLW) and five Polish landrace (PLR) boars, were frozen using a standard cryopreservation protocol. Post-thaw analysis was performed within a week (Period 1) and 42-48 months (Period 2) of semen storage in liquid nitrogen. Post-thaw sperm assessments included total motility, mitochondrial function (JC-1/PI assay), plasma membrane integrity (SYBR-14/PI assay), osmotic resistance test (ORT), lipid peroxidation (LPO) status and DNA fragmentation, analysed by the neutral Comet assay. Individual boar variability within breed and cryostorage periods had significant effects on the analysed parameters of frozen-thawed spermatozoa. Prolonged semen storage in liquid nitrogen (Period 2) induced a marked reduction in post-thaw sperm motility, mitochondrial function and plasma membrane integrity in most of the boars. Post-thaw semen of eight boars exhibited a marked decrease in osmotic resistance of the sperm acrosomal membrane, whereas a significant increase in the sperm cryo-susceptibility to induced LPO and DNA fragmentation was observed only in three boars after long-term semen storage. Additionally, frozen-thawed spermatozoa of PLR boars exhibited significantly lower osmotic resistance of the acrosomal membrane than PLW boars following prolonged semen storage in liquid nitrogen. The results of this study provide evidence of ageing processes in frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa following prolonged cryostorage. It seems that, even though cryopreservation allows long-term semen storage in liquid nitrogen, spermatozoa from individual boars are more susceptible to cryo-induced damage. PMID:24819551

Fraser, L; Strze?ek, J; Kordan, W

2014-06-30

203

Intratesticular Doppler flow, seminal plasma nitrites\\/nitrates, and nonobstructive sperm extraction from patients with obstructive and nonobstructive azoospermia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To prospectively evaluate the role of intratesticular vascular flow in modulating sperm function in men with obstructive and nonobstructive azoospermia. The correlation of testicular Doppler values with nitric oxide and testicular sperm extraction was further evaluated.Design: Prospective study.Setting: Assisted reproduction unit at a university center.Patient(s): Twenty-eight men with azoospermia undergoing sperm extraction for intracytoplasmic sperm injection.Intervention(s): Ultrasound and color

Cesare Battaglia; Simone Giulini; Giorgia Regnani; Igael Madgar; Fabio Facchinetti; Annibale Volpe

2001-01-01

204

CRYPTIC CHOICE OF CONSPECIFIC SPERM CONTROLLED BY THE IMPACT OF OVARIAN FLUID ON SPERM SWIMMING BEHAVIOR  

PubMed Central

Despite evidence that variation in male–female reproductive compatibility exists in many fertilization systems, identifying mechanisms of cryptic female choice at the gamete level has been a challenge. Here, under risks of genetic incompatibility through hybridization, we show how salmon and trout eggs promote fertilization by conspecific sperm. Using in vitro fertilization experiments that replicate the gametic microenvironment, we find complete interfertility between both species. However, if either species’ ova were presented with equivalent numbers of both sperm types, conspecific sperm gained fertilization precedence. Surprisingly, the species’ identity of the eggs did not explain this cryptic female choice, which instead was primarily controlled by conspecific ovarian fluid, a semiviscous, protein-rich solution that bathes the eggs and is released at spawning. Video analyses revealed that ovarian fluid doubled sperm motile life span and straightened swimming trajectory, behaviors allowing chemoattraction up a concentration gradient. To confirm chemoattraction, cell migration tests through membranes containing pores that approximated to the egg micropyle showed that conspecific ovarian fluid attracted many more spermatozoa through the membrane, compared with heterospecific fluid or water. These combined findings together identify how cryptic female choice can evolve at the gamete level and promote reproductive isolation, mediated by a specific chemoattractive influence of ovarian fluid on sperm swimming behavior. PMID:24299405

Yeates, Sarah E; Diamond, Sian E; Einum, Sigurd; Emerson, Brent C; Holt, William V; Gage, Matthew J G

2013-01-01

205

Comparison of methods for detecting mitomycin C- and ethyl nitrosourea-induced germ cell damage in mice: sperm enzyme activities, sperm motility, and testis weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Testes weights, sperm motility and enzyme activities in single sperm were compared with respect to their ability to detect either developmental or mutational damage to germ cells. Male mice were injected i.p. with 2.5 mg\\/kg mitomycin C (MC) or 50 or 100 mg\\/kg ethylnitrosourea (ENU) or saline and were then killed at times such that sperm derived from treated vas

Gyula Ficsor; Gregory M. Oldford; Karen R. Loughlin; Brahma B. Panda; Janice L. Dubien; Leonard C. Ginsberg

1984-01-01

206

Testing the Universality of Fragmentation Functions  

E-print Network

Using fragmentation functions for charged pions, charged kaons, and (anti)protons recently extracted from experimental data of e^+e^- annihilation at the Z-boson resonance and at centre-of-mass energy root(s) = 29 GeV, we perform a global study of inclusive charged-hadron production in p anti-p, gamma p, and gamma gamma collisions at next-to-leading order in the parton model of quantum chromodynamics. Comparisons of our results with p anti-p data from CERN S p anti-p S and the Fermilab Tevatron, gamma p data from DESY HERA, and gamma gamma data from CERN LEP2 allow us to test the universality of the fragmentation functions predicted by the factorization theorem. Furthermore, we perform comparisons with (e^+e^-)-annihilation data from LEP2 so as to test the scaling violations predicted by the Altarelli-Parisi evolution equations.

Kniehl, Bernd A; Pötter, B

2001-01-01

207

Identification of peroxiredoxin-5 in bovine cauda epididymal sperm.  

PubMed

Developing spermatozoa require a series of posttesticular modifications within the luminal environment of the epididymis to achieve maturation; this involves several surface modifications including changes in plasma membrane lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, and alterations in the outer acrosomal membrane. Epididymal maturation can therefore allow sperm to gain forward motility and fertilization capabilities. The objective of this study was to identify maturation-dependent protein(s) and to investigate their role with the production of functionally competent spermatozoa. Lectin blot analyses of caput and cauda sperm plasma membrane fractions identified a 17.5 kDa wheat germ agglutinin (WGA)-binding polypeptide present in the cauda sperm plasma membrane not in the caput sperm plasma membrane. Among the several WGA-stained bands, the presence of a 17.5 kDa WGA-binding polypeptide band was detected only in cauda epididymal fluid not in caput epididymal fluid suggesting that the 17.5 kDa WGA-binding polypeptide is secreted from the cauda epididymis and binds to the cauda sperm plasma membrane during epididymal transit. Proteomic identification of the 17.5 kDa polypeptide yielded 13 peptides that matched the sequence of peroxiredoxin-5 (PRDX5) protein (Bos Taurus). We propose that bovine cauda sperm PRDX5 acts as an antioxidant enzyme in the epididymal environment, which is crucial in protecting the viable sperm population against the damage caused by endogeneous or exogeneous peroxide. PMID:24186847

Nagdas, Subir K; Buchanan, Teresa; Raychoudhury, Samir

2014-02-01

208

Sperm from sneaker male squids exhibit chemotactic swarming to CO?.  

PubMed

Behavioral traits of sperm are adapted to the reproductive strategy that each species employs. In polyandrous species, spermatozoa often form motile clusters, which might be advantageous for competing with sperm from other males. Despite this presumed advantage for reproductive success, little is known about how sperm form such functional assemblies. Previously, we reported that males of the coastal squid Loligo bleekeri produce two morphologically different euspermatozoa that are linked to distinctly different mating behaviors. Consort and sneaker males use two distinct insemination sites, one inside and one outside the female's body, respectively. Here, we show that sperm release a self-attracting molecule that causes only sneaker sperm to swarm. We identified CO2 as the sperm chemoattractant and membrane-bound flagellar carbonic anhydrase as its sensor. Downstream signaling results from the generation of extracellular H(+), intracellular acidosis, and recovery from acidosis. These signaling events elicit Ca(2+)-dependent turning behavior, resulting in chemotactic swarming. These results illuminate the bifurcating evolution of sperm underlying the distinct fertilization strategies of this species. PMID:23583548

Hirohashi, Noritaka; Alvarez, Luis; Shiba, Kogiku; Fujiwara, Eiji; Iwata, Yoko; Mohri, Tatsuma; Inaba, Kazuo; Chiba, Kazuyoshi; Ochi, Hiroe; Supuran, Claudiu T; Kotzur, Nico; Kakiuchi, Yasutaka; Kaupp, U Benjamin; Baba, Shoji A

2013-05-01

209

Sperm and Spermatids Contain Different Proteins and Bind Distinct Egg Factors  

PubMed Central

Spermatozoa are more efficient at supporting normal embryonic development than spermatids, their immature, immediate precursors. This suggests that the sperm acquires the ability to support embryonic development during spermiogenesis (spermatid to sperm maturation). Here, using Xenopus laevis as a model organism, we performed 2-D Fluorescence Difference Gel Electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and mass spectrometry analysis of differentially expressed proteins between sperm and spermatids in order to identify factors that could be responsible for the efficiency of the sperm to support embryonic development. Furthermore, benefiting from the availability of egg extracts in Xenopus, we also tested whether the chromatin of sperm could attract different egg factors compared to the chromatin of spermatids. Our analysis identified: (1) several proteins which were present exclusively in sperm; but not in spermatid nuclei and (2) numerous egg proteins binding to the sperm (but not to the spermatid chromatin) after incubation in egg extracts. Amongst these factors we identified many chromatin-associated proteins and transcriptional repressors. Presence of transcriptional repressors binding specifically to sperm chromatin could suggest its preparation for the early embryonic cell cycles, during which no transcription is observed and suggests that sperm chromatin has a unique protein composition, which facilitates the recruitment of egg chromatin remodelling factors. It is therefore likely that the acquisition of these sperm-specific factors during spermiogenesis makes the sperm chromatin suitable to interact with the maternal factors and, as a consequence, to support efficient embryonic development. PMID:25244019

Teperek, Marta; Miyamoto, Kei; Simeone, Angela; Feret, Renata; Deery, Michael J.; Gurdon, John B.; Jullien, Jerome

2014-01-01

210

Sperm and spermatids contain different proteins and bind distinct egg factors.  

PubMed

Spermatozoa are more efficient at supporting normal embryonic development than spermatids, their immature, immediate precursors. This suggests that the sperm acquires the ability to support embryonic development during spermiogenesis (spermatid to sperm maturation). Here, using Xenopus laevis as a model organism, we performed 2-D Fluorescence Difference Gel Electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and mass spectrometry analysis of differentially expressed proteins between sperm and spermatids in order to identify factors that could be responsible for the efficiency of the sperm to support embryonic development. Furthermore, benefiting from the availability of egg extracts in Xenopus, we also tested whether the chromatin of sperm could attract different egg factors compared to the chromatin of spermatids. Our analysis identified: (1) several proteins which were present exclusively in sperm; but not in spermatid nuclei and (2) numerous egg proteins binding to the sperm (but not to the spermatid chromatin) after incubation in egg extracts. Amongst these factors we identified many chromatin-associated proteins and transcriptional repressors. Presence of transcriptional repressors binding specifically to sperm chromatin could suggest its preparation for the early embryonic cell cycles, during which no transcription is observed and suggests that sperm chromatin has a unique protein composition, which facilitates the recruitment of egg chromatin remodelling factors. It is therefore likely that the acquisition of these sperm-specific factors during spermiogenesis makes the sperm chromatin suitable to interact with the maternal factors and, as a consequence, to support efficient embryonic development. PMID:25244019

Teperek, Marta; Miyamoto, Kei; Simeone, Angela; Feret, Renata; Deery, Michael J; Gurdon, John B; Jullien, Jerome

2014-01-01

211

Cryopreservation of mutton snapper ( Lutjanus analis) sperm.  

PubMed

This study aimed to develop a protocol of semen cryopreservation of the mutton snapper Lutjanus analis. The interaction between three extenders ( pH 6.1; 7.8 and 8.2) , two concentrations of dimethyl sulfoxide ( DMSO, 5 and 10%) and three cooling rates ( -90; -60 and -30°C.min-1) on the sperm motility rate and motility time were analyzed by a factorial experiment. A sample of 30 fishes ( 1,261 ± 449 g) collected in the nature was kept in floating net cages. The semen was frozen by using cryogenic straws, in nitrogen vapour and transferred, later, to liquid nitrogen. Fertilization test was accomplished to evaluate the viability of the cryopreserved sperm. The highest sperm motility rate and motility time ( P < 0.05) was achieved by combining extender C ( pH 8.2) with DMSO ( 10%) and cooling rate of -60°C.min-1 ( P < 0.05) . The use of cryopreserved sperm presented fertilization rates higher than 59% validating the present protocol for mutton snapper. PMID:23969847

Sanches, Eduardo G; Oliveira, Idili R; Serralheiro, Pedro C Da Silva; Cerqueira, Vinicius R

2013-09-01

212

[Thyroid function tests in acute drug intoxication].  

PubMed

It is well known that thyroid function tests may be changed in non-thyroidal illnesses. To understand the influence of acute drug intoxication on thyroid function tests, 31 drug intoxicated patients without previous thyroid disorders and systemic diseases were included in our study. T3, T4, TSH, and resin T3 uptake were checked as soon as they arrived at our emergency service and were compared to that of 58 healthy volunteers. Within 31 patients, 14 were intoxicated by organophosphorous compounds, 6 by sedatives and hypnotics, 3 by strong acid, 2 by paraquet, 2 by rodenticides (warfarin), 2 by lysol and the other 2 were intoxicated by acetaminophen. The mean T3 and TSH levels were significantly lower in the drug intoxicated group. Among the 31 patients, 14 (45.2%) had a low T3, 2 (6.5%) had a low T3 and T4, and 6 (19.3%) had an elevated T4. All of the patients with an elevated T4 were intoxicated by organophosphates. If we divided the 31 patients into 2 subgroups: organophosphate intoxicated group and non-organophosphate intoxicated group, T4 and FT4I were significantly higher in the former group. Thyroid function tests became normal after treatment in 27 patients, discharged in good general condition. T3 and T4 became extremely low in 4 patients before they expired. The present study confirms that acute drug intoxication, like other non-thyroidal illnesses, affects thyroid function tests. Acute organophosphate intoxication may cause transient hyperthyroxinemia. PMID:1354715

Tseng, F Y; Chen, C S

1992-03-01

213

Circadian rhythm of sperm release in males of the cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis: in vivo and in vitro studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated patterns of sperm release from the testes of the cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis, a moth which produces an unusually high number of sperm bundles. In a daily cycle of 16h of light followed by 8h of darkness, penetration of sperm bundles through the epithelial barrier separating testicular follicles from the vasa deferentia was initiated approximately 5h before

P Bebas; B Cymborowski; J. M Giebultowicz

2001-01-01

214

Sperm Chromatin and Environmental Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Available experimental and human data show that a number of lifestyle- and environment-related exposures may have negative\\u000a effects on sperm DNA integrity. The extent of the sperm DNA damage seems to differ between different studies. Such a discrepancy\\u000a may partly be due to the use of ­several methods for assessment of sperm DNA integrity, techniques that do not measure exactly

Aleksander Giwercman

215

The effect of pH on sperm motility of white suckers, Catostomus commersoni , in the Experimental Lakes Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effects of various pH values on sperm motility times of white suckers,Catostomus commersoni, from two artificially acidified lakes in the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA), northwestern Ontario. White sucker sperm were active (motile) in water at all pH values tested (3.0–7.0). The maximum sperm motility time was 76.9 seconds and the minimum time was 51.9 seconds. Sperm

Lloyd C. Mohr; Sandra M. Chalanchuk

1985-01-01

216

Sperm storage mediated by cryptic female choice for nuptial gifts.  

PubMed

Polyandrous females are expected to discriminate among males through postcopulatory cryptic mate choice. Yet, there is surprisingly little unequivocal evidence for female-mediated cryptic sperm choice. In species in which nuptial gifts facilitate mating, females may gain indirect benefits through preferential storage of sperm from gift-giving males if the gift signals male quality. We tested this hypothesis in the spider Pisaura mirabilis by quantifying the number of sperm stored in response to copulation with males with or without a nuptial gift, while experimentally controlling copulation duration. We further assessed the effect of gift presence and copulation duration on egg-hatching success in matings with uninterrupted copulations with gift-giving males. We show that females mated to gift-giving males stored more sperm and experienced 17% higher egg-hatching success, compared with those mated to no-gift males, despite matched copulation durations. Uninterrupted copulations resulted in both increased sperm storage and egg-hatching success. Our study confirms the prediction that the nuptial gift as a male signal is under positive sexual selection by females through cryptic sperm storage. In addition, the gift facilitates longer copulations and increased sperm transfer providing two different types of advantage to gift-giving in males. PMID:24266042

Albo, Maria J; Bilde, Trine; Uhl, Gabriele

2013-12-01

217

Functional Connectivity: Shrinkage Estimation and Randomization Test  

PubMed Central

We develop new statistical methods for estimating functional connectivity between components of a multivariate time series and for testing differences in functional connectivity across experimental conditions. Here, we characterize functional connectivity by partial coherence, which identifies the frequency band (or bands) that drives the direct linear association between any pair of components of a multivariate time series after removing the linear effects of the other components. Partial coherence can be efficiently estimated using the inverse of the spectral density matrix. However, when the number of components is large and the components of the multivariate time series are highly correlated, the spectral density matrix estimate may be numerically unstable and consequently gives partial coherence estimates that are highly variable. To address the problem of numerical instability, we propose a shrinkage-based estimator which is a weighted average of a smoothed periodogram estimator and a scaled identity matrix with frequency-specific weight computed objectively so that the resulting shrinkage estimator minimizes the mean-squared error criterion. Compared to typical smoothing-based estimators, the shrinkage estimator is more computationally stable and gives a lower mean squared error. In addition, we develop a randomization method for testing differences in functional connectivity networks between experimental conditions. Finally, we report results from numerical experiments and analyze an EEG data set recorded during a visually-guided hand movement task. PMID:20006714

Fiecas, Mark; Ombao, Hernando; Linkletter, Crystal; Thompson, Wesley; Sanes, Jerome

2011-01-01

218

Improvement of penile erection, sperm count and seminal fructose levels in vivo and nitric oxide release in vitro by ayurvedic herbs.  

PubMed

In the present study, the effect of four Vajikaran Rasayana herbs on penile erection, sperm count, seminal fructose content in vivo and nitric oxide (NO) release in vitro was assessed. Lyophilised aqueous extracts of Asparagus racemosus Willd. (AR), Chlorophytum borivilianum Sant. F. (CB), Curculigo orchioides Gaertn. (CO), and Dactylorhiza hatagirea (D. Don) Soo (DH) were orally administered at 100 mg/kg body weight to Wistar strain male albino rats. Penile erection index and sperm count were determined by visual observation; the seminal fructose concentration was measured spectrophotometrically using resorcinol reagent; and NO release was assessed in a mouse macrophage cell line (RAW264) spectrophotometrically using a commercial Griess reagent kit. Penile erection index, sperm count, seminal fructose concentration and in vitro NO release were the parameters measured. A significant effect on the sperm count, seminal fructose content and penile erection index was observed upon treatment with the extracts. The effect of extracts on inducible NO release in vitro directly correlated with the enhanced erectile function in vivo. The aphrodisiac claims attributed to the four Vajikaran Rasayana herbs were tested and a distinctive effect of all extracts tested was observed, with C. borivilianum showing a highly significant response for all parameters measured in vivo and in vitro. The present study also provides a good correlation between the in vivo improvement of penile erection and in vitro NO releasing activity of the extracts. Increase in seminal fructose levels and sperm count further validates the role of these herbs in improving reproductive function. PMID:21486409

Thakur, M; Thompson, D; Connellan, P; Deseo, M A; Morris, C; Dixit, V K

2011-08-01

219

Cryopreservation of transgenic Huntington's disease rhesus macaque sperm-A Case Report  

PubMed Central

The cryoprotective effects of glycerol in three different semen freezing extenders, Tris-citrate (TRIS), TEST, and Tes-Tris-Egg yolk (TTE), on wild-type (WT) rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) sperm cryopreservation have been tested. Sperm motility and viability were examined to evaluate the integrity of frozen-thawed sperm, and the best extender was selected to cryopreserve sperm from transgenic Huntington's disease (HD) rhesus monkey. The results showed no post-thaw motility difference among the freezing extender tested (P>0.05). However, sperm membrane integrity in TEST and TTE were significantly better than in TRIS extender (P<0.05). TEST was chosen for HD rhesus monkey sperm cryopreservation. The results showed that post-thawed HD sperm motility and viability was not different compared with WT control group (P>0.05). The present study demonstrates that TEST and TTE were excellent extenders and suitable for rhesus monkey sperm cryopreservation and no detectible differences of post-thaw sperm motility and viability between HD and WT rhesus monkeys resulted from TEST extender.

Putkhao, Kittiphong; Chan, Anthony W.S.; Agca, Yuksel; Parnpai, Rangsun

2014-01-01

220

Prenatal Diagnosis of Fanconi Anemia: Functional and Molecular Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are two main approaches to the prenatal confirmation or exclusion of Fanconi anemia: functional testing and molecular testing. Functional testing involves the determination of crosslink sensitivity either by chromosome breakage analysis or cell cycle testing. Indications for functional testing include ultrasonographic findings of radial ray defects in the absence of a family history of FA, but also testing of

A. Bechtold; R. Kalb; K. Neveling; R. Friedl; B. Gottwald; S. Herterich; M. Liner; C. Heilmann; H. Hanenberg; D. Schindler

2007-01-01

221

High level of intracellular sperm oxidative stress negatively influences embryo pronuclear formation after intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment.  

PubMed

This study evaluates the relationship between sperm intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS; H2 O2 , O2 ), DNA fragmentation (DF), low mitochondria membrane potential (MMP) of sperm and normal pronuclear formation among intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) patients. Semen samples were obtained from 62 infertile male who were candidates for ICSI treatment. After sperm processing, metaphase II (MII) oocytes were injected, and the mean percentages of intracellular ROS, MMP and DF were evaluated using flow cytometry. The mean percentages of pronuclear formation and zygote score (Z) were also recorded, and Pearson, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and Kruskal-Wallis tests were applied to analyse the data. The amounts of sperm intracellular H2 O2 and O2-? had significant positive correlation with low MMP (P < 0.01). The intracellular ROS had a negative correlation with pronuclear formation (P < 0.05), and its effect was higher than 66.66%. In addition, the mean percentages of neither H2 O2 nor O2-? affected the quality of pronuclear embryos (Z-score). This study shows that although high levels of both sperm intracellular H2 O2 and O2-? in ICSI patients have deleterious effect on sperm MMP, only H2 O2 may interfere in pronuclear formation. PMID:24313687

Ghaleno, L R; Valojerdi, M R; Hassani, F; Chehrazi, M; Janzamin, E

2014-12-01

222

Diagnostic value of sperm DNA fragmentation and sperm high-magnification for predicting outcome of assisted reproduction treatment  

PubMed Central

Over the last years, major improvements in the field of male infertility diagnosis have been achieved. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic usefulness of sperm DNA integrity and sperm vacuolisation for predicting outcome in infertile couples undergoing in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatments. A cohort study from 152 infertile couples undergoing sperm DNA fragmentation and high-magnification tests prior to an assisted reproduction treatment was designed. We found that the most predictive cutoff for pregnancy was 25.5% of DNA fragmentation with a negative predictive value of 72.7% (P=0.02). For the degree of vacuolisation, the best predictor of pregnancy was 73.5% of vacuolated sperm grades III+IV with a negative predictive value of 39.4% (P=0.09), which was not statistically significant. In conclusion, sperm DNA fragmentation greater than 25.5% could be associated with higher probability of failure IVF treatment. Regarding the results of the sperm analysis at high magnification, they do not allow us to predict whether or not patients will become pregnant. PMID:23912311

Lopez, Gemma; Lafuente, Rafael; Checa, Miguel A; Carreras, Ramon; Brassesco, Mario

2013-01-01

223

Nanoparticle Incorporation of Melittin Reduces Sperm and Vaginal Epithelium Cytotoxicity  

PubMed Central

Melittin is a cytolytic peptide component of bee venom which rapidly integrates into lipid bilayers and forms pores resulting in osmotic lysis. While the therapeutic utility of free melittin is limited by its cytotoxicity, incorporation of melittin into the lipid shell of a perfluorocarbon nanoparticle has been shown to reduce its toxicity in vivo. Our group has previously demonstrated that perfluorocarbon nanoparticles containing melittin at concentrations <10 µM inhibit HIV infectivity in vitro. In the current study, we assessed the impact of blank and melittin-containing perfluorocarbon nanoparticles on sperm motility and the viability of both sperm and vaginal epithelial cells. We found that free melittin was toxic to sperm and vaginal epithelium at concentrations greater than 2 µM (p<0.001). However, melittin nanoparticles were not cytotoxic to sperm (p?=?0.42) or vaginal epithelium (p?=?0.48) at an equivalent melittin concentration of 10 µM. Thus, nanoparticle formulation of melittin reduced melittin cytotoxicity fivefold and prevented melittin toxicity at concentrations previously shown to inhibit HIV infectivity. Melittin nanoparticles were toxic to vaginal epithelium at equivalent melittin concentrations ?20 µM (p<0.001) and were toxic to sperm at equivalent melittin concentrations ?40 µM (p<0.001). Sperm cytotoxicity was enhanced by targeting of the nanoparticles to the sperm surface antigen sperm adhesion molecule 1. While further testing is needed to determine the extent of cytotoxicity in a more physiologically relevant model system, these results suggest that melittin-containing nanoparticles could form the basis of a virucide that is not toxic to sperm and vaginal epithelium. This virucide would be beneficial for HIV serodiscordant couples seeking to achieve natural pregnancy. PMID:24748389

Jallouk, Andrew P.; Moley, Kelle H.; Omurtag, Kenan; Hu, Grace; Lanza, Gregory M.; Wickline, Samuel A.; Hood, Joshua L.

2014-01-01

224

Variation in sperm displacement and its association with accessory gland protein loci in Drosophila melanogaster  

SciTech Connect

Genes that influence mating and/or fertilization success may be targets for strong natural selection. If females remate frequently relative to the duration of sperm storage and rate of sperm use, sperm displacement may be an important component of male reproductive success. Although it has long been known that mutant laboratory stocks of Drosophila differ in sperm displacement, the magnitude of the naturally occurring genetic variation in this character has not been systematically quantified. Here we report the results of a screen for variation in sperm displacement among 152 lines of Drosophila melanogaster that were made homozygous for second and/or third chromosomes recovered from natural populations. Sperm displacement was assayed by scoring the progeny of cn;bw females that had been mated sequentially to cn;bw and tested males in either order. Highly significant differences were seen in both the ability to displace sperm that is resident in the female`s reproductive tract and in the ability to resist displacement by subsequent sperm. Most lines exhibited nearly complete displacement, having nearly all progeny sired by the second male, but several lines had as few as half the progeny fathered by the second male. Lines that were identified in the screen for naturally occurring variation in sperm displacement were also characterized for single-strand conformation polymorphisms (SSCP) at seven accessory gland protein (Acp) genes. Significant associations were found between particular Acp alleles at four different loci (Acp26Aa/Ab, Acp29B, Acp36DE and Acp53E) and the ability of males to resist displacement by subsequent sperm. There was no correlation between the ability to displace resident sperm and the ability to resist being displaced by subsequent sperm. This lack of correlation, and the association of Acp alleles with resisting subsequent sperm only, suggests that different mechanisms mediate the two components of sperm displacement. 36 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

Clark, A.G. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Prout, T.; Harshman, L.G. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)] [and others

1995-01-01

225

Identification of sperm subpopulations with defined motility characteristics in ejaculates from Florida goats.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to test the presence of discrete sperm subpopulations in Florida goat ejaculates using a computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system and to establish the relationship between the distribution of the subpopulations found and individual buck, total motility, and sperm concentration. Clustering methods and discriminant analysis were applied to identify motile sperm subpopulations within the semen samples. Principal component analysis revealed that three principal components represented more than the 88% of the variance. After the cluster analysis was performed four motile sperm subpopulations were identified. Subpopulation 1 consisted of rapid and linear sperm (39.84%), Subpopulation 2 consisted of slow but linear spermatozoa (33.23%), Subpopulation 3 consisted of rapid, high ALH but non-linear spermatozoa (14.63%), and Subpopulation 4 consisted of slow and non-linear spermatozoa (12.31%). There were significant differences in the distribution of the four subpopulations (P < 0.001) as well as in the percentage of total motility and the overall sperm concentration (P < 0.05) in fresh ejaculates among the four bucks tested. In conclusion, four well-defined motile sperm subpopulations were identified in Florida goat ejaculates. The relationship between the distribution of the sperm subpopulations and individual buck, total motility, and sperm concentration shows that the spermatozoa of each have different motility patterns. Therefore, the study of discrete subpopulations of motile spermatozoa could lead to a substantial increase in information acquired during caprine semen analysis. PMID:20673991

Dorado, J; Molina, I; Muńoz-Serrano, A; Hidalgo, M

2010-09-15

226

Mitochondrial Hydrogen Peroxide and Defective Cholesterol Efflux Prevent In Vitro Fertilization by Cryopreserved Inbred Mouse Sperm1  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Recent advances in the cryopreservation of mouse sperm have resulted in dramatically improved in vitro fertilization (IVF) rates, but the biological mechanisms underlying the techniques remain unclear. Two different classes of compounds have been widely utilized to improve the IVF rates of cryopreserved mouse sperm: antioxidants and cyclodextrins. To determine how cryopreservation reduces mouse sperm IVF and how antioxidants and cyclodextrins mitigate this effect, we examined sperm function and oxidative damage after cryopreservation, with and without treatments, in mouse strains important for biomedical research. Our investigation revealed mouse strain-specific effects on IVF by modulation of oxidative stress and cholesterol efflux of cryopreserved sperm. Antioxidants improved IVF rates of C57Bl6/J cryopreserved mouse sperm by reducing hydrogen peroxide produced by sperm mitochondria and ameliorating peroxidative damage to the sperm acrosome. Enhancing cholesterol efflux with cyclodextrin restored capacitation-dependent sperm function and IVF after cryopreservation of C57Bl/6J, C57Bl/6N, and 129X1 mouse sperm. Our results highlight two accessible pathways for continued development of IVF techniques for mouse sperm and provide novel endpoints prognostic of IVF success. These insights may improve sperm cryopreservation methods of other mouse strains and species. PMID:23740947

Gray, Jeffrey E.; Starmer, Joshua; Lin, Vivian S.; Dickinson, Bryan C.; Magnuson, Terry

2013-01-01

227

Uses of esophageal function testing: dysphagia.  

PubMed

Esophageal function testing should be used for differential diagnosis of dysphagia. Dysphagia can be the consequence of hypermotility or hypomotility of the muscles of the esophagus. Decreased esophageal or esophagogastric junction distensibility can provoke dysphagia. The most well established esophageal dysmotility is achalasia. Other motility disorders can also cause dysphagia. High-resolution manometry (HRM) is the gold standard investigation for esophageal motility disorders. Simultaneous measurement of HRM and intraluminal impedance can be useful to assess motility and bolus transit. Impedance planimetry measures distensibility of the esophageal body and gastroesophageal junction in patients with achalasia and eosinophilic esophagitis. PMID:25216909

Yazaki, Etsuro; Woodland, Philip; Sifrim, Daniel

2014-10-01

228

Sperm-based contraceptive vaccines: current status, merits and development.  

PubMed

At the present growth rate, the world population is estimated to reach a phenomenal 8.9 billion people by the year 2050, posing a great risk of overpopulation. Therefore, new strategies of contraception are required. A novel contraceptive strategy that is receiving considerable attention is that of immunocontraception. Spermatozoa have proteins that are unique, cell specific, immunogenic and accessible to antibodies. The targeting of antibodies to gamete-specific antigens implicated in sperm function, sperm-egg binding and fertilisation could block sperm binding and thus fertilisation. The present review highlights the current status, relative merits and future directions for various sperm-based candidate antigens with regard to the development of a contraceptive vaccine. PMID:16153335

Suri, Anil

2005-09-12

229

The Sperm Whale, Physeter macrocephalus  

E-print Network

bluish-gray, slate gray, iron gray, purplish brown, grayish- brown, or blackish-brown. The sperm whale Durban, South Africa, in water over 3,193 m (10,476 feet) deep. The whales made dives lasting 82 and 83 the offshore waters. Berzin (1971) re- ported that sperm whales are re- stricted to waters deeper than 300 m (1

230

A correlation study between steroid hormone levels and anti-sperm antibodies in serum and seminal plasma of men with or without reduced sperm motility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Male infertility is a multi-factorial disorder. The functional ability of spermatozoa is primarily determined by their motility. Many factors are responsible for reduction in sperm motility but immunological and \\/ or hormonal factors are vital. At present, the impact of immunological factor along with hormonal imbalance in reducing sperm motility is not known. In the present study, steroid hormones

Kiran Rangari; Shrivastav TG

2007-01-01

231

Acrosomal integrity and capacitation are not influenced by sperm cryopreservation in the giant panda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sperm cryopreservation and artificial insemination are important management tools for giant panda breeding and the preser- vation of extant genetic diversity. This study examined the influence of freeze-thawing on sperm function, specifically capaci- tation. Sperm from nine giant pandas were assessed before and after rapid ( 2 40 and 2 100 8C\\/min) cryopreservation by incubation in HEPES-buffered Ham's F10 medium

R E Spindler; Y Huang; J G Howard; P Wang; H Zhang; G Zhang; D E Wildt

2004-01-01

232

Murine Binder of SPerm homolog 2 (BSPH2): the black sheep of the BSP superfamily.  

PubMed

Proteins of the Binder of SPerm superfamily are known to bind choline phospholipids on sperm membrane and promote sperm capacitation. The current study focuses on the biochemical and functional characterization of the murine Binder of SPerm homolog 2 (BSPH2). A recombinant protein (rec-BSPH2) was expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta-gami B (DE3)pLysS cells using pET32a vector. It was purified by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography and refolded on column using a decreasing urea gradient. Rec-BSPH2 was found to share some binding characteristics with other BSP proteins, such as binding to gelatin, heparin, and epididymal sperm. Rec-BSPH2 as well as murine recombinant BSPH1 were found to have different immunofluorescence patterns when bound to uncapacitated versus capacitated sperm, indicating a rearrangement of these proteins on sperm surface during or following capacitation. Surprisingly, rec-BSPH2 was unable to bind phosphorylcholine liposomes or promote sperm capacitation. It is the first time that such results are reported for proteins of the BSP family. The results indicate that murine BSPH1 and BSPH2 might not have redundant functions, as is the case with bovine BSPs. This study could lead to a better understanding of the role of BSP proteins in sperm functions and the existence of redundant BSP proteins in the reproductive tract. PMID:24307707

Plante, Genevičve; Fan, Jinjiang; Manjunath, Puttaswamy

2014-01-01

233

DECREASING EPIDIDYMAL SPERM RESERVES ENHANCES THE DETECTION OF ETHOXYETHANOL-INDUCED SPERMATOTOXICITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Current test strategies for assessing male reproductive toxicity may be inadequate for estimating risk in humans. High levels of sperm production and existence of large epididymal sperm reserves in most test species may impede the detection of spermatoxicity at low doses. The cur...

234

Sperm and Egg Donation Liana Mller  

E-print Network

Sperm and Egg Donation Liana MĂĽller #12;2 Introduction Biotechnology provides women and men who with the possibility to transmit the genetic information of at least one of the parents through sperm or egg donation sperm donation and prohibits egg donation. The question of sperm and egg donation is solely an ethical

MĂĽller, Ralf R.

235

Impaired swimming behaviour and morphology of sperm from barn swallows Hirundo rustica in Chernobyl.  

PubMed

We investigated the motility and morphology of live sperm from barn swallows Hirundo rustica breeding in radioactively contaminated areas around Chernobyl and control areas in Ukraine in order to test the hypothesis that swimming behaviour and morphology of sperm was impaired by radioactive contamination. We obtained sperm samples from 98% of sampled birds, thus avoiding sampling bias due to the fraction of males not producing sperm samples. Analyses of within- and between-sample repeatability revealed significant and intermediate to large estimates for all sperm parameters. There were significant differences between the Chernobyl area and the control area for two of 11 sperm behaviour parameters, and significant interactions between area and year for six of these parameters. The proportion of sperm with abnormal morphology was elevated in barn swallows from Chernobyl. A principal component (PC) analysis revealed four significant axes that explained 88% of the variance in sperm behaviour parameters. One of these principal components differed between areas, and three components showed significant year by area interactions. PC2 representing the frequency of slow sperm increased with increasing radiation in one year, but not another. PC3 representing sperm with high linearity, small amplitude of lateral head displacement and low track velocity decreased with increasing background radiation level. PC4 reflecting a large proportion of static sperm with high beat cross frequency increased with increasing background radiation level. Sperm behaviour as reflected by principal components was predictable among years from information on level of radiation, and it was predictable among sites in different years. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that sperm behaviour and morphology have been affected by radiation due to the Chernobyl accident. PMID:18218334

Mřller, A P; Mousseau, T A; Lynn, C; Lynnn, C; Ostermiller, S; Rudolfsen, G

2008-02-29

236

PhD position in Evolutionary Genomics /Behavioural Ecology Evolution and functionality of antimicrobial defences in passerine seminal fluid  

E-print Network

for the evolution of antibacterial substances in seminal fluid that minimise bacterial-induced sperm defects fluid and test the functionality of antimicrobial substances, and 2) quantify the impact of positive

Uppsala Universitet

237

Seminal vesicle protein SVS2 is required for sperm survival in the uterus.  

PubMed

In mammals, sperm migrate through the female reproductive tract to reach the egg; however, our understanding of this journey is highly limited. To shed light on this process, we focused on defining the functions of seminal vesicle secretion 2 (SVS2). SVS2(-/-) male mice produced sperm but were severely subfertile, and formation of a copulatory plug to cover the female genital opening did not occur. Surprisingly, even when artificial insemination was performed with silicon as a substitute for the plug, sperm fertility in the absence of SVS2 remained severely reduced because the sperm were already dead in the uterus. Thus, our results provide evidence that the uterus induces sperm cell death and that SVS2 protects sperm from uterine attack. PMID:24591616

Kawano, Natsuko; Araki, Naoya; Yoshida, Kaoru; Hibino, Taku; Ohnami, Naoko; Makino, Maako; Kanai, Seiya; Hasuwa, Hidetoshi; Yoshida, Manabu; Miyado, Kenji; Umezawa, Akihiro

2014-03-18

238

High-resolution mapping of chromatin packaging in mouse embryonic stem cells and sperm.  

PubMed

Mammalian embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and sperm exhibit unusual chromatin packaging that plays important roles in cellular function. Here, we extend a recently developed technique, based on deep paired-end sequencing of lightly digested chromatin, to assess footprints of nucleosomes and other DNA-binding proteins genome-wide in murine ESCs and sperm. In ESCs, we recover well-characterized features of chromatin such as promoter nucleosome depletion and further identify widespread footprints of sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins such as CTCF, which we validate in knockdown studies. We document global differences in nuclease accessibility between ESCs and sperm, finding that the majority of histone retention in sperm preferentially occurs in large gene-poor genomic regions, with only a small subset of nucleosomes being retained over promoters of developmental regulators. Finally, we describe evidence that CTCF remains associated with the genome in mature sperm, where it could play a role in organizing the sperm genome. PMID:24998598

Carone, Benjamin R; Hung, Jui-Hung; Hainer, Sarah J; Chou, Min-Te; Carone, Dawn M; Weng, Zhiping; Fazzio, Thomas G; Rando, Oliver J

2014-07-14

239

Delineating the roles of males and females in sperm competition.  

PubMed

Disentangling the relative roles of males, females and their interactive effects on competitive fertilization success remains a challenge in sperm competition. In this study, we apply a novel experimental framework to an ideally suited externally fertilizing model system in order to delineate these roles. We focus on the chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, a species in which ovarian fluid (OF) has been implicated as a potential arbiter of cryptic female choice for genetically compatible mates. We evaluated this predicted sexually selected function of OF using a series of factorial competitive fertilization trials. Our design involved a series of 10 factorial crosses, each involving two ‘focal’ rival males whose sperm competed against those from a single ‘standardized’ (non-focal) rival for a genetically uniform set of eggs in the presence of OF from two focal females. This design enabled us to attribute variation in competitive fertilization success among focal males, females (OF) and their interacting effects, while controlling for variation attributable to differences in the sperm competitive ability of rival males, and male-by-female genotypic interactions. Using this experimental framework, we found that variation in sperm competitiveness could be attributed exclusively to differences in the sperm competitive ability of focal males, a conclusion supported by subsequent analyses revealing that variation in sperm swimming velocity predicts paternity success. Together, these findings provide evidence that variation in paternity success can be attributed to intrinsic differences in the sperm competitive ability of rival males, and reveal that sperm swimming velocity is a key target of sexual selection. PMID:24266039

Evans, Jonathan P; Rosengrave, Patrice; Gasparini, Clelia; Gemmell, Neil J

2013-12-01

240

A New Method for Multiple Sperm Cells Tracking  

PubMed Central

Motion analysis or quality assessment of human sperm cell is great important for clinical applications of male infertility. Sperm tracking is quite complex due to cell collision, occlusion and missed detection. The aim of this study is simultaneous tracking of multiple human sperm cells. In the first step in this research, the frame difference algorithm is used for background subtraction. There are some limitations to select an appropriate threshold value since the output accuracy is strongly dependent on the selected threshold value. To eliminate this dependency, we propose an improved non-linear diffusion filtering in the time domain. Non-linear diffusion filtering is a smoothing and noise removing approach that can preserve edges in images. Many sperms that move with different speeds in different directions eventually coincide. For multiple tracking over time, an optimal matching strategy is introduced that is based on the optimization of a new cost function. A Hungarian search method is utilized to obtain the best matching for all possible candidates. The results show nearly 3.24% frame based error in dataset of videos that contain more than 1 and less than 10 sperm cells. Hence the accuracy rate was 96.76%. These results indicate the validity of the proposed algorithm to perform multiple sperms tracking. PMID:24696807

Imani, Yoones; Teyfouri, Niloufar; Ahmadzadeh, Mohammad Reza; Golabbakhsh, Marzieh

2014-01-01

241

Sperm Proteomics: Road to Male Fertility and Contraception  

PubMed Central

Spermatozoa are highly specialized cells that can be easily obtained and purified. Mature spermatozoa are transcriptionally and translationally inactive and incapable of protein synthesis. In addition, spermatozoa contain relatively higher amounts of membrane proteins compared to other cells; therefore, they are very suitable for proteomic studies. Recently, the application of proteomic approaches such as the two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, and differential in-gel electrophoresis has identified several sperm-specific proteins. These findings have provided a further understanding of protein functions involved in different sperm processes as well as of the differentiation of normal state from an abnormal one. In addition, studies on the sperm proteome have demonstrated the importance of spermatozoal posttranslational modifications and their ability to induce physiological changes responsible for fertilization. Large-scale proteomic studies to identify hundreds to thousands of sperm proteins will ultimately result in the development of novel biomarkers that may help to detect fertility, the state of complete contraception, and beyond. Eventually, these protein biomarkers will allow for a better diagnosis of sperm dysfunctions and aid in drug development. This paper reviews the recent scientific publications available from the PubMed database to address sperm proteomics and its potential application to characterize male fertility and contraception. PMID:24363670

Rahman, Md Saidur; Lee, June-Sub

2013-01-01

242

Isolation and collection of two populations of viable sperm cells from the pollen of Plumbago zeylanica.  

PubMed

A protocol is described for individually collecting two populations of sperm cells, Svn and Sua, from pollen of Plumbago zeylanica. Pollen grains were burst in 10 mM MOPS buffer containing 0.8 M mannitol (pH 4.6). Paired sperm cells released from pollen were separated using a microinjector. Svn and Sua were then collected individually with a microinjector, based upon known size differences. Collected sperm cells were washed with isolation medium and transferred to liquid nitrogen until use. Fluorochromatic reaction (FCR) test of isolated sperm cells showed a positive reaction, indicating that the isolated sperm cells are viable; most of the sperm cells retain viability for at least 2 h. PMID:9921639

Zhang, Z; Xu, H; Singh, M B; Russell, S D

1998-11-01

243

Strategic ejaculation in simultaneously hermaphroditic land snails: more sperm into virgin mates  

PubMed Central

Background It has been theorised that sperm competition promotes the strategic usage of costly sperm. Although sperm competition is thought to be an important driving force of reproductive traits in simultaneous hermaphrodites as well as in species with separate sexes, empirical studies on strategic ejaculation in simultaneous hermaphrodites are scarce. Results In the present study, we tested whether the simultaneously hermaphroditic land snail Euhadra quaesita adjusts the number of sperm donated according to the condition of the mate and whether the pattern of strategic ejaculation is in line with previously suggested theories. We found that individuals donated much more sperm when they copulated with a virgin mate than when they copulated with a non-virgin. Conclusion The virgin-biased pattern of ejaculation matches the theoretical prediction and suggests that sperm competition significantly influence the reproductive traits of simultaneously hermaphroditic land snails. PMID:24304518

2013-01-01

244

Identification and validation of mouse sperm proteins correlated with epididymal maturation  

PubMed Central

Sperm need to mature in the epididymis to become capable of fertilization. To understand the molecular mechanisms of mouse sperm maturation, we conducted a proteomic analysis using saturation dye labeling to identify proteins of caput and cauda epididymal sperm that exhibited differences in amounts or positions on two-dimensional gels. Of eight caput epididymal sperm-differential proteins, three were molecular chaperones and three were structural proteins. Of nine cauda epididymal sperm-differential proteins, six were enzymes of energy metabolism. To validate these proteins as markers of epididymal maturation, immunoblotting and immunofluorescence analyses were performed. During epididymal transit, heat shock protein 2 was eliminated with the cytoplasmic droplet and smooth muscle ?-actin exhibited reduced fluorescence from the anterior acrosome while the signal intensity of aldolase A increased, especially in the principal piece. Besides these changes, we observed protein spots, such as glutathione S-transferase mu 5 and the E2 component of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, shifting to more basic isoelectric points, suggesting post-translational changes such dephosphorylation occur during epididymal maturation. We conclude that most caput epididymal sperm-differential proteins contribute to the functional modification of sperm structures and that many cauda epididymal sperm-differential proteins are involved in ATP production that promotes sperm functions such as motility. PMID:21805633

Ijiri, Takashi W.; Merdiushev, Tanya; Cao, Wenlei; Gerton, George L.

2012-01-01

245

Sperm mRNA Transcripts Are Indicators of Sub-Chronic Low Dose Testicular Injury in the Fischer 344 Rat  

PubMed Central

Current human reproductive risk assessment methods rely on semen and serum hormone analyses, which are not easily comparable to the histopathological endpoints and mating studies used in animal testing. Because of these limitations, there is a need to develop universal evaluations that reliably reflect male reproductive function. We hypothesized that toxicant-induced testicular injury can be detected in sperm using mRNA transcripts as indicators of insult. To test this, we exposed adult male Fischer 344 rats to low doses of model testicular toxicants and classically characterized the testicular injury while simultaneously evaluating sperm mRNA transcripts from the same animals. Overall, this study aimed to: 1) identify sperm transcripts altered after exposure to the model testicular toxicant, 2,5-hexanedione (HD) using microarrays; 2) expand on the HD-induced transcript changes in a comprehensive time course experiment using qRT-PCR arrays; and 3) test these injury indicators after exposure to another model testicular toxicant, carbendazim (CBZ). Microarray analysis of HD-treated adult Fischer 344 rats identified 128 altered sperm mRNA transcripts when compared to control using linear models of microarray analysis (q<0.05). All transcript alterations disappeared after 3 months of post-exposure recovery. In the time course experiment, time-dependent alterations were observed for 12 candidate transcripts selected from the microarray data based upon fold change and biological relevance, and 8 of these transcripts remained significantly altered after the 3-month recovery period (p<0.05). In the last experiment, 8 candidate transcripts changed after exposure to CBZ (p<0.05). The two testicular toxicants produced distinct molecular signatures with only 4 overlapping transcripts between them, each occurring in opposite directions. Overall, these results suggest that sperm mRNA transcripts are indicators of low dose toxicant-induced testicular injury in the rat. PMID:22952946

Pacheco, Sara E.; Anderson, Linnea M.; Sandrof, Moses A.; Vantangoli, Marguerite M.; Hall, Susan J.; Boekelheide, Kim

2012-01-01

246

Shorter sperm confer higher competitive fertilization success.  

PubMed

Spermatozoa exhibit taxonomically widespread patterns of divergent morphological evolution. However, the adaptive significance of variation in sperm morphology remains unclear. In this study we examine the role of natural variation in sperm length on fertilization success in the dung beetle Onthophagus taurus. We conducted sperm competition trials between males that differed in the length of their sperm and determined the paternity of resulting offspring using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. We also quantified variation in the size and shape of the female's sperm storage organ to determine whether female morphology influenced the competitiveness of different sperm morphologies. We found that fertilization success was biased toward males with relatively shorter sperm, but that selection on sperm length was dependent on female tract morphology; selection was directional for reduced sperm length across most of the spermathecal size range, but stabilizing in females with the smallest spermathecae. Our data provide empirical support for the theory that sperm competition should favor the evolution of numerous tiny sperm. Moreover, because sperm length is both heritable and genetically correlated with condition, our results are consistent with a process by which females can accrue genetic benefits for their offspring from the incitement of sperm competition and/or cryptic female choice, as proposed by the "sexy sperm" and "good sperm" models for the evolution of polyandry. PMID:17439614

García-González, Francisco; Simmons, Leigh W

2007-04-01

247

Postcopulatory Sexual Selection Is Associated with Reduced Variation in Sperm Morphology  

PubMed Central

Background The evolutionary role of postcopulatory sexual selection in shaping male reproductive traits, including sperm morphology, is well documented in several taxa. However, previous studies have focused almost exclusively on the influence of sperm competition on variation among species. In this study we tested the hypothesis that intraspecific variation in sperm morphology is driven by the level of postcopulatory sexual selection in passerine birds. Methodology/Findings Using two proxy measures of sperm competition level, (i) relative testes size and (ii) extrapair paternity level, we found strong evidence that intermale variation in sperm morphology is negatively associated with the degree of postcopulatory sexual selection, independently of phylogeny. Conclusions/Significance Our results show that the role of postcopulatory sexual selection in the evolution of sperm morphology extends to an intraspecific level, reducing the variation towards what might be a species-specific ‘optimum’ sperm phenotype. This finding suggests that while postcopulatory selection is generally directional (e.g., favouring longer sperm) across avian species, it also acts as a stabilising evolutionary force within species under intense selection, resulting in reduced variation in sperm morphology traits. We discuss some potential evolutionary mechanisms for this pattern. PMID:17476335

Calhim, Sara; Immler, Simone; Birkhead, Tim R.

2007-01-01

248

Possible cytoskeletal structures of rainbow trout sperm revealed by electron microscopic observation after detergent extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the considerable research interest in fish sperm ultrastructure, little is known about the functions of different sperm cell components. Our electron microscopic study was aimed at identifying possible tissue-specific cytoskeletal structures in spermatozoa of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Teleostei, Salmoniformes, Salmonidae; formerly Salmo gairdneri). Based on the known resistance of the cytoskeleton to nonionic detergents, we compared the ultrastructure

Maya D. Markova; Ralitsa S. Zhivkova

2003-01-01

249

The giant bite of a new raptorial sperm whale from the Miocene epoch of Peru  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modern giant sperm whale Physeter macrocephalus, one of the largest known predators, preys upon cephalopods at great depths. Lacking a functional upper dentition, it relies on suction for catching its prey; in contrast, several smaller Miocene sperm whales (Physeteroidea) have been interpreted as raptorial (versus suction) feeders, analogous to the modern killer whale Orcinus orca. Whereas very large physeteroid

Olivier Lambert; Giovanni Bianucci; Klaas Post; Christian de Muizon; Rodolfo Salas-Gismondi; Mario Urbina; Jelle Reumer

2010-01-01

250

An overview of deterministic functional RAM chip testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overview of deterministic functional RAM chip testing. Instead of the traditional ad-hoc approach toward developing memory test algorithms, a hierarchy of functional faults and tests is presented, which is shown to cover all likely functional memory faults. This is done by presenting a novel way of categorizing the faults. All (possible) fault combinations are discussed. Requirements

A. J. van de Goor; C. A. Verruijt

1990-01-01

251

Failed Sperm Development as a Reproductive Isolating Barrier between Species  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Hybrid male sterility is a common reproductive isolating barrier between species. Yet, little is known about the actual developmental causes of this phenomenon, especially in naturally hybridizing species. We sought to evaluate the developmental causes of hybrid male sterility, using spadefoot toads as our study system. Plains spadefoot toads (S. bombifrons) and Mexican spadefoot toads (S. multiplicata) hybridize where they co-occur in the southwestern USA. Hybrids are viable, but hybrid males suffer reduced fertility. We compared testes size and developmental stages of sperm cell maturation between hybrid males and males of each species. We found that testes of hybrid males did not differ in mean size from pure-species males. However, hybrids showed a greater range of within-individual variation in testes size than pure-species males. Moreover, although hybrids produced similar numbers of early stage sperm cells, hybrids produced significantly fewer mature spermatozoids than pure-species males. Interestingly, an introgressed individual produced numbers of live sperm comparable to pure-species males, but the majority of these sperm cells were abnormally shaped and non-motile. These results indicate that hybrid incompatibilities in late sperm development serve as a reproductive isolating barrier between species. The nature of this breakdown highlights the possibilities that hybrid males may vary in fertility and that fertility could possibly be recovered in introgressed males. PMID:24261446

Wünsch, Lisa K.; Pfennig, Karin S.

2013-01-01

252

Failed sperm development as a reproductive isolating barrier between species.  

PubMed

Hybrid male sterility is a common reproductive isolating barrier between species. Yet, little is known about the actual developmental causes of this phenomenon, especially in naturally hybridizing species. We sought to evaluate the developmental causes of hybrid male sterility, using spadefoot toads as our study system. Plains spadefoot toads (Spea bombifrons) and Mexican spadefoot toads (S. multiplicata) hybridize where they co-occur in the southwestern USA. Hybrids are viable, but hybrid males suffer reduced fertility. We compared testes size and developmental stages of sperm cell maturation between hybrid males and males of each species. We found that testes of hybrid males did not differ in mean size from pure-species males. However, hybrids showed a greater range of within-individual variation in testes size than pure-species males. Moreover, although hybrids produced similar numbers of early stage sperm cells, hybrids produced significantly fewer mature spermatozoids than pure-species males. Interestingly, an introgressed individual produced numbers of live sperm comparable to pure-species males, but the majority of these sperm cells were abnormally shaped and non-motile. These results indicate that hybrid incompatibilities in late sperm development serve as a reproductive isolating barrier between species. The nature of this breakdown highlights the possibilities that hybrid males may vary in fertility and that fertility could possibly be recovered in introgressed males. PMID:24261446

Wünsch, Lisa K; Pfennig, Karin S

2013-01-01

253

Power functions and envelopes for unit root tests  

E-print Network

This paper studies power functions and envelopes for covariate augmented unit root tests. The power functions are calculated by integrating the characteristic function, allowing accurate evaluation of the power envelope ...

Juhl, Ted P.; Xiao, Z. J.

2003-04-01

254

Sperm Trajectories Form Chiral Ribbons  

PubMed Central

We report the discovery of an entirely new three-dimensional (3D) swimming pattern observed in human and horse sperms. This motion is in the form of ‘chiral ribbons’, where the planar swing of the sperm head occurs on an osculating plane creating in some cases a helical ribbon and in some others a twisted ribbon. The latter, i.e., the twisted ribbon trajectory, also defines a minimal surface, exhibiting zero mean curvature for all the points on its surface. These chiral ribbon swimming patterns cannot be represented or understood by already known patterns of sperms or other micro-swimmers. The discovery of these unique patterns is enabled by holographic on-chip imaging of >33,700?sperm trajectories at >90–140?frames/sec, which revealed that only ~1.7% of human sperms exhibit chiral ribbons, whereas it increases to ~27.3% for horse sperms. These results might shed more light onto the statistics and biophysics of various micro-swimmers' 3D motion. PMID:23588811

Su, Ting-Wei; Choi, Inkyum; Feng, Jiawen; Huang, Kalvin; McLeod, Euan; Ozcan, Aydogan

2013-01-01

255

Sperm-mediated gene transfer: effect on bovine in vitro embryo production.  

PubMed

The technique of sperm-mediated gene transfer (SMGT) can be used to delivery exogenous DNA into the oocyte. However, it has low repeatability and produces inconsistent results. In order to optimize this technique, it is necessary to study the mechanism by which DNA enters the sperm cell and integrates in the sperm genome. Furthermore, studies must focus in the maintenance of sperm cell viability and function. The aim of this study was to evaluate different SMGT protocols of sperm electroporation or capacitation (CaI) aiming to maintain sperm viability in the production of bovine embryos in vitro. Frozen-thawed semen was divided in two experimental groups (electroporation or CaI) and one control group (non-treated cells). For the electroporation method, five different voltages (100, 500, 750, 1000 or 1500 V) with 25 ?F capacitance were used. For CaI treatment, combinations of two CaI concentrations (250 nM or 500 nM), two incubation periods of sperm cells with CaI (1 or 5 min) and two incubation periods that mimicked time of sperm cell interaction with exogenous DNA molecules (1 or 2 h) were evaluated. According to our data, electroporation and CaI treatments do not prevent sperm penetration and oocyte fertilization and can be an alternative method to achieve satisfactory DNA delivery in SMGT protocols. PMID:22805109

Simőes, Renata; Nicacio, Alessandra Corallo; Binelli, Mario; de Paula-Lopes, Fabiola Freitas; Milazzotto, Marcella Pecora; Visintin, José Antonio; D'Ávila Assumpçăo, Mayra Elena Ortiz

2013-11-01

256

Sperm Competition in Humans: Mate Guarding Behavior Negatively Correlates with Ejaculate Quality  

PubMed Central

In species where females mate with multiple males, the sperm from these males must compete to fertilise available ova. Sexual selection from sperm competition is expected to favor opposing adaptations in males that function either in the avoidance of sperm competition (by guarding females from rival males) or in the engagement in sperm competition (by increased expenditure on the ejaculate). The extent to which males may adjust the relative use of these opposing tactics has been relatively neglected. Where males can successfully avoid sperm competition from rivals, one might expect a decrease in their expenditure on tactics for the engagement in sperm competition and vice versa. In this study, we examine the relationship between mate guarding and ejaculate quality using humans as an empirical model. We found that men who performed fewer mate guarding behaviors produced higher quality ejaculates, having a greater concentration of sperm, a higher percentage of motile sperm and sperm that swam faster and less erratically. These effects were found independent of lifestyle factors or factors related to male quality. Our findings suggest that male expenditure on mate guarding and on the ejaculate may represent alternative routes to paternity assurance in humans. PMID:25250582

Leivers, Samantha; Rhodes, Gillian; Simmons, Leigh W.

2014-01-01

257

SPERM COUNT, MORPHOLOGY AND FLUORESCENT BODY FREQUENCY IN AUTOPSY SERVICE WORKERS EXPOSED TO FORMALDEHYDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The ability of a battery of genetic monitoring tests to detect occupational formaldehyde exposure in a population of a hospital autopsy service workers was investigated. Eleven exposed individuals and 11 matched controls were evaluated for sperm count, abnormal sperm morphology a...

258

Uneven distribution of desmosterol and docosahexaenoic acid in the heads and tails of monkey sperm 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously we demonstrated high concentrations of desmosterol and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) in monkey testes and sperm. Desmosterol, a cholesterol precursor, is not present elsewhere in the body. High con- centrations of DHA are found elsewhere only in the retina and brain. To examine the distribution of these compounds in the heads and tails of sperm, we separated them

William E. Connor; Don S. Lin; D. P. Wolf; M. Alexander

259

DIBROMOACETIC ACID AFFECTS REPRODUCTIVE COMPETENCE AND SPERM QUALITY IN THE MALE RAT  

EPA Science Inventory

We have recently shown that Dibromoacetic acid (DBAA) alters sperm quality in short duration tests. n this study, male rats were gavaged with 0, 2, 10, 50, 250 mg DBAA/kg/d for up to 49 d. Interim. and terminal measurements of sperm quality & reproductive outcome were made. BAA c...

260

Successful testicular sperm extraction and paternity in an azoospermic man after bilateral postpubertal orchiopexy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postpubertal orchiopexy is usually considered a cosmetic operation and unlikely to have any effect on fertility. We describe a 32-year-old patient with bilateral undescended testes who underwent bilateral orchiopexy at 18 years of age. He presented with primary infertility and azoospermia. After fertility counseling, testicular sperm extraction in conjunction with intracytoplasmic sperm injection was performed. A few spermatozoa were recovered

Yung Ming Lin; Chao Chin Hsu; Meng Hsing Wu; Johnny Shinn Nan Lin

2001-01-01

261

OAIS Functional Model Conformance Test: A Proposed Measurement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a test for data centres, repositories and archives to determine OAIS functional model conformance. The test developed was carried out among the World Data Centre (WDC) member data centres. The method used to develop the OAIS functional model conformance test is discussed, along with the test

Laughton, Paul

2012-01-01

262

The alteration of profile analysis to accommodate testing functions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a methodology was studied for testing differences among several pilot functions, where the data points represent averages at various frequencies. Topics discussed include: basic assumptions, hypothesis, profile analysis, alteration of profile analysis to accommodate testing functions, test and procedures, and power of tests.

Myers, R. H.

1979-01-01

263

No Experimental Evidence for Sneaking in a West African Cichlid Fish with Extremely Long Sperm  

PubMed Central

Alternative reproductive tactics are widespread in fishes, increasing the potential for sperm competition. Sperm competition has enormous impact on both variation in sperm numbers and sperm size. In cichlids, the sperm competition risk is very divergent and longer sperm are usually interpreted as adaptation to sperm competition. Here we examined whether sneaking tactics exist in Pelvicachromis taeniatus, a socially monogamous cichlid with biparental brood care from West Africa. The small testis indicates low gonadal investment which is typical for genetically monogamous species. In contrast, sperm length with up to 85??m is extraordinarily long. We examined the reproductive behaviour of ten groups with a male-biased sex ratio under semi-natural conditions via continuous video recording. We recorded spawning site preferences and correlates of reproductive success and conducted paternity tests using microsatellites. Safe breeding sites that could be successfully defended were preferred. All offspring could be assigned to their parents and no multiple paternities were detected. Body size of spawning pairs predicted their spawning probability and offspring hatching rate suggesting benefits from mating with large individuals. Our study suggests low risk of sperm competition under the given conditions in P. taeniatus and thus first evidence for genetic monogamy in a substrate breeding cichlid. PMID:24386589

Langen, Kathrin; Thunken, Timo; Bakker, Theo C. M.

2013-01-01

264

Sperm competition and the evolution of male reproductive anatomy in rodents  

PubMed Central

Sperm competition is a pervasive selective force in evolution, shaping reproductive anatomy, physiology and behaviour. Here, we present comparative evidence that varying sperm competition levels account for variation in the male reproductive anatomy of rodents, the largest and most diverse mammalian order. We focus on the sperm-producing testes and the accessory reproductive glands, which produce the seminal fluid fraction of the ejaculate. We demonstrate a positive association between relative testis size and the prevalence of within-litter multiple paternity, consistent with previous analyses in which relative testis size has been found to correlate with sperm competition levels inferred from social organization and mating systems. We further demonstrate an association between sperm competition level and the relative size of at least two accessory reproductive glands: the seminal vesicles and anterior prostate. The size of the major product of these glands—the copulatory plug—is also found to vary with sperm competition level. Our findings thus suggest that selection for larger plugs under sperm competition may explain variation in accessory gland size, and highlight the need to consider both sperm and non-sperm components of the male ejaculate in the context of post-copulatory sexual selection. PMID:16024351

Ramm, Steven A; Parker, Geoffrey A; Stockley, Paula

2005-01-01

265

Mobile phones affect multiple sperm quality traits: a meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

As mobile phone usage is growing rapidly, there is a need for a comprehensive analysis of the literature to inform scientific debates about the adverse effects of mobile phone radiation on sperm quality traits. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis of the eligible published research studies on human males of reproductive age. Eleven studies were eligible for this analysis. Based on the meta-analysis, mobile phone use was significantly associated with deterioration in semen quality (Hedges’s g = -0.547; 95% CI: -0.713, -0.382; p < 0.001). The traits particularly affected adversely were sperm concentration, sperm morphology, sperm motility, proportion of non-progressive motile sperm (%), proportion of slow progressive motile sperm (%), and sperm viability. Direct exposure of spermatozoa to mobile phone radiation with in vitro study designs also significantly deteriorated the sperm quality (Hedges’s g = -2.233; 95% CI: -2.758, -1.708; p < 0.001), by reducing straight line velocity, fast progressive motility, Hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) test score, major axis (µm), minor axis (µm), total sperm motility, perimeter (µm), area (µm 2), average path velocity, curvilinear velocity, motile spermatozoa, and  acrosome reacted spermatozoa (%). The strength of evidence for the different outcomes varied from very low to very high. The analysis shows that mobile phone use is possibly associated with a number of deleterious effects on the spermatozoa. PMID:24327874

Dama, Madhukar Shivajirao

2013-01-01

266

Screening Test Items for Differential Item Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A method for medical screening is adapted to differential item functioning (DIF). Its essential elements are explicit declarations of the level of DIF that is acceptable and of the loss function that quantifies the consequences of the two kinds of inappropriate classification of an item. Instead of a single level and a single function, sets of…

Longford, Nicholas T.

2014-01-01

267

Relationship between Testicular Volume and Conventional or Nonconventional Sperm Parameters  

PubMed Central

Background. Reduced testicular volume (TV) (<12?cm3) is associated with lower testicular function. Several studies explored the conventional sperm parameters (concentration, motility, and morphology) and the endocrine function (gonadotropins and testosterone serum concentrations) in the patients with reduction of TV. No other parameters have been examined. Aim. This study aims at evaluating some biofunctional sperm parameters by flow cytometry in the semen of men with reduced TV compared with that of subjects with normal TV. Methods. 78 patients without primary scrotal disease were submitted to ultrasound evaluation of the testis. They were divided into two groups according to testicular volume: A Group, including 40 patients with normal testicular volume (TV > 15?cm3) and B Group, including 38 patients with reduced testicular volume (TV ? 12?cm3). All patients underwent serum hormone concentration, conventional and biofunctional (flow cytometry) sperm parameters evaluation. Results. With regard to biofunctional sperm parameters, all values (mitochondrial membrane potential, phosphatidylserine externalization, chromatin compactness, and DNA fragmentation) were strongly negatively correlated with testicular volume (P < 0.0001). Conclusions. This study for the first time in the literature states that the biofunctional sperm parameters worsen and with near linear correlation, with decreasing testicular volume. PMID:24089610

Condorelli, Rosita; Calogero, Aldo E.; La Vignera, Sandro

2013-01-01

268

Mice lacking FABP9/PERF15 develop sperm head abnormalities but are fertile  

PubMed Central

The male germ cell-specific fatty acid binding protein 9 (FABP9/PERF15) is the major component of the murine sperm perforatorium and perinuclear theca. Based on its cytoskeletal association and sequence homology to myelin P2 (FABP8), it has been suggested that FABP9 tethers sperm membranes to the underlying cytoskeleton. Furthermore, its upregulation in apoptotic testicular germ cells and its increased phosphorylation status during capacitation suggested multiple important functions for FABP9. Therefore, we investigated specific functions for FABP9 by means of targeted gene disruption in mice. FABP9?/? mice were viable and fertile. Phenotypic analysis showed that FABP9?/? mice had significant increases in sperm head abnormalities (~8% greater than their WT cohorts); in particular, we observed the reduction or absence of the characteristic structural element known as the “ventral spur” in ~10% of FABP9?/? sperm. However, deficiency of FABP9 neither affected membrane tethering to the perinuclear theca nor the fatty acid composition of sperm. Moreover, epididymal sperm numbers were not affected in FABP9?/? mice. Therefore, we conclude that FABP9 plays only a minor role in providing the murine sperm head its characteristic shape and is not absolutely required for spermatogenesis or sperm function. PMID:20920498

Selvaraj, Vimal; Asano, Atsushi; Page, Jennifer L.; Nelson, Jacquelyn L.; Kothapalli, Kumar S. D.; Foster, James A.; Brenna, J. Thomas; Weiss, Robert S.; Travis, Alexander J.

2010-01-01

269

Functional Test of Field Programmable Analog Arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work a strategy for testing analog networks, known as transient response analysis method, is applied to test the configurable analog blocks (CABs) of field programmable analog arrays (FPAAs). In this method the circuit under test (CUT) is programmed to implement first and second order blocks and the transient response of these blocks to known input stimuli is analyzed.

Tiago R. Balen; José Vicente Calvano; Marcelo Lubaszewski; Michel Renovell

2006-01-01

270

Functional test generation for path delay faults  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a novel test generation technique for path delay faults, based on the growth (G) and disappearance (D) faults of programmable logic arrays (PLA). The circuit is modeled as a PLA that is prime and irredundant with respect to every output. Certain tests for G faults, generated by using known efficient methods are transformed into tests for path delay

Mandyam-komar Srinivas; Vishwani D. Agrawal; Michael L. Bushnell

1995-01-01

271

Quantification of bovine sperm separation by a swim-up method. Relationship to sperm motility, integrity of acrosomes, sperm migration in polyacrylamide gel and fertility.  

PubMed

The number of bovine spermatozoa separated in a swim-up procedure was quantified using an electronic cell counter. In an initial test of the swim-up procedure, non-frozen sperm samples with different ratios of live to dead cells were prepared and tested for the number of spermatozoa counted by the swim-up procedure. In ejaculates from six bulls, the number of spermatozoa swimming up was related to the number of live cells present (R2 = 0.97). Next, sperm quality of frozen-thawed semen immediately after thawing was measured at 37 C by swim-up sperm count, sperm motility, spermatozoa with an intact acrosome and migration in polyacrylamide gel and then compared with the fertility of the semen used for artificial insemination. Twenty-nine ejaculates of frozen-thawed semen from 11 bulls were evaluated. Correlations with fertility were highest on an ejaculate basis for motility (r = 0.41, P = 0.05) and for swim-up sperm count (r = 0.35, P = 0.06). On a bull basis, swim-up sperm count had the highest correlation with fertility (r = 0.59, P = 0.06). In a multiple regression model to predict male fertility that included all described measures of semen quality, a R2 value of 0.69 was obtained. This is the first report showing that the ability of spermatozoa to swim out of a more dense medium (whole milk-glycerol extender) into culture media is quantitatively related to in vivo fertility. PMID:3624063

Parrish, J J; Foote, R H

1987-01-01

272

Stressful environments induce novel phenotypic variation: hierarchical reaction norms for sperm performance of a pervasive invader  

PubMed Central

Genetic variation for phenotypic plasticity is ubiquitous and important. However, the scale of such variation including the relative variability present in reaction norms among different hierarchies of biological organization (e.g., individuals, populations, and closely related species) is unknown. Complicating interpretation is a trade-off in environmental scale. As plasticity can only be inferred over the range of environments tested, experiments focusing on fine tuned responses to normal or benign conditions may miss cryptic phenotypic variation expressed under novel or stressful environments. Here, we sought to discern the presence and shape of plasticity in the performance of brown trout sperm as a function of optimal to extremely stressful river pH, and demarcate if the reaction norm varies among genotypes. Our overarching goal was to determine if deteriorating environmental quality increases expressed variation among individuals. A more applied aim was to ascertain whether maintaining sperm performance over a wide pH range could help explain how brown trout are able to invade diverse river systems when transplanted outside of their native range. Individuals differed in their reaction norms of phenotypic expression of an important trait in response to environmental change. Cryptic variation was revealed under stressful conditions, evidenced through increasing among-individual variability. Importantly, data on population averages masked this variability in plasticity. In addition, canalized reaction norms in sperm swimming velocities of many individuals over a very large range in water chemistry may help explain why brown trout are able to colonize a wide variety of habitats. PMID:23145341

Purchase, Craig F; Moreau, Darek T R

2012-01-01

273

Test Functions Space in Noncommutative Quantum Field Theory  

E-print Network

It is proven that the $\\star$-product of field operators implies that the space of test functions in the Wightman approach to noncommutative quantum field theory is one of the Gel'fand-Shilov spaces $S^{\\beta}$ with $\\beta test functions smears the noncommutative Wightman functions, which are in this case generalized distributions, sometimes called hyperfunctions. The existence and determination of the class of the test function spaces in NC QFT is important for any rigorous treatment in the Wightman approach.

M. Chaichian; M. Mnatsakanova; A. Tureanu; Yu. Vernov

2007-06-12

274

Ethics of intracytoplasmic sperm injection: proceed with care.  

PubMed

The religious and feminist objections to the new reproductive technologies in general and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in particular are not convincing. The risks and uncertainties associated with ICSI constitute a compelling reason to subject clinical ICSI with ejaculated spermatozoa to strict conditions and are a good reason to suspend clinical microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration and testicular sperm extraction, pending the results of animal research. The categorical objections to 'coercively' offering genetic testing to males/couples applying for ICSI are not convincing in view of the doctors' own responsibility to avoid serious harm to the future children. At the same time, a further debate on the harm-probability ratio to be used for such testing and for limiting access to ICSI is necessary. PMID:9663786

de Wert, G M

1998-04-01

275

Endoplasmic reticulum protein 29 (ERp29), a protein related to sperm maturation is involved in sperm-oocyte fusion in mouse  

PubMed Central

Background Sperm-oocyte fusion is a critical step in fertilization, which requires a series of proteins from both spermatozoa and oocyte to mediate membrane adhesion and subsequent fusion. A rat spermatozoa membrane protein is endoplasmic reticulum protein 29 (ERp29), which significantly increases on the sperm surface as well as in the cytoplasm of epididymal epithelia from caput to cauda as the sperm undergo epididymal maturation. Moreover, ERp29 facilitates viral infection via mediating membrane penetration. We determined if in addition to promoting sperm maturation ERp29 may also play a role in facilitating gamete fusion during the fertilization process. Methods Laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) and Western blot analysis were employed to probe for ERp29 protein in BALB/c mouse epididymal and acrosome-reacted spermatozoa. We prepared rabbit polyclonal antibodies against mouse recombinant ERp29 (rERp29) to characterize: 1) fertilization rate (FR); 2) fertilization index (FI); 3) sperm motility and 4) acrosome reaction (AR). Results Confocal microscopy indicated that ERp29 was partially localized at the sperm head of the epididymal caput as well as over the whole head and part of the principal piece of the tail region from the epididymal cauda. However, when the acrosome reacted, ERp29 remained in the equatorial and post-acrosomal regions of the sperm head, which is the initial site of sperm-oocyte membrane fusion. Such localization changes were confirmed based on the results of Western blot analysis. Furthermore, the antibodies against mouse rERp29 inhibited the spermatozoa from penetrating into the zona pellucida (ZP)-free oocytes. The functional blocking antibodies reduced both mouse sperm-oocyte FR and FI at concentrations of 100 and 200 micro g/ml compared with pre-immunized rabbit IgG or with anti-mouse recombinant bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI, a sperm surface protein unrelated to sperm-oocyte fusion) antibodies (100 micro g/ml), but they had no effect on sperm motility and AR. Conclusion This study demonstrates that ERp29 on mouse spermatozoa membrane changes during epididymal transit and AR. Accordingly, in mice this protein may be one of the important factors involved in sperm fertilization by facilitating sperm-oocyte membrane fusion. PMID:20132541

2010-01-01

276

Using Dependency Structures for Prioritisation of Functional Test Suites  

E-print Network

1 Using Dependency Structures for Prioritisation of Functional Test Suites Shifa-e-Zehra Haidry, Australia. 3 Abstract--Test case prioritisation is the process of ordering the exe- cution of test cases software delivery. Many existing test case prioritisation techniques consider that tests can be run in any

Miller, Tim

277

Epididymis cholesterol homeostasis and sperm fertilizing ability  

PubMed Central

Cholesterol, being the starting point of steroid hormone synthesis, is a long known modulator of both female and male reproductive physiology especially at the level of the gonads and the impact cholesterol has on gametogenesis. Less is known about the effects cholesterol homeostasis may have on postgonadic reproductive functions. Lately, several data have been reported showing how imbalanced cholesterol levels may particularly affect the post-testicular events of sperm maturation that lead to fully fertile male gametes. This review will focus on that aspect and essentially centers on how cholesterol is important for the physiology of the mammalian epididymis and spermatozoa. PMID:21042301

Saez, Fabrice; Ouvrier, Aurelia; Drevet, Joel R

2011-01-01

278

Accessory sperm as an indication of fertilizing ability of rabbit spermatozoa frozen in egg yolk-acetamide with detergent.  

PubMed

Many factors besides initial semen quality affect fertilization rates as sperm interact with the environment of the female reproductive tract. One of these factors is sperm transport, which can be evaluated by accessory sperm counts. Dutch rabbits were used to test the effects on sperm transport, fertilization, and production of young when sodium and triethanolamine lauryl sulfate (STLS) detergent was added to a medium for sperm cryopreservation. When STLS was added in 10 concentrations ranging from 0% to 2.0% (vol/vol) to an egg yolk-acetamide semen extender, optimal post-thaw motility of rabbit sperm occurred when 0.2% to 0.7% STLS was included. However, when 0%, 0.2%, and 0.7% STLS was included to cryopreserve sperm used for insemination, the fertilization rates were 95%, 68%, and 75%, and the corresponding mean numbers of accessory sperm per embryo were 13.1, 1.7, and 0.4 (P < .05). In another experiment, increasing the acetamide concentration from 0.75 M to 1.25 M decreased fertilization rates from 66% to 35%, and was associated with 4.5 and 0.6 accessory sperm per embryo (P < .05). In the final experiment, 48 does inseminated with sperm cryopreserved with 0%, 0.35%, and 0.70% STLS were allowed to produce young. Corresponding pregnancy rates were 56%, 56%, and 31% (P < .05), and litter sizes were 5.6, 4.1, and 4.2 (P > .05). In these studies, low concentrations of STLS improved motility of frozen-thawed sperm, but fertilization and pregnancy rates were reduced. Sperm transport was correspondingly reduced, and the accessory sperm count provided a reliable measure of the effect of STLS on fertility in contrast to the assessment of the percentage of motile sperm. PMID:11330646

Arriola, J; Foote, R H

2001-01-01

279

Electrophysiological Evidence for the Presence of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) in Mouse Sperm  

PubMed Central

Mammalian sperm must undergo a maturational process, named capacitation, in the female reproductive tract to fertilize the egg. Sperm capacitation is regulated by a cAMP/PKA pathway and involves increases in intracellular Ca2+, pH, Cl?, protein tyrosine phosphorylation, and in mouse and some other mammals a membrane potential hyperpolarization. The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a Cl? channel modulated by cAMP/PKA and ATP, was detected in mammalian sperm and proposed to modulate capacitation. Our whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from testicular mouse sperm now reveal a Cl? selective component to membrane current that is ATP-dependent, stimulated by cAMP, cGMP and genistein (a CFTR agonist, at low concentrations), and inhibited by DPC and CFTRinh-172, two well-known CFTR antagonists. Furthermore, the Cl? current component activated by cAMP and inhibited by CFTRinh-172 is absent in recordings on testicular sperm from mice possessing the CFTR ?F508 loss-of-function mutation, indicating that CFTR is responsible for this component. A Cl? selective like current component displaying CFTR characteristics was also found in wild type epididymal sperm bearing the cytoplasmatic droplet. Capacitated sperm treated with CFTRinh-172 undergo a shape change, suggesting that CFTR is involved in cell volume regulation. These findings indicate that functional CFTR channels are present in mouse sperm and their biophysical properties are consistent with their proposed participation in capacitation. PMID:22833409

Dulce, Figueiras Fierro; José, Acevedo Juan; Pablo, Martínez; Escoffier, Jessica; Sepúlveda, Francisco V.; Enrique, Balderas; Gerardo, Orta; Pablo, Visconti; Alberto, Darszon

2014-01-01

280

Testicular biochemicals, sperm reserves and daily sperm production of West African dwarf bucks fed varied levels of dietary aflatoxin.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted with twenty West African dwarf (WAD) bucks (5-6 months old) to assess reproductive potentials of growing WAD bucks to varied dietary aflatoxin of 0 ?g/kg, 50 ?g/kg, 100 ?g/kg and 150 ?g/kg containing in diets 1 (control) 2, 3 and 4 respectively, for a period of 12 weeks. At the end of the 12th week, the reproductive tracts of bucks were excised and homogenised in physiological saline for assessment of glucose, total protein and testosterone concentration, gonadal and extra gonadal sperm reserves. Results showed that gonadal and extra-gonadal sperm reserves of goats fed control diet (2.71×10(9) and 3.07×10(9) spermatozoa respectively) were superior (p<0.05) to those fed 50 ?g/kg, 100 ?g/kg and 15 0?g/kg [(1.59×10(9) and 2.33×10(9)), (1.09×10(9) and 2.45×10(9)) and (1.00×10(9) and 1.41×10(9)) spermatozoa respectively]. Daily sperm production of bucks fed the control diet was significantly (p<0.05) higher (7.60×10(8) spermatozoa/testis) than those fed 50 ?g/kg (4.47×10(8)), 100 ?g/kg (3.07×10(8)) and 150 ?g/kg (2.80×10(8) spermatozoa/testis). Sperm production efficiency also follows the same trend as daily sperm production. Glucose and total protein concentration in the testes declined significantly as the aflatoxin level increases in the diets. Testosterone level was significantly lower in goats fed 100 ?g/kg than others. The study suggest that exposure of male goats to dietary aflatoxin up to 50 ?g/kg diet will reduced testicular biochemical and testosterone with resultant depression in sperm storage capability and daily sperm production in the animals. PMID:24929896

Ewuola, E O; Jimoh, O A; Bello, A D; Bolarinwa, A O

2014-08-01

281

Pulmonary function tests in children with beta-thalassemia major  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lung function abnormality is a known complication of thalassemia, but the results of studies in pulmonary function have been inconsistent. This study was conducted to describe the type of lung impairment in thalassemic children. Pulmonary function tests were conducted in 40 children with beta-thalassemia major, 23 males and 17 females. Tests included spirometry, total lung capacity (TLC), single breath diffusing

F M Abu-Ekteish; H S Al-Rimawi; M K Al-Ali; I M Shehabi

2007-01-01

282

Influence of staining and sampling procedures on goat sperm morphometry using the Sperm Class Analyzer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer-assisted sperm morphometry analysis (ASMA) has improved the assessment of sperm morphology, but the results depend on the use of adequate sampling and staining procedures of spermatozoa from individual species. In this study, the Sperm Class Analyzer® ASMA system was used for the morphometric analysis of goat sperm heads. Semen samples, obtained from four bucks, were used to evaluate the

Manuel Hidalgo; Inmaculada Rodríguez; Jesús Dorado

2006-01-01

283

Sperm competition games: optimal sperm allocation in response to the size of competing ejaculates  

PubMed Central

Sperm competition theory predicts that when males are certain of sperm competition, they should decrease sperm investment in matings with an increasing number of competing ejaculates. How males should allocate sperm when competing with differently sized ejaculates, however, has not yet been examined. Here, we report the outcomes of two models assuming variation in males' sperm reserves and males being faced with different amounts of competing sperm. In the first ‘spawning model’, two males compete instantaneously and both are able to assess the sperm competitive ability of each other. In the second ‘sperm storage model’, males are sequentially confronted with situations involving different levels of sperm competition, for instance different amounts of sperm already stored by the female mating partner. In both of the models, we found that optimal sperm allocation will strongly depend on the size of the male's sperm reserve. Males should always invest maximally in competition with other males that are equally strong competitors. That is, for males with small sperm reserves, our model predicts a negative correlation between sperm allocation and sperm competition intensity, whereas for males with large sperm reserves, this correlation is predicted to be positive. PMID:17148249

Engqvist, Leif; Reinhold, Klaus

2006-01-01

284

33 CFR 157.12f - Workshop functional test requirements.  

... false Workshop functional test requirements. 157.12f ...certificate including the delivery test protocol must be received with...delivered. (b) A functional test conducted on an oil content meter...limits contained in § 157.37(a)(3) and (4); (4) A...

2014-07-01

285

Sperm competition and the evolution of seminal fluid composition.  

PubMed

Male ejaculates include large amounts of seminal fluid proteins (Sfps) that influence male sperm competitive success. In spite of their diverse proximate functions, Sfps involved in sperm competition increase male fitness in one of three ways: (1) "avoidance" proteins help males avoid sperm competition, (2) "defense" proteins help males defend their sperm from displacement by the female's subsequent mate, and (3) "offense" proteins aid males in displacing sperm of preceding males. Here, we present a population genetic model of the evolution of allocation of finite resources by males to the three kinds of Sfps. We analyze the influence of relative efficiencies of different Sfps, of plasticity in resource allocation, and of differences in viability costs of Sfps. We find that in absence of plasticity or different viability costs, equal investment in defense and offense Sfps evolves, irrespective of their relative efficiency. In all cases, males evolve to invest more in avoidance when avoidance proteins are increasingly efficient, and when offense is more efficient than defense. Differences in viability costs result in lower investment in costly proteins, whereas plasticity has complex effects, influencing both the optimal seminal fluid composition and maintenance of variation in investment in these proteins across populations. PMID:24975874

Dhole, Sumit; Servedio, Maria R

2014-10-01

286

Dioxin-Induced Changes in Epididymal Sperm Count and Spermatogenesis  

PubMed Central

Background A single in utero exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on gestation day 15 decreased epididymal sperm count in adult rats and thus was used to establish a tolerable daily intake for TCDD. However, several laboratories have been unable to replicate these findings. Moreover, conflicting reports of TCDD effects on daily sperm production suggest that spermatogenesis may not be as sensitive to the adverse effects of TCDD as previously thought. Data sources We performed a PubMed search using relevant search terms linking dioxin exposure with adverse effects on reproduction and spermatogenesis. Data synthesis Developmental exposure to TCDD is consistently linked with decreased cauda epididymal sperm counts in animal studies, although at higher dose levels than those used in some earlier studies. However, the evidence linking in utero TCDD exposure and spermatogenesis is not convincing. Conclusions Animal studies provide clear evidence of an adverse effect of in utero TCDD exposure on epididymal sperm count but do not support the conclusion that spermatogenesis is adversely affected. The mechanisms underlying decreased epididymal sperm count are unknown; however, we postulate that epididymal function is the key target for the adverse effects of TCDD. PMID:20368131

Foster, Warren G.; Maharaj-Briceno, Serena; Cyr, Daniel G.

2010-01-01

287

No Evidence of Conpopulation Sperm Precedence between Allopatric Populations of House Mice  

PubMed Central

Investigations into the evolution of reproductive barriers have traditionally focused on closely related species, and the prevalence of conspecific sperm precedence. The effectiveness of conspecific sperm precedence at limiting gene exchange between species suggests that gametic isolation is an important component of reproductive isolation. However, there is a paucity of tests for evidence of sperm precedence during the earlier stages of divergence, for example among isolated populations. Here, we sourced individuals from two allopatric populations of house mice (Mus domesticus) and performed competitive in vitro fertilisation assays to test for conpopulation sperm precedence specifically at the gametic level. We found that ova population origin did not influence the outcome of the sperm competitions, and thus provide no evidence of conpopulation or heteropopulation sperm precedence. Instead, we found that males from a population that had evolved under a high level of postcopulatory sexual selection consistently outcompeted males from a population that had evolved under a relatively lower level of postcopulatory sexual selection. We standardised the number of motile sperm of each competitor across the replicate assays. Our data therefore show that competitive fertilizing success was directly attributable to differences in sperm fertilizing competence. PMID:25295521

Firman, Renee C.; Simmons, Leigh W.

2014-01-01

288

Smoking influence on sperm vitality, DNA fragmentation, reactive oxygen species and zinc in oligoasthenoteratozoospermic men with varicocele.  

PubMed

This study aimed to assess the influence of smoking duration and intensity on sperm vitality, sperm DNA fragmentation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and zinc (Zn) levels in oligoasthenoteratozoospermic (OAT) men with varicocele (Vx). A total of 246 men were investigated who were divided into OAT nonsmokers, OAT smokers, OAT nonsmokers and OAT smokers with Vx. They were subjected to history taking, clinical examination and semen analysis. In their semen, sperm hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) test, sperm DNA fragmentation test, seminal ROS and seminal Zn were assessed. The results demonstrated significantly decreased HOS test, seminal Zn level and significantly increased sperm DNA fragmentation, seminal ROS levels in OAT smokers with Vx more than OAT smokers compared with OAT nonsmokers. Smoking intensity, smoking duration and Vx grade demonstrated significant negative correlations with sperm motility, HOS test percentage and significant positive correlations with sperm DNA fragmentation, seminal ROS level. It is concluded that smoking has a negative impact on sperm progressive motility, HOS test, seminal Zn and positive impact on sperm DNA fragmentation, semen ROS level that are exaggerated if Vx is associated being correlated with smoking intensity, smoking duration and Vx grade. PMID:23866014

Taha, E A; Ezz-Aldin, A M; Sayed, S K; Ghandour, N M; Mostafa, T

2014-08-01

289

Bioenergetics of Mammalian Sperm Capacitation  

PubMed Central

After ejaculation, the mammalian male gamete must undergo the capacitation process, which is a prerequisite for egg fertilization. The bioenergetics of sperm capacitation is poorly understood despite its fundamental role in sustaining the biochemical and molecular events occurring during gamete activation. Glycolysis and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) are the two major metabolic pathways producing ATP which is the primary source of energy for spermatozoa. Since recent data suggest that spermatozoa have the ability to use different metabolic substrates, the main aim of this work is to present a broad overview of the current knowledge on the energy-producing metabolic pathways operating inside sperm mitochondria during capacitation in different mammalian species. Metabolism of glucose and of other energetic substrates, such as pyruvate, lactate, and citrate, is critically analyzed. Such knowledge, besides its obvious importance for basic science, could eventually translate into the development of novel strategies for treatment of male infertility, artificial reproduction, and sperm selection methods. PMID:24791005

Ferramosca, Alessandra; Zara, Vincenzo

2014-01-01

290

20 CFR 718.103 - Pulmonary function tests.  

...DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Criteria for the Development of Medical Evidence § 718.103 Pulmonary function tests...provided in this paragraph, no results of a pulmonary function study shall constitute evidence of the presence or absence of a...

2014-04-01

291

Airborne sperm of Conocephalum conicum (Conocephalaceae).  

PubMed

We have obtained the first momentary photographs of sperms just as they are discharged from the antheridium of a liverwort, Conocephalum conicum, and have succeeded in monitoring the airborne sperms of bryophytes under field conditions. Airborne sperm of liverworts seems to be an effective strategy for raising the efficiency of fertilization between male and female plants separated in a drought environment. PMID:18058191

Shimamura, Masaki; Yamaguchi, Tomio; Deguchi, Hironori

2008-01-01

292

Issues affecting commercialization of sexed sperm  

Microsoft Academic Search

A decision tree for genetics or sperm-sexing entities considering sales of sexed sperm is discussed in terms of: (a) how best to avoid harm; (b) how best to do good; (c) needed synergy with other assisted reproductive technologies; (d) constraints on biotechnology; and (e) costs with current and likely technologies versus potential benefits to producers. The sexed-sperm industry might wish

R. P. Amann

1999-01-01

293

Variation in Sperm Displacement and Its Association with Accessory Gland Protein Loci in Drosophila Melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Genes that influence mating and/or fertilization success may be targets for strong natural selection. If females remate frequently relative to the duration of sperm storage and rate of sperm use, sperm displacement may be an important component of male reproductive success. Although it has long been known that mutant laboratory stocks of Drosophila differ in sperm displacement, the magnitude of the naturally occurring genetic variation in this character has not been systematically quantified. Here we report the results of a screen for variation in sperm displacement among 152 lines of Drosophilia melanogaster that were made homozygous for second and/or third chromosomes recovered from natural populations. Sperm displacement was assayed by scoring the progeny of cn;bw females that had been mated sequentially to cn;bw and tested males in either order. Highly significant differences were seen in both the ability to displace sperm that is resident in the female's reproductive tract and in the ability to resist displacement by subsequent sperm. Most lines exhibited nearly complete displacement, having nearly all progeny sired by the second male, but several lines had as few as half the progeny fathered by the second male. Lines that were identified in the screen for naturally occurring variation in sperm displacement were also characterized for single-strand conformation polymorphisms (SSCP) at seven accessory gland protein (Acp) genes, Glucose dehydrogenase (Gld), and Esterase-6 (Est-6). Acp genes encode proteins that are in some cases known to be transmitted to the female in the seminal fluid and are likely candidates for genes that might mediate the phenomenon of sperm displacement. Significant associations were found between particular Acp alleles at four different loci (Acp26Aa/Ab, Acp29B, Acp36DE and Acp53E) and the ability of males to resist displacement by subsequent sperm. There was no correlation between the ability to displace resident sperm and the ability to resist being displaced by subsequent sperm. This lack of correlation, and the association of Acp alleles with resisting subsequent sperm only, suggests that different mechanisms mediate the two components of sperm displacement. PMID:7705622

Clark, A. G.; Aguade, M.; Prout, T.; Harshman, L. G.; Langley, C. H.

1995-01-01

294

Extraordinarily long sperm in the socially monogamous cichlid fish Pelvicachromis taeniatus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main function of the spermatozoon is the transfer of the male haploid genome during fertilisation. In animals in general and in fishes in particular, there is huge variation in sperm size. In fishes, sperm size ranges from 13 ?m in Mugil cephlus to nearly 100 ?m in the channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. We examined intra-specific variation in sperm morphometry in the socially monogamous cichlid Pelvicachromis taeniatus using scanning electron microscopy. The mean total sperm length of nearly 70 ?m was extraordinarily large for cichlids. Furthermore, within-male variation was remarkably high. To our knowledge, P. taeniatus produces the longest cichlid sperm ever documented. Several hypotheses concerning the adaptive significance of these results are presented.

Thünken, Timo; Bakker, Theo C. M.; Kullmann, Harald

2007-06-01

295

Low paternal dietary folate alters the mouse sperm epigenome and is associated with negative pregnancy outcomes  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological studies suggest that a father’s diet can influence offspring health. A proposed mechanism for paternal transmission of environmental information is via the sperm epigenome. The epigenome includes heritable information such as DNA methylation. We hypothesize that the dietary supply of methyl donors will alter epigenetic reprogramming in sperm. Here we feed male mice either a folate-deficient or folate-sufficient diet throughout life. Paternal folate deficiency is associated with increased birth defects in the offspring, which include craniofacial and musculoskeletal malformations. Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis and the subsequent functional analysis identify differential methylation in sperm of genes implicated in development, chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, autism and schizophrenia. While >300 genes are differentially expressed in offspring placenta, only two correspond to genes with differential methylation in sperm. This model suggests epigenetic transmission may involve sperm histone H3 methylation or DNA methylation and that adequate paternal dietary folate is essential for offspring health. PMID:24326934

Lambrot, R.; Xu, C.; Saint-Phar, S.; Chountalos, G.; Cohen, T.; Paquet, M.; Suderman, M.; Hallett, M.; Kimmins, S.

2013-01-01

296

A Comparison of Statistical Significance Tests for Selecting Equating Functions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared the accuracies of nine previously proposed statistical significance tests for selecting identity, linear, and equipercentile equating functions in an equivalent groups equating design. The strategies included likelihood ratio tests for the loglinear models of tests' frequency distributions, regression tests, Kolmogorov-Smirnov…

Moses, Tim

2009-01-01

297

Current status of plant products reported to inhibit sperm.  

PubMed

This report reviews research on plant-derived agents that prevent sperm production if taken orally by the male or that incapacitate or kill sperm on contact if used vaginally by the female. It would be of great value to develop fertility inhibitors that are totally selective for reproductive systems and enzymes, and there is a possibility that a plant-derived drug may have this effect. Plants that have been studied for their fertility inhibiting effects in the male include: Aristolochia indica L. (Aristolochiaceae); Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae); Balanites roxburghii Planch. (Zygophyllaceae); Calotropis procera (Ait) R.Br. (Asclepiadaceae); Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae); Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don (Apocynaceae); Dieffenbachia seguine (Jacquin) Schott. (Araceae); Ecaballium elaterium A. Richard (Cucurbitaceae); Gossypium species (Malvaceae); Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (Malvaceae); Hippophae salicifolia D. Don (Elaeagnaceae); Leucaena glauca (L.) Benth. (Leguminosae); Lonicera ciliosa Poir. (Caprifoliaceae); Lupinus termis Forsk. (Leguminosae); Malvaviscus conzattii Greenm. (Malvaceae); Momordica charantia L. (Curcurbitaceae); Ocimum sanctum L. (Labiatae); Prunus emarginata Walp. (Rosaceae); and Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (Solanaceae). A large number of plants have been randomly selected and screened for spermicidal activity "in vitro" and several seem promising. Those species found to be active and the nature of the active principle(s), when known, are presented in a table as are plant-derived chemical substances of known or partially known structure reported to be spermicidal "in vitro." Plants warrant systematic study as potential sources of sperm-agglutinating compounds. Of 1600 Indian plants tested, 90 showed positive semen coagulating properties. There seems to be a lack of correlation among experimental results obtained by different groups of investigators, between data obtained "in vitro" and "in vivo," and between experimental results and information found in folklore. Factors complicating the adequate assessment of plants affecting male fertility are inadequate numbers of vehicle-treated controls, poor experimental design, problems related to insolubility of crude plant extracts, variation in routes of administration, diversity in reproductive function and control among various laboratory species, and problems in identifying plant names consistently. PMID:12179631

Farnsworth, N R; Waller, D P

1982-06-01

298

Unique phenotypes in the sperm of the earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae for assessing radiation hazards.  

PubMed

The earthworm, Eudrilus eugeniae is a segmented worm. It has two pairs of testes whose cells are highly proliferative. It was found that the earthworm, which is irradiated with X-ray, shows the following phenotypic changes in its sperm: fragmented acrosome in the head, break in the tail, and the appearance of zigzag sperm tail. Sperm morphology can be used as a tool to study radiation hazards in local areas. These three phenotypes were not observed in the sperm of worms exposed to different concentration of toxic chemicals such as sodium arsenate, lead acetate, and mercuric chloride. In contrast, exposure of worms to ethidium bromide caused fragmented acrosome in the head of their sperm cells. PMID:23093367

Yesudhason, Beryl Vedha; Jegathambigai, Jothipandi; Thangasamy, Pon Amutha; Lakshmanan, Durga Devi; Selvan Christyraj, Johnson Retnaraj Samuel; Sathya Balasingh Thangapandi, Emmanuel Joshua Jebasingh; Krishnan, Muthukalingan; Sivasubramaniam, Sudhakar

2013-06-01

299

Accelerated aging of reproductive capacity in male rat offspring of protein-restricted mothers is associated with increased testicular and sperm oxidative stress.  

PubMed

Maternal protein restriction (MPR) in pregnancy causes life course organ dysfunction, but few studies link the developmental origins of disease hypothesis to early aging. Suboptimal developmental nutrition increases oxidative stress (OS) and male infertility, damaging sperm function. We hypothesized that MPR in pregnancy accelerates age-related changes in testicular and sperm function related to both maternal diet and increased testicular OS in rat offspring. We studied male rats whose pregnant mothers ate either control (C, 20 % casein) or restricted (R, 10 % casein) isocaloric diet. After birth, mothers and offspring ate C diet. Testes were retrieved at 19 days gestation and across the life course (postnatal day (PND) 21, 36, 110, and 850) to measure OS markers, antioxidant enzymes, serum FSH, LH, and testosterone, and PND 110 sperm OS and quality. Fertility rate was evaluated at PND 110, 450, and 850. Offspring showed age- and MPR-related changes in testosterone, testicular OS markers and antioxidant enzymes and fertility, and maternal diet-related OS and sperm antioxidant enzyme changes. Developmental programming is considered a key factor in predisposing to chronic disease. Our data show that programming also plays an important role in aging trajectory. This interaction is a little studied area in aging biology that merits more investigation. PMID:25354645

Rodríguez-González, Guadalupe L; Reyes-Castro, Luis A; Vega, Claudia C; Boeck, Lourdes; Ibáńez, Carlos; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Larrea, Fernando; Zambrano, Elena

2014-12-01

300

cSrc is necessary for epididymal development and is incorporated into sperm during epididymal transit  

PubMed Central

Changes that occur to mammalian sperm upon epididymal transit and maturation render these cells capable of moving progressively and capacitating. Signaling events leading to mammalian sperm capacitation depend on the modulation of proteins by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation cascades. Recent experiments have demonstrated that the Src family of kinases plays an important role in the regulation of these events. However, sperm from cSrc null mice display normal tyrosine phosphorylation associated with capacitation. We report here that, despite normal phosphorylation, sperm from cSrc null mice display a severe reduction in forward motility, and are unable to fertilize in vitro. Histological analysis of seminiferous tubules in the testes, caput and corpus epididymis do not reveal obvious defects. However, the cauda epididymis is significantly smaller, and expression of key transport proteins in the epithelial cells lining this region is reduced in cSrc null mice compared to wild type littermates. Although previously, we and others have shown the presence of cSrc in mature sperm from cauda epididymis, a closer evaluation indicates that this tyrosine kinase is not present in sperm from the caput epididymis, suggesting that this protein is acquired by sperm later during epididymal maturation. Consistent with this observation, cSrc is enriched in vesicles released by the epididymal epithelium known as epididymosomes. Altogether, these observations indicate that cSrc is essential for cauda epididymal development and suggest an essential role of this kinase in epididymal sperm maturation involving cSrc extracellular trafficking. PMID:22750823

Krapf, Dario; Ruan, Ye Chun; Wertheimer, Eva V.; Battistone, Maria A.; Pawlak, John B.; Sanjay, Archana; Pilder, Stephen H.; Cuasnicu, Patricia; Breton, Sylvie; Visconti, Pablo E.

2012-01-01

301

Maternal effects, but no good or compatible genes for sperm competitiveness in Australian crickets.  

PubMed

Explanations for the evolution of polyandry often center on the idea that females garner genetic benefits for their offspring by mating multiply. Furthermore, postcopulatory processes are thought to be fundamental to enabling polyandrous females to screen for genetic quality. Much attention has focused on the potential for polyandrous females to accrue such benefits via a sexy- or good-sperm mechanism, whereby additive variation exists among males in sperm competitiveness. Likewise, attention has focused on an alternative model, in which offspring quality (in this context, the sperm competitiveness of sons) hinges on an interaction between parental haplotypes (genetic compatibility). Sperm competitiveness that is contingent on parental compatibility will exhibit nonadditive genetic variation. We tested these models in the Australian cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus, using a design that allowed us to partition additive, nonadditive genetic, and parental variance for sperm competitiveness. We found an absence of additive and nonadditive genetic variance in this species, challenging the direct relevance of either model to the evolution of sperm competitiveness in particular, and polyandry in general. Instead, we found maternal effects that were possibly sex-linked or cytoplasmically linked. We also found effects of focal male age on sperm competitiveness, with small increments in age conferring more competitive sperm. PMID:20002162

Dowling, Damian K; Nystrand, Magdalena; Simmons, Leigh W

2010-05-01

302

Large Neurological Component to Genetic Differences Underlying Biased Sperm Use in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Sperm competition arises as a result of complex interactions among male and female factors. While the roles of some male factors are known, little is known of the molecules or mechanisms that underlie the female contribution to sperm competition. The genetic tools available for Drosophila allow us to identify, in an unbiased manner, candidate female genes that are critical for mediating sperm competition outcomes. We first screened for differences in female sperm storage and use patterns by characterizing the natural variation in sperm competition in a set of 39 lines from the sequenced Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) of wild-derived inbred lines. We found extensive female variation in sperm competition outcomes. To generate a list of candidate female genes for functional studies, we performed a genome-wide association mapping, utilizing the common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) segregating in the DGRP lines. Surprisingly, SNPs within ion channel genes and other genes with roles in the nervous system were among the top associated SNPs. Knockdown studies of three candidate genes (para, Rab2, and Rim) in sensory neurons innervating the female reproductive tract indicate that some of these candidate female genes may affect sperm competition by modulating the neural input of these sensory neurons to the female reproductive tract. More extensive functional studies are needed to elucidate the exact role of all these candidate female genes in sperm competition. Nevertheless, the female nervous system appears to have a previously unappreciated role in sperm competition. Our results indicate that the study of female control of sperm competition should not be limited to female reproductive tract-specific genes, but should focus also on diverse biological pathways. PMID:23105014

Chow, Clement Y.; Wolfner, Mariana F.; Clark, Andrew G.

2013-01-01

303

S-allyl cysteine ameliorates the quality of sperm and provides protection from age-related sperm dysfunction and oxidative stress in rats  

PubMed Central

Reactive oxygen species play a central role in the pathophysiology of the age-related decrease in male fertility. It has been reported that the total protein of DJ-1 was decreased in a proteomic analysis of seminal plasma from asthenozoospermia patients and a DJ-1 protein acts as a sensor of cellular redox homeostasis. Therefore, we evaluated the age-related changes in the ratio of the oxidized/reduced forms of the DJ-1 protein in the epididymis. In addition, the protective effects of S-allyl cysteine (SAC), a potent antioxidant, were evaluated against sperm dysfunction. Male rats aged 15–75 weeks were used to assess age-associated sperm function and oxidative stress. Sperm count increased until 25 weeks, but then decreased at 50 and 75 weeks. The rate of sperm movement at 75 weeks was decreased to approximately 60% of the rate observed at 25 weeks. Expression of DJ-1 decreased, but oxidized-DJ-1 increased with age. In addition, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal modified proteins in the epididymis increased until 50 weeks of age. The total number and DNA synthetic potential of the sperm increased until 25 weeks, and then decreased. In rats 75 weeks of age, SAC (0.45% diet) attenuated the decrease in the number, motility, and DNA synthesis of sperm and inhibited the oxidized proteins. These results suggest that SAC ameliorates the quality of sperm subjected to age-associated oxidative stress.

Takemura, Shigekazu; Ichikawa, Hiroshi; Naito, Yuji; Takagi, Tomohisa; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Minamiyama, Yukiko

2014-01-01

304

Calcium Signaling in Sperm: Help from Prostasomes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mammalian sperm cells are equipped with sophisticated Ca2+ signaling mechanisms that are fundamental to sperm’s success in fertilization. Unlike most other cells, however, mature sperm generally do not have the luxury of synthesizing new proteins. New evidence indicates that human sperm have a very clever way to solve the conflict between the critical demand for Ca2+ signaling tools and the silence of protein translation. Just before encountering the female reproductive tract, sperm acquire some of the key molecules for Ca2+ signaling from the male reproductive tract itself: prostasomes secreted by the prostate gland.

Dejian Ren (University of Pennsylvania;Department of Biology REV)

2011-05-17

305

Comparative cryopreservation of avian spermatozoa: effects of freezing and thawing rates on turkey and sandhill crane sperm cryosurvival.  

PubMed

A comparative approach was used to evaluate semen cooling rates, thawing rates and freezing volume on the cryosurvival of avian sperm. Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) and sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) sperm were cryopreserved with dimethylacetamide (DMA) concentrations ranging from 6% to 26%. Experiments evaluated the efficacy of (1) rapid, moderate and slow cooling rates, (2) rapid and slow thawing rates, and (3) final volume of semen frozen (0.2 mL compared to 0.5 mL). For crane sperm only, additional experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of sucrose on cryosurvival. The functionality of frozen/thawed crane sperm was evaluated by fertility trials. For all studies, sperm viability was assessed using the nigrosin-eosin stain. Higher percentages of crane and turkey sperm maintained intact membranes when frozen with moderate or slow cooling rates compared to rapid cooling rates (P<0.05), regardless of DMA concentration. Turkey sperm viability was not affected by thawing rate at any DMA concentration (P>0.05). Crane sperm viability was only affected by thawing rate for the 24% DMA treatment, where moderate thawing was better than slow thawing (P<0.05). Sperm viability was not affected by the semen volume used for freezing for either species (P>0.05). The percentage of membrane-intact crane sperm at lower DMA concentrations was improved by addition of 0.1M sucrose (P<0.05) but not 0.29 M NaCl. The mean fertility rate from frozen/thawed crane semen was 57.5%, and 71.4% of the fertile eggs hatched. The viability of crane sperm was always greater than turkey sperm, regardless of cooling rate, thawing rate or volume of semen frozen. These data verify avian-specific differences in sperm cryosurvival, further emphasize the need for species specific studies to optimize cryopreservation protocols. PMID:22406423

Blanco, Juan M; Long, Julie A; Gee, George; Wildt, David E; Donoghue, Ann M

2012-03-01

306

Reproducibility of pulmonary function tests under laboratory and field conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reproducibility of pulmonary function tests in the laboratory and in a mobile field survey vehicle has been studied. Groups of laboratory workers were studied at base and a random sample of 38 coalminers was examined in the mobile laboratory. The intra-subject variability of some newer tests of lung function, including closing volume and maximum flow at low lung volumes,

R G Love; M D Attfield; K D Isles

1980-01-01

307

Evaluating the CMA Evolution Strategy on Multimodal Test Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the performance of the CMA evolution strategy with rank-µ-update and weighted recombination is empirically investi- gated on eight multimodal test functions. In particular the eect of the population size on the performance is investigated. Increasing the pop- ulation size remarkably improves the performance on six of the eight test functions. The optimal population size takes a wide

Nikolaus Hansen; Stefan Kern

2004-01-01

308

Use of neuropsychological tests to predict adult patients' everyday functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses the role of testing in (a) delineating the behavioral consequences of brain lesions and (b) predicting the likely impact of such ability deficits on everyday functioning. The available studies that relate neuropsychological test scores to aspects of self-care and independent living, academic achievement, and vocational functioning are reviewed. Results are generally positive, but the clinical value of these studies

Robert K. Heaton; Mark G. Pendleton

1981-01-01

309

In vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection for male infertility  

PubMed Central

Progress in the field of assisted reproduction, and particularly micromanipulation, now heralds a new era in the management of severe male factor infertility, not amenable to medical or surgical correction. By overcoming natural barriers to conception, in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET), subzonal sperm insemination, partial zona dissection, and intracytoplasmatic injection of sperm (ICSI) now offer couples considered irreversibly infertile, the option of parenting a genetically related child. However, unlike IVF, which necessitates an optimal sperm number and function to successfully complete the sequence of events leading to fertilization, micromanipulation techniques, such as ICSI, involving the direct injection of a spermatozoon into the oocyte, obviate all these requirements and may be used to alleviate severe male factor infertility due to the lack of sperm in the ejaculate due to severely impaired spermatogenesis (non-obstructive azoospermia) or non-reconstructable reproductive tract obstruction (obstructive azoospermia). ICSI may be performed with fresh or cryopreserved ejaculate sperm where available, microsurgically extracted epididymal or testicular sperm with satisfactory fertilization, clinical pregnancy, and ongoing pregnancy rates. However, despite a lack of consensus regarding the genetic implications of ICSI or the application and efficacy of preimplantation genetic diagnosis prior to assisted reproductive technology (ART), the widespread use of ICSI, increasing evidence of the involvement of genetic factors in male infertility and the potential risk of transmission of genetic disorders to the offspring, generate major concerns with regard to the safety of the technique, necessitating a thorough genetic evaluation of the couple, classification of infertility and adequate counseling of the implications and associated risks prior to embarking on the procedure. The objective of this review is to highlight the indications, advantages, limitations, outcomes, implications and safety of using IVF/ICSI for male factor infertility to enable a more judicious use of these techniques and maximize their potential benefits while minimizing foreseen complications. PMID:21716935

Merchant, Rubina; Gandhi, Goral; Allahbadia, Gautam N.

2011-01-01

310

Platelet function testing in the pony.  

PubMed

Platelet isolation techniques and platelet function were evaluated in 35 adult ponies. Platelet recovery from whole blood was consistent and the preparation of platelet rich plasma was facilitated by an enhanced erythrocyte sedimentation rate. All platelet samples aggregated in response to 10 microM ADP. However, concentrations of ADP as high as 100 microM did not elicit significant 14C-serotonin release. Collagen induced irreversible platelet aggregation and 14C-serotonin release in all samples. The threshold dose for collagen in most ponies was 1.5 micrograms. Arachidonic acid (500 microM) failed to induce irreversible platelet aggregation or 14C-serotonin release in any of the samples evaluated. Pony platelets were nonresponsive to epinephrine (5.5 microM). PMID:3184855

Boudreaux, M K; Wagner-Mann, C; Purohit, R; Hankes, G; Spano, J; Pablo, L; Lee, S; Conti, J

1988-08-01

311

Thyroid function tests during carbimazole therapy.  

PubMed Central

Changes in plasma thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), free thyroxine index (FT4I) and thyroid stimulating hormone were studied in 100 patients with Graves' disease treated with carbimazole. During therapy plasma T3 concentrations were disproportionately high compared to those of T4, the T4 : T3 ratio was low, and many patients were clinically euthyroid with a normal plasma T3 but low T4 concentration. Although there was considerable individual variation in response, the order of response was always the same with plasma T4 falling to normal or low levels before T3. Plasma T3 was the best indicator of clinical status and the best predictor of the impending change; additional information of changes in thyroid status was obtained from plasma T4 and FT4I estimation, especially when these were followed sequentially. Single measurements of T4 or FT4I only are not recommended for assessing thyroid function during carbimazole therapy. PMID:6894979

Scott, D. L.; Tymms, D. J.; Taylor, M. A.; Chapman, C.

1980-01-01

312

Lifestyle factors and sperm aneuploidy.  

PubMed

Different environmental and lifestyle factors may interfere with the normal disjunction of sister chromatids/chromosomes during meiosis and may cause aneuploidy. The aim of the study was to examine the association between lifestyle factors and sperm aneuploidy. The study population consisted of 212 healthy men under 45 years of age attending an infertility clinic for diagnostic purposes and who had a normal semen concentration of 20-300×10(6)mL or slight oligozoospermia (semen concentration of 15-20×10(6)/mL). All participants were interviewed and provided a semen sample. Sperm aneuploidy was assessed using multicolor FISH (DNA probes specific for chromosomes X, Y, 18, 13, 21). Results from the study suggest that lifestyle factors are related to sperm aneuploidy. A positive relationship was found between coffee drinking everyday and the lack of chromosome X or Y, as well as coffee drinking 1-6 times per week and additional chromosome 18. Wearing boxer shorts decrease the copy number changes in the whole chromosome 18, the number of additional chromosome 18 and the lack of chromosome 13. Additionally, obesity (BMI 30-40 kg/m(2)) was positively associated with additional chromosome 21 after being adjusted for potential confounders. These findings demonstrate that changing the men's lifestyle habits may contribute to reduction of the incidence of sperm aneuploidy. It is necessary that men continue to follow sensible health advice concerning excess weight, coffee drinking and wearing tight fitting underwear. As this is the first such study to examine different lifestyle factors and sperm aneuploidy, the results need to be confirmed on larger population. PMID:25152516

Jurewicz, Joanna; Radwan, Micha?; Sobala, Wojciech; Radwan, Pawe?; Jakubowski, Lucjusz; Hawu?a, Wanda; Ula?ska, Anna; Hanke, Wojciech

2014-09-01

313

Thermosensitive ion channel TRPV1 is endogenously expressed in the sperm of a fresh water teleost fish (Labeo rohita) and regulates sperm motility  

PubMed Central

Sperm cells exhibit extremely high sensitivity in response to slight changes in temperature, osmotic pressure and/or presence of various chemical stimuli. In most cases throughout the evolution, these physico-chemical stimuli trigger Ca2+-signaling and subsequently alter structure, cellular function, motility and survival of the sperm cells. Few reports have recently demonstrated the presence of Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels in the sperm cells from higher eukaryotes, mainly from higher mammals. In this work, we have explored if the sperm cells from lower vertebrates can also have thermo-sensitive TRP channels. In this paper, we demonstrate the endogenous presence of one specific thermo-sensitive ion channel, namely Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid family member sub type 1 (TRPV1) in the sperm cells collected from fresh water teleost fish, Labeo rohita. By using western blot analysis, fluorescence assisted cell sorting (FACS) and confocal microscopy; we confirm the presence of this non-selective cation channel. Activation of TRPV1 by an endogenous activator NADA significantly increases the quality as well as the duration of fish sperm movement. The sperm cell specific expression of TRPV1 matches well with our in silico sequence analysis. The results demonstrate that TRPV1 gene is conserved in various fishes, ranging from 1–3 in copy number, and it originated by fish-specific duplication events within the last 320 million years (MY). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the presence of any thermo-sensitive TRP channels in the sperm cells of early vertebrates as well as of aquatic animals, which undergo external fertilization in fresh water. This observation may have implications in the aquaculture, breeding of several fresh water and marine fish species and cryopreservation of fish sperms. PMID:23912940

Majhi, Rakesh Kumar; Kumar, Ashutosh; Yadav, Manoj; Swain, Nirlipta; Kumari, Shikha; Saha, Ashish; Pradhan, Avinash; Goswami, Luna; Saha, Somdatta; Samanta, Luna; Maity, Apratim; Nayak, Tapas Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Rajakuberan, Chitra; Kumar, Abhishek; Goswami, Chandan

2013-01-01

314

Memory Hazard Functions: A Vehicle for Theory Development and Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A framework is developed to rigorously test an entire class of memory retention functions by examining hazard properties. Evidence is provided that the memory hazard function is not monotonically decreasing. Yet most of the proposals for retention functions, which have emerged from the psychological literature, imply that memory hazard is…

Chechile, Richard A.

2006-01-01

315

Boar sperm cryosurvival is better after exposure to seminal plasma from selected fractions than to those from entire ejaculate.  

PubMed

Boar bulk ejaculates are now being collected instead of usual sperm-rich fractions (SRF) for artificial insemination purpose. The present study evaluated the influence of holding boar sperm samples before freezing surrounded in their own seminal plasma (SP), from either fractions/portions or the entire ejaculate, on post-thawing sperm quality and functionality. Ejaculates collected as bulk (BE) or as separate (first 10mL of SRF [P1] and rest of SRF [P2]) from 10 boars were held 24h at 15-17°C and then frozen. Some bulk ejaculate samples were frozen immediately after collections as Control. In addition, epididymal sperm samples from the same 10 boars were collected post-mortem and extended in SP from P1 (EP1), P2 (EP2) and post SRF (EP3), and also held 24h before freezing for a better understanding of the influence of SP on boar sperm cryopreservation. The sperm quality (motility, evaluated by CASA, and viability, evaluated by flow cytometry) and functionality (flow cytometry assessment of plasma membrane fluidity, mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species [ROS] in viable sperm) were evaluated at 30, 150 and 300min post-thaw. Post-thawing sperm quality and functionality of P1 and P2 were similar but higher (p<0.01) than BE samples. Control samples showed higher (p<0.01) post-thaw sperm quality and functionality than BE samples. Post-thawing sperm quality and functionality of EP1 and EP2 were similar but higher (p<0.05) than EP3. These results showed that boar sperm from BE are more cryosensitive than those from the SRF, particularly when held 24h before freezing, which would be attributable to the cryonegative effects exerted by the SP from post SRF. PMID:25037026

Alkmin, Diego V; Perez-Patińo, Cristina; Barranco, Isabel; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Vazquez, Juan M; Martinez, Emilio A; Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto; Roca, Jordi

2014-10-01

316

Effect of breed and sperm concentration on the changes in structural, functional and motility parameters of ram-lamb spermatozoa during storage at 4 °C  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the changes in structural, functional and motility parameters of ram-lamb semen stored at two different concentrations at 4°C for 8 days in egg-yolk based extender and (2) to determine the effect of breed of ram-lambs on the changes in structural, functional and motility parameters of ram-lamb semen from different breeds stored

Ramanathan Kasimanickam; Vanmathy Kasimanickam; Kevin D. Pelzer; John J. Dascanio

2007-01-01

317

Evaluation of potential protein biomarkers in patients with high sperm DNA damage.  

PubMed

The laboratory evaluation of male infertility remains an essential area of research as 40-60% of infertility cases are attributable to male-related factors. Current sperm analysis methods add only partial information on sperm quality and fertility outcomes. The specific underlying cause of infertility in most cases is unknown, while a proportion of male infertility could be caused by molecular factors such as the absence or abnormal expression of some essential sperm proteins. The objective of this study was to screen for associations between sperm protein profiles and sperm concentration, motility, and DNA fragmentation index in patients undergoing fertility evaluation in a clinical setting. Based on those parameters, semen samples were categorized as either normal or abnormal. We screened 34 semen samples with various abnormal parameters and compared them to 24 normal control samples by using one dimensional (1-D) gel electrophoresis and mass-spectrometry. In this study, we anticipated to establish a normal sperm parameter profile which would be compared to abnormal sperm samples and reveal candidate proteins. Our preliminary results indicate that no normal uniform profile could be established, which affirms the complexity of male fertility and confirms the limitations of standard semen analysis. Four main protein groups were identified in correlation with abnormal DNA fragmentation and/or motility. The first group included sperm nuclear proteins such as the SPANX (sperm protein associated with the nucleus on the X chromosome) isoforms and several types of histones. The second group contained mitochondria-related functions and oxidative stress proteins including Mitochondrial Ferritin, Mitochondrial Single-Stranded DNA Binding Protein, and several isoforms of Peroxiredoxins. Two other protein groups were related to sperm motility such as microtubule-based flagellum and spindle microtubule as well as proteins related to the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Further research is required in order to characterize these potential biomarkers of male fertility potential. PMID:23634713

Behrouzi, Bahar; Kenigsberg, Shlomit; Alladin, Naazish; Swanson, Sonja; Zicherman, Jonathan; Hong, Seok-Ho; Moskovtsev, Sergey I; Librach, Clifford L

2013-06-01

318

Human semen quality and sperm DNA damage in relation to urinary metabolites of pyrethroid insecticides  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Exposure to synthetic pyrethroid insecticides is widespread, and is expected to increase among the general population due to the need to replace other common insecticides following regulatory use restrictions. On the basis of limited studies, there is animal and human evidence for altered reproductive or endocrine function following pyrethroid exposure. METHODS The present study measured urinary pyrethroid metabolites [3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3PBA) and cis- and trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (CDCCA and TDCCA)], semen quality, sperm motion parameters and sperm DNA damage with the neutral comet assay in 207 men recruited from an infertility clinic. RESULTS In multivariate analysis, the highest 3PBA quartile was associated with a suggestive 20.2 million sperm/ml reduction (95% confidence interval ?37.1 to + 2.6) in sperm concentration compared with men below the 3PBA median. There were significant inverse associations between TDCCA and sperm motility and sperm motion parameters when adjusting for CDCCA and other covariates. The highest TDCCA quartile was associated with a 15.5% decline (95% confidence interval ?26.2 to ?4.8) in sperm motility compared with men below the median. In multiple logistic analyses, there were dose-dependent increased odds for below reference sperm concentration, motility and morphology in relation to TDCCA. Among the comet assay measures, 3PBA and CDCCA were associated with increased sperm DNA damage, measured as percent DNA in the comet tail. CONCLUSIONS We found evidence for reduced semen quality and increased sperm DNA damage in relation to urinary metabolites of pyrethroid insecticides. These findings may be of concern due to increased pyrethroid use and prevalent human exposure. PMID:18579513

Meeker, John D.; Barr, Dana B.; Hauser, Russ

2008-01-01

319

Functional Search-based Testing from State Machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of metaheuristic search techniques in test data generation has been extensively investigated in recent years. Most studies, however, have concentrated on the application of such techniques in structural testing. The use of search-based techniques in functional testing is less frequent, the main cause being the implicit nature of the specification. This paper investigates the use of search-based techniques

Raluca Lefticaru; Florentin Ipate

2008-01-01

320

A Generalized DIF Effect Variance Estimator for Measuring Unsigned Differential Test Functioning in Mixed Format Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One approach to measuring unsigned differential test functioning is to estimate the variance of the differential item functioning (DIF) effect across the items of the test. This article proposes two estimators of the DIF effect variance for tests containing dichotomous and polytomous items. The proposed estimators are direct extensions of the…

Penfield, Randall D.; Algina, James

2006-01-01

321

Molecular cloning of the human and monkey sperm surface protein PH-20.  

PubMed Central

The guinea pig sperm surface protein PH-20 has an essential function in sperm adhesion to the zona pellucida of guinea pig eggs. Fully effective contraception has been achieved by immunizing either male or female guinea pigs with purified guinea pig PH-20. Here we report the isolation of human and cynomolgus monkey PH-20 cDNAs as a key step toward testing the function of primate PH-20 and the contraceptive efficacy of PH-20 immunization in primates. The deduced amino acid sequence of human PH-20 has 509 residues and is 59% identical with guinea pig PH-20, suggesting they may have a conserved function and immunogenicity. Southern blots show that there is a single PH-20 gene in the human genome and Northern blots of human testis poly(A)+ RNA show a 2.4-kb message. Northern blots of tissues other than testis are negative for PH-20, indicating that human PH-20 is testis-specific. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8234258

Lin, Y; Kimmel, L H; Myles, D G; Primakoff, P

1993-01-01

322

A NOVEL SYSTEM FOR THE CO-CULTURE OF EPIDIDYMAL EPITHELIAL CELLS AND SPERM FROM ADULT RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

To study interactions which occur between the epididymal epithelial cells and sperm within the epididymis during sperm maturation, a specialized co-culture system capable of supporting the differentiated function of these cell types must be utilized. A multifaceted approach has b...

323

Synthesis of Dihydropyridine Analogues for Sperm Immobilizing Activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, the activity of seven newly synthesized dihydropyridine analogues on the motility of sperm were determined and compared to nifedipine activity that was used as standard. Sperm motility reduced value for test compounds 6a-g shows a gradual increase proportional to the size elongation of alkyl ester groups. Consequently the size of alkyl is important in the activity of test compounds and finally increase in the lipophil size of hydrocarbon`s ester (R1) is inversely related to the activity of the synthetic compounds. As a result, the methyl ester of the test compounds with 50% of nifedipine activity (in two hours group) is the most active test compound.

Sadeghipour Roodsari, H. R.; Amini, M.; Naghibi Harat, Z.; Daneshgar, P.; Vosooghi, M.; Shafiee, A.

324

Studies on Brahma rasayana in male swiss albino mice: Chromosomal aberrations and sperm abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Ayurveda, the Indian holistic healthcare system encompasses traditional medicines with a principle of creating harmony and maintaining balance within the natural rhythms of the body. Rasayana is one of the branches of Ayurveda frequently used as rejuvenant therapy to overcome many discomforts and prevent diseases. It has been reported that rasayanas have immunomodulatory, antioxidant and antitumor functions. However, the genotoxic potential of many rasayanas remains to be evaluated. The present study was undertaken to assess the role of Brahma rasayana(BR) on genotoxicity in vivo in a mouse test system. The older mice (9 months) were orally fed with rasayana for 8 weeks. The treated groups showed no signs of dose-dependent toxicity at the dosage levels tested. The body weight loss/gain and feed consumption were unaffected at tested doses. Furthermore, sperm abnormalities and chromosomal aberrations were insignificant in the treatment group when compared to controls. However, there was a marginal increase in sperm count in the BR treated animals. These findings clearly indicate that there are no observed adverse genotoxic effects elicited by BR in experimental animals such as mice. PMID:21829300

Guruprasad, K. P.; Mascarenhas, Roshan; Gopinath, P. M.; Satyamoorthy, K.

2010-01-01

325

Sperm fertility and skewed paternity during sperm competition in the Australian long-eared bat Nyctophilus geoffroyi (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prolonged sperm storage, rare among mammals, is widespread among bats and may promote sperm competition, assuming stored sperm are fertile. However, while sperm storage has been documented in many bat species, there have been few investigations of the fertility of stored sperm. Related to this, and a fundamental question in the study of competition at the gametic level, is the

David J. Hosken

1998-01-01

326

Insights into female sperm storage from the spermathecal fluid proteome of the honeybee Apis mellifera  

PubMed Central

Background Female animals are often able to store sperm inside their body - in some species even for several decades. The molecular basis of how females keep non-own cells alive is largely unknown, but since sperm cells are reported to be transcriptionally silenced and, therefore, limited in their ability to maintain their own function, it is likely that females actively participate in sperm maintenance. Because female contributions are likely to be of central importance for sperm survival, molecular insights into the process offer opportunities to observe mechanisms through which females manipulate sperm. Results We used the honeybee, Apis mellifera, in which queens are highly polyandrous and able to maintain sperm viable for several years. We identified over a hundred proteins representing the major constituents of the spermathecal fluid, which females contribute to sperm in storage. We found that the gel profile of proteins from spermathecal fluid is very similar to the secretions of the spermathecal gland and concluded that the spermathecal glands are the main contributors to the spermathecal fluid proteome. A detailed analysis of the spermathecal fluid proteins indicate that they fall into a range of different functional groups, most notably enzymes of energy metabolism and antioxidant defense. A metabolic network analysis comparing the proteins detected in seminal fluid and spermathecal fluid showed a more integrated network is present in the spermathecal fluid that could facilitate long-term storage of sperm. Conclusions We present a large-scale identification of proteins in the spermathecal fluid of honeybee queens and provide insights into the molecular regulation of female sperm storage. PMID:19538722

Baer, Boris; Eubel, Holger; Taylor, Nicolas L; O'Toole, Nicholas; Millar, A Harvey

2009-01-01

327

Function Test Framework for Testing IO-Blocks in a Model-Based Rapid Prototyping Development  

E-print Network

Function Test Framework for Testing IO-Blocks in a Model-Based Rapid Prototyping Development -- Testing and verification are important methods for gaining confidence in the reliability of a software changing development cycles or that is tar- geted at many platforms. In this paper we present a test

328

Effects of genetic captive-breeding protocols on sperm quality and fertility in the white-footed mouse.  

PubMed

Mice (Peromyscus leucopus noveboracensis) from a captive-breeding program were used to test the effects of three genetic breeding protocols (minimizing mean kinship [MK], random breeding, and selection for docility [DOC]) and inbreeding levels on sperm traits and fertility. Earlier, in generation 8, one DOC replicate went extinct because of poor reproductive success. By generation 10, spermatozoa from DOC mice had more acrosome and midpiece abnormalities, which were shown to be strong determinants of fertility, as well as lower sperm production and resistance to osmotic stress. In addition, determinants of fertility, including male and female components, were assessed in a comprehensive manner. Results showed that the probability (P) of siring litters is determined by sperm number, sperm viability, and midpiece and acrosome abnormalities; that the P of siring one versus two litters is determined by tail abnormalities; and that the total number of offspring is influenced by female size and proportion of normal sperm, showing the relative importance of different sperm traits on fertility. On average, males with 20% normal sperm sired one pup per litter, and males with 70% normal sperm sired eight pups per litter. Interestingly, the proportion of normal sperm was affected by docility but not by relatively low inbreeding. However, inbreeding depression in sperm motility was detected. In the MK group, inbreeding depression not only affected sperm motility but also fertility: An increase in the coefficient of inbreeding (f) of 0.03 reduced sperm motility by 30% and translated into an offspring reduction of three pups in second litters. A genetic load of 48 fecundity equivalents was calculated. PMID:20519695

Malo, Aurelio F; Martinez-Pastor, Felipe; Alaks, Glen; Dubach, Jean; Lacy, Robert C

2010-10-01

329

Adjustments of ejaculation rates in response to risk of sperm competition in a ésh, the bitterling (Rhodeus sericeus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Game theory models of sperm competition predict that within species, males should increase their sperm expenditure when they have one competitor, but decrease expenditure with increasing numbers of com- petitors. So far, there have been few tests or support for this prediction. Here, we show that males of a freshwater é sh, the European bitterling, Rhodeus sericeus, do indeed adjust

Ulrika Candolin; John D. Reynolds

2002-01-01

330

Potential changes in rat spermatogenesis and sperm parameters after inhalation of Boswellia papyrifera and Boswellia carterii incense.  

PubMed

In this study the effect of Boswellia papyrifera (B. papyrifera) and Boswellia carterii (B. carterii) smoke exposure on spermatogenesis and sperm parameters in male albino rats was investigated. Rats (n = 11) were exposed daily in smoking chambers to smoke emanated by burning 4 g each of either B. papyrifera or B. carterii for 48 days. At the end of exposure duration rats were killed, and the testes were excised and analysed for histopathological and ultrastructural changes. Sperm analysis including total sperm count, motility, velocity and relative percentage of abnormal sperms were recorded. Rats exposed to B. papyrifera and B. carterii showed significant disturbances in spermatogenetic patterns and changes in sperm kinetics compared to unexposed rats. Atrophied seminiferous tubules with dynamic changes were also noticed. The boundaries of intercellular and intracellular vacuoles were seen in the Sertoli cells. Furthermore, in spermatids acrosomal vesicles were not fully formed. Degenerating spermatids were devoid of their nuclear membrane with electron dense matrix and vacuolization. Structural changes in Leydig cells were observed. Sperm analysis in exposed rats exhibited significant decrease in the sperm count, motility, speed and an increase in sperm anomalies when compare to controls. These findings demonstrate that the B. papyrifera and B. carterii smoke affects the process of spermatogenesis and sperm parameters and indicate the detrimental effects of these incense materials on human reproductive system. PMID:23449005

Ahmed, Mukhtar; Al-Daghri, Nasser; Alokail, Majed S; Hussain, Tajamul

2013-03-01

331

Simulation analysis of a printed circuit board functional test process  

E-print Network

OF SCIENCE August 1991 Major Subject: Industrial Engineering SIMULATION ANAI. YSIS OF A PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD FUNCTIONAL TEST PROCESS A Thesis by PAUL ANDREW BRINKLEY Approved as to style and content by: a ph . Disney (Chair of Committee) Thomas E.... , Texas A&M University Chair of Advisory Committee: Professor Ralph L. Disney This thesis details the results of a study performed to analyze the operating characteristics of a printed circuit board functional testing process for DSC Communications...

Brinkley, Paul Andrew

2012-06-07

332

Sperm Digestion and Reciprocal Sperm Transfer Can Drive Hermaphrodite Sex Allocation to Equality  

Microsoft Academic Search

abstract:,The intensity of sperm,competition,determines,how much,reproductive,effort should be invested in sperm. One impor- tant factor affecting sperm,competition,in internally fertilizing or- ganisms is the mating frequency of females, since it determines the extent of competition,between,ejaculates. In simultaneous,her- maphrodites, energy spent on sperm has to be traded off against energy expended on ova production. By extending an existing model, we consider how,the number,of

Jaco M. Greeff; Nico K. Michiels

1999-01-01

333

Sex-peptide is the molecular basis of the sperm effect in Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Mating elicits two major changes in the reproductive behavior of many insect females. The egg-laying rate increases and the readiness to accept males (receptivity) is reduced. These postmating responses last ?1 week in Drosophila melanogaster. Males that do not transfer sperm but transfer seminal fluid during mating induce a short-term response of 1 day. The long-term response of 1 week requires the presence of sperm (sperm effect). Hence, sperm is essential for the long-term persistence of the postmating responses. Three seminal fluid peptides elicit postmating responses: ovulin, sex-peptide (SP), and DUP99B. Using the technique of targeted mutagenesis by homologous recombination, we have produced males with mutant SP genes. Here, we report that males lacking functional SP elicit only a weak short-term response. However, these males do transfer sperm. Thus, (i) SP is the major agent eliciting the short-term and the long-term postmating responses and (ii) sperm is merely the carrier for SP. The second conclusion is supported by the finding that SP binds to sperm. The 36-aa-encoding SP gene is the first small Drosophila gene knocked out with the method of homologous recombination. PMID:12897240

Liu, Huanfa; Kubli, Eric

2003-01-01

334

Airborne sperm of Conocephalum conicum (Conocephalaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have obtained the first momentary photographs of sperms just as they are discharged from the antheridium of a liverwort,\\u000a Conocephalum conicum, and have succeeded in monitoring the airborne sperms of bryophytes under field conditions. Airborne sperm of liverworts\\u000a seems to be an effective strategy for raising the efficiency of fertilization between male and female plants separated in\\u000a a drought

Masaki Shimamura; Tomio Yamaguchi; Hironori Deguchi

2008-01-01

335

Postnatal Effects of Sperm Chromatin Damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The use of spermatozoa with fragmented DNA has been linked to ­developmental and postnatal effects in animal models. Environmental\\u000a and toxic factors such as radiation, heat stress, air pollution, chemotherapeutic agents, etc. are known to have detrimental\\u000a effects on sperm chromatin. Sperm chromatin damage has also been observed following sperm manipulation techniques (freeze–thawing\\u000a without cryoprotectants, freeze-drying, preincubation under different conditions,

Miriam Pérez-Crespo; Raúl Fernández-González; Miguel Ángel Ramírez; Eva Pericuesta; Alexandra Calle; Alfonso Gutiérrez-Adán

336

[Results of testing defibrillator function of implanted cardioverter/defibrillators].  

PubMed

Postoperative tests of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) are routinely performed to ensure appropriate defibrillation by the device. However, efficacy and complications of this procedure are unknown. To scrutinize the currently accepted indications to test the defibrillation function of the ICD we retrospectively analyzed 844 ICD-tests in 439 ICD-systems and 409 patients. 755 ICD-tests (89.4%) were routinely performed (57% before discharge and 43% during follow-up); 58 tests (6.9%) were performed after a change of the antiarrhythmic drug regimen, 24 tests (2.9%) after a revision of a part of the ICD-system, and seven tests (0.8%) because of a suspected dysfunction of the ICD. During routine-tests six ICD-systems (0.8%) failed to defibrillate the patient. However, in all but one test abnormalities of the ICD-system had been observed before the test. After addition of antiarrhythmic drugs, three of 58 ICD-systems (5.2%) failed to defibrillate the patient during the test (amiodarone: n = 2, flecainide: n = 1). Four of seven ICD-systems (57%) tested due to a suspected dysfunction failed to defibrillate the patient. After revisions of parts of the ICD-systems, ICD-tests never revealed a failure of defibrillation. During 16 ICD-tests (1.9%) complications occurred. The most frequent complications was inappropriate shocks (n = 10; 1.2%), the most severe one (transient) neurologic symptoms (n = 4; 0.48%). Our experience demonstrates that postoperative tests of the defibrillation function of ICDs rarely reveal ICD-dysfunction. As testing is unpleasant for the patient and not free of complications, tests might be restricted to those patients in whom an ICD-dysfunction is suspected (based on clinical presentation, results of chest-x-ray, testing of sensing signal and stimulation threshold) or class I or class III antiarrhythmic drugs have been added to the antiarrhythmic drug regimen. PMID:9324876

Brunn, J; Block, M; Weber, M; Bänsch, D; Seifert, T; Castrucci, M; Isbruch, F; Böcker, D; Breithardt, G

1997-06-01

337

Pseudo Test Collections for Learning Web Search Ranking Functions  

E-print Network

of ranking functions in an automatic, rapid, and repeatable fashion and serve as training data for learning to rank models. However, manual construction of test collec- tions tends to be slow, labor of ranking functions in an automatic, rapid, and repeatable fashion. Second, they provide training data

Lin, Jimmy

338

Biochemical Indicators and Cardiac Function Tests in Chronic Alcohol Abusers  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the effect of chronic alcohol abuse on cardiac function, antioxidant system, trace ele- ments, and liver function tests. Methods Mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), as well as zinc, magnesium, and copper were assayed in 25 chronic alcoholic patients and their

Tamer C. Inal; Mesut Demir; Gülen Attila; Yunus Emre Evlice; Levent Kayrin

339

Testicular toxicity and sperm quality following cadmium exposure in rats: Ameliorative potentials of Allium cepa  

PubMed Central

AIMS: This study was carried out to investigate the effect of Allium cepa crude extract on cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into 4 groups (n = 6). Group 1 was used as control, group 2 was administered 0.3 mg/kgBW of cadmium sulfate (CdSO4) intraperitoneally for 3 days, group 3 was pretreated with 1 ml/100 g BW of Allium cepa (AcE) for 8 weeks followed by intraperitoneal administration of 0.3 mg/kgBW of CdSO4 in the last 3 days of experiment, and group 4 was administered 1 ml/100 g BW of AcE throughout the experiment. Testicular weight and semen analysis revealing the sperm count, sperm motility, and sperm morphology was carried out. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase activities, and lipid peroxidation status were also carried out in testes. RESULTS: The study demonstrated that Allium cepa ameliorated CdSO4–induced alteration in testicular weight, sperm count, sperm motility, and sperm morphology. It also showed that Allium cepa attenuated the derangement of lipid peroxidation profile in testicular tissues caused by CdSO4 exposure. CONCLUSIONS: The findings in the study showed that pre-treatment of rat model with Allium cepa extract prevented CdSO4–induced reproductive toxicity by improving sperm quality and enhancing testicular lipid peroxidation status. PMID:22870013

Ige, Serah F; Olaleye, Samuel B; Akhigbe, Roland E; Akanbi, Titilayo A; Oyekunle, Olanrewaju A; Udoh, Utibe-Abasi S

2012-01-01

340

Sperm investment in male meadow voles is affected by the condition of the nearby male conspecifics  

PubMed Central

Sperm competition occurs when 2 or more males copulate with a particular female during the same reproductive cycle, and their sperm compete to fertilize the female's available eggs. One strategy that male voles use to assess the risk and intensity of sperm competition involves responding to the presence of scent marks of conspecific males found near a sexually receptive female. Previously, we have shown that if a male vole copulated with a female while he was in the presence of the odors of another male he increased his sperm investment relative to his investment if another male's odors were not present. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that males assess differences in the relative quality of competing males and adjust their sperm investment accordingly. We did so by allowing males to copulate when they were exposed to the scent mark of a 24-h food-deprived male (low-quality male) or the scent mark of a male that was not food deprived (high-quality male). The data indicate that male meadow voles did not increase their sperm investment during copulation when exposed to the scent mark of a food-deprived male but did so when they were exposed to the scent mark of a male that was not food deprived. The results support the hypothesis that male voles are able to adjust sperm investment when they encounter the scent marks of males that differ in quality. PMID:19529815

delBarco-Trillo, Javier; Ferkin, Michael H.

2008-01-01

341

Panax ginseng induces the expression of CatSper genes and sperm hyperactivation  

PubMed Central

The cation channel of sperm (CatSper) protein family plays important roles in male reproduction and infertility. The four members of this family are expressed exclusively in the testis and are localized differently in sperm. To investigate the effects of Panax ginseng treatment on the expression of CatSper genes and sperm hyperactivation in male mice, sperm motility and CatSper gene expression were assessed using a computer-assisted semen analysis system, a Fluoroskan Ascent microplate fluorometer to assess Ca2+ influx, real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting and immunofluorescence. The results suggested that the Ca2+ levels of sperm cells treated with P. ginseng were increased significantly compared with the normal group. The P. ginseng-treated groups showed increased sperm motility parameters, such as the curvilinear velocity and amplitude of lateral head displacement. Taken together, the data suggest that CatSper messenger ribonucleic acid levels were increased significantly in mouse testes in the P. ginseng-treated group, as was the protein level, with the exception of CatSper2. In conclusion, P. ginseng plays an important role in improving sperm hyperactivation via CatSper gene expression. PMID:24969054

Park, Eun Hwa; Kim, Do Rim; Kim, Ha Young; Park, Seong Kyu; Chang, Mun Seog

2014-01-01

342

Cryopreservation of Sperm in Common Carp Cyprinus carpio: Sperm Motility and Hatching Success of Embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, fish sperm cryopreservation methods were elaborated upon for ex situ conservation of nine strains of Bohemian common carp. Common carp sperm were diluted in Kurokura medium and chilled to 4°C and dimethyl sulfoxide was added. Cryotubes of sperm with media were then cooled from +4 to ?9°C at a rate of 4°C min?1 and then from ?9

Otomar Linhart; Marek Rodina; Jacky Cosson

2000-01-01

343

Artificial insemination with donor sperm (AID): heterogeneity in sperm banking facilities in a single country (Belgium)  

PubMed Central

Due to the high inflow of foreign patients seeking cross-border reproductive care in Belgium and the increased number of lesbian couples and single women who call for artificial insemination with donor sperm (AID), Belgian sperm banks nowadays face a shortage in donor sperm. However, since there is no central registration system for sperm donors in Belgium, no figures are currently available supporting this statement. Therefore a study was performed to obtain a detailed overview of the sperm banking facilities in Belgium. Questionnaires were sent to all Belgian centres for assisted reproduction with laboratory facilities (n?=?18) to report on their sperm banking methods. The results showed that 82% of the centres rely partially or completely on foreign donor sperm. Moreover, four of the thirteen centres that have their own sperm bank use imported donor sperm in >?95% AID cycles. Our results show that in 63% of the Belgian AID cycles imported Danish donor sperm is being used. Donor recruitment is mainly performed through the centre’s website (61%) or by distributing flyers in the centre (46%) and 9 to 180 potential donors have been recruited per centre in 2013. Eventually, 15 to 50% of these candidate donors were accepted. Different criteria for donor acceptance are handled by the centres: donor age limits range from 18-25 to 36-46 years old, and thresholds for sperm normality differ considerably. We can conclude that a wide variation in methods associated with sperm banking is observed in Belgian centres. PMID:25009728

Thijssen, A.; Dhont, N.; Vandormael, E.; Cox, A.; Klerkx, E.; Creemers, E.; Ombelet, W.

2014-01-01

344

Sperm competition in a fish with external fertilization: the contribution of sperm number, speed and length  

Microsoft Academic Search

bluegill; fish; mechanism; raffle; speed; sperm competition; sperm number. Abstract The role of sperm number and quality in male competitiveness was investigated using in vitro fertilization experiments with bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus). Bluegill males use one of three mating tactics: 'sneakers', which streak spawn; 'satellites', which mimic females; and 'parentals', which are territorial. The in vitro experiments mimicked natural spawning by

J. A. STOLTZ; B. D. NEFF

2006-01-01

345

Kinases, phosphatases and proteases during sperm capacitation.  

PubMed

Fertilization is the process by which male and female haploid gametes (sperm and egg) unite to produce a genetically distinct individual. In mammals, fertilization involves a number of sequential steps, including sperm migration through the female genital tract, sperm penetration through the cumulus mass, sperm adhesion and binding to the zona pellucida, acrosome exocytosis, sperm penetration through the zona and fusion of the sperm and egg plasma membranes. However, freshly ejaculated sperm are not capable of fertilizing an oocyte. They must first undergo a series of biochemical and physiological changes, collectively known as capacitation, before acquiring fertilizing capabilities. Several molecules are required for successful capacitation and in vitro fertilization; these include bicarbonate, serum albumin (normally bovine serum albumin, BSA) and Ca(2+). Bicarbonate activates the sperm protein soluble adenylyl cyclase (SACY), which results in increased levels of cAMP and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) activation. The response to bicarbonate is fast and cAMP levels increase within 60 s followed by an increase in PKA activity. Several studies with an anti-phospho-PKA substrate antibody have demonstrated a rapid increase in protein phosphorylation in human, mouse and boar sperm. The target proteins of PKA are not known and the precise role of BSA during capacitation is unclear. Most of the studies provide support for the idea that BSA acts by removing cholesterol from the sperm. The loss of cholesterol has been suggested to affect the bilayer of the sperm plasma membrane making it more fusogenic. The relationship between cholesterol loss and the activation of the cAMP/PKA pathway is also unclear. During early stages of capacitation, Ca(2+) might be involved in the stimulation of SACY, although definitive proof is lacking. Protein tyrosine phosphorylation is another landmark of capacitation but occurs during the late stages of capacitation on a different time-scale from cAMP/PKA activation. Additionally, the tyrosine kinases present in sperm are not well characterized. Although protein phosphorylation depends upon the balanced action of protein kinases and protein phosphatase, we have even less information regarding the role of protein phosphatases during sperm capacitation. Over the last few years, several reports have pointed out that the ubiquitin-proteasome system might play a role during sperm capacitation, acrosome reaction and/or sperm-egg fusion. In the present review, we summarize the information regarding the role of protein kinases, phosphatases and the proteasome during sperm capacitation. Where appropriate, we give examples of the way that these molecules interact and regulate each other's activities. PMID:22427115

Signorelli, Janetti; Diaz, Emilce S; Morales, Patricio

2012-09-01

346

Sperm Capacitation, the Acrosome Reaction, and Fertilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Recent advances in our understanding of fertilization are summarized, highlighting newly discovered molecules implicated in\\u000a sperm interactions with the epithelia of the female reproductive system (spermadhesins, BSP-proteins), sperm-zona binding\\u000a (ZP4, ZP3R, IAM38\\/ZPBP), sperm oolemma binding and fusion (IZUMO, CD9, CD81), oocyte activation (PLCzeta, SRC-family kinases\\u000a and their activators), and pronuclear development (nucleoplasmin, oocyte-specific histones). Sperm-contributed RNAs and signaling\\u000a molecules are

Peter Sutovsky

347

Flow cytometric evaluation of antibiotic effects on viability and mitochondrial function of refrigerated spermatozoa of Nile tilapia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Improved techniques for storage and evaluation of fish sperm would enhance breeding programs around the world. The goal of this study was to test the effect of antibiotics on refrigerated sperm from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) by use of flow cytometry with 2 dual-staining protocols for objective assessment of sperm quality. Concentrations of 1 x 109 sperm/mL were suspended in Ringer's buffer at 318 mOsmol/kg (pH 8.0). The fluorescent stains Sybr 14 (10 ??M), propidium iodide (2.4 mM), and rhodamine 123 (0.13 ??M) were used to assess cell viability and mitochondrial function. Three concentrations of ampicillin, gentamicin, and an antibiotic/antimycotic solution were added to fresh spermatozoa. Motility estimates and flow cytometry measurements were made daily during 7 d of refrigerated storage (4 ??C). The highest concentrations of gentamicin and antibiotic/antimycotic and all 3 concentrations of ampicillin significantly reduced sperm viability. The highest of each of the 3 antibiotic concentrations significantly reduced mitochondrial function. This study demonstrates that objective sperm quality assessments can be made using flow cytometry and that addition of antibiotics at appropriate concentrations can lengthen refrigerated storage time for tilapia spermatozoa. With minor modifications, these protocols can be adapted for use with sperm from other species and with other tissue types.

Segovia, M.; Jenkins, J.A.; Paniagua-Chavez, C.; Tiersch, T.R.

2000-01-01

348

Overview of studies on rat sperm motion analysis using a Hamilton-Thorne Sperm Analyzer--collaborative working study.  

PubMed

This collaborative study was conducted to determine the utility and sensitivity of nine sperm motion parameters generated by a Hamilton-Thorne Sperm Analyzer (HTM-IVOS) for detecting adverse effects of chemicals on sperm motion in rats. The efficacy of sperm motion parameters was investigated using nine reproductive toxicants: adriamycin, alpha-chlorohydrin (3 different studies were carried out), dinoseb, ethylene glycol monoethyl ether, 2,5-hexanedione, sulfasalazine, trimethyl phosphate, and ornidazole. The percentage of motile sperm (% motile sperm), the only parameter expressing the status of semen containing non-motile sperm, detected adverse effects on sperm motion in 9 out of 10 studies. However, weak effects on sperm motion were not detected by this parameter in 4 out of 7 studies in which sperm motion disorders were noted at medium or low dosages. The percentage of progressively motile sperm (% progressive sperm) and the sperm velocity parameters (average path velocity, straight line velocity, and curvilinear velocity) detected adverse effects on sperm motion in all studies. In 7 studies which noted sperm motion disorders at medium or low dosages, weak effects on sperm motion were detected by the % progressive sperm in 5 studies and by the sperm velocity parameters in 6 studies. In 10 studies, amplitude of lateral head displacement (ALH) did not detect adverse effects on sperm motion in 4 studies, and beat cross frequency (BCF) failed to detect adverse effects on sperm motion in 3 studies. Because ALH and BCF show the swimming pattern of spermatozoa as head movement, the characteristics of these parameters are different from the % progressive sperm and the sperm velocity parameters. Straightness (STR) and linearity (LIN), which are secondary parameters calculated from sperm velocity parameters, could not detect adverse effects on sperm motion when the sperm velocity parameters did not detect adverse effects. On the basis of these results, we concluded that the % progressive sperm and sperm velocity parameters are useful and sensitive indicators for detecting adverse effects on sperm motion. However, in the % progressive sperm, setting up a suitable threshold of VAP and/or STR is important to gain further sensitivity for detecting adverse effects on sperm motion. The % motile sperm is useful for assessment of sperm motion disorder, and ALH and BCF are useful for evaluating the swimming pattern of sperm. STR and LIN are not very useful for detecting adverse effects on sperm motion. PMID:11871125

Kato, M; Fukunishi, K; Ikegawa, S; Higuchi, H; Sato, M; Horimoto, M; Ito, S

2001-12-01

349

Localization and identification of sumoylated proteins in human sperm: excessive sumoylation is a marker of defective spermatozoa  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Sumoylation is a type of post-translational modification that is implicated in the regulation of numerous cellular events. However, its role in the function of human sperm has not yet been characterized. METHODS AND RESULTS In this study, both immunofluorescence and electron microscopy revealed that small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMO) SUMO1 and SUMO2/3 were highly enriched in the neck area of human sperm that is associated with the redundant nuclear envelope and were also detectable in the flagella and some head regions. Similar localization patterns of SUMO were also observed in mouse and fly sperm. Nonmotile, two-tailed, curled tailed, misshapen, microcephalic (small head) and aciphalic (no head) sperm exhibited abnormally high levels of sumoylation in their neck and tail regions relative to normal sperm. Numerous sumoylated proteins, ranging from 20 to 260 kDa, were detected via western blotting and identified by mass spectrometry, and 55 SUMO targets that were present specifically in human sperm, and not in the control fraction, corresponded to flagella proteins, proteins involved in the maturation and differentiation of sperm, heat shock proteins and important glycolytic and mitochondrial enzymes. The targets that were identified included proteins with specific functions in germ cells and sperm, such as heat shock-related 70-kDa protein 2, outer dense fiber protein 3, A-kinase anchor proteins 3 and 4, l-lactate dehydrogenase C, sperm protein associated with the nucleus on the X chromosome B/F, valosin-containing protein, seminogelins, histone H4 and ubiquitin. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments confirmed the sumoylation of semenogelin and indicated that some sperm proteins are modified by sumoylation and ubiquitination simultaneously. CONCLUSIONS Numerous proteins are modified by sumoylation in human sperm; excessive sumoylation is a marker of defective spermatozoa. PMID:23077236

Vigodner, Margarita; Shrivastava, Vibha; Gutstein, Leah Elisheva; Schneider, Jordana; Nieves, Edward; Goldstein, Marc; Feliciano, Miriam; Callaway, Myrasol

2013-01-01

350

Odorant receptors and olfactory-like signaling mechanisms in mammalian sperm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since their discovery in 1991, members of the odorant receptor (OR) family have been found in various ectopic tissues, including testis and sperm. It took, however, more than a decade for the first mammalian testicular ORs to be functionally characterized and implicated in a reproductively relevant scenario. Activation of hOR17-4 and mOR23 in human and mouse sperm, respectively, mediates distinct

Marc Spehr; Katlen Schwane; Jeffrey A. Riffell; Richard K. Zimmer; Hanns Hatt

2006-01-01

351

The effects of radiation on sperm swimming behavior depend on plasma oxidative status in the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica).  

PubMed

Sperm are highly susceptible to reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can damage sperm DNA and structure, resulting in reduced fertilizing capacity. Exposure to radioactive contamination can also impair sperm swimming behavior and fertilizing ability, both through a reduction of sperm DNA integrity and via an increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, the relationship between individual oxidative status and sperm swimming behavior has never been investigated in any wild population of animals exposed to radioactive contamination. We studied the motility of sperm collected from barn swallows, Hirundo rustica, breeding under different levels of radioactive contamination following the Chernobyl accident in 1986, in relation to individual oxidative status. We tested the hypothesis that the degree of impairment of sperm swimming behavior by radioactive contamination depended on plasma antioxidant capacity, the level of reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs) and oxidative stress (sensu Costantini et al. 2006), a better oxidative status being associated with higher sperm motility. Sperm behavior parameters were subjected to principal component (PC) analysis, which extracted four PCs explaining 86% of the variance in sperm motility. PC2, representing sperm with high track velocity and ample lateral head displacement, was significantly predicted by the interaction between radiation level and either oxidative damage or oxidative stress. Contrary to our predictions, the highest values of PC2 were associated with relatively high radiation levels, particularly for high levels of either ROMs or oxidative stress. In addition, there was a tendency for values of PC3 (representing the percent of motile sperm) and PC4 (representing slow sperm with high beat cross frequency) to depend on the interaction between radiation level and total plasma antioxidant protection. Our results confirm the importance of oxidative status in determining the genetic and physiological outcome of exposure to radioactive contamination, complementing previous studies relating sperm abnormality to circulating levels of specific antioxidants. Our results also complement previous evidence that oxidative damage of sperm was negatively related to sperm motility, thus indicating a possible trade-off in quenching pro-oxidant compounds in the plasma and the seminal fluid. PMID:21295152

Bonisoli-Alquati, Andrea; Mřller, Anders Pape; Rudolfsen, Geir; Saino, Nicola; Caprioli, Manuela; Ostermiller, Shanna; Mousseau, Timothy A

2011-06-01

352

An Acute-phase Protein as a Regulator of Sperm Survival in the Bovine Oviduct: Alpha 1-acid-glycoprotein Impairs Neutrophil Phagocytosis of Sperm In Vitro  

PubMed Central

We have previously shown that polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) are present in bovine oviduct fluid under physiological conditions, and that the oviduct provides a microenvironment that protects sperm from phagocytosis by PMNs. Alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) is a major acute-phase protein produced mainly in the liver that has immunomodulatory functions. AGP mRNA is expressed in extrahepatic organs, such as the lung, kidney, spleen, lymph node, uterus, and ovary. Therefore, in this study, we investigated, 1) the local production of AGP in the bovine oviduct, 2) the effect of AGP on the phagocytic activity of PMNs for sperm and superoxide production and 3) the impact of AGP desialylation on the PMN phagocytosis of sperm. The AGP gene was expressed in cultured bovine oviduct epithelial cells (BOECs) and AGP protein was detected in oviduct fluid. Preexposure of PMNs to AGP at physiological levels impaired PMN phagocytosis for sperm and superoxide generation. The desialylation of AGP eliminated these suppressive effects of AGP on PMN. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that AGP drastically reduced the formation of DNA-based neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) for sperm entanglement. Additionally, AGP dose-dependently stimulated BOECs to produce prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) which has been shown to partially contribute to the regulation of sperm phagocytosis in the bovine oviduct. AGP and PGE2 at concentrations detected in the oviducts additively suppressed sperm phagocytosis by PMNs. These results provide evidence that locally produced AGP may be involved in protecting sperm from phagocytosis by PMNs in the bovine oviduct. PMID:24931131

LIU, Jinghui; MAREY, Mohamed A.; KOWSAR, Rasoul; HAMBRUCH, Nina; SHIMIZU, Takashi; HANEDA, Shingo; MATSUI, Motozumi; SASAKI, Motoki; HAYAKAWA, Hiroyuki; PFARRER, Christiane; MIYAMOTO, Akio

2014-01-01

353

An Acute-phase Protein as a Regulator of Sperm Survival in the Bovine Oviduct: Alpha 1-acid-glycoprotein Impairs Neutrophil Phagocytosis of Sperm In Vitro.  

PubMed

We have previously shown that polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) are present in bovine oviduct fluid under physiological conditions, and that the oviduct provides a microenvironment that protects sperm from phagocytosis by PMNs. Alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) is a major acute-phase protein produced mainly in the liver that has immunomodulatory functions. AGP mRNA is expressed in extrahepatic organs, such as the lung, kidney, spleen, lymph node, uterus, and ovary. Therefore, in this study, we investigated, 1) the local production of AGP in the bovine oviduct, 2) the effect of AGP on the phagocytic activity of PMNs for sperm and superoxide production and 3) the impact of AGP desialylation on the PMN phagocytosis of sperm. The AGP gene was expressed in cultured bovine oviduct epithelial cells (BOECs) and AGP protein was detected in oviduct fluid. Preexposure of PMNs to AGP at physiological levels impaired PMN phagocytosis for sperm and superoxide generation. The desialylation of AGP eliminated these suppressive effects of AGP on PMN. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that AGP drastically reduced the formation of DNA-based neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) for sperm entanglement. Additionally, AGP dose-dependently stimulated BOECs to produce prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) which has been shown to partially contribute to the regulation of sperm phagocytosis in the bovine oviduct. AGP and PGE2 at concentrations detected in the oviducts additively suppressed sperm phagocytosis by PMNs. These results provide evidence that locally produced AGP may be involved in protecting sperm from phagocytosis by PMNs in the bovine oviduct. PMID:24931131

Liu, Jinghui; Marey, Mohamed A; Kowsar, Rasoul; Hambruch, Nina; Shimizu, Takashi; Haneda, Shingo; Matsui, Motozumi; Sasaki, Motoki; Hayakawa, Hiroyuki; Pfarrer, Christiane; Miyamoto, Akio

2014-10-23

354

The test of functional health literacy in adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To develop a valid, reliable instrument to measure the functional health literacy of patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN: The Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA) was developed using actual hospital materials. The TOFHLA consists\\u000a of a 50-item reading comprehension and 17-item numerical ability test, taking up to 22 minutes to administer. The TOFHLA,\\u000a the Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised (WRAT-R), and

Ruth M. Parker; David W. Baker; Mark V. Williams; Joanne R. Nurss

1995-01-01

355

State of the Art in Platelet Function Testing  

PubMed Central

Summary Platelets perform many functions in hemostasis but also in other areas of physiology and pathology. Therefore, it is obvious that many different function tests have been developed, each one conceived and standardized for a special purpose. This review will summarize the different fields in which platelet function testing is currently in use; diagnostics of patients with bleeding disorders, monitoring patients’ response to anti-platelet therapy, monitoring in transfusion medicine (blood donors, platelet concentrates, and after transfusion), and monitoring in perioperative medicine to predict bleeding tendency. The second part of the review outlines different methods for platelet function testing, spanning bleeding time, and platelet counting as well as determining platelet adhesion, platelet secretion, platelet aggregation, platelet morphology, platelet signal transduction, platelet procoagulant activity, platelet apoptosis, platelet proteomics, and molecular biology. PMID:23653569

E. Kehrel, Beate; F. Brodde, Martin

2013-01-01

356

10/24/2006 02:59 PMBig Testes or Big Horns? It's One or the Other for Male Beetles Page 1 of 3http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2006/10/061016-beetle-sperm.html  

E-print Network

Species? (April 8, 2004) Site Index | Subscribe | Shop | Search Go TODAY'S BEST NEWS PHOTO Photo://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2006/10/061016-beetle-sperm.html Enlarge Photo Email to a Friend RELATED For Dung Beetles, Monkey Flight Training News Front Page 15 Most Popular News Stories Photos in the News Videos in the News

Emlen, Douglas J.

357

Characteristics of sperm acrosin-like activity of paddlefish ( Polyodon spathula Walbaum)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spermatozoa of paddlefish and sturgeon fishes (Acipenseriformes), unlike teleost fish, have an acrosome. The objectives of this study were to characterize acrosin-like activity of cryopreserved sperm of paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) and to test and compare stability of paddlefish acrosin-like activity with that of lake sturgeon and bull spermatozoa. Mean acrosin-like activity of cryopreserved paddlefish sperm was 0.372±0.067 ?U\\/106 spermatozoa. This

Andrzej Ciereszko; Konrad Dabrowski; Steven D. Mims; Jan Glogowski

2000-01-01

358

Male crickets increase sperm number in relation to competition and female size  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is evidence to suggest that males of various species can respond to the threat of sperm competition by varying the\\u000a amount of sperm transferred during copulation. We tested this in two species of cricket, Acheta domesticus and Gryllodes supplicans (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) by varying the apparent threat of intermale competition experimentally. The results showed that males\\u000a of both species increased

A. R. Gage; C. J. Barnard

1996-01-01

359

Effect of increased scrotal temperature on sperm production in normal men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine whether application of polyester-lined athletic supports to bring the testes closer to the abdomen increases scrotal temperature and decreases sperm production.Design: Prospective clinical study.Setting: University academic medical center.Patient(s): Twenty-one healthy male volunteers.Intervention(s): The study consisted of a pretreatment period of 6 weeks, a treatment phase of 52 weeks, and a recovery phase until return to normal sperm

Christina Wang; Veronica McDonald; Andrew Leung; Laura Superlano; Nancy Berman; Laura Hull; Ronald S. Swerdloff

1997-01-01

360

Sperm metabolism in pigs: a role for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?).  

PubMed

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) is a nuclear hormone receptor expressed predominantly in adipose tissue, also implicated in energy homeostasis. In this study, we used western blotting and immunofluorescence techniques to demonstrate for the first time that pig spermatozoa express PPAR?. To investigate the functional role of PPAR? in pig sperm, we evaluated its action on different events that characterize the biology of sperm cells, i.e. motility, capacitation, viability and acrosome reaction, using the PPAR?-agonist 15-deoxy-12,14-prostaglandin J2 (PGJ2). In responses to PGJ2 treatment, motility, cholesterol efflux and tyrosine phosphorylation were increased, which broadens the role of PPAR? from that previously described in the literature, as it also acts to improve sperm functionality. To further our understanding of the significance of PPAR? in pig sperm, we focused its effects on lipid and glucose metabolism. Evaluation of triglyceride content and lipase, acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and G6PDH activities suggests that PPAR? induces energy expenditure in pig spermatozoa. These data represent a meaningful advance in the field of sperm energy metabolism. Taken together, our results demonstrate for the first time that PPAR? is expressed by pig sperm, thus improving its functionalities in terms of motility, capacitation, acrosome reaction, survival and metabolism. PMID:23155087

Santoro, M; Guido, C; De Amicis, F; Sisci, D; Vizza, D; Gervasi, S; Carpino, A; Aquila, S

2013-03-15

361

Interrelationships Between Apoptosis and Fertility in Bull Sperm  

PubMed Central

Abstract Male fertility, the ability of sperm to fertilize and activate the egg and support early embryogenesis, is vital for mammalian reproduction. Despite producing adequate numbers of sperm with normal motility and morphology, some males suffer from low fertility whose molecular mechanisms are not known. The objective was to determine apoptosis in sperm from high and low fertility bulls and its relationship with male fertility. DNA damage, phosphatidylserine (PS) translocation, and expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins (BAX and BCL-2) in the sperm were determined using TUNEL, Annexin V, and immunoblotting approaches, respectively. Amounts of apoptotic spermatozoa were 2.86 (± 1.31) and 3.00 (± 0.96) in high and low fertility bulls, respectively (P=0.548), and were not correlated with fertility. There was a negative correlation between early necrotic spermatozoa and viable spermatozoa (r = –0.99, P<0.0001). Fertility scores were correlated with live spermatozoa detected by eosin-nigrosin test and necrotic spermatozoa determined via flow cytometry (r = –0.49, P<0.006 and r = –0.266, P<0.0113, respectively). BAX level was higher in low fertile group than high fertile group; however, this difference was not statistically significant due to the variations of bull samples (Bull 1–3 vs. Bull 4–5) in low fertile group (P<0.283). BCL-2 was not detectable in any of the sperm samples. The results shed light onto molecular and cellular underpinnings of male fertility. PMID:22986927

DOGAN, Sule; MASON, Melissa C.; GOVINDARAJU, Aruna; BELSER, Lauren; KAYA, Abdullah; STOKES, John; ROWE, Dennis; MEMILI, Erdogan

2012-01-01

362

A Powerful Test for Comparing Multiple Regression Functions  

PubMed Central

In this article, we address the important problem of comparison of two or more population regression functions. Recently, Pardo-Fernández, Van Keilegom and González-Manteiga (2007) developed test statistics for simple nonparametric regression models: Yij = ?j(Zij) + ?j(Zij)?ij, based on empirical distributions of the errors in each population j = 1, … , J. In this paper, we propose a test for equality of the ?j(·) based on the concept of generalized likelihood ratio type statistics. We also generalize our test for other nonparametric regression setups, e.g, nonparametric logistic regression, where the loglikelihood for population j is any general smooth function L{Yj,?j(Zj)}. We describe a resampling procedure to obtain the critical values of the test. In addition, we present a simulation study to evaluate the performance of the proposed test and compare our results to those in Pardo-Fernández et al. (2007). PMID:23074357

Maity, Arnab

2012-01-01

363

[Respiratory function tests--current and future perspective].  

PubMed

The apparatus for the respiratory function test have recently made a great progress and become very easy to handle owing to the development of computer technology and medical ordering system. However, the respiratory function tests depend its result on the cooperation of patients. Thus, it is important for the medical technician to obtain the maximum efforts and cooperation of the patients in the testing. In the sense, the standardization of the testing should be done urgently regarding procedures, softwares, hardwares and maintenance of apparatus. In the future perspectives, we would like to emphasize following 3 points. First, more noninvasive and sophisticated testing methods and instruments should be developed, since the patients' age will become more and more old and vigorous active cooperation may not be possible for the assessment of respiratory function. The testing for the transplantation of lung should also be developed. Second, the development of screening test and its performance for the routine medical check for the local inhabitants have been important for the early detection, treatment, and follow up of respiratory diseases. Finally, the medical technician should be prepared so that the testing is available when it is needed. PMID:11769554

Sano, N; Kamiyama, Y; Kato, S; Himeno, T; Yoshimatu, S; Magari, Y; Nakagawa, M; Saikawa, T

2001-11-01

364

A Role for the Chemokine Receptor CCR6 in Mammalian Sperm Motility and Chemotaxis  

PubMed Central

Although recent evidence indicates that several chemokines and defensins, well-known as inflammatory mediators, are expressed in the male and female reproductive tracts, the location and functional significance of chemokine networks in sperm physiology and sperm reproductive tract interactions are poorly understood. To address this deficiency in our knowledge, we examined the expression and function in sperm of CCR6, a receptor common to several chemoattractant peptides, and screened several reproductive tract fluids for the presence of specific ligands. CCR6 protein is present in mouse and human sperm and mainly localized in the sperm tail with other minor patterns in sperm from mice (neck and acrosomal region) and men (neck and midpiece regions). As expected from the protein immunoblotting and immunofluorescence results, mouse Ccr6 mRNA is expressed in the testis. Furthermore, the Defb29 mRNA encoding the CCR6 ligand, ?-defensin DEFB29, is expressed at high levels in the epididymis. As determined by protein chip analysis, several chemokines (including some that act through CCR6, such as CCL20/MIP-3? (formerly Macrophage Inflammatory Protein 3?) and protein hormones were present in human follicular fluid, endometrial secretions, and seminal plasma. In functional chemotaxis assays, capacitated human sperm exhibited a directional movement towards CCL20, and displayed modifications in motility parameters. Our data indicate that chemokine ligand/receptor interactions in the male and female genital tracts promote sperm motility and chemotaxis under non-inflammatory conditions. Therefore, some of the physiological reactions mediated by CCR6 ligands in male reproduction extend beyond a pro-inflammatory response and might find application in clinical reproduction and/or contraception. PMID:23765988

Caballero-Campo, Pedro; Buffone, Mariano G.; Benencia, Fabian; Conejo-García, José R.; Rinaudo, Paolo F.; Gerton, George L.

2013-01-01

365

Investigation of the mechanisms by which the molecular chaperone HSPA2 regulates the expression of sperm surface receptors involved in human sperm-oocyte recognition.  

PubMed

A unique characteristic of mammalian spermatozoa is that, upon ejaculation, they are unable to recognize and bind to an ovulated oocyte. These functional attributes are only realized following the cells' ascent of the female reproductive tract whereupon they undergo a myriad of biochemical and biophysical changes collectively referred to as 'capacitation'. We have previously shown that this functional transformation is, in part, engineered by the modification of the sperm surface architecture leading to the assembly and/or presentation of multimeric sperm-oocyte receptor complexes. In this study, we have extended our findings through the characterization of one such complex containing arylsulfatase A (ARSA), sperm adhesion molecule 1 (SPAM1) and the molecular chaperone, heat shock 70kDa protein 2 (HSPA2). Through the application of flow cytometry we revealed that this complex undergoes a capacitation-associated translocation to facilitate the repositioning of ARSA to the apical region of the human sperm head, a location compatible with a role in the mediation of sperm-zona pellucida (ZP) interactions. Conversely, SPAM1 appears to reorient away from the sperm surface, possibly reflecting its primary role in cumulus matrix dispersal preceding sperm-ZP recognition. The dramatic relocation of the complex was completely abolished by incubation of capacitating spermatozoa in exogenous cholesterol or broad spectrum protein kinase A (PKA) and tyrosine kinase inhibitors suggesting that it may be driven by alterations in membrane fluidity characteristics and concurrently by the activation of a capacitation-associated signal transduction pathway. Collectively these data afford novel insights into the sub-cellular localization and potential functions of multimeric protein complexes in human spermatozoa. PMID:23247813

Redgrove, Kate A; Anderson, Amanda L; McLaughlin, Eileen A; O'Bryan, Moira K; Aitken, R John; Nixon, Brett

2013-03-01

366

Sperm Proteomics Reveals Intensified Selection on Mouse Sperm Membrane and Acrosome Genes  

PubMed Central

Spermatozoa are a focal point for the impact of sexual selection due to sperm competition and sperm–female interactions in a wide range of sexually reproducing organisms. In-depth molecular investigation of the ramifications of these selective regimes has been limited due to a lack of information concerning the molecular composition of sperm. In this study, we utilize three previously published proteomic data sets in conjunction with our whole mouse sperm proteomic analysis to delineate cellular regions of sperm most impacted by positive selection. Interspecific analysis reveals robust evolutionary acceleration of sperm cell membrane genes (which include genes encoding acrosomal and sperm cell surface proteins) relative to other sperm genes, and evidence for positive selection in approximately 22% of sperm cell membrane components was obtained using maximum likelihood models. The selective forces driving the accelerated evolution of these membrane proteins may occur at a number of locations during sperm development, maturation, and transit through the female reproductive tract where the sperm cell membrane and eventually the acrosome are exposed to the extracellular milieu and available for direct cell–cell interactions. PMID:20080865

Dorus, Steve; Wasbrough, Elizabeth R.; Busby, Jennifer; Wilkin, Elaine C.; Karr, Timothy L.

2010-01-01

367

Sperm dynamics in spiders (Araneae): ultrastructural analysis of the sperm activation process in the garden spider Argiope bruennichi (Scopoli, 1772).  

PubMed

Storage of sperm inside the female genital tract is an integral phase of reproduction in many animal species. The sperm storage site constitutes the arena for sperm activation, sperm competition and female sperm choice. Consequently, to understand animal mating systems information on the processes that occur from sperm transfer to fertilization is required. Here, we focus on sperm activation in spiders. Male spiders produce sperm whose cell components are coiled within the sperm cell and that are surrounded by a proteinaceous sheath. These inactive and encapsulated sperm are transferred to the female spermathecae where they are stored for later fertilization. We analyzed the ultrastructural changes of sperm cells during residency time in the female genital system of the orb-web spider Argiope bruennichi. We found three clearly distinguishable sperm conditions: encapsulated sperm (secretion sheath present), decapsulated (secretion sheath absent) and uncoiled sperm (cell components uncoiled, presumably activated). After insemination, sperm remain in the encapsulated condition for several days and become decapsulated after variable periods of time. A variable portion of the decapsulated sperm transforms rapidly to the uncoiled condition resulting in a simultaneous occurrence of decapsulated and uncoiled sperm. After oviposition, only decapsulated and uncoiled sperm are left in the spermathecae, strongly suggesting that the activation process is not reversible. Furthermore, we found four different types of secretion in the spermathecae which might play a role in the decapsulation and activation process. PMID:24039790

Vöcking, Oliver; Uhl, Gabriele; Michalik, Peter

2013-01-01

368

Sperm Dynamics in Spiders (Araneae): Ultrastructural Analysis of the Sperm Activation Process in the Garden Spider Argiope bruennichi (Scopoli, 1772)  

PubMed Central

Storage of sperm inside the female genital tract is an integral phase of reproduction in many animal species. The sperm storage site constitutes the arena for sperm activation, sperm competition and female sperm choice. Consequently, to understand animal mating systems information on the processes that occur from sperm transfer to fertilization is required. Here, we focus on sperm activation in spiders. Male spiders produce sperm whose cell components are coiled within the sperm cell and that are surrounded by a proteinaceous sheath. These inactive and encapsulated sperm are transferred to the female spermathecae where they are stored for later fertilization. We analyzed the ultrastructural changes of sperm cells during residency time in the female genital system of the orb-web spider Argiope bruennichi. We found three clearly distinguishable sperm conditions: encapsulated sperm (secretion sheath present), decapsulated (secretion sheath absent) and uncoiled sperm (cell components uncoiled, presumably activated). After insemination, sperm remain in the encapsulated condition for several days and become decapsulated after variable periods of time. A variable portion of the decapsulated sperm transforms rapidly to the uncoiled condition resulting in a simultaneous occurrence of decapsulated and uncoiled sperm. After oviposition, only decapsulated and uncoiled sperm are left in the spermathecae, strongly suggesting that the activation process is not reversible. Furthermore, we found four different types of secretion in the spermathecae which might play a role in the decapsulation and activation process. PMID:24039790

Vocking, Oliver; Uhl, Gabriele; Michalik, Peter

2013-01-01

369

Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors selectively localized to the acrosomes of mammalian sperm.  

PubMed

Calcium flux is required for the mammalian sperm acrosome reaction, an exocytotic event triggered by egg binding, which results in a dramatic rise in sperm intracellular calcium. Calcium-dependent membrane fusion results in the release of enzymes that facilitate sperm penetration through the zona pellucida during fertilization. We have characterized inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-gated calcium channels and upstream components of the phosphoinositide signaling system in mammalian sperm. Peptide antibodies colocalized G alpha q/11 and the beta 1 isoform of phospholipase C (PLC beta 1) to the anterior acrosomal region of mouse sperm. Western blotting using a polyclonal antibody directed against purified brain IP3 receptor (IP3R) identified a specific 260 kD band in 1% Triton X-100 extracts of rat, hamster, mouse and dog sperm. In each species, IP3R immunostaining localized to the acrosome cap. Scatchard analysis of [3H]IP3 binding to rat sperm sonicates revealed a curvilinear plot with high affinity (Kd = 26 nM, Bmax = 30 pmol/mg) and low affinity (Kd = 1.6 microM, Bmax = 550 pmol/mg) binding sites, reflecting among the highest receptor densities in mammalian tissue. Immunoelectron microscopy confirmed the acrosomal localization in rat sperm. The IP3R fractionated with acrosomes by discontinuous sucrose gradient centrifugation and was enriched in the medium of acrosome-reacted sperm. ATP-dependent 45Ca2+ loading of digitonin permeabilized rat sperm was decreased by 45% in the presence of 10 microM IP3. The IP3-mediated release of calcium was blocked by heparin. Thapsigargin, a sequiterpene lactone inhibitor of the microsomal Ca(2+)-ATPase, stimulated the acrosome reaction of mouse sperm to the same extent as the Ca2+ ionophore, A23187. The failure of caffeine and ryanodine to affect calcium accumulation suggested that thapsigargin acted through an IP3-sensitive store. The presence of G alpha q/11, PLC beta 1 and a functional IP3R in the anterior acrosomal region of mammalian sperm, as well as thapsigargin's induction of the acrosome reaction, implicate IP3-gated calcium release in the mammalian acrosome reaction. PMID:7642703

Walensky, L D; Snyder, S H

1995-08-01

370

Paternal Poly (ADP-ribose) Metabolism Modulates Retention of Inheritable Sperm Histones and Early Embryonic Gene Expression  

PubMed Central

To achieve the extreme nuclear condensation necessary for sperm function, most histones are replaced with protamines during spermiogenesis in mammals. Mature sperm retain only a small fraction of nucleosomes, which are, in part, enriched on gene regulatory sequences, and recent findings suggest that these retained histones provide epigenetic information that regulates expression of a subset of genes involved in embryo development after fertilization. We addressed this tantalizing hypothesis by analyzing two mouse models exhibiting abnormal histone positioning in mature sperm due to impaired poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) metabolism during spermiogenesis and identified altered sperm histone retention in specific gene loci genome-wide using MNase digestion-based enrichment of mononucleosomal DNA. We then set out to determine the extent to which expression of these genes was altered in embryos generated with these sperm. For control sperm, most genes showed some degree of histone association, unexpectedly suggesting that histone retention in sperm genes is not an all-or-none phenomenon and that a small number of histones may remain associated with genes throughout the genome. The amount of retained histones, however, was altered in many loci when PAR metabolism was impaired. To ascertain whether sperm histone association and embryonic gene expression are linked, the transcriptome of individual 2-cell embryos derived from such sperm was determined using microarrays and RNA sequencing. Strikingly, a moderate but statistically significant portion of the genes that were differentially expressed in these embryos also showed different histone retention in the corresponding gene loci in sperm of their fathers. These findings provide new evidence for the existence of a linkage between sperm histone retention and gene expression in the embryo. PMID:24810616

Leu, N. Adrian; Rao, Shilpa; Li, Fan; Gregory, Brian D.; Zalenskaya, Irina A.; Schultz, Richard M.; Meyer, Ralph G.

2014-01-01

371

Inhibition of sperm capacitation and fertilizing capacity by adjudin is mediated by chloride and its channels in humans  

PubMed Central

STUDY QUESTION Does adjudin disrupt chloride ion (Cl?) ion transport function in human sperm and impede sperm capacitation and fertilizing ability in vitro? SUMMARY ANSWER In this study the results indicate that adjudin is a potent blocker of Cl? channels: disrupting Cl? ion transport function results in a decline in sperm capacitation and fertilizing ability in humans in vitro. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Although our previous studies have demonstrated that adjudin exerts its effect by disrupting sertoli-germ cell adhesion junctions, most notably apical ectoplasmic specialization by targeting testin and actin filament bundles that disrupts the actin-based cytoskeleton in sertoli cells, it remains unclear whether adjudin impedes Cl? ion transport function in the human sperm. STUDY DESIGIN, SIZE AND DURATION Semen samples were obtained from 45 fertile men (aged 25–32). Spermatozoa were isolated from the semen in the human tube fluid (HTF) medium by centrifugation through a discontinuous Percoll gradient, and incubated with adjudin at 10 nM–10 µM and/or other reagents under capacitating conditions for 0–5 h. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS We evaluated the effect of adjudin and different reagents on sperm functions with which they were incubated at 37°C. Sperm motility and hyperactivation were analyzed by a computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system. Sperm capacitation and the acrosome reaction were assessed by chlortetracycline fluorescence staining. Sperm fertilizing ability was evaluated by sperm penetration of zona-free hamster egg assay, and cellular cAMP levels in spermatozoa were quantified by the EIA kit. The proteins tyrosine, serine and threonine phosphorylation in the presence or absence of adjudin were analyzed by means of a immunodetection of spermatozoa, especially, compared the effect of adjudin on sperm hyperactivation and capacitation in the complete HTF medium with the Cl?-deficient HTF medium as well as the various Cl? channel blockers. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Adjudin significantly inhibited sperm hyperactivation but not sperm motility. Adjudin-induced inhibition of sperm capacitation was reversible, and it was found to block the rhuZP3?- and progesterone-induced acrosome reaction in a dose-dependent manner. Adjudin also blocked sperm penetration of zona-free hamster eggs, and significantly inhibited both forskolin-activated transmembrane adenylyl cyclase and soluble adenylyl cyclase activities leading to a significant decline in the cellular cAMP levels in human spermatozoa. Adjudin failed to reduce sperm protein tyrosine phosphorylation but it did prevent sperm serine and threonine protein phosphorylation. Interestingly, adjudin was found to exert its inhibitory effects on sperm capacitation and capacitation-associated events only in the complete Cl?-HTF medium but not Cl?-deficient medium, illustrating the likely involvement of Cl?. Adjudin inhibits the fertility capacity of human sperm is mediated by disrupting chloride ion and its transport function. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION This study has examined the effect of adjudin only on human sperm capacitation and fertilizing ability in vitro and thus has some limitations. Further investigations in vivo are needed to confirm adjudin is a potent male contraceptive. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS Our studies demonstrated that adjudin inhibition of capacitation is reversible and its toxicity is low, opening the door for the examination of adjudin as a mediator of male fertility control. Adjudin may be a safe, efficient and reversible male antifertility agent and applicable to initial clinical trials of adjudin as a male antifertility agent in humans. STUDING FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S) This work was supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (2006CB504002), the Nature Science Foundation of China (Nos. 81000244 and 81170554), Zhejiang Project of Science and Technology (2011C23046), the Nature Science Fund of Zhejian

Li, Kun; Ni, Ya; He, Yi; Chen, Wen-Ying; Lu, Jian-Xin; Cheng, C. Yan; Ge, Ren-Shan; Shi, Qi-Xian

2013-01-01

372

Executive function on the Psychology Experiment Building Language tests.  

PubMed

The measurement of executive function has a long history in clinical and experimental neuropsychology. The goal of the present report was to determine the profile of behavior across the lifespan on four computerized measures of executive function contained in the recently developed Psychology Experiment Building Language (PEBL) test battery http://pebl.sourceforge.net/ and evaluate whether this pattern is comparable to data previously obtained with the non-PEBL versions of these tests. Participants (N = 1,223; ages, 5-89 years) completed the PEBL Trail Making Test (pTMT), the Wisconsin Card Sort Test (pWCST; Berg, Journal of General Psychology, 39, 15-22, 1948; Grant & Berg, Journal of Experimental Psychology, 38, 404-411, 1948), the Tower of London (pToL), or a time estimation task (Time-Wall). Age-related effects were found over all four tests, especially as age increased from young childhood through adulthood. For several tests and measures (including pToL and pTMT), age-related slowing was found as age increased in adulthood. Together, these findings indicate that the PEBL tests provide valid and versatile new research tools for measuring executive functions. PMID:21534005

Piper, Brian J; Li, Victoria; Eiwaz, Massarra A; Kobel, Yuliyana V; Benice, Ted S; Chu, Alex M; Olsen, Reid H J; Rice, Douglas Z; Gray, Hilary M; Mueller, Shane T; Raber, Jacob

2012-03-01

373

Fluorescent sperm in a transparent worm: validation of a GFP marker to study sexual selection  

PubMed Central

Background Sexual selection has initially been thought to occur exclusively at the precopulatory stage in terms of contests among males and female mate choice, but research over the last four decades revealed that it often continues after copulation through sperm competition and cryptic female choice. However, studying these postcopulatory processes remains challenging because they occur internally and therefore are often difficult to observe. In the transparent free-living flatworm Macrostomum lignano, a recently established transgenic line that expresses green fluorescent protein (GFP) in all cell types, including sperm, offers a unique opportunity to non-invasively visualise and quantify the sperm of a GFP-expressing donor inside the reproductive tract of wild-type recipients in vivo. We here test several aspects of the reproductive performance of the transgenic individuals and the accuracy of the techniques involved in assessing the GFP-expressing worms and their sperm. We then show the usefulness of these methods in a study on sperm displacement. Results GFP-expressing worms do not differ from wild-type worms in terms of morphology, mating rate and reproductive success. In addition, we show that the GFP signal is reliably and unequivocally expressed by all GFP-expressing individuals observed under epifluorescence illumination. However, the intensity of the GFP signal emitted by sperm of GFP expressing donors can vary (which we show to be at least in part due to sperm ageing) and the GFP marker is inherited according to Mendel’s laws in most, but not all, of the individuals. Nevertheless, we argue these two issues can be addressed with an appropriate experimental design. Finally, we demonstrate the value of the GFP-techniques by comparing the number of GFP-expressing sperm in a wild-type recipient before and after mating with a competing sperm donor, providing clear experimental evidence for sperm displacement in M. lignano. This result suggests that sperm donors can displace previously stored sperm and replace it with their own. Conclusion The availability of the GFP-techniques in a transparent organism provide unique opportunities to visualise and quantify internal processes in the female reproductive tract after mating, which opens new avenues in the study of sexual selection. PMID:24980980

2014-01-01

374

Comparative Evolutionary Psychology of Sperm Competition  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative evolutionary psychological perspective predicts that species that recurrently faced similar adaptive problems may have evolved similar psychological mechanisms to solve these problems. Sperm competition provides an arena in which to assess the heuristic value of such a comparative evolutionary perspective. The sperm competition that results from female infidelity and polyandry presents a similar class of adaptive problems for

Todd K. Shackelford; Aaron T. Goetz

2006-01-01

375

REGULATION OF SPERM NUCLEAR REACTIVATION DURING FERTILIZATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Upon fusion of sperm and oocyte at fertilization, a series of events is initiated whereby the highly compacted sperm nucleus expands and is transformed into a male pronucleus capable of DNA synthesis. The regulation of these early post-fusion fertilization events has been studied...

376

METHODS FOR ASSESSING RAT SPERM MOTILITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) systems are becoming more widely used. ith this spread of technology come more data from toxicology studies, designed to determine if treatment with putative toxicants affects sperm motion parameters. hile these CASA methods provide us with...

377

A review on goat sperm cryopreservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to cryopreserve spermatozoa from all of the domestic species is challenging. Even though all of the cells must endure similar physical stresses associated with the cryopreservation processes, sperm from the different species are very different in size, shape and lipid composition, all of which affect cryosurvival. Thus, when a cryopreservation protocol has been optimized for sperm of one

P. H. Purdy

2006-01-01

378

The importance of functional tests in personalized medicine.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease is the most prevalent disease mainly in the Western society and becoming the leading cause of death worldwide. Standard methods by which healthcare providers screen for cardiovascular disease have only minimally reduced the burden of disease while exponentially increasing costs. As such, more specific and individualized methods for functionally assessing cardiovascular threats are needed to identify properly those at greatest risk, and appropriately treat these patients so as to avoid a fate such as heart attack, stroke, or death. Currently, endothelial function testing-in both the coronary and peripheral circulation-is well established as being associated with the disease process and future cardiovascular events. Improving such testing can lead to a reduction in the risk of future events. Combining this functional assessment of vascular fitness with other, more personalized, testing methods should serve to identify those at the greatest risk of cardiovascular disease earlier and subsequently reduce the affliction of such diseases worldwide. PMID:23908864

Widmer, R Jay; Lerman, Amir

2013-04-01

379

Why so many sperm cells?  

E-print Network

A key limiting step in fertility is the search for the oocyte by spermatozoa. Initially, there are tens of millions of sperm cells, but a single one will make it to the oocyte. This may be one of the most severe selection processes designed by evolution, whose role is yet to be understood. Why is it that such a huge redundancy is required and what does that mean for the search process? we propose to discuss here these questions and consequently a new line of interdisciplinary research needed to find possible answers.

Schuss, K Reynaud Z; Holcman, D

2014-01-01

380

Fucosyl neoglycoprotein binds to mouse epididymal spermatozoa and inhibits sperm binding to the egg zona pellucida.  

PubMed

Glycan epitopes of cellular glycoconjugates act as versatile biochemical signals, and this sugar coding plays an important role in cell-to-cell recognition processes. In this study, our aims were to determine the distribution of sperm receptors with activity for fucosyl- and galactosyl glycans and to address whether monosugar neoglycoproteins functionally mimic the binding between zona pellucida (ZP) glycoproteins and spermatozoa. In mouse epididymal spermatozoa with intact acrosomes, fucopyranosyl bovine serum albumin (BSA-Fuc) bound to the segment of the acrosome, the equatorial segment, and the postacrosome region of the sperm head. Galactosyl BSA (BSA-Gal) binding activity was similar to that of BSA-Fuc, but was weaker. In acrosome-reacted spermatozoa treated with the Ca(2+) ionophore A23187, BSA-zuc binding was lost in the apical segment of the acrosome but remained in the equatorial segment and postacrosome regions. BSA-Gal binding to the equatorial region was increased. In the presence of 2.5 ?g ml(-1) BSA-Fuc, in vitro sperm-ZP binding was significantly decreased, indicating that fucosyl BSA functionally mimics ZP glycoproteins during sperm-egg ZP interactions. At the same concentration, BSA-Gal was not effective. Fucosyl BSA that efficiently inhibited the sperm-ZP binding can mimic the ZP glycoconjugate and has potential for use as a sperm fertility control agent in mouse. PMID:22998388

Oh, Y S; Ahn, H S; Gye, M C

2013-12-01