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Sample records for functionally graded piezoelectric

  1. Finite element analysis of the dynamic behavior of radially polarized Functionally Graded Piezoelectric (FGP) structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandasamy, Ramkumar; Cui, Fangsen

    2016-04-01

    In the traditional layered piezoelectric structures, high stress concentrations could cause the structural failure in interlayer surfaces due to repeated strain reversals. To overcome the performance limitations of these structures, the concept of Functionally Graded Materials (FGMs) has been introduced to improve the lifetime, integrity, and reliability of these structures. In this paper, the free and forced vibration of radially polarized Functionally Graded Piezoelectric (FGP) cylinders under different sets of loading are studied. Material properties such as piezoelectric, elastic and permittivity are assumed to change along its thickness, based on a specific gradation function. Four-parameter power law distribution is used to grade the volume fraction of the constituents comprising of PZT-5A and PZT-5H. Material property is assumed to be temperature dependent for a few numerical studies. The present modeling approach is validated by comparing the free and forced vibration of radially polarized Functionally Graded Piezoelectric (FGP) cylinders with those reported in the literature. The effects of material composition, loading and boundary conditions on the dynamic behavior of FGP cylinder are described. Since the modeling of functionally graded piezoelectric systems is challenging, the present study can help in the design and analysis of FGP cylinders.

  2. Vibration analysis and transient response of a functionally graded piezoelectric curved beam with general boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Zhu; Jin, Guoyong; Ye, Tiangui

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents a unified solution for free and transient vibration analyses of a functionally graded piezoelectric curved beam with general boundary conditions within the framework of Timoshenko beam theory. The formulation is derived by means of the variational principle in conjunction with a modified Fourier series which consists of standard Fourier cosine series and supplemented functions. The mechanical and electrical properties of functionally graded piezoelectric materials (FGPMs) are assumed to vary continuously in the thickness direction and are estimated by Voigt’s rule of mixture. The convergence, accuracy and reliability of the present formulation are demonstrated by comparing the present solutions with those from the literature and finite element analysis. Numerous results for FGPM beams with different boundary conditions, geometrical parameters as well as material distributions are given. Moreover, forced vibration of the FGPM beams subjected to dynamic loads and general boundary conditions are also investigated.

  3. Fretting contact of a functionally graded piezoelectric layered half-plane under a conducting punch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Jie; Ke, Liao-Liang; Wang, Yue-Sheng

    2016-02-01

    This paper investigates the fretting contact between a functionally graded piezoelectric layered half-plane and a rigid cylindrical punch. The electro-elastic properties of functionally graded piezoelectric materials (FGPMs) vary exponentially along the thickness direction. It is assumed that the punch is a perfect conductor with a constant electric potential within the contact region. The two bodies are brought into contact first by a monotonically increasing normal load, and then by a cyclic tangential load which is less than that necessary to cause complete sliding. The whole contact region is composed of an inner stick region and two outer slip regions in which Coulomb’s friction law is assumed. The problem is reduced to a set of coupled Cauchy singular integral equations by using the Fourier integral transform technique and the superposition theorem. An iterative method is used to determine the unknown stick/slip region, normal contact pressure, electric charge and tangential traction. The effects of the resultant electric charge and gradient index on the surface electromechanical fields are discussed during different loading phases. It is found that FGPMs could potentially be applied to improve fretting contact damage in smart devices.

  4. Dispersion relations of elastic waves in one-dimensional piezoelectric/piezomagnetic phononic crystal with functionally graded interlayers.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiao; Wei, Peijun; Lan, Man; Li, Li

    2016-08-01

    The effects of functionally graded interlayers on dispersion relations of elastic waves in a one-dimensional piezoelectric/piezomagnetic phononic crystal are studied in this paper. First, the state transfer equation of the functionally graded interlayer is derived from the motion equation by the reduction of order (from second order to first order). The transfer matrix of the functionally graded interlayer is obtained by solving the state transfer equation with the spatial-varying coefficient. Based on the transfer matrixes of the piezoelectric slab, the piezomagnetic slab and the functionally graded interlayers, the total transfer matrix of a single cell is obtained. Further, the Bloch theorem is used to obtain the resultant dispersion equations of in-plane and anti-plane Bloch waves. The dispersion equations are solved numerically and the numerical results are shown graphically. Five kinds of profiles of functionally graded interlayers between a piezoelectric slab and a piezomagnetic slab are considered. It is shown that the functionally graded interlayers have evident influences on the dispersion curves and the band gaps. PMID:27179141

  5. Piezoelectricity above the Curie temperature? Combining flexoelectricity and functional grading to enable high-temperature electromechanical coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Mbarki, R.; Baccam, N.; Dayal, Kaushik; Sharma, P.

    2014-03-24

    Most technologically relevant ferroelectrics typically lose piezoelectricity above the Curie temperature. This limits their use to relatively low temperatures. In this Letter, exploiting a combination of flexoelectricity and simple functional grading, we propose a strategy for high-temperature electromechanical coupling in a standard thin film configuration. We use continuum modeling to quantitatively demonstrate the possibility of achieving apparent piezoelectric materials with large and temperature-stable electromechanical coupling across a wide temperature range that extends significantly above the Curie temperature. With Barium and Strontium Titanate, as example materials, a significant electromechanical coupling that is potentially temperature-stable up to 900 °C is possible.

  6. Investigation of static and dynamic behavior of functionally graded piezoelectric actuated Poly-Si micro cantilever probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Vibhuti Bhushan; Parashar, Sandeep Kumar

    2016-04-01

    In the present paper a novel functionally graded piezoelectric (FGP) actuated Poly-Si micro cantilever probe is proposed for atomic force microscope. The shear piezoelectric coefficient d15 has much higher value than coupling coefficients d31 and d33, hence in the present work the micro cantilever beam actuated by d15 effect is utilized. The material properties are graded in the thickness direction of actuator by a simple power law. A three dimensional finite element analysis has been performed using COMSOL Multiphysics® (version 4.2) software. Tip deflection and free vibration analysis for the micro cantilever probe has been done. The results presented in the paper shall be useful in the design of micro cantilever probe and their subsequent utilization in atomic force microscopes.

  7. Exact analytical solution of shear-induced flexural vibration of functionally graded piezoelectric beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Pankaj; Parashar, Sandeep Kumar

    2016-05-01

    The priority of this paper is to obtain the exact analytical solution for free flexural vibration of FGPM beam actuated using the d15 effect. In piezoelectric actuators, the potential use of d15 effect has been of particular interest for engineering applications since shear piezoelectric coefficient d15 is much higher than the other piezoelectric coupling constants d31 and d33. The applications of shear actuators are to induce and control the flexural vibrations of beams and plates. In this study, a modified Timoshenko beam theory is used where electric potential is assumed to vary sinusoidaly along the thickness direction. The material properties are assumed to be graded across the thickness in accordance with power law distribution. Hamilton`s principle is employed to obtain the equations of motion along with the associated boundary conditions for FGPM beams. Exact analytical solution is derived thus obtained equations of motion. Results for clamped-clamped and clamped-free boundary conditions are presented. The presented result and method shell serve as benchmark for comparing the results obtained from the other approximate methods.

  8. Love-type waves in functionally graded piezoelectric material (FGPM) sandwiched between initially stressed layer and elastic substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saroj, Pradeep K.; Sahu, S. A.; Chaudhary, S.; Chattopadhyay, A.

    2015-10-01

    This paper investigates the propagation behavior of Love-type surface waves in three-layered composite structure with initial stress. The composite structure has been taken in such a way that a functionally graded piezoelectric material (FGPM) layer is bonded between initially stressed piezoelectric upper layer and an elastic substrate. Using the method of separation of variables, frequency equation for the considered wave has been established in the form of determinant for electrical open and short cases on free surface. The bisection method iteration technique has been used to find the roots of the dispersion relations which give the modes for electrical open and short cases. The effects of gradient variation of material constant and initial stress on the phase velocity of surface waves are discussed. Dependence of thickness on each parameter of the study has been shown explicitly. Study has been also done to show the existence of cut-off frequency. Graphical representation has been done to exhibit the findings. The obtained results are significant for the investigation and characterization of Love-type waves in FGPM-layered media.

  9. Functionally graded boron carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Petrovic, J.J.; McClellan, K.J.; Kise, C.D.; Hoover, R.C.; Scarborough, W.K.

    1998-12-31

    Lightweight body armor is important for the protection of US soldiers in the field. Here, fabrication techniques were developed for producing graded porosity B{sub 4}C, and for producing aluminum-B{sub 4}C and epoxy-B{sub 4}C functionally graded materials. The key fabrication aspect was obtaining the graded porosity B{sub 4}C. The feasibility of producing graded porosity B{sub 4}C using a grading of carbon densification aid produced from a gradient of furfuryl alcohol carbon precursor was demonstrated. This approach is quite promising, but it was not optimized in the present investigation. Graded porosity B{sub 4}C materials were produced by a layering approach using different size distributions of B{sub 4}C powders in the green state, and then densifying the layered assembly by hot pressing at 1,900 C. The hardness of uninfiltrated graded B{sub 4}C, aluminum infiltrated B{sub 4}C, and epoxy infiltrated B{sub 4}C was observed to be similar.

  10. Spatial bandwidth enlargement and field enhancement of shear horizontal waves in finite graded piezoelectric layered media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yanlong

    2015-09-01

    Shear horizontal (SH) wave propagation in finite graded piezoelectric layered media is investigated by transfer matrix method. Different from the previous studies on SH wave propagation in completely periodic layered media, calculations on band structure and transmission in this paper show that the graded layered media possess very large band gaps. Harmonic wave simulation by finite element method (FEM) confirms that the reason of bandwidth enlargement is that waves within the band gap ranges are spatially enhanced and stopped by the corresponding graded units. The study suggests that the graded structure possesses the property of manipulating elastic waves spatially, which shows potential applications in strengthening energy trapping and harvesting.

  11. Modeling functional piezoelectricity in perovskite superlattices with competing instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swartz, Charles; Wu, Xifan

    2012-02-01

    Multi-component Perovskite Superlattices (SLs) of the form ABO3, provide a very promising avenue for the design of materials with multifunctional properties. Furthermore the interfaces of such multi-component SLs are home to competing anti-ferrodistortive and ferroelectric instabilities which can produce unexpected functionalities. However, at present first principles calculations exceeding more than 10 units cells, are particularly costly as they scale with the valence electrons as N^3. We present a first-principles modeling technique that allows us to accurately model the piezoelectric strains of paraelectric/ferroelectric SLs, BaTiO3/CaTiO3 and PbTiO3/SrTiO3, under a fixed displacement field. The model is based on a maximally localized wannier center layer polarization technique, as well as a truncated cluster expansion, that makes use of the fact that such PE/FE SLs have been shown to have highly localized ionic and electronic interface effects. The prediction of the piezoelectricity for a SL of an arbitrary stacking sequence will be demonstrated. We also use our model to conduct a systemic study of the interface effects on piezoelectric response in the above SLs paying special attention to a strong non-linear effect observed in Bulk SrTiO3.

  12. Interface cracks in piezoelectric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govorukha, V.; Kamlah, M.; Loboda, V.; Lapusta, Y.

    2016-02-01

    Due to their intrinsic electromechanical coupling behavior, piezoelectric materials are widely used in sensors, actuators and other modern technologies. It is well known that piezoelectric ceramics are very brittle and susceptible to fracture. In many cases, fracture occurs at interfaces as debonding and cracks. This leads to an undesired degradation of electrical and mechanical performance. Because of the practical and fundamental importance of the problem, interface cracks in piezoelectric materials have been actively studied in the last few decades. This review provides a comprehensive survey of recent works on cracks situated at the interface of two materials, at least one of which has piezoelectric or piezoelectromagnetic properties. Different electric boundary conditions along the crack faces are discussed. The oscillating and contact zone models for in-plane straight interface cracks between two dissimilar piezoelectric materials or between piezoelectric and non-piezoelectric ones are reviewed. Different peculiarities related to the investigation of interface cracks in piezoelectric materials for the anti-plane case, for functionally graded and thermopiezoelectric materials are presented. Papers related to magnetoelectroelastic bimaterials, to steady state motion of interface cracks in piezoelectric bimaterials and to circular arc-cracks at the interface of piezoelectric materials are reviewed, and various methods used to address these problems are discussed. The review concludes with an outlook on future research directions.

  13. Functionally Graded Adhesives for Composite Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stapleton, Scott E.; Waas, Anthony M.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    Adhesives with functionally graded material properties are being considered for use in adhesively bonded joints to reduce the peel stress concentrations located near adherend discontinuities. Several practical concerns impede the actual use of such adhesives. These include increased manufacturing complications, alterations to the grading due to adhesive flow during manufacturing, and whether changing the loading conditions significantly impact the effectiveness of the grading. An analytical study is conducted to address these three concerns. An enhanced joint finite element, which uses an analytical formulation to obtain exact shape functions, is used to model the joint. Furthermore, proof of concept testing is conducted to show the potential advantages of functionally graded adhesives. In this study, grading is achieved by strategically placing glass beads within the adhesive layer at different densities along the joint.

  14. A review of piezoelectric polymers as functional materials for electromechanical transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadan, Khaled S.; Sameoto, D.; Evoy, S.

    2014-03-01

    Polymer based MEMS and microfluidic devices have the advantages of mechanical flexibility, lower fabrication cost and faster processing over silicon based ones. Also, many polymer materials are considered biocompatible and can be used in biological applications. A valuable class of polymers for microfabricated devices is piezoelectric functional polymers. In addition to the normal advantages of polymers, piezoelectric polymers can be directly used as an active material in different transduction applications. This paper gives an overview of piezoelectric polymers based on their operating principle. This includes three main categories: bulk piezoelectric polymers, piezocomposites and voided charged polymers. State-of-the-art piezopolymers of each category are presented with a focus on fabrication techniques and material properties. A comparison between the different piezoelectric polymers and common inorganic piezoelectric materials (PZT, ZnO, AlN and PMN-PT) is also provided in terms of piezoelectric properties. The use of piezopolymers in different electromechanical devices is also presented. This includes tactile sensors, energy harvesters, acoustic transducers and inertial sensors.

  15. Fatigue Characterization of Functionally Graded Metallic Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, F. S.

    2008-02-01

    Functionally graded components exhibit spatial variations of mechanical properties in contrast with, and as an alternative to, purely homogeneous components. A large class of graded materials, however, are in fact mostly homogeneous materials with property variations (chemical or mechanical) restricted to a specific area or layer produced by applying for example a coating or by introducing sub-surface residual stresses. However, it is also possible to obtain graded materials with a smooth transition of mechanical properties along the entire component, for example in a 40 mm component. This is possible, for example, by using centrifugal casting technique or incremental melting and solidification technique. In this paper we will study fully metallic functionally graded components with a smooth gradient, focusing on fatigue crack propagation. Fatigue propagation will be assessed in the direction parallel to the gradation (in different homogeneous layers of the functionally graded component) to assess what would be fatigue crack propagation on the direction perpendicular to the gradation. Fatigue crack growth rate (standard mode I fatigue crack growth) will be correlated to the mode I stress intensity factor range. Other mechanical properties of different layers of the component (Young's modulus) will also be considered in this analysis. The effect of residual stresses along the component gradation on crack propagation will also be taken into account. A qualitative analysis of the effects of some important features, present in functionally graded materials, will be made based on the obtained results.

  16. Fracture Toughness of Functionally Graded Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazari, Ali; Mohandesi, Jamshid Aghazadeh; Riahi, Shadi

    2012-04-01

    In this study, fracture toughness of functionally graded steels in both crack divider and crack arrester configurations has been studied. Spot-welded plain carbon steel and austenitic stainless steel with different thicknesses and arrangements were used as electrodes of electroslag remelting to produce functionally graded steels. Fracture toughness of the specimens in crack divider configuration was found to depend on the arrangements of the primary electrodes' pieces together with the type of the containing phases. In crack arrester configuration, the fracture toughness was found to depend on the crack tip position and the distance of the crack tip with respect to the bainitic or martensitic intermediate layers.

  17. Analytical Sensor Response Function of Viscosity Sensors Based on Layered Piezoelectric Thickness Shear Resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benes, Ewald; Nowotny, Helmut; Braun, Stefan; Radel, Stefan; Gröschl, Martin

    Resonant piezoelectric sensors based on bulk acoustic wave (BAW) thickness shear resonators are promising for the inline measurement of fluid viscosity, e.g., in industrial processes. The sensor response function can be derived from the general rigorous transfer matrix description of one-dimensional layered structures consisting of piezoelectric and non-piezoelectric layers of arbitrary number. This model according to Nowotny et al. provides a complete analytical description of the electrical and mechanical behaviour of such structures with two electrodes and arbitrary acoustic termination impedances (Rig-1d-Model). We apply this model to derive the sensor response functions and the mechanical displacement curves of the following configurations appropriate for viscosity sensors: An AT cut quartz crystal plate in contact with vacuum at the backside plane and with the liquid under investigation at the front side plane (QL). An AT cut quartz crystal in contact with the liquid under investigation at both sides (LQL). It is shown that in the QL case the originally only heuristically introduced and well established sensor response function according to Kanasawa can be derived from the Rig-1d-Model by introducing minor approximations. Experimental results are presented for the LQL configuration using an N1000 viscosity reference oil as test fluid.

  18. Impact of Functionally Graded Cylinders: Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aboudi, Jacob; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Arnold, S. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This final report summarizes the work funded under the Grant NAG3-2411 during the 04/05/2000-04/04/2001 period. The objective of this one-year project was to generalize the theoretical framework of the two-dimensional higher-order theory for the analysis of cylindrical functionally graded materials/structural components employed in advanced aircraft engines developed under past NASA Glenn funding. The completed generalization significantly broadens the theory's range of applicability through the incorporation of dynamic impact loading capability into its framework. Thus, it makes possible the assessment of the effect of damage due to fuel impurities, or the presence of submicron-level debris, on the life of functionally graded structural components. Applications involving advanced turbine blades and structural components for the reusable-launch vehicle (RLV) currently under development will benefit from the completed work. The theory's predictive capability is demonstrated through a numerical simulation of a one-dimensional wave propagation set up by an impulse load in a layered half-plane. Full benefit of the completed generalization of the higher-order theory described in this report will be realized upon the development of a related computer code.

  19. Modeling Bamboo as a Functionally Graded Material

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, Emilio Carlos Nelli; Walters, Matthew C.; Paulino, Glaucio H.

    2008-02-15

    Natural fibers are promising for engineering applications due to their low cost. They are abundantly available in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, and they can be employed as construction materials. Among natural fibers, bamboo has been widely used for housing construction around the world. Bamboo is an optimized composite material which exploits the concept of Functionally Graded Material (FGM). Biological structures, such as bamboo, are composite materials that have complicated shapes and material distribution inside their domain, and thus the use of numerical methods such as the finite element method and multiscale methods such as homogenization, can help to further understanding of the mechanical behavior of these materials. The objective of this work is to explore techniques such as the finite element method and homogenization to investigate the structural behavior of bamboo. The finite element formulation uses graded finite elements to capture the varying material distribution through the bamboo wall. To observe bamboo behavior under applied loads, simulations are conducted considering a spatially-varying Young's modulus, an averaged Young's modulus, and orthotropic constitutive properties obtained from homogenization theory. The homogenization procedure uses effective, axisymmetric properties estimated from the spatially-varying bamboo composite. Three-dimensional models of bamboo cells were built and simulated under tension, torsion, and bending load cases.

  20. Fracture behaviour of functionally graded materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marur, Prabhakar R.

    Functionally graded materials (FGMs) are special composites consisting of two constituent phases whose composition change continuously along one direction. The gradual transition in material properties alleviates thermal mismatch problems experienced by cladded and coated components. The microstructure of FGM is usually heterogenous and the dominant failure mode of FGM is the crack initiation and propagation from the inclusions. Hence, the knowledge of crack growth and propagation is important in designing components involving FGM. The interface crack problem is studied by examining the asymptotic behavior of stress and displacement fields around the crack in FGM, and by comparing the results with known solutions for bimaterial systems. The, focus is on characterizing the influence of material nonhomogeneity on the fracture parameters, and determining the fracture strength of FGM under quasi-static and dynamic loading. The numerical and experimental techniques developed in this study are unified for both bimaterial and FGM, permitting direct comparison of fracture parameters and test results obtained for different material types. A crack opening displacement (COD) extrapolation technique is developed for the numerical computation of the fracture parameters from finite element analysis, and a new strain gage technique is devised for complex SIF measurement in both bimaterial and FGM. A simple and highly repeatable FGM manufacturing process has been established, and the continuous variation of material properties is evaluated using a novel technique involving ultrasonic wave velocity and local contact stiffness measurements. The nature of singular field around the crack in FGM is studied by varying material gradient, the position of the crack in the graded region and the crack length. The various fracture parameters are compared with that computed for homogenous and bimaterial counterparts. The numerical results show that the crack in FGM, regardless of the position

  1. Functionally Graded Nickel Matrix Alumina Reinforced Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Austin; Farias, Stephen; Cammarata, Robert

    2013-03-01

    Hierarchical structured nanocomposites are of great interest particularly in the fields of defense, aeronautics, and metamaterials. Previous work has demonstrated the ability to create uniform nickel matrices embedded with aluminum oxide nanoparticles via electrodeposition using a rotating disk electrode (RDE). This process allows for controlled enhancement of yield strength without negatively affecting other properties. The speed of the RDE controls the rate of particle incorporation, and therefore, particle volume fraction. Hierarchical structures can be formed by simply changing the rotation rate during electrodeposition. This allows for controlled variations of composite structure throughout the material. Simply layered and functionally graded hierarchical materials have been produced using this method with structural resolution of the order of single microns. These layered structures produced unique mechanical properties, even exceeding those of uniformly dispersed composites.

  2. Green's functions of one-dimensional quasicrystal bi-material with piezoelectric effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liangliang; Wu, Di; Xu, Wenshuai; Yang, Lianzhi; Ricoeur, Andreas; Wang, Zhibin; Gao, Yang

    2016-09-01

    Based on the Stroh formalism of one-dimensional quasicrystals with piezoelectric effect, the problems of an infinite plane composed of two different quasicrystal half-planes are taken into account. The solutions of the internal and interfacial Green's functions of quasicrystal bi-material are obtained. Moreover, numerical examples are analyzed for a quasicrystal bi-material subjected to line forces or line dislocations, showing the contour maps of the coupled fields. The impacts of changing material constants on the coupled field components are investigated.

  3. The fabrication and material characterization of PZT based functionally graded piezoceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Paul W.; Brei, Diann; Halloran, John W.

    2005-05-01

    Functionally Graded Piezoceramics (FGP) increase actuator lifetime and provide complex deformations; however, to reap these benefits sophisticated grading and fabrication techniques beyond the conventional layered bonding techniques are required. This paper introduces the Dual Electro/Piezo Property (DEPP) gradient technique via MicroFabrication through CoeXtrusion (MFCX). The Dual Electro/Piezo Property (DEPP) grading technique pairs a high displacement lead zirconate titanate (PZT) piezoceramic with a high permittivity barium titanate (BT) dielectric. These compatible materials act synergistically to form dramatic gradients in permittivity across the structure, concentrating the electric field in the more piezoelectrically active region leading to electrically-efficient, large-displacement actuators; with the benefit of increased reliability stemming from the continuous gradients and monolithic nature of the ceramic. The DEPP variation was first evaluated independently of the MFCX process through fabrication and experimental characterization of a powder pressed bimorph. While simple one-dimensionally graded FGPs can be realized by this process, MFCX is needed for any complex, multidimensional gradient. The MFCX process was adapted for DEPP grading and demonstrated by creating a more complex linearly-graded FGP. Both the bimorph and linearly graded specimens had good material quality and generated high displacements correlating well with published FGP theory; with the linear gradient reducing internal stress levels, extending actuator lifetime. This paper presents a general FGP methodology that couples grading and fabrication to generate high yield, low cost monolithic actuators with complicated one-dimensional gradients. Extension of this research will pave the way for more complicated gradients yielding such deformation capabilities as warping, twisting, rippling, and dimpling.

  4. Functionally Graded Nanophase Beryllium/Carbon Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2003-01-01

    Beryllium, beryllium alloys, beryllium carbide, and carbon are the ingredients of a class of nanophase Be/Be2C/C composite materials that can be formulated and functionally graded to suit a variety of applications. In a typical case, such a composite consists of a first layer of either pure beryllium or a beryllium alloy, a second layer of B2C, and a third layer of nanophase sintered carbon derived from fullerenes and nanotubes. The three layers are interconnected through interpenetrating spongelike structures. These Be/Be2C/C composite materials are similar to Co/WC/diamond functionally graded composite materials, except that (1) W and Co are replaced by Be and alloys thereof and (2) diamond is replaced by sintered carbon derived from fullerenes and nanotubes. (Optionally, one could form a Be/Be2C/diamond composite.) Because Be is lighter than W and Co, the present Be/Be2C/C composites weigh less than do the corresponding Co/WC/diamond composites. The nanophase carbon is almost as hard as diamond. WC/Co is the toughest material. It is widely used for drilling, digging, and machining. However, the fact that W is a heavy element (that is, has high atomic mass and mass density) makes W unattractive for applications in which weight is a severe disadvantage. Be is the lightest tough element, but its toughness is less than that of WC/Co alloy. Be strengthened by nanophase carbon is much tougher than pure or alloy Be. The nanophase carbon has an unsurpassed strength-to-weight ratio. The Be/Be2C/C composite materials are especially attractive for terrestrial and aerospace applications in which there are requirements for light weight along with the high strength and toughness of the denser Co/WC/diamond materials. These materials could be incorporated into diverse components, including cutting tools, bearings, rocket nozzles, and shields. Moreover, because Be and C are effective as neutron moderators, Be/Be2C/C composites could be attractive for some nuclear applications.

  5. Fatigue Crack Growth Analysis Models for Functionally Graded Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Dag, Serkan; Yildirim, Bora; Sabuncuoglu, Baris

    2008-02-15

    The objective of this study is to develop crack growth analysis methods for functionally graded materials (FGMs) subjected to mode I cyclic loading. The study presents finite elements based computational procedures for both two and three dimensional problems to examine fatigue crack growth in functionally graded materials. Developed methods allow the computation of crack length and generation of crack front profile for a graded medium subjected to fluctuating stresses. The results presented for an elliptical crack embedded in a functionally graded medium, illustrate the competing effects of ellipse aspect ratio and material property gradation on the fatigue crack growth behavior.

  6. Functionally graded mullite coatings for gas turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Tushar

    The next generation of heat exchangers and gas turbines require high performance materials as they need to operate at higher temperatures for higher efficiency. SiC and Si3N4 are promising candidates as they have excellent high temperature properties. However, when used in complex combustion environments found in gas-turbine applications, these materials have two major concerns; namely hot-corrosion and recession. It is well established that environmental barrier coatings (EBC) can be utilized to overcome these limitations. Although chemical vapor deposited (CVD) mullite (3Al2O 3.2SiO2) coatings developed before this study have shown promise in protecting Si-based substrates, there is concern that the silica content within the mullite coating itself might be susceptible to hot-corrosion and recession during long term exposure to corrosive atmospheres containing Na/V salts and water vapor. There is thus strong motivation to substantially reduce or even virtually eliminate the silica component from the surfaces of mullite coatings that are in direct contact with atmospheres containing corrosive oxides and steam. In this study, CVD has been used to deposit mullite coatings with potential promise to protect Si-based ceramics for high temperature applications. The composition of these functionally graded mullite coatings was varied from silica-rich close to the coating/substrate (SiC) interface for coefficient of thermal expansion match to alumina-rich towards the outer surface of the coating. In the process, the highest alumina-rich mullite ever reported has been deposited. The phase transformation and hot-corrosion behavior of the coatings was also investigated in this work. The coatings show immense potential to protect Si-based ceramics. It is expected that these coatings will have very broad impact by enabling gas turbines to operate at higher temperatures leading to improved fuel efficiency and reduced emissions.

  7. Aeroelastic Tailoring of a Plate Wing with Functionally Graded Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunning, Peter D.; Stanford, Bret K.; Kim, H. Alicia; Jutte, Christine V.

    2014-01-01

    This work explores the use of functionally graded materials for the aeroelastic tailoring of a metallic cantilevered plate-like wing. Pareto trade-off curves between dynamic stability (flutter) and static aeroelastic stresses are obtained for a variety of grading strategies. A key comparison is between the effectiveness of material grading, geometric grading (i.e., plate thickness variations), and using both simultaneously. The introduction of material grading does, in some cases, improve the aeroelastic performance. This improvement, and the physical mechanism upon which it is based, depends on numerous factors: the two sets of metallic material parameters used for grading, the sweep of the plate, the aspect ratio of the plate, and whether the material is graded continuously or discretely.

  8. Large deflection of flexible tapered functionally graded beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davoodinik, A. R.; Rahimi, G. H.

    2011-10-01

    In this paper the semi-analytical analyses of the flexible cantilever tapered functionally graded beam under combined inclined end loading and intermediate loading are studied. In order to derive the fully non-linear equations governing the non-linear deformation, a curvilinear coordinate system is introduced. A general non-linear second order differential equation that governs the shape of a deflected beam is derived based on the geometric nonlinearities, infinitesimal local displacements and local rotation concepts with remarkable physical properties of functionally graded materials. The solutions obtained from semi-analytical methods are numerically compared with the existing elliptic integral solution for the case of a flexible uniform cantilever functionally graded beam. The effects of taper ratio, inclined end load angle and material property gradient on large deflection of the beam are evaluated. The Adomian decomposition method will be useful toward the design of tapered functionally graded compliant mechanisms driven by smart actuators.

  9. Impact Energy of Functionally Graded Steels in Crack Arrester Configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazari, A.; Aghazadeh Mohandesi, J.

    2010-10-01

    Charpy impact energy of functionally graded steels produced by electroslag remelting composed of graded ferrite and austenite layers together with bainite or martensite intermediate layer in the form of crack arrester configuration has been investigated. The results obtained in the present study indicate that the notch tip position with respect to bainite or martensite layer significantly affects the impact energy. The closer the notch tip to the tougher layer, the higher the impact energy of the composite due to increment of energy absorbed by plastic deformation zone ahead of the notch and vice versa. Empirical relationships have been determined to correlate the impact energy of functionally graded steels to the morphology of layers.

  10. Method of making a functionally graded material

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, Robert J.; Menchhofer, Paul A.; Walls, Claudia A.; Moorhead, Arthur J.

    2002-01-01

    A gelcasting method of making an internally graded article alternatively includes the steps of: preparing a slurry including a least two different phases suspended in a gelcasting solution, the phases characterized by having different settling characteristics; casting the slurry into a mold having a selected shape; allowing the slurry to stand for a sufficient period of time to permit desired gravitational fractionation in order to achieve a vertical compositional gradient in the molded slurry; gelling the slurry to form a solid gel while preserving the vertical compositional gradient in the molded slurry; drying the gel to form a dried green body; and sintering the dry green body to form a solid object, at least one property thereof varying along the vertical direction because of the compositional gradient in the molded slurry.

  11. Method of making a functionally graded material

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, Robert J.; Menchhofer, Paul A.; Walls, Claudia A.

    2001-01-01

    A gelcasting method of making an internally graded article includes the steps of: preparing at least two slurries, each of the slurries including a different gelcastable powder suspended in a gelcasting solution, the slurries characterized by having comparable shrinkage upon drying and sintering thereof; casting the slurries into a mold having a selected shape, wherein relative proportions of the slurries is varied in at least one direction within the selected shape; gelling the slurries to form a solid gel while preserving the variation in relative proportions of the slurries; drying the gel to form a dried green body; and sintering the dry green body to form a solid object, at least one property thereof varying because of the variation in relative proportions of the starting slurries. A gelcasting method of making an internally graded article alternatively includes the steps of: preparing a slurry including a least two different phases suspended in a gelcasting solution, the phases characterized by having different settling characteristics; casting the slurry into a mold having a selected shape; allowing the slurry to stand for a sufficient period of time to permit desired gravitational fractionation in order to achieve a vertical compositional gradient in the molded slurry; gelling the slurry to form a solid gel while preserving the vertical compositional gradient in the molded slurry; drying the gel to form a dried green body; and sintering the dry green body to form a solid object, at least one property thereof varying along the vertical direction because of the compositional gradient in the molded slurry.

  12. Ceramic/polymer functionally graded material (FGM) lightweight armor system

    SciTech Connect

    Petrovic, J.J.; McClellan, K.J.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Functionally graded material is an enabling technology for lightweight body armor improvements. The objective was to demonstrate the ability to produce functionally graded ceramic-polymer and ceramic-metal lightweight armor materials. This objective involved two aspects. The first and key aspect was the development of graded-porosity boron-carbide ceramic microstructures. The second aspect was the development of techniques for liquid infiltration of lightweight metals and polymers into the graded-porosity ceramic. The authors were successful in synthesizing boron-carbide ceramic microstructures with graded porosity. These graded-porosity boron-carbide hot-pressed pieces were then successfully liquid-infiltrated in vacuum with molten aluminum at 1,300 C, and with liquid polymers at room temperature. Thus, they were able to demonstrate the feasibility of producing boron carbide-aluminum and boron carbide-polymer functionally graded materials.

  13. Converse Piezoelectricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springborg, Michael; Kirtman, Bernard

    2013-03-01

    Piezoelectricity results from a coupling between responses to mechanical and electric perturbations and leads to changes in the polarization due to strain or stress or, alternatively, the occurrence of strain as a function of an applied external, electrostatic field (i.e., converse piezoelectricity). Theoretical studies of those properties for extended systems require accordingly that their dipole moment or polarization can be calculated. However, whereas the definition of the operator for the dipole moment for any finite system is trivial, it is only within the last 2 decades that the expressions for the equivalent operator in the independent-particle approximation for the infinite and periodic system have been presented. Here, we demonstrate that the so called branch dependence of the polarization for the infinite, periodic system is related to physical observables in contrast to what often is assumed. This is related to the finding that converse piezoelectric properties depend both on the surfaces of the samples of interest even for samples with size well above the thermodynamic limit. However, we shall demonstrate that these properties can be calculated without explicitly taking the surfaces into account. Both the foundations and results for real system shall be presented.

  14. Density functional studies on wurtzite piezotronic transistors: influence of different semiconductors and metals on piezoelectric charge distribution and Schottky barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Zhang, Aihua; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-05-01

    The mechanical–electrical coupling properties of piezoelectric semiconductors endow these materials with novel device applications in microelectromechanical systems, sensors, human–computer interfaces, etc. When an applied strain is exerted on a piezoelectric semiconductor, piezoelectric charges are generated at the surface or interface of the semiconductor, which can be utilized to control the electronic transport characteristics. This is the fundamental working mechanism of piezotronic devices, called the piezotronic effect. In the present report, a series of piezotronic transistors composed of different electrode metals and semiconductors is examined using density functional theory calculation. It is found that the influence of semiconductors on the piezotronic effect is larger than the impact of metals, and GaN and CdS are promising candidates for piezotronic and piezo-phototronic devices, respectively. The width of the piezoelectric charge distribution obtained in the present study can be used as a parameter in classical finite-element-method based simulations, which provide guidance on designing high-performance piezotronic devices.

  15. Density functional studies on wurtzite piezotronic transistors: influence of different semiconductors and metals on piezoelectric charge distribution and Schottky barrier.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Zhang, Aihua; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-05-20

    The mechanical-electrical coupling properties of piezoelectric semiconductors endow these materials with novel device applications in microelectromechanical systems, sensors, human-computer interfaces, etc. When an applied strain is exerted on a piezoelectric semiconductor, piezoelectric charges are generated at the surface or interface of the semiconductor, which can be utilized to control the electronic transport characteristics. This is the fundamental working mechanism of piezotronic devices, called the piezotronic effect. In the present report, a series of piezotronic transistors composed of different electrode metals and semiconductors is examined using density functional theory calculation. It is found that the influence of semiconductors on the piezotronic effect is larger than the impact of metals, and GaN and CdS are promising candidates for piezotronic and piezo-phototronic devices, respectively. The width of the piezoelectric charge distribution obtained in the present study can be used as a parameter in classical finite-element-method based simulations, which provide guidance on designing high-performance piezotronic devices. PMID:27053577

  16. Green's function evaluation for three-dimensional exponentially graded elasticity

    SciTech Connect

    Criado Portero, Rafael M; Gray, Leonard J; Mantic, Vladislav; Paris, Federico

    2008-01-01

    The numerical implementation of the Green's function for an isotropic exponentially graded three dimensional elastic solid is reported. The formulas for the nonsingular {\\lq}grading term{\\rq} in this Green's function, originally deduced by Martin et al., \\emph{Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A, 458, 1931-1947, 2000}, are quite complicated, and a small error in one of the formulas is corrected. The evaluation of the fundamental solution is tested by employing indirect boundary integral formulation using a Galerkin approximation to solve several problems having analytic solutions. The numerical results indicate that the Green's function formulas, and their evaluation, are correct.

  17. Designing functionally graded materials with superior load-bearing properties

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Sun, Ming-jie; Zhang, Denzil

    2011-01-01

    Ceramic prostheses often fail from fracture and wear. We hypothesize that these failures may be substantially mitigated by an appropriate grading of elastic modulus at the ceramic surface. In this study, we elucidate the effect of elastic modulus profile on the flexural damage resistance of functionally graded materials (FGMs), providing theoretical guidlines for designing FGM with superior load-bearing property. The Young's modulus of the graded structure is assumed to vary in a power-law relation with a scaling exponent n; this is in accordance with experimental observations from our laboratory and elsewhere. Based on the theory for bending of graded beams, we examine the effect of n value and bulk-to-surface modulus ratio (Eb/Es) on stress distribution through the graded layer. Theory predicts that a low exponent (0.15 < n < 0.5), coupled with a relatively small modulus ratio (3 < Eb/Es < 6), is most desirable for reducing the maximum stress and transferring it into the interior, while keeping the surface stress low. Experimentally, we demonstrate that elastically graded materials with various n values and Eb/Es ratios can be fabricated by infiltrating alumina and zirconia with a low-modulus glass. Flexural tests show that graded alumina and zirconia with suitable values of these parameters exhibit superior load-bearing capacity, 20% to 50% higher than their homogeneous counterparts. Improving load-bearing capacity of ceramic materials could have broad impacts on biomedical, civil, structural, and an array of other engineering applications. PMID:22178651

  18. Piezoelectric Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, J. S.; Ounaies, Z.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to detail the current theoretical understanding of the origin of piezoelectric and ferroelectric phenomena in polymers; to present the state-of-the-art in piezoelectric polymers and emerging material systems that exhibit promising properties; and to discuss key characterization methods, fundamental modeling approaches, and applications of piezoelectric polymers. Piezoelectric polymers have been known to exist for more than forty years, but in recent years they have gained notoriety as a valuable class of smart materials.

  19. Higher-Order Theory for Functionally Graded Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aboudi, Jacob; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Arnold, Steven M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the full generalization of the Cartesian coordinate-based higher-order theory for functionally graded materials developed by the authors during the past several years. This theory circumvents the problematic use of the standard micromechanical approach, based on the concept of a representative volume element, commonly employed in the analysis of functionally graded composites by explicitly coupling the local (microstructural) and global (macrostructural) responses. The theoretical framework is based on volumetric averaging of the various field quantities, together with imposition of boundary and interfacial conditions in an average sense between the subvolumes used to characterize the composite's functionally graded microstructure. The generalization outlined herein involves extension of the theoretical framework to enable the analysis of materials characterized by spatially variable microstructures in three directions. Specialization of the generalized theoretical framework to previously published versions of the higher-order theory for materials functionally graded in one and two directions is demonstrated. In the applications part of the paper we summarize the major findings obtained with the one-directional and two-directional versions of the higher-order theory. The results illustrate both the fundamental issues related to the influence of microstructure on microscopic and macroscopic quantities governing the response of composites and the technologically important applications. A major issue addressed herein is the applicability of the classical homogenization schemes in the analysis of functionally graded materials. The technologically important applications illustrate the utility of functionally graded microstructures in tailoring the response of structural components in a variety of applications involving uniform and gradient thermomechanical loading.

  20. Piezoelectric MEMS for energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanno, Isaku

    2015-12-01

    Recently, piezoelectric MEMS have been intensively investigated to create new functional microdevices, and some of them have already been commercialized such as MEMS gyrosensors or miropumps of inkjet printer head. Piezoelectric energy harvesting is considered to be one of the promising future applications of piezoelectric MEMS. In this report, we introduce the deposition of the piezoelectric PZT thin films as well as lead-free KNN thin films. We fabricated piezoelectric energy harvesters of PZT and KNN thin films deposited on stainless steel cantilevers and compared their power generation performance.

  1. Piezoelectric valve

    SciTech Connect

    Petrenko, Serhiy Fedorovich

    2013-01-15

    A motorized valve has a housing having an inlet and an outlet to be connected to a pipeline, a saddle connected with the housing, a turn plug having a rod, the turn plug cooperating with the saddle, and a drive for turning the valve body and formed as a piezoelectric drive, the piezoelectric drive including a piezoelectric generator of radially directed standing acoustic waves, which is connected with the housing and is connectable with a pulse current source, and a rotor operatively connected with the piezoelectric generator and kinematically connected with the rod of the turn plug so as to turn the turn plug when the rotor is actuated by the piezoelectric generator.

  2. Design Requirements for Amorphous Piezoelectric Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ounaies, Z.; Young, J. A.; Harrison, J. S.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of the piezoelectric activity in amorphous piezoelectric polymers is presented. The criteria required to render a polymer piezoelectric are discussed. Although piezoelectricity is a coupling between mechanical and electrical properties, most research has concentrated on the electrical properties of potentially piezoelectric polymers. In this work, we present comparative mechanical data as a function of temperature and offer a summary of polarization and electromechanical properties for each of the polymers considered.

  3. Describing Communicative Functions in a First Grade Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrather, Nancy

    The purpose of this study was to synthesize a category system for observation of communicative functions in children's speech and to test that category system by recording observations of interactions within a first-grade classroom. The observation system which was designed attempts to account for all factors of a communication situation and to…

  4. MODELING FUNCTIONALLY GRADED INTERPHASE REGIONS IN CARBON NANOTUBE REINFORCED COMPOSITES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidel, G. D.; Lagoudas, D. C.; Frankland, S. J. V.; Gates, T. S.

    2006-01-01

    A combination of micromechanics methods and molecular dynamics simulations are used to obtain the effective properties of the carbon nanotube reinforced composites with functionally graded interphase regions. The multilayer composite cylinders method accounts for the effects of non-perfect load transfer in carbon nanotube reinforced polymer matrix composites using a piecewise functionally graded interphase. The functional form of the properties in the interphase region, as well as the interphase thickness, is derived from molecular dynamics simulations of carbon nanotubes in a polymer matrix. Results indicate that the functional form of the interphase can have a significant effect on all the effective elastic constants except for the effective axial modulus for which no noticeable effects are evident.

  5. Piezoelectric Control of the Exciton Wave Function in Colloidal CdSe/CdS Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Segarra, Carlos; Climente, Juan I; Polovitsyn, Anatolii; Rajadell, Fernando; Moreels, Iwan; Planelles, Josep

    2016-06-16

    Using multiband k·p calculations, we show that strain-engineered piezoelectricity is a powerful tool to modulate the electron-hole spatial separation in a wide class of wurtzite CdSe/CdS nanocrystals. The inherent anisotropy of the hexagonal crystal structure leads to anisotropic strain and, consequently, to a pronounced piezoelectric field along the c axis, which can be amplified or quenched through a proper design of the core-shell structure. The use of large cores and thick shells promotes a gradual departure from quantum confined nanocrystals to a regime dominated by piezoelectric confinement. This allows excitons to evolve from the usual type-I and quasi-type-II behavior to a type-II behavior in dot-in-dots, dot-in-rods, rod-in-rods, and dot-in-plates. Piezoelectric fields explain experimental observations for giant-shell nanocrystals, whose time-resolved photoluminescence reveals long exciton lifetimes for large cores, contrary to the expectations of standard quantum confinement models. They also explain the large differences in exciton lifetimes reported for different classes of CdSe/CdS nanocrystals. PMID:27225599

  6. Bio-inspired Propulsion with Functionally Graded Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleicher, William; Floryan, Daniel; van Buren, Tyler; Smits, Alexander; Moored, Keith; Lehigh University Team; Priceton University Team

    2015-11-01

    From an engineering perspective, biological swimmers are a composite material system with varying material properties across their propulsors. These material properties govern how the swimmer's structure interacts with its surrounding fluid. A two dimensional boundary element fluid solver is strongly coupled to a direct, implicit, geometrically non-linear structure solver to study the effects of functionally graded materials. A zeroth order functionally graded material approximation is used, where a rigid material abruptly meets a flexible material. Thrust, input power, and propulsive efficiency are studied as functions of non-dimensional frequency, reduced frequency, Strouhal number, flexion ratio, and effective stiffness. The numerical results are compared to experimental results for zero attack angle cases, building confidence in the numerical model. The results are further compared to structurally rigid materials. Supported by the Office of Naval Research under Program Director Dr. Bob Brizzolara, MURI grant number N00014-14-1-0533.

  7. Design and experiment on a multi-functioned and programmable piezoelectric ceramic power supply with high precision for speckle interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Biao; Ye, Yan; Wang, Yong-hong; Yang, En-zhen

    2016-01-01

    Speckle interferometry is a method of measuring structure's tiny deformations which requires accurate phase information of interference fringes. The phase information is acquired by micro-displacement produced by piezoelectric ceramic (PZT). In order to drive the PZT micro-displacement actuator, a multi-functioned and programmable PZT power supply with high precision is designed. Calibration experiment has been done to the PZT micro-actuator in speckle interferometry. Some experiments were also done to test its relevant characteristics. The experiment results show that it has high linearity, repeatability, stability, low ripple and can meet the requirement of the reliability and displacement accuracy in speckle interferometry.

  8. Fabrication of a Functionally Graded Copper-Zinc Sulfide Phosphor

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jehong; Park, Kwangwon; Kim, Jongsu; Jeong, Yongseok; Kawasaki, Akira; Kwon, Hansang

    2016-01-01

    Functionally graded materials (FGMs) are compositionally gradient materials. They can achieve the controlled distribution of the desired characteristics within the same bulk material. We describe a functionally graded (FG) metal-phosphor adapting the concept of the FGM; copper (Cu) is selected as a metal and Cu- and Cl-doped ZnS (ZnS:Cu,Cl) is selected as a phosphor and FG [Cu]-[ZnS:Cu,Cl] is fabricated by a very simple powder process. The FG [Cu]-[ZnS:Cu,Cl] reveals a dual-structured functional material composed of dense Cu and porous ZnS:Cu,Cl, which is completely combined through six graded mediating layers. The photoluminescence (PL) of FG [Cu]-[ZnS:Cu,Cl] is insensitive to temperature change. FG [Cu]-[ZnS:Cu,Cl] also exhibits diode characteristics and photo reactivity for 365 nm -UV light. Our FG metal-phosphor concept can pave the way to simplified manufacturing of low-cost and can be applied to various electronic devices. PMID:26972313

  9. Fabrication of a Functionally Graded Copper-Zinc Sulfide Phosphor.

    PubMed

    Park, Jehong; Park, Kwangwon; Kim, Jongsu; Jeong, Yongseok; Kawasaki, Akira; Kwon, Hansang

    2016-01-01

    Functionally graded materials (FGMs) are compositionally gradient materials. They can achieve the controlled distribution of the desired characteristics within the same bulk material. We describe a functionally graded (FG) metal-phosphor adapting the concept of the FGM; copper (Cu) is selected as a metal and Cu- and Cl-doped ZnS (ZnS:Cu,Cl) is selected as a phosphor and FG [Cu]-[ZnS:Cu,Cl] is fabricated by a very simple powder process. The FG [Cu]-[ZnS:Cu,Cl] reveals a dual-structured functional material composed of dense Cu and porous ZnS:Cu,Cl, which is completely combined through six graded mediating layers. The photoluminescence (PL) of FG [Cu]-[ZnS:Cu,Cl] is insensitive to temperature change. FG [Cu]-[ZnS:Cu,Cl] also exhibits diode characteristics and photo reactivity for 365 nm -UV light. Our FG metal-phosphor concept can pave the way to simplified manufacturing of low-cost and can be applied to various electronic devices. PMID:26972313

  10. Higher-Order Theory for Functionally Graded Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aboudi, J.; Pindera, M. J.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2001-01-01

    Functionally graded materials (FGM's) are a new generation of engineered materials wherein the microstructural details are spatially varied through nonuniform distribution of the reinforcement phase(s). Engineers accomplish this by using reinforcements with different properties, sizes, and shapes, as well as by interchanging the roles of the reinforcement and matrix phases in a continuous manner (ref. 1). The result is a microstructure that produces continuously or discretely changing thermal and mechanical properties at the macroscopic or continuum scale. This new concept of engineering the material's microstructure marks the beginning of a revolution both in the materials science and mechanics of materials areas since it allows one, for the first time, to fully integrate the material and structural considerations into the final design of structural components. Functionally graded materials are ideal candidates for applications involving severe thermal gradients, ranging from thermal structures in advanced aircraft and aerospace engines to computer circuit boards. Owing to the many variables that control the design of functionally graded microstructures, full exploitation of the FGM's potential requires the development of appropriate modeling strategies for their response to combined thermomechanical loads. Previously, most computational strategies for the response of FGM's did not explicitly couple the material's heterogeneous microstructure with the structural global analysis. Rather, local effective or macroscopic properties at a given point within the FGM were first obtained through homogenization based on a chosen micromechanics scheme and then subsequently used in a global thermomechanical analysis.

  11. Fabrication of a Functionally Graded Copper-Zinc Sulfide Phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jehong; Park, Kwangwon; Kim, Jongsu; Jeong, Yongseok; Kawasaki, Akira; Kwon, Hansang

    2016-03-01

    Functionally graded materials (FGMs) are compositionally gradient materials. They can achieve the controlled distribution of the desired characteristics within the same bulk material. We describe a functionally graded (FG) metal-phosphor adapting the concept of the FGM; copper (Cu) is selected as a metal and Cu- and Cl-doped ZnS (ZnS:Cu,Cl) is selected as a phosphor and FG [Cu]-[ZnS:Cu,Cl] is fabricated by a very simple powder process. The FG [Cu]-[ZnS:Cu,Cl] reveals a dual-structured functional material composed of dense Cu and porous ZnS:Cu,Cl, which is completely combined through six graded mediating layers. The photoluminescence (PL) of FG [Cu]-[ZnS:Cu,Cl] is insensitive to temperature change. FG [Cu]-[ZnS:Cu,Cl] also exhibits diode characteristics and photo reactivity for 365 nm -UV light. Our FG metal-phosphor concept can pave the way to simplified manufacturing of low-cost and can be applied to various electronic devices.

  12. Propagation of Love waves in a smart functionally graded piezoelectric composite structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Cao, X. S.; Wang, Z. K.

    2007-02-01

    The paper presented the effectiveness of a shape memory alloy hybrid composite. It was designed to actively suppress stress intensity in the vicinity of a crack-tip. A shape memory alloy (SMA) TiNi fiber reinforced epoxy composite was fabricated based on the proposed design concept and its material and mechanical properties were investigated by photoelastic examinations. The stress intensity factors, KI and KII, at a crack-tip decreased temperatures greater than Af under mixed mode. The phenomenon was caused by the recovery force of the TiNi fiber. The relationship of the stress intensity factors with the prestrain in the SMA fiber as well as with the ambient temperature in an isothermal furnace was clarified. On this basis, the active control for stress intensity by a shape memory composite was discussed.

  13. Analysis of the Elastic Field in Functionally Graded Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, Mohsen

    In this thesis, the elastic field in circular beams and pipes made of functionally graded materials is considered. The following aspects are presented. First, the thermoelastic stress field in a functionally graded curved beam, where the elastic stiffness varies in the radial direction, is considered. An analytical solution is obtained where the radial variation of the stiffness is represented by a fairly general form. The stress fields corresponding to two different cases for the elastic properties are examined. The flexural stress in the curved beam is then compared with that of a ring. A relatively simple approximate solution is then developed and this is shown to be in good agreement with the analytical results. Secondly, the effect of a nonconstant Poisson's ratio upon the elastic field in functionally graded axisymmetric solids is analyzed. Both of the elastic coefficients, i.e. Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio, are permitted to vary in the radial direction. These elastic coefficients are considered to be functions of composition and are related on this basis. This allows a closed form solution for the stress function to be obtained. Two cases are discussed in this investigation: a) both Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio are allowed to vary across the radius and the effect of spatial variation of Poisson's ratio upon the maximum radial displacement is investigated; b) Young's modulus is taken as constant and the change in the maximum hoop stress resulting from a variable Poisson's ratio is calculated. Thirdly, the stress concentration factor around a circular hole in an infinite plate subjected to uniform biaxial tension and pure shear is considered. The plate is made of a functionally graded material where both Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio vary in the radial direction. For plane stress conditions, the governing differential equation for the stress function is derived and solved. A general form for the stress concentration factor in case of

  14. A functionally graded titanium/hydroxyapatite film obtained by sputtering.

    PubMed

    Ozeki, Kazuhide; Yuhta, Toshio; Fukui, Yasuhiro; Aoki, Hideki; Nishimura, Ikuya

    2002-03-01

    A functionally graded film of titanium/hydroxyapatite (HA) was prepared on a titanium substrate using a radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The ratio of titanium to HA was controlled by moving the target shutter. The film was composed of five layers, with overall film thickness of 1 microm. The HA was concentrated close to the surface, while the titanium concentration increased with proximity to the substrate. The bonding strength between the film and the substrate was 15.2 MPa in a pull-out test and the critical load from a scratch test was 58.85 mN. The corresponding values of a pure HA sputtered film were 8.0 MPa and 38.47 mN, respectively. The bonding strength of a pure HA plasma spray coating was 10.4 MPa in the pull-out test. The graded film and the pure HA film were sputter-coated to a thickness of 1 microm on titanium columns (10 mm in length and 4 mm in diameter). These columns were implanted in diaphyses of the femora of six adult dogs and a push-out test was carried out after 2, 4, and 12 weeks. After 12 weeks, the push-out strengths of the graded film, the pure HA film and the non-coated columns were 3.7, 3.5, and 1.0 MPa. PMID:15348621

  15. Analytical Model for Thermal Elastoplastic Stresses of Functionally Graded Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Zhai, P. C.; Chen, G.; Liu, L. S.; Fang, C.; Zhang, Q. J.

    2008-02-15

    A modification analytical model is presented for the thermal elastoplastic stresses of functionally graded materials subjected to thermal loading. The presented model follows the analytical scheme presented by Y. L. Shen and S. Suresh [6]. In the present model, the functionally graded materials are considered as multilayered materials. Each layer consists of metal and ceramic with different volume fraction. The ceramic layer and the FGM interlayers are considered as elastic brittle materials. The metal layer is considered as elastic-perfectly plastic ductile materials. Closed-form solutions for different characteristic temperature for thermal loading are presented as a function of the structure geometries and the thermomechanical properties of the materials. A main advance of the present model is that the possibility of the initial and spread of plasticity from the two sides of the ductile layers taken into account. Comparing the analytical results with the results from the finite element analysis, the thermal stresses and deformation from the present model are in good agreement with the numerical ones.

  16. Crack propagation in functionally graded strip under thermal shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, I. V.; Sadowski, T.; Pietras, D.

    2013-09-01

    The thermal shock problem in a strip made of functionally graded composite with an interpenetrating network micro-structure of Al2O3 and Al is analysed numerically. The material considered here could be used in brake disks or cylinder liners. In both applications it is subjected to thermal shock. The description of the position-dependent properties of the considered functionally graded material are based on experimental data. Continuous functions were constructed for the Young's modulus, thermal expansion coefficient, thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity and implemented as user-defined material properties in user-defined subroutines of the commercial finite element software ABAQUS™. The thermal stress and the residual stress of the manufacturing process distributions inside the strip are considered. The solution of the transient heat conduction problem for thermal shock is used for crack propagation simulation using the XFEM method. The crack length developed during the thermal shock is the criterion for crack resistance of the different graduation profiles as a step towards optimization of the composition gradient with respect to thermal shock sensitivity.

  17. Thermal Characterization of Functionally Graded Materials: Design of Optimum Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Kevin D.

    2003-01-01

    This paper is a study of optimal experiment design applied to the measure of thermal properties in functionally graded materials. As a first step, a material with linearly-varying thermal properties is analyzed, and several different tran- sient experimental designs are discussed. An optimality criterion, based on sen- sitivity coefficients, is used to identify the best experimental design. Simulated experimental results are analyzed to verify that the identified best experiment design has the smallest errors in the estimated parameters. This procedure is general and can be applied to design of experiments for a variety of materials.

  18. Functionally graded alumina-based thin film systems

    DOEpatents

    Moore, John J.; Zhong, Dalong

    2006-08-29

    The present invention provides coating systems that minimize thermal and residual stresses to create a fatigue- and soldering-resistant coating for aluminum die casting dies. The coating systems include at least three layers. The outer layer is an alumina- or boro-carbide-based outer layer that has superior non-wettability characteristics with molten aluminum coupled with oxidation and wear resistance. A functionally-graded intermediate layer or "interlayer" enhances the erosive wear, toughness, and corrosion resistance of the die. A thin adhesion layer of reactive metal is used between the die substrate and the interlayer to increase adhesion of the coating system to the die surface.

  19. Ni-based Metal Matrix Composite Functionally Graded Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amado, J. M.; Montero, J.; Tobar, M. J.; Yáñez, A.

    Functional graded materials (FGMs) are a class of composites that have a continuous variation of material properties. One of the aims of such variation is to relieve the stress concentrations that appear in laminated materials. Coating techniques using powder as filler material can be adapted for the manufacture of composition gradients by means of a mixing unit in a powder feed system which is the basis of the laser cladding technology. The aim of this paper is to get coats with layers of the highest possible ceramic concentration on a metal matrix composite (MMC) with the help of the FGM methodology.

  20. Piezoelectric Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Steve

    1992-01-01

    Presents activities that utilize piezoelectric film to familiarize students with fundamental principles of electricity. Describes classroom projects involving chemical sensors, microbalances, microphones, switches, infrared sensors, and power generation. (MDH)

  1. Cohesive fracture model for functionally graded fiber reinforced concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Kyoungsoo; Paulino, Glaucio H.; Roesler, Jeffery

    2010-06-15

    A simple, effective, and practical constitutive model for cohesive fracture of fiber reinforced concrete is proposed by differentiating the aggregate bridging zone and the fiber bridging zone. The aggregate bridging zone is related to the total fracture energy of plain concrete, while the fiber bridging zone is associated with the difference between the total fracture energy of fiber reinforced concrete and the total fracture energy of plain concrete. The cohesive fracture model is defined by experimental fracture parameters, which are obtained through three-point bending and split tensile tests. As expected, the model describes fracture behavior of plain concrete beams. In addition, it predicts the fracture behavior of either fiber reinforced concrete beams or a combination of plain and fiber reinforced concrete functionally layered in a single beam specimen. The validated model is also applied to investigate continuously, functionally graded fiber reinforced concrete composites.

  2. Active Piezoelectric Diaphragms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Robert G.; Effinger, Robert T., IV; Aranda, Isaiah, Jr.; Copeland, Ben M.; Covington, Ed W., III

    2002-01-01

    Several active piezoelectric diaphragms were fabricated by placing unelectroded piezoelectric disks between copper clad films patterned with Inter-Circulating Electrodes "ICE". When a voltage potential is applied to the electrodes, the result is radially distributed electric field that mechanically strains the piezo-ceramic along the Z-axis (perpendicular to the applied electric field), rather than the expected in-plane (XY-axis) direction. Unlike other out of plane piezoelectric actuators, which are benders, these Radial Field Diaphragms (RFDs) strain concentrically yet afford high displacements while maintaining a constant circumference. This paper covers the fabrication and characterization of these diaphragms as a function of poling field strength, ceramic diameter and line spacing, as well as the surface topography, the resulting strain field and displacement as a function of applied voltage ranging from DC to 10 Hz.

  3. Self-Biased Hybrid Piezoelectric-Photoelectrochemical Cell with Photocatalytic Functionalities.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chuan Fu; Ong, Wei Li; Ho, Ghim Wei

    2015-07-28

    Utilizing solar energy for environmental and energy remediations based on photocatalytic hydrogen (H2) generation and water cleaning poses great challenges due to inadequate visible-light power conversion, high recombination rate, and intermittent availability of solar energy. Here, we report an energy-harvesting technology that utilizes multiple energy sources for development of sustainable operation of dual photocatalytic reactions. The fabricated hybrid cell combines energy harvesting from light and vibration to run a power-free photocatalytic process that exploits novel metal-semiconductor branched heterostructure (BHS) of its visible light absorption, high charge-separation efficiency, and piezoelectric properties to overcome the aforementioned challenges. The desirable characteristics of conductive flexible piezoelectrode in conjunction with pronounced light scattering of hierarchical structure originate intrinsically from the elaborate design yet facile synthesis of BHS. This self-powered photocatalysis system could potentially be used as H2 generator and water treatment system to produce clean energy and water resources. PMID:26122026

  4. Applications and functions of food-grade phosphates.

    PubMed

    Lampila, Lucina E

    2013-10-01

    Food-grade phosphates are used in the production of foods to function as buffers, sequestrants, acidulants, bases, flavors, cryoprotectants, gel accelerants, dispersants, nutrients, precipitants, and as free-flow (anticaking) or ion-exchange agents. The actions of phosphates affect the chemical leavening of cakes, cookies, pancakes, muffins, and doughnuts; the even melt of processed cheese; the structure of a frankfurter; the bind and hydration of delicatessen meats; the fluidity of evaporated milk; the distinctive flavor of cola beverages; the free flow of spice blends; the mineral content of isotonic beverages; and the light color of par-fried potato strips. In the United States, food-grade phosphates are generally recognized as safe, but use levels have been defined for some foods by the Code of Federal Regulations, specifically Titles 9 and 21 for foods regulated by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), respectively. Standards for food purity are defined nationally and internationally in sources such as the Food Chemicals Codex and the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) Expert Committee on Food Additives. PMID:24033359

  5. Nanoindentation of functionally graded hybrid polymer/metal thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, J.; Piedade, A. P.

    2013-11-01

    Hybrid functionally graded coatings (2D-FGC) were deposited by magnetron co-sputtering from poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) and AISI 316L stainless steel (316L) targets. The carbon and fluorine content varied from 7.3 to 23.7 at.% and from 0 to 57 at.%, respectively. The surface modification was developed to change the surface of 316L vascular stents in order to improve the biocompatibility of the outmost layer of the metallic biomaterial. In-depth XPS analysis revealed the presence of a graded chemical composition accompanied by the variation of the film structure. These results were complemented by those of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis that highlighted the nanocomposite nature of the coatings. The nanomechanical characterization of 2D-FGC was performed by nanoindentation at several loads on the thin films deposited onto two different steel substrates: 316L and AISI M2. The study allowed establishing 0.7 mN as the load that characterized the coatings without substrate influence. Both hardness and Young modulus decrease with the increase of fluorine content due to the evolution in chemical composition, chemical bonds and structure.

  6. Effects of gravity on combustion synthesis of functionally graded biomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, M.; Moore, J. J.; Schowengerdt, F. D.; Ayers, R. A.; Zhang, X.; Umakoshi, M.; Yi, H. C.; Guigne, J. Y.

    2003-07-01

    Combustion synthesis, or self-propagating, high temperature synthesis is currently being used at the Colorado School of Mines to produce advanced materials for biomedical applications. These biomaterials include ceramic, intermetallic, and metal-matrix composites for applications ranging from structural to oxidation- and wear-resistant materials, e.g., TiC-Ti, TiC-Cr 3C 2, MOSi 2-SiC, NiAl-TiB 2, to engineered porous composites, e.g., B 4C-Al 2O 3, Ti-TiB x, Ni-Ti, Ca 3(P0 4) 2 and glass-ceramic composites, e.g., CaO-SiO 2-BaO-Al 2O 3-TiB 2. The goal of the functionally graded biomaterials project is to develop new materials, graded in porosity and composition, which will combine the desirable mechanical properties of implant, e.g., NiTi, with the bone-growth enhancement properties of porous biodegradable ceramics, e.g., Ca 3(PO 4) 2. Recent experiments on the NASA parabolic flight (KC-135) aircraft have shown that gravity plays an important role in controlling the structure and properties of materials produced by combustion synthesis. The results of these studies, which will be presented at the conference, will provide valuable input to the design of experiments to be done in Space-DRUMS TM, a containerless materials processing facility scheduled to be placed on the International Space Station in 2003.

  7. Effects of gravity on combustion synthesis of functionally graded biomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, J.; Schowengerdt, F.; Ayers, R.; Castillo, M.; Zhang, X.; Umakoshi, U.; Yi, C.; Guigne, J.

    Combustion synthesis, or self-propagating, high temperature synthesis (SHS) is currently being used at the Colorado School of Mines to produce advanced materials for biomedical applications. These biomaterials include ceramic, intermetallic, and metal-matrix composites for applications ranging from structural to oxidation- and wear-resistant materials, e.g., TiC-Ti, TiC-Cr3 C2 , MoSi2 - SiC, NiAl-TiB2 , to engineered porous composites, e.g., B4 C-A l2 O3 , Ti-TiBx , Ni-Ti, Ca 3 (PO4 )2 and glass- ceramic composites, e.g., CaO-SiO2 - B a O-A l2 O3 -T i B2 . The goal of the functionally graded biomaterials project is to develop new materials, graded in porosity and composition, which will combine the desirable mechanical properties of implant, e.g., NiTi, with the bone-growth enhancement properties of porous biodegradable ceramics, e.g., Ca 3 (PO4 )2 . Recent experiments on the NASA parabolic flight (KC- 135) aircraft have shown that gravity plays an important role in controlling the structure and properties of materials produced by combustion synthesis. The results of these studies, which will be presented at the conference, will provide valuable input to the design of experiments to be done in Space-DRUMSTM, a containerless materials processing facility scheduled to be placed on the International Space Station in 2003.

  8. Experimental Study of Functionally Graded Beam with Fly Ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajaj, K.; Shrivastava, Y.; Dhoke, P.

    2013-11-01

    Generally, concrete used in the field suffers from lack of durability and homogeneity. As cement is the only binding material in concrete and due to hike in its price, researchers have been looking for apt substitutes. For the sake of economy, strength and anti-corrosion functionally graded beam (FGB) has developed having one layer of normal concrete and another of high volume fly-ash concrete (HVFAC). The flexural behavior FGB has analyzed experimentally in this work with variation in interface as 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 from bottom. In this study, HVFAC has prepared with replacement of cement by 20, 35 and 55 % with fly ash for M20 and M30 grade of concrete. It has seemed that there is 12.86 and 3.56 % increase in compressive and flexural strength of FGB. The bond strength FGM cube is optimum at 50 mm depth. As FGM is economical, having more durability and strength, so its adoption enables more sustainability in concrete industry.

  9. Fracture Analysis in a Functionally Graded Magnetoelectroelastic Plane by BIEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoynov, Y. D.

    2011-11-01

    A functionally graded magnetoelectroelastic (MEE) plane with a finite crack is considered. The crack is impermeable and subjected to anti-plane mechanical and in-plane electric and magnetic load. The fundamental solutions of the coupled system of the governing equations are derived in a closed form by the Radon transform. They are implemented in a non-hypersingular traction boundary integral equation method (BIEM). A program code in Fortran, based on the BIEM, is created. Comparison with the results obtained by a different method is presented. The numerical examples show the dependence of the stress intensity factor (SIF) on the normalized frequency for different magnitude of the material inhomogeneity. Results for a non-straight crack are also given.

  10. Functionally graded composite cathodes for solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, N. T.; Brandon, N. P.; Day, M. J.; Lapeña-Rey, N.

    Functionally graded solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathodes have been prepared from mixtures of strontium-doped lanthanum manganite (LSM) and gadolinia-doped ceria (CGO) using slurry spraying techniques. Similar samples were also prepared from mixtures of LSM and ytrria-stabilised zirconia (YSZ). A current collector comprising a mixture of LSM and strontium-doped lanthanum cobaltite (LSCO) was then applied to both cathode types. Samples were characterised using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Characterisation using EIS techniques showed that cathodes incorporating CGO into the structure gave improved performance over those fabricated using YSZ. These performance gains were most noticeable as the temperature was decreased towards 700 °C, and were maintained during the testing of three cell membrane electrode assemblies fabricated to the Rolls-Royce design.

  11. Design and analysis of a piezoelectric material based touch screen with additional pressure and its acceleration measurement functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Xiang-Cheng; Liu, Jia-Yi; Gao, Ren-Long; Chang, Jie; Li, Long-Tu

    2013-12-01

    Touch screens are becoming more and more prevalent in everyday environments due to their convenience and humanized operation. In this paper, a piezoelectric material based touch screen is developed and investigated. Piezoelectric ceramics arrayed under the touch panel at the edges or corners are used as tactile sensors to measure the touch positioning point similarly to conventional touch screens. However, additional touch pressure and its acceleration performance can also be obtained to obtain a higher-level human-machine interface. The piezoelectric ceramics can also be added to a traditional touch screen structure, or they can be used independently to construct a novel touch screen with a high light transmittance approach to a transparent glass. The piezoelectric ceramics were processed from PZT piezoelectric ceramic powder into a round or rectangular shape. According to the varied touch position and physical press strength of a finger, or even a gloved hand or fingernail, the piezoelectric tactile sensors will have different output voltage responses. By calculating the ratio of different piezoelectric tactile sensors’ responses and summing up all piezoelectric tactile sensors’ output voltages, the touch point position, touch pressure and touch force acceleration can be detected. A prototype of such a touch screen is manufactured and its position accuracy, touch pressure and response speed are measured in detail. The experimental results show that the prototype has many advantages such as high light transmittance, low energy cost and high durability.

  12. Piezoelectric Nanoindentation

    SciTech Connect

    Rar, Andrei; Pharr, George Mathews; Oliver, Warren C.; Karapetian, Edgar; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2006-01-01

    Piezoelectric nanoindentation (PNI) has been developed to quantitatively address electromechanical coupling and pressure-induced dynamic phenomena in ferroelectric materials on the nanoscale. In PNI, an oscillating voltage is applied between the back side of the sample and the indenter tip, and the first harmonic of bias-induced surface displacement at the area of indenter contact is detected. PNI is implemented using a standard nanoindentation system equipped with a continuous stiffness measurement system. The piezoresponse of polycrystalline lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and BaTiO{sub 3} piezoceramics was studied during a standard nanoindentation experiment. For PZT, the response was found to be load independent, in agreement with theoretical predictions. In polycrystalline barium titanate, a load dependence of the piezoresponse was observed. The potential of piezoelectric nanoindentation for studies of phase transitions and local structure-property relations in piezoelectric materials is discussed.

  13. Processing of functionally graded tungsten carbide-cobalt-diamond composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Mohit

    Polycrystalline diamond compacts (PDCs) are widely used as drill bit cutters in rock drilling and as tool bits in machining non-ferrous materials. A typical PDC comprises a thin layer of sintered polycrystalline diamond bonded to a tungsten carbide-cobalt substrate. A well recognized failure mechanism is delamination at the interface between diamond and cemented carbide. High stresses at the diamond/carbide interface, due to thermal expansion and modulus mismatch, are the primary cause of in-service failure under impact loading conditions. This work was undertaken to develop a tungsten carbide-cobalt-diamond composite, which has a continuously graded interface between the diamond and tungsten carbide. The process developed comprised the following steps: (i) generation of a pore size gradient by electrochemical etching of cobalt from the surface of a partially sintered tungsten carbide-cobalt preform; (ii) chemical vapor infiltration of the porous preform with carbon by catalytic decomposition of a methane/hydrogen mixture, resulting in a graded carbon concentration; and (iii) consolidation of the carbon infiltrated preforms at 8GPa/1500°C to complete densification and to transform the carbon into diamond. Thus, the final product consists of a functionally graded WC-Co-diamond composite, with controlled distribution of the constituent phases. Tungsten carbide-cobalt powders with mean tungsten carbide particle size of 0.8mum(micro-grain) and 100 nm(nano-grain) were used as starting materials. Processing conditions were adjusted to obtain an optimal distribution of carbon in porous preforms. After high pressure/high temperature consolidation, both micro- and nano-composites showed a diffused interface between inner and outer regions of the fully dense materials. A micro-composite showed columnar-like tungsten carbide grains and faceted diamond grains in the outer region of the sintered material. The grain size of the diamond in this region was ˜2mum, and the

  14. Dynamic fracture of functionally graded magnetoelectroelastic composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Stoynov, Y.; Dineva, P.

    2014-11-12

    The stress, magnetic and electric field analysis of multifunctional composites, weakened by impermeable cracks, is of fundamental importance for their structural integrity and reliable service performance. The aim is to study dynamic behavior of a plane of functionally graded magnetoelectroelastic composite with more than one crack. The coupled material properties vary exponentially in an arbitrary direction. The plane is subjected to anti-plane mechanical and in-plane electric and magnetic load. The boundary value problem described by the partial differential equations with variable coefficients is reduced to a non-hypersingular traction boundary integral equation based on the appropriate functional transform and frequency-dependent fundamental solution derived in a closed form by Radon transform. Software code based on the boundary integral equation method (BIEM) is developed, validated and inserted in numerical simulations. The obtained results show the sensitivity of the dynamic stress, magnetic and electric field concentration in the cracked plane to the type and characteristics of the dynamic load, to the location and cracks disposition, to the wave-crack-crack interactions and to the magnitude and direction of the material gradient.

  15. Fabrication, Characterization and Modeling of Functionally Graded Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Po-Hua

    In the past few decades, a number of theoretical and experimental studies for design, fabrication and performance analysis of solar panel systems (photovoltaic/thermal systems) have been documented. The existing literature shows that the use of solar energy provides a promising solution to alleviate the shortage of natural resources and the environmental pollution associated with electricity generation. A hybrid solar panel has been invented to integrate photovoltaic (PV) cells onto a substrate through a functionally graded material (FGM) with water tubes cast inside, through which water flow serves as both a heat sink and a solar heat collector. Due to the unique and graded material properties of FGMs, this novel design not only supplies efficient thermal harvest and electrical production, but also provides benefits such as structural integrity and material efficiency. In this work, a sedimentation method has been used to fabricate aluminum (Al) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) FGMs. The size effect of aluminum powder on the material gradation along the depth direction is investigated. Aluminum powder or the mixture of Al and HDPE powder is thoroughly mixed and uniformly dispersed in ethanol and then subjected to sedimentation. During the sedimentation process, the concentration of Al and HDPE particles temporally and spatially changes in the depth direction due to the non-uniform motion of particles; this change further affects the effective viscosity of the suspension and thus changes the drag force of particles. A Stokes' law based model is developed to simulate the sedimentation process, demonstrate the effect of manufacturing parameters on sedimentation, and predict the graded microstructure of deposition in the depth direction. In order to improve the modeling for sedimentation behavior of particles, the Eshelby's equivalent inclusion method (EIM) is presented to determine the interaction between particles, which is not considered in a Stokes' law based

  16. Instructional Quality as a Function of Locale, Grade, and Subject.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randhawa, Bikkar S.

    This study investigated the effect of locale, grade, and subject on instructional quality. Rural and urban teachers were observed teaching grades 4, 5, and 6 in social studies, mathematics, and language arts. It was hypothesized that teacher verbal behavior in a classroom predicated the quality and quantity of cognitive behavior of pupils. Rural…

  17. Transient Elastodynamic Crack Growth in Functionally Graded Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Chalivendra, Vijaya B.

    2008-02-15

    A generalized elastic solution for an arbitrarily propagating transient crack in Functionally Graded Materials (FGMs) is obtained through an asymptotic analysis. The shear modulus and mass density of the FGM are assumed to vary exponentially along the gradation direction. The mode-mixity due to the inclination of property gradient with respect to the propagating crack tip is accommodated in the analysis through superposition of the opening and shear modes. First three terms of out of plane displacement field and its gradients about the crack tip are obtained in powers of radial coordinates, with the coefficients depending on the time rate of change of crack tip speed and stress intensity factors. Using these displacement fields, the effect of transient stress intensity factors and acceleration on synthetic contours of constant out of plane displacement under both opening and mixed mode loading conditions has been studied. These contours show that the transient terms cause significant spatial variation on out of plane displacements around the crack tip. Therefore, in studying dynamic fracture of FGMs, it is appropriate to include the transient terms in the field equations for the situations of sudden variation of stress intensity factor or crack tip velocity.

  18. Functionally Graded Al Alloy Matrix In-Situ Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.; Subramaniya Sarma, V.; Murty, B. S.

    2010-01-01

    In the present work, functionally graded (FG) aluminum alloy matrix in-situ composites (FG-AMCs) with TiB2 and TiC reinforcements were synthesized using the horizontal centrifugal casting process. A commercial Al-Si alloy (A356) and an Al-Cu alloy were used as matrices in the present study. The material parameters (such as matrix and reinforcement type) and process parameters (such as mold temperature, mold speed, and melt stirring) were found to influence the gradient in the FG-AMCs. Detailed microstructural analysis of the composites in different processing conditions revealed that the gradients in the reinforcement modify the microstructure and hardness of the Al alloy. The segregated in-situ formed TiB2 and TiC particles change the morphology of Si particles during the solidification of Al-Si alloy. A maximum of 20 vol pct of reinforcement at the surface was achieved by this process in the Al-4Cu-TiB2 system. The stirring of the melt before pouring causes the reinforcement particles to segregate at the periphery of the casting, while in the absence of such stirring, the particles are segregated at the interior of the casting.

  19. Optimum weight design of functionally graded material gears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Shikai; Zhang, He; Zhou, Jingtao; Song, Guohua

    2015-11-01

    Traditional gear weight optimization methods consider gear tooth number, module, face width or other dimension parameters of gear as design variables. However, due to the complicated form and geometric features peculiar to the gear, there will be large amounts of design parameters in gear design, and the influences of gear parameters changing on gear trains, transmission system and the whole equipment have to be taken into account, which increases the complexity of optimization problem. This paper puts forward to apply functionally graded materials (FGMs) to gears and then conduct the optimization. According to the force situation of gears, the material distribution form of FGM gears is determined. Then based on the performance parameters analysis of FGMs and the practical working demands for gears, a multi-objective optimization model is formed. Finally by using the goal driven optimization (GDO) method, the optimal material distribution is achieved, which makes gear weight and the maximum deformation be minimum and the maximum bending stress do not exceed the allowable stress. As an example, the applying of FGM to automotive transmission gear is conducted to illustrate the optimization design process and the result shows that under the condition of keeping the normal working performance of gear, the method achieves in greatly reducing the gear weight. This research proposes a FGM gears design method that is able to largely reduce the weight of gears by optimizing the microscopic material parameters instead of changing the macroscopic dimension parameters of gears, which reduces the complexity of gear weight optimization problem.

  20. Dislocation punching from interfaces in functionally-graded materials

    SciTech Connect

    Taya, M.; Lee, J.K.; Mori, T.

    1997-06-01

    A new dislocation punching model for a functionally graded material (FGM) subjected to a temperature change is proposed, using Eshelby`s model. FGM, consisting of several layers, is deposited on a ceramic substrate. Two types of microstructures are examined for a layer: one consists of a metal matrix and ceramic particles and the other of a ceramic matrix and metal particles. An elastic energy is evaluated when plastic strain, in addition to thermal mismatch strain, is introduced in the metal phase. The work dissipated by the plastic deformation is also calculated. From the condition that the reduction in the elastic energy is larger than the work dissipated, a critical thermal mismatch strain to induce stress relaxation is determined. The magnitude of the plastic strain is also determined, when the relaxation occurs. The theory is applied to a model FGM consisting of mixtures of Pd and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate.

  1. A micromechanical study of residual stresses in functionally graded materials

    SciTech Connect

    Dao, M.; Gu, P.; Maewal, A.; Asaro, R.J.

    1997-08-01

    A physically based computational micromechanics model is developed to study random and discrete microstructures in functionally graded materials (FGMs). The influences of discrete microstructure on residual stress distributions at grain size level are examined with respect to material gradient and FGM volume percentage (within a ceramic-FGM-metal three-layer structure). Both thermoelastic and thermoplastic deformation are considered, and the plastic behavior of metal grains is modeled at the single crystal level using crystal plasticity theory. The results are compared with those obtained using a continuous model which does not consider the microstructural randomness and discreteness. In an averaged sense both the micromechanics model and the continuous model give practically the same macroscopic stresses; whereas the discrete micromechanics model predicts fairly high residual stress concentrations at the grain size level (i.e., higher than 700 MPa in 5--6 vol% FGM grains) with only a 300 C temperature drop in a Ni-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} FGM system. Statistical analysis shows that the residual stress concentrations are insensitive to material gradient and FGM volume percentage. The need to consider microstructural details in FGM microstructures is evident. The results obtained provide some insights for improving the reliability of FGMs against fracture and delamination.

  2. Is the British Army medical grading functional assessment tool effective?

    PubMed

    Mackie, Isobel

    2015-12-01

    Decision Support Aids (DSAs) have been widely used throughout industry and one (known as Table 7) is available to support British Army Medical Officers (MOs) grade soldiers against the Joint Medical Employment Standards. It is unknown how useful this DSA is in practice. An electronic questionnaire was distributed to British Army MOs working within Defence Primary Care facilities enquiring about MOs views on the usefulness of the DSA. Although the response rate was low, informative data were obtained. Between a half and a third of respondents felt that their judgement was affected in the application of the grading system when there were career implications to the grading MOs felt that the DSA allowed subjectivity in the grading. The results of this research suggest that although minor changes to Table 7 may improve service provision, an improvement in training in the application of Table 7 would be of greater benefit to the quality of occupational health service provision in the British Army. PMID:26621810

  3. The Contribution of Executive Functions to Narrative Writing in Fourth Grade Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drijbooms, Elise; Groen, Margriet A.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the contribution of executive functions to narrative writing in fourth grade children, and evaluated to what extent executive functions contribute differentially to different levels of narrative composition. The written skills of 102 Dutch children in fourth grade were assessed using a narrative picture-elicitation…

  4. Optimal Design of Functionally Graded Metallic Foam Insulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haftka, Raphael T.; Sankar, Bhavani; Venkataraman, Satchi; Zhu, Huadong

    2002-01-01

    The focus of our work has been on developing an insight into the physics that govern the optimum design of thermal insulation for use in thermal protection systems of launch vehicle. Of particular interest was to obtain optimality criteria for designing foam insulations that have density (or porosity) distributions through the thickness for optimum thermal performance. We investigate the optimum design of functionally graded thermal insulation for steady state heat transfer through the foam. We showed that the heat transfer in the foam has competing modes, of radiation and conduction. The problem assumed a fixed inside temperature of 400 K and varied the aerodynamic surface heating on the outside surface from 0.2 to 1.0 MW/sq m. The thermal insulation develops a high temperature gradient through the thickness. Investigation of the model developed for heat conduction in foams showed that at high temperatures (as on outside wall) intracellular radiation dominates the heat transfer in the foam. Minimizing radiation requires reducing the pore size, which increases the density of the foam. At low temperatures (as on the inside wall), intracellular conduction (of the metal and air) dominates the heat transfer. Minimizing conduction requires increasing the pore size. This indicated that for every temperature there was an optimum value of density that minimized the heat transfer coefficient. Two optimization studies were performed. One was to minimize the heat transmitted though a fixed thickness insulation by varying density profiles. The second was to obtain the minimum mass insulation for specified thickness. Analytical optimality criteria were derived for the cases considered. The optimality condition for minimum heat transfer required that at each temperature we find the density that minimizes the heat transfer coefficient. Once a relationship between the optimum heat transfer coefficient and the temperature was found, the design problem reduced to the solution of a

  5. Additional Drive Circuitry for Piezoelectric Screw Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smythe, Robert; Palmer, Dean; Gursel, Yekta; Reder, Leonard; Savedra, Raymond

    2004-01-01

    Modules of additional drive circuitry have been developed to enhance the functionality of a family of commercially available positioning motors (Picomotor . or equivalent) that provide linear motion controllable, in principle, to within increments .30 nm. A motor of this type includes a piezoelectric actuator that turns a screw. Unlike traditional piezoelectrically actuated mechanisms, a motor of this type does not rely on the piezoelectric transducer to hold position: the screw does not turn except when the drive signal is applied to the actuator.

  6. Technology Tips: Two Useful Functions for Excel Grade Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobo, Glen E.

    2006-01-01

    The topic of this month's department is writing macros in Excel. The examples given are of use to teachers who maintain their grade books in Excel, and show, for example, how to drop the lowest or choose the highest scores from a student's record. The Surfing Note cites a collection of online tools and resources for professional development…

  7. Instructional Quality as a Function of Locale, Grade, and Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randhawa, Bikkar S.

    1977-01-01

    Sixty urban and 57 rural elementary school classrooms were observed to document the effects of rural versus urban locale, grade level, and subject matter taught on instructional quality. Teachers' verbal behaviors were grouped into 16 process-by-substance categories. Results showed that all three main effects were significant. (Author/MV)

  8. Differential Item Functioning by Gender on a Large-Scale Science Performance Assessment: A Comparison across Grade Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holweger, Nancy; Taylor, Grace

    The fifth-grade and eighth-grade science items on a state performance assessment were compared for differential item functioning (DIF) due to gender. The grade 5 sample consisted of 8,539 females and 8,029 males and the grade 8 sample consisted of 7,477 females and 7,891 males. A total of 30 fifth grade items and 26 eighth grade items were…

  9. Generalized Constitutive-Based Theoretical and Empirical Models for Hot Working Behavior of Functionally Graded Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanini, Seyed Ali Sadough; Abolghasemzadeh, Mohammad; Assadi, Abbas

    2013-07-01

    Functionally graded steels with graded ferritic and austenitic regions including bainite and martensite intermediate layers produced by electroslag remelting have attracted much attention in recent years. In this article, an empirical model based on the Zener-Hollomon (Z-H) constitutive equation with generalized material constants is presented to investigate the effects of temperature and strain rate on the hot working behavior of functionally graded steels. Next, a theoretical model, generalized by strain compensation, is developed for the flow stress estimation of functionally graded steels under hot compression based on the phase mixture rule and boundary layer characteristics. The model is used for different strains and grading configurations. Specifically, the results for αβγMγ steels from empirical and theoretical models showed excellent agreement with those of experiments of other references within acceptable error.

  10. Piezoelectric Power Requirements for Active Vibration Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brennan, Matthew C.; McGowan, Anna-Maria Rivas

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a method for predicting the power consumption of piezoelectric actuators utilized for active vibration control. Analytical developments and experimental tests show that the maximum power required to control a structure using surface-bonded piezoelectric actuators is independent of the dynamics between the piezoelectric actuator and the host structure. The results demonstrate that for a perfectly-controlled system, the power consumption is a function of the quantity and type of piezoelectric actuators and the voltage and frequency of the control law output signal. Furthermore, as control effectiveness decreases, the power consumption of the piezoelectric actuators decreases. In addition, experimental results revealed a non-linear behavior in the material properties of piezoelectric actuators. The material non- linearity displayed a significant increase in capacitance with an increase in excitation voltage. Tests show that if the non-linearity of the capacitance was accounted for, a conservative estimate of the power can easily be determined.

  11. Coupled improvement between thermoelectric and piezoelectric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, David; Hewitt, Corey; Dun, Chaochao; Carroll, David

    A novel coupling effect in a thermoelectric and piezoelectric meta-structure is discussed. Thermo-piezoelectric generators (TPEGs) exhibit a synergistic effect that amplifies output voltage, and has been observed to increase piezoelectric voltages over 500% of initial values a time dependent thermoelectric/pyroelectric effect. The resulting improvement in voltage has been observed in carbon nanotubes as well as inorganics such as two-dimensional Bismuth Selenide platelets and Telluride nanorods thin-film thermoelectrics. TPEGs are built by integrating insulating layers of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) piezoelectric films between flexible thin film p-type and n-type thermoelectrics. The physical phenomena arising in the interaction between thermoelectric and piezoelectrics is discussed and a model is presented to quantify the expected coupling voltage as a function of stress, thermal gradient, and different thermoelectric materials. TPEG are ideal to capture waste heat and vibrational energy while creating larger voltages and minimizing space when compared with similar thermoelectric or piezoelectric generators.

  12. High Temperature Piezoelectric Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Shrout, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Venus is one of the planets in the solar systems that are considered for potential future exploration missions. It has extreme environment where the average temperature is 460 deg C and its ambient pressure is about 90 atm. Since the existing actuation technology cannot maintain functionality under the harsh conditions of Venus, it is a challenge to perform sampling and other tasks that require the use of moving parts. Specifically, the currently available electromagnetic actuators are limited in their ability to produce sufficiently high stroke, torque, or force. In contrast, advances in developing electro-mechanical materials (such as piezoelectric and electrostrictive) have enabled potential actuation capabilities that can be used to support such missions. Taking advantage of these materials, we developed a piezoelectric actuated drill that operates at the temperature range up to 500 deg C and the mechanism is based on the Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) configuration. The detailed results of our study are presented in this paper

  13. A Review on the Finite Element Methods for Heat Conduction in Functionally Graded Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, R.; Jadon, V. K.; Singh, B.

    2015-01-01

    The review presented in this paper focuses mainly on the application of finite element methods for investigating the effect of heat transfer, variation of temperature and other parameters in the functionally graded materials. Different methods have been investigated for thermal conduction in functionally graded materials. The use of FEM for steady state heat transfer has been addressed in this work. The authors have also discussed the utilization of FEM based shear deformation theories and FEM in combination with other methods for the problems involving complexity of the shape and geometry of functionally graded materials. Finite element methods proved to be effective for the solution of heat transfer problem in functionally graded materials. These methods can be used for steady state heat transfer and as well as for transient state.

  14. Modeling fracture toughness of functionally graded steels in crack divider configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghazadeh Mohandesi, J.; Nazari, A.; Vishkasogheh, Mehdi Hamid; Abedi, Mohammad

    2010-10-01

    Fracture toughness of functionally graded steels in crack divider configuration has been modeled. By utilizing plain carbon and austenitic stainless steel slices with various thicknesses and arrangements as electroslag remelting electrodes, functionally graded steels were produced. The fracture toughness of the functionally graded steels was found to depend on the type, volume fraction and position of the phases present. According to the area under the stress-strain curve of each layer in the functionally graded composites, a mathematical model has been presented for fracture toughness prediction using the rule of mixtures. In addition, the fracture toughness of the composites has been simulated by the 3D dynamic finite element method. There is good agreement between experimental results and those acquired from the numerical and mathematical models.

  15. Sound symbolic naming of novel objects is a graded function.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Patrick D; Estes, Zachary

    2011-12-01

    Although linguistic traditions of the last century assumed that there is no link between sound and meaning (i.e., arbitrariness), recent research has established a nonarbitrary relation between sound and meaning (i.e., sound symbolism). For example, some sounds (e.g., /u/ as in took) suggest bigness whereas others (e.g., /i/ as in tiny) suggest smallness. We tested whether sound symbolism only marks contrasts (e.g., small versus big things) or whether it marks object properties in a graded manner (e.g., small, medium, and large things). In two experiments, participants viewed novel objects (i.e., greebles) of varying size and chose the most appropriate name for each object from a list of visually or auditorily presented nonwords that varied incrementally in the number of "large" and "small" phonemes. For instance, "wodolo" contains all large-sounding phonemes, whereas "kitete" contains all small-sounding phonemes. Participants' choices revealed a graded relationship between sound and size: The size of the object linearly predicted the number of large-sounding phonemes in its preferred name. That is, small, medium, and large objects elicited names with increasing numbers of large-sounding phonemes. The results are discussed in relation to cross-modal processing, gesture, and vocal pitch. PMID:21895561

  16. Functionally graded porous scaffolds made of Ti-based agglomerates.

    PubMed

    Nazari, Keivan A; Hilditch, Tim; Dargusch, Matthew S; Nouri, Alireza

    2016-10-01

    Mono- and double-layer porous scaffolds were successfully fabricated using ball-milled agglomerates of Ti and Ti-10Nb-3Mo alloy. For selectively controlling the level of porosity and pore size, the agglomerates were sieved into two different size fractions of 100-300μm and 300-500μm. Compressive mechanical properties were measured on a series of cylindrical sintered compacts with different ratios of solid core diameter to porous layer width. The graded porous scaffolds exhibited stress-strain curves typical for metallic foams with a defined plateau region after yielding. The compressive strengths and elastic moduli ranged from 300 to 700MPa and 14 to 55GPa, respectively, depending on the core diameter and the material used. The obtained properties make these materials suitable for load-bearing implant applications. PMID:27389321

  17. Functionally graded Ti6Al4V and Inconel 625 by Laser Metal Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulugurtha, Syamala R.

    The objective of the current work was to fabricate a crack-free functionally graded Ti6Al4V and Inconel 625 thin wall structure by Laser Metal Deposition (LMD). One potential application for the current material system is the ability to fabricate a functionally graded alloy that can be used in a space heat exchanger. The two alloys, Inconel 625 and Ti6Al4V are currently used for aerospace applications. They were chosen as candidates for grading because functionally grading those combines the properties of high strength/weight ratio of Ti6Al4V and high temperature oxidation resistance of Inconel 625 into one multifunctional material for the end application. However, there were challenges associated with the presence of Ni-Ti intermetallic phases (IMPs). The study focused on several critical areas such as (1) understanding microstructural evolution, (2) reducing macroscopic cracking, and (3) reducing mixing between graded layers. Finite element analysis (FEA) was performed to understand the effect of process conditions on multilayer claddings for simplified material systems such as SS316L and Inconel 625 where complex microstructures did not form. The thermo-mechanical models were developed using Abaqus(TM) (and some of them experimentally verified) to predict temperature-gradients; remelt layer depths and residual stresses. Microstructure evolution along the functionally graded Ti6Al4V and Inconel 625 was studied under different processing and grading conditions. Thermodynamic modeling using Factsage (v 6.1) was used to construct phase diagrams and predict the possible equilibrium major/minor phases (verified experimentally by XRD) that may be present along the functionally graded Ti6Al4V and Inconel 625 thin wall structures.

  18. Functionally Graded Interfaces: Role and Origin of Internal Electric Field and Modulated Electrical Response.

    PubMed

    Maurya, Deepam; Zhou, Yuan; Chen, Bo; Kang, Min-Gyu; Nguyen, Peter; Hudait, Mantu K; Priya, Shashank

    2015-10-14

    We report the tunable electrical response in functionally graded interfaces in lead-free ferroelectric thin films. Multilayer thin film graded heterostructures were synthesized on platinized silicon substrate with oxide layers of varying thickness. Interestingly, the graded heterostructure thin films exhibited shift of the hysteresis loops on electric field and polarization axes depending upon the direction of an applied bias. A diode-like characteristics was observed in current-voltage behavior under forward and reverse bias. This modulated electrical behavior was attributed to the perturbed dynamics of charge carriers under internal bias (self-bias) generated due to the increased skewness of the potential wells. The cyclic sweeping of voltage further demonstrated memristor-like current-voltage behavior in functionally graded heterostructure devices. The presence of an internal bias assisted the generation of photocurrent by facilitating the separation of photogenerated charges. These novel findings provide opportunity to design new circuit components for the next generation of microelectronic device architectures. PMID:26378954

  19. Fabrication of Al/Diamond Particles Functionally Graded Materials by Centrifugal Sintered-Casting Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yoshimi; Shibuya, Masafumi; Sato, Hisashi

    2013-03-01

    The continuous graded structure of functionally graded materials (FGMs) can be created under a centrifugal force. Centrifugal sintered-casting (CSC) method, proposed by the authors, is one of the fabrication methods of FGM under centrifugal force. This method is a combination of the centrifugal sintering method and centrifugal casting method. In this study, Al/diamond particle FGM was fabricated by the proposed method.

  20. Glory of piezoelectric perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchino, Kenji

    2015-08-01

    This article reviews the history of piezoelectric perovskites and forecasts future development trends, including Uchino’s discoveries such as the Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 electrostrictor, Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 single crystal, (Pb, La)(Zr, Ti)O3 photostriction, and Pb(Zr, Ti)O3-Terfenol magnetoelectric composites. We discuss five key trends in the development of piezomaterials: performance to reliability, hard to soft, macro to nano, homo to hetero, and single to multi-functional.

  1. Functionally Graded Cathodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    YongMan Choi; Meilin Liu

    2006-09-30

    This DOE SECA project focused on both experimental and theoretical understanding of oxygen reduction processes in a porous mixed-conducting cathode in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Elucidation of the detailed oxygen reduction mechanism, especially the rate-limiting step(s), is critical to the development of low-temperature SOFCs (400 C to 700 C) and to cost reduction since much less expensive materials may be used for cell components. However, cell performance at low temperatures is limited primarily by the interfacial polarization resistances, specifically by those associated with oxygen reduction at the cathode, including transport of oxygen gas through the porous cathode, the adsorption of oxygen onto the cathode surface, the reduction and dissociation of the oxygen molecule (O{sub 2}) into the oxygen ion (O{sup 2-}), and the incorporation of the oxygen ion into the electrolyte. In order to most effectively enhance the performance of the cathode at low temperatures, we must understand the mechanism and kinetics of the elementary processes at the interfaces. Under the support of this DOE SECA project, our accomplishments included: (1) Experimental determination of the rate-limiting step in the oxygen reduction mechanism at the cathode using in situ FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, including surface- and tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS and TERS). (2) Fabrication and testing of micro-patterned cathodes to compare the relative activity of the TPB to the rest of the cathode surface. (3) Construction of a mathematical model to predict cathode performance based on different geometries and microstructures and analyze the kinetics of oxygen-reduction reactions occurring at charged mixed ionic-electronic conductors (MIECs) using two-dimensional finite volume models with ab initio calculations. (4) Fabrication of cathodes that are graded in composition and microstructure to generate large amounts of active surface area near the cathode/electrolyte interface using a

  2. Piezoelectric drive circuit

    DOEpatents

    Treu, C.A. Jr.

    1999-08-31

    A piezoelectric motor drive circuit is provided which utilizes the piezoelectric elements as oscillators and a Meacham half-bridge approach to develop feedback from the motor ground circuit to produce a signal to drive amplifiers to power the motor. The circuit automatically compensates for shifts in harmonic frequency of the piezoelectric elements due to pressure and temperature changes. 7 figs.

  3. Piezoelectric drive circuit

    DOEpatents

    Treu, Jr., Charles A.

    1999-08-31

    A piezoelectric motor drive circuit is provided which utilizes the piezoelectric elements as oscillators and a Meacham half-bridge approach to develop feedback from the motor ground circuit to produce a signal to drive amplifiers to power the motor. The circuit automatically compensates for shifts in harmonic frequency of the piezoelectric elements due to pressure and temperature changes.

  4. "Mighty Worm" Piezoelectric Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bamford, Robert M.; Wada, Ben K.; Moore, Donald M.

    1994-01-01

    "Mighty Worm" piezoelectric actuator used as adjustable-length structural member, active vibrator or vibration suppressor, and acts as simple (fixed-length) structural member when inactive. Load force not applied to piezoelectric element in simple-structural-member mode. Piezoelectric element removed from load path when not in use.

  5. High Temperature, High Power Piezoelectric Composite Transducers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyeong Jae; Zhang, Shujun; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, StewarT.

    2014-01-01

    Piezoelectric composites are a class of functional materials consisting of piezoelectric active materials and non-piezoelectric passive polymers, mechanically attached together to form different connectivities. These composites have several advantages compared to conventional piezoelectric ceramics and polymers, including improved electromechanical properties, mechanical flexibility and the ability to tailor properties by using several different connectivity patterns. These advantages have led to the improvement of overall transducer performance, such as transducer sensitivity and bandwidth, resulting in rapid implementation of piezoelectric composites in medical imaging ultrasounds and other acoustic transducers. Recently, new piezoelectric composite transducers have been developed with optimized composite components that have improved thermal stability and mechanical quality factors, making them promising candidates for high temperature, high power transducer applications, such as therapeutic ultrasound, high power ultrasonic wirebonding, high temperature non-destructive testing, and downhole energy harvesting. This paper will present recent developments of piezoelectric composite technology for high temperature and high power applications. The concerns and limitations of using piezoelectric composites will also be discussed, and the expected future research directions will be outlined. PMID:25111242

  6. High temperature, high power piezoelectric composite transducers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeong Jae; Zhang, Shujun; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart

    2014-01-01

    Piezoelectric composites are a class of functional materials consisting of piezoelectric active materials and non-piezoelectric passive polymers, mechanically attached together to form different connectivities. These composites have several advantages compared to conventional piezoelectric ceramics and polymers, including improved electromechanical properties, mechanical flexibility and the ability to tailor properties by using several different connectivity patterns. These advantages have led to the improvement of overall transducer performance, such as transducer sensitivity and bandwidth, resulting in rapid implementation of piezoelectric composites in medical imaging ultrasounds and other acoustic transducers. Recently, new piezoelectric composite transducers have been developed with optimized composite components that have improved thermal stability and mechanical quality factors, making them promising candidates for high temperature, high power transducer applications, such as therapeutic ultrasound, high power ultrasonic wirebonding, high temperature non-destructive testing, and downhole energy harvesting. This paper will present recent developments of piezoelectric composite technology for high temperature and high power applications. The concerns and limitations of using piezoelectric composites will also be discussed, and the expected future research directions will be outlined. PMID:25111242

  7. A functionally graded multilayer approach to the synthesis of boron containing ceramic thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavsanoglu, T.; Jeandin, M.; Addemir, O.; Yucel, O.

    2012-11-01

    Despite their excellent properties, adhesion problems are common for B4C and BCN thin films on different substrates when the film thickness exceeds about 500 nm. Three functionally graded multilayer designs; surface boronizing of the steel substrate before deposition (Boride underlayer/B4C), Ti/TiC/B4C and Ti/TiN/BCN structures were discussed in this study, to alleviate the adhesion problems. Cross-sectional FE-SEM examinations and elemental depth profiling by SIMS revealed the graded structure of the films. The elemental film composition measured by EPMA and the mechanical properties determined by nanoindentation demonstrated the graded chemical composition and the transition of the hardness and Young's modulus values between different layers respectively. The results demonstrated the possibility of growing well adherent boron containing ceramic coatings with thicknesses in the μm range by means of different graded underlayer designs.

  8. Radial Field Piezoelectric Diaphragms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, R. G.; Effinger, R. T., IV; Copeland, B. M., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    A series of active piezoelectric diaphragms were fabricated and patterned with several geometrically defined Inter-Circulating Electrodes "ICE" and Interdigitated Ring Electrodes "ICE". When a voltage potential is applied to the electrodes, the result is a radially distributed electric field that mechanically strains the piezoceramic along the Z-axis (perpendicular to the applied electric field). Unlike other piezoelectric bender actuators, these Radial Field Diaphragms (RFDs) strain concentrically yet afford high displacements (several times that of the equivalent Unimorph) while maintaining a constant circumference. One of the more intriguing aspects is that the radial strain field reverses itself along the radius of the RFD while the tangential strain remains relatively constant. The result is a Z-deflection that has a conical profile. This paper covers the fabrication and characterization of the 5 cm. (2 in.) diaphragms as a function of poling field strength, ceramic thickness, electrode type and line spacing, as well as the surface topography, the resulting strain field and displacement as a function of applied voltage at low frequencies. The unique features of these RFDs include the ability to be clamped about their perimeter with little or no change in displacement, the environmentally insulated packaging, and a highly repeatable fabrication process that uses commodity materials.

  9. Thermo-Elastic Analysis Of A Rotating Hollow Cylinder Made Of Arbitrary Functionally Graded Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arefi, Mohammad; Nahas, Iman; Abedi, Majid

    2015-12-01

    Thermo-mechanical analysis of the functionally graded orthotropic rotating hollow structures, subjected to thermo-mechanical loadings is studied in this paper. The relations were derived for both plane strain and plane stress conditions as a cylinder and disk, respectively. Non homogeneity was considered arbitrary through thickness direction for all mechanical and thermal properties. The responses of the system including temperature distribution, radial displacement and radial and circumferential stresses were derived in the general state. As case study, power law gradation was assumed for functionally graded cylinder and the mentioned results were evaluated in terms of parameters of the system such as non-homogeneous index and angular velocity.

  10. Thermoelastic Stress in a Functionally Graded Infinite Plate with Electromagnetic Wave Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Hong-Yan; Wang, Xing-Zhe; Zhou, You-He

    2012-11-01

    We present an analysis of thermal and thermoelastic behaviors of a functionally graded infinite plate taking into account electromagnetic wave absorption. To treat with the inhomogeneity of functionally graded wave-absorbing (FGWA) materials, the plate is approximated by subdividing it into thin homogeneous layers to solve the governing equations together with proper boundary and connecting conditions. The results illustrate that the FGWA plate is a broadband type absorber with electromagnetic wave absorption. By choosing proper material gradation character and the thickness of the FGWA plate, it is possible to obtain a good performance of electromagnetic wave absorption and thermoelastic stress characteristics.

  11. Prediction of the adhesive behavior of bio-inspired functionally graded materials against rough surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peijian, Chen; Juan, Peng; Yucheng, Zhao; Feng, Gao

    2014-06-01

    Roughness effect and adhesion properties are important characteristics to be accessed in the development of functionally graded materials for biological and biomimetic applications, particularly for the hierarchical composition in biomimetic gecko robot. A multi-asperities adhesion model to predict the adhesive forces is presented in this work. The effect of surface roughness and graded material properties, which significantly alter the adhesive strength between contact bodies, can be simultaneously considered in the generalized model. It is found that proper interfacial strength can be controlled by adjusting surface roughness σ / R, graded exponent k and material parameter E*R / Δγ. The results should be helpful in the design of new biomimetic materials and useful in application of micro functional instruments.

  12. Nonlinear vibration of functionally graded circular cylindrical shells based on improved Donnell equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bich, Dao Huy; Xuan Nguyen, Nguyen

    2012-12-01

    In the present work, the study of the nonlinear vibration of a functionally graded cylindrical shell subjected to axial and transverse mechanical loads is presented. Material properties are graded in the thickness direction of the shell according to a simple power law distribution in terms of volume fractions of the material constituents. Governing equations are derived using improved Donnell shell theory ignoring the shallowness of cylindrical shells and kinematic nonlinearity is taken into consideration. One-term approximate solution is assumed to satisfy simply supported boundary conditions. The Galerkin method, the Volmir's assumption and fourth-order Runge-Kutta method are used for dynamical analysis of shells to give explicit expressions of natural frequencies, nonlinear frequency-amplitude relation and nonlinear dynamic responses. Numerical results show the effects of characteristics of functionally graded materials, pre-loaded axial compression and dimensional ratios on the dynamical behavior of shells. The proposed results are validated by comparing with those in the literature.

  13. Functionally Graded Cathodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lei Yang; Ze Liu; Shizhone Wang; Jaewung Lee; Meilin Liu

    2008-04-30

    The main objective of this DOE project is to demonstrate that the performance and long-term stability of the state-of-the-art LSCF cathode can be enhanced by a catalytically active coating (e.g., LSM or SSC). We have successfully developed a methodology for reliably evaluating the intrinsic surface catalytic properties of cathode materials. One of the key components of the test cell is a dense LSCF film, which will function as the current collector for the electrode material under evaluation to eliminate the effect of ionic and electronic transport. Since it is dense, the effect of geometry would be eliminated as well. From the dependence of the electrode polarization resistance on the thickness of a dense LSCF electrode and on partial pressure of oxygen, we have confirmed that the surface catalytic activity of LSCF limits the performances of LSCF-based cathodes. Further, we have demonstrated, using test cells of different configurations, that the performance of LSCF-based electrodes can be significantly enhanced by infiltration of a thin film of LSM or SSC. In addition, the stability of LSCF-based cathodes was also improved by infiltration of LSM or SSC. While the concept feasibility of the electrode architecture is demonstrated, many details are yet to be determined. For example, it is not clear how the surface morphology, composition, and thickness of the coatings change under operating conditions over time, how these changes influence the electrochemical behavior of the cathodes, and how to control the microscopic details of the coatings in order to optimize the performance. The selection of the catalytic materials as well as the detailed microstructures of the porous LSCF and the catalyst layer may critically impact the performance of the proposed cathodes. Further, other fundamental questions still remain; it is not clear why the degradation rates of LSCF cathodes are relatively high, why a LSM coating improves the stability of LSCF cathodes, which catalysts

  14. Polarization Stability of Amorphous Piezoelectric Polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, C.; Ounaies, Z.; Su, J.; Smith, J. G., Jr.; Harrison, J. S.

    2000-01-01

    Amorphous polyimides containing polar functional groups have been synthesized and investigated for potential use as high temperature piezoelectric sensors. The thermal stability of the piezoelectric effect of one polyimide was evaluated as a function of various curing and poling conditions under dynamic and static thermal stimuli. First, the polymer samples were thermally cycled under strain by systematically increasing the maximum temperature from 50 C to 200 C while the piezoelectric strain coefficient was being measured. Second, the samples were isothermally aged at an elevated temperature in air, and the isothermal decay of the remanent polarization was measured at room temperature as a function of time. Both conventional and corona poling methods were evaluated. This material exhibited good thermal stability of the piezoelectric properties up to 100 C.

  15. Fracture Analysis of a Functionally Graded Two-Layer Strip with a Surface Crack Intersecting the Interface

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Licheng; Noda, Naotake

    2008-02-15

    The crack problem for a functionally graded two-layer strip under an in-plane load is investigated. The functionally graded layer is assumed to contain a surface crack intersecting the interface. An auxiliary function related to two layers is used. By using integral transform methods, the singular integral equation is obtained. The parameter influences on the stress intensity factors (SIFs) are studied.

  16. Functionally Graded Designer Viscoelastic Materials Tailored to Perform Prescribed Tasks with Probabilistic Failures and Lifetimes

    SciTech Connect

    Hilton, Harry H.

    2008-02-15

    Protocols are developed for formulating optimal viscoelastic designer functionally graded materials tailored to best respond to prescribed loading and boundary conditions. In essence, an inverse approach is adopted where material properties instead of structures per se are designed and then distributed throughout structural elements. The final measure of viscoelastic material efficacy is expressed in terms of failure probabilities vs. survival time000.

  17. Eighth Grade In-Service Teachers' Knowledge of Proportional Reasoning and Functions: A Secondary Data Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masters, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    A secondary data analysis was conducted using a large dataset from a study related to online professional development for eighth grade teachers of mathematics. Using this data, the paper provides a snapshot of the current state of teachers' knowledge related to proportional reasoning and functions. The paper also considers how teachers' knowledge…

  18. Algebraic Reasoning: Professor Arbegla Introduces Variables and Functions. GEMS Teacher's Guide for Grades 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopp, Jaine; Bergman, Lincoln

    This teacher guide helps build a solid foundation in algebra for students in grades 3-5 in which students gain essential understanding of properties of numbers, variables, functions, equations, and formulas. Throughout the problem solving activities, students use computational skills and gain a deeper understanding of the number system. Students…

  19. Sub-stoichiometric functionally graded titania fibres for water-splitting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamaki, Vaia; Sergejevs, A.; Clarke, C.; Clemens, F.; Marken, F.; Bowen, C. R.

    2015-06-01

    The photo-electro-chemical (PEC) splitting of water requires semiconductor materials with a minimum energy gap of 1.23 eV along with conduction and valence bands overlapping the oxidation of H2O and reduction of H+ respectively. This work overcomes the limitations of stoichiometric titania by manufacturing fine scale fibres that exhibit a compositional gradient of oxygen vacancies across the fibre length. In such a fibre configuration the fibre end that is chemically reduced to a relatively small extent performs as the photoanode and the oxygen vacancies enhance the absorption of light. The fibre end that is reduced the most consists of Magnéli phases and exhibits metallic electrical conductivity that enhances the electron-hole separation. The structure and composition of the functionally graded fibres, which were manufactured through extrusion, pressureless sintering and carbo-thermal reduction, are studied using XRD and electron microscopy. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements were performed in a three-electrode electrochemical system and showed that the oxygen vacancies in the functionally graded fibres affect the flat band potential and have increased carrier density. The efficiency of the system was evaluated with PEC measurements that shows higher efficiency for the functionally graded fibres compared to homogeneous TiO2 or Magnéli phase fibres. The functionally graded and fine scale fibres have the potential to be used as an array of active fibres for water splitting applications.

  20. An Analysis of Schooling, Literacy and Functional Literacy of Urban and Suburban Eighth Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lathen, Levi

    Through the administration of standardized tests, questionnaires, and an inventory of educational progress designed to assess the application of skills, an effort is made to analyze the literacy, functional literacy, and factors related to achievement in a population of 181 eighth-grade students selected from an inner-city population and a…

  1. Mother-Child Planning, Child Emotional Functioning, and Children's Transition to First Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Susan M.; Gauvain, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Mother-child planning was examined in relation to child emotional functioning and first-grade school performance. Ninety dyads were randomly assigned to the explicit-goal condition (emphasized accuracy and preparation for a child-only posttest) or the no-explicit-goal condition (dyads just asked to work together). In the no-explicit-goal condition…

  2. Piezoelectrically assisted ultrafiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Ahner, N.; Gottschlich, D.; Narang, S.; Roberts, D.; Sharma, S.; Ventura, S.

    1993-01-01

    The authors have demonstrated the feasibility of using piezoelectrically assisted ultrafiltration to reduce membrane fouling and enhance the flux through ultrafiltration membranes. A preliminary economic evaluation, accounting for the power consumption of the piezoelectric driver and the extent of permeate flow rate enhancement, has also shown that piezoelectrically assisted ultrafiltration is cost effective and economically competitive in comparison with traditional separation processes. Piezoelectric transducers, such as a piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) disc or a piezoelectric horn, driven by moderate power, significantly enhance the permeate flux on fouled membranes, presumably because they promote local turbulence. Several experiments were conducted on polysulfone and regenerated cellulose UF membranes fouled during filtration of model feed solutions. Solutions of poly(ethylene glycol) and of high-molecular weight dextran were used as models. The authors found that they could significantly increase the permeate flux by periodically driving the piezoelectric transducer, horn or PZT disc, by application of moderate power over short periods of time, from 20 to 90 seconds. Enhancements as high as a factor of 8 were recorded within a few seconds, and enhanced permeate fluxes were maintained over a prolonged period (up to 3 hours). The prolonged flux enhancement makes it feasible to drive the piezoelectric transducer intermittently, thereby reducing the power consumption of the piezoelectric driver. As piezoelectric drivers of sonically assisted ultrafiltration, PZT disc transducers are preferred over the piezoelectric horn because of their small size and ease of adaptability to ultrafiltration test cells. The horn transmits sonic energy to the UF membrane through a titanium element driven by a separate piezoelectric transducer, but a piezoelectric ceramic disc transmits energy directly to the UF membrane.

  3. Functionally graded materials for orthopedic applications - an update on design and manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Sola, Antonella; Bellucci, Devis; Cannillo, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Functionally graded materials (FGMs) are innovative materials whose composition and/or microstructure gradually vary in space according to a designed law. As a result, also the properties gradually vary in space, so as to meet specific non-homogeneous service requirements without any abrupt interface at the macroscale. FGMs are emerging materials for orthopedic prostheses, since the functional gradient can be adapted to reproduce the local properties of the original bone, which helps to minimize the stress shielding effect and, at the same time, to reduce the shear stress between the implant and the surrounding bone tissue, two critical prerequisites for a longer lifespan of the graft. After a brief introduction to the origin of the FGM concept, the review surveys some representative examples of graded systems which are present in nature and, in particular, in the human body, with a focus on bone tissue. Then the rationale for using FGMs in orthopedic devices is discussed more in detail, taking into account both biological and biomechanical requirements. The core of the paper is dedicated to two fundamental topics, which are essential to benefit from the use of FGMs for orthopedic applications, namely (1) the computational tools for materials design and geometry optimization, and (2) the manufacturing techniques currently available to produce FGM-based grafts. This second part, in its turn, is structured to consider the production of functionally graded coatings (FGCs), of functionally graded 3D parts, and of special devices with a gradient in porosity (functionally graded scaffolds). The inspection of the literature on the argument clearly shows that the integration of design and manufacturing remains a critical step to overpass in order to achieve effective FGM-based implants. PMID:26757264

  4. Concept of functionally graded materials for advanced thermal barrier coating applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.Y.; Stinton, D.P.; Berndt, C.C.; Erdogan, F.; Lee, Y.D.; Mutasim, Z.

    1996-12-01

    This article explores the concept of creating functionally graded metal-ceramic composite microstructures for thermal barrier coatings used in gas-turbine applications. From a thermomechanical perspective, this concept offers the possibility of significantly improving the life and reliability of thermal barrier coatings. However, prior research reveals that progress has been somewhat limited because of the oxidative instability exhibited by some metal-ceramic composite microstructures. The present study addresses some of the materials criteria and research issues associated with preparing chemically stable, yet mechanically durable, graded metal-ceramic microstructures for realistic application environments.

  5. Using Diffusion Bonding in Making Piezoelectric Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sager, Frank E.

    2003-01-01

    and pressure for a specified curing time. The pressure, temperature, and time depend on the piezoelectric material selected. At the end of the diffusion-bonding process, the resulting laminated piezoelectric actuator is tested to verify the adequacy of the mechanical output as a function of an applied DC voltage.

  6. Deposition and Characterization of HVOF Thermal Sprayed Functionally Graded Coatings Deposited onto a Lightweight Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, M.; Stokes, J.; Looney, L.; Hashmi, M. S. J.

    2009-02-01

    There is a significant interest in lightweight materials (like aluminum, magnesium, titanium, and so on) containing a wear resistance coating, in such industries as the automotive industry, to replace heavy components with lighter parts in order to decrease vehicle weight and increase fuel efficiency. Functionally graded coatings, in which the composition, microstructure, and/or properties vary gradually from the bond coat to the top coat, may be applied to lightweight materials, not only to decrease weight, but also to enhance components mechanical properties by ensuring gradual microstructural (changes) together with lower residual stress. In the current work, aluminum/tool-steel functionally graded coatings were deposited onto lightweight aluminum substrates. The graded coatings were then characterized in terms of residual stress and hardness. Results show that residual stress increased with an increase in deposition thickness and a decrease in number of layers. However, the hardness also increased with an increase in deposition thickness and decrease in number of layers. Therefore, an engineer must compromise between the hardness and stress values while designing a functionally graded coating-substrate system.

  7. A piezoelectric transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Won, C. C.

    1993-01-01

    This work describes a modeling and design method whereby a piezoelectric system is formulated by two sets of second-order equations, one for the mechanical system, and the other for the electrical system, coupled through the piezoelectric effect. The solution to this electromechanical coupled system gives a physical interpretation of the piezoelectric effect as a piezoelectric transformer that is a part of the piezoelectric system, which transfers the applied mechanical force into a force-controlled current source, and short circuit mechanical compliance into capacitance. It also transfers the voltage source into a voltage-controlled relative velocity input, and free motional capacitance into mechanical compliance. The formulation and interpretation simplify the modeling of smart structures and lead to physical insight that aids the designer. Due to its physical realization, the smart structural system can be unconditional stable and effectively control responses. This new concept has been demonstrated in three numerical examples for a simple piezoelectric system.

  8. Free-edge stress analysis of functionally graded material layered biocomposite laminates.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bin; Kim, Heung Soo

    2014-10-01

    A stress function based theory is proposed to obtain free-edge stress distributions for three-dimensional, orthotropic, linearly elastic rectangular biocomposite laminates with surface-bonded functionally graded materials (FGM). The assumed stress fields automatically satisfy the pointwise equilibrium equation, as well as traction-free and free edge boundary conditions. The complementary virtual work principle, followed by the general eigenvalue solution procedure, is used to obtain 3-D free edge stress states. A typical stacking sequence of composite laminate is used as numerical investigation with surface bonded FGMs. It is shown that with proper exponential factor of FGMs, the interlaminar stresses at the FGM layer interface can be reduced significantly, in return to prevent debonding of FGM layers. This approach can be useful in the design of functionally graded material layered biocomposite structures. PMID:25942808

  9. Hybrid thermoelectric piezoelectric generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, D. S.; Hewitt, C. A.; Carroll, D. L.

    2016-06-01

    This work presents an integration of flexible thermoelectric and piezoelectric materials into a single device structure. This device architecture overcomes several prohibitive issues facing the combination of traditional thermoelectric and piezoelectric generators, while optimizing performance of the combined power output. The structure design uses a carbon nanotube/polymer thin film as a flexible thermoelectric generator that doubles as an electrode on a piezoelectric generator made of poly(vinylidene fluoride). An example 2 × 2 array of devices is shown to generate 89% of the maximum thermoelectric power, and provide 5.3 times more piezoelectric voltage when compared with a traditional device.

  10. Low-Velocity Impact Response of Sandwich Beams with Functionally Graded Core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Apetre, N. A.; Sankar, B. V.; Ambur, D. R.

    2006-01-01

    The problem of low-speed impact of a one-dimensional sandwich panel by a rigid cylindrical projectile is considered. The core of the sandwich panel is functionally graded such that the density, and hence its stiffness, vary through the thickness. The problem is a combination of static contact problem and dynamic response of the sandwich panel obtained via a simple nonlinear spring-mass model (quasi-static approximation). The variation of core Young's modulus is represented by a polynomial in the thickness coordinate, but the Poisson's ratio is kept constant. The two-dimensional elasticity equations for the plane sandwich structure are solved using a combination of Fourier series and Galerkin method. The contact problem is solved using the assumed contact stress distribution method. For the impact problem we used a simple dynamic model based on quasi-static behavior of the panel - the sandwich beam was modeled as a combination of two springs, a linear spring to account for the global deflection and a nonlinear spring to represent the local indentation effects. Results indicate that the contact stiffness of thc beam with graded core Increases causing the contact stresses and other stress components in the vicinity of contact to increase. However, the values of maximum strains corresponding to the maximum impact load arc reduced considerably due to grading of thc core properties. For a better comparison, the thickness of the functionally graded cores was chosen such that the flexural stiffness was equal to that of a beam with homogeneous core. The results indicate that functionally graded cores can be used effectively to mitigate or completely prevent impact damage in sandwich composites.

  11. A simple and accurate grading system for orthoiodohippurate renal scans in the assessment of post-transplant renal function

    SciTech Connect

    Zaki, S.K.; Bretan, P.N.; Go, R.T.; Rehm, P.K.; Streem, S.B.; Novick, A.C. )

    1990-06-01

    Orthoiodohippurate renal scanning has proved to be a reliable, noninvasive method for the evaluation and followup of renal allograft function. However, a standardized system for grading renal function with this test is not available. We propose a simple grading system to distinguish the different functional phases of hippurate scanning in renal transplant recipients. This grading system was studied in 138 patients who were evaluated 1 week after renal transplantation. There was a significant correlation between the isotope renographic functional grade and clinical correlates of allograft function such as the serum creatinine level (p = 0.0001), blood urea nitrogen level (p = 0.0001), urine output (p = 0.005) and need for hemodialysis (p = 0.007). We recommend this grading system as a simple and accurate method to interpret orthoiodohippurate renal scans in the evaluation and followup of renal allograft recipients.

  12. Micromechanics and Structural Response of Functionally Graded, Particulate-Matrix, Fiber-Reinforced Composites

    PubMed Central

    Genin, Guy M.; Birman, Victor

    2009-01-01

    Reinforcement of fibrous composites by stiff particles embedded in the matrix offers the potential for simple, economical functional grading, enhanced response to mechanical loads, and improved functioning at high temperatures. Here, we consider laminated plates made of such a material, with spherical reinforcement tailored by layer. The moduli for this material lie within relatively narrow bounds. Two separate moduli estimates are considered: a “two-step” approach in which fibers are embedded in a homogenized particulate matrix, and the Kanaun-Jeulin (2001) approach, which we re-derive in a simple way using the Benveniste (1988) method. Optimal tailoring of a plate is explored, and functional grading is shown to improve the performance of the structures considered. In the example of a square, simply supported, cross-ply laminated panel subjected to uniform transverse pressure, a modest functional grading offers significant improvement in performance. A second example suggests superior blast resistance of the panel achieved at the expense of only a small increase in weight. PMID:23874001

  13. Methods of electrophoretic deposition for functionally graded porous nanostructures and systems thereof

    DOEpatents

    Worsley, Marcus A; Baumann, Theodore F; Satcher, Joe H; Olson, Tammy Y; Kuntz, Joshua D; Rose, Klint A

    2015-03-03

    In one embodiment, an aerogel includes a layer of shaped particles having a particle packing density gradient in a thickness direction of the layer, wherein the shaped particles are characterized by being formed in an electrophoretic deposition (EPD) process using an impurity. In another embodiment, a method for forming a functionally graded porous nanostructure includes adding particles of an impurity and a solution to an EPD chamber, applying a voltage difference across the two electrodes of the EPD chamber to create an electric field in the EPD chamber, and depositing the material onto surfaces of the particles of the impurity to form shaped particles of the material. Other functionally graded materials and methods are described according to more embodiments.

  14. Effect of partial elastic foundation on free vibration of fluid-filled functionally graded cylindrical shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young-Wann

    2015-12-01

    The free vibration characteristics of fluid-filled functionally graded cylindrical shells buried partially in elastic foundations are investigated by an analytical method. The elastic foundation of partial axial and angular dimensions is represented by the Pasternak model. The motion of the shells is represented by the first-order shear deformation theory to account for rotary inertia and transverse shear strains. The functionally graded cylindrical shells are composed of stainless steel and silicon nitride. Material properties vary continuously through the thickness according to a power law distribution in terms of the volume fraction of the constituents. The governing equation is obtained using the Rayleigh-Ritz method and a variation approach. The fluid is described by the classical potential flow theory. Numerical examples are presented and compared with existing available results to validate the present method.

  15. Mothers' depressive symptoms and children's cognitive and social agency: Predicting first-grade cognitive functioning.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ni; Dix, Theodore

    2016-08-01

    Using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1,364), the present study supports an agentic perspective; it demonstrates that mothers' depressive symptoms in infancy predict children's poor first-grade cognitive functioning because depressive symptoms predict children's low social and cognitive agency-low motivation to initiate social interaction and actively engage in activities. When mothers' depressive symptoms were high in infancy, children displayed poor first-grade cognitive functioning due to (a) tendencies to become socially withdrawn by 36 months and low in mastery motivation by 54 months and (b) tendencies for children's low agency to predict declines in mothers' sensitivity and cognitive stimulation. Findings suggest that mothers' depressive symptoms undermine cognitive development through bidirectional processes centered on children's low motivation to engage in social interaction and initiate and persist at everyday tasks. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27389834

  16. Preparation of a Functionally Graded Fluoropolymer Thin Film and Its Application to Antireflective Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senda, Kazuo; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi; Kawanishi, Takumi; Tanaka, Kuniaki; Usui, Hiroaki

    2013-05-01

    Fluoropolymer thin films were prepared by the ion-assisted vapor deposition polymerization (IAD) of 2-(perfluorohexyl) ethylacrylate (Rf-6) under Ar ion irradiation. The ion acceleration voltage Va largely affected the film characteristics. With increasing Va, the adhesion strength between the film and the substrate improved, while the surface energy and the refractive index increased. To attain a high adhesion strength, a low surface energy, and a low optical reflectivity simultaneously, a functionally graded film was prepared by varying Va from 300 to 0 V continually in the course of film growth. As a consequence, an antireflective coating with good adhesion and low surface energy was obtained. The optical reflectivity of a glass substrate was reduced from 4.9 to 0.55% at a wavelength of 400 nm by depositing a 100-nm-thick single-layer functionally graded fluoropolymer film. The surface energy of this film was 8.5 mJ/m2.

  17. Multiscale Structured and Functionally Graded Gas Diffusion Electrodes for PEM-Fuel Cells and Electrodialysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, H.; Franz, M.; Bienhüls, C.; Willert-Porada, M.

    2008-02-01

    In the presented work, different methods of preparation of functionally graded gas diffusion electrodes (GDE) for fuel cell and electrodialysis application were investigated. High electrochemical performance with a low platinum catalyst content of only 0.1 mg/cm2 was achieved. The new GDEs are superior to commercial ones with five times higher platinum content, due to their optimized pore structure and improved distribution of catalyst and ion conductive polymer.

  18. Prediction of acoustic radiation from functionally graded shells of revolution in light and heavy fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Yegao; Meng, Guang

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a semi-analytical method for the vibro-acoustic analysis of a functionally graded shell of revolution immersed in an infinite light or heavy fluid. The structural model of the shell is formulated on the basis of a modified variational method combined with a multi-segment technique, whereas a spectral Kirchhoff-Helmholtz integral formulation is employed to model the exterior fluid field. The material properties of the shell are estimated by using the Voigt's rule of mixture and the Mori-Tanaka's homogenization scheme. Displacement and sound pressure variables of each segment are expanded in the form of a mixed series using Fourier series and Chebyshev orthogonal polynomials. A set of collocation nodes distributed over the roots of Chebyshev polynomials are employed to establish the algebraic system of the acoustic integral equations, and the non-uniqueness solution is eliminated using a combined Helmholtz integral equation formulation. Loosely and strongly coupled schemes are implemented for the structure-acoustic interaction problem of a functionally graded shell immersed in a light and heavy fluid, respectively. The present method provides a flexible way to account for the individual contributions of circumferential wave modes to the vibration and acoustic responses of functionally graded shells of revolution in an analytical manner. Numerical tests are presented for sound radiation problems of spherical, cylindrical, conical and coupled shells. The individual contributions of the circumferential modes to the radiated sound pressure and sound power of functionally graded shells are observed. Effects of the material profile on the sound radiation of the shells are also investigated.

  19. Method and apparatus for determination of mechanical properties of functionally-graded materials

    DOEpatents

    Giannakopoulos, Antonios E.; Suresh, Subra

    1999-01-01

    Techniques for the determination of mechanical properties of homogenous or functionally-graded materials from indentation testing are presented. The technique is applicable to indentation on the nano-scale through the macro-scale including the geological scale. The technique involves creating a predictive load/depth relationship for a sample, providing an experimental load/depth relationship, comparing the experimental data to the predictive data, and determining a physical characteristic from the comparison.

  20. Analysis of stress singularities at singular points of elastic solids made of functionally graded materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matveenko, V. P.; Fedorov, A. Yu.; Shardakov, I. N.

    2016-01-01

    The results of analytical and numerical investigations on estimating the character of the singularity of stresses in a vicinity of different variants of special points of the 2D elastic solids made of functionally graded materials (FGMs) are presented. The variant of construction by analytical methods in the polar system of coordinates is considered for eigensolutions in the flat wedges made of the FGM, the elastic properties of which are represented as power series in terms of the radial coordinate.

  1. Mechanical and biological properties of the micro-/nano-grain functionally graded hydroxyapatite bioceramics for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Changchun; Deng, Congying; Chen, Xuening; Zhao, Xiufen; Chen, Ying; Fan, Yujiang; Zhang, Xingdong

    2015-08-01

    Functionally graded materials (FGM) open the promising approach for bone tissue repair. In this study, a novel functionally graded hydroxyapatite (HA) bioceramic with micrograin and nanograin structure was fabricated. Its mechanical properties were tailored by composition of micrograin and nanograin. The dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) indicated that the graded HA ceramics had similar mechanical property compared to natural bones. Their cytocompatibility was evaluated via fluorescent microscopy and MTT colorimetric assay. The viability and proliferation of rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on ceramics indicated that this functionally graded HA ceramic had better cytocompatibility than conventional HA ceramic. This study demonstrated that functionally graded HA ceramics create suitable structures to satisfy both the mechanical and biological requirements of bone tissues. PMID:25910818

  2. Investigating the Force Production of Functionally-Graded Flexible Wings in Flapping Wing Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudbhari, Durlav; Erdogan, Malcolm; He, Kai; Bateman, Daniel; Lipkis, Rory; Moored, Keith

    2015-11-01

    Birds, insects and bats oscillate their wings to propel themselves over long distances and to maneuver with unprecedented agility. A key element to achieve their impressive aerodynamic performance is the flexibility of their wings. Numerous studies have shown that homogeneously flexible wings can enhance force production, propulsive efficiency and lift efficiency. Yet, animal wings are not homogenously flexible, but instead have varying material properties. The aim of this study is to characterize the force production and energetics of functionally-graded flexible wings. A partially-flexible wing composed of a rigid section and a flexible section is used as a first-order model of functionally-graded materials. The flexion occurs in the spanwise direction and it is affected by the spanwise flexion ratio, that is, the ratio of the length of the rigid section compared to the total span length. By varying the flexion ratio as well as the material properties of the flexible section, the study aims to examine the force production and energetics of flapping flight with functionally-graded flexible wings. Supported by the Office of Naval Research under Program Director Dr. Bob Brizzolara, MURI grant number N00014-14-1-0533.

  3. Finite element analysis on longitudinal and radial functionally graded femoral prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Oshkour, Azim Ataollahi; Abu Osman, N A; Davoodi, M M; Yau, Y H; Tarlochan, F; Wan Abas, W A B; Bayat, M

    2013-12-01

    This study focused on developing a 3D finite element model of functionally graded femoral prostheses to decrease stress shielding and to improve total hip replacement performance. The mechanical properties of the modeled functionally graded femoral prostheses were adjusted in the sagittal and transverse planes by changing the volume fraction gradient exponent. Prostheses with material changes in the sagittal and transverse planes were considered longitudinal and radial prostheses, respectively. The effects of cemented and noncemented implantation methods were also considered in this study. Strain energy and von Mises stresses were determined at the femoral proximal metaphysis and interfaces of the implanted femur components, respectively. Results demonstrated that the strain energy increased proportionally with increasing volume fraction gradient exponent, whereas the interface stresses decreased on the prostheses surfaces. A limited increase was also observed at the surfaces of the bone and cement. The periprosthetic femur with a noncemented prosthesis exhibited higher strain energy than with a cemented prosthesis. Radial prostheses implantation displayed more strain energy than longitudinal prostheses implantation in the femoral proximal part. Functionally graded materials also increased strain energy and exhibited promising potentials as substitutes of conventional materials to decrease stress shielding and to enhance total hip replacement lifespan. PMID:23922316

  4. Physical activity levels and functional performance in the Osteoarthritis Initiative: a graded relationship

    PubMed Central

    Dunlop, Dorothy D.; Song, Jing; Semanik, Pamela A.; Sharma, Leena; Chang, Rowland W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Physical activity improves function for adults with arthritis, but it is unknown if there is a graded relationship with functional benefit. We examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationship between self-reported physical activity and observed functional performance in adults with knee osteoarthritis. Methods The Osteoarthritis Initiative cohort included 2589 persons with knee osteoarthritis (2301 having longitudinal follow-up) aged 45 to 79 years at baseline. Two years of prospective annual functional performance was assessed from timed 20 meter walk tests. We used linear regression to estimate differences across physical activity quartiles in subsequent function (baseline and 1-year activity predicts 1- and 2-year function, respectively) adjusted for demographics (age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, marital status) and health factors (osteoarthritis severity, knee symptoms, knee pain, knee injury, body mass index, comorbidity, depression, smoking, alcohol use, other joint pain). Results Increasing physical activity levels had a significant graded relationship with functional performance. Adults in physical activity quartile groups, from least to most active, had average gait speed of 4.0, 4.2, 4.3, 4.5 feet/second respectively at baseline (p-value for trend <.001) and 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.5 feet/second after one year (p-value for trend <.001); increasing trends remained significant after adjusting for covariates. Findings were similar within gender and age groups. Conclusion These prospective data showed a consistent graded relationship between physical activity level and better performance in adults with knee osteoarthritis. These findings support guidelines that encourage persons with arthritis who cannot attain minimum recommended physical activity to be as active as possible. PMID:20862681

  5. Asphalt pavement aging and temperature dependent properties using functionally graded viscoelastic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dave, Eshan V.

    Asphalt concrete pavements are inherently graded viscoelastic structures. Oxidative aging of asphalt binder and temperature cycling due to climatic conditions being the major cause of non-homogeneity. Current pavement analysis and simulation procedures dwell on the use of layered approach to account for these non-homogeneities. The conventional finite-element modeling (FEM) technique discretizes the problem domain into smaller elements, each with a unique constitutive property. However the assignment of unique material property description to an element in the FEM approach makes it an unattractive choice for simulation of problems with material non-homogeneities. Specialized elements such as "graded elements" allow for non-homogenous material property definitions within an element. This dissertation describes the development of graded viscoelastic finite element analysis method and its application for analysis of asphalt concrete pavements. Results show that the present research improves efficiency and accuracy of simulations for asphalt pavement systems. Some of the practical implications of this work include the new technique's capability for accurate analysis and design of asphalt pavements and overlay systems and for the determination of pavement performance with varying climatic conditions and amount of in-service age. Other application areas include simulation of functionally graded fiber-reinforced concrete, geotechnical materials, metal and metal composites at high temperatures, polymers, and several other naturally existing and engineered materials.

  6. Fracture and fatigue analysis of functionally graded and homogeneous materials using singular integral equation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Huaqing

    There are two major objectives of this thesis work. One is to study theoretically the fracture and fatigue behavior of both homogeneous and functionally graded materials, with or without crack bridging. The other is to further develop the singular integral equation approach in solving mixed boundary value problems. The newly developed functionally graded materials (FGMs) have attracted considerable research interests as candidate materials for structural applications ranging from aerospace to automobile to manufacturing. From the mechanics viewpoint, the unique feature of FGMs is that their resistance to deformation, fracture and damage varies spatially. In order to guide the microstructure selection and the design and performance assessment of components made of functionally graded materials, in this thesis work, a series of theoretical studies has been carried out on the mode I stress intensity factors and crack opening displacements for FGMs with different combinations of geometry and material under various loading conditions, including: (1) a functionally graded layer under uniform strain, far field pure bending and far field axial loading, (2) a functionally graded coating on an infinite substrate under uniform strain, and (3) a functionally graded coating on a finite substrate under uniform strain, far field pure bending and far field axial loading. In solving crack problems in homogeneous and non-homogeneous materials, a very powerful singular integral equation (SEE) method has been developed since 1960s by Erdogan and associates to solve mixed boundary value problems. However, some of the kernel functions developed earlier are incomplete and possibly erroneous. In this thesis work, mode I fracture problems in a homogeneous strip are reformulated and accurate singular Cauchy type kernels are derived. Very good convergence rates and consistency with standard data are achieved. Other kernel functions are subsequently developed for mode I fracture in

  7. The narwhal (Monodon monoceros) cementum-dentin junction: a functionally graded biointerphase.

    PubMed

    Grandfield, Kathryn; Chattah, Netta Lev-Tov; Djomehri, Sabra; Eidelmann, Naomi; Eichmiller, Frederick C; Webb, Samuel; Schuck, P James; Nweeia, Martin; Ho, Sunita P

    2014-08-01

    In nature, an interface between dissimilar tissues is often bridged by a graded zone, and provides functional properties at a whole organ level. A perfect example is a "biological interphase" between stratified cementum and dentin of a narwhal tooth. This study highlights the graded structural, mechanical, and chemical natural characteristics of a biological interphase known as the cementum-dentin junction layer and their effect in resisting mechanical loads. From a structural perspective, light and electron microscopy techniques illustrated the layer as a wide 1000-2000 μm graded zone consisting of higher density continuous collagen fiber bundles from the surface of cementum to dentin, that parallels hygroscopic 50-100 μm wide collagenous region in human teeth. The role of collagen fibers was evident under compression testing during which the layer deformed more compared to cementum and dentin. This behavior is reflected through site-specific nanoindentation indicating a lower elastic modulus of 2.2 ± 0.5 GPa for collagen fiber bundle compared to 3 ± 0.4 GPa for mineralized regions in the layer. Similarly, microindentation technique illustrated lower hardness values of 0.36 ± 0.05 GPa, 0.33 ± 0.03 GPa, and 0.3 ± 0.07 GPa for cementum, dentin, and cementum-dentin layer, respectively. Biochemical analyses including Raman spectroscopy and synchrotron-source microprobe X-ray fluorescence demonstrated a graded composition across the interface, including a decrease in mineral-to-matrix and phosphate-to-carbonate ratios, as well as the presence of tidemark-like bands with Zn. Understanding the structure-function relationships of wider tissue interfaces can provide insights into natural tissue and organ function. PMID:25205746

  8. Determination and modeling of residual stress in functionally graded WC-Co

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahvilian, Leila

    Gradual variations in composition and/or structure through the volume of functionally graded materials (FGMs) generally result in corresponding continuous spatial variations in mechanical/physical properties, and often in significant residual stresses that develop during processing. Due to inhomogeneous properties in these materials, residual stress measurement in FGMs can be a very challenging problem. In this study, residual stresses in functionally graded cemented tungsten carbide (FG-WC-Co) were investigated by numerical, analytical and experimental approaches by means of a layer removal technique. The numerical method consisted of finite element analysis (FEA) modeling for the FGM plate, in order to calculate residual stress distribution over the volume and to develop a method for predicting residual stress levels in closely related materials. The analytical procedure embodied a mathematical approach to determine residual stress distributions, and analytically determined values are compared with those obtained from FEA modeling and experimental results. The experimental approach consisted of fabricating and heat treating FG-WC-Co flat samples, then measuring strain changes by strain gauge after each sequential layer removal from the opposite side of the specimen from the graded region. Good agreement was found between analytical, numerical and experimental results. Furthermore, thermal residual stress distribution in FG-WC-Co hollow cylinder was examined with an emphasis on the effects of key variables, the gradient profile and the gradient thickness, on the magnitude and distribution of the stress field. An analytical direct solution based on solving the governing equations of a cylinder composed of a uniform inner core and a functionally graded outer shell was developed. The cylindrical compound was considered as two separate elements: homogeneous cylinder and functionally graded shell. Material properties, such as the elastic modulus and the coefficient of

  9. Piezoelectric resonators based on self-assembled diphenylalanine microtubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosne, E. D.; Heredia, A.; Kopyl, S.; Karpinsky, D. V.; Pinto, A. G.; Kholkin, A. L.

    2013-02-01

    Piezoelectric actuation has been widely used in microelectromechanical devices including resonance-based biosensors, mass detectors, resonators, etc. These were mainly produced by micromachining of Si and deposited inorganic piezoelectrics based on metal oxides or perovskite-type materials which have to be further functionalized in order to be used in biological applications. In this work, we demonstrate piezoelectrically driven micromechanical resonators based on individual self-assembled diphenylalanine microtubes with strong intrinsic piezoelectric effect. Tubes of different diameters and lengths were grown from the solution and assembled on a rigid support. The conducting tip of the commercial atomic force microscope was then used to both excite vibrations and study resonance behavior. Efficient piezoelectric actuation at the fundamental resonance frequency ≈2.7 MHz was achieved with a quality factor of 114 for a microtube of 277 μm long. A possibility of using piezoelectric dipeptides for biosensor applications is discussed.

  10. One-Dimensional Solutions for Transient Thermal Stresses in Functionally Graded Hollow Cylinders and Hollow Spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ootao, Yoshihiro; Tanigawa, Yoshinobu

    2008-02-01

    This paper is concerned with the theoretical treatment of transient thermoelastic problems involving functionally graded hollow cylinders and hollow spheres due to uniform heat supply. The thermal and thermoelastic coefficients of the hollow cylinders and hollow spheres are expressed as power functions of the radial coordinate. The one-dimensional solutions for the temperature changes in a transient state and the thermoelastic response are obtained herein. Some numerical results are shown in figures. Furthermore, the influence of the material nonhomogeneity on the temperature change, displacements and stresses is investigated.

  11. Assessment of Preoperative Liver Function in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma – The Albumin-Indocyanine Green Evaluation (ALICE) Grade

    PubMed Central

    Kokudo, Takashi; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Amikura, Katsumi; Uldry, Emilie; Shirata, Chikara; Yamaguchi, Takamune; Arita, Junichi; Kaneko, Junichi; Akamatsu, Nobuhisa; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Takahashi, Amane; Sakamoto, Hirohiko; Makuuchi, Masatoshi; Matsuyama, Yutaka; Demartines, Nicolas; Malagó, Massimo; Kokudo, Norihiro; Halkic, Nermin

    2016-01-01

    Background Most patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have underlying liver disease, therefore, precise preoperative evaluation of the patient’s liver function is essential for surgical decision making. Methods We developed a grading system incorporating only two variables, namely, the serum albumin level and the indocyanine green retention rate at 15 minutes (ICG R15), to assess the preoperative liver function, based on the overall survival of 1868 patients with HCC who underwent liver resection. We then tested the model in a European cohort (n = 70) and analyzed the predictive power for the postoperative short-term outcome. Results The Albumin-Indocyanine Green Evaluation (ALICE) grading system was developed in a randomly assigned training cohort: linear predictor = 0.663 × log10ICG R15 (%)−0.0718 × albumin (g/L) (cut-off value: -2.20 and -1.39). This new grading system showed a predictive power for the overall survival similar to the Child-Pugh grading system in the validation cohort. Determination of the ALICE grade in Child-Pugh A patients allowed further stratification of the postoperative prognosis. This result was reproducible in the European cohort. Determination of the ALICE grade allowed better prediction of the risk of postoperative liver failure and mortality (ascites: grade 1, 2.1%; grade 2, 6.5%; grade 3, 16.0%; mortality: grade 1, 0%; grade 2, 1.3%; grade 3, 5.3%) than the previously reported model based on the presence/absence of portal hypertension. Conclusions This new grading system is a simple method for prediction of the postoperative long-term and short-term outcomes. PMID:27434062

  12. Coulomb-damped resonant generators using piezoelectric transduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, L. M.; Mitcheson, P. D.; Halvorsen, E.; Wright, P. K.

    2012-06-01

    Switching interface circuits employed with piezoelectric energy harvesters can increase the electrical damping considerably over that achievable with passive rectifiers. We show that a piezoelectric harvester coupled to certain types of switching circuits becomes a Coulomb-damped resonant generator. This allows analysis of such harvester systems within a well-known framework and, subject to practical constraints, allows the optimal electrical damping to be achieved. In the piezoelectric pre-biasing technique, the Coulomb damping is set by a pre-bias voltage whose optimal value is derived as a function of piezoelectric harvester parameters.

  13. A new design of cemented stem using functionally graded materials (FGM).

    PubMed

    Hedia, H S; Aldousari, S M; Abdellatif, A K; Fouda, N

    2014-01-01

    One of the most frequent complications of total hip replacement (THR) is aseptic loosening of femoral component which is primarily due to changes of post-operative stress distribution pattern with respect to intact femur. Stress shielding of the femur is known to be a principal factor in aseptic loosening of hip replacements. Many designers show that a stiff stem shields the surrounding bone from mechanical loading causing stress shielding. Others show that reducing stem stiffness promotes higher proximal interface shear stress which increases the risk of proximal interface failure. Therefore, the task of this investigation is to solve these conflicting problems appeared in the cemented total hip replacement. The finite element method and optimization technique are used in order to find the optimal stem material which gives the optimal available stress distribution between the proximal medial femoral bone and the cement mantle interfaces. The stem is designed using the concept of functionally graded material (FGM) instead of using the conventional most common used stem material. The results showed that there are four feasible solutions from the optimization runs. The best of these designs is to use a cemented stem graded from titanium at the upper stem layer to collagen at the lower stem layer. This new cemented stem design completely eliminates the stress shielding problem at the proximal medial femoral region. The stress shielding using the cemented functionally graded stem is reduced by 98% compared to titanium stem. PMID:24840196

  14. On the nonlinear axisymmetric dynamic buckling behavior of clamped functionally graded spherical caps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, T.; Sundararajan, N.; Ganapathi, M.

    2007-01-01

    Here, the dynamic thermal buckling behavior of functionally graded spherical caps is studied considering geometric nonlinearity based on von Karman's assumptions. The formulation is based on first-order shear deformation theory and it includes the in-plane and rotary inertia effects. The material properties are graded in the thickness direction according to the power-law distribution in terms of volume fractions of the material constituents. The effective material properties are evaluated using homogenization method. The governing equations obtained using finite element approach are solved employing the Newmark's integration technique coupled with a modified Newton-Raphson iteration scheme. The pressure load corresponding to a sudden jump in the maximum average displacement in the time history of the shell structure is taken as the dynamic buckling load. The present model is validated against the available isotropic case. A detailed numerical study is carried out to highlight the influences of shell geometries, power law index of functional graded material and boundary conditions on the dynamic buckling load of shallow spherical shells.

  15. Effects of functionally graded materials on dynamics of molecular bond clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, WenLiang; Qian, Jin; Yao, HaiMin; Chen, WeiQiu; Gao, HuaJian

    2012-06-01

    Unlike nonspecific adhesion of conventional hard materials in engineering commonly described by JKR and DMT type models, the molecular adhesion via specific receptor-ligand bonds is stochastic by nature and has the feature that its strength strongly depends on the medium stiffness surrounding the adhesion. In this paper, we demonstrate in a stochastic-elasticity framework that a type of materials with linearly graded elastic modulus can be designed to achieve "equal load sharing" and enhanced cooperative rebinding among interfacial molecular bonds. Upon modulus gradation, multiple molecular bonds can be elastically decoupled but statistically cooperative. In general, uniform molecular adhesion can be accomplished by two strategies: homogeneous materials with sufficient stiffness higher than a threshold or heterogeneous materials satisfying the criterion on modulus gradation. These results not only provide a theoretical principle for possible applications of functionally graded materials in quantitatively controlling cell-matrix adhesion, but also have general implications on adhesion between soft materials mediated by specific molecular binding.

  16. The role of the executive functions in school achievement at the end of Grade 1.

    PubMed

    Monette, Sebastien; Bigras, Marc; Guay, Marie-Claude

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the role of executive functions (EFs) in early school achievement when a variety of potential confounding factors were controlled. Measures of EF (inhibition, flexibility, and working memory) and school readiness were administered to a sample of 85 kindergartners (39 boys and 46 girls, 5-6years old). School achievement was then assessed at the end of Grade 1. Results show math and reading/writing skills at the end of Grade 1 to be associated with kindergarten EFs. Only working memory contributed uniquely to the variance in school achievement after all covariates (preacademic abilities, affective variables, and family variables) were controlled and, even then, only with respect to math skills. On the other hand, working memory and inhibition had an indirect effect on reading/writing skills via anger-aggression. EF implication in school achievement is discussed in terms of task demands and child age. PMID:21349537

  17. FUNCTIONALLY GRADED ALUMINA/MULLITE COATINGS FOR PROTECTION OF SILICON CARBIDE CERAMIC COMPONENTS FROM CORROSION

    SciTech Connect

    Prof. Stratis V. Sotirchos

    2001-02-01

    The main objective of this research project was the formulation of processes that can be used to prepare compositionally graded alumina/mullite coatings for protection from corrosion of silicon carbide components (monolithic or composite) used or proposed to be used in coal utilization systems (e.g., combustion chamber liners, heat exchanger tubes, particulate removal filters, and turbine components) and other energy-related applications. Since alumina has excellent resistance to corrosion but coefficient than silicon carbide, the key idea of this project has been to develop graded coatings with composition varying smoothly along their thickness between an inner (base) layer of mullite in contact with the silicon carbide component and an outer layer of pure alumina, which would function as the actual protective coating of the component. (Mullite presents very good adhesion towards silicon carbide and has thermal expansion coefficient very close to that of the latter.)

  18. Research on Recent Processing Technologies for Functionally Graded Materials in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, C. C.; Song, S. X.; Zhou, Z. J.; Shen, W. P.; Du, J.; Cong, W. W.

    2008-02-01

    Functionally graded materials (FGMs) are attracting more and more attentions of materials scientists, because their composition, structures and properties vary gradually and continuously from one material to another along one or more direction, which satisfy the demands of the advanced materials. The studies on FGMs have been performed for nearly 20 years around the world. In China, the related research also has been carried out for more than 10 years and some notable progress is noted. This paper presents an overview on emerging technologies for FGMs in China, including ultra-high consolidation with graded sintering, spark plasma sintering (SPS), self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS), thermal spraying, chemical vapor deposition, physical vapor deposition, laser cladding and so on. In addition, various applications of these technologies are presented and some new technologies to the next level are also discussed.

  19. Electro-magneto-thermo-elastic response of infinite functionally graded cylinders without energy dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenkour, Ashraf M.; Abbas, Ibrahim A.

    2015-12-01

    The electro-magneto-thermo-elastic analysis problem of an infinite functionally graded (FG) hollow cylinder is studied in the context of Green-Naghdi's (G-N) generalized thermoelasticity theory (without energy dissipation). Material properties are assumed to be graded in the radial direction according to a novel power-law distribution in terms of the volume fractions of the metal and ceramic constituents. The inner surface of the FG cylinder is pure metal whereas the outer surface is pure ceramic. The equations of motion and the heat-conduction equation are used to derive the governing second-order differential equations. A finite element scheme is presented for the numerical purpose. The system of differential equations is solved numerically and some plots for displacement, radial and electromagnetic stresses, and temperature are presented. The radial displacement, mechanical stresses and temperature as well as the electromagnetic stress are all investigated along the radial direction of the infinite cylinder.

  20. Processing, microstructure and mechanics of functionally graded Al A359/SiC(p) composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Castro, Ramon

    2000-11-01

    Metal matrix composites (MMCs) have great promise for high temperature, high strength, wear resistant applications. However, their brittleness has limited their use in load bearing applications. Functionally graded MMCs with a reinforcement concentration higher on the surface than in the interior offer new opportunities, as these materials will have high surface hardness as well as high resistance to crack growth towards the interior. In this dissertation the processing and mechanical properties of a functionally graded MMC are investigated. Rectangular blocks (100 mmx60 mmx50 mm) of functionally graded SiC particulate reinforced aluminum A359 matrix composite were prepared by centrifugal casting techniques. The reinforcement volume fraction profiles varied as the centrifugal force was applied, owing to the different densities of Al and SiC. The casting at 1300 rpm (angular velocity) had a well-mixed, refined microstructure with the maximum SiC volume fraction of 44% near the outer surface of the blocks. This surface exhibited an elevated hardness. The effect of SiC particulate reinforcement on strengthening of A359 Al alloy was experimentally studied by tensile testing specimens prepared from the cast blocks. There was a continuous increase in tensile and yield strength with increasing SiC volume fractions in the range of 0.20 to 0.30. On the contrary, there was a reduction in tensile and yield strength for SiC concentrations in the range of 0.30 to 0.40. The elasticity modulus increased with increasing SiC volume fractions in the whole reinforcement range (0.20--0.40). Fractographic analysis by SEM revealed a ductile failure process of void growth in the matrix, but the amount of the void growth was less when the SiC concentration was higher. SEM also revealed SiC reinforcement fracture and decohesion, with the particle fracture increasing with the particle concentration. Appropriate flat specimens with a continuously graded microstructure for fracture mechanics

  1. Propagation of elastic waves in an anisotropic functionally graded hollow cylinder in vacuum.

    PubMed

    Baron, Cécile

    2011-02-01

    As a non-destructive, non-invasive and non-ionizing evaluation technique for heterogeneous media, the ultrasonic method is of major interest in industrial applications but especially in biomedical fields. Among the unidirectionally heterogeneous media, the continuously varying media are a particular but widespread case in natural materials. The first studies on laterally varying media were carried out by geophysicists on the Ocean, the atmosphere or the Earth, but the teeth, the bone, the shells and the insects wings are also functionally graded media. Some of them can be modeled as planar structures but a lot of them are curved media and need to be modeled as cylinders instead of plates. The present paper investigates the influence of the tubular geometry of a waveguide on the propagation of elastic waves. In this paper, the studied structure is an anisotropic hollow cylinder with elastic properties (stiffness coefficients c(ij) and mass density ρ) functionally varying in the radial direction. An original method is proposed to find the eigenmodes of this waveguide without using a multilayered model for the cylinder. This method is based on the sextic Stroh's formalism and an analytical solution, the matricant, explicitly expressed under the Peano series expansion form. This approach has already been validated for the study of an anisotropic laterally-graded plate (Baron et al., 2007; Baron and Naili, 2010) [6,5]. The dispersion curves obtained for the radially-graded cylinder are compared to the dispersion curves of a corresponding laterally-graded plate to evaluate the influence of the curvature. Preliminary results are presented for a tube of bone in vacuum modelling the in vitro conditions of bone strength evaluation. PMID:20692675

  2. Piezoelectric cantilever sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Wan Y. (Inventor); Shih, Wei-Heng (Inventor); Shen, Zuyan (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A piezoelectric cantilever with a non-piezoelectric, or piezoelectric tip useful as mass and viscosity sensors. The change in the cantilever mass can be accurately quantified by monitoring a resonance frequency shift of the cantilever. For bio-detection, antibodies or other specific receptors of target antigens may be immobilized on the cantilever surface, preferably on the non-piezoelectric tip. For chemical detection, high surface-area selective absorbent materials are coated on the cantilever tip. Binding of the target antigens or analytes to the cantilever surface increases the cantilever mass. Detection of target antigens or analytes is achieved by monitoring the cantilever's resonance frequency and determining the resonance frequency shift that is due to the mass of the adsorbed target antigens on the cantilever surface. The use of a piezoelectric unimorph cantilever allows both electrical actuation and electrical sensing. Incorporating a non-piezoelectric tip (14) enhances the sensitivity of the sensor. In addition, the piezoelectric cantilever can withstand damping in highly viscous liquids and can be used as a viscosity sensor in wide viscosity range.

  3. High Power Piezoelectric Characterization for Piezoelectric Transformer Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ural, Seyit O.

    application, the design considered following key factors; 1-Controlling the output impedance by optimizing number of layers and layer thicknesses of the multilayer and 2- Evaluation of various electrodes and their affect on high power performance was evaluated. As the thickness of active layers decreased, the number of electrode layers increases. This increase in the metal to piezoelectric ratio and the relative increase in the electrode resistance under high current loads, both will have to be accounted for. With the piezoelectric composition and the device structure optimized, the research focused on candidate electrode materials and their effects on a multilayer piezoelectric transformer has been investigated. Transformers with silver/palladium, silver/platinum, pure silver and copper postfire electrodes were fabricated and significant differences in high power characteristics of the transformers as a function of the electrode resistivities have been observed. Silver/platinum, silver and copper electrode single disk postfire transformers showed 10W, 11.2W and 13.9W performances respectively. Multilayered piezoelectric transformers with three layer silver and silver platinum electrodes were fabricated and tested for performance. Silver electroded multilayered transformers showed 29 W against a 250U load, whereas silver/platinum electroded transformers were limited to 26W.

  4. Adaptive piezoelectric sensoriactuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Jr., Robert L. (Inventor); Vipperman, Jeffrey S. (Inventor); Cole, Daniel G. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An adaptive algorithm implemented in digital or analog form is used in conjunction with a voltage controlled amplifier to compensate for the feedthrough capacitance of piezoelectric sensoriactuator. The mechanical response of the piezoelectric sensoriactuator is resolved from the electrical response by adaptively altering the gain imposed on the electrical circuit used for compensation. For wideband, stochastic input disturbances, the feedthrough capacitance of the sensoriactuator can be identified on-line, providing a means of implementing direct-rate-feedback control in analog hardware. The device is capable of on-line system health monitoring since a quasi-stable dynamic capacitance is indicative of sustained health of the piezoelectric element.

  5. Functionally strain-graded nanoscoops for high power Li-ion battery anodes.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Rahul; Lu, Toh-Ming; Koratkar, Nikhil

    2011-02-01

    Lithium-ion batteries show poor performance for high power applications involving ultrafast charging/discharging rates. Here we report a functionally strain-graded carbon-aluminum-silicon anode architecture that overcomes this drawback. It consists of an array of nanostructures each comprising an amorphous carbon nanorod with an intermediate layer of aluminum that is finally capped by a silicon nanoscoop on the very top. The gradation in strain arises from graded levels of volumetric expansion in these three materials on alloying with lithium. The introduction of aluminum as an intermediate layer enables the gradual transition of strain from carbon to silicon, thereby minimizing the mismatch at interfaces between differentially strained materials and enabling stable operation of the electrode under high-rate charge/discharge conditions. At an accelerated current density of ∼51.2 A/g (i.e., charge/discharge rate of ∼40C), the strain-graded carbon-aluminum-silicon nanoscoop anode provides average capacities of ∼412 mAh/g with a power output of ∼100 kW/kg(electrode) continuously over 100 charge/discharge cycles. PMID:21192713

  6. Piezoelectric properties of diphenylalanine microtubes prepared from the solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilev, Semen; Zelenovskiy, Pavel; Vasileva, Daria; Nuraeva, Alla; Shur, Vladimir Ya.; Kholkin, Andrei L.

    2016-06-01

    Biomimetic self-assembling peptides form a variety of structures that can be used for the fabrication of functional devices. We are witnessing the emergence of a new era of bionanotechnology that opens up new possibilities for novel electronic, photonic and energy functionalities based on supramolecular green and lightweight structures. In this work, we study the emergent piezoelectric properties of linear dipeptide diphenylalanine (FF) that can self-assemble in the shape of microtubes. The matrix of piezoelectric coefficients is derived for the first time based on the hexagonal symmetry of FF structures and different configurations of the tubes are tested by the advanced Piezoresponse Force Microscopy (PFM). Strong piezoelectric anisotropy of piezoelectric coefficients is explained by the self-assembled structure of FF peptides. Possible applications of piezoelectric microtubes in functional devices are discussed.

  7. Novel Investigation on Nanostructured Multilayer and Functionally Graded Ni-P Electroless Coatings on Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anvari, S. R.; Monirvaghefi, S. M.; Enayati, M. H.

    2015-06-01

    In this study, step-wise multilayer and functionally graded Ni-P coatings were deposited with electroless in which the content of phosphorus and nickel would be changed gradually and step-wise through the thickness of the coatings, respectively. To compare the properties of these coatings with Ni-P single-layer coatings, three types of coatings with different phosphorus contents were deposited. Heat treatment of coatings was performed at 400 °C for 1 h. The microstructure and phase transformation of coatings were characterized by SEM/EDS, TEM, and XRD. The mechanical properties of coatings were studied by nanoindentation test. According to the results of the single-layer coatings, low P coating had the maximum hardness and also the ratio of hardness ( H) to elasticity modulus ( E) for the mentioned coating was maximum. In addition, low and medium P coatings had crystalline and semi-crystalline structure, respectively. The mentioned coatings had <111> texture and after heat treatment their texture didn't change. While high P coating had amorphous structure, after heat treatment it changed to crystalline structure with <100> texture for nickel grains. Furthermore, the results showed that functionally graded and step-wise multilayer coatings were deposited successfully by using the same initial bath and changing the temperature and pH during deposition. Nanoindentation test results showed that the hardness of the mentioned coatings changed from 670 Hv near the substrate to 860 Hv near the top surface of coatings. For functionally graded coating the hardness profile had gradual changes, while step-wise multilayer coating had step-wise hardness profile. After heat treatment trend of hardness profiles was changed, so that near the substrate, hardness was measured 1400 Hv and changed to 1090 Hv at the top coat.

  8. Geometry Design Optimization of Functionally Graded Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering: A Mechanobiological Approach

    PubMed Central

    Boccaccio, Antonio; Uva, Antonio Emmanuele; Fiorentino, Michele; Mori, Giorgio; Monno, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Functionally Graded Scaffolds (FGSs) are porous biomaterials where porosity changes in space with a specific gradient. In spite of their wide use in bone tissue engineering, possible models that relate the scaffold gradient to the mechanical and biological requirements for the regeneration of the bony tissue are currently missing. In this study we attempt to bridge the gap by developing a mechanobiology-based optimization algorithm aimed to determine the optimal graded porosity distribution in FGSs. The algorithm combines the parametric finite element model of a FGS, a computational mechano-regulation model and a numerical optimization routine. For assigned boundary and loading conditions, the algorithm builds iteratively different scaffold geometry configurations with different porosity distributions until the best microstructure geometry is reached, i.e. the geometry that allows the amount of bone formation to be maximized. We tested different porosity distribution laws, loading conditions and scaffold Young’s modulus values. For each combination of these variables, the explicit equation of the porosity distribution law–i.e the law that describes the pore dimensions in function of the spatial coordinates–was determined that allows the highest amounts of bone to be generated. The results show that the loading conditions affect significantly the optimal porosity distribution. For a pure compression loading, it was found that the pore dimensions are almost constant throughout the entire scaffold and using a FGS allows the formation of amounts of bone slightly larger than those obtainable with a homogeneous porosity scaffold. For a pure shear loading, instead, FGSs allow to significantly increase the bone formation compared to a homogeneous porosity scaffolds. Although experimental data is still necessary to properly relate the mechanical/biological environment to the scaffold microstructure, this model represents an important step towards optimizing geometry

  9. Energy collection via Piezoelectricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naveen Kumar, Ch

    2015-12-01

    In the present days, wireless data transmission techniques are commonly used in electronic devices. For powering them connection needs to be made to the power supply through wires else power may be supplied from batteries. Batteries require charging, replacement and other maintenance efforts. So, some alternative methods need to be developed to keep the batteries full time charged and to avoid the need of any consumable external energy source to charge the batteries. Mechanical energy harvesting utilizes piezoelectric components where deformations produced by different means are directly converted to electrical charge via piezoelectric effect. The proposed work in this research recommends Piezoelectricity as a alternate energy source. The motive is to obtain a pollution-free energy source and to utilize and optimize the energy being wasted. Current work also illustrates the working principle of piezoelectric crystal and various sources of vibration for the crystal.

  10. Prediction of Dynamic Response for Ti/TiB Functionally Graded Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Tuegel, Eric J.; Byrd, Larry W.; Beberniss, Timothy J.

    2008-02-15

    Functionally graded ceramic-metal materials are candidates for use in aerospace structures that are exposed to high temperatures. These structures will experience other demands such as significant pressure fluctuations that will cause panels to vibrate at high frequencies. These materials must be engineered for specific applications. Standard engineering methods were used to predict the response of Ti/TiB cantilever beams to quasi-static and dynamic loadings. Experiments were performed and compared to the predictions. The predictions and experiments did not agree due to significant uncertainty about the elastic modulus of TiB.

  11. Microstructure and properties of multiphase and functionally graded materials prepared by chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.Y.

    1996-05-01

    The synthesis of multiphase and functionally graded materials by chemical vapor deposition is discussed from a perspective of controlling their composition and microstructure at a nano-scale level, and ultimately, tailoring their material properties. Prior research is briefly reviewed to address the current state of this novel material concept. Recent experimental results relating to controlling the selected properties of two multiphase systems, TiN + MoS{sub 2} and NiAl + Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, are described to illustrate this concept`s potential merits and challenges for use in realistic applications.

  12. A Study on Propagation Characteristic of One-dimensional Stress Wave in Functionally Graded Armor Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, S. Y.; Liu, X.; Cao, D. F.; Mei, H.; Lei, Z. T.; Liu, L. S.

    2013-03-01

    The development of Functionally Graded Materials (FGM) for energy-absorbing applications requires understanding of stress wave propagation in these structures in order to optimize their resistance to failure. One-dimensional stress wave in FGM composites under elastic and plastic wave loading have been investigated. The stress distributions through the thickness and stress status have been analyzed and some comparisons have been done with the materials of sharp interfaces (two-layered material). The results demonstrate that the gradient structure design greatly decreases the severity of the stress concentrations at the interfaces and there are no clear differences in stress distribution in FGM composites under elastic and plastic wave loading.

  13. 2D analysis of functionally graded magneto-electro-elastic composite materials with cracks under SH waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoynov, Yonko

    2015-11-01

    Functionally graded materials are composite materials with continuously variable material properties. They possess huge potential for applications in modern industry, because of their enhanced qualities: thermal barrier effects, protection from corrosion and oxidation, improved toughness and stress. In our research we consider functionally graded magneto-electro-elastic materials with cracks, subjected to anti-plane wave and evaluate stress concentration near the crack tips in this type of materials with respect to external loading for different material grading. Boundary integral equation method (BIEM) is used for the numerical solution. Numerical examples are presented to show the dependence between the stress intensity factors and the frequency of the applied dynamic load.

  14. Piezoelectrically Enhanced Photocathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, Robert A.; Nikzad, Shouleh; Bell, Lloyd Douglas; Strittmatter, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Doping of photocathodes with materials that have large piezoelectric coefficients has been proposed as an alternative means of increasing the desired photoemission of electrons. Treating cathode materials to increase emission of electrons is called "activation" in the art. It has been common practice to activate photocathodes by depositing thin layers of suitable metals (usually, cesium). Because cesium is unstable in air, fabrication of cesiated photocathodes and devices that contain them must be performed in sealed tubes under vacuum. It is difficult and costly to perform fabrication processes in enclosed, evacuated spaces. The proposed piezoelectrically enhanced photocathodes would have electron-emission properties similar to those of cesiated photocathodes but would be stable in air, and therefore could be fabricated more easily and at lower cost. Candidate photocathodes include nitrides of elements in column III of the periodic table . especially compounds of the general formula Al(x)Ga(1.x)N (where 0< or = x < or =.1). These compounds have high piezoelectric coefficients and are suitable for obtaining response to ultraviolet light. Fabrication of a photocathode according to the proposal would include inducement of strain in cathode layers during growth of the layers on a substrate. The strain would be induced by exploiting structural mismatches among the various constituent materials of the cathode. Because of the piezoelectric effect in this material, the strain would give rise to strong electric fields that, in turn, would give rise to a high concentration of charge near the surface. Examples of devices in which piezoelectrically enhanced photocathodes could be used include microchannel plates, electron- bombarded charge-coupled devices, image tubes, and night-vision goggles. Piezoelectrically enhanced photocathode materials could also be used in making highly efficient monolithic photodetectors. Highly efficient and stable piezoelectrically enhanced

  15. Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Caliò, Renato; Rongala, Udaya Bhaskar; Camboni, Domenico; Milazzo, Mario; Stefanini, Cesare; de Petris, Gianluca; Oddo, Calogero Maria

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the state of the art in piezoelectric energy harvesting. It presents the basics of piezoelectricity and discusses materials choice. The work places emphasis on material operating modes and device configurations, from resonant to non-resonant devices and also to rotational solutions. The reviewed literature is compared based on power density and bandwidth. Lastly, the question of power conversion is addressed by reviewing various circuit solutions. PMID:24618725

  16. Laminated piezoelectric transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vazquez Carazo, Alfredo (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A laminated piezoelectric transformer is provided using the longitudinal vibration modes for step-up voltage conversion applications. The input portions are polarized to deform in a longitudinal plane and are bonded to an output portion. The deformation of the input portions is mechanically coupled to the output portion, which deforms in the same longitudinal direction relative to the input portion. The output portion is polarized in the thickness direction relative its electrodes, and piezoelectrically generates a stepped-up output voltage.

  17. Nonlinear and chaotic vibration and stability analysis of an aero-elastic piezoelectric FG plate under parametric and primary excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaee, Mousa; Jahangiri, Reza

    2015-05-01

    In this study, in the presence of supersonic aerodynamic loading, the nonlinear and chaotic vibrations and stability of a simply supported Functionally Graded Piezoelectric (FGP) rectangular plate with bonded piezoelectric layer have been investigated. It is assumed that the plate is simultaneously exposed to the effects of harmonic uniaxial in-plane force and transverse piezoelectric excitations and aerodynamic loading. It is considered that the potential distribution varies linearly through the piezoelectric layer thickness, and the aerodynamic load is modeled by the first order piston theory. The von-Karman nonlinear strain-displacement relations are used to consider the geometrical nonlinearity. Based on the Classical Plate Theory (CPT) and applying the Hamilton's principle, the nonlinear coupled partial differential equations of motion are derived. The Galerkin's procedure is used to reduce the equations of motion to nonlinear ordinary differential Mathieu equations. The validity of the formulation for analyzing the Limit Cycle Oscillation (LCO), aero-elastic stability boundaries is accomplished by comparing the results with those of the literature, and the convergence study of the FGP plate is performed. By applying the Multiple Scales Method, the case of 1:2 internal resonance and primary parametric resonance are taken into account and the corresponding averaged equations are derived and analyzed numerically. The results are provided to investigate the effects of the forcing/piezoelectric detuning parameter, amplitude of forcing/piezoelectric excitation and dynamic pressure, on the nonlinear dynamics and chaotic behavior of the FGP plate. It is revealed that under the certain conditions, due to the existence of bi-stable region of non-trivial solutions, system shows the hysteretic behavior. Moreover, in absence of airflow, it is observed that variation of control parameters leads to the multi periodic and chaotic motions.

  18. Stretchable piezoelectric nanocomposite generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kwi-Il; Jeong, Chang Kyu; Kim, Na Kyung; Lee, Keon Jae

    2016-06-01

    Piezoelectric energy conversion that generate electric energy from ambient mechanical and vibrational movements is promising energy harvesting technology because it can use more accessible energy resources than other renewable natural energy. In particular, flexible and stretchable piezoelectric energy harvesters which can harvest the tiny biomechanical motions inside human body into electricity properly facilitate not only the self-powered energy system for flexible and wearable electronics but also sensitive piezoelectric sensors for motion detectors and in vivo diagnosis kits. Since the piezoelectric ZnO nanowires (NWs)-based energy harvesters (nanogenerators) were proposed in 2006, many researchers have attempted the nanogenerator by using the various fabrication process such as nanowire growth, electrospinning, and transfer techniques with piezoelectric materials including polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) polymer and perovskite ceramics. In 2012, the composite-based nanogenerators were developed using simple, low-cost, and scalable methods to overcome the significant issues with previously-reported energy harvester, such as insufficient output performance and size limitation. This review paper provides a brief overview of flexible and stretchable piezoelectric nanocomposite generator for realizing the self-powered energy system with development history, power performance, and applications.

  19. Piezoelectrically Initiated Pyrotechnic Igniter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quince, Asia; Dutton, Maureen; Hicks, Robert; Burnham, Karen

    2013-01-01

    This innovation consists of a pyrotechnic initiator and piezoelectric initiation system. The device will be capable of being initiated mechanically; resisting initiation by EMF, RF, and EMI (electromagnetic field, radio frequency, and electromagnetic interference, respectively); and initiating in water environments and space environments. Current devices of this nature are initiated by the mechanical action of a firing pin against a primer. Primers historically are prone to failure. These failures are commonly known as misfires or hang-fires. In many cases, the primer shows the dent where the firing pin struck the primer, but the primer failed to fire. In devices such as "T" handles, which are commonly used to initiate the blowout of canopies, loss of function of the device may result in loss of crew. In devices such as flares or smoke generators, failure can result in failure to spot a downed pilot. The piezoelectrically initiated ignition system consists of a pyrotechnic device that plugs into a mechanical system (activator), which on activation, generates a high-voltage spark. The activator, when released, will strike a stack of electrically linked piezo crystals, generating a high-voltage, low-amperage current that is then conducted to the pyro-initiator. Within the initiator, an electrode releases a spark that passes through a pyrotechnic first-fire mixture, causing it to combust. The combustion of the first-fire initiates a primary pyrotechnic or explosive powder. If used in a "T" handle, the primary would ramp the speed of burn up to the speed of sound, generating a shock wave that would cause a high explosive to go "high order." In a flare or smoke generator, the secondary would produce the heat necessary to ignite the pyrotechnic mixture. The piezo activator subsystem is redundant in that a second stack of crystals would be struck at the same time with the same activation force, doubling the probability of a first strike spark generation. If the first

  20. Comparison of Physicochemical and Functional Traits of Hanwoo Steer Beef by the Quality Grade

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Dong-Gyun; Jo, Cheorun; Lee, Kyung Haeng; Kim, Jong-Ju

    2014-01-01

    The physicochemical and functional traits for loin muscles of Hanwoo steers were compared by quality grade (QG). A total of 500 Hanwoo steers were slaughtered, their carcasses were categorized into four groups (QG 1++, 1+, 1, and 2), and the longissimus dorsi muscles were analyzed. QG 1++ group had the highest fat and lowest moisture content (p<0.05). QG 1++ showed higher L* and b* color values, higher cooking loss, and lower shear force values, compared with the other groups (p<0.05). The flavor, tenderness, juiciness, and preference scores by sensory evaluation were highly ranked for premium QG groups (1++ and 1+). Regarding the micro compounds, QG 1 and QG 2 had greater amounts of inosine monophosphate, and QG 2 had greater amounts of anserine, carnosine, and creatine, than QG 1++ (p<0.05). QG 1++ and 1+ had higher percentages of oleic acid (C18:1) than QG 2 (p<0.05). Within premium QG 1++ and 1+, the results of the nucleotides, free amino acids, dipeptides, and fatty acids did not show any distinctive differences. Hanwoo beef as determined by the current grading system was not significantly different in terms of functional components; the only significant difference was in intramuscular fat content. PMID:26761169

  1. Dynamic stability of functionally graded cantilever cylindrical shells under distributed axial follower forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torki, Mohammad Ebrahim; Kazemi, Mohammad Taghi; Reddy, Junuthula N.; Haddadpoud, Hassan; Mahmoudkhani, Saeid

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, flutter of functionally graded material (FGM) cylindrical shells under distributed axial follower forces is addressed. The first-order shear deformation theory is used to model the shell, and the material properties are assumed to be graded in the thickness direction according to a power law distribution using the properties of two base material phases. The solution is obtained by using the extended Galerkin's method, which accounts for the natural boundary conditions that are not satisfied by the assumed displacement functions. The effect of changing the concentrated (Beck's) follower force into the uniform (Leipholz's) and linear (Hauger's) distributed follower loads on the critical circumferential mode number and the minimum flutter load is investigated. As expected, the flutter load increases as the follower force changes from the so-called Beck's load into the so-called Leipholz's and Hauger's loadings. The increased flutter load was calculated for homogeneous shell with different mechanical properties, and it was found that the difference in elasticity moduli bears the most significant effect on the flutter load increase in short, thick shells. Also, for an FGM shell, the increase in the flutter load was calculated directly, and it was found that it can be derived from the simple power law when the corresponding increase for the two base phases are known.

  2. Buckling analysis of functionally graded nanobeams based on a nonlocal third-order shear deformation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani, O.; Jandaghian, A. A.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, a general third-order beam theory that accounts for nanostructure-dependent size effects and two-constituent material variation through the nanobeam thickness, i.e., functionally graded material (FGM) beam is presented. The material properties of FG nanobeams are assumed to vary through the thickness according to the power law. A detailed derivation of the equations of motion based on Eringen nonlocal theory using Hamilton's principle is presented, and a closed-form solution is derived for buckling behavior of the new model with various boundary conditions. The nonlocal elasticity theory includes a material length scale parameter that can capture the size effect in a functionally graded material. The proposed model is efficient in predicting the shear effect in FG nanobeams by applying third-order shear deformation theory. The proposed approach is validated by comparing the obtained results with benchmark results available in the literature. In the following, a parametric study is conducted to investigate the influences of the length scale parameter, gradient index, and length-to-thickness ratio on the buckling of FG nanobeams and the improvement on nonlocal third-order shear deformation theory comparing with the classical (local) beam model has been shown. It is found out that length scale parameter is crucial in studying the stability behavior of the nanobeams.

  3. A study on the dynamics of rotating beams with functionally graded properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piovan, M. T.; Sampaio, R.

    2009-10-01

    The constant needs of the industry impel the engineering community in seeking of new concepts and new strategies in order to improve the structural response of structures as well as to enhance the endurance of materials. This is particularly true in the case of rotating blades that are subjected to severe environmental conditions such as high temperatures as well as mechanical conditions such as high rotating accelerations, centrifugal forces, geometric stiffening, among others. It is well known that flexible beams become stiffer when subjected to high speed rotations, because of the axial-bending coupling associated to the large displacements of the beam cross-section. This is called geometric stiffening effect and it was analyzed over the last decades in many beam applications from blade problems to drill-string modeling. In this paper a rotating nonlinear beam model accounting for arbitrary axial deformations is developed. The beam is made of functionally graded materials (FGM). This model is also employed to analyze other simplified models based on isotropic materials or composite materials, that are particular cases of the present formulation. The assumption of steady-state values of centrifugal loads is evaluated. It has to be said that there is a lack of information about modeling of beams made of functionally graded materials and this paper is intended to be a contribution on the subject.

  4. Fabricating functionally graded films with designed gradient profiles using pulsed laser deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Won, Yoo Jai; Ki, Hyungson

    2013-05-07

    A novel picosecond-laser pulsed laser deposition method has been developed for fabricating functionally graded films with pre-designed gradient profiles. Theoretically, the developed method is capable of precisely fabricating films with any thicknesses and any gradient profiles by controlling the laser beam powers for the two different targets based on the film composition profiles. As an implementation example, we have successfully constructed functionally graded diamond-like carbon films with six different gradient profiles: linear, quadratic, cubic, square root, cubic root, and sinusoidal. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy is employed for investigating the chemical composition along the thickness of the film, and the deposition profile and thickness errors are found to be less than 3% and 1.04%, respectively. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first method for fabricating films with designed gradient profiles and has huge potential in many areas of coatings and films, including multifunctional optical films. We believe that this method is not only limited to the example considered in this study, but also can be applied to all material combinations as long as they can be deposited using the pulsed laser deposition technique.

  5. Disc piezoelectric ceramic transformers.

    PubMed

    Erhart, Jirií; Půlpán, Petr; Doleček, Roman; Psota, Pavel; Lédl, Vít

    2013-08-01

    In this contribution, we present our study on disc-shaped and homogeneously poled piezoelectric ceramic transformers working in planar-extensional vibration modes. Transformers are designed with electrodes divided into wedge, axisymmetrical ring-dot, moonie, smile, or yin-yang segments. Transformation ratio, efficiency, and input and output impedances were measured for low-power signals. Transformer efficiency and transformation ratio were measured as a function of frequency and impedance load in the secondary circuit. Optimum impedance for the maximum efficiency has been found. Maximum efficiency and no-load transformation ratio can reach almost 100% and 52 for the fundamental resonance of ring-dot transformers and 98% and 67 for the second resonance of 2-segment wedge transformers. Maximum efficiency was reached at optimum impedance, which is in the range from 500 Ω to 10 kΩ, depending on the electrode pattern and size. Fundamental vibration mode and its overtones were further studied using frequency-modulated digital holographic interferometry and by the finite element method. Complementary information has been obtained by the infrared camera visualization of surface temperature profiles at higher driving power. PMID:25004532

  6. An approximate solution to the stress and deformation states of functionally graded rotating disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sondhi, Lakshman; Sanyal, Shubhashis; Saha, Kashi Nath; Bhowmick, Shubhankar

    2016-07-01

    The present work employs variational principle to investigate the stress and deformation states and estimate the limit angular speed of functionally graded high-speed rotating annular disks of constant thickness. Assuming a series approximation following Galerkin's principle, the solution of the governing equation is obtained. In the present study, elasticity modulus and density of the disk material are taken as power function of radius with the gradient parameter ranging between 0.0 and 1.0. Results obtained from numerical solutions are validated with benchmark results and are found to be in good agreement. The results are reported in dimensional form and presented graphically. The results provide a substantial insight in understanding the behavior of FGM rotating disks with constant thickness and different gradient parameter. Furthermore, the stress and deformation state of the disk at constant angular speed and limit angular speed is investigated to explain the existence of optimum gradient parameters.

  7. Comparison of modeling of the rotating tapered axially functionally graded Timoshenko and Euler-Bernoulli microbeams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafiei, Navvab; Kazemi, Mohammad; Ghadiri, Majid

    2016-09-01

    The target of this paper is to present an exhaustive study on the small scale effect on vibrational behavior of a rotary tapered axially functionally graded (AFG) microbeam on the basis of Timoshenko and Euler-Bernoulli beam and modified couple stress theories. The variation of the material properties and cross section along the longitudinal direction of the microbeam are taken into consideration as a linear function. Hamilton's principle is used to derive the equations for cantilever and propped cantilever boundary conditions and the generalized differential quadrature method (GDQM) is employed to solve the equations. By parametric study, the effects of small-scale parameter, rates of cross section change of the microbeam and angular velocity on the fundamental and second frequencies of the microbeam are studied. Also, comparison between the frequencies of Timoshenko and Euler-Bernoulli microbeams are presented. The results can be used in many applications such as micro-robots and biomedical microsystems.

  8. Piezoelectric Templates - New Views on Biomineralization and Biomimetics.

    PubMed

    Stitz, Nina; Eiben, Sabine; Atanasova, Petia; Domingo, Neus; Leineweber, Andreas; Burghard, Zaklina; Bill, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Biomineralization in general is based on electrostatic interactions and molecular recognition of organic and inorganic phases. These principles of biomineralization have also been utilized and transferred to bio-inspired synthesis of functional materials during the past decades. Proteins involved in both, biomineralization and bio-inspired processes, are often piezoelectric due to their dipolar character hinting to the impact of a template's piezoelectricity on mineralization processes. However, the piezoelectric contribution on the mineralization process and especially the interaction of organic and inorganic phases is hardly considered so far. We herein report the successful use of the intrinsic piezoelectric properties of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) to synthesize piezoelectric ZnO. Such films show a two-fold increase of the piezoelectric coefficient up to 7.2 pm V(-1) compared to films synthesized on non-piezoelectric templates. By utilizing the intrinsic piezoelectricity of a biotemplate, we thus established a novel synthesis pathway towards functional materials, which sheds light on the whole field of biomimetics. The obtained results are of even broader and general interest since they are providing a new, more comprehensive insight into the mechanisms involved into biomineralization in living nature. PMID:27212583

  9. Functionally Graded Alumina/Mullite Coatings for Protection of Silicon Carbide Ceramic Components from Corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Sotirchos, S.V.

    1997-04-01

    During the six months of this reporting period, we accomplished the following: Preparatory work was done on the development of the feed supply system (for mixtures of AlCl{sub 3}, SiCl{sub 4}, H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}) and effluent treatment section for the CVD system we plan to employ for coating preparation. A comprehensive literature survey of past work done on the chemical vapor deposition of silica, alumina and aluminosilicates (mullite) was carried out, and work was initiated on the study of thermochemical equilibrium in the Al/Si/Cl/C/O/H system so as to identify the boundaries of the region of the space of operating parameters and conditions where preparation of functionally graded mullite/ alumina coatings through CVD from metal chloride, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2} is feasible. Since the alumina/mullite films that are proposed to be developed can also be applied to carbon matrix composites provided that a layer that bridges the gap that exists between the thermal expansion coefficient of carbon and that of mullite is employed, experiments were conducted on the preparation of compositionally graded carbon/silicon carbide coatings. Deposition from mixtures of ethylene and methyltrichlorosilane or tetrachlorosilane (silicon tetrachloride) in hydrogen was used for the preparation of SiC/C coatings, and our experiments focused on the study of the occurrence of multiple steady states in the deposition process and the effects of the type of chlorosilane on the deposition rate and the deposit composition and their variation along the length of the reactor. The results showed that when operation is carried out outside the multiplicity region, codeposition of SiC and C from ethylene and chlorosilanes is a feasible route for preparation of SiC/C graded coatings.

  10. Piezoelectric Ceramics and Their Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flinn, I.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the piezoelectric effect in ceramics and presents a quantitative representation of this effect. Explains the processes involved in the manufacture of piezoelectric ceramics, the materials used, and the situations in which they are applied. (GS)

  11. Biological response on a titanium implant-grade surface functionalized with modular peptides☆

    PubMed Central

    Yazici, H.; Fong, H.; Wilson, B.; Oren, E.E.; Amos, F.A.; Zhang, H.; Evans, J.S.; Snead, M.L.; Sarikaya, M.; Tamerler, C.

    2015-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) and its alloys are among the most successful implantable materials for dental and orthopedic applications. The combination of excellent mechanical and corrosion resistance properties makes them highly desirable as endosseous implants that can withstand a demanding biomechanical environment. Yet, the success of the implant depends on its osteointegration, which is modulated by the biological reactions occurring at the interface of the implant. A recent development for improving biological responses on the Ti-implant surface has been the realization that bifunctional peptides can impart material binding specificity not only because of their molecular recognition of the inorganic material surface, but also through their self-assembly and ease of biological conjugation properties. To assess peptide-based functionalization on bioactivity, the present authors generated a set of peptides for implant-grade Ti, using cell surface display methods. Out of 60 unique peptides selected by this method, two of the strongest titanium binding peptides, TiBP1 and TiBP2, were further characterized for molecular structure and adsorption properties. These two peptides demonstrated unique, but similar molecular conformations different from that of a weak binder peptide, TiBP60. Adsorption measurements on a Ti surface revealed that their disassociation constants were 15-fold less than TiBP60. Their flexible and modular use in biological surface functionalization were demonstrated by conjugating them with an integrin recognizing peptide motif, RGDS. The functionalization of the Ti surface by the selected peptides significantly enhanced the bioactivity of osteoblast and fibroblast cells on implant-grade materials. PMID:23159566

  12. High Temperature Piezoelectric Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Scott, James; Boudreau, Kate; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Shrout, Tom; Zhang, Shujun

    2009-01-01

    The current NASA Decadal mission planning effort has identified Venus as a significant scientific target for a surface in-situ sampling/analyzing mission. The Venus environment represents several extremes including high temperature (460 deg C), high pressure (9 MPa), and potentially corrosive (condensed sulfuric acid droplets that adhere to surfaces during entry) environments. This technology challenge requires new rock sampling tools for these extreme conditions. Piezoelectric materials can potentially operate over a wide temperature range. Single crystals, like LiNbO3, have a Curie temperature that is higher than 1000 deg C and the piezoelectric ceramics Bismuth Titanate higher than 600 deg C. A study of the feasibility of producing piezoelectric drills that can operate in the temperature range up to 500 deg C was conducted. The study includes the high temperature properties investigations of engineering materials and piezoelectric ceramics with different formulas and doping. The drilling performances of a prototype Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) using high temperate piezoelectric ceramics and single crystal were tested at temperature up to 500 deg C. The detailed results of our study and a discussion of the future work on performance improvements are presented in this paper.

  13. Constitutive Modeling of Piezoelectric Polymer Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odegard, Gregory M.; Gates, Tom (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    A new modeling approach is proposed for predicting the bulk electromechanical properties of piezoelectric composites. The proposed model offers the same level of convenience as the well-known Mori-Tanaka method. In addition, it is shown to yield predicted properties that are, in most cases, more accurate or equally as accurate as the Mori-Tanaka scheme. In particular, the proposed method is used to determine the electromechanical properties of four piezoelectric polymer composite materials as a function of inclusion volume fraction. The predicted properties are compared to those calculated using the Mori-Tanaka and finite element methods.

  14. Microstructure and Properties of Thermally Sprayed Functionally Graded Coatings for Polymeric Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivosevic, M.; Knight, R.; Kalidindi, S. R.; Palmese, G. R.; Sutter, J. K.

    2003-01-01

    The use of polymer matrix composites (PMCs) in the gas flow path of advanced turbine engines offers significant benefits for aircraft engine performance but their useful lifetime is limited by their poor erosion resistance. High velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) sprayed polymer/cermet functionally graded (FGM) coatings are being investigated as a method to address this technology gap by providing erosion and oxidation protection to polymer matrix composites. The FGM coating structures are based on a polyimide matrix filled with varying volume fractions of WC-Co. The graded coating architecture was produced using a combination of internal and external feedstock injection, via two computer-controlled powder feeders and controlled substrate preheating. Porosity, coating thickness and volume fraction of the WC-Co filler retained in the coatings were determined using standard metallographic techniques and computer image analysis. The pull-off strength (often referred to as the adhesive strength) of the coatings was evaluated according to the ASTM D 4541 standard test method, which measured the greatest normal tensile force that the coating could withstand. Adhesive/cohesive strengths were determined for three different types of coating structures and compared based on the maximum indicated load and the surface area loaded. The nature and locus of the fractures were characterized according to the percent of adhesive and/or cohesive failure, and the tested interfaces and layers involved were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy.

  15. Thermal spraying of functionally graded calcium phosphate coatings for biomedical implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Khor, K. A.; Cheang, P.

    1998-03-01

    Biomedical requirements in a prosthesis are often complex and diverse in nature. Biomaterials for implants have to display a wide range of adaptability to suit the various stages of the bio-integration process of any foreign material into the human body. Often, a combination of materials is needed. The preparation of a functionally graded bioceramic coating composed of essentially calcium phosphate compounds is explored. The coating is graded in accordance to adhesive strength, bioactivity, and bioresorbability. The bond coat on the Ti-6Al-4V stub is deposited with a particle range of the hydroxyapatite (HA) that will provide a high adhesive strength and bioactivity but have poor bioresorption properties. The top coat, however, is composed of predominantly α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) that is highly bioresorbable. This arrangement has the propensity of allowing accelerated bio-integration of the coating by the body tissues as the top layer is rapidly resorbed, leaving the more bioactive intermediate layer to facilitate the much needed bioactive properties for proper osteoconduction. The processing steps and problems are highlighted, as well as the results of post-spray heat treatment.

  16. Mouse low-grade gliomas contain cancer stem cells with unique molecular and functional properties.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Hsien; McGowan, Lucy D'Agostino; Cimino, Patrick J; Dahiya, Sonika; Leonard, Jeffrey R; Lee, Da Yong; Gutmann, David H

    2015-03-24

    The availability of adult malignant glioma stem cells (GSCs) has provided unprecedented opportunities to identify the mechanisms underlying treatment resistance. Unfortunately, there is a lack of comparable reagents for the study of pediatric low-grade glioma (LGG). Leveraging a neurofibromatosis 1 (Nf1) genetically engineered mouse LGG model, we report the isolation of CD133(+) multi-potent low-grade glioma stem cells (LG-GSCs), which generate glioma-like lesions histologically similar to the parent tumor following injection into immunocompetent hosts. In addition, we demonstrate that these LG-GSCs harbor selective resistance to currently employed conventional and biologically targeted anti-cancer agents, which reflect the acquisition of new targetable signaling pathway abnormalities. Using transcriptomic analysis to identify additional molecular properties, we discovered that mouse and human LG-GSCs harbor high levels of Abcg1 expression critical for protecting against ER-stress-induced mouse LG-GSC apoptosis. Collectively, these findings establish that LGG cancer stem cells have unique molecular and functional properties relevant to brain cancer treatment. PMID:25772366

  17. Developing a self-diagnostic system for piezoelectric sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flanagan, Patrick M.; Atherton, William J.

    1990-01-01

    Measurement techniques for developing a self-diagnostic system for piezoelectric sensors are presented. The self-diagnostic system uses two types of measurement techniques based on passive and active evaluation of the piezoelectric element. Both hard and soft failures can be detected by this system. Hard failures such as loss of sensor signal and change in sensor output resistance are determined by monitoring the sensor's output resistance, voltage or current. These are passive measurements of the sensor's output condition. Soft failures include changes in sensor calibration and mounting conditions. Soft failures are detected by measuring structural/electrical impedance of the piezoelectric sensor. Active measurement techniques are used to calculate changes in piezoelectric element properties related to soft failures. This paper describes the general operating principles of a self-diagnostic system and discusses the design of an active/passive measurement technique required for this system to function. Experimental results using two types of piezoelectric accelerometers are presented.

  18. Piezoelectricity in planar boron nitride via a geometric phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Droth, Matthias; Burkard, Guido; Pereira, Vitor M.

    2016-08-01

    Due to their low surface mass density, two-dimensional materials with a strong piezoelectric response are interesting for nanoelectromechanical systems with high force sensitivity. Unlike graphene, the two sublattices in a monolayer of hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) are occupied by different elements, which breaks inversion symmetry and allows for piezoelectricity. This has been confirmed with density functional theory calculations of the piezoelectric constant of hBN. Here, we formulate an entirely analytical derivation of the electronic contribution to the piezoelectric response in this system based on the concepts of strain-induced pseudomagnetic vector potential and the modern theory of polarization that relates the polar moment to the Berry curvature. Our findings agree with the symmetry restrictions expected for the hBN lattice and reproduce well the magnitude of the piezoelectric effect previously obtained ab initio.

  19. Design of capillary flows with functionally graded porous titanium oxide films fabricated by anodization instability.

    PubMed

    Joung, Young Soo; Figliuzzi, Bruno Michel; Buie, Cullen R

    2014-06-01

    We have developed an electrochemical fabrication method utilizing breakdown anodization (BDA) to yield capillary flows that can be expressed as functions of capillary height. This method uses anodization instability with high electric potentials and mildly acidic electrolytes that are maintained at low temperature. BDA produces highly porous micro- and nano-structured surfaces composed of amorphous titanium oxide on titanium substrates, resulting in high capillary pressure and capillary diffusivity. With this fabrication technique the capillary flow properties can be controlled by varying the applied electric field and electrolyte temperature. Furthermore, they can be expressed as functions of capillary height when customized electric fields are used in BDA. To predict capillary flows on BDA surfaces, we developed a conceptual model of highly wettable porous films, which are modeled as multiple layers of capillary tubes oriented in the flow direction. From the model, we derived a general capillary flow equation of motion in terms of capillary pressure and capillary diffusivity, both of which can be expressed as functions of capillary height. The theoretical model was verified by comparisons with experimental capillary flows, showing good agreement. From investigation of the surface morphology we found that the surface structures were also functionally graded with respect to the capillary height (i.e. applied electric field). The suggested fabrication method and the theoretical model offer novel design methodologies for microscale liquid transport devices requiring control over propagation speed. PMID:24703679

  20. Piezoelectric characteristics of PZT thin films on polymer substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Min-Gyu; Do, Younh-Ho; Oh, Seung-Min; Rahayu, Rheza; Kim, Yiyein; Kang, Chong-Yun; Nahm, Sahn; Yoon, Seok-Jin

    2012-02-01

    The goal of piezoelectric energy harvesting is to improve the power efficiency of devices. One of the approaches for the improvement of power efficiency is to apply the large strain on the piezoelectric materials and then many scientists approached using thin films or nano-structured piezoelectric materials to obtain flexibility. However, the conventional thin film processes available for the fabrication of piezoelectric materials as PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PZT) are not compatible with flexible electronics because they require high processing temperatures (>700^oC) to obtain piezoelectricity. Excimer laser annealing (ELA) is attractive heat process for the low-temperature crystallization, because of its material selectivity and short heating time. In this study, the amorphous PZT thin films were deposited on polymer substrate by rf-sputtering. To crystallize the amorphous films, the ELA was carried out with various conditions as function of the applied laser energy density, the number of pulse, and the repetition rate. To evaluate the piezoelectric characteristics, piezoelectric force microscopy (PFM) and electrometer are used. As a result, we obtained the crystallized PZT thin film on flexible substrate and obtained flexible piezoelectric energy harvester.

  1. The Development of Writing Proficiency as a Function of Grade Level: A Linguistic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Scott A.; Weston, Jennifer L.; McLain Sullivan, Susan T.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a corpus of essays stratified by level (9th grade, 11th grade, and college freshman) are analyzed computationally to discriminate differences between the linguistic features produced in essays by adolescents and young adults. The automated tool Coh-Metrix is used to examine to what degree essays written at various grade levels can…

  2. Piezoelectric Motors and Transformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchino, K.

    Piezoelectric ceramics forms a new field between electronic and structural ceramics [1-4]. Application fields are classified into three categories: positioners, motors, and vibration suppressors. From the market research result for 80 Japanese component industries in 1992, tiny motors in the range of 5-8 mm are required in large numbers for office and portable equipment; the conventional electromagnetic (EM) motors are rather difficult to produce in this size with sufficient energy efficiency, while Silicon MEMS actuators are too small to be used in practice. Piezoelectric ultrasonic motors whose efficiency is insensitive to size are superior in the millimeter motor area. The manufacturing precision of optical instruments such as lasers and cameras, and the positioning accuracy for fabricating semiconductor chips are of the order of 0.1μm which is much smaller than the backlash of the EM motors. Vibration suppression in space structures and military vehicles also require compact but mighty piezoelectric actuators.

  3. Piezoelectric wave motor

    DOEpatents

    Yerganian, Simon Scott

    2001-07-17

    A piezoelectric motor having a stator in which piezoelectric elements are contained in slots formed in the stator transverse to the desired wave motion. When an electric field is imposed on the elements, deformation of the elements imposes a force perpendicular to the sides of the slot, deforming the stator. Appropriate frequency and phase shifting of the electric field will produce a wave in the stator and motion in a rotor. In a preferred aspect, the piezoelectric elements are configured so that deformation of the elements in direction of an imposed electric field, generally referred to as the d.sub.33 direction, is utilized to produce wave motion in the stator. In a further aspect, the elements are compressed into the slots so as to minimize tensile stresses on the elements in use.

  4. Piezoelectric wave motor

    DOEpatents

    Yerganian, Simon Scott

    2003-02-11

    A piezoelectric motor having a stator in which piezoelectric elements are contained in slots formed in the stator transverse to the desired wave motion. When an electric field is imposed on the elements, deformation of the elements imposes a force perpendicular to the sides of the slot, deforming the stator. Appropriate frequency and phase-shifting of the electric field will produce a wave in the stator and motion in a rotor. In a preferred aspect, the piezoelectric elements are configured so that deformation of the elements in the direction of an imposed electric field, generally referred to as the d.sub.33 direction, is utilized to produce wave motion in the stator. In a further aspect, the elements are compressed into the slots so as to minimize tensile stresses on the elements in use.

  5. Numerical Analysis of Stress Intensity Factors in Three-Dimensional Functionally Graded Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Licheng; Wu Linzhi; Yu Hongjun

    2008-02-15

    In this paper, a finite element method based on nonhomogeneous elements is used to study crack problems in three-dimensional (3D) functionally graded materials (FGMs). Since the actual material properties at each integral point are employed in the integration during formation of the element stiffness matrix, each element can have nonhomogeneous material properties. By this method, the number of elements is reduced and the meshing effort for the structure is simplified. Therefore, the modeling process for numerical simulation of fracture behavior in 3D FGMs is greatly simplified. The crack front characteristics of Mode-I edge penetrable crack in 3D FGM specimens are studied under uniform tension loading. The influence of material nonhomogeneity constant and geometric parameters on the stress intensity factors (SIFs) of the 3D FGM specimens are investigated.

  6. Nonlinear frequency response of parametrically excited functionally graded Timoshenko beams with a crack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Yan, T.

    2010-06-01

    This paper investigates the nonlinear dynamic frequency response of a Timoshenko beam made of functionally graded materials (FGMs) with an open edge crack. The beam is clamped and subjected to an axial parametric excitation consisting of a static compressive force and a harmonic excitation force. Theoretical formulations are based on Timoshenko shear deformable beam theory, von Karman type geometric nonlinearity and rotational spring model. Hamilton's principle is used to derive the nonlinear partial differential equations which are transformed into nonlinear ordinary differential equation by using the Least Squares method and Galerkin technique. The nonlinear natural frequencies and excitation frequency-amplitude response curves are obtained by employing Runge-Kutta method and multiple scale method, respectively. A parametric study is conducted to study the effects of material property distribution, crack depth, crack location, excitation frequency, and slenderness ratio on the nonlinear dynamic characteristics of parametrically excited, cracked FGM Timoshenko beams.

  7. The beam-mode stability of periodic functionally-graded-material shells conveying fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Huijie; Païdoussis, Michael P.; Wen, Jihong; Yu, Dianlong; Wen, Xisen

    2014-05-01

    The characteristics of beam-mode stability of fluid-conveying shell systems are investigated in this paper for shells with clamped-free (cantilevered) boundary conditions. An FEM algorithm is developed to conduct the investigation. A periodic shell structure of functionally graded material (FGM), termed as PFGM shell here, is designed so as to enhance the stability for the shell system, and to eliminate the stress concentration problems that exist in periodic structures. Results show that by the introduction of periodic design the critical velocities can be raised over several desired ranges of the dimensionless fluid density β, and the stress concentration is effectively reduced in the PFGM shell. Finally, the effects of the geometric shape, material parameters and spring supports on the dynamical stability are probed.

  8. Electromechanical buckling of functionally graded electrostatic nanobridges using strain gradient theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shojaeian, Milad; Beni, Yaghoub Tadi; Ataei, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Electromechanical buckling (EMB) of beam-type nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMSs) is investigated based on modified strain gradient theory. The system is modeled as a clamped-guided nanobeam which is under compressive or tensile axial loads as well as the effect of nonlinear electrostatic and van der Waals symmetric transverse forces. In addition, the beam is considered to be made of axially and transverse functionally graded materials. Here, FGM is Poly-SiGe, of which the general properties change gradually from silicon to germanium based on a simple power-law method. Considering the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory and using the principle of minimum potential energy, the governing equations and corresponding boundary conditions are established. After validation of results, the effects of power law index, variation of size effect parameters, length-thickness ratio and the distance between the two fixed and movable electrodes on the buckling response of the system are discussed.

  9. A drop-on-demand ink-jet printer for combinatorial libraries and functionally graded ceramics.

    PubMed

    Mohebi, Mohammad Masoud; Evans, Julian R G

    2002-01-01

    A printer has been designed and built for the preparation of combinatorial libraries of ceramics and for solid freeforming of functionally graded ceramics with three-dimensionally programmable spatial variation in composition. Several ceramic suspensions (as inks) can be subjected to micromixing behind the nozzle and printed at precise positions. Both mixing and positioning are computer-controlled. The machine consists of an XY table to control the geometry, a set of electromagnetic valves that manage the mixing, a combined electromagnetic valve and sapphire nozzle that form the print head, and a computer that controls the whole system. The mixing valves can eject as little as 1 mg/s ink into the mixing chamber. The printer has been controlled, run, calibrated and tested; the composition and geometry of printed mixtures can be controlled precisely. This method for the controlled mixing of powders facilitates the advance of combinatorial methods within the materials sciences. PMID:12099843

  10. Optimum gradient material for a functionally graded dental implant using metaheuristic algorithms.

    PubMed

    Sadollah, Ali; Bahreininejad, Ardeshir

    2011-10-01

    Despite dental implantation being a great success, one of the key issues facing it is a mismatch of mechanical properties between engineered and native biomaterials, which makes osseointegration and bone remodeling problematical. Functionally graded material (FGM) has been proposed as a potential upgrade to some conventional implant materials such as titanium for selection in prosthetic dentistry. The idea of an FGM dental implant is that the property would vary in a certain pattern to match the biomechanical characteristics required at different regions in the hosting bone. However, matching the properties does not necessarily guarantee the best osseointegration and bone remodeling. Little existing research has been reported on developing an optimal design of an FGM dental implant for promoting long-term success. Based upon remodeling results, metaheuristic algorithms such as the genetic algorithms (GAs) and simulated annealing (SA) have been adopted to develop a multi-objective optimal design for FGM implantation design. The results are compared with those in literature. PMID:21783149

  11. Low speed centrifugal casting of Functionally Graded solid cast ingot by anomalous particle distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mer, K. K. S.; Ray, S.

    2011-12-01

    Functionally graded cylindrical ingot of Al-Al2O3 composite synthesized by centrifugal casting shows particle distribution and hardness decreasing radially from the outer radius to inner radius. The progressive decrease in alumina content and hardness from the outer radius towards the center may be attributed to higher centrifugal force acting on relatively denser alumina particles during rotation, as compared to that acting on lighter alloy melt. It is also observed, as one moves down from the top to the bottom of cast ingot the alumina content decreases. This is surprising in view of higher density of alumina particles relative to the melt. The particle settling should have resulted at more particles towards the bottom, but distribution observed is in contradiction.

  12. Recent development in modeling and analysis of functionally graded materials and structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Ankit; Talha, Mohammad

    2015-11-01

    In this article, an extensive review related to the structural response of the functionally graded materials (FGMs) and structures have been presented. These are high technology materials developed by a group scientist in the late 1980's in Japan. The emphasis has been made here, to present the structural characteristics of FGMs plates/shells under thermo-electro-mechanical loadings under various boundary and environmental conditions. This paper also provides an overview of different fabrication procedures and the future research directions which is required to implement these materials in the design and analysis appropriately. The expected outcome of present review can be treated as milestone for future studies in the area of high technology materials and structures, and would be definitely advantageous for the researchers, scientists, and designers working in this field.

  13. Functional Grammar and Teaching of Reading--A Pedagogy Based on Graded Teaching of College English in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Tuo; Zhang, Beili

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of functional grammar and demonstrates its application to the teaching of reading among graded college students. Functional grammar holds that a discourse is composed of two levels: the interior level and the exterior level. Therefore, reading activities involve both linguistic elements and contexts.…

  14. Piezoelectric allostery of protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnuki, Jun; Sato, Takato; Takano, Mitsunori

    2016-07-01

    Allostery is indispensable for a protein to work, where a locally applied stimulus is transmitted to a distant part of the molecule. While the allostery due to chemical stimuli such as ligand binding has long been studied, the growing interest in mechanobiology prompts the study of the mechanically stimulated allostery, the physical mechanism of which has not been established. By molecular dynamics simulation of a motor protein myosin, we found that a locally applied mechanical stimulus induces electrostatic potential change at distant regions, just like the piezoelectricity. This novel allosteric mechanism, "piezoelectric allostery", should be of particularly high value for mechanosensor/transducer proteins.

  15. Piezoelectric allostery of protein.

    PubMed

    Ohnuki, Jun; Sato, Takato; Takano, Mitsunori

    2016-07-01

    Allostery is indispensable for a protein to work, where a locally applied stimulus is transmitted to a distant part of the molecule. While the allostery due to chemical stimuli such as ligand binding has long been studied, the growing interest in mechanobiology prompts the study of the mechanically stimulated allostery, the physical mechanism of which has not been established. By molecular dynamics simulation of a motor protein myosin, we found that a locally applied mechanical stimulus induces electrostatic potential change at distant regions, just like the piezoelectricity. This novel allosteric mechanism, "piezoelectric allostery", should be of particularly high value for mechanosensor/transducer proteins. PMID:27575163

  16. Piezoelectric and pyroelectric polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, G.T.

    1995-12-01

    Many polar polymers can be made to exhibit piezoelectric and pyroelectric properties by permanently aligning their dipoles in an electric field. The largest response is found in semi-crystalline polymers which exhibit a polar crystal phase which is amenable to reorientation in an applied electric field. The properties of poly(vinylidenefluoride), copolymers of vinyl idenefluoride and trifluoroethylene, nylon 7 and nylon 11 are compared. Polarization distribution across the thickness of such polymer films are discussed and novel techniques for the construction of piezoelectric bimorphs from the above copolymers are presented.

  17. Induced piezoelectricity in isotropic biomaterial.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, R L

    1976-12-01

    Isotropic material can be made to exhibit piezoelectric effects by the application of a constant electric field. For insulators, the piezoelectric strain constant is proportional to the applied electric field and for semiconductors, an additional out-of-phase component of piezoelectricity is proportional to the electric current density in the sample. The two induced coefficients are proportional to the strain-dependent dielectric constant (depsilon/dS + epsilon) and resistivity (drho/dS - rho), respectively. The latter is more important at frequencies such that rhoepsilonomega less than 1, often the case in biopolymers. Signals from induced piezoelectricity in nature may be larger than those from true piezoelectricity. PMID:990389

  18. Improvement of Mechanical Properties in the Functionally Graded Aluminum Matrix Nanocomposites Fabricated via a Novel Multistep Friction Stir Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehi, Mojtaba; Farnoush, Hamidreza; Heydarian, Arash; Aghazadeh Mohandesi, Jamshid

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, the functionally graded bulk Al-SiC nanocomposites were successfully fabricated by applying a novel multistep friction stir processing. Microstructural observations by scanning electron microscope indicated a proper distribution of SiC nanoparticles in the Al 6061 matrix. Microhardness profiles descended to 50 from 160 Hv due to the formation of compositionally gradient of SiC nanoparticles along the thickness. The tensile behavior of graded samples revealed a simultaneous enhancement of ultimate tensile strength (44 pct), strain at maximum stress (244 pct), and work of fracture (492 pct) with respect to the homogeneous sample. Furthermore, the graded samples sustained up to 4 pct strain after initiation of primary cracking, while the catastrophic fracture occurred instantly after cracking in the homogenous sample. A dimple-like ductile fracture surface was observed for the graded layers in which an increase in the SiC particle content will result in smaller dimple size.

  19. Improvement of Mechanical Properties in the Functionally Graded Aluminum Matrix Nanocomposites Fabricated via a Novel Multistep Friction Stir Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehi, Mojtaba; Farnoush, Hamidreza; Heydarian, Arash; Aghazadeh Mohandesi, Jamshid

    2014-09-01

    In the present study, the functionally graded bulk Al-SiC nanocomposites were successfully fabricated by applying a novel multistep friction stir processing. Microstructural observations by scanning electron microscope indicated a proper distribution of SiC nanoparticles in the Al 6061 matrix. Microhardness profiles descended to 50 from 160 Hv due to the formation of compositionally gradient of SiC nanoparticles along the thickness. The tensile behavior of graded samples revealed a simultaneous enhancement of ultimate tensile strength (44 pct), strain at maximum stress (244 pct), and work of fracture (492 pct) with respect to the homogeneous sample. Furthermore, the graded samples sustained up to 4 pct strain after initiation of primary cracking, while the catastrophic fracture occurred instantly after cracking in the homogenous sample. A dimple-like ductile fracture surface was observed for the graded layers in which an increase in the SiC particle content will result in smaller dimple size.

  20. Longitudinal Investigation of Adaptive Functioning following Conformal Irradiation for Pediatric Craniopharyngioma and Low-Grade Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Netson, Kelli L.; Conklin, Heather M.; Wu, Shengjie; Xiong, Xiaoping; Merchant, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Children treated for brain tumors with conformal radiation therapy experience preserved cognitive outcomes. Early evidence suggests that adaptive functions or independent living skills may be spared. This longitudinal investigation prospectively examined intellectual and adaptive functioning during the first 5 years following irradiation for childhood craniopharyngioma and low-grade glioma (LGG). The effect of visual impairment on adaptive outcomes was investigated. Methods and Materials Children with craniopharyngioma (n=62) and LGG (n=77) were treated using conformal or intensity-modulated radiation therapy. The median age was 8.05 years (3.21 years –17.64 years) and 8.09 years (2.20 years–19.27 years), respectively. Serial cognitive evaluations including measures of intelligence quotient (IQ) and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) were conducted at pre-irradiation baseline, 6 months after treatment, and annually through 5 years. A total of 588 evaluations were completed during the follow-up period. Results Baseline assessment revealed no deficits in IQ and VABS indices for children with craniopharyngioma, with significant (p < .05) longitudinal decline in VABS Communication and Socialization indices. Clinical factors associated with more rapid decline included females and pre-irradiation chemotherapy (interferon). The only change in VABS Daily Living Skills correlated with IQ change (r = .34; p = .01) in children with craniopharyngioma. Children with LGG performed below population norms (p < .05) at baseline on VABS Communication, Daily Living Indices, and the Adaptive Behavior Composite, with significant (p < .05) longitudinal decline limited to VABS Communication. Older age at irradiation was a protective factor against longitudinal decline. Severe visual impairment did not independently correlate with poorer adaptive outcomes for either tumor group. Conclusions There was relative sparing of post-irradiation functional outcomes over time

  1. Longitudinal Investigation of Adaptive Functioning Following Conformal Irradiation for Pediatric Craniopharyngioma and Low-Grade Glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Netson, Kelli L.; Conklin, Heather M.; Wu, Shengjie; Xiong, Xiaoping; Merchant, Thomas E.

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: Children treated for brain tumors with conformal radiation therapy experience preserved cognitive outcomes. Early evidence suggests that adaptive functions or independent-living skills may be spared. This longitudinal investigation prospectively examined intellectual and adaptive functioning during the first 5 years following irradiation for childhood craniopharyngioma and low-grade glioma (LGG). The effect of visual impairment on adaptive outcomes was investigated. Methods and Materials: Children with craniopharyngioma (n=62) and LGG (n=77) were treated using conformal or intensity modulated radiation therapy. The median age was 8.05 years (3.21-17.64 years) and 8.09 years (2.20-19.27 years), respectively. Serial cognitive evaluations including measures of intelligence quotient (IQ) and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) were conducted at preirradiation baseline, 6 months after treatment, and annually through 5 years. Five hundred eighty-eight evaluations were completed during the follow-up period. Results: Baseline assessment revealed no deficits in IQ and VABS indices for children with craniopharyngioma, with significant (P<.05) longitudinal decline in VABS Communication and Socialization indices. Clinical factors associated with more rapid decline included females and preirradiation chemotherapy (interferon). The only change in VABS Daily Living Skills correlated with IQ change (r=0.34; P=.01) in children with craniopharyngioma. Children with LGG performed below population norms (P<.05) at baseline on VABS Communication, Daily Living Indices, and the Adaptive Behavior Composite, with significant (P<.05) longitudinal decline limited to VABS Communication. Older age at irradiation was a protective factor against longitudinal decline. Severe visual impairment did not independently correlate with poorer adaptive outcomes for either tumor group. Conclusions: There was relative sparing of postirradiation functional outcomes over time in this sample

  2. Thermo-electro-mechanical postbuckling of piezoelectric FG-CNTRC beams with geometric imperfections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Helong; Kitipornchai, Sritawat; Yang, Jie

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents thermo-electro-mechanical postbuckling analysis of geometrically imperfect functionally graded carbon nanotube-reinforced composite (FG-CNTRC) hybrid beams that are integrated with surface-bonded piezoelectric actuators. The material properties of FG-CNTRCs are assumed to be temperature-dependent and graded in the thickness direction. By using a generic imperfection function, various possible imperfections with different shapes and locations in the beam are considered. The theoretical formulations are based on the first-order shear deformation beam theory with von-Kármán nonlinearity. A differential quadrature approximation based iteration process is employed to obtain the postbuckling equilibrium path of piezoelectric FG-CNTRC hybrid beams under thermo-electro-mechanical loading. Parametric studies are conducted to examine the effect of geometric imperfection, distribution pattern and volume fraction of carbon nanotubes, temperature rise, actuator voltage, beam geometry and boundary conditions on the thermo-electro-mechanical postbuckling behaviour. The results show that the thermo-electro-mechanical postbuckling is considerably affected by the imperfection mode, half-wave number, location and amplitude, as well as the temperature rise and boundary conditions. The effect of applied actuator voltage is much less pronounced but tends to be relatively more noticeable as the slenderness ratio increases.

  3. Micromechanics Modeling of Functionally Graded Interphase Regions in Carbon Nanotube-Polymer Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidel, Gary D.; Lagoudas, Dimitris C.; Frankland, Sarah Jane V.; Gates, Thomas S.

    2006-01-01

    The effective elastic properties of a unidirectional carbon fiber/epoxy lamina in which the carbon fibers are coated with single-walled carbon nanotubes are modeled herein through the use of a multi-scale method involving the molecular dynamics/equivalent continuum and micromechanics methods. The specific lamina representative volume element studied consists of a carbon fiber surrounded by a region of epoxy containing a radially varying concentration of carbon nanotubes which is then embedded in the pure epoxy matrix. The variable concentration of carbon nanotubes surrounding the carbon fiber results in a functionally graded interphase region as the properties of the interphase region vary according to the carbon nanotube volume fraction. Molecular dynamics and equivalent continuum methods are used to assess the local effective properties of the carbon nanotube/epoxy comprising the interphase region. Micromechanics in the form of the Mori-Tanaka method are then applied to obtain the global effective properties of the graded interphase region wherein the carbon nanotubes are randomly oriented. Finally, the multi-layer composite cylinders micromechanics approach is used to obtain the effective lamina properties from the lamina representative volume element. It was found that even very small quantities of carbon nanotubes (0.36% of lamina by volume) coating the surface of the carbon fibers in the lamina can have a significant effect (8% increase) on the transverse properties of the lamina (E22, k23, G23 and G12) with almost no affect on the lamina properties in the fiber direction (E11 and v12).

  4. UHV piezoelectric translator

    SciTech Connect

    Oversluizen, T.; Watson, G.

    1985-01-01

    A UHV compatible piezoelectric translator has been developed to correct for angular misalignments in the crysals of a UHV x-ray monochromator. The unit is small, bakeable to 150/sup 0/C, and uses only ceramic materials for insulation. We report on the construction details, vacuum compatibility, mechanical properties, and uses of the device.

  5. PREFACE: 12th International Symposium on Multiscale, Multifunctional and Functionally Graded Materials (FGM 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhangjian; Li, Jingfeng; Zhang, Lianmeng; Ge, Changchun

    2013-03-01

    The 12th International Symposium on Multiscale, Multifunctional and Functionally Graded Materials (FGM-2012) was held in Beijing, China, from 22-36 October 2012. This was part of a series of conferences organized every two years endorsed by International Advisory Committee for FGM's, which serves as a forum for scientists, educators, engineers and young students interested in the development of functionally graded materials (FGM). The series continues from the previous international symposium on FGM held in Sendai, Japan (1990), San Francisco, USA (1992), Lausanne, Switzerland (1994), Tsukuba, Japan (1996), Dresden, Germany (1998), Estes Park, USA (2000), Beijing, China (2002), Leuven, Belgium (2004), Hawaii, USA (2006), Sendai, Japan (2008) and Guimaraes, Portugal (2010). Functionally graded materials are non-uniform materials which are designed with embodied continuous spatial variations in composition and microstructure for the specific purpose of adjusting their thermal, structural, mechanical, biological or functional response to specific application conditions. Such multi-phase materials cover a range of space and time scales, and are best understood by means of a comprehensive multiscale, multiphysics approach. These kinds of materials are presently in the forefront of materials research, receiving worldwide attention. They have a broad range of applications including for example, biomedical, biomechanical, automotive, aerospace, mechanical, civil, nuclear, and naval engineering. New applications are continuously being discovered and developed. The objective of the FGM-2012 intends to provide opportunities for exchanging ideas and discussing state-of-the-art theories, techniques and applications in the fields of multiscale, multifunctional and FGM, through invited lectures, oral and poster presentations. FGM-2012 was organized and hosted by University of Science and Technology Beijing, China, together with Tsing-hua University and Wuhan University of

  6. PREFACE: 12th International Symposium on Multiscale, Multifunctional and Functionally Graded Materials (FGM 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhangjian; Li, Jingfeng; Zhang, Lianmeng; Ge, Changchun

    2013-03-01

    The 12th International Symposium on Multiscale, Multifunctional and Functionally Graded Materials (FGM-2012) was held in Beijing, China, from 22-36 October 2012. This was part of a series of conferences organized every two years endorsed by International Advisory Committee for FGM's, which serves as a forum for scientists, educators, engineers and young students interested in the development of functionally graded materials (FGM). The series continues from the previous international symposium on FGM held in Sendai, Japan (1990), San Francisco, USA (1992), Lausanne, Switzerland (1994), Tsukuba, Japan (1996), Dresden, Germany (1998), Estes Park, USA (2000), Beijing, China (2002), Leuven, Belgium (2004), Hawaii, USA (2006), Sendai, Japan (2008) and Guimaraes, Portugal (2010). Functionally graded materials are non-uniform materials which are designed with embodied continuous spatial variations in composition and microstructure for the specific purpose of adjusting their thermal, structural, mechanical, biological or functional response to specific application conditions. Such multi-phase materials cover a range of space and time scales, and are best understood by means of a comprehensive multiscale, multiphysics approach. These kinds of materials are presently in the forefront of materials research, receiving worldwide attention. They have a broad range of applications including for example, biomedical, biomechanical, automotive, aerospace, mechanical, civil, nuclear, and naval engineering. New applications are continuously being discovered and developed. The objective of the FGM-2012 intends to provide opportunities for exchanging ideas and discussing state-of-the-art theories, techniques and applications in the fields of multiscale, multifunctional and FGM, through invited lectures, oral and poster presentations. FGM-2012 was organized and hosted by University of Science and Technology Beijing, China, together with Tsing-hua University and Wuhan University of

  7. Probabilistic Fracture Analysis of Functionally Graded Materials--Part I: Uncertainty and Probabilistic Analysis Method

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Junho; Nguyen, Tam H.; Paulino, Glaucio H.

    2008-02-15

    Probabilistic fracture analysis is performed for predicting uncertain fracture responses of Functionally Graded Material (FGM) structures. The uncertainties in material properties including Young's modulus and fracture toughness are considered. The limit state function for a crack initiation event is defined in terms of the J-integral for FGMs. The First-Order-Reliability-Method (FORM) is used in conjunction with a finite element code that computes the J-integral with high accuracy. A two-step probabilistic analysis procedure is proposed to investigate the effects of the uncertainties in the spatial distribution of Young's modulus on the probability of crack initiation in FGMs. First, we investigate the effects of the uncertainties in the shape of the spatial distribution by considering the slope and the location of the inflection point of a spatial distribution profile as random quantities. Second, we investigate the effects of the spatial fluctuations of Young's modulus by making use of a discretized random field. The companion paper (Part II) implements this method into a finite element fracture analysis code and presents numerical examples.

  8. Numerical modeling of wave propagation in functionally graded materials using time-domain spectral Chebyshev elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedayatrasa, Saeid; Bui, Tinh Quoc; Zhang, Chuanzeng; Lim, Chee Wah

    2014-02-01

    Numerical modeling of the Lamb wave propagation in functionally graded materials (FGMs) by a two-dimensional time-domain spectral finite element method (SpFEM) is presented. The high-order Chebyshev polynomials as approximation functions are used in the present formulation, which provides the capability to take into account the through thickness variation of the material properties. The efficiency and accuracy of the present model with one and two layers of 5th order spectral elements in modeling wave propagation in FGM plates are analyzed. Different excitation frequencies in a wide range of 28-350 kHz are investigated, and the dispersion properties obtained by the present model are verified by reference results. The through thickness wave structure of two principal Lamb modes are extracted and analyzed by the symmetry and relative amplitude of the vertical and horizontal oscillations. The differences with respect to Lamb modes generated in homogeneous plates are explained. Zero-crossing and wavelet signal processing-spectrum decomposition procedures are implemented to obtain phase and group velocities and their dispersion properties. So it is attested how this approach can be practically employed for simulation, calibration and optimization of Lamb wave based nondestructive evaluation techniques for the FGMs. The capability of modeling stress wave propagation through the thickness of an FGM specimen subjected to impact load is also investigated, which shows that the present method is highly accurate as compared with other existing reference data.

  9. Fracture Behavior and Properties of Functionally Graded Fiber-Reinforced Concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Roesler, Jeffery; Bordelon, Amanda; Gaedicke, Cristian; Park, Kyoungsoo; Paulino, Glaucio

    2008-02-15

    In concrete pavements, a single concrete mixture design is selected to resist mechanical loading without attempting to adversely affect the concrete pavement shrinkage, ride quality, or noise attenuation. An alternative approach is to design distinct layers within the concrete pavement surface which have specific functions thus achieving higher performance at a lower cost. The objective of this research was to address the structural benefits of functionally graded concrete materials (FGCM) for rigid pavements by testing and modeling the fracture behavior of different combinations of layered plain and synthetic fiber-reinforced concrete materials. Fracture parameters and the post-peak softening behavior were obtained for each FGCM beam configuration by the three point bending beam test. The peak loads and initial fracture energy between the plain, fiber-reinforced, and FGCM signified similar crack initiation. The total fracture energy indicated improvements in fracture behavior of FGCM relative to full-depth plain concrete. The fracture behavior of FGCM depended on the position of the fiber-reinforced layer relative to the starter notch. The fracture parameters of both fiber-reinforced and plain concrete were embedded into a finite element-based cohesive zone model. The model successfully captured the experimental behavior of the FGCMs and predicted the fracture behavior of proposed FGCM configurations and structures. This integrated approach (testing and modeling) demonstrates the viability of FGCM for designing layered concrete pavements system.

  10. Management of Grade III Mobile Anterior Tooth in Function Using Endostabilizer – A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Swapnil N

    2014-01-01

    Impact of implant dentistry is such that today very few dentists think about saving grade III mobile anterior teeth. A patient with grade III mobility of central incisor due to apical root resorption was treated by using 80 no.stainless steel ‘H’ file as endostabiliser and one year follow up was done. Endostabiliser reduced the mobility of grade III mobile teeth drastically, immediately after its placement. Tooth was absolutely asymptomatic throughout one year follow up. PMID:25654043

  11. Cognitive functioning in long-term survivors of high-grade glioma.

    PubMed

    Archibald, Y M; Lunn, D; Ruttan, L A; Macdonald, D R; Del Maestro, R F; Barr, H W; Pexman, J H; Fisher, B J; Gaspar, L E; Cairncross, J G

    1994-02-01

    In a pilot study, two groups of patients with malignant glioma underwent sequential neuropsychological evaluations after successful tumor treatment. Group 1 included nine patients treated from 1981 to 1985; all patients received irradiation and eight underwent chemotherapy. The baseline neuropsychological assessment was performed 1 to 63 months after tumor diagnosis, with follow-up evaluations at irregular intervals over the next 3 to 7 years. Six patients in Group 1 exhibited impairment on most measures at baseline; subsequently, two patients developed profound cognitive impairment. Initially, three patients functioned in the average range on most tasks; thereafter, two deteriorated on one measure each. Group 2 was ascertained prospectively and included 16 patients treated from 1985 to 1987, all of whom received irradiation and chemotherapy. The first evaluation was performed 18 months after diagnosis, then every 6 months for 2 years, and then yearly. Compared to a control group, those in Group 2 had significant cognitive impairment at baseline. Cognitive performance did not change over the next 12 months in 10 patients who remained free of tumor, but within 2 years of baseline testing, deterioration on specific tasks was evident in two of seven disease-free survivors. When last tested, five of six disease-free survivors had deteriorated on one or more measures. Unlike Group 1, severe global cognitive impairment was not seen, perhaps because Group 2 was followed for a shorter time. Verbal and nonverbal composite scores derived from intelligence quotient (IQ) tests showed less impairment at baseline than did other measures and were more likely to remain stable subsequently. Verbal memory and sustained attention were the most impaired at baseline, and verbal learning and flexibility in thinking showed the greatest tendency to decline over time. Cognitive functioning in survivors of high-grade glioma is best measured and monitored by tests that probe a broader

  12. Membranes for periodontal regeneration: From commercially available to spatially designed and functionally graded materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottino, Marco Cicero

    The aging of the global population will lead to a considerable increase in the number of surgical and restorative procedures related to oral rehabilitation or periodontal regeneration. Periodontitis is one of the most aggressive pathologies that concern the integrity of the periodontal system that can lead to the destruction of the periodontium. Guided tissue and guided bone regeneration (GTR/GBR) have been used for the repair and regeneration of periodontal tissues by utilizing an occlusive membrane. The goal of this dissertation is to advance the knowledge in the area of periodontal regeneration by investigating the properties of a commercially available freeze-dried collagen-based graft (AlloDermRTM) and by designing/fabricating a functionally graded membrane (FGM) via multilayer electrospinning. The effects of different rehydration times and of a simultaneous rehydration/crosslinking procedure on the biomechanical properties and matrix stability of the commercially available membrane were investigated. The results revealed that there are significant changes on the biomechanical properties of the graft as rehydration time increases. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the simultaneous rehydration/crosslinking protocol has a synergistic effect in terms of enhancing biomechanical properties. A FGM consisting of a core-layer (CL) and two functional surface-layers (SL) was fabricated via sequential electrospinning. Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (n-HAp) were incorporated to enhance bone formation (SL facing bone defect), and metronidazole benzoate (MET) was added to prevent bacterial colonization (SL facing the epithelial tissue). Degradation studies performed on both the CL and the FGM confirmed that the design holds promise in terms of providing the required mechanical stability to avoid membrane collapse and, therefore, enhance bone regeneration. Finally, it was demonstrated that MET incorporation into the SL that would face epithelial tissue is effective in

  13. Cytotoxicity of protein-carbon nanotubes on J774 macrophages is a functionalization grade-dependent effect.

    PubMed

    Montes-Fonseca, Silvia Lorena; Sánchez-Ramírez, Blanca; Luna-Velasco, Antonia; Arzate-Quintana, Carlos; Silva-Cazares, Macrina Beatriz; González Horta, Carmen; Orrantia-Borunda, Erasmo

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are used as carriers in medicine due to their ability to be functionalized with chemical substances. However, cytotoxicity analysis is required prior to use for in vivo models. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of CNTs functionalized with a 46 kDa surface protein from Entamoeba histolytica (P46-CNTs) on J774A macrophages. With this purpose, CNTs were synthesized by spray pyrolysis and purified (P-CNTs) using sonication for 48 h. A 46 kDa protein, with a 4.6-5.4 pI range, was isolated from E. histolytica HM1:IMSS strain trophozoites using an OFFGEL system. The P-CNTs were functionalized with the purified 46 kDa protein, classified according to their degree of functionalization, and characterized by Raman and Infrared spectroscopy. In vitro cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT, apoptosis, and morphological assays. The results demonstrated that P46-CNTs exhibited cytotoxicity dependent upon the functionalized grade. Contrary to what was expected, P46-CNTs with a high grade of functionalization were more toxic to J774 macrophages than P46-CNTs with a low grade of functionalization, than P-CNTs, and had a similar level of toxicity as UP-CNT. This suggests that the nature of the functionalized protein plays a key role in the cytotoxicity of these nanoparticles. PMID:26075262

  14. Cytotoxicity of Protein-Carbon Nanotubes on J774 Macrophages Is a Functionalization Grade-Dependent Effect

    PubMed Central

    Montes-Fonseca, Silvia Lorena; Sánchez-Ramírez, Blanca; Luna-Velasco, Antonia; Arzate-Quintana, Carlos; Silva-Cazares, Macrina Beatriz; González Horta, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are used as carriers in medicine due to their ability to be functionalized with chemical substances. However, cytotoxicity analysis is required prior to use for in vivo models. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of CNTs functionalized with a 46 kDa surface protein from Entamoeba histolytica (P46-CNTs) on J774A macrophages. With this purpose, CNTs were synthesized by spray pyrolysis and purified (P-CNTs) using sonication for 48 h. A 46 kDa protein, with a 4.6–5.4 pI range, was isolated from E. histolytica HM1:IMSS strain trophozoites using an OFFGEL system. The P-CNTs were functionalized with the purified 46 kDa protein, classified according to their degree of functionalization, and characterized by Raman and Infrared spectroscopy. In vitro cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT, apoptosis, and morphological assays. The results demonstrated that P46-CNTs exhibited cytotoxicity dependent upon the functionalized grade. Contrary to what was expected, P46-CNTs with a high grade of functionalization were more toxic to J774 macrophages than P46-CNTs with a low grade of functionalization, than P-CNTs, and had a similar level of toxicity as UP-CNT. This suggests that the nature of the functionalized protein plays a key role in the cytotoxicity of these nanoparticles. PMID:26075262

  15. School Grades and Responsibility for Younger Siblings: An Empirical Study of the "Teaching Function."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Thomas Ewin

    1984-01-01

    A study based on the confluence model of family effects upon intellectual growth found a negative relationship between grades and the number of older siblings for Whites but not for Blacks and a negative relationship between the grades of Blacks and responsibility for younger siblings. (CMG)

  16. FUNCTIONALLY GRADED ALUMINA/MULLITE COATINGS FOR PROTECTION OF SILICON CARBIDE CERAMIC COMPONENTS FROM CORROSION

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    The main objective of this research project is the formulation of processes that can be used to prepare compositionally graded alumina/mullite coatings for protection from corrosion of silicon carbide components (monolithic or composite) used or proposed to be used in coal utilization systems (e.g., combustion chamber liners, heat exchanger tubes, particulate removal filters, and turbine components) and other energy-related applications. Mullite will be employed as the inner (base) layer and the composition of the film will be continuously changed to a layer of pure alumina, which will function as the actual protective coating of the component. Chemical vapor deposition reactions of silica, alumina, and aluminosilicates (mullite) through hydrolysis of aluminum and silicon chlorides in the presence of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} will be employed to deposit compositionally graded films of mullite and alumina. Our studies will include the kinetic investigation of the silica, alumina, and aluminosilicate deposition processes, characterization of the composition, microstructure, surface morphology, and mechanical behavior of the prepared films, and modeling of the various deposition processes. During this six-month reporting period, we continued the work on the development and construction of the thermogravimetric chemical vapor deposition system that we intend to employ for studying the deposition of alumina, silica, and aluminosilicates (such as mullite) from mixtures of metal chlorides in H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}. Specifically, we worked on the development of the tubular flow reactor that will be used for producing aluminum chloride for delivery to the chemical vapor deposition system and of the vapor and gas supply system. Various problems arising from condensation of aluminum chlorides in some sections of the supply line were resolved, and we expect to perform experiments using mixtures containing AlCl{sub 3} in the next reporting period. Preliminary experiments on the

  17. Effect of shunted piezoelectric control for tuning piezoelectric power harvesting system responses—analytical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumentut, M. F.; Howard, I. M.

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents new analytical modelling of shunt circuit control responses for tuning electromechanical piezoelectric vibration power harvesting structures with proof mass offset. For this combination, the dynamic closed-form boundary value equations reduced from strong form variational principles were developed using the extended Hamiltonian principle to formulate the new coupled orthonormalized electromechanical power harvesting equations showing combinations of the mechanical system (dynamical behaviour of piezoelectric structure), electromechanical system (electrical piezoelectric response) and electrical system (tuning and harvesting circuits). The reduced equations can be further formulated to give the complete forms of new electromechanical multi-mode frequency response functions and the time waveform of the standard AC-DC circuit interface. The proposed technique can demonstrate self-adaptive harvesting response capabilities for tuning the frequency band and the power amplitude of the harvesting devices. The self-adaptive tuning strategies are demonstrated by modelling the shunt circuit behaviour of the piezoelectric control layer in order to optimize the harvesting piezoelectric layer during operation under input base excitation. In such situations, with proper tuning parameters the system performance can be substantially improved. Moreover, the validation of the closed-form technique is also provided by developing the Ritz method-based weak form analytical approach giving similar results. Finally, the parametric analytical studies have been explored to identify direct and relevant contributions for vibration power harvesting behaviours.

  18. Analysis and Testing of Plates with Piezoelectric Sensors and Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bevan, Jeffrey S.

    1998-01-01

    found that a highly nonlinear relationship exists between maximum deflection and voltage versus pressure loading. In order to assess comparisons of predicted and measured piezoelectric actuation, sinusoidal excitation voltages are simulated/applied and maximum deflections are calculated/measured. The maximum deflection as a function of time was determined using the linear finite elements analysis. Good correlation between prediction and measurement was achieved in all cases.

  19. Probabilistic Fracture Analysis of Functionally Graded Materials--Part II: Implementation and Numerical Examples

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Tam H.; Song, Junho; Paulino, Glaucio H.

    2008-02-15

    Probabilistic fracture analyses are performed for investigating uncertain fracture response of Functionally Graded Material (FGM) structures. The First-Order-Reliability-Method (FORM) is implemented into an existing Finite Element code for FGM (FE-FGM), which was previously developed at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The computational simulation will be used in order to estimate the probability of crack initiation with uncertainties in the material properties only. The two-step probability analysis method proposed in the companion paper is illustrated by a numerical example of a composite strip with an edge crack. First, the reliability index of a crack initiation event is estimated as we vary the mean and standard deviation of the slope and the location of the inflection point of the spatial profile of Young's modulus. Secondly, the reliability index is estimated as we vary the standard deviation and the correlation length of the random field that characterize the random spatial fluctuation of Young's modulus. Also investigated is the relative importance of the uncertainties in the toughness compared to those in Young's modulus.

  20. Rigorous buckling analysis of size-dependent functionally graded cylindrical nanoshells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jiabin; Lim, C. W.; Zhou, Zhenhuan; Xu, Xinsheng; Sun, Wei

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents new analytical solutions for buckling of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and functionally graded (FG) cylindrical nanoshells subjected to compressive and thermal loads. The model applies Eringen's nonlocal differential constitutive relation to describe the size-dependence of nanoshells. Based on Reddy's higher-order shear deformation theory, governing equations are established and solved by separating the variables. The analysis first re-examines the classical buckling of single-walled CNTs. Accurate solutions are established, and it is found that the buckling stress decreases drastically when the nonlocal parameter reaches a certain value. For CNTs with constant wall-thickness, the buckling stress eventually decreases with enhanced size effect. By comparing with CNTs molecular dynamic simulations, the obtained nonlocal parameters are much smaller than those proposed previously. Subsequently, FG cylindrical nanoshells are analyzed, and it is concluded that similar behavior that has been observed for CNTs is also valid for FG cylindrical nanoshells. The paper further discusses in detail the effects of different geometric parameters, material distribution, and temperature field.

  1. Comparison of Various Functionally Graded Femoral Prostheses by Finite Element Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Seyed Shirazi, Seyed Farid; Bayat, Mehdi; Yau, Yat Huang; Tarlochan, Faris; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan

    2014-01-01

    This study is focused on finite element analysis of a model comprising femur into which a femoral component of a total hip replacement was implanted. The considered prosthesis is fabricated from a functionally graded material (FGM) comprising a layer of a titanium alloy bonded to a layer of hydroxyapatite. The elastic modulus of the FGM was adjusted in the radial, longitudinal, and longitudinal-radial directions by altering the volume fraction gradient exponent. Four cases were studied, involving two different methods of anchoring the prosthesis to the spongy bone and two cases of applied loading. The results revealed that the FG prostheses provoked more SED to the bone. The FG prostheses carried less stress, while more stress was induced to the bone and cement. Meanwhile, less shear interface stress was stimulated to the prosthesis-bone interface in the noncemented FG prostheses. The cement-bone interface carried more stress compared to the prosthesis-cement interface. Stair climbing induced more harmful effects to the implanted femur components compared to the normal walking by causing more stress. Therefore, stress shielding, developed stresses, and interface stresses in the THR components could be adjusted through the controlling stiffness of the FG prosthesis by managing volume fraction gradient exponent. PMID:25302331

  2. Functionally Graded Aluminum Foam Fabricated by Friction Powder Sintering Process with Traversing Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hangai, Yoshihiko; Morita, Tomoaki; Koyama, Shinji; Kuwazuru, Osamu; Yoshikawa, Nobuhiro

    2016-07-01

    Functionally graded aluminum foam (FG Al foam) is a new class of Al foam in which the pore structure varies over the foam, resulting in corresponding variations in the mechanical properties of the foam. In this study, FG Al foam plates were fabricated by a friction powder sintering (FPS) process with a traversing tool that is based on a previously developed sintering and dissolution process. The variation of the mechanical properties was realized by setting the volume fraction φ of NaCl in the mixture to 60, 70, and 80%. Long FG Al foam plates were fabricated with a length equal to the tool traversing length with φ varying in the tool traversing direction. From x-ray computed tomography observation, it was shown that the density of the Al foam decreased with increasing φ. In contrast, almost uniform pore structures were obtained in each area. According to the results of compression tests on each area, the plateau stress and energy absorption tended to decrease with increasing φ. Therefore, it was shown that FG Al foam plates with varying mechanical properties can be fabricated by the FPS process with the traversing tool.

  3. Free vibration of functionally graded carbon-nanotube-reinforced composite plates with cutout

    PubMed Central

    Mirzaei, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Summary During the past five years, it has been shown that carbon nanotubes act as an exceptional reinforcement for composites. For this reason, a large number of investigations have been devoted to analysis of fundamental, structural behavior of solid structures made of carbon-nanotube-reinforced composites (CNTRC). The present research, as an extension of the available works on the vibration analysis of CNTRC structures, examines the free vibration characteristics of plates containing a cutout that are reinforced with uniform or nonuniform distribution of carbon nanotubes. The first-order shear deformation plate theory is used to estimate the kinematics of the plate. The solution method is based on the Ritz method with Chebyshev basis polynomials. Such a solution method is suitable for arbitrary in-plane and out-of-plane boundary conditions of the plate. It is shown that through a functionally graded distribution of carbon nanotubes across the thickness of the plate, the fundamental frequency of a rectangular plate with or without a cutout may be enhanced. Furthermore, the frequencies are highly dependent on the volume fraction of carbon nanotubes and may be increased upon using more carbon nanotubes as reinforcement. PMID:27335742

  4. Nonlocal thermo-mechanical vibration analysis of functionally graded nanobeams in thermal environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimi, Farzad; Salari, Erfan

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, the thermal effect on free vibration characteristics of functionally graded (FG) size-dependent nanobeams subjected to various types of thermal loading is investigated by presenting a Navier type solution and employing a semi analytical differential transform method (DTM) for the first time. Two kinds of thermal loading, namely, linear temperature rise and nonlinear temperature rise are studied. Material properties of FG nanobeam are supposed to vary continuously along the thickness according to the power-law form and the material properties are assumed to be temperature-dependent. The small scale effect is taken into consideration based on nonlocal elasticity theory of Eringen. The nonlocal equations of motion are derived through Hamilton's principle and they are solved applying DTM. According to the numerical results, it is revealed that the proposed modeling and semi analytical approach can provide accurate frequency results of the FG nanobeams as compared to analytical results and also some cases in the literature. The detailed mathematical derivations are presented and numerical investigations are performed while the emphasis is placed on investigating the effect of the several parameters such as thermal effect, material distribution profile, small scale effects, mode number and boundary conditions on the normalized natural frequencies of the temperature-dependent FG nanobeams in detail. It is explicitly shown that the vibration behaviour of a FG nanobeams is significantly influenced by these effects. Numerical results are presented to serve as benchmarks for future analyses of FG nanobeams.

  5. Forced vibration analysis of functionally graded carbon nanotube-reinforced composite plates using a numerical strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, R.; Hasrati, E.; Faghih Shojaei, M.; Gholami, R.; Shahabodini, A.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, the nonlinear forced vibration behavior of composite plates reinforced by carbon nanotubes is investigated by a numerical approach. The reinforcement is considered to be functionally graded (FG) in the thickness direction according to a micromechanical model. The first-order shear deformation theory and von Kármán-type kinematic relations are employed. The governing equations and the corresponding boundary conditions are derived with the use of Hamilton's principle. The generalized differential quadrature (GDQ) method is utilized to achieve a discretized set of nonlinear governing equations. A Galerkin-based scheme is then applied to obtain a time-varying set of ordinary differential equations of Duffing-type. Subsequently, a time periodic discretization is done and the frequency response of plates is determined via the pseudo-arc length continuation method. Selected numerical results are given for the effects of different parameters on the nonlinear forced vibration characteristics of uniformly distributed carbon nanotube- and FG carbon nanotube-reinforced composite plates. It is found that with the increase of CNT volume fraction, the flexural stiffness of plate increases; and hence its natural frequency gets larger. Moreover, it is observed that the distribution type of CNTs significantly affects the vibrational behavior of plate. The results also show that when the mid-plane of plate is CNT-rich, the natural frequency takes its minimum value and the hardening-type response of plate is intensified.

  6. Effect of anisotropy on creep behavior in a functionally graded material disc of variable thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Vandana; Singh, S. B.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, an effort has been made to study the effect of anisotropy on the steady state creep behavior in the functionally graded material disc with hyperbolic thickness made of Al-SiC (particle). The content of silicon carbide particles in the disc is assumed to decrease linearly from the inner to the outer radius of the disc. The creep behavior of the disc under stresses developing due to rotation at 15,000 rpm has been determined by Sherby's law. The creep parameters of the FGM disc vary along the radial distance due to varying composition and this variation has been estimated by regression fit of the available experimental data. The creep response of rotating disc is expressed by a threshold stress with value of stress exponent as 8. The study reveals that the anisotropy has a significant effect on the steady state creep response of rotating FGM disc. Thus, the care to introduce anisotropy should be taken for the safe design of the rotating FGM disc with hyperbolic thickness.

  7. Synthesis and microwave absorbing characteristics of functionally graded carbonyl iron/polyurethane composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, R. B.; Liang, W. F.; Wu, C. H.; Chen, C. C.

    2016-05-01

    Radar absorbing materials (RAMs) also known as microwave absorbers, which can absorb and dissipate incident electromagnetic wave, are widely used in the fields of radar-cross section reduction, electromagnetic interference (EMI) reduction and human health protection. In this study, the synthesis of functionally graded material (FGM) (CI/Polyurethane composites), which is fabricated with semi-sequentially varied composition along the thickness, is implemented with a genetic algorithm (GA) to optimize the microwave absorption efficiency and bandwidth of FGM. For impedance matching and broad-band design, the original 8-layered FGM was obtained by the GA method to calculate the thickness of each layer for a sequential stacking of FGM from 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 65, 70 and 75 wt% of CI fillers. The reflection loss of the original 8-layered FGM below -10 dB can be obtained in the frequency range of 5.12˜18 GHz with a total thickness of 9.66 mm. Further optimization reduces the number of the layers and the stacking sequence of the optimized 4-layered FGM is 20, 30, 65, 75 wt% with thickness of 0.8, 1.6, 0.6 and 1.0 mm, respectively. The synthesis and measurement of the optimized 4-layered FGM with a thickness of 4 mm reveal a minimum reflection loss of -25.2 dB at 6.64 GHz and its bandwidth below - 10 dB is larger than 12.8 GHz.

  8. Nonlinear dynamics of initially imperfect functionally graded circular cylindrical shell under complex loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y. Z.; Hao, Y. X.; Zhang, W.; Chen, J.; Li, S. B.

    2015-07-01

    The nonlinear vibration of a simply supported FGM cylindrical shell with small initial geometric imperfection under complex loads is studied. The effects of radial harmonic excitation, compressive in-plane force combined with supersonic aerodynamic and thermal loads are considered. The small initial geometric imperfection of the cylindrical shell is characterized in the form of the sine-type trigonometric functions. The effective material properties of this FGM cylindrical shell are graded in the radial direction according to a simple power law in terms of the volume fractions. Based on Reddy's third-order shear deformation theory, von Karman-type nonlinear kinematics and Hamilton's principle, the nonlinear partial differential equation that controls the shell dynamics is derived. Both axial symmetric and driven modes of the cylindrical shell deflection pattern are included. Furthermore, the equations of motion can be reduced into a set of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations by applying Galerkin's method. In the study of the nonlinear dynamics responses of small initial geometric imperfect FGM cylindrical shell under complex loads, the 4th order Runge-Kutta method is used to obtain time history, phase portraits, bifurcation diagrams and Poincare maps with different parameters. The effects of external loads, geometric imperfections and volume fractions on the nonlinear dynamics of the system are discussed.

  9. Fabrication of Al2O3-W Functionally Graded Materials by Slipcasting Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Tomoyuki; Sukenaga, Sohei; Saito, Noritaka; Kagata, Hajime; Nakashima, Kunihiko

    2011-10-01

    We have successfully fabricated a functionally graded material (FGM) from tungsten and alumina powders by a slip-casting method. This FGM has applications as a sealing and conducting component for high-intensity discharge lamps (HiDLs) that have a translucent alumina envelope. Two types of W powder, with different oxidizing properties, were used as the raw powders for the Al2O3-W FGM. "Oxidized W" was prepared by heat-treatment at 200 °C for 180 min in air. Alumina and each of the W powders were mixed in ultrapure water by ultrasonic stirring. The slurry was then cast into a cylindrical acrylic mold, which had a base of porous alumina, under controlled pressure. The green compacts were subsequently dried, and then sintered using a vacuum furnace at 1600 °C for a fixed time. The microstructures of the FGMs were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the polished section. The Al2O3-W FGM with the "oxidized W" powder resulted in a microscopic compositional gradient. However, the FGM with "as-received W" showed no compositional gradient. This result was mainly attributed to the difference between the ζ-potentials of the W powders with the different oxidizing conditions; basically "oxidized W" powder tends to disperse because of the larger ζ-potential of the oxide layer coated on the W powder core.

  10. Spin-polarized Wide Electron Slabs in Functionally Graded Polar Oxide Heterostructures

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Jiandong; Ter Lim, Sze; Bosman, Michel; Gu, Shulin; Zheng, Youdou; Tan, Hark Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati; Sun, Xiaowei; Teo, Kie Leong

    2012-01-01

    We report on the high mobility wide electron slabs with enhanced correlation effects by tailoring the polarization effects in a functionally graded ZnMgO/ZnO heterostructures. The characteristics of three-dimensional (3D) spreading electrons are evidenced by the capacitance-voltage profiling and the quantization of 3D Fermi surface in magneto-transport measurements. Despite the weak spin-orbit interaction, such electron slabs are spin-polarized with a large zero-field spin splitting energy, which is induced by the carrier-mediated ferromagnetism. Our results suggest that the vast majority of electrons are localized at the surface magnetic moment which does not allow spin manipulations, and only in the region visited by the itinerant carriers that the ferromagnetic exchange interactions via coupling to the surface local moments contribute to the spin transport. The host ferromagnetism is likely due to the formation of Zn cation vacancies on the surface regime induced by the stabilization mechanism and strain-relaxation in ZnMgO polar ionic surface. PMID:22833785

  11. 3D-FE analysis of functionally graded structured dental posts.

    PubMed

    Abu Kasim, Noor H; Madfa, Ahmed A; Hamdi, Mohd; Rahbari, Ghahnavyeh R

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the biomechanical behaviour of functionally graded structured posts (FGSPs) and homogenous-type posts in simulated models of a maxillary central incisor. Two models of FGSPs consisting of a multilayer xTi-yHA composite design, where zirconia and alumina was added as the first layer for models A and B respectively were compared to homogenous zirconia post (model C) and a titanium post (model D). The amount of Ti and HA in the FGSP models was varied in gradations. 3D-FEA was performed on all models and stress distributions were investigated along the dental post. In addition, interface stresses between the posts and their surrounding structures were investigated under vertical, oblique, and horizontal loadings. Strain distribution along the post-dentine interface was also investigated. The results showed that FGSPs models, A and B demonstrated better stress distribution than models C and D, indicating that dental posts with multilayered structure dissipate localized and interfacial stress and strain more efficiently than homogenous-type posts. PMID:22123011

  12. Enhanced thermal stability of functionally graded sandwich cylindrical shells by shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadi, H.; Akbarzadeh, A. H.; Chen, Z. T.; Aghdam, M. M.

    2015-04-01

    The present paper deals with the nonlinear thermal instability of geometrically imperfect sandwich cylindrical shells under uniform heating. The sandwich shells are made of a shape memory alloy (SMA)-fiber-reinforced composite and functionally graded (FG) face sheets (FG/SMA/FG). The Brinson phenomenological model is used to express the constitutive characteristics of SMA fibers. The governing equations are established within the framework of the third-order shear deformation shell theory by taking into account the von Karman geometrical nonlinearity and initial imperfection. The material properties of constituents are assumed to be temperature dependent. The Galerkin technique is utilized to derive expressions of the bifurcation points and bifurcation paths of the sandwich cylindrical shells. Using the developed closed-form solutions, extensive numerical results are presented to provide an insight into the influence of the SMA fiber volume fraction, SMA pre-strain, core thickness, non-homogeneity index, geometrical imperfection, geometry parameters of sandwich shells and temperature dependency of materials on the stability of shells. The results reveal that proper application of SMA fibers postpones the thermal bifurcation point and dramatically decreases thermal post-buckling deflection. Moreover, the induced tensile recovery stress of SMA fibers could also stabilize the geometrically imperfect shells during the inverse martensite phase transformation.

  13. Hot Deformation Characteristics of Functionally Graded Steels Produced by Electroslag Remelting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naderi, B.; Aghazadeh Mohandesi, J.

    2011-08-01

    In this work, a hot compression test was carried out at 1173 K to 1473 K (900°C to 1200 °C), with a strain rate of 0.01 to 1 s-1 up to ~50 pct height reduction on functionally graded steel (FGS) specimens comprised of ferritic, bainitic, austenitic, and martensitic layers ( αβγM γ). The stress-strain curves are strongly dependent on temperature and strain rate. Compressive flow stress varied from 40 to 105 MPa depending on the applied temperature and strain rates. Variation in steady-state flow stress with temperature and strain rates was studied. The strain-rate-sensitivity exponent ( m) and deformation activation energy ( Q) for the αβγM γ composite under studied condition were 0.106 and 354.8 KJ mol-1, respectively, which are within the values of boundary layers of ferrite (304.9 KJ mol-1) and austenite (454.8 KJ mol-1) layers. Given the alternative microstructure of the αβγM γ FGS, a range of deformation mechanisms from dynamic recovery to dynamic recrystallization maybe prevails, where the intensity of each mechanism depends on temperature and strain rates. In accordance with the experimental results, an empirical power-law equation was developed over the range of temperatures and strain rates investigated. The equation accurately describes temperature and strain-rate dependence of the flow stress.

  14. Free vibration of functionally graded carbon-nanotube-reinforced composite plates with cutout.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, Mostafa; Kiani, Yaser

    2016-01-01

    During the past five years, it has been shown that carbon nanotubes act as an exceptional reinforcement for composites. For this reason, a large number of investigations have been devoted to analysis of fundamental, structural behavior of solid structures made of carbon-nanotube-reinforced composites (CNTRC). The present research, as an extension of the available works on the vibration analysis of CNTRC structures, examines the free vibration characteristics of plates containing a cutout that are reinforced with uniform or nonuniform distribution of carbon nanotubes. The first-order shear deformation plate theory is used to estimate the kinematics of the plate. The solution method is based on the Ritz method with Chebyshev basis polynomials. Such a solution method is suitable for arbitrary in-plane and out-of-plane boundary conditions of the plate. It is shown that through a functionally graded distribution of carbon nanotubes across the thickness of the plate, the fundamental frequency of a rectangular plate with or without a cutout may be enhanced. Furthermore, the frequencies are highly dependent on the volume fraction of carbon nanotubes and may be increased upon using more carbon nanotubes as reinforcement. PMID:27335742

  15. Piezoelectric coefficients and spontaneous polarization of ScAlN.

    PubMed

    Caro, Miguel A; Zhang, Siyuan; Riekkinen, Tommi; Ylilammi, Markku; Moram, Michelle A; Lopez-Acevedo, Olga; Molarius, Jyrki; Laurila, Tomi

    2015-06-24

    We present a computational study of spontaneous polarization and piezoelectricity in Sc(x)Al(1-x)N alloys in the compositional range from x = 0 to x = 0.5, obtained in the context of density functional theory and the Berry-phase theory of electric polarization using large periodic supercells. We report composition-dependent values of piezoelectric coefficients e(ij), piezoelectric moduli d(ij) and elastic constants C(ij). The theoretical findings are complemented with experimental measurement of e33 for a series of sputtered ScAlN films carried out with a piezoelectric resonator. The rapid increase with Sc content of the piezoelectric response reported in previous studies is confirmed for the available data. A detailed description of the full methodology required to calculate the piezoelectric properties of ScAlN, with application to other complex alloys, is presented. In particular, we find that the large amount of internal strain present in ScAlN and its intricate relation with electric polarization make configurational sampling and the use of large supercells at different compositions necessary in order to accurately derive the piezoelectric response of the material. PMID:26000892

  16. Piezoelectric Pins for Use as Dust Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, H. L. K.; Campbell, I. H.; Nelson, K. A.; Yager, J. R.

    2002-09-01

    Piezoelectric pins are devices currently used in a number of applications including detecting elementary particle beams, monitoring volcanoes, and detecting high-speed micro-sized particles. These pins provide a means of studying ejecta from cratering processes in the laboratory and offer a potential lightweight, low power, flight dust detector. Using the hypervelocity dust particle accelerator at Concordia College in Moorhead, Minnesota, we have investigated the transient charge generated by piezoelectric pins impacted by dust particles. Carbonyl iron dust particles of 0.5-5 micrometer diameter having speeds ranging from 1-5 km/sec impacted the pins. The DC-100 MHz pin response was recorded and analyzed. The transient pin response to a single particle consists of many charge pulses of alternating sign (less than 10 ns in duration) separated by the pressure wave propagation time across the crystal (typically 100 ns). The charge produced by the pin changes sign when the pressure waves in the piezoelectric crystal reflect off of the metal electrodes. The magnitude of the pin response as a function of the impacting particle properties is presented and discussed. Pins using both polycrystalline PZT and single crystal LiNbO3 as the piezoelectric material were studied. This work is supported at Concordia College by the Minnesota Space Grant Consortium.

  17. Piezoelectric transducer design via multiobjective optimization.

    PubMed

    Fu, B; Hemsel, T; Wallaschek, J

    2006-12-22

    The design of piezoelectric transducers is usually based on single-objective optimization only. In most practical applications of piezoelectric transducers, however, there exist multiple design objectives that often are contradictory to each other by their very nature. It is impossible to find a solution at which each objective function gets its optimal value simultaneously. Our design approach is to first find a set of Pareto-optimal solutions, which can be considered to be best compromises among multiple design objectives. Among these Pareto-optimal solutions, the designer can then select the one solution which he considers to be the best one. In this paper we investigate the optimal design of a Langevin transducer. The design problem is formulated mathematically as a constrained multiobjective optimization problem. The maximum vibration amplitude and the minimum electrical input power are considered as optimization objectives. Design variables involve continuous variables (dimensions of the transducer) and discrete variables (the number of piezoelectric rings and material types). In order to formulate the optimization problem, the behavior of piezoelectric transducers is modeled using the transfer matrix method based on analytical models. Multiobjective evolutionary algorithms are applied in the optimization process and a set of Pareto-optimal designs is calculated. The optimized results are analyzed and the preferred design is determined. PMID:16814826

  18. 2-D differential quadrature solution for vibration analysis of functionally graded conical, cylindrical shell and annular plate structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tornabene, Francesco; Viola, Erasmo; Inman, Daniel J.

    2009-12-01

    This paper focuses on the dynamic behavior of functionally graded conical, cylindrical shells and annular plates. The last two structures are obtained as special cases of the conical shell formulation. The first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT) is used to analyze the above moderately thick structural elements. The treatment is developed within the theory of linear elasticity, when materials are assumed to be isotropic and inhomogeneous through the thickness direction. The two-constituent functionally graded shell consists of ceramic and metal that are graded through the thickness, from one surface of the shell to the other. Two different power-law distributions are considered for the ceramic volume fraction. The homogeneous isotropic material is inferred as a special case of functionally graded materials (FGM). The governing equations of motion, expressed as functions of five kinematic parameters, are discretized by means of the generalized differential quadrature (GDQ) method. The discretization of the system leads to a standard linear eigenvalue problem, where two independent variables are involved without using the Fourier modal expansion methodology. For the homogeneous isotropic special case, numerical solutions are compared with the ones obtained using commercial programs such as Abaqus, Ansys, Nastran, Straus, Pro/Mechanica. Very good agreement is observed. Furthermore, the convergence rate of natural frequencies is shown to be very fast and the stability of the numerical methodology is very good. Different typologies of non-uniform grid point distributions are considered. Finally, for the functionally graded material case numerical results illustrate the influence of the power-law exponent and of the power-law distribution choice on the mechanical behavior of shell structures.

  19. Piezoelectric step-motion actuator

    DOEpatents

    Mentesana; Charles P.

    2006-10-10

    A step-motion actuator using piezoelectric material to launch a flight mass which, in turn, actuates a drive pawl to progressively engage and drive a toothed wheel or rod to accomplish stepped motion. Thus, the piezoelectric material converts electrical energy into kinetic energy of the mass, and the drive pawl and toothed wheel or rod convert the kinetic energy of the mass into the desired rotary or linear stepped motion. A compression frame may be secured about the piezoelectric element and adapted to pre-compress the piezoelectric material so as to reduce tensile loads thereon. A return spring may be used to return the mass to its resting position against the compression frame or piezoelectric material following launch. Alternative embodiment are possible, including an alternative first embodiment wherein two masses are launched in substantially different directions, and an alternative second embodiment wherein the mass is eliminated in favor of the piezoelectric material launching itself.

  20. Functional and electrophysiological changes after graded traumatic spinal cord injury in adult rat.

    PubMed

    Cao, Qilin; Zhang, Yi Ping; Iannotti, Christopher; DeVries, William H; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Shields, Christopher B; Whittemore, Scott R

    2005-02-01

    A graded contusion spinal cord injury (SCI) was created in the adult rat spinal cord using the Infinite Horizons (IH) impactor to study the correlation between injury severity and anatomical, behavioral, and electrophysiological outcomes. Adult Fisher rats were equally divided into five groups and received contusion injuries at the ninth thoracic level (T9) with 100, 125, 150, 175, or 200 kdyn impact forces, respectively. Transcranial magnetic motor-evoked potentials (tcMMEPs) and BBB open-field locomotor analyses were performed weekly for 4 weeks postinjury. Our results demonstrated that hindlimb locomotor function decreased in accordance with an increase in injury severity. The locomotor deficits were proportional to the amount of damage to the ventral and lateral white matter (WM). Locomotor function was strongly correlated to the amount of spared WM, which contains the reticulospinal and propriospinal tracts. Normal tcMMEP latencies were recorded in control, all of 100-kdyn-injured and half of 125-kdyn-injured animals. Delayed latency responses were recorded in some of 125-kdyn-injured and all of 150-kdyn-injured animals. No tcMMEP responses were recorded in 175- and 200-kdyn-injured animals. Comparison of tcMMEP responses with areas of WM loss or demyelination identified the medial ventrolateral funiculus (VLF) as the location of the tcMMEP pathway. Immunohistochemical and electromicroscopic (EM) analyses showed the presence of demyelinated axons in WM tracts surrounding the lesion cavities at 28 days postinjury. These data support the notion that widespread WM damage in the ventral and lateral funiculi may be a major cause for locomotor deficits and lack of tcMMEP responses after SCI. PMID:15629760

  1. Black branes as piezoelectrics.

    PubMed

    Armas, Jay; Gath, Jakob; Obers, Niels A

    2012-12-14

    We find a realization of linear electroelasticity theory in gravitational physics by uncovering a new response coefficient of charged black branes, exhibiting their piezoelectric behavior. Taking charged dilatonic black strings as an example and using the blackfold approach we measure their elastic and piezolectric moduli. We also use our results to draw predictions about the equilibrium condition of charged dilatonic black rings in dimensions higher than six. PMID:23368298

  2. Piezoelectrically enhanced photocathode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, Robert A. (Inventor); Nikzad, Shouleh (Inventor); Strittmatter, Robert P. (Inventor); Bell, Lloyd Douglas (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A photocathode, for generating electrons in response to incident photons in a photodetector, includes a base layer having a first lattice structure and an active layer having a second lattice structure and epitaxially formed on the base layer, the first and second lattice structures being sufficiently different to create a strain in the active layer with a corresponding piezoelectrically induced polarization field in the active layer, the active layer having a band gap energy corresponding to a desired photon energy.

  3. Improved Piezoelectric Loudspeakers And Transducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regan, Curtis Randall; Jalink, Antony; Hellbaum, Richard F.; Rohrbach, Wayne W.

    1995-01-01

    Loudspeakers and related acoustic transducers of improved type feature both light weight and energy efficiency of piezoelectric transducers and mechanical coupling efficiency. Active component of transducer made from wafer of "rainbow" piezoelectric material, ceramic piezoelectric material chemically reduced on one face. Chemical treatment forms wafer into dishlike shallow section of sphere. Both faces then coated with electrically conductive surface layers serving as electrodes. Applications include high-fidelity loudspeakers, and underwater echo ranging devices.

  4. Piezoelectric dosimeter charger

    SciTech Connect

    Kronenberg, S.

    1981-01-27

    Disclosed is a small portable extremely rugged charger for existing pocket-sized type radiation dosimeters. The charger is comprised of a rectangularly shaped housing which contains a piezoelectric charging circuit which is manually operated by a handle to produce a relatively high charging voltage. The charging voltage is coupled to a charging post mounted on a removable cover which is adapted to be selectively rotated so that the underside of the charging post is exposed to light from one of two light windows in the housing whereupon the dosimeter scale may be viewed by either direct or reflected light from any source available. The piezoelectric charging circuit is comprised of a pair of axially aligned cylinders of piezoelectric material mounted in a fulcrum type frame having a beam lever element in contact with one of the cylinders. A spring bias element is connected to the beam lever element and is actuated by a cam attached to the handle which when rotated acts upon the spring to cause an axial compressional force to be applied to the cylinders which thereby produce the required charging voltage.

  5. Piezoelectric wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishore, Ravi Anant; Priya, Shashank

    2013-03-01

    In past few years, there has been significant focus towards developing small scale renewable energy based power sources for powering wireless sensor nodes in remote locations such as highways and bridges to conduct continuous health monitoring. These prior efforts have led to the development of micro-scale solar modules, hydrogen fuel cells and various vibration based energy harvesters. However, the cost effectiveness, reliability, and practicality of these solutions remain a concern. Harvesting the wind energy using micro-to-small scale wind turbines can be an excellent solution in variety of outdoor scenarios provided they can operate at few miles per hour of wind speed. The conventional electromagnetic generator used in the wind mills always has some cogging torque which restricts their operation above certain cut-in wind speed. This study aims to develop a novel piezoelectric wind turbine that utilizes bimorph actuators for electro-mechanical energy conversion. This device utilizes a Savonius rotor that is connected to a disk having magnets at the periphery. The piezoelectric actuators arranged circumferentially around the disk also have magnets at the tip which interacts with the magnetic field of the rotating disk and produces cyclical deflection. The wind tunnel experiments were conducted between 2-12 mph of wind speeds to characterize and optimize the power output of the wind turbine. Further, testing was conducted in the open environment to quantify the response to random wind gusts. An attempt was made towards integration of the piezoelectric wind turbine with the wireless sensor node.

  6. How preschool executive functioning predicts several aspects of math achievement in Grades 1 and 3: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Viterbori, Paola; Usai, M Carmen; Traverso, Laura; De Franchis, Valentina

    2015-12-01

    This longitudinal study analyzes whether selected components of executive function (EF) measured during the preschool period predict several indices of math achievement in primary school. Six EF measures were assessed in a sample of 5-year-old children (N = 175). The math achievement of the same children was then tested in Grades 1 and 3 using both a composite math score and three single indices of written calculation, arithmetical facts, and problem solving. Using previous results obtained from the same sample of children, a confirmatory factor analysis examining the latent EF structure in kindergarten indicated that a two-factor model provided the best fit for the data. In this model, inhibition and working memory (WM)-flexibility were separate dimensions. A full structural equation model was then used to test the hypothesis that math achievement (the composite math score and single math scores) in Grades 1 and 3 could be explained by the two EF components comprising the kindergarten model. The results indicate that the WM-flexibility component measured during the preschool period substantially predicts mathematical achievement, especially in Grade 3. The math composite scores were predicted by the WM-flexibility factor at both grade levels. In Grade 3, both problem solving and arithmetical facts were predicted by the WM-flexibility component. The results empirically support interventions that target EF as an important component of early childhood mathematics education. PMID:26218333

  7. Hybrid piezoelectric energy harvesting transducer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Tian-Bing (Inventor); Jiang, Xiaoning (Inventor); Su, Ji (Inventor); Rehrig, Paul W. (Inventor); Hackenberger, Wesley S. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A hybrid piezoelectric energy harvesting transducer system includes: (a) first and second symmetric, pre-curved piezoelectric elements mounted separately on a frame so that their concave major surfaces are positioned opposite to each other; and (b) a linear piezoelectric element mounted separately on the frame and positioned between the pre-curved piezoelectric elements. The pre-curved piezoelectric elements and the linear piezoelectric element are spaced from one another and communicate with energy harvesting circuitry having contact points on the frame. The hybrid piezoelectric energy harvesting transducer system has a higher electromechanical energy conversion efficiency than any known piezoelectric transducer.

  8. Development of Functionally Graded Materials for Manufacturing Tools and Dies and Industrial Processing Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Lherbier, Louis, W.; Novotnak, David, J.; Herling, Darrell, R.; Sears, James, W.

    2009-03-23

    Hot forming processes such as forging, die casting and glass forming require tooling that is subjected to high temperatures during the manufacturing of components. Current tooling is adversely affected by prolonged exposure at high temperatures. Initial studies were conducted to determine the root cause of tool failures in a number of applications. Results show that tool failures vary and depend on the operating environment under which they are used. Major root cause failures include (1) thermal softening, (2) fatigue and (3) tool erosion, all of which are affected by process boundary conditions such as lubrication, cooling, process speed, etc. While thermal management is a key to addressing tooling failures, it was clear that new tooling materials with superior high temperature strength could provide improved manufacturing efficiencies. These efficiencies are based on the use of functionally graded materials (FGM), a new subset of hybrid tools with customizable properties that can be fabricated using advanced powder metallurgy manufacturing technologies. Modeling studies of the various hot forming processes helped identify the effect of key variables such as stress, temperature and cooling rate and aid in the selection of tooling materials for specific applications. To address the problem of high temperature strength, several advanced powder metallurgy nickel and cobalt based alloys were selected for evaluation. These materials were manufactured into tooling using two relatively new consolidation processes. One process involved laser powder deposition (LPD) and the second involved a solid state dynamic powder consolidation (SSDPC) process. These processes made possible functionally graded materials (FGM) that resulted in shaped tooling that was monolithic, bi-metallic or substrate coated. Manufacturing of tooling with these processes was determined to be robust and consistent for a variety of materials. Prototype and production testing of FGM tooling showed the

  9. Development status of the reusable high-performance engines with functionally graded materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moro, A.; Kuroda, Y.; Kusaka, K.

    2002-04-01

    The background of the development of the two kinds of reusable high-performance engine is described. One of these two is the regeneratively cooled 1200 N thrust engine composed of two kinds of ZrO 2/Ni functionally graded materials (FGMs) chambers. This engine is a promising candidate for the future Japanese orbiting maneuvering system (OMS) engine of the H-II orbiting plane (HOPE). The other one is the reaction control system (RCS) engine which may also be used compatibly with HOPE. Developed RCS chambers are made of carbon-fiber-reinforced carbon matrix (C/C) composites coated with SiC FGMs. In the first stage of the development of the ZrO 2/Ni FGMs chamber, durability tests using a ZrO 2 (24.5 vol%)/Ni (75.5 vol%) FGMs chamber were performed to inspect the damage of the thermal coating layer and to evaluate the engine performance after a total of 260 firing tests. In the second stage, a combustion chamber having a compositional profile of perfect ZrO 2/Ni FGMs was used in the high-altitude performance tests (HAPT). Firing tests for the C/C-SiC FGMs chamber developed in the first stage were performed at sea level. In this test series, microcracks and penetration of the combustion gases were observed especially at the surface of the nozzle throat section after 382 cycle tests. In the next stage of developing C/C-SiC FGMs chamber (expansion area ratio of 30:1), it was shown that coating with FGMs seemed to effectively prevent the delamination of the SiC coating after 693 cycles under the conditions of P c=1.0 MPa, MR=1.65 and with an injector film cooling rate of 17%, over a total firing time of 2000 s.

  10. Nonlinear analysis of thermally and electrically actuated functionally graded material microbeam

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yingli; Meguid, S. A.; Fu, Yiming; Xu, Daolin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we provide a unified and self-consistent treatment of a functionally graded material (FGM) microbeam with varying thermal conductivity subjected to non-uniform or uniform temperature field. Specifically, it is our objective to determine the effect of the microscopic size of the beam, the electrostatic gap, the temperature field and material property on the pull-in voltage of the microbeam under different boundary conditions. The non-uniform temperature field is obtained by integrating the steady-state heat conduction equation. The governing equations account for the microbeam size by introducing an internal material length-scale parameter that is based on the modified couple stress theory. Furthermore, it takes into account Casimir and van der Waals forces, and the associated electrostatic force with the first-order fringing field effects. The resulting nonlinear differential equations were converted to a coupled system of algebraic equations using the differential quadrature method. The outcome of our work shows the dramatic effect and dependence of the pull-in voltage of the FGM microbeam upon the temperature field, its gradient for a given boundary condition. Specifically, both uniform and non-uniform thermal loading can actuate the FGM microbeam even without an applied voltage. Our work also reveals that the non-uniform temperature field is more effective than the uniform temperature field in actuating a FGM cantilever-type microbeam. For the clamped-clamped case, care must be taken to account for the effective use of thermal loading in the design of microbeams. It is also observed that uniform thermal loading will lead to a reduction in the pull-in voltage of a FGM microbeam for all the three boundary conditions considered. PMID:24511250

  11. Vibro-acoustic response and sound transmission loss analysis of functionally graded plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, N.; Raja, S.; Nagendra Gopal, K. V.

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents analytical studies on the vibro-acoustic and sound transmission loss characteristics of functionally graded material (FGM) plates using a simple first-order shear deformation theory. The material properties of the plate are assumed to vary according to power law distribution of the constituent materials in terms of volume fraction. The sound radiation due to sinusoidally varying point load, uniformly distributed load and obliquely incident sound wave is computed by solving the Rayleigh integral with a primitive numerical scheme. Displacement, velocity, acceleration, radiated sound power level, radiated sound pressure level and radiation efficiency of FGM plate for varying power law index are examined. The sound transmission loss of the FGM plate for several incidence angles and varying power law index is studied in detail. It has been found that, for the plate being considered, the sound power level increases monotonically with increase in power law index at lower frequency range (0-500 Hz) and a non-monotonic trend is appeared towards higher frequencies for both point and distributed force excitations. Increased vibration and acoustic response is observed for ceramic-rich FGM plate at higher frequency band; whereas a similar trend is seen for metal-rich FGM plate at lower frequency band. The dBA values are found to be decreasing with increase in power law index. The radiation efficiency of ceramic-rich FGM plate is noticed to be higher than that of metal and metal-rich FGM plates. The transmission loss below the first resonance frequency is high for ceramic-rich FGM plate and low for metal-rich FGM plate and further depends on the specific material property. The study has found that increased transmission loss can be achieved at higher frequencies with metal-rich FGM plates.

  12. The surface crack problem for a functionally graded coating bonded to a homogeneous layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasmalkar, Maheendra B.

    In the continuing search for materials which can withstand the grueling requirements of modern day applications, Functionally Graded Materials (FGMs) seem to be a promising alternative to conventional materials. These nonhomogeneous materials offer better interfacial properties by improving bond strength and reducing thermal mismatch. Before putting these materials into application, an important step in the design of FGMs is the stress analysis and fracture characterization. The fracture performance of FGM coatings on homogeneous substrates is the focus of this study. In this study, various internal and surface crack configurations in the coating and the substrate are subjected to mechanical and thermal loads. The analysis is linear elastic. The thermo-mechanical properties of the FGM coating are assumed to vary exponentially with the spatial coordinate. The equilibrium equations are solved using integral transforms. The resulting singular integral equations are solved using numerical integration. The results of interest for this mode I formulation are the stress intensity factors and the crack opening displacements. The effects of the nonhomogeneity parameter and various dimensionless length parameters are studied. One of the most important outcomes of this study is the theoretical proof that "kink" in material property at the interface does not introduce any singularity. In the numerical results it is observed that generally the stress intensity factors tend to increase with material nonhomogeneity. Also, it is observed that the substrate thickness tends to suppress cracking in the coating. In pure thermal loading, the surface cracks may either be arrested or there might be crack closure. The stress intensity factors from different loadings can be added up to obtain the resultant stress intensity factor for multiple loading. Results in this study have wide-ranging applications. They can be applied to thermal barrier coatings on turbine components, combustion

  13. Fast plasma sintering delivers functional graded materials components with macroporous structures and osseointegration properties.

    PubMed

    Godoy, R F; Coathup, M J; Blunn, G W; Alves, A L; Robotti, P; Goodship, A E

    2016-01-01

    We explored the osseointegration potential of two macroporous titanium surfaces obtained using fast plasma sintering (FPS): Ti macroporous structures with 400-600 µmØ pores (TiMac400) and 850-1000 µmØ pores (TiMac850). They were compared against two surfaces currently in clinical use: Ti-Growth® and air plasma spray (Ti-Y367). Each surface was tested, once placed over a Ti-alloy and once onto a CoCr bulk substrate. Implants were placed in medial femoral condyles in 24 sheep. Samples were explanted at four and eight weeks after surgery. Push-out loads were measured using a material-testing system. Bone contact and ingrowth were assessed by histomorphometry and SEM and EDX analyses. Histology showed early osseointegration for all the surfaces tested. At 8 weeks, TiMac400, TiMac850 and Ti-Growth® showed deep bone ingrowth and extended colonisation with newly formed bone. The mechanical push-out force was equal in all tested surfaces. Plasma spray surfaces showed greater bone-implant contact and higher level of pores colonisation with new bone than FPS produced surfaces. However, the void pore area in FPS specimens was significantly higher, yet the FPS porous surfaces allowed a deeper osseointegration of bone to implant. FPS manufactured specimens showed similar osseointegration potential to the plasma spray surfaces for orthopaedic implants. FPS is a useful technology for manufacturing macroporous titanium surfaces. Furthermore, its capability to combine two implantable materials, using bulk CoCr with macroporous titanium surfaces, could be of interest as it enables designers to conceive and manufacture innovative components. FPS delivers functional graded materials components with macroporous structures optimised for osseointegration. PMID:27071735

  14. Nonlinear analysis of thermally and electrically actuated functionally graded material microbeam.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingli; Meguid, S A; Fu, Yiming; Xu, Daolin

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we provide a unified and self-consistent treatment of a functionally graded material (FGM) microbeam with varying thermal conductivity subjected to non-uniform or uniform temperature field. Specifically, it is our objective to determine the effect of the microscopic size of the beam, the electrostatic gap, the temperature field and material property on the pull-in voltage of the microbeam under different boundary conditions. The non-uniform temperature field is obtained by integrating the steady-state heat conduction equation. The governing equations account for the microbeam size by introducing an internal material length-scale parameter that is based on the modified couple stress theory. Furthermore, it takes into account Casimir and van der Waals forces, and the associated electrostatic force with the first-order fringing field effects. The resulting nonlinear differential equations were converted to a coupled system of algebraic equations using the differential quadrature method. The outcome of our work shows the dramatic effect and dependence of the pull-in voltage of the FGM microbeam upon the temperature field, its gradient for a given boundary condition. Specifically, both uniform and non-uniform thermal loading can actuate the FGM microbeam even without an applied voltage. Our work also reveals that the non-uniform temperature field is more effective than the uniform temperature field in actuating a FGM cantilever-type microbeam. For the clamped-clamped case, care must be taken to account for the effective use of thermal loading in the design of microbeams. It is also observed that uniform thermal loading will lead to a reduction in the pull-in voltage of a FGM microbeam for all the three boundary conditions considered. PMID:24511250

  15. Two-dimensional thermoelastic analysis of a functionally graded cylinder for different functionalities by using the higher-order shear deformation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arefi, M.

    2015-05-01

    The present paper addresses application of the general shear deformation theory for the thermoelastic analysis of a functionally graded cylindrical shell subjected to inner and outer loads. The shear deformation theory and the energy method are employed for this purpose. This method presents the final relations by using a set of second-order differential equations in terms of the integral of material properties over the shell thickness. The obtained formulation can be solved for two well-known functionalities.

  16. Sliding Wear and Fretting Wear of DLC-Based, Functionally Graded Nanocomposite Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Pohlchuck, B.; Street, Kenneth W.; Zabinski, J. S.; Sanders, J. H.; Voevodin, A. a.; Wu, R. L. C.

    1999-01-01

    Improving the tribological functionality of diamondlike carbon (DLC) films--developing, good wear resistance, low friction, and high load-carrying capacity-was the aim of this investigation. Nanocomposite coatings consisting of an amorphous DLC (a-DLC) top layer and a functionally graded titanium-titanium carbon-diamondlike carbon (Ti-Ti(sub x) C(sub y)-DLC) underlayer were produced on AISI 440C stainless steel substrates by the hybrid technique of magnetron sputtering and pulsed-laser deposition. The resultant DLC films were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and surface profilometry. Two types of wear experiment were conducted in this investioation: sliding friction experiments and fretting wear experiments. Unidirectional ball-on-disk sliding friction experiments were conducted to examine the wear behavior of an a-DLC/Ti-Ti(sub x) C(sub y)-DLC-coated AISI 440C stainless steel disk in sliding contact with a 6-mm-diameter AISI 440C stainless steel ball in ultrahigh vacuum, dry nitrogen, and humid air. Although the wear rates for both the coating and ball were low in all three environments, the humid air and dry nitrogen caused mild wear with burnishing, in the a-DLC top layer, and the ultrahigh vacuum caused relatively severe wear with brittle fracture in both the a-DLC top layer and the Ti-Ti(sub x) C(sub y)-DLC underlayer. For reference, amorphous hydrogenated carbon (H-DLC) films produced on a-DLC/Ti-Ti(sub x) C(sub y)-DLC nanocomposite coatings by using an ion beam were also examined in the same manner. The H-DLC films markedly reduced friction even in ultrahigh vacuum without sacrificing wear resistance. The H-DLC films behaved much like the a-DLC/Ti-Ti(sub x) C(sub y)-DLC nanocomposite coating in dry nitrogen and humid air, presenting low friction and low wear. Fretting wear experiments were conducted in humid air (approximately 50% relative humidity) at a frequency of 80 Hz and an amplitude of 75 micron on an a

  17. The Development and Production of a Functionally Graded Composite for Pb-Bi Service

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Ronald G

    2011-08-01

    A material that resists lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) attack and retains its strength at 700°C would be an enabling technology for LBE-cooled reactors. No single alloy currently exists that can economically meet the required performance criteria of high strength and corrosion resistance. A Functionally Graded Composite (FGC) was developed with layers engineered to perform these functions. F91 was chosen as the structural layer of the composite for its strength and radiation resistance. Fe-12Cr-2Si, an alloy developed from previous work in the Fe-Cr-Si system, was chosen as the corrosion-resistant cladding layer because of its chemical similarity to F91 and its superior corrosion resistance in both oxidizing and reducing environments. Fe-12Cr-2Si experienced minimal corrosion due to its self-passivation in oxidizing and reducing environments. Extrapolated corrosion rates are below one micron per year at 700ï°C. Corrosion of F91 was faster, but predictable and manageable. Diffusion studies showed that 17 microns of the cladding layer will be diffusionally diluted during the three year life of fuel cladding. 33 microns must be accounted for during the sixty year life of coolant piping. 5 cm coolant piping and 6.35 mm fuel cladding preforms were produced on a commercial scale by weld-overlaying Fe-12Cr-2Si onto F91 billets and co-extruding them. An ASME certified weld was performed followed by the prescribed quench-and-tempering heat treatment for F91. A minimal heat affected zone was observed, demonstrating field weldability. Finally, corrosion tests were performed on the fabricated FGC at 700ï°C after completely breaching the cladding in a small area to induce galvanic corrosion at the interface. None was observed. This FGC has significant impacts on LBE reactor design. The increases in outlet temperature and coolant velocity allow a large increase in power density, leading to either a smaller core for the same power rating or more power output for the same size

  18. Characterization and selection of suitable grades of lactose as functional fillers for capsule filling: part 1.

    PubMed

    Moolchandani, Vikas; Augsburger, Larry L; Gupta, Abhay; Khan, Mansoor; Langridge, John; Hoag, Stephen W

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to characterize thermal, physical and mechanical properties of different grades of lactose and better understand the relationships between these properties and capsule filling performance. Eight grades of commercially available lactose were evaluated: Pharmatose 110 M, 125 M, 150 M, 200 M, 350 M (α-lactose monohydrate), AL (anhydrous lactose containing ∼80% β-AL), DCL11 (spray dried α-lactose monohydrate containing ∼15% amorphous lactose) and DCL15 (granulated α-lactose monohydrate containing ∼12% β-AL). In this study, different lactose grades were characterized by thermal, solid state, physical and mechanical properties and later evaluated using principal component analysis (PCA) to assess the inter-relationships among some of these properties. The lactose grades were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), moisture sorption/desorption isotherms, particle size distribution; the flow was characterized by Carr Index (CI), critical orifice diameter (COD) and angle of friction. Plug mechanical strength was estimated from its diametric crushing strength. The first and second principal components (PC) captured 47.6% and 27.4% of variation in the physical and mechanical property data, respectively. The PCA plot grouped together 110 M, AL, DCL11 and DCL15 on the one side of plot which possessed superior properties for capsule formulation and these grades were selected for future formulation development studies (part II of this work). PMID:25212639

  19. [Grading of the functional sport shoe parameter "cushioning" and "forefoot flexibility" on running shoes].

    PubMed

    Kleindienst, F I; Krabbe, B; Walther, M; Brüggemann, G-P

    2006-03-01

    On nearly every running event a heterogeneous structure of participants regarding body height and body weight can be observed. This study should figure out whether the running shoe manufacturers will consider this anthropometric variability. Moreover it should be investigated the runners needs based on different anthropometrics regarding preferred cushioning and forefoot flexibility properties. In order to check whether the running shoe manufacturers will apply a grading pattern, a dynamic material study with conventional running shoes in different sizes was conducted. In a second step a field study in Middle Europe and North America with 244 female and 227 male runners was organized. Every subject had to run and evaluate 7 different shoe modifications. Based on the material study it is to state, that the running shoe manufacturers currently do not consider a systematic grading of cushioning and forefoot flexibility properties. In contrast to this, the field study reveals the necessity to grade these properties. A shoe size dependent and a geographic grading concept are suggested. It is supposed, that the application of these grading concepts do not only provide a comfort improvement, but they also contribute to a reduction of joint loads of the lower extremities and consequently to a prevention of overuse injuries. PMID:16544212

  20. Impact of Reflow on the Output Characteristics of Piezoelectric Microelectromechanical System Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogami, Hirofumi; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Okada, Hironao; Masuda, Takashi; Maeda, Ryutaro; Itoh, Toshihiro

    2012-09-01

    An animal health monitoring system and a wireless sensor node aimed at preventing the spread of animal-transmitted diseases and improving pastoral efficiency which are especially suitable for chickens, were developed. The sensor node uses a piezoelectric microelectromechanical system (MEMS) device and an event-driven system that is activated by the movements of a chicken. The piezoelectric MEMS device has two functions: a) it measures the activity of a chicken and b) switches the micro-control unit (MCU) of the wireless sensor node from the sleep mode. The piezoelectric MEMS device is required to produce high output voltages when the chicken moves. However, after the piezoelectric MEMS device was reflowed to the wireless sensor node, the output voltages of the piezoelectric MEMS device decreased. The main reason for this might be the loss of residual polarization, which is affected by the thermal load during the reflow process. After the reflow process, we were not able to apply a voltage to the piezoelectric MEMS device; thus, the piezoelectric output voltage was not increased by repoling the piezoelectric MEMS device. To address the thermal load of the reflow process, we established a thermal poling treatment, which achieves a higher temperature than the reflow process. We found that on increasing the thermal poling temperature, the piezoelectric output voltages did not decreased low significantly. Thus, we considered that a thermal poling temperature higher than that of the reflow process prevents the piezoelectric output voltage reduction caused by the thermal load.

  1. FUNCTIONALLY GRADED ALUMINA/MULLITE COATINGS FOR PROTECTION OF SILICON CARBIDE CERAMIC COMPONENTS FROM CORROSION

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    The main objective of this research project is the formulation of processes that can be used to prepare compositionally graded alumina/mullite coatings for protection from corrosion of silicon carbide components (monolithic or composite) used or proposed to be used in coal utilization systems (e.g., combustion chamber liners, heat exchanger tubes, particulate removal filters, and turbine components) and other energy-related applications. Mullite will be employed as the inner (base) layer and the composition of the film will be continuously changed to a layer of pure alumina, which will function as the actual protective coating of the component. Chemical vapor deposition reactions of silica, alumina, and aluminosilicates (mullite) through hydrolysis of aluminum and silicon chlorides in the presence of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} will be employed to deposit compositionally graded films of mullite and alumina. Our studies will include the kinetic investigation of the silica, alumina, and aluminosilicate deposition processes, characterization of the composition, microstructure, surface morphology, and mechanical behavior of the prepared films, and modeling of the various deposition processes. During this reporting period, the construction and development of the chemical vapor deposition system was completed, and experiments were conducted on the deposition of alumina, silica, and aluminosilicates (such as mullite) from mixtures of AlCl{sub 3} and CH{sub 3}SiCl{sub 3} in CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}. Work was mainly done on the investigation of the effects of the reaction temperature on the deposition kinetics. It was found that the temperature had a positive effect on the single oxides deposition rates and the codeposition rate. The apparent activation energy values extracted from the deposition rate vs. temperature curves in the high temperature region were similar for the three deposition processes, having a value around 20 kcal/mol. The codeposition rates were higher, by a

  2. "A New Class od Functionally Graded Cearamic-Metal Composites for Next Generation Very High Temperature Reactors"

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Mohit Jain; Dr. Ganesh Skandan; Dr. Gordon E. Khose; Mrs. Judith Maro, Nuclear Reactor Laboratory, MIT

    2008-05-01

    Generation IV Very High Temperature power generating nuclear reactors will operate at temperatures greater than 900 oC. At these temperatures, the components operating in these reactors need to be fabricated from materials with excellent thermo-mechanical properties. Conventional pure or composite materials have fallen short in delivering the desired performance. New materials, or conventional materials with new microstructures, and associated processing technologies are needed to meet these materials challenges. Using the concept of functionally graded materials, we have fabricated a composite material which has taken advantages of the mechanical and thermal properties of ceramic and metals. Functionally-graded composite samples with various microstructures were fabricated. It was demonstrated that the composition and spatial variation in the composition of the composite can be controlled. Some of the samples were tested for irradiation resistance to neutrons. The samples did not degrade during initial neutron irradiation testing.

  3. Transglutaminase 2 Expression Is Increased as a Function of Malignancy Grade and Negatively Regulates Cell Growth in Meningioma

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yin-Cheng; Wei, Kuo-Chen; Chang, Chen-Nen; Chen, Pin-Yuan; Hsu, Peng-Wei; Chen, Carl P.; Lu, Chin-Song; Wang, Hung-Li; Gutmann, David H.; Yeh, Tu-Hsueh

    2014-01-01

    Most meningiomas are benign, but some clinical-aggressive tumors exhibit brain invasion and cannot be resected without significant complications. To identify molecular markers for these clinically-aggressive meningiomas, we performed microarray analyses on 24 primary cultures from 21 meningiomas and 3 arachnoid membranes. Using this approach, increased transglutaminase 2 (TGM2) expression was observed, which was subsequently validated in an independent set of 82 meningiomas by immunohistochemistry. Importantly, the TGM2 expression level was associated with increasing WHO malignancy grade as well as meningioma recurrence. Inhibition of TGM2 function by siRNA or cystamine induced meningioma cell death, which was associated with reduced AKT phosphorylation and caspase-3 activation. Collectively, these findings suggest that TGM2 expression increases as a function of malignancy grade and tumor recurrence and that inhibition of TGM2 reduces meningioma cell growth. PMID:25247996

  4. A Piezoelectric Shear Stress Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Taeyang; Saini, Aditya; Kim, Jinwook; Gopalarathnam, Ashok; Zhu, Yong; Palmieri, Frank L.; Wohl, Christopher J.; Jiang, Xiaoning

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a piezoelectric sensor with a floating element was developed for shear stress measurement. The piezoelectric sensor was designed to detect the pure shear stress suppressing effects of normal stress generated from the vortex lift-up by applying opposite poling vectors to the: piezoelectric elements. The sensor was first calibrated in the lab by applying shear forces and it showed high sensitivity to shear stress (=91.3 +/- 2.1 pC/Pa) due to the high piezoelectric coefficients of PMN-33%PT (d31=-1330 pC/N). The sensor also showed almost no sensitivity to normal stress (less than 1.2 pC/Pa) because of the electromechanical symmetry of the device. The usable frequency range of the sensor is 0-800 Hz. Keywords: Piezoelectric sensor, shear stress, floating element, electromechanical symmetry

  5. High-Temperature Piezoelectric Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xiaoning; Kim, Kyungrim; Zhang, Shujun; Johnson, Joseph; Salazar, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Piezoelectric sensing is of increasing interest for high-temperature applications in aerospace, automotive, power plants and material processing due to its low cost, compact sensor size and simple signal conditioning, in comparison with other high-temperature sensing techniques. This paper presented an overview of high-temperature piezoelectric sensing techniques. Firstly, different types of high-temperature piezoelectric single crystals, electrode materials, and their pros and cons are discussed. Secondly, recent work on high-temperature piezoelectric sensors including accelerometer, surface acoustic wave sensor, ultrasound transducer, acoustic emission sensor, gas sensor, and pressure sensor for temperatures up to 1,250 °C were reviewed. Finally, discussions of existing challenges and future work for high-temperature piezoelectric sensing are presented. PMID:24361928

  6. An Overview of Micromechanics-Based Techniques for the Analysis of Microstructural Randomness in Functionally Graded Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrante, Fernando J.; Brady, Lori L. Graham; Acton, Katherine; Arwade, Sanjay R.

    2008-02-15

    A review of current research efforts to develop micromechanics-based techniques for the study of microstructural randomness of functionally graded materials is presented, along with a framework developed by the authors of this paper that includes stochastic simulation of statistically inhomogeneous samples and a windowing technique coupled with a micromechanical homogenization technique. The methodology is illustrated through the analysis of one sample coupled with finite element modeling.

  7. Micro-scratch and corrosion behavior of functionally graded HA-TiO2 nanostructured composite coatings fabricated by electrophoretic deposition.

    PubMed

    Farnoush, Hamidreza; Aghazadeh Mohandesi, Jamshid; Çimenoğlu, Hüseyin

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, functionally graded coatings of HA/TiO2 nanoparticles and HA-TiO2 nanocomposite coatings with 0, 10 and 20 wt% of TiO2 were fabricated by electrophoretic deposition on Ti-6Al-4V substrate. The functionally graded structure of HA/TiO2 coatings was formed by gradual addition of HA suspension into the deposition cell containing TiO2 nanoparticles. Micro-scratch test results showed the highest critical distances of crack initiation and delamination, normal load before failure and critical contact pressures for functionally graded coating. It was observed that the improvement of adhesion strength and fracture toughness of functionally graded coatings would be due to the reduction of thermal expansion coefficient mismatch between Ti-6Al-4V substrate and HA. The results of potentiodynamic polarization measurements showed that the graded structure of the coating could efficiently increase the corrosion resistance of substrate. PMID:25771254

  8. HOTCFGM-1D: A Coupled Higher-Order Theory for Cylindrical Structural Components with Through-Thickness Functionally Graded Microstructures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Aboudi, Jacob

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this three-year project was to develop and deliver to NASA Lewis one-dimensional and two-dimensional higher-order theories, and related computer codes, for the analysis, optimization and design of cylindrical functionally graded materials/structural components for use in advanced aircraft engines (e.g., combustor linings, rotor disks, heat shields, blisk blades). To satisfy this objective, a quasi one-dimensional version of the higher-order theory, HOTCFGM-1D, and four computer codes based on this theory, for the analysis, design and optimization of cylindrical structural components functionally graded in the radial direction were developed. The theory is applicable to thin multi-phased composite shell/cylinders subjected to macroscopically axisymmetric thermomechanical and inertial loading applied uniformly along the axial direction such that the overall deformation is characterized by a constant average axial strain. The reinforcement phases are uniformly distributed in the axial and circumferential directions, and arbitrarily distributed in the radial direction, thereby allowing functional grading of the internal reinforcement in this direction.

  9. Asphalt Pavement Aging and Temperature Dependent Properties Using Functionally Graded Viscoelastic Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dave, Eshan V.

    2009-01-01

    Asphalt concrete pavements are inherently graded viscoelastic structures. Oxidative aging of asphalt binder and temperature cycling due to climatic conditions being the major cause of non-homogeneity. Current pavement analysis and simulation procedures dwell on the use of layered approach to account for these non-homogeneities. The conventional…

  10. Prevalence, Stability, and Functionality of Achievement Goal Profiles in Mathematics from Third to Seventh Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwinger, Malte; Wild, Elke

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal trajectories of achievement goal profiles in mathematics from third to seventh grade in a sample of 302 German students. Latent profile analyses were conducted separately for each school year and revealed three subgroups of students with distinct goal profiles labeled high multiple goals, moderate multiple…

  11. Children's Singing Accuracy as a Function of Grade Level, Gender, and Individual versus Union Singing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Nancy A.

    1995-01-01

    Examines the relationship between vocal pitch accuracy and gender, grade level, and the presence or absence of an accompanying unison voice. Reveals no significant differences between unison or individual singing or for gender. Fourth and fifth graders exhibited significant differences. (MJP)

  12. Is Mentoring throughout the Fourth and Fifth Grades Associated with Improved Psychosocial Functioning in Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Michelle E.; McVaugh, Brittany; Jacobi, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    This study examined whether mentoring influenced children's self-concept, anxiety, depression, and relationships with parents and peers over an 18-month period. We examined 31 mentored children (50% female) and a comparison group of 22 nonmentored children (50% female) at the beginning of a mentoring program in the fall of the fourth-grade year…

  13. Self-Esteem of Black and White Fifth Grade Pupils as a Function of Demographic Categorization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beers, Joan S.

    Do varying racial and social school mixtures significantly relate to self-esteem of black and white fifth-grade pupils? The purpose of the present study was to examine several facets of this question. Interrelationships were studied among pupil's self-esteem and the following demographic variables: school's racial composition, pupil's sex, pupil's…

  14. Piezoelectric accelerometers for ultrahigh temperature application

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Shujun; Moses, Paul; Shrout, Thomas R.; Jiang Xiaoning; Lapsley, Michael

    2010-01-04

    High temperature sensors are of major importance to aerospace and energy related industries. In this letter, a high temperature monolithic compression-mode piezoelectric accelerometer was fabricated using YCa{sub 4}O(BO{sub 3}){sub 3} (YCOB) single crystals. The performance of the sensor was tested as function of temperature up to 1000 deg. C and over a frequency range of 100-600 Hz. The accelerometer prototype was found to possess sensitivity of 2.4+-0.4 pC/g, across the measured temperature and frequency range, indicating a low temperature coefficient. Furthermore, the sensor exhibited good stability over an extended dwell time at 900 deg. C, demonstrating that YCOB piezoelectric accelerometers are promising candidates for high temperature sensing applications.

  15. Piezoelectric axial flow microvalve

    DOEpatents

    Gemmen, Randall; Thornton, Jimmy; Vipperman, Jeffrey S.; Clark, William W.

    2007-01-09

    This invention is directed to a fuel cell operable with a quantity of fuel and a quantity of an oxidizer to produce electrical power, the fuel cell including a fuel cell body including a labyrinth system structured to permit the fuel and the oxidizer to flow therethrough; at least a first catalyst in fluid communication with the labyrinth; and at least a first microvalve operably disposed within at least a portion of the labyrinth. The microvalve utilizes a deflectable member operable upon the application of a voltage from a voltage source. The microvalve includes an elongated flow channel formed therein and extending substantially longitudinally between the first and second ends to permit substantially longitudinal flow of the fluid therethrough and between the first and second ends; and the deflectable member disposed on the valve body, the deflectable member including at least a first piezoelectric portion that is piezoelectrically operable to deflect the deflectable member between an open position and a closed position upon the application of a voltage, the deflectable member in the closed position being operable to resist the flow of the fluid through the flow channel.

  16. Piezoelectric Actuator Modeling Using MSC/NASTRAN and MATLAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reaves, Mercedes C.; Horta, Lucas G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a procedure for modeling structures containing piezoelectric actuators using MSCMASTRAN and MATLAB. The paper describes the utility and functionality of one set of validated modeling tools. The tools described herein use MSCMASTRAN to model the structure with piezoelectric actuators and a thermally induced strain to model straining of the actuators due to an applied voltage field. MATLAB scripts are used to assemble the dynamic equations and to generate frequency response functions. The application of these tools is discussed using a cantilever aluminum beam with a surface mounted piezoelectric actuator as a sample problem. Software in the form of MSCINASTRAN DMAP input commands, MATLAB scripts, and a step-by-step procedure to solve the example problem are provided. Analysis results are generated in terms of frequency response functions from deflection and strain data as a function of input voltage to the actuator.

  17. Fabrication of Fe-FeAl Functionally Graded Material Using the Wire-Arc Additive Manufacturing Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Chen; Pan, Zengxi; Cuiuri, Dominic; Roberts, Jon; Li, Huijun

    2016-02-01

    A functionally gradient iron-aluminum wall structure with aluminum composition gradient from 0 at. pct to over 50 at. pct is fabricated using a wire-arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) system. The as-fabricated alloy is investigated using optical microstructure analysis, hardness testing, tensile testing, X-ray diffraction phase characterization, and electron-dispersive spectrometry. The comprehensive analysis of the experimental samples has shown that the WAAM system can be used for manufacturing iron aluminide functionally graded material with full density, desired composition, and reasonable mechanical properties.

  18. Damage tolerant functionally graded materials for advanced wear and friction applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prchlik, Lubos

    The research work presented in this dissertation focused on processing effects, microstructure development, characterization and performance evaluation of composite and graded coatings used for friction and wear control. The following issues were addressed. (1) Definition of prerequisites for a successful composite and graded coating formation by means of thermal spraying. (2) Improvement of characterization methods available for homogenous thermally sprayed coating and their extension to composite and graded materials. (3) Development of novel characterization methods specifically for FGMs, with a focus on through thickness property measurement by indentation and in-situ curvature techniques. (4) Design of composite materials with improved properties compared to homogenous coatings. (5) Fabrication and performance assessment of FGM with improved wear and impact damage properties. Materials. The materials studied included several material systems relevant to low friction and contact damage tolerant applications: MO-Mo2C, WC-Co cermets as materials commonly used sliding components of industrial machinery and NiCrAlY/8%-Yttria Partially Stabilized Zirconia composites as a potential solution for abradable sections of gas turbines and aircraft engines. In addition, uniform coatings such as molybdenum and Ni5%Al alloy were evaluated as model system to assess the influence of microstructure variation onto the mechanical property and wear response. Methods. The contact response of the materials was investigated through several techniques. These included methods evaluating the relevant intrinsic coating properties such as elastic modulus, residual stress, fracture toughness, scratch resistance and tests measuring the abrasion and friction-sliding behavior. Dry-sand and wet two-body abrasion testing was performed in addition to traditional ball on disc sliding tests. Among all characterization techniques the spherical indentation deserved most attention and enabled to

  19. Multilayer Piezoelectric Stack Actuator Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Jones, Christopher M.; Aldrich, Jack B.; Blodget, Chad; Bao, Xioaqi; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2008-01-01

    Future NASA missions are increasingly seeking to use actuators for precision positioning to accuracies of the order of fractions of a nanometer. For this purpose, multilayer piezoelectric stacks are being considered as actuators for driving these precision mechanisms. In this study, sets of commercial PZT stacks were tested in various AC and DC conditions at both nominal and extreme temperatures and voltages. AC signal testing included impedance, capacitance and dielectric loss factor of each actuator as a function of the small-signal driving sinusoidal frequency, and the ambient temperature. DC signal testing includes leakage current and displacement as a function of the applied DC voltage. The applied DC voltage was increased to over eight times the manufacturers' specifications to investigate the correlation between leakage current and breakdown voltage. Resonance characterization as a function of temperature was done over a temperature range of -180C to +200C which generally exceeded the manufacturers' specifications. In order to study the lifetime performance of these stacks, five actuators from one manufacturer were driven by a 60volt, 2 kHz sine-wave for ten billion cycles. The tests were performed using a Lab-View controlled automated data acquisition system that monitored the waveform of the stack electrical current and voltage. The measurements included the displacement, impedance, capacitance and leakage current and the analysis of the experimental results will be presented.

  20. Shear piezoelectricity in bone at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minary-Jolandan, Majid; Yu, Min-Feng

    2010-10-01

    Recent demonstration of shear piezoelectricity in an isolated collagen fibril, which is the origin of piezoelectricity in bone, necessitates investigation of shear piezoelectric behavior in bone at the nanoscale. Using high resolution lateral piezoresponse force microcopy (PFM), shear piezoelectricity in a cortical bone sample was studied at the nanoscale. Subfibrillar structure of individual collagen fibrils with a periodicity of 60-70 nm were revealed in PFM map, indicating the direct contribution of collagen fibrils to the shear piezoelectricity of bone.

  1. Functionally graded beta-TCP/PCL nanocomposite scaffolds: in vitro evaluation with human fetal osteoblast cells for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Seher; Kalyon, Dilhan M; Yu, Xiaojun

    2010-03-01

    The engineering of biomimetic tissue relies on the ability to develop biodegradable scaffolds with functionally graded physical and chemical properties. In this study, a twin-screw-extrusion/spiral winding (TSESW) process was developed to enable the radial grading of porous scaffolds (discrete and continuous gradations) that were composed of polycaprolactone (PCL), beta-tricalciumphosphate (beta-TCP) nanoparticles, and salt porogens. Scaffolds with interconnected porosity, exhibiting myriad radial porosity, pore-size distributions, and beta-TCP nanoparticle concentration could be obtained. The results of the characterization of their compressive properties and in vitro cell proliferation studies using human fetal osteoblast cells suggest the promising nature of such scaffolds. The significant degree of freedom offered by the TSESW process should be an additional enabler in the quest toward the mimicry of the complex elegance of the native tissues. PMID:19296543

  2. Processing and Characterization of Functionally Graded Hydroxyapatite Coatings for Biomedical Implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Xiao

    Hydroxyapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(OH) 2, HA] has been widely applied as a coating on various biomedical bone/dental implants to improve biocompatibility and bioactivity. It has been observed that primary reasons leading to implantation failure of commercial HA coated implants processed by plasma spraying are the poor mechanical properties of coatings and infections accompanied by implantation. It has been also reported an ideal coating should be able to stimulate new bone growth at the initial stage of implantation and stay stable both mechanically and chemically thereafter. This research has investigated a functionally graded hydroxyapatite (FGHA) coating that is capable of improving the stability of implants, facilitating recovery, and preventing infections after implantation. A series of FGHA coatings with incorporated Ag 0 ˜ 13.53 wt. % has been deposited onto Ti substrate using ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) with in-situ heat treatment. The compositional, microstructural, mechanical, and biological properties of coatings have been analyzed via various tests. The relationship among processing parameters, coating properties and biological behaviors has been established and the processing parameters for processing FGHA coatings with/without incorporated Ag have been optimized. Microstructure observations of coating cross section via transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) for set temperature coatings deposited at 450°C ˜ 750°C reveals that in-situ substrate temperature is the primary factor controlling the crystallinity of the coatings. The microstructure observation of cross section via TEM/STEM for both FGHA coatings with/without incorporated Ag has shown that coatings are dense and have a gradually decreased crystallinity from substrate/coating interface to top surface. In particular, the interface has an atomically intermixed structure; the region near the interface has a columnar grain structure whereas

  3. In Situ Poling and Imidization of Amorphous Piezoelectric Polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Cheol; Ounaies, Zoubeida; Wise, Kristopher E.; Harrison, Joycelyn S.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An amorphous piezoelectric polyimide containing polar functional groups has been developed using a combination of experimental and molecular modeling for potential use in high temperature applications. This amorphous polyimide, (Beta-CN)APB/ODPA, has exhibited good thermal stability and piezoelectric response at temperatures up to 150C. Density functional calculations predicted that a partially cured amic acid (open imide ring) possesses a dipole moment four times larger than the fully imidized closed ring. In situ poling and imidization of the partially cured (Beta-CN)APB/ODPA, was studied in an attempt to maximize the degree of dipolar orientation and the resultant piezoelectric response. A positive corona poling was used to minimize localized arcing during poling and to allow use of higher poling fields without dielectric breakdown. The dielectric relaxation strength, remanent polarization, and piezoelectric response were evaluated as a function of the poling profile. The partially cured, corona poled polymers exhibited higher dielectric relaxation strength (delta varepsilon), remanent polarization (Pr) and piezoelectric strain coefficient (d33) than the fully cured, conventionally poled ones.

  4. High piezoelectric properties of cement piezoelectric composites containing kaolin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Huang Hsing; Yang, Ruei-Hao; Cheng, Yu-Chieh

    2015-04-01

    To obtain high piezoelectric properties, PZT/cement composites with kaolin were fabricated and polarized by 1.5kV/mm electric field for 40 min, where lead zirconate titanate (PZT) inclusion with 50% by volume was used. After the polarization, piezoelectric properties of the composite were measured daily till 100 days. Results indicated that relative dielectric constant (ɛr) and piezoelectric strain constant (d33) increase with aging day, and approach to asymptotic values after 70 days. Temperature treatment to the composite is a dominate factor to enhance piezoelectric properties. The d33 and ɛr values of PZT/cement composites treated at the ambient temperature (23℃) were 57pC/N and 275 at the 70th aging day respectively, and then reached 106pC/N and 455 in turn with 150℃ treatment. The composite contains 4% kaolin having the highest value of d33=111pC/N and ɛr=500 at 90 days because the porosity is the less than the others. Cement piezoelectric composites containing kaolin own the higher d33 and ɛr value, compared with the other reported composites with 50% PZT. The porosity, the electromechanical coupling factor and impedance-frequency spectra of the cement piezoelectric composites were also discussed.

  5. Identification of micropositioning stage with piezoelectric actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Ruili; Tan, Yonghong; Xie, Yangqiu

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a two-step identification method for a micropositioning stage with piezoelectric actuator is proposed. It is noted that one of the difficulties encountered in identification is that both input and output of the actuator embedded in the stage cannot be measured directly. Moreover, hysteresis existing in piezoelectric actuators is a non-smooth complex nonlinearity. In the proposed modeling method, a sandwich model with hysteresis is used to describe the performance of the micropositioning stage with piezoelectric actuator. In this modeling architecture, the input linear submodel is utilized to describe the behavior of preceded amplifier with filtering circuit, which provides electrical voltage to the piezoactuator, and the output linear submodel is employed to depict the flexural hinge with load, respectively, while a Duhem function embedded in between the input and output linear submodels is employed to describe the hysteresis characteristic of piezoelectric actuator in the stage. At the first step of the identification procedure, a special excitation input is implemented to excite the stage to decompose the hysteresis into a monotonic polynomial within a certain region. Then, the parameters of linear submodels are separated and estimated. Subsequently, at the second step, an input signal that can fully excite the system within the operation region is implemented to excite the stage. Based on the previously estimated linear submodels, both input and output of the piezoactuator are estimated. Then, in terms of the estimated input and output of the piezoactuator, the parameters of the hysteresis submodel are estimated. Finally, experimental results are presented to verify the proposed method.

  6. Late evaluation of the relationship between morphological and functional renal changes and hypertension after non-operative treatment of high-grade renal injuries

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the anatomical and functional renal alterations and the association with post-traumatic arterial hypertension. Methods The studied population included patients who sustained high grades renal injury (grades III to V) successfully non-operative management after staging by computed tomography over a 16-year period. Beyond the review of medical records, these patients were invited to the following protocol: clinical and laboratory evaluation, abdominal computed tomography, magnetic resonance angiography, DMSA renal scintigraphy, and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. The hypertensive patients also were submitted to dynamic renal scintigraphy (99mTc EC), using captopril stimulation to verify renal vascular etiology. Results Of the 31 patients, there were thirteen grade III, sixteen grade IV (nine lacerations, and seven vascular lesions), and two grade V injuries. All the patients were asymptomatic and an average follow up post-injury of 6.4 years. None had abnormal BUN or seric creatinine. The percentage of renal volume reduction correlates with the severity as defined by OIS. There was no evidence of renal artery stenosis in Magnetic Resonance angiography (MRA). DMSA scanning demonstrated a decline in percentage of total renal function corresponding to injury severity (42.2 ± 5.5% for grade III, 35.3 ± 12.8% for grade IV, 13.5 ± 19.1 for grade V). Six patients (19.4%) had severe compromised function (< 30%). There was statistically significant difference in the decrease in renal function between parenchymal and vascular causes for grade IV injuries (p < 0.001). The 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring detected nine patients (29%) with post-traumatic hypertension. All the patients were male, mean 35.6 years, 77.8 % had a familial history of arterial hypertension, 66.7% had grade III renal injury, and average post-injury time was 7.8 years. Seven patients had negative captopril renography. Conclusions Late

  7. Piezoelectric Rotary Tube Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Charles D.; Badescu, Mircea; Braun, David F.; Culhane, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A custom rotary SQUIGGLE(Registered TradeMark) motor has been developed that sets new benchmarks for small motor size, high position resolution, and high torque without gear reduction. Its capabilities cannot be achieved with conventional electromagnetic motors. It consists of piezoelectric plates mounted on a square flexible tube. The plates are actuated via voltage waveforms 90 out of phase at the resonant frequency of the device to create rotary motion. The motors were incorporated into a two-axis postioner that was designed for fiber-fed spectroscopy for ground-based and space-based projects. The positioner enables large-scale celestial object surveys to take place in a practical amount of time.

  8. Functionally graded scaffolds for the engineering of interface tissues using hybrid twin screw extrusion/electrospinning technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erisken, Cevat

    Tissue engineering is the application of the principles of engineering and life sciences for the development of biological alternatives for improvement or regeneration of native tissues. Native tissues are complex structures with functions and properties changing spatially and temporally, and engineering of such structures requires functionally graded scaffolds with composition and properties changing systematically along various directions. Utilization of a new hybrid technology integrating the controlled feeding, compounding, dispersion, deaeration, and pressurization capabilities of extrusion process with electrospinning allows incorporation of liquids and solid particles/nanoparticles into polymeric fibers/nanofibers for fabrication of functionally graded non-woven meshes to be used as scaffolds in engineering of tissues. The capabilities of the hybrid technology were demonstrated with a series of scaffold fabrication and cell culturing studies along with characterization of biomechanical properties. In the first study, the hybrid technology was employed to generate concentration gradations of beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) nanoparticles in a polycaprolactone (PCL) binder, between two surfaces of nanofibrous scaffolds. These scaffolds were seeded with pre-osteoblastic cell line (MC3T3-E1) to attempt to engineer cartilage-bone interface, and after four weeks, the tissue constructs revealed formation of continuous gradations in extracellular matrix akin to cartilage-bone interface in terms of distributions of mineral concentrations and biomechanical properties. In a second demonstration of the hybrid technology, graded differentiation of stem cells was attempted by using insulin, a known stimulator of chondrogenic differentiation, and beta-glycerol phosphate (beta-GP), for mineralization. Concentrations of insulin and beta-GP in PCL were controlled to monotonically increase and decrease, respectively, along the length of scaffolds, which were then seeded

  9. Topology optimization of piezoelectric nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanthakumar, S. S.; Lahmer, Tom; Zhuang, Xiaoying; Park, Harold S.; Rabczuk, Timon

    2016-09-01

    We present an extended finite element formulation for piezoelectric nanobeams and nanoplates that is coupled with topology optimization to study the energy harvesting potential of piezoelectric nanostructures. The finite element model for the nanoplates is based on the Kirchoff plate model, with a linear through the thickness distribution of electric potential. Based on the topology optimization, the largest enhancements in energy harvesting are found for closed circuit boundary conditions, though significant gains are also found for open circuit boundary conditions. Most interestingly, our results demonstrate the competition between surface elasticity, which reduces the energy conversion efficiency, and surface piezoelectricity, which enhances the energy conversion efficiency, in governing the energy harvesting potential of piezoelectric nanostructures.

  10. Piezoelectric enhancement under negative pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvasov, Alexander; McGilly, Leo J.; Wang, Jin; Shi, Zhiyong; Sandu, Cosmin S.; Sluka, Tomas; Tagantsev, Alexander K.; Setter, Nava

    2016-07-01

    Enhancement of ferroelectric properties, both spontaneous polarization and Curie temperature under negative pressure had been predicted in the past from first principles and recently confirmed experimentally. In contrast, piezoelectric properties are expected to increase by positive pressure, through polarization rotation. Here we investigate the piezoelectric response of the classical PbTiO3, Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 and BaTiO3 perovskite ferroelectrics under negative pressure from first principles and find significant enhancement. Piezoelectric response is then tested experimentally on free-standing PbTiO3 and Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 nanowires under self-sustained negative pressure, confirming the theoretical prediction. Numerical simulations verify that negative pressure in nanowires is the origin of the enhanced electromechanical properties. The results may be useful in the development of highly performing piezoelectrics, including lead-free ones.

  11. A piezoelectric shear stress sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Taeyang; Saini, Aditya; Kim, Jinwook; Gopalarathnam, Ashok; Zhu, Yong; Palmieri, Frank L.; Wohl, Christopher J.; Jiang, Xiaoning

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, a piezoelectric sensor with a floating element was developed for shear stress measurement. The piezoelectric sensor was designed to detect the pure shear stress, suppressing effects of normal stress components, by applying opposite poling vectors to the piezoelectric elements. The sensor was first calibrated in the lab by applying shear forces where it demonstrated high sensitivity to shear stress (91.3 +/- 2.1 pC/Pa) due to the high piezoelectric coefficients of 0.67Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.33PbTiO3 (PMN-33%PT, d31=-1330 pC/N). The sensor also exhibited negligible sensitivity to normal stress (less than 1.2 pC/Pa) because of the electromechanical symmetry of the device. The usable frequency range of the sensor is up to 800 Hz.

  12. Piezoelectric enhancement under negative pressure.

    PubMed

    Kvasov, Alexander; McGilly, Leo J; Wang, Jin; Shi, Zhiyong; Sandu, Cosmin S; Sluka, Tomas; Tagantsev, Alexander K; Setter, Nava

    2016-01-01

    Enhancement of ferroelectric properties, both spontaneous polarization and Curie temperature under negative pressure had been predicted in the past from first principles and recently confirmed experimentally. In contrast, piezoelectric properties are expected to increase by positive pressure, through polarization rotation. Here we investigate the piezoelectric response of the classical PbTiO3, Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 and BaTiO3 perovskite ferroelectrics under negative pressure from first principles and find significant enhancement. Piezoelectric response is then tested experimentally on free-standing PbTiO3 and Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 nanowires under self-sustained negative pressure, confirming the theoretical prediction. Numerical simulations verify that negative pressure in nanowires is the origin of the enhanced electromechanical properties. The results may be useful in the development of highly performing piezoelectrics, including lead-free ones. PMID:27396411

  13. Free vibration analysis of a rotating hub-functionally graded material beam system with the dynamic stiffening effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Zhang, D. G.; Zhu, W. D.

    2014-02-01

    A comprehensive dynamic model of a rotating hub-functionally graded material (FGM) beam system is developed based on a rigid-flexible coupled dynamics theory to study its free vibration characteristics. The rigid-flexible coupled dynamic equations of the system are derived using the method of assumed modes and Lagrange's equations of the second kind. The dynamic stiffening effect of the rotating hub-FGM beam system is captured by a second-order coupling term that represents longitudinal shrinking of the beam caused by the transverse displacement. The natural frequencies and mode shapes of the system with the chordwise bending and stretching (B-S) coupling effect are calculated and compared with those with the coupling effect neglected. When the B-S coupling effect is included, interesting frequency veering and mode shift phenomena are observed. A two-mode model is introduced to accurately predict the most obvious frequency veering behavior between two adjacent modes associated with a chordwise bending and a stretching mode. The critical veering angular velocities of the FGM beam that are analytically determined from the two-mode model are in excellent agreement with those from the comprehensive dynamic model. The effects of material inhomogeneity and graded properties of FGM beams on their dynamic characteristics are investigated. The comprehensive dynamic model developed here can be used in graded material design of FGM beams for achieving specified dynamic characteristics.

  14. Effects of the DICOM grayscale standard display function on the accuracy of medical-grade grayscale and consumer-grade color displays for telemammography screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, Antonio J.; Romero, Javier; Bernal, Oscar; Moreno, Angela; Velasco, Sofía.; Díaz, Xavier

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of the consumer-grade and medical-grade monitors —with very different costs— in breast cancer detection, when using with and without Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) standard calibration. This was a retrospective study with factorial design and repeated measures, using 70 digital mammograms (40 benign or normal cases and 30 malignant cases), four radiologists, and three displays, with and without display calibration. Film mammograms were also included. Readings were classified according to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System. One medical-grade grayscale display and two consumer-grade displays were compared. Receiver operating characteristics curves were plotted for nodules, micro calcifications and the degree of malignancy. The diagnostic accuracy for each device was calculated as the area under these curves and accuracies were compared using analysis of variance.

  15. Evaluation of Mechanical Losses in Piezoelectric Plates using Genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, F. J.; Gonçalves, M. S.; Massaro, F. R.; Martins, P. S.

    Numerical methods are used for the characterization of piezoelectric ceramics. A procedure based on genetic algorithm is applied to find the physical coefficients and mechanical losses. The coefficients are estimated from a minimum scoring of cost function. Electric impedances are calculated from Mason's model including mechanical losses constant and dependent on frequency as a linear function. The results show that the electric impedance percentage error in the investigated interval of frequencies decreases when mechanical losses depending on frequency are inserted in the model. A more accurate characterization of the piezoelectric ceramics mechanical losses should be considered as frequency dependent.

  16. Safety Analysis Using Lebesgue Strain Measure of Thick-Walled Cylinder for Functionally Graded Material under Internal and External Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, A. K.; Sharma, Richa; Sharma, Sanjeev

    2013-01-01

    Safety analysis has been done for thick-walled circular cylinder under internal and external pressure using transition theory which is based on the concept of generalized principal Lebesgue strain measure. Results have been analyzed theoretically and discussed numerically. From the analysis, it can be concluded that circular cylinder made of functionally graded material is on the safer side of the design as compared to homogeneous cylinder with internal and external pressure, which leads to the idea of “stress saving” that minimizes the possibility of fracture of cylinder. PMID:24089605

  17. Analysis of a Generally Oriented Crack in a Functionally Graded Strip Sandwiched Between Two Homogeneous Half Planes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shbeeb, N.; Binienda, W. K.; Kreider, K.

    1999-01-01

    The driving forces for a generally oriented crack embedded in a Functionally Graded strip sandwiched between two half planes are analyzed using singular integral equations with Cauchy kernels, and integrated using Lobatto-Chebyshev collocation. Mixed-mode Stress Intensity Factors (SIF) and Strain Energy Release Rates (SERR) are calculated. The Stress Intensity Factors are compared for accuracy with previously published results. Parametric studies are conducted for various nonhomogeneity ratios, crack lengths. crack orientation and thickness of the strip. It is shown that the SERR is more complete and should be used for crack propagation analysis.

  18. Free Vibration of Size-Dependent Functionally Graded Microbeams Based on the Strain Gradient Reddy Beam Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, R.; Gholami, R.; Sahmani, S.

    2014-09-01

    The microscale vibration characteristics of microbeams made of functionally graded materials (FGMs) are investigated based on the strain gradient Reddy beam theory capable of capturing the size effect. The non-classical governing differential equations, together with the corresponding boundary conditions, are obtained using Hamilton's principle. Then, the free vibration problem of simply supported FGM microbeams is solved using the Navier solution. The natural frequencies of FGM microbeams are calculated corresponding to a wide range of dimensionless length scale parameters, material property gradient indices, and aspect ratios to illustrate the influences of size effect on the vibrational response of FGM microbeams.

  19. Nonlinear Dynamic Behavior of Functionally Graded Truncated Conical Shell Under Complex Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, S. W.; Hao, Y. X.; Zhang, W.; Li, S. B.

    Nonlinear dynamic behaviors of ceramic-metal graded truncated conical shell subjected to complex loads are investigated. The shell is modeled by first-order shear deformation theory. The nonlinear partial differential governing equation in terms of transverse displacements of the FGM truncated conical shell is derived from the Hamilton's principle. Galerkin's method is then utilized to discretize the partial governing equations to a two-degree-of-freedom nonlinear ordinary differential equation. The temperature-dependent materials properties of the constituents are graded in the radial direction in accordance with a power-law distribution. The aerodynamic pressure can be calculated by using the first-order piston theory. The temperature field is assumed to be a steady-state constant-temperature distribution. Bifurcation diagrams, the maximum Lyapunov exponents, wave forms and phase portraits are obtained by numerical simulation to demonstrate the complex nonlinear dynamics response of the FGM truncated conical shell. The influences of the semi-vertex angle, the material gradient index, in-plane and aerodynamic load on the nonlinear dynamics are studied.

  20. Explicit Determination of Piezoelectric Eshelby Tensors for a Spheroidal Inclusion

    SciTech Connect

    Yozo Mikata

    2001-06-21

    In this paper, by systematically treating the integrals involved in the piezoelectric inclusion problem, explicit results were obtained for the piezoelectric Eshelby tensors for a spheroidal inclusion aligned along the axis of the anisotropy in a transversely isotropic piezoelectric material. This problem was first treated by Dunn and Wienecke (1996) using a Green's function approach, which closely follows Withers' approach (1989) for an ellipsoidal inclusion problem in a transversely isotropic elastic medium. The same problem was recently treated by Michelitsch and Levin (2000) also using a Green's function approach. In this paper, a different method was used to obtain the explicit results for the piezoelectric Eshelby tensors for a spheroidal inclusion. The method is a direct extension of a more unified approach, which has been recently developed by Mikata (2000), which is based on Deeg's results (1980) on a piezoelectric inclusion problem. The main advantage of this method is that it is more straightforward and simpler than Dunn and Wienecke (1996), or Michelitsch and Levin (2000), and the results are a little bit more explicit than their solutions. The key step of this paper is an analytical closed form evaluation of several integrals, which was made possible after a careful treatment of a certain bi-cubic equation.

  1. Electrical Properties and Power Considerations of a Piezoelectric Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, T.; Ounaies, Z.; Tripp, J.; Tcheng, P.

    1999-01-01

    This paper assesses the electrical characteristics of piezoelectric wafers for use in aeronautical applications such as active noise control in aircraft. Determination of capacitive behavior and power consumption is necessary to optimize the system configuration and to design efficient driving electronics. Empirical relations are developed from experimental data to predict the capacitance and loss tangent of a PZT5A ceramic as nonlinear functions of both applied peak voltage and driving frequency. Power consumed by the PZT is the rate of energy required to excite the piezoelectric system along with power dissipated due to dielectric loss and mechanical and structural damping. Overall power consumption is thus quantified as a function of peak applied voltage and driving frequency. It was demonstrated that by incorporating the variation of capacitance and power loss with voltage and frequency, satisfactory estimates of power requirements can be obtained. These relations allow general guidelines in selection and application of piezoelectric actuators and driving electronics for active control applications.

  2. Piezoelectric microcantilever serum protein detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capobianco, Joseph A.

    The development of a serum protein detector will provide opportunities for better screening of at-risk cancer patients, tighter surveillance of disease recurrence and better monitoring of treatment. An integrated system that can process clinical samples for a number of different types of biomarkers would be a useful tool in the early detection of cancer. Also, screening biomarkers such as antibodies in serum would provide clinicians with information regarding the patient's response to treatment. Therefore, the goal of this study is to develop a sensor which can be used for rapid, all-electrical, real-time, label-fee, in-situ, specific quantification of cancer markers, e.g., human epidermal receptor 2 (Her2) or antibodies, in serum. To achieve this end, piezoelectric microcantilever sensors (PEMS) were constructed using an 8 mum thick lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) freestanding film as the piezoelectric layer. The desired limit of detection is on the order of pg/mL. In order to achieve this goal the higher frequency lateral extension modes were used. Also, as the driving and sensing of the PEMS is electrical, the PEMS must be insulated in a manner that allows it to function in aqueous solutions. The insulation layer must also be compatible with standardized bioconjugation techniques. Finally, detection of both cancer antigens and antibodies in serum was carried out, and the results were compared to a standard commercialized protocol. PEMS have demonstrated the capability of detecting Her2 at a concentration of 5 pg/mL in diluted human serum (1:40) in less than 1 hour. The approach can be easily translated into the clinical setting because the sensitivity is more than sufficient for monitoring prognosis of breast cancer patients. In addition to Her2 detection, antibodies in serum were assayed in order to demonstrate the feasibility of monitoring the immune response for antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in patients on antibody therapies

  3. Principle research on a single mass piezoelectric six-degrees-of-freedom accelerometer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Li, Min; Qin, Lan; Liu, Jingcheng

    2013-01-01

    A signal mass piezoelectric six-degrees-of-freedom (six-DOF) accelerometer is put forward in response to the need for health monitoring of the dynamic vibration characteristics of high grade digitally controlled machine tools. The operating principle of the piezoelectric six-degrees-of-freedom accelerometer is analyzed, and its structure model is constructed. The numerical simulation model (finite element model) of the six axis accelerometer is established. Piezoelectric quartz is chosen for the acceleration sensing element and conversion element, and its static sensitivity, static coupling interference and dynamic natural frequency, dynamic cross coupling are analyzed by ANSYS software. Research results show that the piezoelectric six-DOF accelerometer has advantages of simple and rational structure, correct sensing principle and mathematic model, good linearity, high rigidity, and theoretical natural frequency is more than 25 kHz, no nonlinear cross coupling and no complex decoupling work. PMID:23959243

  4. Piezoelectric activity in Perovskite ferroelectric crystals.

    PubMed

    Li, Fei; Wang, Linghang; Jin, Li; Lin, Dabin; Li, Jinglei; Li, Zhenrong; Xu, Zhuo; Zhang, Shujun

    2015-01-01

    Perovskite ferroelectrics (PFs) have been the dominant piezoelectric materials for various electromechanical applications, such as ultrasonic transducers, sensors, and actuators, to name a few. In this review article, the development of PF crystals is introduced, focusing on the crystal growth and piezoelectric activity. The critical factors responsible for the high piezoelectric activity of PFs (i.e., phase transition, monoclinic phase, domain size, relaxor component, dopants, and piezoelectric anisotropy) are surveyed and discussed. A general picture of the present understanding on the high piezoelectricity of PFs is described. At the end of this review, potential approaches to further improve the piezoelectricity of PFs are proposed. PMID:25585387

  5. Two of Everything: Developing Functional Thinking in the Primary Grades through Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Tracey; Bragg, Leicha A.; Livy, Sharyn

    2015-01-01

    The concept of functional thinking as a foundational idea associated with algebraic thinking is explored by Tracey Muir, Leicha Bragg and Sharyn Livy. They provide ideas for using children's literature as a context to promote functional thinking

  6. A multiaxial piezoelectric energy harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousselmal, H. D.; Cottinet, P. J.; Quiquerez, L.; Remaki, B.; Petit, L.

    2013-04-01

    An important limitation in the classical energy harvesters based on cantilever beam structure is its monodirectional sensibility. The external excitation must generate an orthogonal acceleration from the beam plane to induced flexural deformation. If the direction of the excitation deviates from this privileged direction, the harvester output power is drastically reduced. This point is obviously very restrictive in the case of an arbitrary excitation direction induced for example by human body movements or vehicles vibrations. In order to overcome this issue of the conventional resonant cantilever configuration with seismic mass, a multidirectional harvester is introduced here by the authors. The multidirectional ability relies on the exploitation of 3 degenerate structural vibration modes where each of them is induced by the corresponding component of the acceleration vector. This specific structure has been already used for 3 axis accelerometers but the approach is here totally revisited because the final functional goal is different. This paper presents the principle and the design considerations of such multidirectional piezoelectric energy harvester. A finite element model has been used for the harvester optimisation. It has been shown that the seismic mass is a relevant parameter for the modes tuning because the resonant frequency of the 1st exploited flexural mode directly depends on the mass whereas the resonance frequency of the 2nd flexural mode depends on its moment of inertia. A simplified centimetric prototype limited to a two orthogonal direction sensibility has permitted to valid the theoretical approach.

  7. Developing Essential Understanding of Functions for Teaching Mathematics in Grades 9-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Gwendolyn; Beckmann, Sybilla; Zbiek, Rose Mary; Cooney, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Are sequences functions? What can't the popular "vertical line test" be applied in some cases to determine if a relation is a function? How does the idea of rate of change connect with simpler ideas about proportionality as well as more advanced topics in calculus? Helping high school students develop a robust understanding of functions requires…

  8. Processing and Characterization of Functionally Graded Aluminum (A319)—SiCp Metallic Composites by Centrifugal Casting Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayakumar, E.; Jacob, Jibin C.; Rajan, T. P. D.; Joseph, M. A.; Pai, B. C.

    2016-08-01

    Functionally graded materials (FGM) are successfully adopted for the design and fabrication of engineering components with location-specific properties. The present study describes the processing and characterization of A319 Aluminum functionally graded metal matrix composites (FGMMC) with 10 and 15 wt pct SiCp reinforcements. The liquid stir casting method is used for composite melt preparation followed by FGMMC formation by vertical centrifugal casting method. The process parameters used are the mold preheating temperature of 523 K (250 °C), melt pouring temperature of 1013 K (740 °C), and mold rotation speed of 1300 rpm. The study analyzes the distribution and concentration of reinforcement particles in the radial direction of the FGMMC disk along with the effects of gradation on density, hardness, mechanical strength, the variation in coefficient of thermal expansion and the wear resistance properties at different zones. Microstructures of FGMMC reveal an outward radial gradient distribution of reinforcements forming different zones. Namely, matrix-rich inner, transition, particles-rich outer, and chill zone of a few millimeters thick at the outer most periphery of the casting are formed. From 10-FGM, a radial shift in the position of SiCp maxima is observed in 15-FGM casting. The mechanical characterization depicts enhanced properties for the particle-rich zone. The hardness shows a graded nature in correlation with particle concentration and a maximum of 94.4 HRB has been obtained at the particle-rich region of 15-FGM. In the particle-rich zone, the lowest CTE value of 20.1 µm/mK is also observed with a compressive strength of 650 MPa and an ultimate tensile strength of 279 MPa. The wear resistance is higher at the particle-rich zone of the FGMMC.

  9. Processing and Characterization of Functionally Graded Aluminum (A319)—SiCp Metallic Composites by Centrifugal Casting Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayakumar, E.; Jacob, Jibin C.; Rajan, T. P. D.; Joseph, M. A.; Pai, B. C.

    2016-06-01

    Functionally graded materials (FGM) are successfully adopted for the design and fabrication of engineering components with location-specific properties. The present study describes the processing and characterization of A319 Aluminum functionally graded metal matrix composites (FGMMC) with 10 and 15 wt pct SiCp reinforcements. The liquid stir casting method is used for composite melt preparation followed by FGMMC formation by vertical centrifugal casting method. The process parameters used are the mold preheating temperature of 523 K (250 °C), melt pouring temperature of 1013 K (740 °C), and mold rotation speed of 1300 rpm. The study analyzes the distribution and concentration of reinforcement particles in the radial direction of the FGMMC disk along with the effects of gradation on density, hardness, mechanical strength, the variation in coefficient of thermal expansion and the wear resistance properties at different zones. Microstructures of FGMMC reveal an outward radial gradient distribution of reinforcements forming different zones. Namely, matrix-rich inner, transition, particles-rich outer, and chill zone of a few millimeters thick at the outer most periphery of the casting are formed. From 10-FGM, a radial shift in the position of SiCp maxima is observed in 15-FGM casting. The mechanical characterization depicts enhanced properties for the particle-rich zone. The hardness shows a graded nature in correlation with particle concentration and a maximum of 94.4 HRB has been obtained at the particle-rich region of 15-FGM. In the particle-rich zone, the lowest CTE value of 20.1 µm/mK is also observed with a compressive strength of 650 MPa and an ultimate tensile strength of 279 MPa. The wear resistance is higher at the particle-rich zone of the FGMMC.

  10. Long-term survival and functional status of patients with low-grade astrocytoma of spinal cord

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Clifford G.; Prayson, Richard A.; Hahn, Joseph F.; Kalfas, Iain H.; Whitfield, Melvin D.; Lee, S.-Y.; Suh, John H. . E-mail: suhj@ccf.org

    2005-09-01

    Purpose: To determine survival and changes in neurologic function and Karnofsky performance status (KPS) in a series of patients treated for low-grade astrocytoma of the spinal cord during the past two decades. Methods: This study consisted of 14 patients with pathologically confirmed low-grade astrocytoma of the spinal cord who were treated between 1980 and 2003. All patients underwent decompressive laminectomy followed by biopsy (n = 7), subtotal resection (n = 6), or gross total resection (n = 1). Ten patients underwent postoperative radiotherapy (median total dose 50 Gy in 28 fractions). The overall survival, progression-free survival, and changes in neurologic function and KPS were measured. Results: The overall survival rate at 5, 10, and 20 years was 100%, 75%, and 60%, respectively. The progression-free survival rate at 5, 10, and 20 years was 93%, 80%, and 60%, respectively. Neither overall survival nor progression-free survival was clearly correlated with any patient, tumor, or treatment factors. Neurologic function and KPS worsened after surgery in 8 (57%) of 14 and 9 (69%) of 13 patients, respectively. At a mean follow-up of 10.2 years, neurologic function had stabilized or improved in 8 (73%) of 11 remaining patients, but the KPS had worsened in 5 (50%) of 10. Most patients who were employed before surgery were working at last follow-up. Conclusion: Patients who undergo gross total resection of their tumor may be followed closely. Patients who undergo limited resection should continue to receive postoperative RT (50.4 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions). The functional measures should be routinely evaluated to appreciate the treatment outcomes.

  11. Design of a W/steel functionally graded material for plasma facing components of DEMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Missiaen, J. M.; Raharijaona, J. J.; Antoni, A.; Pascal, C.; Richou, M.; Magaud, P.

    2011-09-01

    The design of a graded transition between tungsten and steel for plasma facing components of a nuclear fusion reactor is proposed and the interest of such a transition is demonstrated by FEM calculations of the thermo-mechanical behaviour in the operating conditions of the DEMO reactor. The transition consists in stacked layers of W-WC and WC-Fe between W and Eurofer steel. The maximum surface temperature of the structural component could be maintained below 1300 °C for a very simple multilayer geometry, from FEM calculations. The maximum strains and equivalent elastic stresses could be reduced by a factor of about 3 as compared to a direct W/steel joint. Considerations about processing techniques of such a component are discussed, based on the literature background and a few preliminary tests.

  12. Piezoelectric Templates – New Views on Biomineralization and Biomimetics

    PubMed Central

    Stitz, Nina; Eiben, Sabine; Atanasova, Petia; Domingo, Neus; Leineweber, Andreas; Burghard, Zaklina; Bill, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Biomineralization in general is based on electrostatic interactions and molecular recognition of organic and inorganic phases. These principles of biomineralization have also been utilized and transferred to bio-inspired synthesis of functional materials during the past decades. Proteins involved in both, biomineralization and bio-inspired processes, are often piezoelectric due to their dipolar character hinting to the impact of a template’s piezoelectricity on mineralization processes. However, the piezoelectric contribution on the mineralization process and especially the interaction of organic and inorganic phases is hardly considered so far. We herein report the successful use of the intrinsic piezoelectric properties of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) to synthesize piezoelectric ZnO. Such films show a two-fold increase of the piezoelectric coefficient up to 7.2 pm V−1 compared to films synthesized on non-piezoelectric templates. By utilizing the intrinsic piezoelectricity of a biotemplate, we thus established a novel synthesis pathway towards functional materials, which sheds light on the whole field of biomimetics. The obtained results are of even broader and general interest since they are providing a new, more comprehensive insight into the mechanisms involved into biomineralization in living nature. PMID:27212583

  13. Piezoelectric Templates – New Views on Biomineralization and Biomimetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stitz, Nina; Eiben, Sabine; Atanasova, Petia; Domingo, Neus; Leineweber, Andreas; Burghard, Zaklina; Bill, Joachim

    2016-05-01

    Biomineralization in general is based on electrostatic interactions and molecular recognition of organic and inorganic phases. These principles of biomineralization have also been utilized and transferred to bio-inspired synthesis of functional materials during the past decades. Proteins involved in both, biomineralization and bio-inspired processes, are often piezoelectric due to their dipolar character hinting to the impact of a template’s piezoelectricity on mineralization processes. However, the piezoelectric contribution on the mineralization process and especially the interaction of organic and inorganic phases is hardly considered so far. We herein report the successful use of the intrinsic piezoelectric properties of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) to synthesize piezoelectric ZnO. Such films show a two-fold increase of the piezoelectric coefficient up to 7.2 pm V‑1 compared to films synthesized on non-piezoelectric templates. By utilizing the intrinsic piezoelectricity of a biotemplate, we thus established a novel synthesis pathway towards functional materials, which sheds light on the whole field of biomimetics. The obtained results are of even broader and general interest since they are providing a new, more comprehensive insight into the mechanisms involved into biomineralization in living nature.

  14. An evaluation of a coupled microstructural approach for the analysis of functionally graded composites via the finite-element method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Dunn, Patrick

    1995-01-01

    A comparison is presented between the predictions of the finite-element analysis and a recently developed higher-order theory for functionally graded materials subjected to a thorough-thickness temperature gradient. In contrast to existing micromechanical theories that utilize classical (i.e., uncoupled) homogenization schemes to calculate micro-level and macro-level stress and displacement fields in materials with uniform or nonuniform fiber spacing (i.e., functionally graded materials), the new theory explicitly couples the microstructural details with the macrostructure of the composite. Previous thermo-elastic analysis has demonstrated that such coupling is necessary when: the temperature gradient is large with respect to the dimension of the reinforcement; the characteristic dimension of the reinforcement is large relative to the global dimensions of the composite and the number of reinforcing fibers or inclusions is small. In these circumstances, the standard micromechanical analyses based on the concept of the representative volume element used to determine average composite properties produce questionable results. The comparison between the predictions of the finite-element method and the higher-order theory presented herein establish the theory's accuracy in predicting thermal and stress fields within composites with a finite number of fibers in the thickness direction subjected to a thorough-thickness thermal gradient.

  15. Deposition and characterization of plasma sprayed Ni-5A1/ magnesia stabilized zirconia based functionally graded thermal barrier coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baig, M. N.; Khalid, F. A.

    2014-06-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are employed to protect hot section components in industrial and aerospace gas turbine engines. Conventional TBCs frequently fail due to high residual stresses and difference between coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the substrate & coatings. Functionally graded thermal barrier coatings (FG-TBCs) with gradual variation in composition have been proposed to minimize the problem. In this work, a five layered functionally graded thermal barrier coating system was deposited by atmospheric plasma spray (APS) technique on Nimonic 90 substrates using Ni-5Al as bond coat (BC) and magnesia stabilized zirconia as top coat (TC). The coatings were characterized by SEM, EDS, XRD & optical profilometer. Microhardness and coefficient of thermal expansion of the five layers deposited as individual coatings were also measured. The deposited coating system was oxidized at 800°C. SEM analysis showed that five layers were successfully deposited by APS to produce a FG-TBC. The results also showed that roughness (Ra) of the individual layers decreased with an increase in TC content in the coatings. It was found that microhardness and CTE values gradually changed from bond coat to cermet layers to top coat. The oxidized coated sample revealed parabolic behavior and changes in the surface morphology and composition of coating.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF ADVANCED DRILL COMPONENTS FOR BHA USING MICROWAVE TECHNOLOGY INCORPORATING CARBIDE, DIAMOND COMPOSITES AND FUNCTIONALLY GRADED MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Dinesh Agrawal; Rustum Roy

    2003-01-01

    The microwave processing of materials is a new emerging technology with many attractive advantages over the conventional methods. The advantages of microwave technology for various ceramic systems has already been demonstrated and proven. The recent developments at Penn State have succeeded in applying the microwave technology for the commercialization of WC/Co and diamond based cutting and drilling tools, effectively sintering of metallic materials, and fabrication of transparent ceramics for advanced applications. In recent years, the Microwave Processing and Engineering Center at Penn State University in collaboration with our industrial partner, Dennis Tool Co. has succeeded in commercializing the developed microwave technology partially funded by DOE for WC/Co and diamond based cutting and drilling tools for gas and oil exploration operations. In this program we have further developed this technology to make diamond-carbide composites and metal-carbide-diamond functionally graded materials. Several actual product of diamond-carbide composites have been processed in microwave with better performance than the conventional product. The functionally graded composites with diamond as one of the components has been for the first time successfully developed. These are the highlights of the project.

  17. Vibration and buckling characteristics of functionally graded nanoplates subjected to thermal loading based on surface elasticity theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, R.; Ashrafi, M. A.; Pourashraf, T.; Sahmani, S.

    2015-04-01

    The buckling and vibration responses of nanoplates made of functionally graded materials (FGMs) subjected to thermal loading are studied in prebuckling domain with considering the effect of surface stress. To accomplish this purpose, Gurtin-Murdoch elasticity theory is incorporated into the classical plate theory to develop a non-classical plate model including the surface effects. The material properties of FGM nanoplate are considered to be graded in the thickness direction on the basis of the power law function. Hamilton's principle is utilized to derive size-dependent governing differential equations of motion and associated boundary conditions. Selected numerical results are presented to indicate the importance of surface stress effect. It is revealed that in the presence of surface stress effect, the influence of material property gradient index on the critical thermal buckling load is more prominent for FGM nanoplates with lower length-to-thickness ratios. Also, by increasing the natural frequency of FGM nanoplate, the role of surface stress effect in the value of critical thermal buckling load is more prominent.

  18. PLASMA SPRAYED FUNCTIONALLY GRADED AND LAYERED MoSi2-A1203 COMPOSITES FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE SENSOR SHEATH APPLICATION

    SciTech Connect

    R. VAIDYA; ET AL

    2001-01-01

    Protective sensor sheaths are required in the glass industry for sensors that are used to measure various properties of the melt. Molten glass presents an extremely corrosive elevated temperature environment, in which only a few types of materials can survive. Molybdenum disilicide (MoSi{sub 2}) has been shown to possess excellent corrosion resistance in molten glass, and is thus a candidate material for advanced sensor sheath applications. Plasma spray-forming techniques were developed to fabricate molybdenum dilicide-alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) laminate and functionally graded composite tubes with mechanical properties suitable for sensor sheath applications. These functionally graded materials (FGMs) were achieved by manipulating the powder hoppers and plasma torch translation via in-house created computer software. Molybdenum disilicide and alumina are thermodynamically stable elevated temperature materials with closely matching thermal expansion coefficients. Proper tailoring of the microstructure of these MoSi{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites can result in improved strength, toughness, and thermal shock resistance. This study focuses on the mechanical performance of these composite microstructures.

  19. Cognitive function after radiotherapy for supratentorial low-grade glioma: A North Central Cancer Treatment Group prospective study

    SciTech Connect

    Laack, Nadia N.; Brown, Paul D. . E-mail: brown.paul@mayo.edu; Ivnik, Robert J.; Furth, Alfred F. M.S.; Ballman, Karla V.; Hammack, Julie E.; Arusell, Robert M.; Shaw, Edward G.; Buckner, Jan C.

    2005-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of cranial radiotherapy (RT) on cognitive function in patients with supratentorial low-grade glioma. Methods and Materials: Twenty adult patients with supratentorial low-grade glioma were treated with 50.4 Gy (10 patients) or 64.8 Gy (10 patients) localized RT. The patients then were evaluated with an extensive battery of psychometric tests at baseline (before RT) and at approximately 18-month intervals for as long as 5 years after completing RT. To allow patients to serve as their own controls, cognitive performance was evaluated as change in scores over time. All patients underwent at least two evaluations. Results: Baseline test scores were below average compared with age-specific norms. At the second evaluation, the groups' mean test scores were higher than their initial performances on all psychometric measures, although the improvement was not statistically significant. No changes in cognitive performance were seen during the evaluation period when test scores were analyzed by age, treatment, tumor location, tumor type, or extent of resection. Conclusions: Cognitive function was stable after RT in these patients evaluated prospectively during 3 years of follow-up. Slight improvements in some cognitive areas are consistent with practice effects attributable to increased familiarity with test procedures and content.

  20. Thermoelastic Theory for the Response of Materials Functionally Graded in Two Directions with Applications to the Free-Edge Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aboudi, Jacob; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Arnold, Steven M.

    1995-01-01

    A recently developed micromechanical theory for the thermoelastic response of functionally graded composites with nonuniform fiber spacing in the through-thickness direction is further extended to enable analysis of material architectures characterized by arbitrarily nonuniform fiber spacing in two directions. In contrast to currently employed micromechanical approaches applied to functionally graded materials, which decouple the local and global effects by assuming the existence of a representative volume element at every point within the composite, the new theory explicitly couples the local and global effects. The analytical development is based on volumetric averaging of the various field quantities, together with imposition of boundary and interfacial conditions in an average sense. Results are presented that illustrate the capability of the derived theory to capture local stress gradients at the free edge of a laminated composite plate due to the application of a uniform temperature change. It is further shown that it is possible to reduce the magnitude of these stress concentrations by a proper management of the microstructure of the composite plies near the free edge. Thus by an appropriate tailoring of the microstructure it is possible to reduce or prevent the likelihood of delamination at free edges of standard composite laminates.

  1. Novel functionally graded acicular electrode for solid oxide cells fabricated by the freeze-tape-casting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu; Bunch, Jacob; Li, Tingshuai; Mao, Zhengping; Chen, Fanglin

    2012-09-01

    The performance of electrode supported solid oxide cells is often limited by gas transport in the thick electrode support. In this study, a novel functionally graded acicular hydrogen electrode microstructure has been fabricated by the freeze-tape-casting method. The effects of freeze-tape-casting processing parameters such as solid loading, freezing bed temperature and tape pulling rate on the morphology of the hydrogen electrode support have been investigated. The electrochemical performance of the cells having the novel functionally graded acicular hydrogen electrode has been significantly improved. In the fuel cell mode, a high power output of 1.28 W cm-2 and a low polarization resistance of 0.166 Ω cm2 have been achieved at 800 °C with H2 as fuel and ambient air as oxidant using nickel-yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) as the hydrogen electrode, YSZ as the electrolyte, and (La0.75Sr0.25)0.95MnO3-YSZ as the oxygen electrode. In the electrolysis mode, a high current density of 2.3 A cm-2 with 30 vol% absolute humidity in the hydrogen electrode at 800 °C has been achieved with an applied cell voltage of 1.6 V. It has been revealed that the novel acicular hydrogen electrode decreases the gas diffusion resistance, thus enhancing the cell performance.

  2. Application of the Reverberation-Ray Matrix to the Non-Fourier Heat Conduction in Functionally Graded Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Feng-xi

    2016-02-01

    The method of the reverberation-ray matrix has been developed and successfully applied to analyse the wave propagation in a multibranched framed structure or in a layered medium. However, the method is confined to the case of mechanical loads applied at the medium until now. This paper aims to extend the formulation of the reverberation-ray matrix to cases of thermal propagation and diffusion. The thermal response in functionally graded materials (FGM) with the non-Fourier heat conduction model is analysed. In the present work, it is assumed that the material properties of an FG plate vary only in the thickness direction by following the power law function. The effect of non-Fourier and material inhomogeneity in the plate subjected to a periodic thermal disturbance is investigated. The present approach is validated by comparing it with the solutions obtained by other methods.

  3. Cryogenic Piezoelectric Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiang, Xiaoning; Cook, William B.; Hackenberger, Wesley S.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, PMN-PT single crystal piezoelectric stack actuators and flextensional actuators were designed, prototyped and characterized for space optics applications. Single crystal stack actuators with footprint of 10 mm x10 mm and the height of 50 mm were assembled using 10 mm x10mm x0.15mm PMN-PT plates. These actuators showed stroke > 65 - 85 microns at 150 V at room temperature, and > 30 microns stroke at 77 K. Flextensional actuators with dimension of 10mm x 5 mm x 7.6 mm showed stroke of >50 microns at room temperature at driving voltage of 150 V. A flextensional stack actuator with dimension of 10 mm x 5 mm x 47 mm showed stroke of approx. 285 microns at 150 V at room temperature and > 100 microns at 77K under driving of 150 V should be expected. The large cryogenic stroke and high precision of these actuators are promising for cryogenic optics applications.

  4. Cellulose Nanofibril Film as a Piezoelectric Sensor Material.

    PubMed

    Rajala, Satu; Siponkoski, Tuomo; Sarlin, Essi; Mettänen, Marja; Vuoriluoto, Maija; Pammo, Arno; Juuti, Jari; Rojas, Orlando J; Franssila, Sami; Tuukkanen, Sampo

    2016-06-22

    Self-standing films (45 μm thick) of native cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) were synthesized and characterized for their piezoelectric response. The surface and the microstructure of the films were evaluated with image-based analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The measured dielectric properties of the films at 1 kHz and 9.97 GHz indicated a relative permittivity of 3.47 and 3.38 and loss tangent tan δ of 0.011 and 0.071, respectively. The films were used as functional sensing layers in piezoelectric sensors with corresponding sensitivities of 4.7-6.4 pC/N in ambient conditions. This piezoelectric response is expected to increase remarkably upon film polarization resulting from the alignment of the cellulose crystalline regions in the film. The CNF sensor characteristics were compared with those of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) as reference piezoelectric polymer. Overall, the results suggest that CNF is a suitable precursor material for disposable piezoelectric sensors, actuators, or energy generators with potential applications in the fields of electronics, sensors, and biomedical diagnostics. PMID:27232271

  5. Piezoelectric Water Drop Energy Harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Ahmad, Mahmoud

    2014-02-01

    Piezoelectric materials convert mechanical deformation directly into electrical charges, which can be harvested and used to drive micropower electronic devices. The low power consumption of such systems on the scale of microwatts leads to the possibility of using harvested vibrational energy due to its almost universal nature. Vibrational energy harvested using piezoelectric cantilevers provides sufficient output for small-scale power applications. This work reports on vibrational energy harvesting from free-falling droplets at the tip of lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric-based cantilevers. The harvester incorporates a multimorph clamped-free cantilever made of lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric thick films. During the impact, the droplet's kinetic energy is transferred to the form of mechanical stress, forcing the piezoelectric structure to vibrate and thereby producing charges. Experimental results show an instantaneous drop-power of 2.15 mW cm-3 g-1. The scenario of a medium intensity of falling water drops, i.e., 200 drops per second, yielded a power of 0.48 W cm-3 g-1 per second.

  6. Piezoelectrically-driven Thermoacoustic Refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinn, Daniel George

    Thermoacoustic refrigeration is an emerging refrigeration technology which does not require any moving parts or harmful refrigerants in its operation. This technology uses acoustic waves to pump heat across a temperature gradient. The vast majority of thermoacoustic refrigerators to date have used electromagnetic loudspeakers to generate the acoustic input. In this thesis, the design, construction, operation, and modeling of a piezoelectrically-driven thermoacoustic refrigerator are detailed. This refrigerator demonstrates the effectiveness of piezoelectric actuation in moving 0.3 W of heat across an 18 degree C temperature difference with an input power of 7.6 W. The performance characteristics of this class of thermoacoustic-piezoelectric refrigerators are modeled by using DeltaEC software and the predictions are experimentally validated. The obtained results confirm the validity of the developed model. Furthermore, the potential of piezoelectric actuation as effective means for driving thermoacoustic refrigerators is demonstrated as compared to the conventional electromagnetic loudspeakers which are heavy and require high actuation energy. The developed theoretical and experimental tools can serve as invaluable means for the design and testing of other piezoelectrically-driven thermoacoustic refrigerator configurations.

  7. Piezoelectric vibration damping using resonant shunt circuits: an exact solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltani, P.; Kerschen, G.; Tondreau, G.; Deraemaeker, A.

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to propose an exact closed-form solution to the {{H}∞ } optimization of piezoelectric materials shunted with inductive-resistive passive electrical circuits. Realizing that Den Hartog's method which imposes fixed points of equal height in the receptance transfer function is approximate, the parameters of the piezoelectric tuned vibration absorber are calculated through the direct minimization of the maxima of the receptance. The method is applied to a one-degree-of-freedom primary oscillator considering various values of the electromechanical coupling coefficients.

  8. Plasmonic piezoelectric nanomechanical resonator for spectrally selective infrared sensing.

    PubMed

    Hui, Yu; Gomez-Diaz, Juan Sebastian; Qian, Zhenyun; Alù, Andrea; Rinaldi, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Ultrathin plasmonic metasurfaces have proven their ability to control and manipulate light at unprecedented levels, leading to exciting optical functionalities and applications. Although to date metasurfaces have mainly been investigated from an electromagnetic perspective, their ultrathin nature may also provide novel and useful mechanical properties. Here we propose a thin piezoelectric plasmonic metasurface forming the resonant body of a nanomechanical resonator with simultaneously tailored optical and electromechanical properties. We experimentally demonstrate that it is possible to achieve high thermomechanical coupling between electromagnetic and mechanical resonances in a single ultrathin piezoelectric nanoplate. The combination of nanoplasmonic and piezoelectric resonances allows the proposed device to selectively detect long-wavelength infrared radiation with unprecedented electromechanical performance and thermal capabilities. These attributes lead to the demonstration of a fast, high-resolution, uncooled infrared detector with ∼80% absorption for an optimized spectral bandwidth centered around 8.8 μm. PMID:27080018

  9. Model of piezoelectric self powered supply for wearable devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meddad, M.; Eddiai, A.; Chérif, A.; Hajjaji, A.; Boughaleb, Y.

    2014-07-01

    With the development in a few latter years, of micros electromechanical technology (MEMS), the demand in wearable electronics and in cordless detectors is more and more important. These wearable devices have needed more of autonomy and independence in energy. Materials piezoelectric (often called intelligent materials) can be employed like mechanisms to convert the mechanical energy, due to vibration usually ambient, in energy electric. This one can be stored and used in place of conventional battery which presents certain disadvantages such as lasted limited life as well as congestion. In this article, one presents a power analytical model generated by a smart structure of type PZT that can be used as supply energy for electronic device. This model allows the determination of suitable sizes and vibration levels of piezoelectric material for to generate an optimal energy supply for a mobile phone. Two types of vibration mode have been compared as a function of characteristics and piezoelectric ceramic sizes.

  10. Plasmonic piezoelectric nanomechanical resonator for spectrally selective infrared sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Yu; Gomez-Diaz, Juan Sebastian; Qian, Zhenyun; Alù, Andrea; Rinaldi, Matteo

    2016-04-01

    Ultrathin plasmonic metasurfaces have proven their ability to control and manipulate light at unprecedented levels, leading to exciting optical functionalities and applications. Although to date metasurfaces have mainly been investigated from an electromagnetic perspective, their ultrathin nature may also provide novel and useful mechanical properties. Here we propose a thin piezoelectric plasmonic metasurface forming the resonant body of a nanomechanical resonator with simultaneously tailored optical and electromechanical properties. We experimentally demonstrate that it is possible to achieve high thermomechanical coupling between electromagnetic and mechanical resonances in a single ultrathin piezoelectric nanoplate. The combination of nanoplasmonic and piezoelectric resonances allows the proposed device to selectively detect long-wavelength infrared radiation with unprecedented electromechanical performance and thermal capabilities. These attributes lead to the demonstration of a fast, high-resolution, uncooled infrared detector with ~80% absorption for an optimized spectral bandwidth centered around 8.8 μm.

  11. Plasmonic piezoelectric nanomechanical resonator for spectrally selective infrared sensing

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Yu; Gomez-Diaz, Juan Sebastian; Qian, Zhenyun; Alù, Andrea; Rinaldi, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Ultrathin plasmonic metasurfaces have proven their ability to control and manipulate light at unprecedented levels, leading to exciting optical functionalities and applications. Although to date metasurfaces have mainly been investigated from an electromagnetic perspective, their ultrathin nature may also provide novel and useful mechanical properties. Here we propose a thin piezoelectric plasmonic metasurface forming the resonant body of a nanomechanical resonator with simultaneously tailored optical and electromechanical properties. We experimentally demonstrate that it is possible to achieve high thermomechanical coupling between electromagnetic and mechanical resonances in a single ultrathin piezoelectric nanoplate. The combination of nanoplasmonic and piezoelectric resonances allows the proposed device to selectively detect long-wavelength infrared radiation with unprecedented electromechanical performance and thermal capabilities. These attributes lead to the demonstration of a fast, high-resolution, uncooled infrared detector with ∼80% absorption for an optimized spectral bandwidth centered around 8.8 μm. PMID:27080018

  12. A database to enable discovery and design of piezoelectric materials

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Maarten; Chen, Wei; Geerlings, Henry; Asta, Mark; Persson, Kristin Aslaug

    2015-01-01

    Piezoelectric materials are used in numerous applications requiring a coupling between electrical fields and mechanical strain. Despite the technological importance of this class of materials, for only a small fraction of all inorganic compounds which display compatible crystallographic symmetry, has piezoelectricity been characterized experimentally or computationally. In this work we employ first-principles calculations based on density functional perturbation theory to compute the piezoelectric tensors for nearly a thousand compounds, thereby increasing the available data for this property by more than an order of magnitude. The results are compared to select experimental data to establish the accuracy of the calculated properties. The details of the calculations are also presented, along with a description of the format of the database developed to make these computational results publicly available. In addition, the ways in which the database can be accessed and applied in materials development efforts are described. PMID:26451252

  13. Electromechanical performance of piezoelectric scanning mirrors for medical endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Gilchrist, Kristin H.; Dausch, David E.; Grego, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    The electromechanical performance of piezoelectric scanning mirrors for endoscopy imaging is presented. The devices are supported by a single actuating cantilever to achieve a high fill factor, the ratio of mirror area to the combined mirror and actuator area. The largest fill factor devices (74%) achieved 10° mechanical scan range at +/−10V with a 300 μm long cantilever. The largest angular displacement of 30° mechanical scan range was obtained with a 500 μm long cantilever device with a 63% fill factor driven at 40 Vpp. A systematic investigation of device performance (displacement and speed) as a function of fabrication and operational parameters including the stress balance in the cantilever revealed unexpectedly large displacements with lack of inversion at the coercive field. An interpretation of the results is presented based on piezoelectric film domain orientation and clamping with supporting piezoelectric film characterization measurements. PMID:22773894

  14. Starting times of school: effects on daytime functioning of fifth-grade children in Israel.

    PubMed

    Epstein, R; Chillag, N; Lavie, P

    1998-05-01

    In the present study we investigated the effects of school starting time on daytime behavior and sleep. Eight-hundred and eleven 5th grade pupils (10-12 years old) from 28 classes in 18 schools throughout Israel were divided into "early risers" (N = 232) who started school at 07:10 (42%) at least 2 times a week, and "regular risers" (N = 340) who always started school at 08:00 (58%). The remaining 239 pupils started school between 7:20 and 07:55 (and also after 08:00), and were not included in the study. Self-administered questionnaires concerning sleep habits during school days, weekends, and holidays, daytime fatigue, sleepiness, and difficulties concentrating and paying attention in school were completed by all children. Mean sleep time of the "early risers" was significantly shorter than that of the "regular risers." Early risers complained significantly more about daytime fatigue and sleepiness, and about attention and concentration difficulties in school. Their complaints were independent of the reported hours of sleep. We conclude that early starting of school negatively affects total sleep time and, as a consequence, has a negative effect on daytime behavior. The implications of these findings to the ongoing controversy concerning sleep need in contemporary society are discussed. PMID:9595603

  15. Polymer Piezoelectric Transducers for Ultrasonic NDE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Xue, Tianji; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh

    1996-01-01

    Piezoelectric polymers are associated with a low noise and inherent damping that makes them very effective receivers as well as broadband transmitters for high frequencies tasks. This paper reviews polymer piezoelectric materials, the origin of their piezoelectric behavior and their applications to ultrasonic NDE.

  16. Effective properties analysis of a piezoelectric composite including conducting phase using a numerical homogenization approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongming; He, Xiaodong; Wang, Rongguo; Hao, Lifeng

    2011-11-01

    Piezoelectric composites find increasing applications in the field of smart materials, mainly as sensors and transducer. However, accurately predicting its performance is still a challenging task. In this paper, we analyzed the electromechanical properties of a three-phase piezoelectric composite with titanate piezoelectric ceramics powders (PZT-5H) and carbon black embedded in an epoxy matrix by a finite element numerical method. A homogenizing micromechanical model is applied, which is capable to provide various property parameters of the piezoelectric composite, such as dielectric constant, piezoelectric constant. The calculation verifies that the electric network formed by the conducting-phase carbon black(CB) can effectively improve the electromechanical performance of the piezoelectric composites. The effect of different content of the carbon black is also taken in consideration in the simulation. A good fit between the calculation and the experimental results clearly shows that the homogenizing modeling is able to accurately predict the electromechanical properties of the three-phase piezoelectric composite. This work will contribute to optimize the material function design and analyze the effect of conduct phase on the piezoelectric composites.

  17. Effective properties analysis of a piezoelectric composite including conducting phase using a numerical homogenization approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongming; He, Xiaodong; Wang, Rongguo; Hao, Lifeng

    2012-04-01

    Piezoelectric composites find increasing applications in the field of smart materials, mainly as sensors and transducer. However, accurately predicting its performance is still a challenging task. In this paper, we analyzed the electromechanical properties of a three-phase piezoelectric composite with titanate piezoelectric ceramics powders (PZT-5H) and carbon black embedded in an epoxy matrix by a finite element numerical method. A homogenizing micromechanical model is applied, which is capable to provide various property parameters of the piezoelectric composite, such as dielectric constant, piezoelectric constant. The calculation verifies that the electric network formed by the conducting-phase carbon black(CB) can effectively improve the electromechanical performance of the piezoelectric composites. The effect of different content of the carbon black is also taken in consideration in the simulation. A good fit between the calculation and the experimental results clearly shows that the homogenizing modeling is able to accurately predict the electromechanical properties of the three-phase piezoelectric composite. This work will contribute to optimize the material function design and analyze the effect of conduct phase on the piezoelectric composites.

  18. High-gravity-assisted pulsed laser ablation system for the fabrication of functionally graded material thin film.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, T; Morinaga, S; Nagayama, K

    2009-03-01

    This paper describes a novel method for the fabrication of a thin film deposited on an appropriate substrate having a continuous composition gradient. The composition gradient was achieved by a combination of pulsed laser ablation (PLA) of the target material with a very strong acceleration field generated on a moving disk rotating at a very high speed. The PLA process was used to produce a cloud of high-energy particles of the target material that will be deposited on a substrate placed on the rotating disk. After deposition, the particles will diffuse on the surface of the thin film under a strong acceleration field. The high energy of the particles and their diffusion on the substrate surface in a high-vacuum environment produces a macroscopic composition distribution in the thin film. We have constructed an experimental apparatus consisting of a vacuum chamber in which a circular disk made of titanium is driven by a high-frequency inductive motor. An acceleration field of up to 10,000 G can be generated by this apparatus. Functionally graded material thin films of FeSi(2) with a continuous concentration gradient were successfully fabricated by this method under a gravity field of 5400 G. A significant advantage of this method is that it allows us to fabricate graded thin films with a very smooth surface covered by few droplets. PMID:19334931

  19. Note: Direct piezoelectric effect microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, T. J. A.; Stamenov, P.; Dorneles, L. S.

    2015-07-01

    An alternative method for investigating piezoelectric surfaces is suggested, exploiting the direct piezoeffect. The technique relies on acoustic (ultrasonic) excitation of the imaged surface and mapping of the resulting oscillatory electric potential. The main advantages arise from the spatial resolution of the conductive scanning probe microscopy in combination with the relatively large magnitude of the forward piezo signal Upf, which can be of the order of tens of mV even for non-ferroelectric piezoelectric materials. The potency of this experimental strategy is illustrated with measurements on well-crystallized quartz surfaces, where Upf ˜ 50 mV, for a piezoelectric coefficient of d33 = - 2.27 × 10-12 m/V, and applied stress of about T3 ˜ 5.7 kPa.

  20. Electronics for Piezoelectric Smart Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warkentin, D. J.; Tani, J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper briefly presents work addressing some of the basic considerations for the electronic components used in smart structures incorporating piezoelectric elements. After general remarks on the application of piezoelectric elements to the problem of structural vibration control, three main topics are described. Work to date on the development of techniques for embedding electronic components within structural parts is presented, followed by a description of the power flow and dissipation requirements of those components. Finally current work on the development of electronic circuits for use in an 'active wall' for acoustic noise is introduced.

  1. A static analysis of three-dimensional functionally graded beams through hierarchical one-dimensional finite elements

    SciTech Connect

    Giunta, G.; Belouettar, S.

    2015-03-10

    In this paper, the static response of three-dimensional beams made of functionally graded materials is investigated through a family of hierarchical one-dimensional finite elements. A wide variety of elements is proposed differing by the kinematic formulation and the number of nodes per elements along the beam axis. Elements’ stiffness matrix and load vector are derived in a unified nuclear form that does not depend upon the a priori expansion order over the cross-section nor the finite element approximation along the beam axis. Results are validated towards three-dimensional finite element models as well as equivalent Navier-type analytical solutions. The numerical investigations show that accurate and efficient solutions (when compared with full three-dimensional FEM solutions) can be obtained by the proposed family of hierarchical one-dimensional elements’ family.

  2. Wear Properties of Intermetallic Compound Reinforced Functionally Graded Materials Fabricated by Centrifugal Solid-particle and In-Situ Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yoshimi; Sato, Hisashi; Fukui, Yasuyoshi

    One of the functionally graded material (FGM) fabrication methods is a centrifugal method, which is an application of the centrifugal casting technique. The centrifugal force applied to a homogeneous molten composite assists the formation of the desired gradation. In this paper, the wear properties of two kinds of Al base FGMs, namely Al-Al3Ti FGM and Al-Al3Ni FGM, are reported. The former and the latter hold the oriented intermetallic compound platelets and the particle size gradient, respectively. Here, volume fraction, size, shape and orientation of the reinforcements in the composite play an important role in improving the mechanical properties of the materials, whereby FGMs with oriented platelets or particle size gradient may have special mechanical properties such as increased wear resistance. Based on the experimental results, the origin of anisotropic wear resistance and the effect of particle size on the wear properties are discussed.

  3. Fast fabrication of W-Cu functionally graded material by high-gravity combustion synthesis and melt-infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, P.; Guo, S. B.; Liu, G. H.; Chen, Y. X.; Li, J. T.

    2014-02-01

    W-Cu functionally graded material (FGM, 75 wt% W + 25 wt% Cu-40 wt% W + 60 wt% Cu) has been prepared by a method of high-gravity combustion synthesis and melt-infiltration in a short time (∼5 min). The infiltration mechanism in the high-gravity field was investigated. The W-Cu FGM showed an overall relative density of ∼97% and gradually-varying properties in terms of density, micro hardness, coefficient of thermal expansion. Especially, the W-Cu FGM exhibited a coefficient of thermal expansion between those of W and Cu, and thus could be used as a transition layer between W and Cu to relax the thermal stresses.

  4. Functionally graded polymeric materials: A brif review of current fabrication methods and introduction of a novel fabrication method.

    PubMed

    Almasi, Davood; Sadeghi, Maliheh; Lau, Woei Jye; Roozbahani, Fatemeh; Iqbal, Nida

    2016-07-01

    The present work reviews the current fabrication methods of the functionally graded polymeric material (FGPM) and introduces a novel fabrication method that is versatile in applications as compared to those of existing used methods. For the first time electrophoresis was used to control the distribution of the tetracycline hydrochloride (TC) in a film made of polylactic acid (PLA), aiming to induce antimicrobial effect on the film prepared. The elemental analysis on the film surface showed that by employing electrophoresis force, higher amount of TC was detected near the top surface of the film. Results also showed that the FGPM samples with higher percentage of the TC on the film surface were highly effective to minimize the growth of Escherichia coli. These findings are useful and important to improve dispersion quality of the particles in the composite material and further enhance its antibacterial property. PMID:27127033

  5. Impact of Writing Interventions Informed by Systemic Functional Linguistics with a Focus on Tenor, on Sixth, Seventh and Eighth Grade English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmgren, Katherine Hayes

    2012-01-01

    This action research study examines the impact instruction informed by Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) with a particular focus on tenor and socio-cultural theory has on sixth, seventh and eighth grade English language learners in an urban school. Over the course of seven and 1/2 months I used Systemic Functional Linguistics with a focus on…

  6. Children's Monetary Evaluations of Body Parts as a Function of Sex, Grade, and Race.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Sandra L.; And Others

    The present study reports ratings of seven body parts as a function of sex, age, and race of child. Subjects were 320 public school children. They were given a sheet of paper with pictures of seven different body parts, and were asked to select from a list of numbers a dollar value for each body part. The instructions suggested that they imagine a…

  7. School-Based Functional Assessments for Children with Physical Disabilities in Grades K-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Richard W.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop three school-based assessments and determine the content validity for each assessment. The School Activities and Participation Analysis-Elementary (SAPA-E) measures functional movement performance in children with physical disability attending the elementary school, and the School Activities and…

  8. The Role of the Executive Functions in School Achievement at the End of Grade 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monette, Sebastien; Bigras, Marc; Guay, Marie-Claude

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the role of executive functions (EFs) in early school achievement when a variety of potential confounding factors were controlled. Measures of EF (inhibition, flexibility, and working memory) and school readiness were administered to a sample of 85 kindergartners (39 boys and 46 girls, 5-6 years old). School…

  9. Fabrication and properties of functionally graded NiAl/Al2O3 composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, D. P.; Lannutti, J. J.; Noebe, R. D.

    1993-01-01

    A modified sedimentation process was used in the production of a functionally gradient material (FGM), NiAl/Al2O3. A simple finite element model was used to guide our design and fabrication efforts by estimating residual stress states as a function of composite structure. This approach could lead to tailored designs that enhance or avoid specific residual stress states. Thermal cycling tests were factored into the model to predict time dependent or steady-state internal temperature and stress profiles. Four-point bend tests were conducted to establish the mechanical load-displacement behavior of a single interlayer FGM at room temperature, 800 and 1000 K. Room temperature bend strength of the FGM was 3-4 times that of the base NiAl. At elevated temperatures, composite fracture occurred in a gradual, noncatastrophic mode involving NiAl retardation of a succession of cracks originating in the alumina face.

  10. Anatomical and Functional Outcomes following a Precise, Graded, Dorsal Laceration Spinal Cord Injury in C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Rachel L.; Zhang, Yi Ping; Burke, Darlene A.; DeVries, William H.; Zhang, Yongjie; Magnuson, David S.K.; Whittemore, Scott R.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract To study the pathophysiology of spinal cord injury (SCI), we used the LISA-Vibraknife to generate a precise and reproducible dorsal laceration SCI in the mouse. The surgical procedure involved a T9 laminectomy, dural resection, and a spinal cord laceration to a precisely controlled depth. Four dorsal hemisection injuries with lesion depths of 0.5, 0.8, 1.1, and 1.4 mm, as well as normal, sham (laminectomy and dural removal only), and transection controls were examined. Assessments including the Basso Mouse Scale (BMS), footprint analysis, beam walk, toe spread reflex, Hargreaves' test, and transcranial magnetic motor-evoked potential (tcMMEP) analysis were performed to assess motor, sensorimotor, and sensory function. These outcome measures demonstrated significant increases in functional deficits as the depth of the lesion increased, and significant behavioral recovery was observed in the groups over time. Quantitative histological examination showed significant differences between the injury groups and insignificant lesion depth variance within each of the groups. Statistically significant differences were additionally found in the amount of ventral spared tissue at the lesion site between the injury groups. This novel, graded, reproducible laceration SCI model can be used in future studies to look more closely at underlying mechanisms that lead to functional deficits following SCI, as well as to determine the efficacy of therapeutic intervention strategies in the injury and recovery processes following SCI. PMID:19196178

  11. Anatomical and functional outcomes following a precise, graded, dorsal laceration spinal cord injury in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Hill, Rachel L; Zhang, Yi Ping; Burke, Darlene A; Devries, William H; Zhang, Yongjie; Magnuson, David S K; Whittemore, Scott R; Shields, Christopher B

    2009-01-01

    To study the pathophysiology of spinal cord injury (SCI), we used the LISA-Vibraknife to generate a precise and reproducible dorsal laceration SCI in the mouse. The surgical procedure involved a T9 laminectomy, dural resection, and a spinal cord laceration to a precisely controlled depth. Four dorsal hemisection injuries with lesion depths of 0.5, 0.8, 1.1, and 1.4 mm, as well as normal, sham (laminectomy and dural removal only), and transection controls were examined. Assessments including the Basso Mouse Scale (BMS), footprint analysis, beam walk, toe spread reflex, Hargreaves' test, and transcranial magnetic motor-evoked potential (tcMMEP) analysis were performed to assess motor, sensorimotor, and sensory function. These outcome measures demonstrated significant increases in functional deficits as the depth of the lesion increased, and significant behavioral recovery was observed in the groups over time. Quantitative histological examination showed significant differences between the injury groups and insignificant lesion depth variance within each of the groups. Statistically significant differences were additionally found in the amount of ventral spared tissue at the lesion site between the injury groups. This novel, graded, reproducible laceration SCI model can be used in future studies to look more closely at underlying mechanisms that lead to functional deficits following SCI, as well as to determine the efficacy of therapeutic intervention strategies in the injury and recovery processes following SCI. PMID:19196178

  12. Grade 3 open tibial shaft fractures treated with a circular frame, functional outcome and systematic review of literature.

    PubMed

    Dickson, D R; Moulder, E; Hadland, Y; Giannoudis, P V; Sharma, H K

    2015-04-01

    We report on the surgical and functional outcome of 22 patients with Grade 3 open tibial fractures treated with circular frame. All cases united and there were no re-fractures or amputations. All patients were assessed at a minimum of 1-year post frame removal. Assessment included clinical examination, IOWA ankle and knee scores, Olerud and Molander ankle score and EuroQol EQ-5D. Clinical scores were either good or excellent in over half of the patients in all knee and ankle scores. There was a significant positive correlation between functional outcomes and the EQ-5D score. The EQ-5D mean health state visual analogue score was comparable to the general UK population despite patients scoring less than the average UK population in three of the five domains. 36% reported some difficulties in walking and 41% had problems with pain. 14% had difficulties with self-care and 46% had difficulties with their usual activities. 14% had problems with anxiety or depression. Systematic review of the literature suggests, in the management of open tibial fractures, circular frames provide equivalent or superior surgical outcomes in comparison with other techniques. Our study finds the application of a circular frame also results in a good functional outcome in the majority of cases. PMID:25648287

  13. Method of Fabricating a Piezoelectric Composite Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkie, W. Keats (Inventor); Bryant, Robert (Inventor); Fox, Robert L. (Inventor); Hellbaum, Richard F. (Inventor); High, James W. (Inventor); Jalink, Antony, Jr. (Inventor); Little, Bruce D. (Inventor); Mirick, Paul H. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A method for fabricating a piezoelectric macro-fiber composite actuator comprises providing a piezoelectric material that has two sides and attaching one side upon an adhesive backing sheet. The method further comprises slicing the piezoelectric material to provide a plurality of piezoelectric fibers in juxtaposition. A conductive film is then adhesively bonded to the other side of the piezoelectric material, and the adhesive backing sheet is removed. The conductive film has first and second conductive patterns formed thereon which are electrically isolated from one another and in electrical contact with the piezoelectric material. The first and second conductive patterns of the conductive film each have a plurality of electrodes to form a pattern of interdigitated electrodes. A second film is then bonded to the other side of the piezoelectric material. The second film may have a pair of conductive patterns similar to the conductive patterns of the first film.

  14. Piezoelectric materials used in underwater acoustic transducers

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Huidong; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2012-07-07

    Piezoelectric materials have been used in underwater acoustic transducers for nearly a century. In this paper, we reviewed four different types of piezoelectric materials: piezoelectric ceramics, single crystals, composites, and polymers, which are widely used in underwater acoustic transducers nowadays. Piezoelectric ceramics are the most dominant material type and are used as a single-phase material or one of the end members in composites. Piezoelectric single crystals offer outstanding electromechanical response but are limited by their manufacturing cost. Piezoelectric polymers provide excellent acoustic impedance matching and transducer fabrication flexibility although their piezoelectric properties are not as good as ceramics and single crystals. Composites combined the merits of ceramics and polymers and are receiving increased attention. The typical structure and electromechanical properties of each type of materials are introduced and discussed with respect to underwater acoustic transducer applications. Their advantages and disadvantages are summarized. Some of the critical design considerations when developing underwater acoustic transducers with these materials are also touched upon.

  15. Elastic properties of spherically anisotropic piezoelectric composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, En-Bo; Gu, Guo-Qing; Poon, Ying-Ming

    2010-09-01

    Effective elastic properties of spherically anisotropic piezoelectric composites, whose spherically anisotropic piezoelectric inclusions are embedded in an infinite non-piezoelectric matrix, are theoretically investigated. Analytical solutions for the elastic displacements and the electric potentials under a uniform external strain are derived exactly. Taking into account of the coupling effects of elasticity, permittivity and piezoelectricity, the formula is derived for estimating the effective elastic properties based on the average field theory in the dilute limit. An elastic response mechanism is revealed, in which the effective elastic properties increase as inclusion piezoelectric properties increase and inclusion dielectric properties decrease. Moreover, a piezoelectric response mechanism, of which the effective piezoelectric response vanishes due to the symmetry of spherically anisotropic composite, is also disclosed.

  16. Nanoscale Graphene Disk: A Natural Functionally Graded Material-How is Fourier's Law Violated along Radius Direction of 2D Disk.

    PubMed

    Yang, Nuo; Hu, Shiqian; Ma, Dengke; Lu, Tingyu; Li, Baowen

    2015-01-01

    In this Paper, we investigate numerically and analytically the thermal conductivity of nanoscale graphene disks (NGDs), and discussed the possibility to realize functionally graded material (FGM) with only one material, NGDs. Different from previous studies on divergence/non-diffusive of thermal conductivity in nano-structures with different size, we found a novel non-homogeneous (graded) thermal conductivity along the radius direction in a single nano-disk structure. We found that, instead of a constant value, the NGD has a graded thermal conductivity along the radius direction. That is, Fourier's law of heat conduction is not valid in two dimensional graphene disk structures Moreover, we show the dependent of NGDs' thermal conductivity on radius and temperature. Our study might inspire experimentalists to develop NGD based versatile FGMs, improve understanding of the heat removal of hot spots on chips, and enhance thermoelectric energy conversion efficiency by two dimensional disk with a graded thermal conductivity. PMID:26443206

  17. Nanoscale Graphene Disk: A Natural Functionally Graded Material-How is Fourier’s Law Violated along Radius Direction of 2D Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Nuo; Hu, Shiqian; Ma, Dengke; Lu, Tingyu; Li, Baowen

    2015-10-01

    In this Paper, we investigate numerically and analytically the thermal conductivity of nanoscale graphene disks (NGDs), and discussed the possibility to realize functionally graded material (FGM) with only one material, NGDs. Different from previous studies on divergence/non-diffusive of thermal conductivity in nano-structures with different size, we found a novel non-homogeneous (graded) thermal conductivity along the radius direction in a single nano-disk structure. We found that, instead of a constant value, the NGD has a graded thermal conductivity along the radius direction. That is, Fourier’s law of heat conduction is not valid in two dimensional graphene disk structures Moreover, we show the dependent of NGDs’ thermal conductivity on radius and temperature. Our study might inspire experimentalists to develop NGD based versatile FGMs, improve understanding of the heat removal of hot spots on chips, and enhance thermoelectric energy conversion efficiency by two dimensional disk with a graded thermal conductivity.

  18. Nanoscale Graphene Disk: A Natural Functionally Graded Material–How is Fourier’s Law Violated along Radius Direction of 2D Disk

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Nuo; Hu, Shiqian; Ma, Dengke; Lu, Tingyu; Li, Baowen

    2015-01-01

    In this Paper, we investigate numerically and analytically the thermal conductivity of nanoscale graphene disks (NGDs), and discussed the possibility to realize functionally graded material (FGM) with only one material, NGDs. Different from previous studies on divergence/non-diffusive of thermal conductivity in nano-structures with different size, we found a novel non-homogeneous (graded) thermal conductivity along the radius direction in a single nano-disk structure. We found that, instead of a constant value, the NGD has a graded thermal conductivity along the radius direction. That is, Fourier’s law of heat conduction is not valid in two dimensional graphene disk structures Moreover, we show the dependent of NGDs’ thermal conductivity on radius and temperature. Our study might inspire experimentalists to develop NGD based versatile FGMs, improve understanding of the heat removal of hot spots on chips, and enhance thermoelectric energy conversion efficiency by two dimensional disk with a graded thermal conductivity. PMID:26443206

  19. Cylindrical Piezoelectric Fiber Composite Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Sidney G.; Shams, Qamar A.; Fox, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    The use of piezoelectric devices has become widespread since Pierre and Jacques Curie discovered the piezoelectric effect in 1880. Examples of current applications of piezoelectric devices include ultrasonic transducers, micro-positioning devices, buzzers, strain sensors, and clocks. The invention of such lightweight, relatively inexpensive piezoceramic-fiber-composite actuators as macro fiber composite (MFC) actuators has made it possible to obtain strains and displacements greater than those that could be generated by prior actuators based on monolithic piezoceramic sheet materials. MFC actuators are flat, flexible actuators designed for bonding to structures to apply or detect strains. Bonding multiple layers of MFC actuators together could increase force capability, but not strain or displacement capability. Cylindrical piezoelectric fiber composite (CPFC) actuators have been invented as alternatives to MFC actuators for applications in which greater forces and/or strains or displacements may be required. In essence, a CPFC actuator is an MFC or other piezoceramic fiber composite actuator fabricated in a cylindrical instead of its conventional flat shape. Cylindrical is used here in the general sense, encompassing shapes that can have circular, elliptical, rectangular or other cross-sectional shapes in the planes perpendicular to their longitudinal axes.

  20. Piezoelectric measurement of laser power

    DOEpatents

    Deason, Vance A.; Johnson, John A.; Telschow, Kenneth L.

    1991-01-01

    A method for measuring the energy of individual laser pulses or a series of laser pulses by reading the output of a piezoelectric (PZ) transducer which has received a known fraction of the total laser pulse beam. An apparatus is disclosed that reduces the incident energy on the PZ transducer by means of a beam splitter placed in the beam of the laser pulses.

  1. Fluoropolymer and aluminum piezoelectric reactives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janesheski, Robert S.; Groven, Lori J.; Son, Steven

    2012-03-01

    The ability to sensitize a nanoaluminum/piezoelectric polymer composite has been studied using two fluoropolymer systems (THV220A and FC-2175). Reactive composite samples of the nanoaluminum/polymer were made into thin sheets and their ability to store energy and exhibit piezoelectric properties was measured. Also, initial drop weight impact tests were performed on the samples and results showed the piezoelectric energetic composites failed to ignite at a given impact energy unless sensitized. When a DC voltage was applied to the sample, the materials ignited at the same impact energy where previous ignition failed. Results indicate that the reactive composites may have been sensitized by storing the applied charge. The application of a DC voltage may also have an effect on the piezoelectric properties of the energetic composites similar to the way poling techniques work. Further work is planned to investigate what parameters are inducing the sensitization of the material. A better understanding could lead to applications where switching or tuning the sensitization of an energetic material is beneficial.

  2. Piezoelectric fibers for conformal acoustics.

    PubMed

    Chocat, Noémie; Lestoquoy, Guillaume; Wang, Zheng; Rodgers, Daniel M; Joannopoulos, John D; Fink, Yoel

    2012-10-01

    Ultrasound transducers have many important applications in medical, industrial, and environmental settings. Large-active-area piezoelectric fibers are presented here, which can be woven into extended and flexible ultrasound transducing fabrics. This work opens significant opportunities for large-area, flexible and adjustable acoustic emission and sensing for a variety of emerging applications. PMID:22836955

  3. Epitaxial piezoelectric thick film heterostructures on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong Min

    The significantly higher dielectric permittivity, piezoelectric coefficients and electromechanical coupling coefficients of single crystal relaxor ferroelectrics make them very attractive for medical ultrasound transducers and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) applications. The potential impact of thin-film relaxor ferroelectrics in integrated actuators and sensor on silicon has stimulated research on the growth and characterization of epitaxial piezoelectric thin films. We have fabricated heterostructures by (1) synthesizing optimally-oriented, epitaxial thin films of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO 3 (PMN-PT) on miscut (001) Si wafers with epitaxial (001) SrTiO 3 template layers, where the single crystal form is known to have the giant piezoelectric response, and (2) nano-structuring to reduce the constraint imposed by the underlying silicon substrate. Up to now, the longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient (d33) values of PMN and PMN-PT thin films range from 50 to 200 pC/N have been reported, which are far inferior to the properties of bulk single crystals value (d33 ˜ 2000 pC/N). These might be attributed to substrate constraints, pyrochlore phases and other effects. Here, we have realized the giant d33 values by fabricating epitaxial PMN-PT thick films on silicon. When the PMN-PT film was subdivided into ˜1 mum2 capacitors by focused ion beam processing, a 4 mum thick film shows a low-field d33 of 800 pm/V that increases to over 1200 pm/V under bias, which is the highest d33 value ever realized on silicon substrates. These high piezo-reponse PMN-PT epitaxial heterostructures can be used for multilayered MEMS devices which function with low driving voltage, high frequency ultrasound transducer arrays for medical imaging, and capacitors for charge and energy storage. Since these PMN-PT films are epitaxially integrated with the silicon, they can make use of the well-developed fabrication process for patterning and micromachining of this large-area, cost

  4. Resecting diffuse low-grade gliomas to the boundaries of brain functions: a new concept in surgical neuro-oncology.

    PubMed

    Duffau, H

    2015-12-01

    The traditional dilemma making surgery for diffuse low-grade gliomas (DLGGs) challenging is underlain by the need to optimize tumor resection in order to significantly increase survival versus the risk of permanent neurological morbidity. Development of neuroimaging led neurosurgeons to achieve tumorectomy according to the oncological limits provided by preoperative or intraoperative structural and metabolic imaging. However, this principle is not coherent, neither with the infiltrative nature of DLGGs nor with the limited resolution of current neuroimaging. Indeed, despite technical advances, MRI still underestimates the actual spatial extent of gliomas, since tumoral cells are present several millimeters to centimeters beyond the area of signal abnormalities. Furthermore, cortical and subcortical structures may be still crucial for brain functions despite their invasion by this diffuse tumoral disease. Finally, the lack of reliability of functional MRI has also been demonstrated. Therefore, to talk about "maximal safe resection" based upon neuroimaging is a non-sense, because oncological MRI does not show the tumor and functional MRI does not show critical neural pathways. This review proposes an original concept in neuro-oncological surgery, i.e. to resect DLGG to the boundaries of brain functions, thanks to intraoperative electrical mapping performed in awake patients. This paradigmatic shift from image-guided resection to functional mapping-guided resection, based upon an accurate study of brain connectomics and neuroplasticity in each patient throughout tumor removal has permitted to solve the classical dilemma, by increasing both survival and quality of life in DLGG patients. With this in mind, brain surgeons should also be neuroscientists. PMID:25907410

  5. Functional reorganization of the attentional networks in low-grade glioma patients: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Charras, Pom; Herbet, Guillaume; Deverdun, Jérémy; de Champfleur, Nicolas M; Duffau, Hugues; Bartolomeo, Paolo; Bonnetblanc, François

    2015-02-01

    Right brain damage often provokes deficits of visuospatial attention. Although the spatial attention networks have been widely investigated in stroke patients as well as in the healthy brain, little is known about the impact of slow growing lesions in the right hemisphere. We here present a longitudinal study of 20 patients who have been undergoing awake brain surgery with per-operative line bisection testing. Our aim was to investigate the impact of tumour presence and of tumour resection on the functional (re)organization of the attention networks. We assessed patients' performance on lateralized target detection, visual exploration and line bisection before surgery, and in the acute and post-acute operative phases after surgery. Clear evidence for transient neglect signs was observed in the acute post-operative phase, although full recovery had invariably occurred in all patients. The resection of the right angular gyrus was associated with transient neglect-like symptoms in all tasks, whereas resection of more anterior regions correlated with transient deficits only in visual exploration or detection (but not in line bisection). The attentional networks showed substantial functional recovery. This impressive pattern of recovery is discussed in terms of involvement of the contralateral left hemisphere and of preservation of long-range white matter pathways within the right hemisphere. PMID:25241396

  6. Circuit for Driving Piezoelectric Transducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randall, David P.; Chapsky, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The figure schematically depicts an oscillator circuit for driving a piezoelectric transducer to excite vibrations in a mechanical structure. The circuit was designed and built to satisfy application-specific requirements to drive a selected one of 16 such transducers at a regulated amplitude and frequency chosen to optimize the amount of work performed by the transducer and to compensate for both (1) temporal variations of the resonance frequency and damping time of each transducer and (2) initially unknown differences among the resonance frequencies and damping times of different transducers. In other words, the circuit is designed to adjust itself to optimize the performance of whichever transducer is selected at any given time. The basic design concept may be adaptable to other applications that involve the use of piezoelectric transducers in ultrasonic cleaners and other apparatuses in which high-frequency mechanical drives are utilized. This circuit includes three resistor-capacitor networks that, together with the selected piezoelectric transducer, constitute a band-pass filter having a peak response at a frequency of about 2 kHz, which is approximately the resonance frequency of the piezoelectric transducers. Gain for generating oscillations is provided by a power hybrid operational amplifier (U1). A junction field-effect transistor (Q1) in combination with a resistor (R4) is used as a voltage-variable resistor to control the magnitude of the oscillation. The voltage-variable resistor is part of a feedback control loop: Part of the output of the oscillator is rectified and filtered for use as a slow negative feedback to the gate of Q1 to keep the output amplitude constant. The response of this control loop is much slower than 2 kHz and, therefore, does not introduce significant distortion of the oscillator output, which is a fairly clean sine wave. The positive AC feedback needed to sustain oscillations is derived from sampling the current through the

  7. Hippocampal Dosimetry Predicts Neurocognitive Function Impairment After Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Benign or Low-Grade Adult Brain Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Gondi, Vinai; Hermann, Bruce P.; Mehta, Minesh P.; Tome, Wolfgang A.

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To prospectively evaluate the association between hippocampal dose and long-term neurocognitive function (NCF) impairment for benign or low-grade adult brain tumors treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT). Methods and Materials: Adult patients with benign or low-grade adult brain tumors were treated with FSRT per institutional practice. No attempt was made to spare the hippocampus. NCF testing was conducted at baseline and 18 months follow-up, on a prospective clinical trial. Regression-based standardized z scores were calculated by using similar healthy control individuals evaluated at the same test-retest interval. NCF impairment was defined as a z score {<=}-1.5. After delineation of the bilateral hippocampi according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group contouring atlas, dose-volume histograms were generated for the left and right hippocampi and for the composite pair. Biologically equivalent doses in 2-Gy fractions (EQD{sub 2}) assuming an {alpha}/{beta} ratio of 2 Gy were computed. Fisher's exact test and binary logistic regression were used for univariate and multivariate analyses, respectively. Dose-response data were fit to a nonlinear model. Results: Of 29 patients enrolled in this trial, 18 completed both baseline and 18-month NCF testing. An EQD{sub 2} to 40% of the bilateral hippocampi >7.3 Gy was associated with impairment in Wechsler Memory Scale-III Word List (WMS-WL) delayed recall (odds ratio [OR] 19.3; p = 0.043). The association between WMS-WL delayed recall and EQD{sub 2} to 100% of the bilateral hippocampi >0.0 Gy trended to significance (OR 14.8; p = 0.068). Conclusion: EQD{sub 2} to 40% of the bilateral hippocampi greater than 7.3 Gy is associated with long-term impairment in list-learning delayed recall after FSRT for benign or low-grade adult brain tumors. Given that modern intensity-modulated radiotherapy techniques can reduce the dose to the bilateral hippocampi below this dosimetric threshold, patients

  8. Hippocampal Dosimetry Predicts Neurocognitive Function Impairment After Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Benign or Low-Grade Adult Brain Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Gondi, Vinai; Hermann, Bruce P.; Mehta, Minesh P.; Tome, Wolfgang A.

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: To prospectively evaluate the association between hippocampal dose and long-term neurocognitive function (NCF) impairment for benign or low-grade adult brain tumors treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT). Methods and Materials: Adult patients with benign or low-grade adult brain tumors were treated with FSRT per institutional practice. No attempt was made to spare the hippocampus. NCF testing was conducted at baseline and 18 months follow-up, on a prospective clinical trial. Regression-based standardized z scores were calculated by using similar healthy control individuals evaluated at the same test-retest interval. NCF impairment was defined as a z score {<=}-1.5. After delineation of the bilateral hippocampi according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group contouring atlas, dose-volume histograms were generated for the left and right hippocampi and for the composite pair. Biologically equivalent doses in 2-Gy fractions (EQD{sub 2}) assuming an {alpha}/{beta} ratio of 2 Gy were computed. Fisher's exact test and binary logistic regression were used for univariate and multivariate analyses, respectively. Dose-response data were fit to a nonlinear model. Results: Of 29 patients enrolled in this trial, 18 completed both baseline and 18-month NCF testing. An EQD{sub 2} to 40% of the bilateral hippocampi >7.3 Gy was associated with impairment in Wechsler Memory Scale-III Word List (WMS-WL) delayed recall (odds ratio [OR] 19.3; p = 0.043). The association between WMS-WL delayed recall and EQD{sub 2} to 100% of the bilateral hippocampi >0.0 Gy trended to significance (OR 14.8; p = 0.068). Conclusion: EQD{sub 2} to 40% of the bilateral hippocampi greater than 7.3 Gy is associated with long-term impairment in list-learning delayed recall after FSRT for benign or low-grade adult brain tumors. Given that modern intensity-modulated radiotherapy techniques can reduce the dose to the bilateral hippocampi below this dosimetric threshold, patients

  9. Meshless Local Petrov-Galerkin Method for Shallow Shells with Functionally Graded and Orthotropic Material Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sladek, J.; Sladek, V.; Zhang, Ch.

    2008-02-01

    A meshless local Petrov-Galerkin (MLPG) formulation is presented for analysis of shear deformable shallow shells with orthotropic material properties and continuously varying material properties through the shell thickness. Shear deformation of shells described by the Reissner theory is considered. Analyses of shells under static and dynamic loads are given here. For transient elastodynamic case the Laplace-transform is used to eliminate the time dependence of the field variables. A weak formulation with a unit test function transforms the set of the governing equations into local integral equations on local subdomains in the plane domain of the shell. The meshless approximation based on the Moving Least-Squares (MLS) method is employed for the implementation.

  10. Potential of direct metal deposition technology for manufacturing thick functionally graded coatings and parts for reactors components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thivillon, L.; Bertrand, Ph.; Laget, B.; Smurov, I.

    2009-03-01

    Direct metal deposition (DMD) is an automated 3D deposition process arising from laser cladding technology with co-axial powder injection to refine or refurbish parts. Recently DMD has been extended to manufacture large-size near-net-shape components. When applied for manufacturing new parts (or their refinement), DMD can provide tailored thermal properties, high corrosion resistance, tailored tribology, multifunctional performance and cost savings due to smart material combinations. In repair (refurbishment) operations, DMD can be applied for parts with a wide variety of geometries and sizes. In contrast to the current tool repair techniques such as tungsten inert gas (TIG), metal inert gas (MIG) and plasma welding, laser cladding technology by DMD offers a well-controlled heat-treated zone due to the high energy density of the laser beam. In addition, this technology may be used for preventative maintenance and design changes/up-grading. One of the advantages of DMD is the possibility to build functionally graded coatings (from 1 mm thickness and higher) and 3D multi-material objects (for example, 100 mm-sized monolithic rectangular) in a single-step manufacturing cycle by using up to 4-channel powder feeder. Approved materials are: Fe (including stainless steel), Ni and Co alloys, (Cu,Ni 10%), WC compounds, TiC compounds. The developed coatings/parts are characterized by low porosity (<1%), fine microstructure, and their microhardness is close to the benchmark value of wrought alloys after thermal treatment (Co-based alloy Stellite, Inox 316L, stainless steel 17-4PH). The intended applications concern cooling elements with complex geometry, friction joints under high temperature and load, light-weight mechanical support structures, hermetic joints, tubes with complex geometry, and tailored inside and outside surface properties, etc.

  11. Analytical modeling of dynamic behavior of piezo-thermo-electrically affected sigmoid and power-law graded nanoscale beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimi, Farzad; Salari, Erfan

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, thermo-electro-mechanical vibration characteristics of both sigmoid and power-law functionally graded piezoelectric (FGP) nanobeams subjected to in-plane thermal loads and applied electric voltage are carried out by presenting a Navier-type solution for the first time. Three kinds of thermal loading, namely uniform, linear and nonlinear temperature rises through the thickness direction are considered. Thermo-electro-mechanical properties of FGP nanobeam are supposed to vary smoothly and continuously throughout the thickness according to power-law and sigmoid distribution. Eringen's nonlocal elasticity theory is exploited to describe the size dependency of nanobeam. Using Hamilton's principle, the nonlocal equations of motion together with corresponding boundary conditions are obtained for the free vibration analysis of graded piezoelectric nanobeams including size effect and they are solved applying analytical solution. According to the numerical results, it is revealed that the proposed modeling can provide accurate frequency results of the FG nanobeams as compared some cases in the literature. In following a parametric study is accompanied to examine the effects of the several parameters such as various temperature distributions, external electric voltage, different material compositions, nonlocal parameter and mode number on the natural frequencies of the size-dependent FGP nanobeams in detail. It is found that the small scale effect and thermo-electrical loading have a significant effect on natural frequencies of FGP nanobeams. The results should be relevant to the design and application of the piezoelectric nanodevices.

  12. Flexible piezoelectric energy harvesting from jaw movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delnavaz, Aidin; Voix, Jérémie

    2014-10-01

    Piezoelectric fiber composites (PFC) represent an interesting subset of smart materials that can function as sensor, actuator and energy converter. Despite their excellent potential for energy harvesting, very few PFC mechanisms have been developed to capture the human body power and convert it into an electric current to power wearable electronic devices. This paper provides a proof of concept for a head-mounted device with a PFC chin strap capable of harvesting energy from jaw movements. An electromechanical model based on the bond graph method is developed to predict the power output of the energy harvesting system. The optimum resistance value of the load and the best stretch ratio in the strap are also determined. A prototype was developed and tested and its performances were compared to the analytical model predictions. The proposed piezoelectric strap mechanism can be added to all types of head-mounted devices to power small-scale electronic devices such as hearing aids, electronic hearing protectors and communication earpieces.

  13. Synchronized switch harvesting applied to piezoelectric flags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piñeirua, Miguel; Michelin, Sébastien; Vasic, Dejan; Doaré, Olivier

    2016-08-01

    In this article the energy transfer between a flow and a fluttering piezoelectric plate is investigated. In particular, the benefits of the use of a synchronized switch harvesting on inductor (SSHI) circuit are studied. Both wind tunnel experiments and numerical simulations are conducted in order to analyze the influence of the switching process on the dynamics and the efficiency of the system. Numerical simulations consist of a weakly nonlinear model of a plate in axial flow equipped with a single pair of piezoelectric patches, discretized using a Galerkin method where basis functions are the modes of the plate in vacuum. The discretized model is then integrated in time. The results presented in this paper show that a significant improvement of the harvested energy can be obtained using SSHI circuits compared to basic resistive circuits. It is also shown that for strongly coupled systems, the switching process inherent to he SSHI circuit has a significant impact on the dynamics of the flag, which tends to decrease the relative efficiency gain.

  14. An Implanted, Stimulated Muscle Powered Piezoelectric Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Beth; Gustafson, Kenneth; Kilgore, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    A totally implantable piezoelectric generator system able to harness power from electrically activated muscle could be used to augment the power systems of implanted medical devices, such as neural prostheses, by reducing the number of battery replacement surgeries or by allowing periods of untethered functionality. The features of our generator design are no moving parts and the use of a portion of the generated power for system operation and regulation. A software model of the system has been developed and simulations have been performed to predict the output power as the system parameters were varied within their constraints. Mechanical forces that mimic muscle forces have been experimentally applied to a piezoelectric generator to verify the accuracy of the simulations and to explore losses due to mechanical coupling. Depending on the selection of system parameters, software simulations predict that this generator concept can generate up to approximately 700 W of power, which is greater than the power necessary to drive the generator, conservatively estimated to be 50 W. These results suggest that this concept has the potential to be an implantable, self-replenishing power source and further investigation is underway.

  15. Thermoelastic Analysis of a Functionally Graded Rotating Thick-Walled Tube Subjected to Mechanical and Thermal Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Libiao; Yang, Shengyou; Ma, Baoyu; Dui, Guansuo

    2015-11-01

    A thermoelastic solution for the functionally graded rotating thick-walled tube subjected to axisymmetric mechanical and thermal loads is given in terms of volume fractions of constituents. We assume that the tube consists of two linear elastic constituents and the volume fraction of one phase is a power function varied in the radial direction. By using the assumption of a uniform strain field within the representative volume element, the theoretical solutions of the displacement and the stresses are presented. Based on the relation of the volume average stresses of constituents and the macroscopic stresses of the composite material in micromechanics, the present method can avoid the assumption of the distribution regularities of unknown overall material parameters appeared in existing papers, such as Young's modulus, thermal expansion coefficient, thermal conductivity, and density. The effects of the angular velocity, the volume fraction, the ratio of two thermal expansion coefficients, the ratio of two thermal conductivities, and the ratio of two densities on the displacement and stresses are systematically studied, which should help structural engineers and material scientists optimally design thick-walled tube comprised inhomogeneous materials.

  16. Thermal analysis of a functionally graded material subject to a thermal gradient using the boundary element method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Hopkins, Dale A.

    1994-01-01

    The boundary element method is utilized in this study to conduct thermal analysis of functionally graded composites, materials in which the internal microstructure or properties are explicitly tailored in order to obtain an optimal response, on the micromechanical (constituent) scale. A unique feature of the boundary element formulations used here is the use of circular shape functions to convert the two-dimensional integrations of the composite fibers to one dimensional integrations. Using the computer code BEST-CMS, the through the thickness temperature profiles are computed for a representative material with varying numbers of fibers and fiber spacing in the thickness direction. The computed temperature profiles are compared to those obtained using an alternate analytical theory which explicitly couples the heterogeneous microstructure to the global analysis. The boundary element results compared favorably to the analytical calculations, with discrepancies that are explainable based on the boundary element formulation. The results serve both to demonstrate the ability of the boundary element method to analyze these types of materials, and to verify the accuracy of the analytical theory.

  17. Virus-based piezoelectric energy generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byung Yang; Zhang, Jinxing; Zueger, Chris; Chung, Woo-Jae; Yoo, So Young; Wang, Eddie; Meyer, Joel; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Lee, Seung-Wuk

    2012-06-01

    Piezoelectric materials can convert mechanical energy into electrical energy, and piezoelectric devices made of a variety of inorganic materials and organic polymers have been demonstrated. However, synthesizing such materials often requires toxic starting compounds, harsh conditions and/or complex procedures. Previously, it was shown that hierarchically organized natural materials such as bones, collagen fibrils and peptide nanotubes can display piezoelectric properties. Here, we demonstrate that the piezoelectric and liquid-crystalline properties of M13 bacteriophage (phage) can be used to generate electrical energy. Using piezoresponse force microscopy, we characterize the structure-dependent piezoelectric properties of the phage at the molecular level. We then show that self-assembled thin films of phage can exhibit piezoelectric strengths of up to 7.8 pm V-1. We also demonstrate that it is possible to modulate the dipole strength of the phage, hence tuning the piezoelectric response, by genetically engineering the major coat proteins of the phage. Finally, we develop a phage-based piezoelectric generator that produces up to 6 nA of current and 400 mV of potential and use it to operate a liquid-crystal display. Because biotechnology techniques enable large-scale production of genetically modified phages, phage-based piezoelectric materials potentially offer a simple and environmentally friendly approach to piezoelectric energy generation.

  18. Mechanical characterization of hybrid and functionally-graded aluminum open-cell foams with nanocrystalline-copper coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yi

    Cellular/foam materials found in nature such as bone, wood, and bamboo are usually functionally graded by having a non-uniform density distribution and inhomogenous composition that optimizes their global mechanical performance. Inspired by such naturally engineered products, the current study was conducted towards the development of functionally graded hybrid metal foams (FGHMF) with electrodeposited (ED) nanocrystalline coatings. First, the deformation and failure mechanisms of aluminum/copper (Al/Cu) hybrid foams were investigated using finite element analyses at different scales. The micro-scale behavior was studied based on single ligament models discretized using continuum elements and the macro-scale behavior was investigated using beam-element based finite element models of representative unit volumes consisting of multiple foam cells. With a detailed constitutive material behavior and material failure considered for both the aluminum ligament and the nano-copper coating, the numerical models were able to capture the unique behavior of Al/Cu hybrid foams, such as the typically observed sudden load drop after yielding. The numerical models indicate that such load drop is caused by the fracture of foam ligaments initiated from the rupture of the ED nano-copper coating due to its low ductility. This failure mode jeopardizes the global energy absorption capacity of hybrid foams, especially when a thick coating is applied. With the purpose of enhancing the performance of Al/Cu hybrid foams, an annealing process, which increased the ductility of the nanocrystalline copper coating by causing recovery, recrystallination and grain growth, was introduced in the manufacturing of Al/Cu hybrid foams. Quasi-static experimental results indicate that when a proper amount of annealing is applied, the ductility of the ED copper can be effectively improved and the compressive and tensile behavior of Al/Cu hybrid foams can be significantly enhanced, including better energy

  19. Propagation of Surface Waves in a Homogeneous Layer of Finite Thickness over an Initially Stressed Functionally Graded Magnetic-Electric-Elastic Half-Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li; Wei, P. J.

    2015-03-01

    The propagation behaviour of Love wave in an initially stressed functionally graded magnetic-electric-elastic half-space carrying a homogeneous layer is investigated. The material parameters in the substrate are assumed to vary exponentially along the thickness direction only. The velocity equations of Love wave are derived on the electrically or magnetically open circuit and short circuit boundary conditions, based on the equations of motion of the graded magnetic-electric-elastic mate- rial with the initial stresses and the free traction boundary conditions of surface and the continuous boundary conditions of interface. The dispersive curves are obtained numerically and the influences of the initial stresses and the material gradient index on the dispersive curves are dis- cussed. The investigation provides a basis for the development of new functionally graded magneto-electro-elastic surface wave devices.

  20. Markers of T Cell Infiltration and Function Associate with Favorable Outcome in Vascularized High-Grade Serous Ovarian Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Katelin N.; Spowart, Jaeline E.; Huwait, Hassan; Eshragh, Sima; West, Nathan R.; Elrick, Mary A.; Kalloger, Steve E.; Anglesio, Michael; Watson, Peter H.; Huntsman, David G.; Lum, Julian J.

    2013-01-01

    Background When T cells infiltrate the tumor environment they encounter a myriad of metabolic stressors including hypoxia. Overcoming the limitations imposed by an inadequate tumor vasculature that contributes to these stressors may be a crucial step to immune cells mounting an effective anti-tumor response. We sought to determine whether the functional capacity of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) could be influenced by the tumor vasculature and correlated this with survival in patients with ovarian cancer. Methodology and Principal Findings In 196 high-grade serous ovarian tumors, we confirmed that the tumor vascularity as measured by the marker CD31 was associated with improved patient disease-specific survival. We also found that tumors positive for markers of TIL (CD8, CD4 and forkhead box P3 (FoxP3)) and T cell function (granzyme B and T-cell restricted intracellular antigen-1 (TIA-1)) correlated significantly with elevated vascularity. In vitro, hypoxic CD8 T cells showed reduced cytolytic activity, secreted less effector cytokines and upregulated autophagy. Survival analysis revealed that patients had a significant improvement in disease-specific survival when FoxP3 expressing cells were present in CD31-high tumors compared to patients with FoxP3 expressing cells in CD31-low tumors [HR: 2.314 (95% CI 1.049–5.106); p = 0.0377]. Patients with high vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expressing tumors containing granzyme B positive cells had improved survival compared to patients with granzyme B positive cells in VEGF-low tumors [HR: 2.522 (95% CI 1.097–5.799); p = 0.0294]. Significance Overall, this data provides a rationale for developing strategies aimed at improving the adaptability and function of TIL to hypoxic tumor conditions. PMID:24376535

  1. Three-dimensional perturbation solution of the natural vibrations of piezoelectric rectangular plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cupiał, Piotr

    2015-09-01

    The paper discusses a perturbation solution of the natural frequencies and mode shapes of a piezoelectric rectangular plate modelled as a three-dimensional body. The coupled theory of piezoelectricity is used, with the governing equations consisting of one electrostatic and three mechanical equations coupled through the piezoelectric effect. Analytical perturbation formulas up to the first-order terms have been derived and used. An important difference of the present analysis as compared to the classical perturbation method consists in that the small parameter enters not only the governing equations but the boundary conditions as well. To address this complication an efficient new approach that makes use of generalized functions has been proposed. Results of the natural frequencies and mode shapes obtained by the perturbation method are discussed for a thin piezoelectric rectangular plate, a thick plate and a piezoelectric parallelepiped. All the results obtained using the perturbation method have been compared with the exact solutions of the coupled electromechanical problem. The proposed perturbation approach furnishes an efficient approximate method of studying the coupled piezoelectric vibration problem. The main advantage of the method derives from the fact that only the elastic solution is required, the effect of piezoelectric coupling being accounted for at a post-processing stage.

  2. A Skin-attachable Flexible Piezoelectric Pulse Wave Energy Harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Sunghyun; Cho, Young-Ho

    2014-11-01

    We present a flexible piezoelectric generator, capable to harvest energy from human arterial pulse wave on the human wrist. Special features and advantages of the flexible piezoelectric generator include the multi-layer device design with contact windows and the simple fabrication process for the higher flexibility with the better energy harvesting efficiency. We have demonstrated the design effectiveness and the process simplicity of our skin- attachable flexible piezoelectric pulse wave energy harvester, composed of the sensitive P(VDF-TrFE) piezoelectric layer on the flexible polyimide support layer with windows. We experimentally characterize and demonstrate the energy harvesting capability of 0.2~1.0μW in the Human heart rate range on the skin contact area of 3.71cm2. Additional physiological and/or vital signal monitoring devices can be fabricated and integrated on the skin attachable flexible generator, covered by an insulation layer; thus demonstrating the potentials and advantages of the present device for such applications to the flexible multi-functional selfpowered artificial skins, capable to detect physiological and/or vital signals on Human skin using the energy harvested from arterial pulse waves.

  3. Means and method for nonuniform poling of piezoelectric transducers

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, David K.; Margetan, Frank J.; Hasselbusch, Michael D.; Wormley, Samuel J.; Hughes, Michael S.; Thompson, Donald O.

    1990-10-09

    An apparatus and method for nonuniform poling of piezoelectric transducers includes machining one or more indentation into an end of a piezoelectric rod and cutting the rod to present a thickened disk shape. Highly electrically conductive material is deposited on at least the indentations in the one end and on at least portions of the opposite face of the member. One or more electrodes are configured to matingly fit within the indentations on the one face of the disk, with a like number of electrodes being positionable on the opposite face of the material. Electrical power is then applied to the electrodes in desired amounts, polarity, and duration. The indentations vary the electrical field produced within the piezoelectric material to produce nonuniform poling in the material. The thick disk is then cut to remove the indentations and to present a thin, flat two sided disk for installation in a conventional piezoelectric transducer probe. The indentations are selected to produce poling in accordance with desired transducer response profiles such as Gaussian or Bessel functions.

  4. Means and method for nonuniform poling of piezoelectric transducers

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, D.K.; Margetan, F.J.; Hasselbusch, M.D.; Wormley, S.J.; Hughes, M.S.; Thompson, D.O.

    1990-10-09

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for nonuniform poling of piezoelectric transducers includes machining one or more indentation into an end of a piezoelectric rod and cutting the rod to present a thickened disk shape. Highly electrically conductive material is deposited on at least the indentations in the one end and on at least portions of the opposite face of the member. One or more electrodes are configured to matingly fit within the indentations on the one face of the disk, with a like number of electrodes being positionable on the opposite face of the material. Electrical power is then applied to the electrodes in desired amounts, polarity, and duration. The indentations vary the electrical field produced within the piezoelectric material to produce nonuniform poling in the material. The thick disk is then cut to remove the indentations and to present a thin, flat two sided disk for installation in a conventional piezoelectric transducer probe. The indentations are selected to produce poling in accordance with desired transducer response profiles such as Gaussian or Bessel functions. 14 figs.

  5. The Effects of Contingent Praise Upon the Achievement of a Deficit Junior High School Student in Oral Reading Accuracy in Probes Above Her Functional Grade Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proe, Susan; Wade, David

    Evaluated was the effectiveness of three training procedures (imitation training, imitation training with praise, and imitation training with points for an art supply contingency) in improving the oral reading accuracy and reading comprehension of a 13-year-old girl whose functional reading was at the second grade level. The procedures were…

  6. A Function-Based Intervention to Increase a Second-Grade Student's On-Task Behavior in a General Education Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germer, Kathryn A.; Kaplan, Lauren M.; Giroux, Lindsay N.; Markham, Elizabeth H.; Ferris, Geoffrey J.; Oakes, Wendy P.; Lane, Kathleen Lynne

    2011-01-01

    A functional assessment-based intervention (FABI) was designed and implemented to increase the on-task behavior of David, a second-grade student in a general education classroom. David attended an elementary school that used a comprehensive, integrated, three-tiered (CI3T) model of prevention. The school's principal nominated David for Project…

  7. Power and Type I Error of the Mean and Covariance Structure Analysis Model for Detecting Differential Item Functioning in Graded Response Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Roma, Vicente; Hernandez, Ana; Gomez-Benito, Juana

    2006-01-01

    In this simulation study, we investigate the power and Type I error rate of a procedure based on the mean and covariance structure analysis (MACS) model in detecting differential item functioning (DIF) of graded response items with five response categories. The following factors were manipulated: type of DIF (uniform and non-uniform), DIF…

  8. Piezoelectric aluminum nitride nanoelectromechanical actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Nipun; Wabiszewski, Graham E.; Mahameed, Rashed; Felmetsger, Valery V.; Tanner, Shawn M.; Carpick, Robert W.; Piazza, Gianluca

    2009-08-01

    This letter reports the implementation of ultrathin (100 nm) aluminum nitride (AlN) piezoelectric layers for the fabrication of vertically deflecting nanoactuators. The films exhibit an average piezoelectric coefficient (d31˜-1.9 pC/N), which is comparable to its microscale counterpart. This allows vertical deflections as large as 40 nm from 18 μm long and 350 nm thick multilayer cantilever bimorph beams with 2 V actuation. Furthermore, in-plane stress and stress gradients have been simultaneously controlled. The films exhibit leakage currents lower than 2 nA/cm2 at 1 V, and have an average relative dielectric constant of approximately 9.2 (as in thicker films). These material characteristics and actuation results make the AlN nanofilms ideal candidates for the realization of nanoelectromechanical switches for low power logic applications.

  9. Cis-eQTL analysis and functional validation of candidate susceptibility genes for high-grade serous ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lawrenson, Kate; Li, Qiyuan; Kar, Siddhartha; Seo, Ji-Heui; Tyrer, Jonathan; Spindler, Tassja J.; Lee, Janet; Chen, Yibu; Karst, Alison; Drapkin, Ronny; Aben, Katja K. H.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia; Bowtell, David; Webb, Penelope M.; deFazio, Anna; Baker, Helen; Bandera, Elisa V.; Bean, Yukie; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Berchuck, Andrew; Bisogna, Maria; Bjorge, Line; Bogdanova, Natalia; Brinton, Louise A.; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Bruinsma, Fiona; Butzow, Ralf; Campbell, Ian G.; Carty, Karen; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Chen, Anne; Chen, Zhihua; Cook, Linda S.; Cramer, Daniel W.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Cybulski, Cezary; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Dennis, Joe; Dicks, Ed; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Dörk, Thilo; du Bois, Andreas; Dürst, Matthias; Eccles, Diana; Easton, Douglas T.; Edwards, Robert P.; Eilber, Ursula; Ekici, Arif B.; Fasching, Peter A.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Giles, Graham G.; Glasspool, Rosalind; Goode, Ellen L.; Goodman, Marc T.; Grownwald, Jacek; Harrington, Patricia; Harter, Philipp; Hasmad, Hanis Nazihah; Hein, Alexander; Heitz, Florian; Hildebrandt, Michelle A. T.; Hillemanns, Peter; Hogdall, Estrid; Hogdall, Claus; Hosono, Satoyo; Iversen, Edwin S.; Jakubowska, Anna; James, Paul; Jensen, Allan; Ji, Bu-Tian; Karlan, Beth Y.; Kruger Kjaer, Susanne; Kelemen, Linda E.; Kellar, Melissa; Kelley, Joseph L.; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Krakstad, Camilla; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Lambrechts, Diether; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Le, Nhu D.; Lee, Alice W.; Lele, Shashi; Leminen, Arto; Lester, Jenny; Levine, Douglas A.; Liang, Dong; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Karen; Lubinski, Jan; Lundvall, Lene; Massuger, Leon F. A. G.; Matsuo, Keitaro; McGuire, Valerie; McLaughlin, John R.; Nevanlinna, Heli; McNeish, Ian; Menon, Usha; Modugno, Francesmary; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Narod, Steven A.; Nedergaard, Lotte; Ness, Roberta B.; Azmi, Mat Adenan Noor; Odunsi, Kunle; Olson, Sara H.; Orlow, Irene; Orsulic, Sandra; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Pearce, Celeste L.; Pejovic, Tanja; Pelttari, Liisa M.; Permuth-Wey, Jennifer; Phelan, Catherine M.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Ramus, Susan J.; Risch, Harvey A.; Rosen, Barry; Rossing, Mary Anne; Rothstein, Joseph H.; Rudolph, Anja; Runnebaum, Ingo B.; Rzepecka, Iwona K.; Salvesen, Helga B.; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Schwaab, Ira; Sellers, Thomas A.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Shvetsov, Yurii B.; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Sieh, Weiva; Song, Honglin; Southey, Melissa C.; Sucheston, Lara; Tangen, Ingvild L.; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Kathryn L.; Thompson, Pamela J.; Timorek, Agnieszka; Tsai, Ya-Yu; Tworoger, Shelley S.; van Altena, Anne M.; Van Nieuwenhuysen, Els; Vergote, Ignace; Vierkant, Robert A.; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Walsh, Christine; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Whittemore, Alice S.; Wicklund, Kristine G.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Woo, Yin-Ling; Wu, Xifeng; Wu, Anna H.; Yang, Hannah; Zheng, Wei; Ziogas, Argyrios; Monteiro, Alvaro; Pharoah, Paul D.; Gayther, Simon A.; Freedman, Matthew L.

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have reported 11 regions conferring risk of high-grade serous epithelial ovarian cancer (HGSOC). Expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analyses can identify candidate susceptibility genes at risk loci. Here we evaluate cis-eQTL associations at 47 regions associated with HGSOC risk (P≤10−5). For three cis-eQTL associations (P<1.4 × 10−3, FDR<0.05) at 1p36 (CDC42), 1p34 (CDCA8) and 2q31 (HOXD9), we evaluate the functional role of each candidate by perturbing expression of each gene in HGSOC precursor cells. Overexpression of HOXD9 increases anchorage-independent growth, shortens population-doubling time and reduces contact inhibition. Chromosome conformation capture identifies an interaction between rs2857532 and the HOXD9 promoter, suggesting this SNP is a leading causal variant. Transcriptomic profiling after HOXD9 overexpression reveals enrichment of HGSOC risk variants within HOXD9 target genes (P=6 × 10−10 for risk variants (P<10−4) within 10 kb of a HOXD9 target gene in ovarian cells), suggesting a broader role for this network in genetic susceptibility to HGSOC. PMID:26391404

  10. Cis-eQTL analysis and functional validation of candidate susceptibility genes for high-grade serous ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Lawrenson, Kate; Li, Qiyuan; Kar, Siddhartha; Seo, Ji-Heui; Tyrer, Jonathan; Spindler, Tassja J; Lee, Janet; Chen, Yibu; Karst, Alison; Drapkin, Ronny; Aben, Katja K H; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia; Baker, Helen; Bandera, Elisa V; Bean, Yukie; Beckmann, Matthias W; Berchuck, Andrew; Bisogna, Maria; Bjorge, Line; Bogdanova, Natalia; Brinton, Louise A; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Bruinsma, Fiona; Butzow, Ralf; Campbell, Ian G; Carty, Karen; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Chen, Anne; Chen, Zhihua; Cook, Linda S; Cramer, Daniel W; Cunningham, Julie M; Cybulski, Cezary; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Dennis, Joe; Dicks, Ed; Doherty, Jennifer A; Dörk, Thilo; du Bois, Andreas; Dürst, Matthias; Eccles, Diana; Easton, Douglas T; Edwards, Robert P; Eilber, Ursula; Ekici, Arif B; Fasching, Peter A; Fridley, Brooke L; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Giles, Graham G; Glasspool, Rosalind; Goode, Ellen L; Goodman, Marc T; Grownwald, Jacek; Harrington, Patricia; Harter, Philipp; Hasmad, Hanis Nazihah; Hein, Alexander; Heitz, Florian; Hildebrandt, Michelle A T; Hillemanns, Peter; Hogdall, Estrid; Hogdall, Claus; Hosono, Satoyo; Iversen, Edwin S; Jakubowska, Anna; James, Paul; Jensen, Allan; Ji, Bu-Tian; Karlan, Beth Y; Kruger Kjaer, Susanne; Kelemen, Linda E; Kellar, Melissa; Kelley, Joseph L; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Krakstad, Camilla; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Lambrechts, Diether; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Le, Nhu D; Lee, Alice W; Lele, Shashi; Leminen, Arto; Lester, Jenny; Levine, Douglas A; Liang, Dong; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Karen; Lubinski, Jan; Lundvall, Lene; Massuger, Leon F A G; Matsuo, Keitaro; McGuire, Valerie; McLaughlin, John R; Nevanlinna, Heli; McNeish, Ian; Menon, Usha; Modugno, Francesmary; Moysich, Kirsten B; Narod, Steven A; Nedergaard, Lotte; Ness, Roberta B; Azmi, Mat Adenan Noor; Odunsi, Kunle; Olson, Sara H; Orlow, Irene; Orsulic, Sandra; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Pearce, Celeste L; Pejovic, Tanja; Pelttari, Liisa M; Permuth-Wey, Jennifer; Phelan, Catherine M; Pike, Malcolm C; Poole, Elizabeth M; Ramus, Susan J; Risch, Harvey A; Rosen, Barry; Rossing, Mary Anne; Rothstein, Joseph H; Rudolph, Anja; Runnebaum, Ingo B; Rzepecka, Iwona K; Salvesen, Helga B; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Schwaab, Ira; Sellers, Thomas A; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Shvetsov, Yurii B; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Sieh, Weiva; Song, Honglin; Southey, Melissa C; Sucheston, Lara; Tangen, Ingvild L; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Kathryn L; Thompson, Pamela J; Timorek, Agnieszka; Tsai, Ya-Yu; Tworoger, Shelley S; van Altena, Anne M; Van Nieuwenhuysen, Els; Vergote, Ignace; Vierkant, Robert A; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Walsh, Christine; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Whittemore, Alice S; Wicklund, Kristine G; Wilkens, Lynne R; Woo, Yin-Ling; Wu, Xifeng; Wu, Anna H; Yang, Hannah; Zheng, Wei; Ziogas, Argyrios; Monteiro, Alvaro; Pharoah, Paul D; Gayther, Simon A; Freedman, Matthew L

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have reported 11 regions conferring risk of high-grade serous epithelial ovarian cancer (HGSOC). Expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analyses can identify candidate susceptibility genes at risk loci. Here we evaluate cis-eQTL associations at 47 regions associated with HGSOC risk (P≤10(-5)). For three cis-eQTL associations (P<1.4 × 10(-3), FDR<0.05) at 1p36 (CDC42), 1p34 (CDCA8) and 2q31 (HOXD9), we evaluate the functional role of each candidate by perturbing expression of each gene in HGSOC precursor cells. Overexpression of HOXD9 increases anchorage-independent growth, shortens population-doubling time and reduces contact inhibition. Chromosome conformation capture identifies an interaction between rs2857532 and the HOXD9 promoter, suggesting this SNP is a leading causal variant. Transcriptomic profiling after HOXD9 overexpression reveals enrichment of HGSOC risk variants within HOXD9 target genes (P=6 × 10(-10) for risk variants (P<10(-4)) within 10 kb of a HOXD9 target gene in ovarian cells), suggesting a broader role for this network in genetic susceptibility to HGSOC. PMID:26391404

  11. Vibration analysis of rotating functionally graded Timoshenko microbeam based on modified couple stress theory under different temperature distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghadiri, Majid; Shafiei, Navvab

    2016-04-01

    In this study, thermal vibration of rotary functionally graded Timoshenko microbeam has been analyzed based on modified couple stress theory considering temperature change in four types of temperature distribution on thermal environment. Material properties of FG microbeam are supposed to be temperature dependent and vary continuously along the thickness according to the power-law form. The axial forces are also included in the model as the thermal and true spatial variation due to the rotation. Governing equations and boundary conditions have been derived by employing Hamiltonian's principle. The differential quadrature method is employed to solve the governing equations for cantilever and propped cantilever boundary conditions. Validations are done by comparing available literatures and obtained results which indicate accuracy of applied method. Results represent effects of temperature changes, different boundary conditions, nondimensional angular velocity, length scale parameter, different boundary conditions, FG index and beam thickness on fundamental, second and third nondimensional frequencies. Results determine critical values of temperature changes and other essential parameters which can be applicable to design micromachines like micromotor and microturbine.

  12. Studies on Interfacial Phenomena in Titanium Carbide/Liquid Steel Systems for Development of Functionally Graded Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiviö, Miia; Holappa, Lauri; Louhenkilpi, Seppo; Nakamoto, Masashi; Tanaka, Toshihiro

    2016-04-01

    In modern materials' applications, versatile, often contradictory requirements are set for properties like high strength, hardness, and toughness. However, e.g., in steel castings, typically only certain surfaces should be hard and wear resistant, whereas the other "bulk" might have only standard properties. Then the critical parts of the surface should be "locally reinforced" to get functionally graded material. Expensive alloying elements are saved, and manufacturing stages are minimized. Titanium carbide is an extremely hard material widely applied in carbide tools. It could be used to reinforce steel castings. When TiC particles are added to liquid steel, wettability, stability, and dissolution are key phenomena that should be understood to better design and control manufacturing processes. In this work, the interfacial phenomena and reactions between TiC and iron/steel melts were examined by wetting experiments with special emphasis on the influence of Cr, Ni, and Mo. No significant effect on wettability was observed by Ni or Mo. High Cr melts showed somewhat higher contact angles. Partial penetration of liquid metal took place in the substrate along the grain boundaries. Ni seemed to promote penetration. During longer experiments, re-precipitation of carbides occurred on the liquid droplet influencing the apparent wetting angle. Cr and Mo promoted carbide formation.

  13. Investigation on 316L/W functionally graded materials fabricated by mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Chao; Wang, Guoyu; Ji, Lina; Tong, Yangang; Duan, Xuan-Ming

    2016-02-01

    316L-W (Tungsten) composite materials were fabricated by spark plasma sintering (SPS) of mechanically alloyed 316L-W powders for the development of functionally graded materials (FGMs). The effect of milling parameters on the morphology of the blended 316L/W powders and its subsequent effect on the transition between 316L and W particles during the SPS process were investigated. Samples were characterized by SEM, EDS and XRD analyses. The results so obtained show that with the increase of milling time, the mechanically activated W powder particles become thinner and smoother, with some broken fragments aggregated or inserted in the severely deformed 316L particles. A further SPS process under the conditions of 1050 °C × 45.5 MPa × 5 min leads to the densification of the powder compact and the formation of a distinguishable gray belt surrounding the retained W particles. Such a belt, which has a width of about 2-8 μm depending on different milling parameters and mainly contains Fe7W6, Fe3W3C and Fe2W phases, is bound to be a transitional region between the retained W particles and the 316L matrix. This favorable behavior with regards to the formation of a transitional belt, is accompanied by a substantial increase in the hardness values of the composite.

  14. Fabrication of Al/Al3Ti Functionally Graded Materials by Reaction Centrifugal Mixed-Powder Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Hadad, Shimaa; Sato, Hisashi; Miura-Fujiwara, Eri; Watanabe, Yoshimi

    2011-01-01

    Formation of compositional gradient in Al/Al3Ti Functionally graded materials (FGMs) fabricated by the centrifugal method (CM) depends mainly on the centrifugal force and the processing temperature. In this study, a novel centrifugal method, reaction centrifugal mixed-powder method (RCMPM), was proposed to fabricate Al/Al3Ti FGMs under fixed centrifugal force (G=80). The effects of RCMPM processing temperature on the formation of Al3Ti intermetallics, its morphology and its distribution in the fabricated Al/Al3Ti FGMs have been investigated. Fine granular Al3Ti were observed at relatively lower processing temperature while the known coarse platelet-like particles of Al3Ti could be achieved at higher casting temperatures. Moreover, Ti3Al intermetallics compound and unreacted Ti phases are also observed along with Al3Ti particles. In addition, distribution of Al3Ti intermetallics size and their volume fraction showed a significant change when the Al/Al3Ti FGMs processed at different temperatures relative to the liquidus temperature of the master alloy.

  15. Nonlocal three-dimensional theory of elasticity with application to free vibration of functionally graded nanoplates on elastic foundations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, R.; Shahabodini, A.; Faghih Shojaei, M.

    2016-02-01

    In the present work, a three-dimensional (3D) elastic plate model capturing the small scale effects is developed for the free vibration of functionally graded (FG) nanoplates resting on elastic foundations. The theoretical model is formulated employing the nonlocal differential constitutive relations of Eringen in conjunction with the 3D equations of motion of elasticity.The material properties are assumed to vary continuously along the thickness of the nanoplate in accordance with the power law formulation. Through extending the generalized differential quadrature (GDQ) method to the three-dimensional case, the governing equations are simultaneously discretized in every three coordinate directions and are then recast to the standard form of an eigen value problem. Solving the acquired problem, the natural frequencies of the nanoplates with different boundary conditions are calculated. The convergence behavior of the numerical results is checked out and comparison studies are conducted to make sure of the accuracy and reliability of the present model. Finally, the dependence of the vibration behavior of the nanoplate on edge conditions, elastic coefficients of the foundation, scale coefficient, mode number, material and geometric parameters are discussed.

  16. Fracture problem for an external circumferential crack in a functionally graded superconducting cylinder subjected to a parallel magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Z.; Gao, S. W.; Feng, W. J.

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the multiple isoparametric finite element method (MIFEM) is used to investigate external circumferential crack problem of a functionally graded superconducting cylinder subjected to electromagnetic forces. The superconducting cylinder is composed by Bi2223/Ag composite with material parameters varying. A crack reference region is defined to reflect the effects of crack on flux and current densities, and the magnetically impermeable crack surface condition and the generalized Irie-Yamafuji critical state model outside the crack region are adopted. The distributions of magnetic flux density in the superconducting cylinder are obtained analytically for both the zero-field cooling (ZFC) and the field cooling (FC) activation processes. Based on the MIFEM, the stress intensity factors (SIFs) at crack fronts in the process of field ascent and/or descent are then numerically calculated. It is interesting to note from numerical results that for the present crack model in the ZFC activation process, the crack is easily propagate and grow with the applied field increases, and that in the field descent process of either the ZFC case or FC case, the crack generally does not propagate. In addition, in the field ascent process of the ZFC case, the SIFs depend on not only the crack depths and model parameters but also the applied field. The present study should be helpful to the design and application of high-temperature superconductors with external edge cracks.

  17. Studies on Interfacial Phenomena in Titanium Carbide/Liquid Steel Systems for Development of Functionally Graded Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiviö, Miia; Holappa, Lauri; Louhenkilpi, Seppo; Nakamoto, Masashi; Tanaka, Toshihiro

    2016-08-01

    In modern materials' applications, versatile, often contradictory requirements are set for properties like high strength, hardness, and toughness. However, e.g., in steel castings, typically only certain surfaces should be hard and wear resistant, whereas the other "bulk" might have only standard properties. Then the critical parts of the surface should be "locally reinforced" to get functionally graded material. Expensive alloying elements are saved, and manufacturing stages are minimized. Titanium carbide is an extremely hard material widely applied in carbide tools. It could be used to reinforce steel castings. When TiC particles are added to liquid steel, wettability, stability, and dissolution are key phenomena that should be understood to better design and control manufacturing processes. In this work, the interfacial phenomena and reactions between TiC and iron/steel melts were examined by wetting experiments with special emphasis on the influence of Cr, Ni, and Mo. No significant effect on wettability was observed by Ni or Mo. High Cr melts showed somewhat higher contact angles. Partial penetration of liquid metal took place in the substrate along the grain boundaries. Ni seemed to promote penetration. During longer experiments, re-precipitation of carbides occurred on the liquid droplet influencing the apparent wetting angle. Cr and Mo promoted carbide formation.

  18. A Piezoelectric Cryogenic Heat Switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahromi, Amir E.; Sullivan, Dan F.

    2014-01-01

    We have measured the thermal conductance of a mechanical heat switch actuated by a piezoelectric positioner, the PZHS (PieZo electric Heat Switch), at cryogenic temperatures. The thermal conductance of the PZHS was measured between 4 K and 10 K, and on/off conductance ratios greater than 100 were achieved when the positioner applied its maximum force of 8 N. We discuss the advantages of using this system in cryogenic applications, and estimate the ultimate performance of an optimized PZHS.

  19. Piezoelectric immunosensors -- Theory and applications

    SciTech Connect

    O`Sullivan, C.K.; Vaughan, R.; Guilbault, G.G.

    1999-09-01

    A Mini Review of recent advances in piezoelectric immunobiosensors is presented. First a review of the theory and history of the technique is given, followed by a critical survey of the use of this method in various fields of analysis. A biosensor can be defined as a device incorporating biological material connected to or integrated within a transducer. The specificity and sensitivity is complemented by the transducer, which electronically measures and computes the signal.

  20. Piezoelectric field in strained GaAs.

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, Weng Wah; Wieczorek, Sebastian Maciej

    2005-11-01

    This report describes an investigation of the piezoelectric field in strained bulk GaAs. The bound charge distribution is calculated and suitable electrode configurations are proposed for (1) uniaxial and (2) biaxial strain. The screening of the piezoelectric field is studied for different impurity concentrations and sample lengths. Electric current due to the piezoelectric field is calculated for the cases of (1) fixed strain and (2) strain varying in time at a constant rate.

  1. Polarization and Characterization of Piezoelectric Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodiford, Hollie N.

    1995-01-01

    Piezoelectric materials exhibit an electrical response, such as voltage or charge, in reaction to a mechanical stimuli. The mechanical stimuli can be force, pressure, light, or heat. Therefore, these materials are excellent sensors for various properties. The major disadvantage of state of the art piezoelectric polymers is their lack of utility at elevated temperatures. The objective of this research is to study the feasibility of inducing piezoelectricity in high performance polymer systems. The three aspects of the research include experimental poling, characterization of the capacitance, and demonstration of the use of a piezoelectric polymer as a speaker.

  2. Tree-inspired piezoelectric energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, William B.; Hu, David L.

    2012-01-01

    We design and test micro-watt energy-harvesters inspired by tree trunks swaying in the wind. A uniform flow vibrates a linear array of four cylinders affixed to piezoelectric energy transducers. Particular attention is paid to measuring the energy generated as a function of cylinder spacing, flow speed, and relative position of the cylinder within the array. Peak power is generated using cylinder center-to-center spacings of 3.3 diameters and flow speeds in which the vortex shedding frequency is 1.6 times the natural frequency of the cylinders. Using these flow speeds and spacings, the power generated by downstream cylinders can exceed that of leading cylinders by more than an order of magnitude. We visualize the flow in this system by studying the behavior of a dynamically matched flowing soap film with imbedded styrofoam disks. Our qualitative visualizations suggest that peak energy harvesting occurs under conditions in which vortices have fully detached from the leading cylinder.

  3. Piezoelectric properties of polyamide 11/NaNbO3 nanowire composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Charlotte; Capsal, Jean-Fabien; Laffont, Lydia; Dantras, Eric; Lacabanne, Colette

    2012-10-01

    Polyamide 11(PA 11)/sodium niobate nanowire (NW) 0-3 composites with different volume fractions of NWs were synthesized. The electric polarization (P) was measured as a function of the applied electric field (E). The P-E hysteresis loop was used to work out the remanent polarization Pr of these materials. The dielectric permittivity and the piezoelectric strain constant were determined. Good impedance matching between inorganic and organic phases leads to higher electroactivity than conventional lead-free 0-3 composites. The piezoelectric voltage of the PA 11/NaNbO3 NW composites is of the same order as those obtained for fluorinated piezoelectric polymers. These composites could have some applications in flexible, low-cost, environmentally friendly piezoelectric sensors and actuators.

  4. A semi-analytical method to evaluate the dynamic response of functionally graded plates subjected to underwater shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Xu; Wang, Zhenyu; Wang, Lizhong; Izzuddin, Bassam A.; Liu, Guohua

    2015-02-01

    Functionally graded (FG) plates are of current interest and are widely used in a variety of applications including deep sea exploration and naval/marine and coastal engineering, despite the fact that there has, to date, been little research undertaken on the subject. In order to remedy the situation, an analytical method to investigate the elastic dynamic responses of FG plates to underwater shock is proposed here, their material properties varying by the same exponential law along the thickness direction. Taylor's one dimensional fluid solid interaction (FSI) model is extended to fit a three dimensional model suitable for FG plates. The extended FSI model and Laplace transform are integrated into the state space method, with the transient solution in the time domain being obtained by using the numerical inversion of the Laplace transform. The solutions of the total forces acting throughout the front and back faces in the time domain are derived for the first time. The present method is validated by comparing it with the results of other methods and experiments found in the relevant literature. The influence of the boundary conditions at the backside of the plate and FG parameters on front and back side pressures, cavitations, displacements, stresses and total forces acting throughout the faces are then investigated, with the time progression of the cavitation areas of air-backed plates and water-backed plates being investigated in detail. The method proposed in this paper may prove useful for the future three-dimensional assessment of the response of FG structures when FSI effects are taken into consideration. It is hoped that the results will lead to a full understanding of the mechanism of the interaction between fluid and an FG plate, and that they can be used as benchmark solutions in further research.

  5. Problems with cryogenic operation of piezoelectric bending elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffield, C. L.; Moreland, John; Fickett, F. R.

    1986-05-01

    Piezoelectric bimorphs constructed from lead titanate-zirconate (PZT) ceramic bonded to a brass sheet have been tested at cryogenic temperatures to determine their suitability for use in a low-temperature micropositioner. Experimental data are presented on bimorph sensitivity (displacement per volt) as a function of the number of temperature cycles. Results indicate that bimorphs of this type cannot be calibrated because of irreversible changes in the bending characteristics that occur while cycling from room temperature to 4 K.

  6. Theoretical and experimental research on the influence of multiple piezoelectric effects on physical parameters of piezoelectric actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Liping; Zhou, Haimin; Huang, Jie; Tan, Jiliang

    2015-04-01

    Compared with the traditional actuator of machinery and electricity, the piezoelectric actuator has the advantages of a compact structure, small volume, no mechanical friction, athermancy and no electromagnetic interference. Therefore, it has high application value in the fields of MEMS, bioengineering, medical science and so on. This article draws conclusions from the influence of multiple piezoelectric effects on the physical parameters (dielectric coefficient, equivalent capacity, energy conversion and piezoelectric coefficient) of piezoelectric actuators. These data from theoretical and experimental research show the following: (1) The rate between the dielectric coefficient of piezoelectric in mechanical freedom and clamping is obtained from the secondary direct piezoelectric effect, which enhances the dielectric property, increases the dielectric coefficient and decreases the coefficient of dielectric isolation; (2) Under external field, En ( ex ) = E 1 , exterior stress T = 0, that is to say, under the boundary condition of mechanical freedom, piezoelectric can store electric energy and elasticity, which obtains power density, elastic density and an electromechanical coupling factor; (3) According to the piezoelectric strain Si ( 1 ) , piezoelectric displacement Dm ( 2 ) and piezoelectric strain Si ( 3 ) of multiple piezoelectric effects, when the dielectric coefficient of the first converse piezoelectric effect ɛ33 is 1326 and the dielectric coefficient of the secondary direct piezoelectric effect increases to 3336, the dielectric coefficient of the ceramic chip increases. When the piezoelectric coefficient of the first converse piezoelectric effect d33 is 595 and the piezoelectric coefficient of the secondary direct piezoelectric effect decreases to 240, the piezoelectric coefficient of the ceramic chip will decrease. It is of major significance both in the applications and in basic theory to research the influence of multiple piezoelectric effects on the

  7. Methods to increase sound fidelity and quality produced from piezoelectric devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodard, S. E.

    2005-02-01

    Methods to increase sound level, fidelity and quality produced from vibrating lamina such as piezoelectric actuators, vibrating plates or vibrating films are presented. Results of using the methods are shown for piezoelectric devices. Four methods are described: (1) tailoring the vibration response to develop desired deformation shapes and amplitudes, (2) mapping vibration out-of-plane deformation to ascertain locations on the surfaces of lamina suitable for stroke-like actuation, (3) coupling vibration to a collection of acoustic chambers and (4) increasing the vibration decay rate. The first two methods provide a single piezoelectric device with the functionality of numerous actuators combined. A piezoelectric actuator with numerous high-amplitude natural vibration responses has been produced using the aforementioned methods. Numerous high-amplitude vibrations increase the functionality of the devices. A collection of acoustic chambers were affixed to the piezoelectric actuator's surface. The addition of the chambers resulted in more efficient audio output. The result of using all of the aforementioned methods is a high fidelity, high-bandwidth, and high sound-quality audio device with a low physical profile. The use of the piezoelectric actuator effectively results in an audio driver with a thickness less than 1 mm. The piezoelectric audio device achieved a response of 93±4 dB measured at 1 cm in the frequency range (1-5 kHz) with very good audio output for frequencies less than 1 kHz. The methods can be used to design other devices using solid-state piezoelectric actuators or vibrating lamina (e.g., plates or films).

  8. Evaluation of additive element to improve PZT piezoelectricity by using first-principles calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasoda, Yutaka; Uetsuji, Yasutomo; Tsuchiya, Kazuyoshi

    2015-12-01

    Recently, piezoelectric material has a very important potential for functional material which configure Bio-MEMS (Biological Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) actuator and sensor. Specifically, in implementation of piezoelectric material for Bio-MEMS, thin film fabrication by sputtering method is made from the viewpoint of miniaturization. Furthermore, in piezoelectric material, perovskite type material composed of ABO3 has a high piezoelectricity. Then, PZT (Lead Zirconate Titanate) as the perovskite type piezoelectric material is widely used since it is easy to produce and has high piezoelectricity. PZT has zirconium or titanium in the B site of ABO3 structure. PZT has the features such as physical properties to greatly change by change in the B site composition ratio of zirconium and titanium. Thus, the B site greatly influences physical properties and therefore function improvement by additive element is tried widely. However, experimental method to lack in economy and quantitativeness is mainstream. Therefore, application of the result is difficult and new evaluation method of B site additive element for sputtering fabrication is necessary. Accordingly, in this research, search of an additive element at low cost and quantitative from the viewpoint of energy by first-principles calculation. First of all, the additive elements which capable of substituting for a B site of PZT were searched. Next, change of piezoelectricity was evaluated by change of crystal structure in a PZT system was introduced an additive element that substitution of the B site was possible. As a result, additive elements for the PZT B site capable of improving piezoelectricity were determined.

  9. Experiments to Demonstrate Piezoelectric and Pyroelectric Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erhart, Jirí

    2013-01-01

    Piezoelectric and pyroelectric materials are used in many current applications. The purpose of this paper is to explain the basic properties of pyroelectric and piezoelectric effects and demonstrate them in simple experiments. Pyroelectricity is presented on lead zirconium titanate (PZT) ceramics as an electric charge generated by the temperature…

  10. LC Circuits for Diagnosing Embedded Piezoelectric Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattin, Richard L.; Fox, Robert Lee; Moses, Robert W.; Shams, Qamar A.

    2005-01-01

    A recently invented method of nonintrusively detecting faults in piezoelectric devices involves measurement of the resonance frequencies of inductor capacitor (LC) resonant circuits. The method is intended especially to enable diagnosis of piezoelectric sensors, actuators, and sensor/actuators that are embedded in structures and/or are components of multilayer composite material structures.

  11. Piezoelectric diaphragm for vibration energy harvesting.

    PubMed

    Minazara, E; Vasic, D; Costa, F; Poulin, G

    2006-12-22

    This paper presents a technique of electric energy generation using a mechanically excited unimorph piezoelectric membrane transducer. The electrical characteristics of the piezoelectric power generator are investigated under dynamic conditions. The electromechanical model of the generator is presented and used to predict its electrical performances. The experiments was performed with a piezoelectric actuator (shaker) moving a macroscopic 25 mm diameter piezoelectric membrane. A power of 0.65 mW was generated at the resonance frequency (1.71 kHz) across a 5.6 kOmega optimal resistor and for a 80 N force. A special electronic circuit has been conceived in order to increase the power harvested by the piezoelectric transducer. This electrical converter applies the SSHI (synchronized switch harvesting on inductor) technique, and leads to remarkable results: under the same actuation conditions the generated power reaches 1.7 mW, which is sufficient to supply a large range of low consumption sensors. PMID:16814837

  12. Temperature Distributions in Piezoelectric Photothermal Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakrzewski, J.; Maliński, M.; Strzałkowski, K.

    2013-04-01

    Piezoelectric photothermal spectroscopy is a method in which the stress and strain of a sample due to the absorption of electromagnetic radiation is detected by a piezoelectric transducer. The temperature distribution in the sample is the basis to obtain the theoretical amplitude and phase of photothermal piezoelectric spectra. In contrast to microphone detection, which needs only the temperature at one of the sample surfaces, in the piezoelectric one, it is necessary to know the spatial temperature distribution. The distributions given by Blonskij and by the modified interferential model of Malinski are applied. The influence of defect states in a volume and at the surfaces on the character of the amplitude and phase piezoelectric spectra is analyzed. The comparison of these approximate models and the two-layer one of Fernelius is presented.

  13. Multistage Force Amplification of Piezoelectric Stacks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Tian-Bing (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Zuo, Lei (Inventor); Jiang, Xiaoning (Inventor); Kang, Jin Ho (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Embodiments of the disclosure include an apparatus and methods for using a piezoelectric device, that includes an outer flextensional casing, a first cell and a last cell serially coupled to each other and coupled to the outer flextensional casing such that each cell having a flextensional cell structure and each cell receives an input force and provides an output force that is amplified based on the input force. The apparatus further includes a piezoelectric stack coupled to each cell such that the piezoelectric stack of each cell provides piezoelectric energy based on the output force for each cell. Further, the last cell receives an input force that is the output force from the first cell and the last cell provides an output apparatus force In addition, the piezoelectric energy harvested is based on the output apparatus force. Moreover, the apparatus provides displacement based on the output apparatus force.

  14. Damping control of 'smart' piezoelectric shell structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzou, H. S.

    Advanced 'smart' structures with self-sensation and control capabilities have attracted much attention in recent years. 'Smart' piezoelectric structures (conventional structures integrated with piezoelectric sensor and actuator elements) possessing self-monitoring and adaptive static and/or dynamic characteristics are very promising in many applications. This paper presents a study on 'smart' piezoelectric shell structures. A generic piezoelastic vibration theory for a thin piezoelectric shell continuum made of a hexagonal piezoelectric material is first derived. Piezoelastic system equation and electrostatic charge equation are formulated using Hamilton's principle and Kirchhoff-Love thin shell assumptions. Dynamic adaptivity, damping control, of a simply supported cylindrical shell structure is demonstrated in a case study. It shows that the system damping increases with the increase of feedback voltage for odd modes. The control scheme is ineffective for all even modes because of the symmetrical boundary conditions.

  15. Flow rate self-sensing of a pump with double piezoelectric actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhonghua; Kan, Junwu; Wang, Shuyun; Wang, Hongyun; Wen, Jianming; Ma, Zehui

    2013-12-01

    According to the method of segmenting electrode, the flow rate self-sensing of a conventional piezoelectric pump with the actuators of double diaphragms is presented in this paper. The novel pump is characterized by the simultaneous function of fluid transportation and the flow rate self-testing through only one piezoelectric element. The analysis indicates that direct and converse piezoelectric effect can be concurrently applied to obtain the simultaneous function through dividing the electrode of the piezoelectric element into driving unit and sensing unit. With two commercialized segmented-electrode piezoelectric diaphragms, a prototype pump is fabricated with the size of 65 mm×40 mm×12 mm and tested according to the frequency characteristics at a fixed driving voltage and the driving voltage characteristics at a fixed frequency. The results show that sensing voltages of diaphragms are increased or decreased with the change of the flow rate as a function of frequency. When the flow rate reaches the maximum value of 45.98 ml/min at 15 Hz, outlet/inlet sensing voltages also reach maximum values of 6.80 Vpp and 19.4 Vpp, respectively. It demonstrates that the pump itself could accurately reflect the optimal frequency through monitoring outlet/inlet sensing voltages. The testing results indicate the good linear relationship between outlet/inlet sensing voltages and the flow rate as a function of driving voltage. Therefore, both theoretical analysis and experiments have proved that flow rate self-sensing can be realized for the piezoelectric pumps with double actuators through segmenting their electrode. Moreover, if any electrode of double piezoelectric actuators is segmented, the pump can obtain the complete self-sensing function.

  16. Tunable nonlinear piezoelectric vibration harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neiss, S.; Goldschmidtboeing, F.; Kroener, M.; Woias, P.

    2014-11-01

    Nonlinear piezoelectric energy harvesting generators can provide a large bandwidth combined with a good resonant power output. However, the frequency response is characterized by a strong hysteresis making a technical use difficult if the hysteresis cannot be compensated. We propose a tuning mechanism that allows both, a compensation of the hysteresis as well as maintaining the optimal work point. The compensation algorithm can reduce the hysteresis to a minimum of only 1.5 Hz and maintain a high energy oscillation in a large frequency window between 53.3 Hz and 74.5 Hz.

  17. A piezoelectric cryogenic heat switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahromi, Amir E.; Sullivan, Dan F.

    2014-06-01

    We have measured the thermal conductance of a mechanical heat switch actuated by a piezoelectric positioner, the PZHS (PieZo electric Heat Switch), at cryogenic temperatures. The thermal conductance of the PZHS was measured between 4 K and 10 K, and on/off conductance ratios of about 100-200 at lowest and highest measures temperature were achieved when the positioner applied its maximum force of 8 N, respectively. We discuss the advantages of using this system in cryogenic applications, and estimate the ultimate performance of an ideal PZHS.

  18. A piezoelectric cryogenic heat switch.

    PubMed

    Jahromi, Amir E; Sullivan, Dan F

    2014-06-01

    We have measured the thermal conductance of a mechanical heat switch actuated by a piezoelectric positioner, the PZHS (PieZo electric Heat Switch), at cryogenic temperatures. The thermal conductance of the PZHS was measured between 4 K and 10 K, and on/off conductance ratios of about 100-200 at lowest and highest measures temperature were achieved when the positioner applied its maximum force of 8 N, respectively. We discuss the advantages of using this system in cryogenic applications, and estimate the ultimate performance of an ideal PZHS. PMID:24985863

  19. SH wave propagation in piezoelectric coupled plates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Quan

    2002-05-01

    The propagation of shear horizontal (SH) wave in a piezoelectric coupled plate is investigated in this paper. Full account is taken of the piezoelectric coupling effect to the isotropic metal core in the mathematical model. One of the applications of this research is in the damage detection of the host metal structure from the wave propagation signal excited by the piezoelectric layer which is surface bonded on the surface of a metal core. This research is distinct from the previous works on SH propagation in piezoelectric structures because the piezoelectric materials were used as the core structure in the previous studies, and the potential of the studies was mainly on time-delay devices. The dispersive characteristics and the mode shapes of the transverse displacement and the electric potential of the piezoelectric layer are theoretically derived. The results from numerical simulations show that the phase velocity of the plate structure tends to the bulk shear wave velocity of the host metal core at high wavenumber when the shear wave velocity of host plate is larger than that of PZT bonded on it. Furthermore, there are three asymptotic solutions of wave propagation when the shear wave velocity of the host plate is smaller than that of PZT. The mode shape of the electric potential of the piezoelectric layer changes from the quadratic shape at lower wavenumber and with thinner piezoelectric layer to the shape with more zero nodes at higher wavenumber and with thicker piezoelectric layer. These findings are significant in the application of wave propagation in piezoelectric coupled structures. PMID:12046935

  20. Piezoelectric polymers as biomaterials for tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Clarisse; Sencadas, Vítor; Correia, Daniela M; Lanceros-Méndez, Senentxu

    2015-12-01

    Tissue engineering often rely on scaffolds for supporting cell differentiation and growth. Novel paradigms for tissue engineering include the need of active or smart scaffolds in order to properly regenerate specific tissues. In particular, as electrical and electromechanical clues are among the most relevant ones in determining tissue functionality in tissues such as muscle and bone, among others, electroactive materials and, in particular, piezoelectric ones, show strong potential for novel tissue engineering strategies, in particular taking also into account the existence of these phenomena within some specific tissues, indicating their requirement also during tissue regeneration. This referee reports on piezoelectric materials used for tissue engineering applications. The most used materials for tissue engineering strategies are reported together with the main achievements, challenges and future needs for research and actual therapies. This review provides thus a compilation of the most relevant results and strategies and a start point for novel research pathways in the most relevant and challenging open questions. PMID:26355812

  1. Nonlinear dielectric response in piezoelectric materials for underwater transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherlock, N. P.; Garten, L. M.; Zhang, S. J.; Shrout, T. R.; Meyer, R. J.

    2012-12-01

    SONAR transducers based on single crystal lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMNT) have demonstrated improvements over conventional lead zirconate titanate ceramics. Compositional modifications to PMNT have combined the high piezoelectric coefficient (d33 > 2000 pC/N) and electromechanical coupling factor (k33 > 0.90) with the low mechanical losses (QM > 1000) of "hard" piezoelectric ceramics. The dielectric losses of single crystal PMNT have not been investigated as extensively as the mechanical losses but may significantly affect the performance of a device when water loaded. In this work, nonlinearities in the dielectric permittivity and losses have been investigated as a function of applied electric field, measurement frequency, and temperature. It is shown that electromechanically "hard" single crystals offer greater stability of the dielectric properties while maintaining a high permittivity with respect to conventional lead zirconate titanate ceramics.

  2. Bending strength of piezoelectric ceramics and single crystals for multifunctional load-bearing applications.

    PubMed

    Anton, Steven R; Erturk, Alper; Inman, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    The topic of multifunctional material systems using active or smart materials has recently gained attention in the research community. Multifunctional piezoelectric systems present the ability to combine multiple functions into a single active piezoelectric element, namely, combining sensing, actuation, or energy conversion ability with load-bearing capacity. Quantification of the bending strength of various piezoelectric materials is, therefore, critical in the development of load-bearing piezoelectric systems. Three-point bend tests are carried out on a variety of piezoelectric ceramics including soft monolithic piezoceramics (PZT-5A and PZT-5H), hard monolithic ceramics (PZT-4 and PZT-8), single-crystal piezoelectrics (PMN-PT and PMN-PZT), and commercially packaged composite devices (which contain active PZT-5A layers). A common 3-point bend test procedure is used throughout the experimental tests. The bending strengths of these materials are found using Euler-Bernoulli beam theory to be 44.9 MPa for PMN-PZT, 60.6 MPa for PMN-PT, 114.8 MPa for PZT- 5H, 123.2 MPa for PZT-4, 127.5 MPa for PZT-8, 140.4 MPa for PZT-5A, and 186.6 MPa for the commercial composite. The high strength of the commercial configuration is a result of the composite structure that allows for shear stresses on the surfaces of the piezoelectric layers, whereas the low strength of the single-crystal materials is due to their unique crystal structure, which allows for rapid propagation of cracks initiating at flaw sites. The experimental bending strength results reported, which are linear estimates without nonlinear ferroelastic considerations, are intended for use in the design of multifunctional piezoelectric systems in which the active device is subjected to bending loads. PMID:22711404

  3. [The role of functional status and recursive partition analysis (RPA) classes for the choice of fractionation regimen in patients with high-grade gliomas].

    PubMed

    Izmaĭlov, T R; Pan'shin, G A; Datsenko, P V

    2012-01-01

    The treatment results of 396 patients with morphologically verified grade 3-4 malignant brain tumors receiving conventional irradiation regimen and irradiation by medium-sized fractions were analyzed to form institutional guidelines.The standard mode of fractionation with a single dose of 2 Gy and total focal dose (TFD) of 60 Gy is appropriate for patients with initial Karnofsky status of 60-100% and Recursive Partition Analysis (RPA) class I-III. TFD increase to 60-62 Gy in grade 4 gliomas and 54-56 Gy in grade 3 gliomas grants a significant improve in overall survival. An increase of a single irradiation fraction to 3 Gy may be used for patients with initially low functional status (Karnofsky 30-50%) and RPA classes IV-VI. In these cases it is advisable to use the TFD of 45 Gy or more (TFD of equivalent regimen with a dose greater than 54 Gy). The mentioned fractionation regimens could be recommended for the use in clinical practice to improve the results of high-grade gliomas treatment. PMID:22888653

  4. Design of piezoelectric sensors, actuators, and energy harvesting devices using topology optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakasone, Paulo H.; Kiyono, César Y.; Silva, Emílio C. N.

    2008-03-01

    Sensors and actuators based on piezoelectric plates have shown increasing demand in the field of smart structures, including the development of actuators for cooling and fluid pumping applications and transducers for novel energy harvesting devices. This project involves the development of a finite element and topology optimization software to design piezoelectric sensors, actuators and energy harvesting devices by distributing piezoelectric material over a metallic plate in order to achieve a desired dynamic behavior with specified vibration frequencies. The finite element employs a general formulation capable of representing both direct and converse piezoelectric effects. It is based on the MITC formulation, which is reliable, efficient and avoids the shear locking problem. The topology optimization formulation is based on the PEMAP-P model (Piezoelectric Material with Penalization and Polarization), where the design variables are the pseudo-densities that describe the amount of piezoelectric material at each finite element. The optimization problem has a multi-objective function, which can be subdivided into three distinct problems: maximization of mean transduction, minimization of mean compliance and optimization of Eigenvalues. The first one is responsible for maximizing the amount of electric energy converted into elastic energy, the second one guarantees that the structure does not become excessively flexible and the third one tunes the structure for a given frequency. This paper presents the implementation of the finite element and optimization software and shows preliminary results achieved.

  5. Piezoelectric response of BiFeO3 ceramics at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojac, Tadej; Makarovic, Maja; Walker, Julian; Ursic, Hana; Damjanovic, Dragan; Kos, Tomaz

    2016-07-01

    The high Curie temperature (TC ˜ 825 °C) of BiFeO3 has made this material potentially attractive for the development of high-TC piezoelectric ceramics. Despite significant advances in the search of new BiFeO3-based compositions, the piezoelectric behavior of the parent BiFeO3 at elevated temperatures remains unexplored. We present here a systematic analysis of the converse, longitudinal piezoelectric response of BiFeO3 measured in situ as a function of temperature (25-260 °C), driving-field frequency, and amplitude. Earlier studies performed at room temperature revealed that the frequency and field dependence of the longitudinal response of BiFeO3 is dominated by linear and nonlinear piezoelectric Maxwell-Wagner mechanisms, originating from the presence of local conductive paths along domain walls and grain boundaries within the polycrystalline matrix. This study shows that the same mechanisms are responsible for the distinct temperature dependence of the piezoelectric coefficient and phase angle and thus identifies the local electrical conductivity as the key for controlling the temperature dependent piezoelectric response of BiFeO3 and possibly other, more complex BiFeO3-based compositions.

  6. Effects of Graded Levels of Isomaltooligosaccharides on the Performance, Immune Function and Intestinal Status of Weaned Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, X. X.; Song, P. X.; Wu, H.; Xue, J. X.; Zhong, X.; Zhang, L. Y.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of graded levels of isomaltooligosaccharides (IMO) on the performance, immune function and intestinal microflora and intestinal mucosal morphology of weaned pigs. In a 28-day experiment, one hundred eighty, twenty eight-day-old, crossbred (Duroc×Large White×Landrace), weaned pigs, with an initial body weight of 8.19±1.45 kg, were fed either an unsupplemented corn-soybean meal based diet or similar diets supplemented with 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, or 0.8% IMO added at the expense of corn. Each treatment was replicated six times with six pigs (three barrows and three gilts) per pen. From day 0 to 14, weight gain was linearly increased (p<0.05), while gain:feed (p<0.05) was linearly improved and diarrhea rate (p = 0.05) linearly declined as the IMO level increased. On d 14, the level of the immunoglobulins IgA, IgM, and IgG in the serum of pigs were linearly increased (p<0.05) with increasing IMO supplementation. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) was linearly (p<0.05) and quadratically (p<0.05) decreased as IMO intake increased. From day 15 to 28, there was a trend for weight gain to be linearly increased, and IL-2 was linearly (p<0.05) increased as IMO supplementation increased on d 28. Over the entire experiment, weight gain was linearly increased (p<0.05), while gain:feed (p<0.05) was linearly improved and diarrhea rate (p<0.05) was linearly decreased as the IMO level increased. Supplementation with IMO had no effect on the intestinal microflora of pigs in the ileum and cecum of pigs, as well as the villus height and crypt depth in the ileum and jejunum (p>0.05). These results indicate that dietary inclusion of IMO increases weight gain, gain:feed and enhanced the immune status of pigs, and could be a valuable feed additive for use in weaned pigs, particularly during the period immediately after weaning. PMID:26732450

  7. Integration of encapsulated piezoelectric actuators in highly loaded CFRP structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, Florian; Ermanni, Paolo

    2010-04-01

    The present work has been initiated in the frame of the European research project DREAM. Within this highly interdisciplinary project we are focusing on the development and application of vibration damping solutions based on piezoelectric shunt circuits for future aeroelastic applications. The scientific community has put significant effort into the investigation of piezoelectric shunt damping in conjuction with typical engineering test structures such as beams and plates. However, investigations are mainly restricted to surface bonded piezoelectric elements. Commercially available actuators and sensors can be easily bonded to structures using standard epoxy resins. Yet, the structural integration into composite laminates is cumbersome, due to the implications in terms of overall structural integrity and functionality, and due to the problems in achieving a good electrical conductivity, intimate contact betwen electrode and piezoceramic material as well as a perfect isolation from the surrounding host structure. This contribution is concerned with technological aspects related to the integration of piezoceramic actuators into highly loaded CFRP structures. In particular, we present results of a comparative study aiming at the characterization of less invasive electrodes to establish electrical contact between the piezoceramic material and possible shunt circuits. Another drawback of commercial actuators are their limited strain allowables ranging from 0.1% to 0.3% which is not sufficient for high performance lighweight structures. The second part of this contribution is therefore dedicated to the description of a novel prestressing procedure which is used to fabricate actuators that command 170% higher strain allowables than non-prestressed actuators. Mechanical testing of these prestressed actuators are very encouraging, showing high strain allowables, perfect electrical isolation from the host structure, excellent electric contacting of the piezoelectric material

  8. Effects of Mediated Intervention on Cognitive Functions: A Pilot Study with Grade 5 Learners at a Remedial School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seabi, Joseph; Amod, Zaytoon

    2009-01-01

    The present study explored the effects of a mediated intervention programme on a sample of Grade 5 learners, in a remedial school. The participants (n = 20) were systematically sampled and they constituted two groups; namely, Individual Mediation (n = 10) and Group Mediation (n = 10). It was hypothesised that participants exposed to this programme…

  9. Dielectric, piezoelectric and damping properties of novel 2-2 piezoelectric composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dongyu, Xu; Xin, Cheng; Banerjee, Sourav; Lei, Wang; Shifeng, Huang

    2015-02-01

    Here, a strip-shaped 2-2 cement/polymer-based piezoelectric composite was designed and fabricated. The dielectric, piezoelectric and electromechanical coupling properties of the composite were investigated as well as the coupling effects between the thickness and lateral modes of the piezoelectric composites. The dielectric and piezoelectric properties of the composites can be greatly influenced by variations of the piezoelectric ceramic volume fraction and the structural dimensions of the composites. Excellent properties have been achieved for ultrasonic transducer applications in civil engineering monitoring fields, such as large piezoelectric voltage constants, high thickness electromechanical coupling coefficients and low acoustic impedance. The damping property of the composites was especially studied. The maximum damping loss factor of the composites is between 0.28-0.32, and the glass transition temperature is between 55°-66 °C.

  10. Miniature Piezoelectric Macro-Mass Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey; Bonitz, Robert G.; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2010-01-01

    Mass balances usually use a strain gauge that requires an impedance measurement and is susceptible to noise and thermal drift. A piezoelectric balance can be used to measure mass directly by monitoring the voltage developed across the piezoelectric balance, which is linear with weight or it can be used in resonance to produce a frequency change proportional to the mass change (see figure). The piezoelectric actuator/balance is swept in frequency through its fundamental resonance. If a small mass is added to the balance, the resonance frequency shifts down in proportion to the mass. By monitoring the frequency shift, the mass can be determined. This design allows for two independent measurements of mass. Additionally, more than one sample can be verified because this invention allows for each sample to be transported away from the measuring device upon completion of the measurement, if required. A piezoelectric actuator, or many piezoelectric actuators, was placed between the collection plate of the sampling system and the support structure. As the sample mass is added to the plate, the piezoelectrics are stressed, causing them to produce a voltage that is proportional to the mass and acceleration. In addition, a change in mass delta m produces a change in the resonance frequency with delta f proportional to delta m. In a microgravity environment, the spacecraft could be accelerated to produce a force on the piezoelectric actuator that would produce a voltage proportional to the mass and acceleration. Alternatively, the acceleration could be used to force the mass on the plate, and the inertial effects of the mass on the plate would produce a shift in the resonance frequency with the change in frequency related to the mass change. Three prototypes of the mass balance mechanism were developed. These macro-mass balances each consist of a solid base and an APA 60 Cedrat flextensional piezoelectric actuator supporting a measuring plate. A similar structure with 3 APA

  11. Energy harvester array using piezoelectric circular diaphragm for rail vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Huang, Rong-Jin; Huang, Chuan-Jun; Li, Lai-Feng

    2014-12-01

    Generating electric energy from mechanical vibration using a piezoelectric circular membrane array is presented in this paper. The electrical characteristics of the functional array consisted of three plates with varies tip masses are examined under dynamic conditions. With an optimal load resistor of 11 kΩ, an output power of 21.4 mW was generated from the array in parallel connection at 150 Hz under a pre-stress of 0.8 N and a vibration acceleration of 9.8 m/s2. Moreover, the broadband energy harvesting using this array still can be realized with different tip masses. Three obvious output power peaks can be obtained in a frequency spectra of 110 Hz to 260 Hz. The results show that using a piezoelectric circular diaphragm array can increase significantly the output of energy compared with the use of a single plate. And by optimizing combination of tip masses with piezoelectric elements in array, the frequency range can be tuned to meet the broadband vibration. This array may possibly be exploited to design the energy harvesting for practical applications such as future high speed rail.

  12. An evaluation of piezoelectric spoilers for missile flight control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    August, James A.

    Advances in aerodynamic flight controls can increase performance and lower the cost of guided weapons. Research at The University of Texas at Arlington has focused on using active materials to produce a lightweight, low-cost, missile fin that can be used on subsonic and supersonic weapons. This dissertation describes the design, construction, and testing of one such aerodynamic control device, consisting of a circular arc spoiler integrated with a piezoelectric bimorph actuator. As part of this dissertation, an examination of state-of-the-art active materials technology was conducted to select an actuator material compatible with guided weapon operating conditions. An examination of state-of-the-art aerodynamic "active structures" research was also conducted to identify aerodynamic control schemes suitable for integration with guided weapon control fins. The aerodynamic controls schemes examined include: the all-moving wing, wing twist, discrete flaps, continuous flaps, jet spoilers, and mechanical spoilers. After determining the advantages and disadvantages of each control device the combination of a mechanical spoiler and piezoelectric bimorph was selected for further research. A missile fin model using an integrated piezoelectric circular-arc spoiler was designed, built, and tested in a subsonic wind tunnel at speeds up to 210 ft/s (64 m/s). Aerodynamic quantities presented include CL, CL/CD, and C M as functions of spoiler displacement. Actuator related quantities presented include displacement vs. input voltage, force vs. input voltage, and spoiler bandwidth.

  13. Wavefront conjugation using electron-gun-controlled piezoelectric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, George C.; Main, John A.; Martin, Jeffrey W.

    2000-07-01

    Current adaptive optics designs often rely upon multiple actuators to mechanically deform mirrored surfaces. The spatial resolution of control is dependent upon the physical size of these actuators and the number of actuators present. Piezoelectric materials may be used for actuation however the classical control methods of these materials also rely on discrete areas of actuation and require lead wiring for each electrode, patch, or stack utilized. Electron gun control of piezoelectric materials eliminates the need for discrete, segmented electrodes and their associated lead wiring. This method also holds the potential for much finer control resolution since the restraining parameter is beam size. Lightweight piezoelectric ceramics may possibly be used as wavefront conjugating mirrors. Piezo-ceramic plates can be actuated with an electron gun and a single distributed electrode of optical quality. The electron gun functions as a pointing device while varying the potential, referred to as backpressure, of the single electrode controls the magnitude of actuation. By using this method, future corrective optics may significantly surpass current design performance without significantly increasing system complexity.

  14. Photoacoustic Signal Formation in Heterogeneous Multilayer Systems with Piezoelectric Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaiev, Mykola; Andrusenko, Dmytro; Tytarenko, Alona; Kuzmich, Andrey; Lysenko, Vladimir; Burbelo, Roman

    2014-12-01

    A new efficient model describing photoacoustic (PA) signal formation with piezoelectric detection is reported. Multilayer sandwich-like systems: heterogeneous studied structure—buffer layer—piezoelectric transducers are considered. In these systems, the buffer layer is used for spatial redistribution of thermoelastic force moments generated in the investigated structure. Thus, mechanical properties of this layer play a crucial role to ensure perfect control of the detected voltage formed on a piezoelectric transducer by contribution of different regions of the studied structure. In particular, formation of the voltage signal strongly depends on the point at which the thermoelastic source is applied. Therefore, use of relatively simple linear Green's functions introduced in frames of the Kirchhoff-Love theory is chosen as an efficient approach for the PA signal description. Moreover, excellent agreement between the theoretical model and measured results obtained on a heterogeneous "porous silicon-bulk Si substrate" structure is stated. Furthermore, resolving of the inverse problem with fitting of the experimental curves by the developed model allows reliable evaluation of the thermal conductivity of the nanostructured porous silicon layer.

  15. Micromechanical analysis of damping performance of piezoelectric structural fiber composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Qingli; Ng, Kenny

    2010-04-01

    Recent studies showed that the active piezoelectric structural fiber (PSF) composites may achieve significant and simultaneous improvements in sensing/actuating, stiffness, fracture toughness and vibration damping. These characteristics can be of particular importance in various civil, mechanical and aerospace structures. This study firstly conducted the micromechanical finite element analysis to predict the elastic properties and piezoelectrical coupling parameters of a special type of an active PSF composite laminate. The PSF composite laminates are made of longitudinally poled PSFs that are unidirectionally deployed in the polymer binding matrix. The passive damping performance of these active composites was studied under the cyclic force loadings with different frequencies. It was found that the passive electric-mechanical coupling behavior can absorb limited dynamic energy and delay the structure responses with minimum viscoelastic damping. The actuating function of piezoelectric materials was then applied to reduce the dynamic mechanical deformation. The step voltage inputs were imposed to the interdigital electrodes of PSF laminate transducer along the poled direction. The cyclic pressure loading was applied transversely to the composite laminate. The electromechnical interaction with the 1-3 coupling parameter generated the transverse expansion, which can reduce the cyclic deformation evenly by shifting the response waves. This study shows the promise in using this type of active composites as actuators to improve stability of the structure dynamic.

  16. Ultrasonic resonant modes of piezoelectric balloons under internal pressure.

    PubMed

    Denham, Lori Vidal; Rice, David A

    2012-09-01

    Properties of a piezoelectric polymeric angioplasty balloon that may decrease the problems of acute closure and restenosis are evaluated in this study. Polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF), a piezoelectric and pyroelectric polymer, has sufficient strength to serve as a standard angioplasty balloon as well as functioning as an ultrasonic transmitter and/or receiver. These properties enable potential therapeutic applications using ultrasound such as plaque ablation and sonotherapy as well as vulnerable plaque diagnosis using thermography. This study investigates the resonant structure of the PVDF balloon catheter in the frequency range 5-100 kHz. Vibrations of the piezoelectric balloon are modeled using cylindrical shell theory and compared with the observed modal frequencies of PVDF cylinders with and without internal pressure. Modal frequencies are determined by measuring the near-field pressure response of the PVDF cylinders using a high frequency microphone. A rich nodal structure is observed between 5 and 100 kHz with peak relative amplitudes measured between 42 and 45 kHz. Higher order modes for cylinders with 9 μm and 28 μm wall thickness increase in frequency as the internal pressure is increased. Experimental measurements confirm theoretical models that predict both pressure-dependent and pressure-independent resonant frequencies. Frequencies of pressure-dependent modes are calculated within 2.2% of measured values at high pressure. PMID:22978865

  17. A method of measuring Escherichia coli 0157:H7 at 1 cell/mL in 1 liter sample using antibody functionalized piezoelectric-excited millimeter-sized cantilever sensor.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Gossett A; Mutharasan, Raj

    2007-03-01

    Piezoelectric-excited millimeter-sized cantilever (PEMC) sensors immobilized with antibody specific to Escherichia coli (EC) 0157:H7 is used to detect EC at 1 cell/mL in 1 mL and 1 L samples in a batch and flow mode, respectively. Two sensor designs were used. The first design (PEMC-a) has both the piezoelectric and non-piezoelectric layer anchored, while in the second design (PEMC-b) had only the piezoelectric layer anchored. PEMC-a, used in batch mode with 1 mL sample, showed limit of detection at 10 cells/ mL using the second bending mode at 85.5 kHz in air. PEMC-b exhibited resonant frequencies at 186.5, 883.5, and 1778.5 kHz in air and 162.5, 800.0, and 1725.5 kHz in sample flow conditions. A one-liter sample containing 1000 EC cells was introduced at 1.5, 2.5, 3, and 17 ml/min, and the change in resonant frequency was monitored. The total frequency change observed for the mode at 800 kHz and sample flow rates of 1.5, 2.5, 3, and 17 mL/min were 2230+/-11, 3069 +/-47, 4686+/-97, and 7188+/-52 Hz, respectively. Each detection experiment was confirmed by exposing the sensor to a low pH solution followed by a phosphate buffered saline (PBS) rinse, which caused the release of the attached EC. The final frequency change observed was nearly identical to the value prior to EC attachment. Kinetic analysis showed that the observed binding rate constant at 1.5, 2.5, 3 mL/min were 0.009, 0.015, and 0.021 min(-1), respectively. The significance of these results is that very low concentration of pathogens in large sample volumes can be measured in a short time period without the need for filtration or enrichment. PMID:17396658

  18. Piezoelectric characteristics of three-dimensional solid object of poly(l-lactide) fabricated by three-dimensional printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Syota; Kamimura, Yuki; Tsukamoto, Nobuyuki; Imoto, Kenji; Sugitani, Hideki; Kondo, Takashi; Imada, Yuya; Nakiri, Takuo; Tajitsu, Yoshiro

    2015-10-01

    Through three-dimensional (3D) printing, we attempted to fabricate 3D solid objects with piezoelectricity. By optimizing the conditions of 3D printing, we realized the fabrication of a piezoelectric object by 3D printing. In fact, we could produce a poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) object similar to a smart phone case fabricated by 3D printing, the molded body of which has button sensors at the desired sites by exploiting the piezoelectric properties of PLLA. Finally, we confirmed that the PLLA object behaved as a fully functional sensor.

  19. Piezoelectric and Semiconducting Coupled Nanogenerators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Zhong L. (Inventor); Song, Jinhui (Inventor); Wang, Xudong (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An electrical generator includes a substrate, a semiconductor piezoelectric structure having a first end and an opposite second end disposed adjacent to the substrate, a first conductive contact and a second conductive contact. The structure bends when a force is applied adjacent to the first end, thereby causing an electrical potential difference to exist between a first side and a second side of the structure. The first conductive contact is in electrical communication with the first end and includes a material that creates a Schottky barrier between a portion of the first end of the structure and the first conductive contact. The first conductive contact is also disposed relative to the structure in a position so that the Schottky barrier is forward biased when the structure is deformed, thereby allowing current to flow from the first conductive contact into the first end.

  20. Piezoelectric Ignition of Nanocomposite Energetic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Eric Collins; Michelle Pantoya; Andreas A. Neuber; Michael Daniels; Daniel Prentice

    2014-01-01

    Piezoelectric initiators are a unique form of ignition for energetic material because the current and voltage are tied together by impact loading on the crystal. This study examines the ignition response of an energetic composite composed of aluminum and molybdenum trioxide nanopowders to the arc generated from a lead zirconate and lead titanate piezocrystal. The mechanical stimuli used to activate the piezocrystal varied to assess ignition voltage, power, and delay time of aluminum–molybdenum trioxide for a range of bulk powder densities. Results show a high dielectric strength leads to faster ignition times because of the higher voltage delivered to the energetic. Ignition delay is under 0.4 ms, which is faster than observed with thermal or shock ignition. Electric ignition of composite energetic materials is a strong function of interparticle connectivity, and thus the role of bulk density on electrostatic discharge ignition sensitivity is a focus of this study. Results show that the ignition delay times are dependent on the powder bulk density with an optimum bulk density of 50%. Packing fractions and electrical conductivity were analyzed and aid in explaining the resulting ignition behavior as a function of bulk density.

  1. NMR and optical studies of piezoelectric polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, V.H.; Tuthill, G.F.

    1993-01-01

    Progress is reported in several areas dealing with piezoelectric (electroactive) polymers (mostly vinylidene fluoride, trifluoroethylene, copolymers, PVF[sub 2]) and liquid crystals. Optical studies, neutron scattering, NMR, thermal, theory and modeling were done.

  2. Computational homogenization of fibrous piezoelectric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruccio, Claudio; De Lorenzis, Laura; Persano, Luana; Pisignano, Dario

    2015-05-01

    Flexible piezoelectric devices made of polymeric materials are widely used for micro- and nano-electro-mechanical systems. In particular, numerous recent applications concern energy harvesting. Due to the importance of computational modeling to understand the influence that microscale geometry and constitutive variables exert on the macroscopic behavior, a numerical approach is developed here for multiscale and multiphysics modeling of thin piezoelectric sheets made of aligned arrays of polymeric nanofibers, manufactured by electrospinning. At the microscale, the representative volume element consists in piezoelectric polymeric nanofibers, assumed to feature a piezoelastic behavior and subjected to electromechanical contact constraints. The latter are incorporated into the virtual work equations by formulating suitable electric, mechanical and coupling potentials and the constraints are enforced by using the penalty method. From the solution of the micro-scale boundary value problem, a suitable scale transition procedure leads to identifying the performance of a macroscopic thin piezoelectric shell element.

  3. Piezoelectric nanoparticle-polymer composite foams.

    PubMed

    McCall, William R; Kim, Kanguk; Heath, Cory; La Pierre, Gina; Sirbuly, Donald J

    2014-11-26

    Piezoelectric polymer composite foams are synthesized using different sugar-templating strategies. By incorporating sugar grains directly into polydimethylsiloxane mixtures containing barium titanate nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes, followed by removal of the sugar after polymer curing, highly compliant materials with excellent piezoelectric properties can be fabricated. Porosities and elasticity are tuned by simply adjusting the sugar/polymer mass ratio which gave an upper bound on the porosity of 73% and a lower bound on the elastic coefficient of 32 kPa. The electrical performance of the foams showed a direct relationship between porosity and the piezoelectric outputs, giving piezoelectric coefficient values of ∼112 pC/N and a power output of ∼18 mW/cm3 under a load of 10 N for the highest porosity samples. These novel materials should find exciting use in a variety of applications including energy scavenging platforms, biosensors, and acoustic actuators. PMID:25353687

  4. Development of piezoelectric composites for transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safari, A.

    1994-07-01

    For the past decade and a half, many different types of piezoelectric ceramic-polymer composites have been developed intended for transducer applications. These diphasic composites are prepared from non-active polymer, such as epoxy, and piezoelectric ceramic, such as PZT, in the form of filler powders, elongated fibers, multilayer and more complex three-dimensional structures. For the last four years, most of the efforts have been given to producing large area and fine scale PZT fiber composites. In this paper, processing of piezoelectric ceramic-polymer composites with various connectivity patterns are reviewed. Development of fine scale piezoelectric composites by lost mold, injection molding and the relic method are described. Research activities of different groups for preparing large area piezocomposites for hydrophone and actuator applications are briefly reviewed. Initial development of electrostrictive ceramics and composites are also

  5. Thermally Stable Piezoelectric and Pyroelectric Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, Joycelyn O.; St. Clair, Terry L.

    2006-01-01

    A class of thermally stable piezoelectric and pyroelectric polymers, and an improved method of making them, have been invented. These polymers can be used as substrates for a wide variety of electromechanical transducers, sensors, and actuators.

  6. Adaptive piezoelectric shell structures: theory and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzou, H. S.; Zhong, J. P.

    1993-07-01

    Active "smart" space and mechanical structures with adaptive dynamic characteristics have long been interested in a variety of high-performance systems, e.g. flexible space structures, flexible robots, "smart" machines etc. In this paper, an active adaptive structure made of piezoelectric materials is proposed and evaluated. Electromechanical equations of motion and generalised boundary conditions of a generic piezoelectric shell subjected to mechanical and electrical excitations are derived using Hamilton's principle and the linear piezoelectric theory. The structural adaptivity is achieved by a voltage feedback (open or closed loops) utilising the converse piezoelectric effect. Applications of the theory is demonstrated in a bimorph beam case and a cylindrical shell case. Frequency manipulation of the bimorph beam is studied theoretically and experimentally. Damping control of the cylindrical shell via in-plane membrane forces is also investigated.

  7. Dynamic adaptivity of "smart" piezoelectric structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzou, Horn-Sen; Zhong, Jianping P.

    1990-10-01

    Active smart" space and machine structures with adaptive dynamic characteristics have long been interested in a variety of high-performance systems, e.g., flexible robots, flexible space structures, "smart" machines, etc. In this paper, an active adaptive structure made of piezoelectric materials is proposed and evaluated. The structural adaptivity is achieved by a voltage feedback (open or closed loops) utilizing the converse piezoelectric effect. A mathematical model is proposed and the electrodynamic equations of motion and the generalized boundary conditions of a generic piezoelectric shell subjected to mechanical and electrical excitations are derived using Hamilton's principle and the linear piezoelectric theory. The dynamic adaptivity of the structure is introduced using a feedback control system. The theory is demonstrated in a case study in which the structural adaptivity (natural frequency) is investigated.

  8. Studying insect motion with piezoelectric sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mika, Bartosz; Lee, Hyungoo; González, Jorge M.; Vinson, S. Bradleigh; Liang, Hong

    2007-04-01

    Piezoelectric materials have been widely used in applications such as transducers, acoustic components, as well as motion, pressure and airborne sensors. Because of the material's biocompatibility and flexibility, we have been able to apply small piezoelectric sensors, made of PVDF, to cockroaches. We built a laboratory test system to study the piezoelectric properties of a bending sensor. The tested motion was compared with that of the sensor attached to a cockroach. Surface characterization and finite element analysis revealed the effects of microstructure on piezoelectric response. The sensor attachment enables us to monitor the insects' locomotion and study their behaviors. The applications of engineering materials to insects opens the door to innovating approaches to integrating biological, mechanical and electrical systems.

  9. Piezoelectric energy harvesting from raised crosswalk devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ticali, Dario; Denaro, Mario; Barracco, Alessandro; Guerrieri, Marco

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents the main characteristics of an experimental energy harvesting device that can be used to recover energy from the vehicular and pedestrian traffic. The use of a piezoelectric bender devices leads to a innovative approach to Henergy Harvesting. The study focuses on the definition and specification of a mechanical configuration able to transfer the vibration from the main box to the piezoelectric transducer. The piezoelectric devices tested is the commonly used monolithic piezoceramic material lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT). The experimental results estimate the efficiency of this device tested and identify the feasibility of their use in real world applications. The results presented in this paper show the potential of piezoelectric materials for use in power harvesting applications.

  10. In situ health monitoring of piezoelectric sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Scott L. (Inventor); Drouant, George J. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An in situ health monitoring apparatus may include an exciter circuit that applies a pulse to a piezoelectric transducer and a data processing system that determines the piezoelectric transducer's dynamic response to the first pulse. The dynamic response can be used to evaluate the operating range, health, and as-mounted resonance frequency of the transducer, as well as the strength of a coupling between the transducer and a structure and the health of the structure.

  11. Distributed structural control using multilayered piezoelectric actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cudney, Harley H.; Inman, Daniel J.; Oshman, Yaakov

    1990-01-01

    A method of segmenting piezoelectric sensors and actuators is proposed which can preclude the currently experienced cancelation of sensor signals, or the reduction of actuator effectiveness, due to the integration of the property undergoing measurement or control. The segmentation method is demonstrated by a model developed for beam structures, to which multiple layers of piezoelectric materials are attached. A numerical study is undertaken of increasing active and passive damping of a beam using the segmented sensors and actuators over unsegmented sensors and actuators.

  12. Passive modal damping with piezoelectric shunts

    SciTech Connect

    Granier, J. J.; Haundhausen, R. J.; Gaytan, G. E.

    2001-01-01

    The use of piezoelectric materials in conjunction with passive inductance-resistance-capacitance (RLC) circuits to dampen specific vibration modes is explored. The piezoelectric materials convert mechanical energy to electrical energy, which is then dissipated in the RLC circuit through joule heating. An impulse is applied to a simple cantilevered beam and by varying the inductance and resistance values, the natural oscillation frequency fcir the RLC circuit is tuned to dampen the first mode of vibration.

  13. Improved Multiple-DOF SAW Piezoelectric Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Bao, Xiaoqi; Hull, Anthony; Wright, John

    2003-01-01

    Surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) piezoelectric motors of a proposed type would be capable of operating in multiple degrees of freedom (DOFs) simultaneously and would be amenable to integration into diverse structures and mechanisms. These motors would be compact and structurally simple and would not contain bearings or lead screws. One example of a particularly useful motor of this type would be a two-dimensional- translation stage. Another such example would be a self-actuated spherical joint that could be made to undergo controlled, simultaneous rotations about two orthogonal axes: Such a motor could serve as a mechanism for aiming an "eyeball" camera or as a compact transducer in, and an integral part of, a joint in a robot arm. The multiple-DOF SAW piezoelectric motors as now proposed would be successors to the ones reported in "Multiple-DOF Surface-Acoustic-Wave Piezoelectric Motors" (NPO-20735), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 24, No. 12 (December 2000), page 5b. The basic principle of operation of a multiple-DOF SAW piezoelectric motor is a straightforward extension of that of single-DOF SAW piezoelectric motors, which have been reported in several previous NASA Tech Briefs articles: For example, in the case of a linear SAW piezoelectric motor, piezoelectric transducers at opposite ends of a stator excite surface acoustic waves that travel along the surface of the stator. An object (denoted the slider) is pressed against the stator with sufficient pressure (in practice .300 MPa) that it remains in frictional contact with the stator at all times. The slider rides the crests of the waves and is thereby made to move along the surface of the stator. The direction of motion (forward or backward) is controlled by selecting the relative phase of waves generated by the two piezoelectric transducers. The speed increases with the amplitude of the waves and thus with the magnitude of the voltage applied to the transducers.

  14. A nanoscale piezoelectric transformer for low-voltage transistors.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Sapan; Yablonovitch, Eli

    2014-11-12

    A novel piezoelectric voltage transformer for low-voltage transistors is proposed. Placing a piezoelectric transformer on the gate of a field-effect transistor results in the piezoelectric transformer field-effect transistor that can switch at significantly lower voltages than a conventional transistor. The piezoelectric transformer operates by using one piezoelectric to squeeze another piezoelectric to generate a higher output voltage than the input voltage. Multiple piezoelectrics can be used to squeeze a single piezoelectric layer to generate an even higher voltage amplification. Coupled electrical and mechanical modeling in COMSOL predicts a 12.5× voltage amplification for a six-layer piezoelectric transformer. This would lead to more than a 150× reduction in the power needed for communications. PMID:25343519

  15. Electrical admittance of piezoelectric parallelepipeds: application to tensorial characterization of piezoceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diallo, O.; Clezio, E. Le; Delaunay, T.; Bavencoffe, M.; Feuillard, G.

    2014-01-01

    This work deals with the characterization of functional properties, including determination of mechanical and electrical losses, of piezoelectric materials using only one sample and one measurement. First, the natural resonant frequencies of a piezoelectric parallelepiped are calculated and the electrical admittance is determined from calculations of the charge quantity on both electrodes of the parallelepiped. A first validation of the model is performed using a comparison with Mason's model. Results are reported for a PMN-34.5PT ceramic cube and a good agreement is found between experimental admittance measurements and their modeling. The functional properties of the PMN-34.5PT are then extracted.

  16. Electrical admittance of piezoelectric parallelepipeds: application to tensorial characterization of piezoceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Diallo, O.; Bavencoffe, M.; Feuillard, G.; Clezio, E. Le; Delaunay, T.

    2014-01-15

    This work deals with the characterization of functional properties, including determination of mechanical and electrical losses, of piezoelectric materials using only one sample and one measurement. First, the natural resonant frequencies of a piezoelectric parallelepiped are calculated and the electrical admittance is determined from calculations of the charge quantity on both electrodes of the parallelepiped. A first validation of the model is performed using a comparison with Mason's model. Results are reported for a PMN-34.5PT ceramic cube and a good agreement is found between experimental admittance measurements and their modeling. The functional properties of the PMN-34.5PT are then extracted.

  17. High-Grade Articular, Bursal, and Intratendinous Partial-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears: A Retrospective Study Comparing Functional Outcomes After Completion and Repair.

    PubMed

    Donohue, Nicholas K; Nickel, Brian T; Grindel, Steven I

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a study to assess the impact of tear location on functional outcomes in high-grade partial-thickness rotator cuff tears (PTRCTs) after arthroscopic completion and repair. Retrospectively, we evaluated the preoperative and postoperative findings of 60 patients who underwent arthroscopic completion and repair of Ellman grade 3 partial-thickness tears of the supraspinatus. The 60 patients were grouped by tear subtype (20 articular, 20 bursal, 20 intratendinous) as identified by preoperative imaging and confirmed at time of surgery. After surgery, the 3 subtypes showed similar significant (P < .001) improvements in American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores (articular, 46.9, 85.1; bursal, 44.3, 80.3; intratendinous, 43.6, 86.1), Constant scores (articular, 54.3, 79.4; bursal, 49.9, 75.0; intratendinous, 56.8, 80.9), and visual analog scale scores (articular, 5.1, 1.2; bursal, 5.8, 1.6; intratendinous, 6.0, 1.2). Our study findings validate use of the current algorithm for Ellman grade 3 PTRCTs of the supraspinatus and advocate their completion and repair, regardless of tear location. PMID:27552462

  18. Semi-analytical solution for three-dimensional transient response of functionally graded annular plate on a two parameter viscoelastic foundation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Xu; Wang, Zhenyu; Wang, Lizhong; Liu, Guohua

    2014-06-01

    The three-dimensional transient analysis of functionally graded annular plates with arbitrary boundary conditions is carried out in this paper. The material properties of the FGM plate are assumed to vary smoothly in an exponential law along the thickness direction. The plate is assumed to rest on a two parameter viscoelastic foundation. A semi-analytical method, which integrates the state space method (SSM), Laplace transform and its inversion, as well as the one-dimensional differential quadrature method (DQM), is proposed to obtain the transient response of the plate. The state space method is used to obtain the analytical solution in the thickness direction. The differential quadrature method is employed to approximate the solution in the radial direction. The Laplace transform and the numerical inversion are used to obtain the solution in time domain. Numerical results show a good agreement between the response histories obtained by the present method and finite element method. The effects of the boundary conditions at the edges, the material graded index, the Winkler and shearing layer elastic coefficients, and the damping coefficient are studied. Numerical examples show that the peak response decreases as the material graded index, the Winkler and shearing layer elastic coefficients, and the damping coefficient increase. The results obtained in this paper can serve as benchmark data in further research.

  19. Modeling of multilayered piezoelectric transducers with ultrasonic welding application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güney, Murat; Eskinat, Esref

    2007-04-01

    Mechanical components of sandwiched piezoelectric transducers are modeled using one-dimensional wave transmission and piezoelectric equations. Using the impedance method, resonance frequencies, stress and displacement distributions along the multilayered piezoelectric transducers of different dimensions and materials are obtained. The calculated resonance frequencies and the impedances are experimentally verified. For ultrasonic welding of plastics, the effect of the parts to be welded on the resonance frequency of the whole system is investigated regarding both material damping and piezoelectric losses. Using the methods developed, several piezoelectric transducers are analysed for different designs. The obtained results can be used to better understand the qualitative relations between the design variables of ultrasonic piezoelectric transducers.

  20. Evidence for potentials and limitations of brain plasticity using an atlas of functional resectability of WHO grade II gliomas: towards a "minimal common brain".

    PubMed

    Ius, Tamara; Angelini, Elsa; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Mandonnet, Emmanuel; Duffau, Hugues

    2011-06-01

    Despite recent advances in non-invasive brain mapping imaging, the resectability of a given area in a patient harboring a WHO grade II glioma cannot be predicted preoperatively with high reliability, due to mechanisms of functional reorganization. Therefore, intraoperative mapping by direct electrical stimulation remains the gold standard for detection and preservation of eloquent areas during glioma surgery, because it enables to perform on-line anatomo-functional correlations. To study potentials and limitations of brain plasticity, we gathered 58 postoperative MRI of patients operated on for a WHO grade II glioma under direct electrical cortico-subcortical stimulation. Postoperative images were registered on the MNI template to construct an atlas of functional resectability for which each voxel represents the probability to observe residual non-resectable tumor, that is, non-compensable area. The resulting atlas offers a rigorous framework to identify areas with high plastic potential (i.e. with probabilities of residual tumor close to 0), with low compensatory capabilities (i.e. probabilities of residual tumor close to 1) and with intermediate level of resectability (probability around 0.5). The resulting atlas highlights the utmost importance of preserving a core of connectivity through the main associative pathways, namely, it supports the existence of a "minimal common brain" among patients. PMID:21414413

  1. Theory and experimental verification on valveless piezoelectric pump with multistage Y-shape treelike bifurcate tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jun; Zhang, Jianhui; Xun, Xianchao; Wang, Shouyin

    2013-05-01

    Among most traditional piezo water cooling systems, piezoelectric valve pumps are adopted as their driving sources. The valves in these pumps induce problems of shock and vibration and also make their structure complicated, which is uneasy to minimize and reduce their reliability and applicability of the whole system. In order to avoid these problems caused by valve structure, a novel valveless piezoelectric pump is developed, which integrates both functions of transforming and cooling. The pump's Y-shape tree-like construction not only increases the efficiency of cooling but also the system reliability and applicability. Firstly, a multistage Y-shape treelike bifurcate tube is proposed, then a valveless piezoelectric pump with multistage Y-shape treelike bifurcate tubes is designed and its working principle is analyzed. Then, the theoretical analysis of flow resistance characteristics and the flow rate of the valveless piezoelectric pump are performed. Meanwhile, commercial software CFX is employed to perform the numerical simulation for the pump. Finally, this valveless piezoelectric pump is fabricated, the relationship between the flow rates and driving frequency, as well as the relationship between the back pressure and the driving frequency are experimentally investigated. The experimental results show that the maximum flow rate is 35.6 mL/min under 100 V peak-to-peak voltage (10.3 Hz) power supply, and the maximum back pressure is 55 mm H2O under 100 V (9 Hz) power supply, which validates the feasibility of the valveless piezoelectric pump with multistage Y-shape treelike bifurcate tubes. The proposed research provides certain references for the design of valveless piezoelectric pump and improves the reliability of piezo water cooling systems.

  2. Design and characterization of piezoelectric ultrasonic motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yener, Serra

    This thesis presents modeling and prototype fabrication and characterization of new types of piezoelectric ultrasonic micromotors. Our approach in designing these piezoelectric motors was: (i) to simplify the structure including the poling configuration of piezoelectric elements used in the stator and (ii) to reduce the number of components in order to decrease the cost and enhance the driving reliability. There are two different types of piezoelectric motors designed throughout this research. The first of these designs consists of a metal tube, on which two piezoelectric ceramic plates poled in thickness direction, were bonded. Two orthogonal bending modes of the hollow cylinder were superimposed resulting in a rotational vibration. Since the structure and poling configuration of the active piezoelectric elements used in the stator are simple, this motor structure is very suitable for miniaturization. Moreover, a single driving source can excite two bending modes at the same time, thus generate a wobble motion. Three types of prototypes are included in this design. The piezoelectric stator structure is the same for all. However, the dimensions of the motors are reduced by almost 50 percent. Starting with a 10 mm long stator, we reached to 4 mm in the last prototype. The initial diameter was 2.4 mm, which was reduced to 1.6 mm. In the final design, the rotor part of the motor was changed resulting in the reduction in the number of components. In terms of driving circuit, a single driving source was enough to run the motors and a conventional switching power supply type resonant L-C circuit was used. A simple motor structure with a simple driving circuit were combined successfully and fabricated inexpensively. The second design is a shear type piezoelectric linear motor. The behavior of a single rectangular piezoelectric shear plate was analyzed and after optimizing the dimensions and the mode characteristics, a prototype was fabricated. The prototype consists of

  3. A protein coated piezoelectric crystal detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suleiman, Ahmad; Pender, Marie; Ngeh-Ngwainbi, Jerome; Lubrano, Glenn; Guilbault, George

    1990-05-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop a protein coated, portable piezoelectric crystal detector for organophosphorus compounds. The performance of acetylcholinesterase, GD-1 anti-soman, anti-DMMP antibody, and bovine serum albumin (BSA) coatings was evaluated. Different immobilization methods were also tested. The responses obtained with the protein coatings immobilized via cross-linking with glutaraldehyde were acceptable, provided that the reference crystal was coated with dextran. The proposed coatings showed good stability and reasonable lifetimes that ranged from approximately three weeks in the case of the antibody coatings to several months in the case of BSA. Although moisture, gasoline, and sulfur are potential interferents, their effects on the sensor were eliminated by using a sodium sulfate scrubber which did not affect the performance of the detector towards organophosphates. A small, battery operated portable instrument capable of real time measurements with alarm function was produced. The instrument can be used in a wide range of applications, depending on the coatings applied to the crystals.

  4. Piezoelectric nanoribbons for monitoring cellular deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Thanh D.; Deshmukh, Nikhil; Nagarah, John M.; Kramer, Tal; Purohit, Prashant K.; Berry, Michael J.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2012-09-01

    Methods for probing mechanical responses of mammalian cells to electrical excitations can improve our understanding of cellular physiology and function. The electrical response of neuronal cells to applied voltages has been studied in detail, but less is known about their mechanical response to electrical excitations. Studies using atomic force microscopes (AFMs) have shown that mammalian cells exhibit voltage-induced mechanical deflections at nanometre scales, but AFM measurements can be invasive and difficult to multiplex. Here we show that mechanical deformations of neuronal cells in response to electrical excitations can be measured using piezoelectric PbZrxTi1-xO3 (PZT) nanoribbons, and we find that cells deflect by 1 nm when 120 mV is applied to the cell membrane. The measured cellular forces agree with a theoretical model in which depolarization caused by an applied voltage induces a change in membrane tension, which results in the cell altering its radius so that the pressure remains constant across the membrane. We also transfer arrays of PZT nanoribbons onto a silicone elastomer and measure mechanical deformations on a cow lung that mimics respiration. The PZT nanoribbons offer a minimally invasive and scalable platform for electromechanical biosensing.

  5. Model of a Piezoelectric Transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodenow, Debra

    2004-01-01

    It's difficult to control liquid and gas in propellant tanks in zero gravity. A possible a design would utilize acoustic liquid manipulation (ALM) technology which uses ultrasonic beams conducted through a liquid and solid media, to push gas bubbles in the liquid to desirable locations. We can propel and control the bubble with acoustic radiation pressure by aiming the acoustic waves on the bubble s surface. This allows us to design a so called smart tank in which the ALM devices transfer the gas to the outer wall of the tank and isolating the liquid in the center. Because the heat transfer rate of a gas is lower of that of the liquid it would substantially decrease boil off and provide of for a longer storage life. The ALM beam is composed of little wavelets which are individual waves that constructively interfere with each other to produce a single, combined acoustic wave front. This is accomplished by using a set of synchronized ultrasound transducers arranged in an array. A slight phase offset of these elements allows us to focus and steer the beam. The device that we are using to produce the acoustic beam is called the piezoelectric transducer. This device converts electrical energy to mechanical energy, which appears in the form of acoustic energy. Therefore the behavior of the device is dependent on both the mechanical characteristics, such as its density, cross-sectional area, and its electrical characteristics, such as, electric flux permittivity and coupling factor. These devices can also be set up in a number of modes which are determined by the way the piezoelectric device is arranged, and the shape of the transducer. For this application we are using the longitudinal or thickness mode for our operation. The transducer also vibrates in the lateral mode, and one of the goals of my project is to decrease the amount of energy lost to the lateral mode. To model the behavior of the transducers I will be using Pspice, electric circuit modeling tool, to

  6. Narcotics detection using piezoelectric ringing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayner, Timothy J.; Magnuson, Erik E.; West, Rebecca; Lyndquist, R.

    1997-02-01

    Piezo-electric ringing (PER) has been demonstrated to be an effective means of scanning cargo for the presence of hidden narcotics. The PER signal is characteristic of certain types of crystallized material, such as cocaine hydrochloride. However, the PER signal cannot be used to conclusively identify all types of narcotic material, as the signal is not unique. For the purposes of cargo scanning, the PER technique is therefore most effective when used in combination with quadrupole resonance analysis (QRA). PER shares the same methodology as QRA technology, and can therefore be very easily and inexpensively integrated into existing QRA detectors. PER can be used as a pre-scanning technique before the QRA scan is applied and, because the PER scan is of a very short duration, can effectively offset some of the throughput limitations of standard QRA narcotics detectors. Following is a discussion of a PER detector developed by Quantum Manetics under contract to United States Customs. Design philosophy and performance are discussed, supported by results from recent tests conducted by the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency and U.S. Customs.

  7. Optimal shape control of a beam using piezoelectric actuators with low control voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Y.; Zhang, X. N.; Xie, S. L.

    2009-09-01

    This paper deals with the shape control of a cantilever beam structure by using laminated piezoelectric actuators (LPAs) with a low control voltage. The shape control equation of the cantilever beam partially covered with LPAs is derived based on the constitutive relations of the elastic material and piezoelectric material and shear deformation beam theory (Timoshenko theory). The actuating forces produced by the LPAs are formulated as well. It reveals how the actuating forces depend on the number of piezoelectric layers, the thickness of piezoelectric layers and the position of the actuators. The driving voltages of the LPAs are then determined by a genetic optimization algorithm. The shape control of the cantilever beam from applying the optimal voltage to the LPAs is simulated. The simulation results show that an LPA of large layer number is able to diminish effectively the pre-deflection of the beam under a low control voltage. The voltage applied to the LPA of five layers was almost five times smaller than that of one layer. In addition, increasing the number of LPA layers can significantly improve the control performance as the acting forces of the LPA are a quadratic function of the LPA layer number. The L2 norm of the displacement array of all nodes is diminished about 30% after optimization. Also with the same low control voltage, the LPA can obtain a better control performance than the conventional single layer piezoelectric actuator.

  8. Beneficial and detrimental fatigue effects of dielectric barrier discharges on the piezoelectricity of polypropylene ferroelectrets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Xunlin; Wirges, Werner; Gerhard, Reimund

    2011-07-01

    Cellular polypropylene (PP) ferroelectrets combine a large piezoelectricity with mechanical flexibility and elastic compliance. Their charging process represents a series of dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) that generate a cold plasma with numerous active species and thus modify the inner polymer surfaces of the foam cells. Both the threshold for the onset of DBDs and the piezoelectricity of ferroelectrets are sensitive to repeated DBDs in the voids. It is found that the threshold voltage is approximately halved and the charging efficiency is clearly improved after only 103 DBD cycles. However, plasma modification of the inner surfaces from repeated DBDs deteriorates the chargeability of the voids, leading to a significant reduction of the piezoelectricity in ferroelectrets. After a significant waiting period, the chargeability of previously fatigued voids shows a partial recovery. The plasma modification is, however, detrimental to the stability of the deposited charges and thus also of the macroscopic dipoles and of the piezoelectricity. Fatigue from only 103 DBD cycles already results in significantly less stable piezoelectricity in cellular PP ferroelectrets. The fatigue rate as a function of the number of voltage cycles follows a stretched exponential. Fatigue from repeated DBDs can be avoided if most of the gas molecules inside the voids are removed via a suitable evacuation process.

  9. Band-pass design optimization of piezoelectric cantilever bimorph energy harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Long; Williams, Keith A.

    2011-03-01

    Piezoelectric energy harvesting has become a feasible method for powering micro portable electronics and wireless sensor networks by converting ambient vibration energy into electrical energy. As a thumb of rule, it is critical to tune the resonant frequency of the generator to the frequency of the environmental vibrations in order to induce the maximum structural deformation and then the maximum converted electrical energy through piezoelectric effect. However, it is well-known that the ambient vibrations are not usually fixed in only one single frequency and could span over a limited frequency band. In this paper, a band-pass design optimization of piezoelectric cantilever bimorph (PCB) energy harvester is presented based on the system transfer function of the PCB generator presented in a previous literature. For such an energy harvester, a group of PCB with dimensions appropriately selected can be integrated into a band-pass energy harvester working over a limited frequency band if the dimensions of piezoelectric bimorphs and proof masses are appropriately chosen. Further, the finite element analysis (FEA) of such a band-pass energy harvester is performed in ANSYS to validate the theoretical proposal. The result shows that the band-pass design optimization leads to a piezoelectric generator working over a certain frequency band while keeping outputting the relatively stable open-circuit voltage.

  10. Ferroelectric and Piezoelectric Properties of Blends of Poly(Vinylidene-Trifluoroethylene) and Graft Elastomer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, J.; Ounaies, Z.; Harrison, J. S.

    1999-01-01

    A piezoelectric polymeric blend system has been developed. The system contains two components: ferroelectric poly(vinylidene-trifluoroethylene) and graft elastomer. The remanent polarization, Pr, and the piezoelectric strain coefficient, d31, of the blends have been studied as a function of relative composition of the two components, temperature and frequency. Both blended copolymer and graft unit in the elastomer contribute to the total crystallinity of the blend-system, and hence to the remanent polarization and piezoelectricity. The piezoelectric strain coefficient, d31, of the blend systems shows dependence on both the remanent polarization and the mechanical stiffness, which in turn are determined by the fraction of the two components in the blends. This mechanism makes it possible for the piezoelectric strain response of the blend to be tailored by adjusting the relative composition. Although Pr of the copolymer is higher than that of the blends, the blend films containing 75 wt.% copolymer exhibit a higher d31 at room temperature, possibly due to their lower modulus. The blend films containing 50 wt.% copolymer exhibit a constant value of d31, from room temperature to 70 C.

  11. Precise measurement of the transverse piezoelectric coefficient for thin films on anisotropic substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Chun, Doo-Man; Sato, Masashi; Kanno, Isaku

    2013-01-28

    In this study, we propose a reliable measurement method for the effective transverse piezoelectric coefficient for thin films especially on anisotropic substrate. This coefficient for piezoelectric Pb(Zr, Ti)O{sub 3} (PZT) thin films was calculated by measuring the electric field-induced tip displacement of unimorph cantilevers composed of PZT thin films and Si substrates. We evaluated the reliability of the proposed measurement method by comparing it with numerical analysis and confirmed that the relative error of the piezoelectric coefficient (e{sub 31,f}) was less than 1%. We prepared 16 different unimorph cantilevers composed of identical PZT films on different Si beam geometries that had various substrate thicknesses and cantilever widths. Although the effective transverse piezoelectric coefficient e{sub 31,f} of PZT thin films ranged from -6.5 to -14 C/m{sup 2} as a function of the applied voltage, the difference among the 16 samples with an applied voltage of 25 V was within 10%. These results demonstrate that the proposed measurement method has sufficient reliability and can be used to evaluate the effective transverse piezoelectric coefficient e{sub 31,f} of thin films.

  12. Thermoelastic analysis of non-uniform pressurized functionally graded cylinder with variable thickness using first order shear deformation theory(FSDT) and perturbation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoshgoftar, M. J.; Mirzaali, M. J.; Rahimi, G. H.

    2015-11-01

    Recently application of functionally graded materials(FGMs) have attracted a great deal of interest. These materials are composed of various materials with different micro-structures which can vary spatially in FGMs. Such composites with varying thickness and non-uniform pressure can be used in the aerospace engineering. Therefore, analysis of such composite is of high importance in engineering problems. Thermoelastic analysis of functionally graded cylinder with variable thickness under non-uniform pressure is considered. First order shear deformation theory and total potential energy approach is applied to obtain the governing equations of non-homogeneous cylinder. Considering the inner and outer solutions, perturbation series are applied to solve the governing equations. Outer solution for out of boundaries and more sensitive variable in inner solution at the boundaries are considered. Combining of inner and outer solution for near and far points from boundaries leads to high accurate displacement field distribution. The main aim of this paper is to show the capability of matched asymptotic solution for different non-homogeneous cylinders with different shapes and different non-uniform pressures. The results can be used to design the optimum thickness of the cylinder and also some properties such as high temperature residence by applying non-homogeneous material.

  13. Influence of piezoceramic to fused silica plate thickness on the radii of curvature of piezoelectric bimorph mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libu, M.; Susanth, S.; Vasanthakumari, K. G.; Dileep Kumar, C. J.; Raghu, N.

    2012-01-01

    Piezoelectric based bimorph mirrors (PBM) find extensive use in focusing of x-ray beams. Many optical instruments require use of PBM whose radii of curvature can be tuned precisely. The 100 mm and 300 mm PBMs were fabricated with varying piezoelectric to fused silica plate thicknesses. The radii of curvature of free standing mirrors were measured as a function of voltage and it was found to decrease with increasing voltage. For a given piezoelectric plate thickness, as the fused silica thickness increases, the radii of curvature was found to increase owing to increase in stiffness of the mirror. On the other hand, for a given fused silica plate thickness, when the piezoelectric plate thickness is increased, the radii of curvature are decreased for a given electric field, due to increase in generated force. This study brings out the influence of piezoceramic to fused silica plate thickness on the radii of curvature of PBM.

  14. Bonding a linearly piezoelectric patch on a linearly elastic body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licht, Christian; Orankitjaroen, Somsak; Viriyasrisuwattana, Patcharakorn; Weller, Thibaut

    2014-04-01

    A rigorous study of the asymptotic behavior of the system constituted by a very thin linearly piezoelectric plate bonded on a linearly elastic body supplies various models for an elastic body monitored by a piezoelectric patch. xml:lang="fr"

  15. Direct Piezoelectricity of Soft Composite Electrospun Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga, Michael; Morvan, Jason; Diorio, Nick; Buyuktanir, Ebru; Harden, John; West, John; Jakli, Antal

    2013-03-01

    Recently soft fiber mats electrospun from solutions of Barium Titanate (BT) ferroelectric ceramics particles and poly lactic acid (PLA) were found to have large (d33 1nm/V) converse piezoelectric signals offering a myriad of applications ranging from active implants to smart textiles. Here we report direct piezoelectric measurements (electric signals due to mechanical stress) of the BT/PLA composite fiber mats at various BT concentrations. A testing apparatus was designed and constructed solely for these measurements involving AC stresses provided by a speaker in 10Hz-10kHz frequency range. The piezoelectric constant d33 ~1nC/N was found to be in agreement with the prior converse piezoelectric measurements. The largest signals were obtained with 6% BT/PLA composites, probably because the BT particles at higher concentrations could not be dispersed homogeneously. Importantly the direct piezoelectric signal is large enough to power a small LCD by simply pressing a 0.2mm thick 2 cm2 area mat by a finger. We expect to use these mats in active Braille cells and in liquid crystal writing tablets.

  16. Piezoelectric driven thermo-acoustic refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinn, D. G.; Nouh, M.; Aldraihem, O.; Baz, A.

    2011-03-01

    Thermoacoustic refrigeration is an emerging refrigeration technology which does not rely for in its operation on the use of any moving parts or harmful refrigerants. This technology uses acoustic waves to pump heat across a temperature gradient. The vast majority of thermoacoustic refrigerators to date have used electromagnetic loudspeakers to generate the acoustic input. In this paper, the design, construction, operation, and modeling of a piezoelectric-driven thermoacoustic refrigerator are detailed. This refrigerator demonstrates the effectiveness of piezoelectric actuation in moving 0.3 W of heat across an 18 degree C temperature difference with an input power of 7.6 W. The performance characteristics of this class of thermoacoustic-piezoelectric refrigerator are modeled using DeltaEC software and the predictions are validated experimentally. The obtained results confirm the validity of the developed model. Furthermore, the potential of piezoelectric actuation as effective means for driving thermoacoustic refrigerators is demonstrated as compared to the conventional electromagnetic loudspeakers which are heavy and require high actuation energy. The developed theoretical and experimental tools can serve as invaluable means for the design and testing of other piezoelectric driven thermoacoustic refrigerator configurations.

  17. High-Fidelity Piezoelectric Audio Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Stanley E.; Fox, Robert L.; Bryant, Robert G.

    2003-01-01

    ModalMax is a very innovative means of harnessing the vibration of a piezoelectric actuator to produce an energy efficient low-profile device with high-bandwidth high-fidelity audio response. The piezoelectric audio device outperforms many commercially available speakers made using speaker cones. The piezoelectric device weighs substantially less (4 g) than the speaker cones which use magnets (10 g). ModalMax devices have extreme fabrication simplicity. The entire audio device is fabricated by lamination. The simplicity of the design lends itself to lower cost. The piezoelectric audio device can be used without its acoustic chambers and thereby resulting in a very low thickness of 0.023 in. (0.58 mm). The piezoelectric audio device can be completely encapsulated, which makes it very attractive for use in wet environments. Encapsulation does not significantly alter the audio response. Its small size (see Figure 1) is applicable to many consumer electronic products, such as pagers, portable radios, headphones, laptop computers, computer monitors, toys, and electronic games. The audio device can also be used in automobile or aircraft sound systems.

  18. State of the research works on PVDF piezoelectric polymer stress gauges

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, F.; Graman, R.A.; Lee, L.M.; Samara, G.

    1988-01-01

    The research work presented here shows the progress realized in the studies of the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of Polyvinylidene Flouride (PVDF). An attempt has been made to understand the fundamental phenomena of the mechanism responsible for the functioning of the shock loaded ferroelectric PVDF. Fundamental questions have not yet found a sufficient response. The main parameter which must be taken into account in the standardization process, is the polarization which is fixed at a value of 9.15 +- 0.15 ..mu..C/cm/sup 2/. There are different PVDF, but it seems clear that there is only one piezoelectric PVDF which can be used for shock gauge transducers.

  19. Piezoelectricity in the Dielectric Component of Nanoscale Dielectric-Ferroelectric Superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Jo, Ji Young; Sichel, Rebecca; Lee, Ho Nyung; Nakhmanson, Serge; Dufresne, Eric M.; Evans, Paul G.

    2010-01-01

    The origin of the functional properties of complex oxide superlattices can be resolved using time-resolved synchrotron x-ray diffraction into contributions from the component layers making up the repeating unit. The CaTiO{sub 3} layers of a CaTiO{sub 3}/BaTiO{sub 3} superlattice have a piezoelectric response to an applied electric field, consistent with a large continuous polarization throughout the superlattice. The overall piezoelectric coefficient at large strains, 54 pm/V, agrees with first-principles predictions in which a tetragonal symmetry is imposed on the superlattice by the SrTiO{sub 3} substrate.

  20. Piezoelectricity in the dielectric component of nanoscale dielectric/ferroelectric superlattices.

    SciTech Connect

    Jo, J. Y.; Sichel, R. J.; Lee, H. N.; Nakhmanson, S. M.; Dufresne, E. M.; Evans, P. G.; Univ. of Wisconsin at Madison; ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The origin of the functional properties of complex oxide superlattices can be resolved using time-resolved synchrotron x-ray diffraction into contributions from the component layers making up the repeating unit. The CaTiO{sub 3} layers of a CaTiO{sub 3}/BaTiO{sub 3} superlattice have a piezoelectric response to an applied electric field, consistent with a large continuous polarization throughout the superlattice. The overall piezoelectric coefficient at large strains, 54 pm/V, agrees with first-principles predictions in which a tetragonal symmetry is imposed on the superlattice by the SrTiO{sub 3} substrate.