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1

FSim: A Novel Functional Similarity Search Algorithm and Tool for Discovering Functionally Related Gene Products  

PubMed Central

Background. During the analysis of genomics data, it is often required to quantify the functional similarity of genes and their products based on the annotation information from gene ontology (GO) with hierarchical structure. A flexible and user-friendly way to estimate the functional similarity of genes utilizing GO annotation is therefore highly desired. Results. We proposed a novel algorithm using a level coefficient-weighted model to measure the functional similarity of gene products based on multiple ontologies of hierarchical GO annotations. The performance of our algorithm was evaluated and found to be superior to the other tested methods. We implemented the proposed algorithm in a software package, FSim, based on R statistical and computing environment. It can be used to discover functionally related genes for a given gene, group of genes, or set of function terms. Conclusions. FSim is a flexible tool to analyze functional gene groups based on the GO annotation databases. PMID:25184141

Hu, Qiang; Wang, ZhiGang; Zhang, ZhengGuo

2014-01-01

2

Functions of mammalian Polycomb group and trithorax group related genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genes of the Polycomb and trithorax groups (PcG and trxG) are part of a cellular memory system that maintains inactive and active states of homeotic gene expression in Drosophila. Recent genetic evidence indicates that several related loci in mammals are also involved in the regulation of Hox genes. Like their Drosophila counterparts, the vertebrate gene products are components of multiprotein

Alex Gould

1997-01-01

3

Gene Risk Factors for Age-Related Brain Disorders May Affect Immune System Function  

MedlinePLUS

... factors for age-related brain disorders may affect immune system function June 17, 2014 Scientists have discovered gene ... risk factors for age-related neurological disorders to immune system functions, such as inflammation, offers new insights into ...

4

Functional polymorphisms in dopamine-related genes: Effect on neurocognitive functioning in HIV+ adults  

PubMed Central

Dopaminergic dysfunction is a putative mechanism underlying HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Dopamine transporter (DAT), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) have been specifically implicated. We report analyses examining the main effects of functional polymorphisms within dopamine-modulating genes, as well as their interactive effects with disease severity, upon neurocognitive functioning in HIV+ adults. Method A total of 184 HIV+ adults were included in the analysis. Three polymorphisms were examined within dopamine-modulating genes: COMT val158met, BDNF val66met, and the DAT 3 variable number tandem repeat. Separate hierarchical regression analyses for five neurocognitive domains (working memory, processing speed, learning, memory, motor) were conducted. Predictor variables were age, ethnicity, gender, education, CD4+ T-cell count, current depression, genotype, and an interaction term capturing genotype and disease severity (CD4). Results None of the polymorphisms or HIV disease variables significantly improved the hierarchical regression models. Younger age, higher education, and Caucasian ethnicity were almost invariably associated with better functioning across all five cognitive domains. A trend was noted for current depression as a predictor of motor and learning ability. Conclusion This study did not find evidence to support direct or interactive effects of dopamine-related genes and HIV disease severity on neurocognitive functioning. PMID:22082040

Levine, Andrew J.; Sinsheimer, Janet S.; Bilder, Robert; Shapshak, Paul; Singer, Elyse J.

2015-01-01

5

Detecting Mutual Functional Gene Clusters from Multiple Related Diseases  

E-print Network

referred breast cancer genes BRCA 1 and BRCA 2 are associated with a significantly increased risk with uterine, ovarian, and breast cancers, are at a statistically significant increased risk of colorectal of ovarian cancer; [18] showed their findings to prove that individuals who have cancer, including women

Zhang, Aidong

6

The Yeast VRG4 Gene Is Required for Normal Golgi Functions and Defines a New Family of Related Genes*  

E-print Network

The Yeast VRG4 Gene Is Required for Normal Golgi Functions and Defines a New Family of Related specifically in the Golgi complex. Protein secreted from vrg4 mutants lacks the outer chain glycosylation is a founding member of a family of structurally similar genes. Taken together, these results suggest

Citovsky, Vitaly

7

Functional conservation of vertebrate seven-up related genes in neurogenesis and eye development.  

PubMed Central

Several members of the steroid receptor superfamily, including the transcription factor COUP, are closely related to the Drosophila gene seven-up (svp) which is required for the development of the embryonic central nervous system (CNS) and specific photoreceptor cells of the eye. We have identified and characterized two zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio) members of this subfamily of orphan nuclear receptors. While one of them (svp[44]) is the zebrafish cognate of COUP, the second (svp[46]) seems to be a novel member of the COUP/svp group. The proteins encoded by both genes contain highly conserved DNA-binding and putative ligand-binding domains, indicating close similarities in target sequence recognition and ligand binding. Analysis of the spatial distribution of their transcripts in whole-mount embryos revealed that the CNS is a major site of expression for both genes. At early embryonic stages, both genes are expressed in domains corresponding to specific rhombomere primordia in the hindbrain. This suggests an involvement in hindbrain segmentation and/or rhombomere specification. Moreover, transcripts derived from both genes are detected within distinct areas of the eye rudiments, suggesting roles in eye patterning and/or cell differentiation. In the case of the svp[44] gene, expression is also observed within specific parts of the midbrain, diencephalon and telencephalon. These results represent the first evidence that at least some of the nervous system and eye-specific functions of Drosophila svp are conserved in vertebrates. Images PMID:8467797

Fjose, A; Nornes, S; Weber, U; Mlodzik, M

1993-01-01

8

Developmental and Functional Expression of miRNA-Stability Related Genes in the Nervous System  

PubMed Central

In the nervous system, control of gene expression by microRNAs (miRNAs) has been investigated in fundamental processes, such as development and adaptation to ambient demands. The action of these short nucleotide sequences on specific genes depends on intracellular concentration, which in turn reflects the balance of biosynthesis and degradation. Whereas mechanisms underlying miRNA biogenesis has been investigated in recent studies, little is known about miRNA-stability related proteins. We first detected two genes in the retina that have been associated to miRNA stability, XRN2 and PAPD4. These genes are highly expressed during retinal development, however with distinct subcellular localization. We investigated whether these proteins are regulated during specific phases of the cell cycle. Combined analyses of nuclei position in neuroblastic layer and labeling using anti-cyclin D1 revealed that both proteins do not accumulate in S or M phases of the cell cycle, being poorly expressed in progenitor cells. Indeed, XRN2 and PAPD4 were observed mainly after neuronal differentiation, since low expression was also observed in astrocytes, endothelial and microglial cells. XRN2 and PAPD4 are expressed in a wide variety of neurons, including horizontal, amacrine and ganglion cells. To evaluate the functional role of both genes, we carried out experiments addressed to the retinal adaptation in response to different ambient light conditions. PAPD4 is upregulated after 3 and 24 hours of dark- adaptation, revealing that accumulation of this protein is governed by ambient light levels. Indeed, the fast and functional regulation of PAPD4 was not related to changes in gene expression, disclosing that control of protein levels occurs by post-transcriptional mechanisms. Furthermore, we were able to quantify changes in PAPD4 in specific amacrine cells after dark -adaptation, suggesting for circuitry-related roles in visual perception. In summary, in this study we first described the ontogenesis and functional expression of these two miRNA-stability related proteins in the retina. PMID:23700402

Casado, Otávio Augusto Nocera; Kihara, Alexandre Hiroaki

2013-01-01

9

Expression and Function of Enamel-related Gene Products in Calvarial Development  

PubMed Central

Enamel-related gene products (ERPs) are detected in non-enamel tissues such as bone. We hypothesized that, if functional, ERP expression corresponds with distinct events during osteoblast differentiation and affects bone development and mineralization. In mouse calvariae and MC3T3 cells, expression profiles of enamel-related gene products (ERPs) correlated with key events in post-natal calvarial development and MC3T3 cell mineralization. Developing skulls from both Amel- and Ambn-deficient animals were approximately 15% shorter when compared with those of wild-type controls, and their sutures remained patent for a longer period of time. Analysis of Amel- and Ambn-deficient calvariae and calvarial osteoblast cultures revealed a dramatic reduction in mineralized nodules, a significant reduction in Runx2, Sp7, Ibsp, and Msx2 expression, and a reduction in Alx4 in Amel-deficient calvariae vs. an increase in Alx4 in Ambn-deficient calvariae. Analysis of these data indicates that ERP expression follows defined developmental profiles and affects osteoblast differentiation, mineralization, and calvarial bone development. We propose that, in parallel to their role in the developing enamel matrix, ERPs have retained an evolutionary conserved function related to the biomineralization of bones. PMID:23625374

Atsawasuwan, P.; Lu, X.; Ito, Y.; Chen, Y.; Gopinathan, G.; Evans, C.A.; Kulkarni, A.B.; Gibson, C.W.; Luan, X.; Diekwisch, T.G.H.

2013-01-01

10

Functional Redundancy and Divergence within the Arabidopsis RETICULATA-RELATED Gene Family1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

A number of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants exhibit leaf reticulation, having green veins that stand out against paler interveinal tissues, fewer cells in the interveinal mesophyll, and normal perivascular bundle sheath cells. Here, to examine the basis of leaf reticulation, we analyzed the Arabidopsis RETICULATA-RELATED (RER) gene family, several members of which cause leaf reticulation when mutated. Although transcripts of RE, RER1, and RER3 were mainly detected in the bundle sheath cells of expanded leaves, functional RER3:GREEN FLUORESCENT PROTEIN was visualized in the chloroplast membranes of all photosynthetic cells. Leaf reticulation in the re and rer3 loss-of-function mutants occurred, along with accumulation of reactive oxygen species, in a photoperiod-dependent manner. A comparison of re and rer3 leaf messenger RNA expression profiles showed more than 200 genes were similarly misexpressed in both mutants. In addition, metabolic profiles of mature leaves revealed that several biosynthetic pathways downstream of pyruvate are altered in re and rer3. Double mutant analysis showed that only re rer1 and rer5 rer6 exhibited synergistic phenotypes, indicating functional redundancy. The redundancy between RE and its closest paralog, RER1, was confirmed by overexpressing RER1 in re mutants, which partially suppressed leaf reticulation. Our results show that RER family members can be divided into four functional modules with divergent functions. Moreover, these results provide insights into the origin of the reticulated phenotype, suggesting that the RER proteins functionally interconnect photoperiodic growth, amino acid homeostasis, and reactive oxygen species metabolism during Arabidopsis leaf growth. PMID:23596191

Pérez-Pérez, José Manuel; Esteve-Bruna, David; González-Bayón, Rebeca; Kangasjärvi, Saijaliisa; Caldana, Camila; Hannah, Matthew A.; Willmitzer, Lothar; Ponce, María Rosa; Micol, José Luis

2013-01-01

11

EvoCor: a platform for predicting functionally related genes using phylogenetic and expression profiles.  

PubMed

The wealth of publicly available gene expression and genomic data provides unique opportunities for computational inference to discover groups of genes that function to control specific cellular processes. Such genes are likely to have co-evolved and be expressed in the same tissues and cells. Unfortunately, the expertise and computational resources required to compare tens of genomes and gene expression data sets make this type of analysis difficult for the average end-user. Here, we describe the implementation of a web server that predicts genes involved in affecting specific cellular processes together with a gene of interest. We termed the server 'EvoCor', to denote that it detects functional relationships among genes through evolutionary analysis and gene expression correlation. This web server integrates profiles of sequence divergence derived by a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) and tissue-wide gene expression patterns to determine putative functional linkages between pairs of genes. This server is easy to use and freely available at http://pilot-hmm.vbi.vt.edu/. PMID:24848012

Dittmar, W James; McIver, Lauren; Michalak, Pawel; Garner, Harold R; Valdez, Gregorio

2014-07-01

12

Definition of historical models of gene function and their relation to students’ understanding of genetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models are often used when teaching science. In this paper historical models and students’ ideas about genetics are compared.\\u000a The historical development of the scientific idea of the gene and its function is described and categorized into five historical\\u000a models of gene function. Differences and similarities between these historical models are made explicit. Internal and external\\u000a consistency problems between the

Niklas Markus Gericke; Mariana Hagberg

2007-01-01

13

Expression of genes related to mitochondrial function in Nellore cattle divergently ranked on residual feed intake.  

PubMed

Several measures have been proposed to investigate and improve feed efficiency in cattle. One of the most commonly used measure of feed efficiency is residual feed intake (RFI), which is estimated as the difference between actual feed intake and expected feed intake based on the animal's average live weight. This measure permits to identify and select the most efficient animals without selecting for higher mature weight. Mitochondrial function has been indicated as a major factor that influences RFI. The analysis of genes involved in mitochondrial function is therefore an alternative to identify molecular markers associated with higher feed efficiency. This study analyzed the expression of PGC1?, TFAM, UCP2 and UCP3 genes by quantitative real-time PCR in liver and muscle tissues of two groups of Nellore cattle divergently ranked on RFI values in order to evaluate the relationship of these genes with RFI. In liver tissue, higher expression of TFAM and UCP2 genes was observed in the negative RFI group. Expression of PGC1? gene did not differ significantly between the two groups, whereas UCP3 gene was not expressed in liver tissue. In muscle tissue, higher expression of TFAM gene was observed in the positive RFI group. Expression of PGC1?, UCP2 and UCP3 genes did not differ significantly between the two groups. These results suggest the use of TFAM and UCP2 as possible candidate gene markers in breeding programs designed to increase the feed efficiency of Nellore cattle. PMID:25586767

Fonseca, Larissa Fernanda Simielli; Gimenez, Daniele Fernanda Jovino; Mercadante, Maria Eugênia Zerlotti; Bonilha, Sarah Figueiredo Martins; Ferro, Jesus Aparecido; Baldi, Fernando; de Souza, Fábio Ricardo Pablos; de Albuquerque, Lucia Galvão

2015-02-01

14

Functional Networks of Nucleocytoplasmic Transport-Related Genes Differentiate Ischemic and Dilated Cardiomyopathies. A New Therapeutic Opportunity  

PubMed Central

Heart failure provokes alterations in the expression of nucleocytoplasmic transport-related genes. To elucidate the nucleocytoplasmic transport-linked functional network underlying the two major causes of heart failure, ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), we examined global transcriptome profiles of left ventricular myocardium tissue samples from 31 patients (ICM, n?=?10; DCM, n?=?13) undergoing heart transplantation and control donors (CNT, n?=?8) using RNA-Sequencing and GeneMANIA. Comparative profiling of ICM versus control and DCM versus control showed 1081 and 2440 differentially expressed genes, respectively (>1.29-fold; P<0.05). GeneMANIA revealed differentially regulated functional networks specific to ICM and DCM. In comparison with CNT, differential expression was seen in 9 and 12 nucleocytoplasmic transport-related genes in ICM and DCM groups, respectively. DDX3X, KPNA2, and PTK2B were related to ICM, while SMURF2, NUP153, IPO5, RANBP3, NOXA1, and RHOJ were involved in DCM pathogenesis. Furthermore, the two pathologies shared 6 altered genes: XPO1, ARL4, NFKB2, FHL3, RANBP2, and RHOU showing an identical trend in expression in both ICM and DCM. Notably, the core of the derived functional networks composed of nucleocytoplasmic transport-related genes (XPO1, RANBP2, NUP153, IPO5, KPNA2, and RANBP3) branched into several pathways with downregulated genes. Moreover, we identified genes whose expression levels correlated with left ventricular mass index and left ventricular function parameters in HF patients. Collectively, our study provides a clear distinction between the two pathologies at the transcriptome level and opens up new possibilities to search for appropriate therapeutic targets for ICM and DCM. PMID:25137373

Molina-Navarro, María Micaela; Triviño, Juan Carlos; Martínez-Dolz, Luis; Lago, Francisca; González-Juanatey, Jose Ramón; Portolés, Manuel; Rivera, Miguel

2014-01-01

15

Role of calcitonin gene-related peptide in functional adaptation of the skeleton.  

PubMed

Peptidergic sensory nerve fibers innervating bone and periosteum are rich in calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), an osteoanabolic neurotransmitter. There are two CGRP isoforms, CGRP? and CGRP?. Sensory fibers are a potential means by which the nervous system may detect and respond to loading events within the skeleton. However, the functional role of the nervous system in the response of bone to mechanical loading is unclear. We used the ulna end-loading model to induce an adaptive modeling response in CGRP? and CGRP? knockout mouse lines and their respective wildtype controls. For each knockout mouse line, groups of mice were treated with cyclic loading or sham-loading of the right ulna. A third group of mice received brachial plexus anesthesia (BPA) of the loaded limb before mechanical loading. Fluorochrome labels were administered at the time of loading and 7 days later. Ten days after loading, bone responses were quantified morphometrically. We hypothesized that CGRP signaling is required for normal mechanosensing and associated load-induced bone formation. We found that mechanically-induced activation of periosteal mineralizing surface in mice and associated blocking with BPA were eliminated by knockout of CGRP? signaling. This effect was not evident in CGRP? knockout mice. We also found that mineral apposition responses to mechanical loading and associated BPA blocking were retained with CGRP? deletion. We conclude that activation of periosteal mineralizing surfaces in response to mechanical loading of bone is CGRP?-dependent in vivo. This suggests that release of CGRP from sensory peptidergic fibers in periosteum and bone has a functional role in load-induced bone formation. PMID:25536054

Sample, Susannah J; Heaton, Caitlin M; Behan, Mary; Bleedorn, Jason A; Racette, Molly A; Hao, Zhengling; Muir, Peter

2014-01-01

16

Functional analysis of multiple genomic signatures demonstrates that classification algorithms choose phenotype-related genes  

PubMed Central

Gene expression signatures of toxicity and clinical response benefit both safety assessment and clinical practice; however, difficulties in connecting signature genes with the predicted end points have limited their application. The Microarray Quality Control Consortium II (MAQCII) project generated 262 signatures for ten clinical and three toxicological end points from six gene expression data sets, an unprecedented collection of diverse signatures that has permitted a wide-ranging analysis on the nature of such predictive models. A comprehensive analysis of the genes of these signatures and their nonredundant unions using ontology enrichment, biological network building and interactome connectivity analyses demonstrated the link between gene signatures and the biological basis of their predictive power. Different signatures for a given end point were more similar at the level of biological properties and transcriptional control than at the gene level. Signatures tended to be enriched in function and pathway in an end point and model-specific manner, and showed a topological bias for incoming interactions. Importantly, the level of biological similarity between different signatures for a given end point correlated positively with the accuracy of the signature predictions. These findings will aid the understanding, and application of predictive genomic signatures, and support their broader application in predictive medicine. PMID:20676069

Shi, W; Bessarabova, M; Dosymbekov, D; Dezso, Z; Nikolskaya, T; Dudoladova, M; Serebryiskaya, T; Bugrim, A; Guryanov, A; Brennan, R J; Shah, R; Dopazo, J; Chen, M; Deng, Y; Shi, T; Jurman, G; Furlanello, C; Thomas, R S; Corton, J C; Tong, W; Shi, L; Nikolsky, Y

2010-01-01

17

Functional analysis of multiple genomic signatures demonstrates that classification algorithms choose phenotype-related genes.  

PubMed

Gene expression signatures of toxicity and clinical response benefit both safety assessment and clinical practice; however, difficulties in connecting signature genes with the predicted end points have limited their application. The Microarray Quality Control Consortium II (MAQCII) project generated 262 signatures for ten clinical and three toxicological end points from six gene expression data sets, an unprecedented collection of diverse signatures that has permitted a wide-ranging analysis on the nature of such predictive models. A comprehensive analysis of the genes of these signatures and their nonredundant unions using ontology enrichment, biological network building and interactome connectivity analyses demonstrated the link between gene signatures and the biological basis of their predictive power. Different signatures for a given end point were more similar at the level of biological properties and transcriptional control than at the gene level. Signatures tended to be enriched in function and pathway in an end point and model-specific manner, and showed a topological bias for incoming interactions. Importantly, the level of biological similarity between different signatures for a given end point correlated positively with the accuracy of the signature predictions. These findings will aid the understanding, and application of predictive genomic signatures, and support their broader application in predictive medicine. PMID:20676069

Shi, W; Bessarabova, M; Dosymbekov, D; Dezso, Z; Nikolskaya, T; Dudoladova, M; Serebryiskaya, T; Bugrim, A; Guryanov, A; Brennan, R J; Shah, R; Dopazo, J; Chen, M; Deng, Y; Shi, T; Jurman, G; Furlanello, C; Thomas, R S; Corton, J C; Tong, W; Shi, L; Nikolsky, Y

2010-08-01

18

Expression and Functional Characterization of two Pathogenesis-Related Protein 10 Genes from Zea mays  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pathogenesis-related protein 10 (PR10) is one of seventeen PR protein families and plays important roles in plant response to biotic and abiotic stresses. A novel PR10 gene (ZmPR10.1), which shares 89.8% and 85.7% identity to the previous ZmPR10 at the nucleotide and amino acid sequence level, respe...

19

Genes Related to Mitochondrial Functions, Protein Degradation, and Chromatin Folding Are Differentially Expressed in Lymphomonocytes of Rett Syndrome Patients  

PubMed Central

Rett syndrome (RTT) is mainly caused by mutations in the X-linked methyl-CpG binding protein (MeCP2) gene. By binding to methylated promoters on CpG islands, MeCP2 protein is able to modulate several genes and important cellular pathways. Therefore, mutations in MeCP2 can seriously affect the cellular phenotype. Today, the pathways that MeCP2 mutations are able to affect in RTT are not clear yet. The aim of our study was to investigate the gene expression profiles in peripheral blood lymphomonocytes (PBMC) isolated from RTT patients to try to evidence new genes and new pathways that are involved in RTT pathophysiology. LIMMA (Linear Models for MicroArray) and SAM (Significance Analysis of Microarrays) analyses on microarray data from 12 RTT patients and 7 control subjects identified 482 genes modulated in RTT, of which 430 were upregulated and 52 were downregulated. Functional clustering of a total of 146 genes in RTT identified key biological pathways related to mitochondrial function and organization, cellular ubiquitination and proteosome degradation, RNA processing, and chromatin folding. Our microarray data reveal an overexpression of genes involved in ATP synthesis suggesting altered energy requirement that parallels with increased activities of protein degradation. In conclusion, these findings suggest that mitochondrial-ATP-proteasome functions are likely to be involved in RTT clinical features. PMID:24453408

Leoni, Guido; Cervellati, Franco; Canali, Raffaella; Cortelazzo, Alessio; De Felice, Claudio; Ciccoli, Lucia; Hayek, Joussef

2013-01-01

20

The 3D organization of the yeast genome correlates with co-expression and reflects functional relations between genes.  

PubMed

The spatial organization of eukaryotic genomes is thought to play an important role in regulating gene expression. The recent advances in experimental methods including chromatin capture techniques, as well as the large amounts of accumulated gene expression data allow studying the relationship between spatial organization of the genome and co-expression of protein-coding genes. To analyse this genome-wide relationship at a single gene resolution, we combined the interchromosomal DNA contacts in the yeast genome measured by Duan et al. with a comprehensive collection of 1,496 gene expression datasets. We find significant enhancement of co-expression among genes with contact links. The co-expression is most prominent when two gene loci fall within 1,000 base pairs from the observed contact. We also demonstrate an enrichment of inter-chromosomal links between functionally related genes, which suggests that the non random nature of the genome organization serves to facilitate coordinated transcription in groups of genes. PMID:23382942

Homouz, Dirar; Kudlicki, Andrzej S

2013-01-01

21

Immune-Related Functions of the Hivep Gene Family in East African Cichlid Fishes  

PubMed Central

Immune-related genes are often characterized by adaptive protein evolution. Selection on immune genes can be particularly strong when hosts encounter novel parasites, for instance, after the colonization of a new habitat or upon the exploitation of vacant ecological niches in an adaptive radiation. We examined a set of new candidate immune genes in East African cichlid fishes. More specifically, we studied the signatures of selection in five paralogs of the human immunodeficiency virus type I enhancer-binding protein (Hivep) gene family, tested their involvement in the immune defense, and related our results to explosive speciation and adaptive radiation events in cichlids. We found signatures of long-term positive selection in four Hivep paralogs and lineage-specific positive selection in Hivep3b in two radiating cichlid lineages. Exposure of the cichlid Astatotilapia burtoni to a vaccination with Vibrio anguillarum bacteria resulted in a positive correlation between immune response parameters and expression levels of three Hivep loci. This work provides the first evidence for a role of Hivep paralogs in teleost immune defense and links the signatures of positive selection to host–pathogen interactions within an adaptive radiation. PMID:24142922

Diepeveen, Eveline T.; Roth, Olivia; Salzburger, Walter

2013-01-01

22

Alpha-fetoprotein related gene (ARG): a new member of the albumin gene family that is no longer functional in primates.  

PubMed

The serum albumin gene family is comprised of albumin, alpha-fetoprotein, alpha-albumin (afamin), and the more distantly related Vitamin D binding protein. These genes arose from a common ancestor through a series of duplication events, are expressed primarily in the liver and tightly linked in all species where this has been investigated. Here, we describe a fifth member of the albumin gene family that we have named Alpha-fetoprotein Related Gene (ARG) since it exhibits greatest similarity to this family member. ARG is activated in the liver perinatally, but is expressed at very low levels. The ARG gene is present and intact in the mouse, rat, dog and horse genomes. In contrast, the ARG gene in human, chimpanzee, rhesus monkey, and marmoset contains a number of mutations common to all four species, indicating that this gene has been an inactive pseudogene in primates for at least 40 million years. Low expression and aberrant splicing of the ARG gene in the mouse liver suggests that ARG may have less functional significance than other members of the serum albumin gene family even in species where it is still intact. PMID:19733224

Naidu, Sathyabama; Peterson, Martha L; Spear, Brett T

2010-01-01

23

Functional characterization of an apple apomixis-related MhFIE gene in reproduction development.  

PubMed

The products of the FIS genes play important regulatory roles in diverse developmental processes, especially in seed formation after fertilization. In this study, a FIS-class gene MhFIE was isolated from apple. It encoded a predicted protein highly similar to polycomb group (PcG) protein FERTILIZATION-INDEPENDENT ENDOSPERM (FIE). MhFIE functioned as an Arabidopsis FIE homologue, as indicated by functional complementation experiment using Arabidopsis fie mutant. In addition, BiFC assay showed that MhFIE protein interacted with AtCLF. Furthermore, transgenic Arabidopsis ectopically expressing MhFIE produced less APETALA3 (AtAP3) and AGAMOUS (AtAG) transcripts than WT control, and therefore exhibited abnormal flower, seed development. These results suggested that polycomb complex including FIE and CLF proteins played an important role in reproductive development by regulating the expression of its downstream genes. In addition, it was found that MhFIE constitutively expressed in various tissues tested. Its expression levels were lower in apomictic apple species than the sexual reproductive species, suggested it was possibly involved into apomixis in apple. Furthermore, the hybrids of tea crabapple generated MhFIE transcripts at different levels. The parthenogenesis capacity was negatively correlated with MhFIE expression level in these hybrids. These results suggested that MhFIE was involved into the regulation of flower development and apomixis in apple. PMID:22325871

Liu, Dan-Dan; Dong, Qing-Long; Sun, Chao; Wang, Qing-Lian; You, Chun-Xiang; Yao, Yu-Xin; Hao, Yu-Jin

2012-04-01

24

Genetic Analysis of Genes Related to Tight Junction Function in the Korean Population with Non-Syndromic Hearing Loss  

PubMed Central

Tight junctions (TJs) are essential components of eukaryotic cells, and serve as paracellular barriers and zippers between adjacent tissues. TJs are critical for normal functioning of the organ of Corti, a part of the inner ear that causes loss of sensorineural hearing when damaged. To investigate the relation between genes involved in TJ function and hereditary loss of sensorineural hearing in the Korean population, we selected the TJP2 and CLDN14 genes as candidates for gene screening of 135 Korean individuals. The TJP2 gene, mutation of which causes autosomal dominant non-syndromic hearing loss (ADNSHL), lies at the DFNA51 locus on chromosome 9. The CLDN14 gene, mutation of which causes autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing loss (ARNSHL), lies at the DFNB29 locus on chromosome 21. In the present study, we conducted genetic analyses of the TJP2 and CLDN14 genes in 87 unrelated patients with ADNSHL and 48 unrelated patients with either ARNSHL or potentially sporadic hearing loss. We identified two pathogenic variations, c.334G>A (p.A112T) and c.3562A>G (p.T1188A), and ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the TJP2 gene. We found eight non-pathogenic variations in the CLDN14 gene. These findings indicate that, whereas mutation of the TJP2 gene might cause ADNSHL, CLDN14 is not a major causative gene for ARNSHL in the Korean population studied. Our findings may improve the understanding of the genetic cause of non-syndromic hearing loss in the Korean population. PMID:24752540

Sagong, Borum; Cho, Hyun-Ju; Bae, Jae Woong; Kim, Jeongho; Lee, Jinwook; Park, Hong-Joon; Choi, Jae Young; Lee, Kyu-Yup; Kim, Un-Kyung

2014-01-01

25

Discovery of Genes Related to Insecticide Resistance in Bactrocera dorsalis by Functional Genomic Analysis of a De Novo Assembled Transcriptome  

PubMed Central

Insecticide resistance has recently become a critical concern for control of many insect pest species. Genome sequencing and global quantization of gene expression through analysis of the transcriptome can provide useful information relevant to this challenging problem. The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is one of the world's most destructive agricultural pests, and recently it has been used as a target for studies of genetic mechanisms related to insecticide resistance. However, prior to this study, the molecular data available for this species was largely limited to genes identified through homology. To provide a broader pool of gene sequences of potential interest with regard to insecticide resistance, this study uses whole transcriptome analysis developed through de novo assembly of short reads generated by next-generation sequencing (NGS). The transcriptome of B. dorsalis was initially constructed using Illumina's Solexa sequencing technology. Qualified reads were assembled into contigs and potential splicing variants (isotigs). A total of 29,067 isotigs have putative homologues in the non-redundant (nr) protein database from NCBI, and 11,073 of these correspond to distinct D. melanogaster proteins in the RefSeq database. Approximately 5,546 isotigs contain coding sequences that are at least 80% complete and appear to represent B. dorsalis genes. We observed a strong correlation between the completeness of the assembled sequences and the expression intensity of the transcripts. The assembled sequences were also used to identify large numbers of genes potentially belonging to families related to insecticide resistance. A total of 90 P450-, 42 GST-and 37 COE-related genes, representing three major enzyme families involved in insecticide metabolism and resistance, were identified. In addition, 36 isotigs were discovered to contain target site sequences related to four classes of resistance genes. Identified sequence motifs were also analyzed to characterize putative polypeptide translational products and associate them with specific genes and protein functions. PMID:22879883

Hsu, Ju-Chun; Wu, Wen-Jer; Feng, Hai-Tung; Haymer, David S.; Chen, Chien-Yu

2012-01-01

26

Discovery of genes related to insecticide resistance in Bactrocera dorsalis by functional genomic analysis of a de novo assembled transcriptome.  

PubMed

Insecticide resistance has recently become a critical concern for control of many insect pest species. Genome sequencing and global quantization of gene expression through analysis of the transcriptome can provide useful information relevant to this challenging problem. The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is one of the world's most destructive agricultural pests, and recently it has been used as a target for studies of genetic mechanisms related to insecticide resistance. However, prior to this study, the molecular data available for this species was largely limited to genes identified through homology. To provide a broader pool of gene sequences of potential interest with regard to insecticide resistance, this study uses whole transcriptome analysis developed through de novo assembly of short reads generated by next-generation sequencing (NGS). The transcriptome of B. dorsalis was initially constructed using Illumina's Solexa sequencing technology. Qualified reads were assembled into contigs and potential splicing variants (isotigs). A total of 29,067 isotigs have putative homologues in the non-redundant (nr) protein database from NCBI, and 11,073 of these correspond to distinct D. melanogaster proteins in the RefSeq database. Approximately 5,546 isotigs contain coding sequences that are at least 80% complete and appear to represent B. dorsalis genes. We observed a strong correlation between the completeness of the assembled sequences and the expression intensity of the transcripts. The assembled sequences were also used to identify large numbers of genes potentially belonging to families related to insecticide resistance. A total of 90 P450-, 42 GST-and 37 COE-related genes, representing three major enzyme families involved in insecticide metabolism and resistance, were identified. In addition, 36 isotigs were discovered to contain target site sequences related to four classes of resistance genes. Identified sequence motifs were also analyzed to characterize putative polypeptide translational products and associate them with specific genes and protein functions. PMID:22879883

Hsu, Ju-Chun; Chien, Ting-Ying; Hu, Chia-Cheng; Chen, Mei-Ju May; Wu, Wen-Jer; Feng, Hai-Tung; Haymer, David S; Chen, Chien-Yu

2012-01-01

27

Genome-Wide Expression Analysis Reveals Diverse Effects of Acute Nicotine Exposure on Neuronal Function-Related Genes and Pathways  

PubMed Central

Previous human and animal studies demonstrate that acute nicotine exposure has complicated influences on the function of the nervous system, which may lead to long-lasting effects on the behavior and physiology of the subject. To determine the genes and pathways that might account for long-term changes after acute nicotine exposure, a pathway-focused oligoarray specifically designed for drug addiction research was used to assess acute nicotine effect on gene expression in the neuron-like SH-SY5Y cells. Our results showed that 295 genes involved in various biological functions were differentially regulated by 1?h of nicotine treatment. Among these genes, the expression changes of 221 were blocked by mecamylamine, indicating that the majority of nicotine-modulated genes were altered through the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs)-mediated signaling process. We further identified 14 biochemical pathways enriched among the nicotine-modulated genes, among which were those involved in neural development/synaptic plasticity, neuronal survival/death, immune response, or cellular metabolism. In the genes significantly regulated by nicotine but blocked by mecamylamine, 13 enriched pathways were detected. Nine of these pathways were shared with those enriched in the genes regulated by nicotine, including neuronal function-related pathways such as glucocorticoid receptor signaling, p38 MAPK signaling, PI3K/AKT signaling, and PTEN signaling, implying that nAChRs play important roles in the regulation of these biological processes. Together, our results not only provide insights into the mechanism underlying the acute response of neuronal cells to nicotine but also provide clues to how acute nicotine exposure exerts long-term effects on the nervous system. PMID:21556275

Wang, Ju; Cui, Wenyan; Wei, Jinxue; Sun, Dongxiao; Gutala, Ramana; Gu, Jun; Li, Ming D.

2011-01-01

28

A novel family of TRF (DNA topoisomerase I-related function) genes required for proper nuclear segregation.  

PubMed

We recently reported the identification of a gene, TRF4 (for DNA topoisomerase related function), in a screen for mutations that are synthetically lethal with mutations in DNA topoisomerase I (top1). Here we describe the isolation of a second member of the TRF4 gene family, TRF5. Overexpression of TRF5 complements the inviability of top1 trf4 double mutants. The predicted Trf5 protein is 55% identical and 72% similar to Trf4p. As with Trf4p, a region of Trf5p is homologous to the catalytically dispensable N-terminus of Top1p. The TRF4/5 function is essential as trf4 trf5 double mutants are inviable. A trf4 (ts) trf5 double mutant is hypersensitive to the anti-microtubule agent thiabendazole at a semi-permissive temperature, suggesting that TRF4/5 function is required at the time of mitosis. Examination of nuclear morphology in a trf4 (ts) trf5 mutant at a restrictive temperature reveals the presence of many cells undergoing aberrant nuclear division, as well as many anucleate cells, demonstrating that the TRF4/5 function is required for proper mitosis. Database searches reveal the existence of probable Schizosaccharomyces pombe and human homologs of Trf4p, indicating that TRF4 is the canonical member of a gene family that is highly conserved evolutionarily. PMID:8710513

Castaño, I B; Heath-Pagliuso, S; Sadoff, B U; Fitzhugh, D J; Christman, M F

1996-06-15

29

A novel family of TRF (DNA topoisomerase I-related function) genes required for proper nuclear segregation.  

PubMed Central

We recently reported the identification of a gene, TRF4 (for DNA topoisomerase related function), in a screen for mutations that are synthetically lethal with mutations in DNA topoisomerase I (top1). Here we describe the isolation of a second member of the TRF4 gene family, TRF5. Overexpression of TRF5 complements the inviability of top1 trf4 double mutants. The predicted Trf5 protein is 55% identical and 72% similar to Trf4p. As with Trf4p, a region of Trf5p is homologous to the catalytically dispensable N-terminus of Top1p. The TRF4/5 function is essential as trf4 trf5 double mutants are inviable. A trf4 (ts) trf5 double mutant is hypersensitive to the anti-microtubule agent thiabendazole at a semi-permissive temperature, suggesting that TRF4/5 function is required at the time of mitosis. Examination of nuclear morphology in a trf4 (ts) trf5 mutant at a restrictive temperature reveals the presence of many cells undergoing aberrant nuclear division, as well as many anucleate cells, demonstrating that the TRF4/5 function is required for proper mitosis. Database searches reveal the existence of probable Schizosaccharomyces pombe and human homologs of Trf4p, indicating that TRF4 is the canonical member of a gene family that is highly conserved evolutionarily. PMID:8710513

Castaño, I B; Heath-Pagliuso, S; Sadoff, B U; Fitzhugh, D J; Christman, M F

1996-01-01

30

PGC-related gene variants and elite endurance athletic status in a Chinese cohort: A functional study.  

PubMed

This study aims to examine the association between proliferator-activated receptor ? (PGC)-gene family-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and elite endurance runners' status in a Chinese cohort, and to gain insights into the functionality of a subset of SNPs. Genotype distributions of 133 SNPs in PPARGC1A, PPARGC1B, PPRC1, TFAM, TFB1M, TFB2M, NRF1, GABPA, GABPB1, ERR?, and SIRT1 genes were compared between 235 elite Chinese (Han) endurance runners (127 women) and 504 healthy non-athletic controls (237 women). Luciferase gene reporter activity was determined in 20 SNPs. After adjusting for multiple comparisons (in which threshold P-value was set at 0.00041), no significant differences were found in allele/genotype frequencies between athletes and controls (when both sexes were analyzed either together or separately). The lowest P-value was found in PPARGC1A rs4697425 (P?=?0.001 for the comparison of allele frequencies between elite female endurance runners and their gender-matched controls). However, no association (all P?>?0.05) was observed for this SNP in a replication cohort from Poland (194 endurance athletes and 190 controls). Using functional genomics tool, the following SNPs were found to have functional significance: PPARGC1A rs6821591, rs12650562, rs12374310, rs4697425, rs13113110, and rs4452416; PPARGC1B rs251466 and rs17110586; and PPRC1 rs17114388 (all P?related SNPs and elite endurance athlete status in the Chinese population, despite some SNPs showing potential functional significance and the strong biological rationale to hypothesize that this gene pathway is a candidate to influence endurance exercise capacity. PMID:25170593

He, Z-H; Hu, Y; Li, Y-C; Gong, L-J; Cieszczyk, P; Maciejewska-Karlowska, A; Leonska-Duniec, A; Muniesa, C A; Marín-Peiro, M; Santiago, C; Garatachea, N; Eynon, N; Lucia, A

2015-04-01

31

SARP19 and vdg3 gene families are functionally related during abalone metamorphosis.  

PubMed

The transcriptional activity of the SARP19-I1 and vdg3-I1 genes increases over tenfold when Haliotis diversicolor larvae shift from the pelagic to benthic lifestyle, signifying the important role of these genes during abalone metamorphosis. In this study, eight paralogous SARP19 genes and six paralogous vdg3 genes were identified from H. diversicolor transcriptomes. Phylogenetic analyses were performed, and the spatio-temporal expression patterns of these genes were separately determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and whole mount in situ hybridization (WMISH). Five SARP19 paralogs and five vdg3 paralogs showed at least a tenfold increase in expression after settlement. Among these differentially expressed genes, three SARP19 paralogs and four vdg3 paralogs were verified as being spatially expressed in the digestive glands of newly settled postlarvae. We proposed that a hypothesis of coevolution between the two gene families might explain the similarities in their expression patterns and their phylogenetics. PMID:25115590

He, Teng-Fei; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Jie; Ke, Cai-Huan; You, Wei-Wei

2014-12-01

32

A MACHINE LEARNING APPROACH TO QUERY TIME-SERIES MICROARRAY DATA SETS FOR FUNCTIONALLY RELATED GENES USING HIDDEN MARKOV MODELS  

E-print Network

Microarray technology captures the rate of expression of genes under varying experimental conditions. Genes encode the information necessary to build proteins; proteins used by cellular functions exhibit higher rates of ...

Senf, Alexander J.

2011-02-04

33

Expression of Endometrial Immune-related Genes Possibly Functioning During Early Pregnancy in the Mare  

PubMed Central

Abstract Despite enormous efforts, biochemical and molecular mechanisms associated with equine reproduction, particularly processes of pregnancy establishment, have not been well characterized. Previously, PCR-selected suppression subtraction hybridization analysis was executed to identify unique molecules functioning in the equine endometrium during periods of pregnancy establishment, and granzyme B (GZMB) cDNA was found in the pregnant endometrial cDNA library. Because GZMB is produced from natural killer (NK) cells, endometrial expression of GZMB and immune-related transcripts were characterized in this study. The level of GZMB mRNA is higher in the pregnant endometrium than in non-pregnant ones. This expression was also confirmed through Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses. IL-2 mRNA declined as pregnancy progressed, while IL-15, IFNG and TGFB1 transcripts increased on day 19 and/or 25. Analyses of IL-4 and IL-12 mRNAs demonstrated the increase in these transcripts as pregnancy progressed. Increase in CCR5 and CCR4 mRNAs indicated that both Th1 and Th2 cells coexisted in the day 25 pregnant endometrium. Taken together, the endometrial expression of immune-related transcripts suggests that immunological responses are present even before the trophectoderm actually attaches to the uterine epithelial cells. PMID:23138119

TACHIBANA, Yurika; NAKANO, Yasuko; NAGAOKA, Kentaro; KIKUCHI, Masato; NAMBO, Yasuo; HANEDA, Shingo; MATSUI, Motozumi; MIYAKE, Yo-ichi; IMAKAWA, Kazuhiko

2012-01-01

34

Estrogen-related receptor {alpha} is essential for the expression of antioxidant protection genes and mitochondrial function  

SciTech Connect

Estrogen-related receptor {alpha} (ERR{alpha}) is an important mediator of mitochondrial biogenesis and function. To investigate the transcriptional network controlling these phenomena, we investigated mitochondrial gene expression in embryonic fibroblasts isolated from ERR{alpha} null mice. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} coactivator-1{alpha} (PGC-1{alpha}) stimulated mitochondrial gene expression program in control cells, but not in the ERR{alpha} null cells. Interestingly, the induction of levels of mitochondrial oxidative stress protection genes in response to increased PGC-1{alpha} levels was dependent on ERR{alpha}. Furthermore, we found that the PGC-1{alpha}-mediated induction of estrogen-related receptor {gamma} and nuclear respiratory factor 2 (NRF-2), was dependent on the presence of ERR{alpha}. Basal levels of NRF-2 were decreased in the absence of ERR{alpha}. The absence of ERR{alpha} resulted in a decrease in citrate synthase enzyme activity in response to PGC-1{alpha} overexpression. Our results indicate an essential role for ERR{alpha} as a key regulator of oxidative metabolism.

Rangwala, Shamina M. [Diabetes and Metabolism Disease Area, Novartis Institutes of BioMedical Research Institutes, 100 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)]. E-mail: shamina.rangwala@novartis.com; Li, Xiaoyan [Diabetes and Metabolism Disease Area, Novartis Institutes of BioMedical Research Institutes, 100 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Lindsley, Loren [Diabetes and Metabolism Disease Area, Novartis Institutes of BioMedical Research Institutes, 100 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Wang, Xiaomei [Diabetes and Metabolism Disease Area, Novartis Institutes of BioMedical Research Institutes, 100 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Shaughnessy, Stacey [Diabetes and Metabolism Disease Area, Novartis Institutes of BioMedical Research Institutes, 100 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Daniels, Thomas G. [Diabetes and Metabolism Disease Area, Novartis Institutes of BioMedical Research Institutes, 100 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Szustakowski, Joseph [Genome and Proteome Sciences, Novartis Institutes of BioMedical Research Institutes, 500 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Nirmala, N.R. [Genome and Proteome Sciences, Novartis Institutes of BioMedical Research Institutes, 500 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Wu, Zhidan [Diabetes and Metabolism Disease Area, Novartis Institutes of BioMedical Research Institutes, 100 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Stevenson, Susan C. [Diabetes and Metabolism Disease Area, Novartis Institutes of BioMedical Research Institutes, 100 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

2007-05-25

35

Hammondia hammondi, an avirulent relative of Toxoplasma gondii, has functional orthologs of known T. gondii virulence genes  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous protozoan parasite capable of infecting all warm-blooded animals, including humans. Its closest extant relative, Hammondia hammondi, has never been found to infect humans and, in contrast to T. gondii, is highly attenuated in mice. To better understand the genetic bases for these phenotypic differences, we sequenced the genome of a H. hammondi isolate (HhCatGer041) and found the genomic synteny between H. hammondi and T. gondii to be >95%. We used this genome to determine the H. hammondi primary sequence of two major T. gondii mouse virulence genes, TgROP5 and TgROP18. When we expressed these genes in T. gondii, we found that H. hammondi orthologs of TgROP5 and TgROP18 were functional. Similar to T. gondii, the HhROP5 locus is expanded, and two distinct HhROP5 paralogs increased the virulence of a T. gondii TgROP5 knockout strain. We also identified a 107 base pair promoter region, absent only in type III TgROP18, which is necessary for TgROP18 expression. This result indicates that the ROP18 promoter was active in the most recent common ancestor of these two species and that it was subsequently inactivated in progenitors of the type III lineage. Overall, these data suggest that the virulence differences between these species are not solely due to the functionality of these key virulence factors. This study provides evidence that other mechanisms, such as differences in gene expression or the lack of currently uncharacterized virulence factors, may underlie the phenotypic differences between these species. PMID:23589877

Walzer, Katelyn A.; Adomako-Ankomah, Yaw; Dam, Rachel A.; Herrmann, Daland C.; Schares, Gereon; Dubey, Jitender P.; Boyle, Jon P.

2013-01-01

36

Physiological Ageing as it is Related to Gene Function in the Lone Star Tick, Amblyomma americanum  

E-print Network

from an organism known for its longevity. Amblyomma americanum is an excellent candidate for this, as it can survive for years unfed. Two groups of 75 unfed adult A. americanum were monitored in a control environment of 85% relative humidity...

Catena, Amanda M.

2010-07-14

37

Parallel re-modeling of EF-1? function: divergent EF-1? genes co-occur with EFL genes in diverse distantly related eukaryotes  

PubMed Central

Background Elongation factor-1? (EF-1?) and elongation factor-like (EFL) proteins are functionally homologous to one another, and are core components of the eukaryotic translation machinery. The patchy distribution of the two elongation factor types across global eukaryotic phylogeny is suggestive of a ‘differential loss’ hypothesis that assumes that EF-1? and EFL were present in the most recent common ancestor of eukaryotes followed by independent differential losses of one of the two factors in the descendant lineages. To date, however, just one diatom and one fungus have been found to have both EF-1? and EFL (dual-EF-containing species). Results In this study, we characterized 35 new EF-1?/EFL sequences from phylogenetically diverse eukaryotes. In so doing we identified 11 previously unreported dual-EF-containing species from diverse eukaryote groups including the Stramenopiles, Apusomonadida, Goniomonadida, and Fungi. Phylogenetic analyses suggested vertical inheritance of both genes in each of the dual-EF lineages. In the dual-EF-containing species we identified, the EF-1? genes appeared to be highly divergent in sequence and suppressed at the transcriptional level compared to the co-occurring EFL genes. Conclusions According to the known EF-1?/EFL distribution, the differential loss process should have occurred independently in diverse eukaryotic lineages, and more dual-EF-containing species remain unidentified. We predict that dual-EF-containing species retain the divergent EF-1? homologues only for a sub-set of the original functions. As the dual-EF-containing species are distantly related to each other, we propose that independent re-modelling of EF-1? function took place in multiple branches in the tree of eukaryotes. PMID:23800323

2013-01-01

38

Functional conservation of Toxoplasma gondii virulence genes in its avirulent relative, Hammondia hammondi  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous protozoan parasite capable of infecting all warm blooded animals, including humans. Its closest extant relative, Hammondia hammondi, has never been found to infect humans and in contrast to T. gondii is highly attenuated in mice. To better understand the genetic b...

39

Analysis of genes contributing to plant-beneficial functions in plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and related Proteobacteria  

PubMed Central

The positive effects of root-colonizing bacteria cooperating with plants lead to improved growth and/or health of their eukaryotic hosts. Some of these Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) display several plant-beneficial properties, suggesting that the accumulation of the corresponding genes could have been selected in these bacteria. Here, this issue was targeted using 23 genes contributing directly or indirectly to established PGPR effects, based on genome sequence analysis of 304 contrasted Alpha- Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria. Most of the 23 genes studied were also found in non-PGPR Proteobacteria and none of them were common to all 25 PGPR genomes studied. However, ancestral character reconstruction indicated that gene transfers -predominantly ancient- resulted in characteristic gene combinations according to taxonomic subgroups of PGPR strains. This suggests that the PGPR-plant cooperation could have established separately in various taxa, yielding PGPR strains that use different gene assortments. The number of genes contributing to plant-beneficial functions increased along the continuum -animal pathogens, phytopathogens, saprophytes, endophytes/symbionts, PGPR- indicating that the accumulation of these genes (and possibly of different plant-beneficial traits) might be an intrinsic PGPR feature. This work uncovered preferential associations occurring between certain genes contributing to phytobeneficial traits and provides new insights into the emergence of PGPR bacteria. PMID:25179219

Bruto, Maxime; Prigent-Combaret, Claire; Muller, Daniel; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan

2014-01-01

40

Discovery of genes related to formothion resistance in oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis) by a constrained functional genomics analysis.  

PubMed

Artificial selection can provide insights into how insecticide resistance mechanisms evolve in populations. The underlying basis of such phenomena can involve complex interactions of multiple genes, and the resolution of this complexity first necessitates confirmation that specific genes are involved in resistance mechanisms. Here, we used a novel approach invoking a constrained RNA sequencing analysis to refine the discovery of specific genes involved in insecticide resistance. Specifically, for gene discovery, an additional constraint was added to the traditional comparisons of susceptible vs. resistant flies by the incorporation of a line in which insecticide susceptibility was 'recovered' within a resistant line by the removal of insecticide stress. In our analysis, the criterion for the classification of any gene as related to insecticide resistance was based on evidence for differential expression in the resistant line as compared with both the susceptible and recovered lines. The incorporation of this additional constraint reduced the number of differentially expressed genes putatively involved in resistance to 464, compared with more than 1000 that had been identified previously using this same species. In addition, our analysis identified several key genes involved in metabolic detoxification processes that showed up-regulated expression. Furthermore, the involvement of acetylcholinesterase, a known target for modification in insecticide resistance, was associated with three key nonsynonymous amino acid substitutions within our data. In conclusion, the incorporation of an additional constraint using a 'recovered' line for gene discovery provides a higher degree of confidence in genes identified to be involved in insecticide resistance phenomena. PMID:25702834

Kuo, T C-Y; Hu, C-C; Chien, T-Y; Chen, M J M; Feng, H-T; Chen, L-F O; Chen, C-Y; Hsu, J-C

2015-06-01

41

Molecular Characterization and Functional Analysis of Three Pathogenesis-Related Cytochrome P450 Genes from Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Tylenchida: Aphelenchoidoidea).  

PubMed

Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, the causal agent of pine wilt disease, causes huge economic losses in pine forests. The high expression of cytochrome P450 genes in B. xylophilus during infection in P. thunbergii indicated that these genes had a certain relationship with the pathogenic process of B. xylophilus. Thus, we attempted to identify the molecular characterization and functions of cytochrome P450 genes in B. xylophilus. In this study, full-length cDNA of three cytochrome P450 genes, BxCYP33C9, BxCYP33C4 and BxCYP33D3 were first cloned from B. xylophilus using 3' and 5' RACE PCR amplification. Sequence analysis showed that all of them contained a highly-conserved cytochrome P450 domain. The characteristics of the three putative proteins were analyzed with bioinformatic methods. RNA interference (RNAi) was used to assess the functions of BxCYP33C9, BxCYP33C4 and BxCYP33D3. The results revealed that these cytochrome P450 genes were likely to be associated with the vitality, dispersal ability, reproduction, pathogenicity and pesticide metabolism of B. xylophilus. This discovery confirmed the molecular characterization and functions of three cytochrome P450 genes from B. xylophilus and provided fundamental information in elucidating the molecular interaction mechanism between B. xylophilus and its host plant. PMID:25756378

Xu, Xiao-Lu; Wu, Xiao-Qin; Ye, Jian-Ren; Huang, Lin

2015-01-01

42

Expression profiling reveals functionally redundant multiple-copy genes related to zinc, iron and cadmium responses in Brassica rapa.  

PubMed

Genes underlying environmental adaptability tend to be over-retained in polyploid plant species. Zinc deficiency (ZnD) and iron deficiency (FeD), excess Zn (ZnE) and cadmium exposure (CdE) are major environmental problems for crop cultivation, but little is known about the differential expression of duplicated genes upon these stress conditions. Applying Tag-Seq technology to leaves of Brassica rapa grown under FeD, ZnD, ZnE or CdE conditions, with normal conditions as a control, we examined global gene expression changes and compared the expression patterns of multiple paralogs. We identified 812, 543, 331 and 447 differentially expressed genes under FeD, ZnD, ZnE and CdE conditions, respectively, in B. rapa leaves. Genes involved in regulatory networks centered on the transcription factors bHLH038 or bHLH100 were differentially expressed under (ZnE-induced) FeD. Further analysis revealed that genes associated with Zn, Fe and Cd responses tended to be over-retained in the B. rapa genome. Most of these multiple-copy genes showed the same direction of expression change under stress conditions. We conclude that the duplicated genes involved in trace element responses in B. rapa are functionally redundant, making the regulatory network more complex in B. rapa than in Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:24738937

Li, Jimeng; Liu, Bo; Cheng, Feng; Wang, Xiaowu; Aarts, Mark G M; Wu, Jian

2014-07-01

43

Functional analysis of four processing products from multiple precursors encoded by a lebocin-related gene from Manduca sexta  

PubMed Central

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a crucial component of the natural immune system in insects. Five types of AMPs have been identified in the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta, including attacin, cecropin, moricin, gloverin, and lebocin. Here we report the isolation of lebocin-related cDNA clones and antibacterial activity of their processed protein products. The seventeen cDNA sequences are composed of a constant 5? end and a variable 3? region containing 3?16 copies of an 81-nucleotide repeat. The sequence of the corresponding gene isolated from a M. sexta genomic library and Southern blotting results indicated that the gene lacks introns and exists as a single copy in the genome. The genomic sequence contained 13 complete and one partial copy of the 81-nucleotide repeat. Northern blot analysis revealed multiple transcripts with major size differences. The mRNA level of M. sexta lebocin increased substantially in fat body after larvae had been injected with bacteria. The RXXR motifs in the protein sequences led us to postulate that the precursors are processed by an intracellular convertase to form four bioactive peptides. To test this hypothesis, we chemically synthesized the peptides and examined their antibacterial activity. Peptide 1 killed Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Peptide 2, similar in sequence to a Galleria mellonella AMP, did not affect the bacterial growth. Peptide 3 was inactive but peptide 3 with an extra Arg at the carboxyl terminus was active against E. coli at a high minimum inhibitory concentration. Peptide 4, encoded by the 81-bp repeat, was inactive in the antibacterial tests. The hypothesis that posttranslational processing of the precursor proteins produces multiple bioactive peptides for defense purposes was validated by identification of peptides 1, 2, and 3 from larval hemolymph via liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Comparison with the orthologs from other lepidopteran insects indicates that the same mechanism may be used to generate several functional products from a single precursor. PMID:20096726

Rayaprolu, Subrahmanyam; Wang, Yang; Kanost, Michael R.; Hartson, Steven; Jiang, Haobo

2010-01-01

44

An endogenous artificial microRNA system for unraveling the function of root endosymbioses related genes in Medicago truncatula  

PubMed Central

Background Legumes have the unique capacity to undergo two important root endosymbioses: the root nodule symbiosis and the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. Medicago truncatula is widely used to unravel the functions of genes during these root symbioses. Here we describe the development of an artificial microRNA (amiR)-mediated gene silencing system for M. truncatula roots. Results The endogenous microRNA (miR) mtr-miR159b was selected as a backbone molecule for driving amiR expression. Heterologous expression of mtr-miR159b-amiR constructs in tobacco showed that the backbone is functional and mediates an efficient gene silencing. amiR-mediated silencing of a visible marker was also effective after root transformation of M. truncatula constitutively expressing the visible marker. Most importantly, we applied the novel amiR system to shed light on the function of a putative transcription factor, MtErf1, which was strongly induced in arbuscule-containing cells during mycorrhizal symbiosis. MtPt4 promoter driven amiR-silencing led to strongly decreased transcript levels and deformed, non-fully truncated arbuscules indicating that MtErf1 is required for arbuscule development. Conclusions The endogenous amiR system demonstrated here presents a novel and highly efficient tool to unravel gene functions during root endosymbioses. PMID:23679580

2013-01-01

45

[Cloning and function identification of gene 'admA' and up-stream regulatory sequence related to antagonistic activity of Enterobacter cloacae B8].  

PubMed

To reveal the antagonistic mechanism of B8 strain to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, transposon tagging method and chromosome walking were deployed to clone antagonistic related fragments around Tn5 insertion site in the mutant strain B8B. The function of up-stream regulatory sequence of gene 'admA' involved in the antagonistic activity was further identified by gene knocking out technique. An antagonistic related left fragment of Tn5 insertion site, 2 608 bp in length, was obtained by tagging with Kan resistance gene of Tn5. A 2 354 bp right fragment of Tn5 insertion site was amplified with 2 rounds of chromosome walking. The length of the B contig around the Tn5 insertion site was 4 611 bp, containing 7 open reading frames (ORFs). Bioinformatic analysis revealed that these ORFs corresponded to the partial coding regions of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, two LysR family transcriptional regulators, hypothetical protein VSWAT3-20465 of Vibrionales and admA, admB, and partial sequence of admC gene of Pantoea agglomerans biosynthetic gene cluster, respectively. Tn5 was inserted in the up-stream of 200 bp or 894 bp of the sequence corresponding to anrP ORF or admA gene on B8B, respectively. The B-1 and B-2 mutants that lost antagonistic activity were selected by homeologuous recombination technology in association with knocking out plasmid pMB-BG. These results suggested that the transcription and expression of anrP gene might be disrupted as a result of the knocking out of up-stream regulatory sequence by Tn5 in B8B strain, further causing biosythesis regulation of the antagonistic related gene cluster. Thus, the antagonistic related genes in B8 strain is a gene family similar as andrimid biosynthetic gene cluster, and the upstream regulatory region appears to be critical for the antibiotics biosynthesis. PMID:22522167

Zhu, Jun-Li; Li, De-Bao; Yu, Xu-Ping

2012-04-01

46

Integration of genome-wide association studies with biological knowledge identifies six novel genes related to kidney function.  

PubMed

In conducting genome-wide association studies (GWAS), analytical approaches leveraging biological information may further understanding of the pathophysiology of clinical traits. To discover novel associations with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), a measure of kidney function, we developed a strategy for integrating prior biological knowledge into the existing GWAS data for eGFR from the CKDGen Consortium. Our strategy focuses on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in genes that are connected by functional evidence, determined by literature mining and gene ontology (GO) hierarchies, to genes near previously validated eGFR associations. It then requires association thresholds consistent with multiple testing, and finally evaluates novel candidates by independent replication. Among the samples of European ancestry, we identified a genome-wide significant SNP in FBXL20 (P = 5.6 × 10(-9)) in meta-analysis of all available data, and additional SNPs at the INHBC, LRP2, PLEKHA1, SLC3A2 and SLC7A6 genes meeting multiple-testing corrected significance for replication and overall P-values of 4.5 × 10(-4)-2.2 × 10(-7). Neither the novel PLEKHA1 nor FBXL20 associations, both further supported by association with eGFR among African Americans and with transcript abundance, would have been implicated by eGFR candidate gene approaches. LRP2, encoding the megalin receptor, was identified through connection with the previously known eGFR gene DAB2 and extends understanding of the megalin system in kidney function. These findings highlight integration of existing genome-wide association data with independent biological knowledge to uncover novel candidate eGFR associations, including candidates lacking known connections to kidney-specific pathways. The strategy may also be applicable to other clinical phenotypes, although more testing will be needed to assess its potential for discovery in general. PMID:22962313

Chasman, Daniel I; Fuchsberger, Christian; Pattaro, Cristian; Teumer, Alexander; Böger, Carsten A; Endlich, Karlhans; Olden, Matthias; Chen, Ming-Huei; Tin, Adrienne; Taliun, Daniel; Li, Man; Gao, Xiaoyi; Gorski, Mathias; Yang, Qiong; Hundertmark, Claudia; Foster, Meredith C; O'Seaghdha, Conall M; Glazer, Nicole; Isaacs, Aaron; Liu, Ching-Ti; Smith, Albert V; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Struchalin, Maksim; Tanaka, Toshiko; Li, Guo; Johnson, Andrew D; Gierman, Hinco J; Feitosa, Mary F; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Atkinson, Elizabeth J; Lohman, Kurt; Cornelis, Marilyn C; Johansson, Asa; Tönjes, Anke; Dehghan, Abbas; Lambert, Jean-Charles; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Sorice, Rossella; Kutalik, Zoltan; Lehtimäki, Terho; Esko, Tõnu; Deshmukh, Harshal; Ulivi, Sheila; Chu, Audrey Y; Murgia, Federico; Trompet, Stella; Imboden, Medea; Coassin, Stefan; Pistis, Giorgio; Harris, Tamara B; Launer, Lenore J; Aspelund, Thor; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Mitchell, Braxton D; Boerwinkle, Eric; Schmidt, Helena; Cavalieri, Margherita; Rao, Madhumathi; Hu, Frank; Demirkan, Ayse; Oostra, Ben A; de Andrade, Mariza; Turner, Stephen T; Ding, Jingzhong; Andrews, Jeanette S; Freedman, Barry I; Giulianini, Franco; Koenig, Wolfgang; Illig, Thomas; Meisinger, Christa; Gieger, Christian; Zgaga, Lina; Zemunik, Tatijana; Boban, Mladen; Minelli, Cosetta; Wheeler, Heather E; Igl, Wilmar; Zaboli, Ghazal; Wild, Sarah H; Wright, Alan F; Campbell, Harry; Ellinghaus, David; Nöthlings, Ute; Jacobs, Gunnar; Biffar, Reiner; Ernst, Florian; Homuth, Georg; Kroemer, Heyo K; Nauck, Matthias; Stracke, Sylvia; Völker, Uwe; Völzke, Henry; Kovacs, Peter; Stumvoll, Michael; Mägi, Reedik; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Aulchenko, Yurii S; Polasek, Ozren; Hastie, Nick; Vitart, Veronique; Helmer, Catherine; Wang, Jie Jin; Stengel, Bénédicte; Ruggiero, Daniela; Bergmann, Sven; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma; Nikopensius, Tiit; Province, Michael; Ketkar, Shamika; Colhoun, Helen; Doney, Alex; Robino, Antonietta; Krämer, Bernhard K; Portas, Laura; Ford, Ian; Buckley, Brendan M; Adam, Martin; Thun, Gian-Andri; Paulweber, Bernhard; Haun, Margot; Sala, Cinzia; Mitchell, Paul; Ciullo, Marina; Kim, Stuart K; Vollenweider, Peter; Raitakari, Olli; Metspalu, Andres; Palmer, Colin; Gasparini, Paolo; Pirastu, Mario; Jukema, J Wouter; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M; Kronenberg, Florian; Toniolo, Daniela; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Shuldiner, Alan R; Coresh, Josef; Schmidt, Reinhold; Ferrucci, Luigi; Siscovick, David S; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Borecki, Ingrid B; Kardia, Sharon L R; Liu, Yongmei; Curhan, Gary C; Rudan, Igor; Gyllensten, Ulf; Wilson, James F; Franke, Andre; Pramstaller, Peter P; Rettig, Rainer; Prokopenko, Inga; Witteman, Jacqueline; Hayward, Caroline; Ridker, Paul M; Parsa, Afshin; Bochud, Murielle; Heid, Iris M; Kao, W H Linda; Fox, Caroline S; Köttgen, Anna

2012-12-15

47

Integration of genome-wide association studies with biological knowledge identifies six novel genes related to kidney function  

PubMed Central

In conducting genome-wide association studies (GWAS), analytical approaches leveraging biological information may further understanding of the pathophysiology of clinical traits. To discover novel associations with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), a measure of kidney function, we developed a strategy for integrating prior biological knowledge into the existing GWAS data for eGFR from the CKDGen Consortium. Our strategy focuses on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in genes that are connected by functional evidence, determined by literature mining and gene ontology (GO) hierarchies, to genes near previously validated eGFR associations. It then requires association thresholds consistent with multiple testing, and finally evaluates novel candidates by independent replication. Among the samples of European ancestry, we identified a genome-wide significant SNP in FBXL20 (P = 5.6 × 10?9) in meta-analysis of all available data, and additional SNPs at the INHBC, LRP2, PLEKHA1, SLC3A2 and SLC7A6 genes meeting multiple-testing corrected significance for replication and overall P-values of 4.5 × 10?4–2.2 × 10?7. Neither the novel PLEKHA1 nor FBXL20 associations, both further supported by association with eGFR among African Americans and with transcript abundance, would have been implicated by eGFR candidate gene approaches. LRP2, encoding the megalin receptor, was identified through connection with the previously known eGFR gene DAB2 and extends understanding of the megalin system in kidney function. These findings highlight integration of existing genome-wide association data with independent biological knowledge to uncover novel candidate eGFR associations, including candidates lacking known connections to kidney-specific pathways. The strategy may also be applicable to other clinical phenotypes, although more testing will be needed to assess its potential for discovery in general. PMID:22962313

Chasman, Daniel I.; Fuchsberger, Christian; Pattaro, Cristian; Teumer, Alexander; Böger, Carsten A.; Endlich, Karlhans; Olden, Matthias; Chen, Ming-Huei; Tin, Adrienne; Taliun, Daniel; Li, Man; Gao, Xiaoyi; Gorski, Mathias; Yang, Qiong; Hundertmark, Claudia; Foster, Meredith C.; O'Seaghdha, Conall M.; Glazer, Nicole; Isaacs, Aaron; Liu, Ching-Ti; Smith, Albert V.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Struchalin, Maksim; Tanaka, Toshiko; Li, Guo; Johnson, Andrew D.; Gierman, Hinco J.; Feitosa, Mary F.; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Atkinson, Elizabeth J.; Lohman, Kurt; Cornelis, Marilyn C.; Johansson, Åsa; Tönjes, Anke; Dehghan, Abbas; Lambert, Jean-Charles; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; Sorice, Rossella; Kutalik, Zoltan; Lehtimäki, Terho; Esko, Tõnu; Deshmukh, Harshal; Ulivi, Sheila; Chu, Audrey Y.; Murgia, Federico; Trompet, Stella; Imboden, Medea; Coassin, Stefan; Pistis, Giorgio; Harris, Tamara B.; Launer, Lenore J.; Aspelund, Thor; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Schmidt, Helena; Cavalieri, Margherita; Rao, Madhumathi; Hu, Frank; Demirkan, Ayse; Oostra, Ben A.; de Andrade, Mariza; Turner, Stephen T.; Ding, Jingzhong; Andrews, Jeanette S.; Freedman, Barry I.; Giulianini, Franco; Koenig, Wolfgang; Illig, Thomas; Meisinger, Christa; Gieger, Christian; Zgaga, Lina; Zemunik, Tatijana; Boban, Mladen; Minelli, Cosetta; Wheeler, Heather E.; Igl, Wilmar; Zaboli, Ghazal; Wild, Sarah H.; Wright, Alan F.; Campbell, Harry; Ellinghaus, David; Nöthlings, Ute; Jacobs, Gunnar; Biffar, Reiner; Ernst, Florian; Homuth, Georg; Kroemer, Heyo K.; Nauck, Matthias; Stracke, Sylvia; Völker, Uwe; Völzke, Henry; Kovacs, Peter; Stumvoll, Michael; Mägi, Reedik; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Aulchenko, Yurii S.; Polasek, Ozren; Hastie, Nick; Vitart, Veronique; Helmer, Catherine; Wang, Jie Jin; Stengel, Bénédicte; Ruggiero, Daniela; Bergmann, Sven; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma; Nikopensius, Tiit; Province, Michael; Ketkar, Shamika; Colhoun, Helen; Doney, Alex; Robino, Antonietta; Krämer, Bernhard K.; Portas, Laura; Ford, Ian; Buckley, Brendan M.; Adam, Martin; Thun, Gian-Andri; Paulweber, Bernhard; Haun, Margot; Sala, Cinzia; Mitchell, Paul; Ciullo, Marina; Kim, Stuart K.; Vollenweider, Peter; Raitakari, Olli; Metspalu, Andres; Palmer, Colin; Gasparini, Paolo; Pirastu, Mario; Jukema, J. Wouter; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M.; Kronenberg, Florian; Toniolo, Daniela; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Coresh, Josef; Schmidt, Reinhold; Ferrucci, Luigi; Siscovick, David S.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Liu, Yongmei; Curhan, Gary C.; Rudan, Igor; Gyllensten, Ulf; Wilson, James F.; Franke, Andre; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Rettig, Rainer; Prokopenko, Inga; Witteman, Jacqueline; Hayward, Caroline; Ridker, Paul M; Parsa, Afshin; Bochud, Murielle; Heid, Iris M.; Kao, W.H. Linda; Fox, Caroline S.; Köttgen, Anna

2012-01-01

48

Reciprocal sympatho-sensory control: functional role of nucleotides and calcitonin gene-related peptide in a peripheral neuroeffector junction.  

PubMed

The rat vas deferens has scattered sensory afferens plus a dense network of sympathetic motor efferens; these fibers are not known to interact functionally. We ascertained whether sensory fibers modulate the release of sympathetic transmitters through the release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and reciprocally assessed whether sympathetic transmitters modulate the overflow of ir-CGRP from sensory fibers. The tissue overflow of electrically evoked sympathetic co-transmitters (ATP/metabolites, noradrenaline (NA), and immunoreactive neuropeptide tyrosine (ir-NPY)) and the motor responses elicited were quantified following either exogenous CGRP or capsaicin application to elicit peptide release. Conversely, the outflow of ir-CGRP was examined in the presence of sympathetic transmitters. Exogenous CGRP reduced in a concentration-dependent manner the electrically evoked outflow of ATP/metabolites, NA, and ir-NPY with EC(50) values of 1.3, 0.18, and 1.9 nM, respectively. CGRP also reduced the basal NA overflow. The CGRP-evoked modulation was blocked by CGRP8-37 or H-89. Release of endogenous CGRP by capsaicin significantly reduced the basal overflow of NA, ir-NPY, and the electrically evoked sympathetic transmitter release. ADP, 2-methylthioadenosine-5'-O-diphosphate (2-MeSADP), or UTP decreased the electrically evoked ir-CGRP overflow, whereas clonidine, ?,?-methyleneadenosine 5'-triphosphate (?,?-mATP), or adenosine (ADO) were inactive. CGRP acting postjunctionally also reduced the motor responses elicited by exogenous NA, ATP, or electrically evoked contractions. We conclude that CGRP exerts a presynaptic modulator role on sympathetic nerve endings and reciprocally ATP or related nucleotides influence the release of ir-CGRP from sensory fibers, highlighting a dynamic sympatho-sensory control between sensory fibers and sympathetic nerve ending. Postjunctional CGRP receptors further contribute to reduce the tissue sympathetic motor tone implying a pre and postjunctional role of CGRP as a sympathetic tone modulator. PMID:22178987

Donoso, M V; Hermosilla, D; Navarrete, C; Álvarez, P; Lillo, J G; Huidobro-Toro, J P

2012-02-17

49

Possible Regulatory Roles of Promoter G-Quadruplexes in Cardiac Function-Related Genes – Human TnIc as a Model  

PubMed Central

G-quadruplexes (G4s) are four-stranded DNA secondary structures, which are involved in a diverse range of biological processes. Although the anti-cancer potential of G4s in oncogene promoters has been thoroughly investigated, the functions of promoter G4s in non-cancer-related genes are not well understood. We have explored the possible regulatory roles of promoter G4s in cardiac function-related genes using both computational and a wide range of experimental approaches. According to our bioinformatics results, it was found that potential G4-forming sequences are particularly enriched in the transcription regulatory regions (TRRs) of cardiac function-related genes. Subsequently, the promoter of human cardiac troponin I (TnIc) was chosen as a model, and G4s found in this region were subjected to biophysical characterisations. The chromosome 19 specific minisatellite G4 sequence (MNSG4) and near transcription start site (TSS) G4 sequence (?80 G4) adopt anti-parallel and parallel structures respectively in 100 mM KCl, with stabilities comparable to those of oncogene G4s. It was also found that TnIc G4s act cooperatively as enhancers in gene expression regulation in HEK293 cells, when stabilised by a synthetic G4-binding ligand. This study provides the first evidence of the biological significance of promoter G4s in cardiac function-related genes. The feasibility of using a single ligand to target multiple G4s in a particular gene has also been discussed. PMID:23326389

Zhou, Wenhua; Suntharalingam, Kogularamanan; Brand, Nigel J.; Barton, Paul J. R.; Vilar, Ramon; Ying, Liming

2013-01-01

50

Functional Analysis of the Fibrinogen-Related scabrous Gene From Drosophila melanogaster Identifies Potential Effector and Stimulatory Protein Domains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scabrous (sca) gene encodes a secreted dimeric glycoprotein with putative coiled-coil domains N-terminally and a C-terminal region related to the blood clot protein fibrinogen. Homozygous sca mutants have extra bristle organs and rough eyes. We describe a GAL4-based expression system for testing rescue of the sca mutant phenotype by altered SCA proteins and for misexpression. We find that deletion

E-Chiang Lee; Sung-Yun Yu; Xiaoxi Hu; Marek Mlodzik; Nicholas E. Baker

51

Mouse Genetics: Determining gene function  

E-print Network

Mouse Genetics: Determining gene function An International Centre for Mouse Genetics Mammalian Genetics Unit #12;Determining gene function · Mutagenesis approaches · Gene-driven, phenotype for Mouse Genetics Mammalian Genetics Unit #12;An International Centre for Mouse Genetics Mammalian Genetics

Goldschmidt, Christina

52

Senescence-related functional nuclear barrier by down-regulation of nucleo-cytoplasmic trafficking gene expression  

SciTech Connect

One of the characteristic natures of senescent cells is the hypo- or irresponsiveness not only to growth factors but also to apoptotic stress. In the present study, we confirmed the inhibition of nuclear translocation of activated p-ERK1/2 and NF-kB p50 in response to growth stimuli or LPS in the senescent human diploid fibroblasts. In order to elucidate the underlying mechanism for the senescence-associated hypo-responsiveness, we carried out the comparison study for gene expression profiles through microarray analysis. In consequence, we observed the vast reduction in expression of nucleo-cytoplasmic trafficking genes in senescent cells, when compared with those in young cells. Expression levels of several nucleoporins, karyopherin {alpha}, karyopherin {beta}, Ran, and Ran-regulating factors were confirmed to be down-regulated in senescent HDFs by using RT-PCR and Western blot methods. Taken together, these data suggest the operation of certain senescence-associated functional nuclear barriers by down-regulation of the nucleo-cytoplasmic trafficking genes in the senescent cells.

Kim, Sung Young; Ryu, Sung Jin; Ahn, Hong Ju; Choi, Hae Ri; Kang, Hyun Tae [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Aging and Apoptosis Research Center, Institute on Aging, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Aging and Apoptosis Research Center, Institute on Aging, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sang Chul, E-mail: scpark@snu.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Aging and Apoptosis Research Center, Institute on Aging, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of)

2010-01-01

53

Molecular and functional analysis of the large 5' promoter region of CFTR gene revealed pathogenic mutations in CF and CFTR-related disorders.  

PubMed

Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) manifest a multisystemic disease due to mutations in the gene encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR); despite extensive testing of coding regions, a proportion of CF alleles remains unidentified. We studied 118 patients with CF and CFTR-related disorders, most with one or both unknown mutations after the scanning of CFTR coding regions, and a non-CF control group (n = 75) by sequencing the 6000-bp region at the 5' of the CFTR gene. We identified 23 mutations, of which 9 were novel. We expressed such mutations in vitro using four cell systems to explore their functional effect, relating the data to the clinical expression of each patient. Some mutations reduced expression of the gene reporter firefly luciferase in various cell lines and may act as disease-causing mutations. Other mutations caused an increase in luciferase expression in some cell lines. One mutation had a different effect in different cells. For other mutations, the expression assay excluded a functional role. Gene variants in the large 5' region may cause altered regulation of CFTR gene expression, acting as disease-causing mutations or modifiers of its clinical phenotype. Studies of in vitro expression in different cell systems may help reveal the effect of such mutations. PMID:23470247

Giordano, Sonia; Amato, Felice; Elce, Ausilia; Monti, Maria; Iannone, Carla; Pucci, Pietro; Seia, Manuela; Angioni, Adriano; Zarrilli, Federica; Castaldo, Giuseppe; Tomaiuolo, Rossella

2013-05-01

54

Predicting gene function from images of cells  

E-print Network

This dissertation shows that biologically meaningful predictions can be made by analyzing images of cells. In particular, groups of related genes and their biological functions can be predicted using images from large ...

Jones, Thouis Raymond, 1971-

2007-01-01

55

FunGene: the functional gene pipeline and repository  

PubMed Central

Ribosomal RNA genes have become the standard molecular markers for microbial community analysis for good reasons, including universal occurrence in cellular organisms, availability of large databases, and ease of rRNA gene region amplification and analysis. As markers, however, rRNA genes have some significant limitations. The rRNA genes are often present in multiple copies, unlike most protein-coding genes. The slow rate of change in rRNA genes means that multiple species sometimes share identical 16S rRNA gene sequences, while many more species share identical sequences in the short 16S rRNA regions commonly analyzed. In addition, the genes involved in many important processes are not distributed in a phylogenetically coherent manner, potentially due to gene loss or horizontal gene transfer. While rRNA genes remain the most commonly used markers, key genes in ecologically important pathways, e.g., those involved in carbon and nitrogen cycling, can provide important insights into community composition and function not obtainable through rRNA analysis. However, working with ecofunctional gene data requires some tools beyond those required for rRNA analysis. To address this, our Functional Gene Pipeline and Repository (FunGene; http://fungene.cme.msu.edu/) offers databases of many common ecofunctional genes and proteins, as well as integrated tools that allow researchers to browse these collections and choose subsets for further analysis, build phylogenetic trees, test primers and probes for coverage, and download aligned sequences. Additional FunGene tools are specialized to process coding gene amplicon data. For example, FrameBot produces frameshift-corrected protein and DNA sequences from raw reads while finding the most closely related protein reference sequence. These tools can help provide better insight into microbial communities by directly studying key genes involved in important ecological processes. PMID:24101916

Fish, Jordan A.; Chai, Benli; Wang, Qiong; Sun, Yanni; Brown, C. Titus; Tiedje, James M.; Cole, James R.

2013-01-01

56

Can intermediate-frequency magnetic fields affect memory function-related gene expressions in hippocampus of C57BL/6J mice?  

PubMed

Recently, a cooking appliance based on the principle of electromagnetic induction has come to be used domestically on a widespread basis; this induction heating cooking hob mainly generates intermediate-frequency magnetic fields (IF-MF). However, whether electromagnetic fields originating from household appliances represent a health risk remains uncertain. We investigated the effect of IF-MF on the expressions of memory function-related genes and related transduction molecules in the mouse hippocampus. Male and female C57BL/6J mice were allotted to a control (sham-exposed), an exposure, or a recovery (one week after exposure) group and were exposed to IF-MF (21 kHz, 3.8 mT) one hour per day for 2 weeks. Twenty-four hour after final exposure, the expression levels of memory function-related genes and the mRNA levels for signal transduction pathway molecules in the hippocampi were examined using real-time RT-PCR. The relative mRNA expression levels of the N-methyl-D aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunits NR1, NR2A, and NR2B as well as transcription factors (calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) -IV, cyclic AMP responsive element binding protein (CREB) -1) and neurotrophins (nerve growth factor (NGF), and brain-derived neurotrophic factors (BDNF)) were not significantly altered in the IF-MF-exposed mice. We also examined the morphology of the hippocampus using a histological analysis, but no changes in the IF-MF-exposed mice were seen. This is the first in vivo study to show that IF-MF exposure did not affect the expression levels of memory function-related genes in the hippocampus of C57BL/6J mice. The present findings suggest that IF-MF exposure may not affect cognitive function in the present animal model. PMID:23535396

Win-Shwe, Tin-Tin; Ohtani, Shin; Ushiyama, Akira; Fujimaki, Hidekazu; Kunugita, Naoki

2013-01-01

57

The low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1: Unique tissue-specific functions revealed by selective gene knockout studies  

PubMed Central

The low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related protein (originally called LRP, but now referred to as LRP1) is a large endocytic receptor that is widely expressed in several tissues. LRP1 is a member of the LDL receptor family that plays diverse roles in various biological processes including lipoprotein metabolism, degradation of proteases, activation of lysosomal enzymes and cellular entry of bacterial toxins and viruses. Deletion of the LRP1 gene leads to lethality in mice, revealing a critical, but as of yet, undefined role in development. Tissue-specific gene deletion studies reveal an important contribution of LRP1 in the vasculature, central nervous system, in macrophages and in adipocytes. Three important properties of LRP1 dictate its diverse role in physiology: first, its ability to recognize more than thirty distinct ligands; second, its ability to bind a large number of cytoplasmic adaptor proteins via determinants located on its cytoplasmic domain in a phosphorylation-specific manner; and third, its ability to associate with and modulate the activity of other transmembrane receptors such as integrins and receptor tyrosine kinases. PMID:18626063

Lillis, Anna P.; Van Duyn, Lauren B.; Murphy-Ullrich, Joanne E.; Strickland, Dudley K.

2008-01-01

58

Age-related changes of gene expression in the neocortex: Preliminary data on RNA-Seq of the transcriptome in three functionally distinct cortical areas  

PubMed Central

The study of gene expression (i.e., the study of the transcriptome) in different cells and tissues allows us to understand the molecular mechanisms of their differentiation, development and functioning. In this article, we describe some studies of gene-expression profiling for the purposes of understanding developmental (age-related) changes in the brain using different technologies (e.g., DNA-Microarray) and the new and increasingly popular RNA-Seq. We focus on advancements in studies of gene expression in the human brain, which have provided data on the structure and age-related variability of the transcriptome in the brain. We present data on RNA-Seq of the transcriptome in three distinct areas of the neocortex from different ages: mature and elderly individuals. We report that most age-related transcriptional changes affect cellular signaling systems, and, as a result, the transmission of nerve impulses. In general, the results demonstrate the high potential of RNA-Seq for the study of distinctive features of gene expression among cortical areas and the changes in expression through normal and atypical development of the central nervous system. PMID:23062308

NAUMOVA, OKSANA YU.; PALEJEV, DEAN; VLASOVA, NATALIA V.; LEE, MARIA; RYCHKOV, SERGEI YU.; BABICH, OLGA N.; VACCARINO, FLORA M.; GRIGORENKO, ELENA L.

2012-01-01

59

Age-related changes of gene expression in the neocortex: preliminary data on RNA-Seq of the transcriptome in three functionally distinct cortical areas.  

PubMed

The study of gene expression (i.e., the study of the transcriptome) in different cells and tissues allows us to understand the molecular mechanisms of their differentiation, development and functioning. In this article, we describe some studies of gene-expression profiling for the purposes of understanding developmental (age-related) changes in the brain using different technologies (e.g., DNA-Microarray) and the new and increasingly popular RNA-Seq. We focus on advancements in studies of gene expression in the human brain, which have provided data on the structure and age-related variability of the transcriptome in the brain. We present data on RNA-Seq of the transcriptome in three distinct areas of the neocortex from different ages: mature and elderly individuals. We report that most age-related transcriptional changes affect cellular signaling systems, and, as a result, the transmission of nerve impulses. In general, the results demonstrate the high potential of RNA-Seq for the study of distinctive features of gene expression among cortical areas and the changes in expression through normal and atypical development of the central nervous system. PMID:23062308

Naumova, Oksana Yu; Palejev, Dean; Vlasova, Natalia V; Lee, Maria; Rychkov, Sergei Yu; Babich, Olga N; M Vaccarino, Flora; Grigorenko, Elena L

2012-11-01

60

How the serotonin story is being rewritten by new gene-based discoveries principally related to SLC6A4, the serotonin transporter gene, which functions to influence all cellular serotonin systems.  

PubMed

Discovered and crystallized over sixty years ago, serotonin's important functions in the brain and body were identified over the ensuing years by neurochemical, physiological and pharmacological investigations. This 2008 M. Rapport Memorial Serotonin Review focuses on some of the most recent discoveries involving serotonin that are based on genetic methodologies. These include examples of the consequences that result from direct serotonergic gene manipulation (gene deletion or overexpression) in mice and other species; an evaluation of some phenotypes related to functional human serotonergic gene variants, particularly in SLC6A4, the serotonin transporter gene; and finally, a consideration of the pharmacogenomics of serotonergic drugs with respect to both their therapeutic actions and side effects. The serotonin transporter (SERT) has been the most comprehensively studied of the serotonin system molecular components, and will be the primary focus of this review. We provide in-depth examples of gene-based discoveries primarily related to SLC6A4 that have clarified serotonin's many important homeostatic functions in humans, non-human primates, mice and other species. PMID:18824000

Murphy, Dennis L; Fox, Meredith A; Timpano, Kiara R; Moya, Pablo R; Ren-Patterson, Renee; Andrews, Anne M; Holmes, Andrew; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Wendland, Jens R

2008-11-01

61

Connectionist Approaches for Predicting Mouse Gene Function from Gene Expression  

E-print Network

Connectionist Approaches for Predicting Mouse Gene Function from Gene Expression Emad Andrews. emad@cs.toronto.edu Abstract. Identifying gene function has many useful applications especially in Gene Therapy. Identifying gene function based on gene expression data is much easier in prokaryotes than

Bonner, Anthony

62

Yeast Vps55p, a Functional Homolog of Human Obesity Receptor Gene-related Protein, Is Involved in Late Endosome to Vacuole Trafficking  

PubMed Central

The Saccharomyces cerevisiae VPS55 (YJR044c) gene encodes a small protein of 140 amino acids with four potential transmembrane domains. VPS55 belongs to a family of genes of unknown function, including the human gene encoding the obesity receptor gene-related protein (OB-RGRP). Yeast cells with a disrupted VPS55 present normal vacuolar morphology, but exhibit an abnormal secretion of the Golgi form of the soluble vacuolar carboxypeptidase Y. However, trafficking of the membrane-bound vacuolar alkaline phosphatase remains normal. The endocytosis of uracil permease, used as an endocytic marker, is normal in vps55? cells, but its degradation is delayed and this marker transiently accumulates in late endosomal compartments. We also found that Vps55p is mainly localized in the late endosomes. Collectively, these results indicate that Vps55p is involved in late endosome to vacuole trafficking. Finally, we show that human OB-RGRP displays the same distribution as Vps55p and corrects the phenotypic defects of the vps55? strain. Therefore, the function of Vps55p has been conserved throughout evolution. This study highlights the importance of the multispanning Vps55p and OB-RGRP in membrane trafficking to the vacuole/lysosome of eukaryotic cells. PMID:12006663

Belgareh-Touzé, Naïma; Avaro, Sandrine; Rouillé, Yves; Hoflack, Bernard; Haguenauer-Tsapis, Rosine

2002-01-01

63

Identification and functional characterization of the human ether-a-go-go-related gene Q738X mutant associated with hereditary long QT syndrome type 2.  

PubMed

QT interval prolongation, a risk factor for arrhythmias, may be associated with genetic variants in genes governing cardiac repolarization. Long QT syndrome type 2 (LQT2) is caused by mutations in the human ether-a-go?go-related gene (hERG). This gene encodes a voltage-gated potassium channel comprised of 4 subunits, and the formation of functional channels requires the proper assembly of these 4 subunits. In the present study, we investigated the role of the LQT2 mutation, Q738X, which causes truncation of the C-terminus of hERG channels, in the assembly and function of hERG channels. When expressed in HEK293 cells, Q738X did not generate an hERG current. The co-expression of Q738X with wild-type (WT)-hERG did not cause the dominant-negative suppression of the WT-hERG current. Western blot analysis and confocal microscopy revealed that the Q738X mutation caused defective trafficking of hERG channel proteins. Co-immunoprecipitation demonstrated that Q738X did not exhibit dominant-negative effects due to the failure of the mutant and WT subunits to co-assemble. In conclusion, the functional loss caused by the Q738X mutation in hERG K+ channels may be attributed to the disruption of tetrameric assembly. PMID:24993425

Han, Sheng-Na; Yang, Song-Hua; Zhang, Yu; Sun, Xiao-Yan; Duan, Yan-Yan; Hu, Xiang-Jie; Fan, Tian-Li; Huang, Chen-Zheng; Yang, Ge; Zhang, Zhao; Zhang, Lirong

2014-09-01

64

Exposure in utero to 2,2',3,3',4,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 132) impairs sperm function and alters testicular apoptosis-related gene expression in rat offspring  

SciTech Connect

Toxicity of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) depends on their molecular structure. Mechanisms by prenatal exposure to a non-dioxin-like PCB, 2,2',3,4',5',6-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 132) that may act on reproductive pathways in male offspring are relatively unknown. The purpose was to determine whether epididymal sperm function and expression of apoptosis-related genes were induced or inhibited by prenatal exposure to PCB 132. Pregnant rats were treated with a single dose of PCB 132 at 1 or 10 mg/kg on gestational day 15. Male offspring were killed and the epididymal sperm counts, motility, velocity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, sperm-oocyte penetration rate (SOPR), testicular histopathology, apoptosis-related gene expression and caspase activation were assessed on postnatal day 84. Prenatal exposure to PCB 132 with a single dose of 1 or 10 mg/kg decreased cauda epididymal weight, epididymal sperm count and motile epididymal sperm count in adult offspring. The spermatozoa of PCB 132-exposed offspring produced significantly higher levels of ROS than the controls; ROS induction and SOPR reduction were dose-related. In the low-dose PCB 132 group, p53 was significantly induced and caspase-3 was inhibited. In the high-dose group, activation of caspase-3 and -9 was significantly increased, while the expressions of Fas, Bax, bcl-2, and p53 genes were significantly decreased. Gene expression and caspase activation data may provide insight into the mechanisms by which exposure to low-dose or high-dose PCB 132 affects reproduction in male offspring in rats. Because the doses of PCB 132 administered to the dams were approximately 625-fold in low-dose group and 6250-fold higher in high-dose group than the concentration in human tissue levels, the concentrations are not biologically or environmentally relevant. Further studies using environmentally relevant doses are needed for hazard identification.

Hsu, P.-C. [Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Pan, M.-H. [Department of Seafood Science, National Kaohsiung Marine University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Li, L.-A. [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Taiwan (China); Chen, C.-J. [Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Tsai, S.-S. [Department of Veterinary Medicine, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung, Taiwan (China); Guo, Y.L. [No. 1, Section 1, Jen-Ai Road, Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei 100, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: leonguo@ha.mc.ntu.edu.tw

2007-05-15

65

In Utero Exposure to Arsenic Alters Lung Development and Genes Related to Immune and Mucociliary Function in Mice  

PubMed Central

Background: Exposure to arsenic via drinking water is a global environmental health problem. In utero exposure to arsenic via drinking water increases the risk of lower respiratory tract infections during infancy and mortality from bronchiectasis in early adulthood. Objectives: We aimed to investigate how arsenic exposure in early life alters lung development and pathways involved in innate immunity. Methods: Pregnant BALB/c, C57BL/6, and C3H/HeARC mice were exposed to 0 (control) or 100 ?g/L arsenic via drinking water from gestation day 8 until the birth of their offspring. We measured somatic growth, lung volume, and lung mechanics of mice at 2 weeks of age. We used fixed lungs for structural analysis and collected lung tissue for gene expression analysis by microarray. Results: The response to arsenic was genetically determined, and C57BL/6 mice were the most susceptible. Arsenic-exposed C57BL/6 mice were smaller in size, had smaller lungs, and had impaired lung mechanics compared with controls. Exposure to arsenic in utero up-regulated the expression of genes in the lung involved in mucus production (Clca3, Muc5b, Scgb3a1), innate immunity (Reg3?, Tff2, Dynlrb2, Lplunc1), and lung morphogenesis (Sox2). Arsenic exposure also induced mucous cell metaplasia and increased expression of CLCA3 protein in the large airways. Conclusions: Alterations in somatic growth, lung development, and the expression of genes involved in mucociliary clearance and innate immunity in the lung are potential mechanisms through which early life arsenic exposure impacts respiratory health. PMID:23221970

Bosco, Anthony; McKenna, Katherine L.; Carter, Kim W.; Elliot, John G.; Berry, Luke J.; Sly, Peter D.; Larcombe, Alexander N.; Zosky, Graeme R.

2012-01-01

66

Variation at FCGR2A and Functionally Related Genes Is Associated with the Response to Anti-TNF Therapy in Rheumatoid Arthritis  

PubMed Central

Objective Anti-TNF therapies have been highly efficacious in the management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but 25–30% of patients do not show a significant clinical response. There is increasing evidence that genetic variation at the Fc receptor FCGR2A is associated with the response to anti-TNF therapy. We aimed to validate this genetic association in a patient cohort from the Spanish population, and also to identify new genes functionally related to FCGR2A that are also associated with anti-TNF response. Methods A total of 348 RA patients treated with an anti-TNF therapy were included and genotyped for FCGR2A polymorphism rs1081274. Response to therapy was determined at 12 weeks, and was tested for association globally and independently for each anti-TNF drug (infliximab, etanercept and adalimumab). Using gene expression profiles from macrophages obtained from synovial fluid of RA patients, we searched for genes highly correlated with FCGR2A expression. Tag SNPs were selected from each candidate gene and tested for association with the response to therapy. Results We found a significant association between FCGR2A and the response to adalimumab (P=0.022). Analyzing the subset of anti-CCP positive RA patients (78%), we also found a significant association between FCGR2A and the response to infliximab (P=0.035). DHX32 and RGS12 were the most consistently correlated genes with FCGR2A expression in RA synovial fluid macrophages (P<0.001). We found a significant association between the genetic variation at DHX32 (rs12356233, corrected P=0.019) and a nominally significant association between RGS12 and the response to adalimumab (rs4690093, uncorrected P=0.040). In the anti-CCP positive group of patients, we also found a nominally significant association between RGS12 and the response to infliximab (rs2857859, uncorrected P=0.042). Conclusions In the present study we have validated the FCGR2A association in an independent population, and we have identified new genes associated with the response to anti-TNF therapy in RA. PMID:25848939

Avila-Pedretti, Gabriela; Tornero, Jesús; Fernández-Nebro, Antonio; Blanco, Francisco; González-Alvaro, Isidoro; Cañete, Juan D.; Maymó, Joan; Alperiz, Mercedes; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Benjamín; Olivé, Alex; Corominas, Héctor; Erra, Alba; Aterido, Adrià; López Lasanta, María; Tortosa, Raül; Julià, Antonio; Marsal, Sara

2015-01-01

67

Functional nsSNPs from carcinogenesis-related genes expressed in breast tissue: Potential breast cancer risk alleles and their distribution across human populations  

PubMed Central

Although highly penetrant alleles of BRCA1 and BRCA2 have been shown to predispose to breast cancer, the majority of breast cancer cases are assumed to result from the presence of low-moderate penetrant alleles and environmental carcinogens. Non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) are hypothesised to contribute to disease susceptibility and approximately 30 per cent of them are predicted to have a biological significance. In this study, we have applied a bioinformatics-based strategy to identify breast cancer-related nsSNPs from 981 carcinogenesis-related genes expressed in breast tissue. Our results revealed a total of 367 validated nsSNPs, 109 (29.7 per cent) of which are predicted to affect the protein function (functional nsSNPs), suggesting that these nsSNPs are likely to influence the development and homeostasis of breast tissue and hence contribute to breast cancer susceptibility. Sixty-seven of the functional nsSNPs presented as commonly occurring nsSNPs (minor allele frequencies ? 5 per cent), representing excellent candidates for breast cancer susceptibility. Additionally, a non-uniform distribution of the common functional nsSNPs among different human populations was observed: 15 nsSNPs were reported to be present in all populations analysed, whereas another set of 15 nsSNPs was specific to particular population(s). We propose that the nsSNPs analysed in this study constitute a unique resource of potential genetic factors for breast cancer susceptibility. Furthermore, the variations in functional nsSNP allele frequencies across major population backgrounds may point to the potential variability of the molecular basis of breast cancer predisposition and treatment response among different human populations. PMID:16595073

2006-01-01

68

Structural and functional association between substance P- and calcitonin gene-related peptide-immunoreactive nerves and accessory cells in the rat dental pulp.  

PubMed

Defense mechanisms of the dentin/pulp complex involve a variety of biological systems in which immunocompetent cells, the nervous system, and the vascular supply play important roles. In the present study, pulpal accessory cells were examined regarding (i) their structural relationship to nerves and (ii) how the functional capacities of these cells were affected by neuropeptides. Micro-anatomic association was investigated in the normal rat molar pulp with the use of double-immunofluorescence staining and dual-channel confocal laser scanning microscopy. Examinations of confocal laser scanning microscopic images from single focal planes revealed the presence of apparent contacts between thin, varicose nerve fibers and immunocompetent cells, indicating proximity between these two structures. The close associations were most frequently observed in the para-odontoblastic region of the coronal pulp, where more than 70% of class II antigen-expressing (OX6+) cells showed proximity to nerve fibers immunoreactive to calcitonin gene-related peptide. The corresponding figure for substance P was about 50%. ED2+ macrophages closely associated with nerves were less frequently observed. Functional studies conducted in vitro demonstrated that 10(-9) to 10(-7) mol/L of substance P significantly increased (p < 0.05), while 10(-7) to 10(-6) mol/L of calcitonin gene-related peptide suppressed (p < 0.01) proliferation of purified T-lymphocytes stimulated with sub-optimal concentrations of concanavalin A in the presence of rat incisor pulpal cells as accessory cells. These data suggest that pulpal sensory nerve fibers and their products may have an influence upon the immune defense of the dental pulp. PMID:9390474

Okiji, T; Jontell, M; Belichenko, P; Dahlgren, U; Bergenholtz, G; Dahlström, A

1997-12-01

69

Hammondia hammondi, an avirulent relative of Toxoplasma gondii, has functional orthologs of known T. gondii virulence genes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous protozoan parasite capable of infecting all warm-blooded animals, including humans. Its closest extant relative, Hammondia hammondi, has never been found to infect humans and in contrast to T. gondii is highly attenuated in mice. To better understand the genetic bas...

70

Genomic analysis of cyclic-di-GMP-related genes in rhizobial type strains and functional analysis in Rhizobium etli.  

PubMed

Rhizobia are soil bacteria that can fix nitrogen in symbiosis with leguminous plants or exist free living in the rhizosphere. Crucial to their complex lifestyle is the ability to sense and respond to diverse environmental stimuli, requiring elaborate signaling pathways. In the majority of bacteria, the nucleotide-based second messenger cyclic diguanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) is involved in signal transduction. Surprisingly, little is known about the importance of c-di-GMP signaling in rhizobia. We have analyzed the genome sequences of six well-studied type species (Bradyrhizobium japonicum, Mesorhizobium loti, Rhizobium etli, Rhizobium leguminosarum, Sinorhizobium fredii, and Sinorhizobium meliloti) for proteins possibly involved in c-di-GMP signaling based on the presence of four domains: GGDEF (diguanylate cyclase), EAL and HD-GYP (phosphodiesterase), and PilZ (c-di-GMP sensor). We find that rhizobia possess a high number of these proteins. Conservation analysis suggests that c-di-GMP signaling proteins modulate species-specific pathways rather than ancient rhizobia-specific processes. Two hybrid GGDEF-EAL proteins were selected for functional analysis, R. etli RHE_PD00105 (CdgA) and RHE_PD00137 (CdgB). Expression of cdgA and cdgB is repressed by the alarmone (p)ppGpp. cdgB is significantly expressed on plant roots and free living. Mutation of cdgA, cdgB, or both does not affect plant root colonization, nitrogen fixation capacity, biofilm formation, motility, and exopolysaccharide production. However, heterologous expression of the individual GGDEF and EAL domains of each protein in Escherichia coli strongly suggests that CdgA and CdgB are bifunctional proteins, possessing both diguanylate cyclase and phosphodiesterase activities. Taken together, our results provide a platform for future studies of c-di-GMP signaling in rhizobia. PMID:24728599

Gao, Shanjun; Romdhane, Samir Ben; Beullens, Serge; Kaever, Volkhard; Lambrichts, Ivo; Fauvart, Maarten; Michiels, Jan

2014-05-01

71

Necessity of angiotensin-converting enzyme-related gene for cardiac functions and longevity of Drosophila melanogaster assessed by optical coherence tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prior studies have established the necessity of an angiotensin-converting enzyme-related (ACER) gene for heart morphogenesis of Drosophila. Nevertheless, the physiology of ACER has yet to be comprehensively understood. Herein, we employed RNA interference to down-regulate the expression of ACER in Drosophila's heart and swept source optical coherence tomography to assess whether ACER is required for cardiac functions in living adult flies. Several contractile parameters of Drosophila heart, including the heart rate (HR), end-diastolic diameter (EDD), end-systolic diameter (ESD), percent fractional shortening (%FS), and stress-induced cardiac performance, are shown, which are age dependent. These age-dependent cardiac functions declined significantly when ACER was down-regulated. Moreover, the lifespans of ACER knock-down flies were significantly shorter than those of wild-type control flies. Thus, we posit that ACER, the Drosophila ortholog of mammalian angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), is essential for both heart physiology and longevity of animals. Since mammalian ACE2 controls many cardiovascular physiological features and is implicated in cardiomyopathies, our findings that ACER plays conserved roles in genetically tractable animals will pave the way for uncovering the genetic pathway that controls the renin-angiotensin system.

Liao, Fang-Tsu; Chang, Cheng-Yi; Su, Ming-Tsan; Kuo, Wen-Chuan

2014-01-01

72

Prognostic role of apoptosis-related gene functional variants in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients treated with first-line platinum-based chemotherapy  

PubMed Central

Background Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in apoptosis-related genes have been shown to play a role in the efficacy of platinum-based chemotherapy and may influence clinical outcomes. Our study aimed to evaluate the correlations of four functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms ? FAS ?670 A>G, FAS ligand ?844 T>C, survivin ?31 G>C, and survivin 9386 C>T – with drug response and clinical outcomes in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients who received platinum-based chemotherapy. Materials and methods Polymorphisms were evaluated using the polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment-length polymorphism technique. Results Patients with the CC genotype of FAS ?670 A>G had worse overall survival (OS) than those with the CT or TT genotype (P=0.044), with median OS values of 20.1 months, 22.8 months, and 26.0 months, respectively. Furthermore, progression-free survival was associated with the FAS ?670 A>G polymorphism (P=0.032). In addition, patients with the TC and CC genotypes of survivin 9386 C>T experienced improved survival compared with patients with the TT genotype (median OS 31.4 months and 22.8 months, respectively). Conclusion The functional FAS ?670 A>G and survivin 9386 C>T polymorphisms are potential independent prognostic factors in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. PMID:25609982

Tao, Kai-Yi; Li, Xian-Xing; Xu, Wei-Zhen; Wang, Yin; Zhu, Shuang-Mei; Xie, Hua-Xia; Luo, Wen-Hua; Xu, Yan-Jun; Xu, Xiao-Ling

2015-01-01

73

Orphan and gene related CpG Islands follow power-law-like distributions in several genomes: evidence of function-related and taxonomy-related modes of distribution.  

PubMed

CpG Islands (CGIs) are compositionally defined short genomic stretches, which have been studied in the human, mouse, chicken and later in several other genomes. Initially, they were assigned the role of transcriptional regulation of protein-coding genes, especially the house-keeping ones, while more recently there is found evidence that they are involved in several other functions as well, which might include regulation of the expression of RNA genes, DNA replication etc. Here, an investigation of their distributional characteristics in a variety of genomes is undertaken for both whole CGI populations as well as for CGI subsets that lie away from known genes (gene-unrelated or "orphan" CGIs). In both cases power-law-like linearity in double logarithmic scale is found. An evolutionary model, initially put forward for the explanation of a similar pattern found in gene populations is implemented. It includes segmental duplication events and eliminations of most of the duplicated CGIs, while a moderate rate of non-duplicated CGI eliminations is also applied in some cases. Simulations reproduce all the main features of the observed inter-CGI chromosomal size distributions. Our results on power-law-like linearity found in orphan CGI populations suggest that the observed distributional pattern is independent of the analogous pattern that protein coding segments were reported to follow. The power-law-like patterns in the genomic distributions of CGIs described herein are found to be compatible with several other features of the composition, abundance or functional role of CGIs reported in the current literature across several genomes, on the basis of the proposed evolutionary model. PMID:25242375

Tsiagkas, Giannis; Nikolaou, Christoforos; Almirantis, Yannis

2014-12-01

74

Molecular characterization, expression pattern, and functional analysis of the OsIRL gene family encoding intracellular Ras-group-related LRR proteins in rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leucine-rich repeat proteins constitute a large gene family and play important roles in plant growth and development. Among\\u000a them, Arabidopsis PIRL is a plant-specific class of intracellular Ras-group-related leucine-rich repeat proteins. In this study, we identified\\u000a eight homologues of PIRLs in rice and designated them as OsIRL proteins. We described the gene structures, chromosome localizations,\\u000a protein motifs, and phylogenetic relationships

Changjun You; Xiaoxia Dai; Xingwang Li; Lei Wang; Guoxing Chen; Jinghua Xiao; Changyin Wu

2010-01-01

75

Rotavirus gene structure and function.  

PubMed Central

Knowledge of the structure and function of the genes and proteins of the rotaviruses has expanded rapidly. Information obtained in the last 5 years has revealed unexpected and unique molecular properties of rotavirus proteins of general interest to virologists, biochemists, and cell biologists. Rotaviruses share some features of replication with reoviruses, yet antigenic and molecular properties of the outer capsid proteins, VP4 (a protein whose cleavage is required for infectivity, possibly by mediating fusion with the cell membrane) and VP7 (a glycoprotein), show more similarities with those of other viruses such as the orthomyxoviruses, paramyxoviruses, and alphaviruses. Rotavirus morphogenesis is a unique process, during which immature subviral particles bud through the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). During this process, transiently enveloped particles form, the outer capsid proteins are assembled onto particles, and mature particles accumulate in the lumen of the ER. Two ER-specific viral glycoproteins are involved in virus maturation, and these glycoproteins have been shown to be useful models for studying protein targeting and retention in the ER and for studying mechanisms of virus budding. New ideas and approaches to understanding how each gene functions to replicate and assemble the segmented viral genome have emerged from knowledge of the primary structure of rotavirus genes and their proteins and from knowledge of the properties of domains on individual proteins. Localization of type-specific and cross-reactive neutralizing epitopes on the outer capsid proteins is becoming increasingly useful in dissecting the protective immune response, including evaluation of vaccine trials, with the practical possibility of enhancing the production of new, more effective vaccines. Finally, future analyses with recently characterized immunologic and gene probes and new animal models can be expected to provide a basic understanding of what regulates the primary interactions of these viruses with the gastrointestinal tract and the subsequent responses of infected hosts. Images PMID:2556635

Estes, M K; Cohen, J

1989-01-01

76

Evolution in action: following function in duplicated floral homeotic genes.  

PubMed

Gene duplication plays a fundamental role in evolution by providing the genetic material from which novel functions can arise. Newly duplicated genes can be maintained by subfunctionalization (the duplicated genes perform different aspects of the original gene's function) and/or neofunctionalization (one of the genes acquires a novel function). PLENA in Antirrhinum and AGAMOUS in Arabidopsis are the canonical C-function genes that are essential for the specification of reproductive organs. These functionally equivalent genes encode closely related homeotic MADS-box transcription factors. Using genome synteny, we confirm phylogenetic analyses showing that PLENA and AGAMOUS are nonorthologous genes derived from a duplication in a common ancestor. Their respective orthologs, SHATTERPROOF in Arabidopsis and FARINELLI in Antirrhinum, have undergone independent subfunctionalization via changes in regulation and protein function. Surprisingly, the functional divergence between PLENA and FARINELLI, is morphologically manifest in both transgenic Antirrhinum and Arabidopsis. This provides a clear illustration of a random evolutionary trajectory for gene functions after a duplication event. Different members of a duplicated gene pair have retained the primary homeotic functions in different lineages, illustrating the role of chance in evolution. The differential ability of the Antirrhinum genes to promote male or female development provides a striking example of subfunctionalization at the protein level. PMID:16111944

Causier, Barry; Castillo, Rosa; Zhou, Junli; Ingram, Richard; Xue, Yongbiao; Schwarz-Sommer, Zsuzsanna; Davies, Brendan

2005-08-23

77

Functional Analysis of the Molecular Interactions of TATA Box-Containing Genes and Essential Genes  

PubMed Central

Genes can be divided into TATA-containing genes and TATA-less genes according to the presence of TATA box elements at promoter regions. TATA-containing genes tend to be stress-responsive, whereas many TATA-less genes are known to be related to cell growth or “housekeeping” functions. In a previous study, we demonstrated that there are striking differences among four gene sets defined by the presence of TATA box (TATA-containing) and essentiality (TATA-less) with respect to number of associated transcription factors, amino acid usage, and functional annotation. Extending this research in yeast, we identified KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathways that are statistically enriched in TATA-containing or TATA-less genes and evaluated the possibility that the enriched pathways are related to stress or growth as reflected by the individual functions of the genes involved. According to their enrichment for either of these two gene sets, we sorted KEGG pathways into TATA-containing-gene-enriched pathways (TEPs) and essential-gene-enriched pathways (EEPs). As expected, genes in TEPs and EEPs exhibited opposite results in terms of functional category, transcriptional regulation, codon adaptation index, and network properties, suggesting the possibility that the bipolar patterns in these pathways also contribute to the regulation of the stress response and to cell survival. Our findings provide the novel insight that significant enrichment of TATA-binding or TATA-less genes defines pathways as stress-responsive or growth-related. PMID:25789484

Moon, Jisook

2015-01-01

78

Function of the DISC1 Gene  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As a result of the human genome project, we now know largely where our genes are, and what structure they have. The search to uncover each gene's function, on the other hand, is only in its infancy. Functional genomics is an area of research dedicated to studying what protein is produced by a gene, and what happens in the body when it is activated. Understanding gene function is the next major hurdle in genomic research, which holds the key to developing revolutionary therapeutics.

2009-04-14

79

Inferring gene expression dynamics via functional regression analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Temporal gene expression profiles characterize the time-dynamics of expression of specific genes and are increasingly collected in current gene expression experiments. In the analysis of experiments where gene expression is obtained over the life cycle, it is of interest to relate temporal patterns of gene expression associated with different developmental stages to each other to study patterns of long-term developmental gene regulation. We use tools from functional data analysis to study dynamic changes by relating temporal gene expression profiles of different developmental stages to each other. Results We demonstrate that functional regression methodology can pinpoint relationships that exist between temporary gene expression profiles for different life cycle phases and incorporates dimension reduction as needed for these high-dimensional data. By applying these tools, gene expression profiles for pupa and adult phases are found to be strongly related to the profiles of the same genes obtained during the embryo phase. Moreover, one can distinguish between gene groups that exhibit relationships with positive and others with negative associations between later life and embryonal expression profiles. Specifically, we find a positive relationship in expression for muscle development related genes, and a negative relationship for strictly maternal genes for Drosophila, using temporal gene expression profiles. Conclusion Our findings point to specific reactivation patterns of gene expression during the Drosophila life cycle which differ in characteristic ways between various gene groups. Functional regression emerges as a useful tool for relating gene expression patterns from different developmental stages, and avoids the problems with large numbers of parameters and multiple testing that affect alternative approaches. PMID:18226220

Müller, Hans-Georg; Chiou, Jeng-Min; Leng, Xiaoyan

2008-01-01

80

Functions of the cytoplasmic tails of the human receptor activity-modifying protein components of calcitonin gene-related peptide and adrenomedullin receptors.  

PubMed

Receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs) enable calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR) to function as a calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor (CRLR/RAMP1) or an adrenomedullin (AM) receptor (CRLR/RAMP2 or -3). Here we investigated the functions of the cytoplasmic C-terminal tails (C-tails) of human RAMP1, -2, and -3 (hRAMP1, -2, and -3) by cotransfecting their C-terminal deletion or progressive truncation mutants into HEK-293 cells stably expressing hCRLR. Deletion of the C-tail from hRAMP1 had little effect on the surface expression, function, or intracellular trafficking of the mutant heterodimers. By contrast, deletion of the C-tail from hRAMP2 disrupted transport of hCRLR to the cell surface, resulting in significant reductions in (125)I-hAM binding and evoked cAMP accumulation. The transfection efficiency for the hRAMP2 mutant was comparable with that for wild-type hRAMP2; moreover, immunocytochemical analysis showed that the mutant hRAMP2 remained within the endoplasmic reticulum. FACS analysis revealed that deleting the C-tail from hRAMP3 markedly enhances AM-evoked internalization of the mutant heterodimers, although there was no change in agonist affinity. Truncating the C-tails by removing the six C-terminal amino acids of hRAMP2 and -3 or exchanging their C-tails with one another had no effect on surface expression, agonist affinity, or internalization of hCRLR, which suggests that the highly conserved Ser-Lys sequence within hRAMP C-tails is involved in cellular trafficking of the two AM receptors. Notably, deleting the respective C-tails from hRAMPs had no effect on lysosomal sorting of hCRLR. Thus, the respective C-tails of hRAMP2 and -3 differentially affect hCRLR surface delivery and internalization. PMID:16410241

Kuwasako, Kenji; Cao, Yuan-Ning; Chu, Chun-Ping; Iwatsubo, Shuji; Eto, Tanenao; Kitamura, Kazuo

2006-03-17

81

Loss-of-function analyses of the fragile X-related and dopamine receptor genes by RNA interference in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.  

PubMed

In order to explore a possibility that the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus would be a useful model to unveil molecular mechanisms of human diseases, we performed loss-of-function analyses of Gryllus genes homologous to human genes that are responsible for human disorders, fragile X mental retardation 1 (fmr1) and Dopamine receptor (DopR). We cloned cDNAs of their Gryllus homologues, Gb'fmr1, Gb'DopRI, and Gb'DopRII, and analyzed their functions with use of nymphal RNA interference (RNAi). For Gb'fmr1, three major phenotypes were observed: (1) abnormal wing postures, (2) abnormal calling song, and (3) loss of the circadian locomotor rhythm, while for Gb'DopRI, defects of wing posture and morphology were found. These results indicate that the cricket has the potential to become a novel model system to explore human neuronal pathogenic mechanisms and to screen therapeutic drugs by RNAi. PMID:19618465

Hamada, Aska; Miyawaki, Katsuyuki; Honda-sumi, Eri; Tomioka, Kenji; Mito, Taro; Ohuchi, Hideyo; Noji, Sumihare

2009-08-01

82

Amygdalin inhibits genes related to cell cycle in SNU-C4 human colon cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract AIM: The,genes,were,divided into seven,categories according to biological function; apoptosis-related, immune response-related, signal transduction-related, cell cycle- related, cell growth-related, stress response-relatedand transcription-related genes. METHODS:We,compared,the gene,expression profiles

Hae-Jeong Park; Seo-Hyun Yoon; Long-Shan Han; Long-Tai Zheng; Kyung-Hee Jung; Yoon-Kyung Uhm; Je-Hyun Lee; Ji-Seon Jeong; Woo-Sang Joo; Sung-Vin Yim; Joo-Ho Chung; Seon-Pyo Hong; Park HJ; Yoon SH; Zheng LT; Jung KH; Uhm YK; Lee JH; Jeong JS; Joo WS; Yim SV; Chung JH

2005-01-01

83

Novel Genes from Formation to Function  

PubMed Central

The study of the evolution of novel genes generally focuses on the formation of new coding sequences. However, equally important in the evolution of novel functional genes are the formation of regulatory regions that allow the expression of the genes and the effects of the new genes in the organism as well. Herein, we discuss the current knowledge on the evolution of novel functional genes, and we examine in more detail the youngest genes discovered. We examine the existing data on a very recent and rapidly evolving cluster of duplicated genes, the Sdic gene cluster. This cluster of genes is an excellent model for the evolution of novel genes, as it is very recent and may still be in the process of evolving. PMID:22811949

Ponce, Rita; Martinsen, Lene; Vicente, Luís M.; Hartl, Daniel L.

2012-01-01

84

Functional characterization of ether-a-go-go-related gene potassium channels in midbrain dopamine neurons: implications for a role in depolarization block  

PubMed Central

Bursting activity by midbrain dopamine neurons reflects the complex interplay between their intrinsic pacemaker activity and synaptic inputs. Although the precise mechanism responsible for the generation and modulation of bursting in vivo has yet to be established, several ion channels have been implicated in the process. Previous studies with nonselective blockers suggested that ether-a-go-go-related gene (ERG) K+ channels are functionally significant. Here, electrophysiology with selective chemical and peptide ERG channel blockers (E-4031 and rBeKm-1) and computational methods were used to define the contribution made by ERG channels to the firing properties of midbrain dopamine neurons in vivo and in vitro. Selective ERG channel blockade increased the frequency of spontaneous activity as well as the response to depolarizing current pulses without altering spike frequency adaptation. ERG channel block also accelerated entry into depolarization inactivation during bursts elicited by virtual NMDA receptors generated with the dynamic clamp, and significantly prolonged the duration of the sustained depolarization inactivation that followed pharmacologically evoked bursts. In vivo, somatic ERG blockade was associated with an increase in bursting activity attributed to a reduction in doublet firing. Taken together, these results show that dopamine neuron ERG K+ channels play a prominent role in limiting excitability and in minimizing depolarization inactivation. As the therapeutic actions of antipsychotic drugs are associated with depolarization inactivation of dopamine neurons and blockade of cardiac ERG channels is a prominent side effect of these drugs, ERG channels in the central nervous system may represent a novel target for antipsychotic drug development. PMID:22780096

Ji, Huifang; Tucker, Kristal R.; Putzier, Ilva; Huertas, Marco A.; Horn, John P.; Canavier, Carmen C.; Levitan, Edwin S.; Shepard, Paul D.

2014-01-01

85

Genes2FANs: connecting genes through functional association networks  

PubMed Central

Background Protein-protein, cell signaling, metabolic, and transcriptional interaction networks are useful for identifying connections between lists of experimentally identified genes/proteins. However, besides physical or co-expression interactions there are many ways in which pairs of genes, or their protein products, can be associated. By systematically incorporating knowledge on shared properties of genes from diverse sources to build functional association networks (FANs), researchers may be able to identify additional functional interactions between groups of genes that are not readily apparent. Results Genes2FANs is a web based tool and a database that utilizes 14 carefully constructed FANs and a large-scale protein-protein interaction (PPI) network to build subnetworks that connect lists of human and mouse genes. The FANs are created from mammalian gene set libraries where mouse genes are converted to their human orthologs. The tool takes as input a list of human or mouse Entrez gene symbols to produce a subnetwork and a ranked list of intermediate genes that are used to connect the query input list. In addition, users can enter any PubMed search term and then the system automatically converts the returned results to gene lists using GeneRIF. This gene list is then used as input to generate a subnetwork from the user’s PubMed query. As a case study, we applied Genes2FANs to connect disease genes from 90 well-studied disorders. We find an inverse correlation between the counts of links connecting disease genes through PPI and links connecting diseases genes through FANs, separating diseases into two categories. Conclusions Genes2FANs is a useful tool for interpreting the relationships between gene/protein lists in the context of their various functions and networks. Combining functional association interactions with physical PPIs can be useful for revealing new biology and help form hypotheses for further experimentation. Our finding that disease genes in many cancers are mostly connected through PPIs whereas other complex diseases, such as autism and type-2 diabetes, are mostly connected through FANs without PPIs, can guide better strategies for disease gene discovery. Genes2FANs is available at: http://actin.pharm.mssm.edu/genes2FANs. PMID:22748121

2012-01-01

86

Biased biological functions of horizontally transferred genes in prokaryotic genomes.  

PubMed

Horizontal gene transfer is one of the main mechanisms contributing to microbial genome diversification. To clarify the overall picture of interspecific gene flow among prokaryotes, we developed a new method for detecting horizontally transferred genes and their possible donors by Bayesian inference with training models for nucleotide composition. Our method gives the average posterior probability (horizontal transfer index) for each gene sequence, with a low horizontal transfer index indicating recent horizontal transfer. We found that 14% of open reading frames in 116 prokaryotic complete genomes were subjected to recent horizontal transfer. Based on this data set, we quantitatively determined that the biological functions of horizontally transferred genes, except mobile element genes, are biased to three categories: cell surface, DNA binding and pathogenicity-related functions. Thus, the transferability of genes seems to depend heavily on their functions. PMID:15208628

Nakamura, Yoji; Itoh, Takeshi; Matsuda, Hideo; Gojobori, Takashi

2004-07-01

87

Finding related functional neuroimaging volumes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a content-based image retrieval technique for finding related functional neuroimaging experiments by voxelization of sets of stereotactic coordinates in Talairach space, comparing the volumes and reporting related volumes in a sorted list. Voxelization is accomplished by convolving each coordinate with a Gaussian kernel. The scheme allows us to compare experiments represented as either lists of coordinates or volumes,

Finn Årup Nielsen; Lars Kai Hansen

2004-01-01

88

A literature-based method for assessing the functional coherence of a gene group  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivation: Many experimental and algorithmic ap- proaches in biology generate groups of genes that need to be examined for related functional properties. For example, gene expression profiles are frequently orga- nized into clusters of genes that may share functional properties. We evaluate a method, neighbor divergence per gene (NDPG), that uses scientific literature to assess whether a group of genes

Soumya Raychaudhuri; Russ B. Altman

2003-01-01

89

Discovery of Tumor Suppressor Gene Function.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is an update of a 1991 review on tumor suppressor genes written at a time when understanding of how the genes work was limited. A recent major breakthrough in the understanding of the function of tumor suppressor genes is discussed. (LZ)

Oppenheimer, Steven B.

1995-01-01

90

Gene Expression Clustering with Functional Mixture Models  

E-print Network

Gene Expression Clustering with Functional Mixture Models Darya Chudova, Department of Computer measured on a discrete time grid. The model is specifically tailored to gene expression time course data of the model, and apply the proposed approach to the set of cycling genes in yeast. The experiments show

Mjolsness, Eric

91

Functional classes and equivalence relations  

PubMed Central

Three adult subjects were taught a set of two-choice simultaneous discriminations, with three positive and three negative stimuli; all possible combinations of positive and negative stimuli yielded nine different pairs. The discriminations were repeatedly reversed and rereversed, the former positive stimuli becoming negative and the former negative stimuli becoming positive. With all subjects, a reversal of the contingencies for one pair of stimuli became sufficient to change their responses to all of the other pairs. The reversals had produced functional stimulus classes. Then, all subjects showed conditional discriminations emerging between members of a functional class; given a sample from one class and comparisons from both classes, they selected the comparison that was in the same class as the sample. Next, 2 of the subjects showed that the within-class conditional relations possessed the symmetric and transitive properties of equivalence relations; after having been taught to relate new stimuli to existing class members, the subjects then matched other class members to the new stimuli. Subsequent tests of two-choice discriminations showed that the conditional discriminations had transferred functional class membership to the new stimuli. The 3rd subject, who did not show equivalence relations among functional class members, was also found to have lost the within-class conditional relations after the equivalence tests. PMID:16812597

Sidman, Murray; Wynne, Constance K.; Maguire, Russell W.; Barnes, Thomas

1989-01-01

92

Gene Transfer Strategies for Augmenting Cardiac Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent transgenic as well as gene-targeted animal models have greatly increased our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of normal and compromised heart function. These studies have raised the possibility of using somatic gene transfer as a means for improving cardiac function. DNA transfer to a significant portion of the myocardium has thus far been difficult to accomplish. This review describes

Karsten Peppel; Walter J Koch; Robert J Lefkowitz

1997-01-01

93

Neofunctionalization of Duplicated Tic40 Genes Caused a Gain-of-Function Variation Related to Male Fertility in Brassica oleracea Lineages1[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

Gene duplication followed by functional divergence in the event of polyploidization is a major contributor to evolutionary novelties. The Brassica genus evolved from a common ancestor after whole-genome triplication. Here, we studied the evolutionary and functional features of Brassica spp. homologs to Tic40 (for translocon at the inner membrane of chloroplasts with 40 kDa). Four Tic40 loci were identified in allotetraploid Brassica napus and two loci in each of three basic diploid Brassica spp. Although these Tic40 homologs share high sequence identities and similar expression patterns, they exhibit altered functional features. Complementation assays conducted on Arabidopsis thaliana tic40 and the B. napus male-sterile line 7365A suggested that all Brassica spp. Tic40 homologs retain an ancestral function similar to that of AtTic40, whereas BolC9.Tic40 in Brassica oleracea and its ortholog in B. napus, BnaC9.Tic40, in addition, evolved a novel function that can rescue the fertility of 7365A. A homologous chromosomal rearrangement placed bnac9.tic40 originating from the A genome (BraA10.Tic40) as an allele of BnaC9.Tic40 in the C genome, resulting in phenotypic variation for male sterility in the B. napus near-isogenic two-type line 7365AB. Assessment of the complementation activity of chimeric B. napus Tic40 domain-swapping constructs in 7365A suggested that amino acid replacements in the carboxyl terminus of BnaC9.Tic40 cause this functional divergence. The distribution of these amino acid replacements in 59 diverse Brassica spp. accessions demonstrated that the neofunctionalization of Tic40 is restricted to B. oleracea and its derivatives and thus occurred after the divergence of the Brassica spp. A, B, and C genomes. PMID:25185122

Dun, Xiaoling; Shen, Wenhao; Hu, Kaining; Zhou, Zhengfu; Xia, Shengqian; Wen, Jing; Yi, Bin; Shen, Jinxiong; Ma, Chaozhi; Tu, Jinxing; Fu, Tingdong; Lagercrantz, Ulf

2014-01-01

94

Functional Genetic Polymorphisms in CYP2C19 Gene in Relation to Cardiac Side Effects and Treatment Dose in a Methadone Maintenance Cohort  

PubMed Central

Abstract Methadone maintenance therapy is an established treatment for heroin dependence. This study tested the influence of functional genetic polymorphisms in CYP2C19 gene encoding a CYP450 enzyme that contributes to methadone metabolism on treatment dose, plasma concentration, and side effects of methadone. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs4986893 (exon 4) and rs4244285 (exon 5), were selected and genotyped in 366 patients receiving methadone maintenance therapy in Taiwan. The steady-state plasma concentrations of both methadone and its EDDP metabolite enantiomers were measured. SNP rs4244285 allele was significantly associated with the corrected QT interval (QTc) change in the electrocardiogram (p=0.021), and the Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (TESS) total score (p=0.021) in patients who continued using heroin, as demonstrated with a positive urine opiate test. Using the gene dose (GD) models where the CYP2C19 SNPs were clustered into poor (0 GD) versus intermediate (1 GD) and extensive (2 GD) metabolizers, we found that the extensive metabolizers required a higher dose of methadone (p=0.035), and showed a lower plasma R-methadone/methadone dose ratio (p=0.007) in urine opiate test negative patients, as well as a greater QTc change (p=0.008) and higher total scores of TESS (p=0.018) in urine opiate test positive patients, than poor metabolizers. These results in a large study sample from Taiwan suggest that the gene dose of CYP2C19 may potentially serve as an indicator for the plasma R-methadone/methadone dose ratio and cardiac side effect in patients receiving methadone maintenance therapy. Further studies of pharmacogenetic variation in methadone pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics are warranted in different world populations. PMID:24016178

Wang, Sheng-Chang; Ho, Ing-Kang; Tsou, Hsiao-Hui; Liu, Sheng-Wen; Hsiao, Chin-Fu; Chen, Chia-Hui; Tan, Happy Kuy-Lok; Lin, Linen; Wu, Chi-Shin; Su, Lien-Wen; Huang, Chieh-Liang; Yang, Yi-Hong; Liu, Ming-Lun; Lin, Keh-Ming; Liu, Shu Chih; Wu, Hsiao-Yu; Kuo, Hsiang-Wei; Chen, Andrew C.H.; Chang, Yao-Sheng

2013-01-01

95

Antagonistic functional duality of cancer genes.  

PubMed

Cancer evolution is a stochastic process both at the genome and gene levels. Most of tumors contain multiple genetic subclones, evolving in either succession or in parallel, either in a linear or branching manner, with heterogeneous genome and gene alterations, extensively rewired signaling networks, and addicted to multiple oncogenes easily switching with each other during cancer progression and medical intervention. Hundreds of discovered cancer genes are classified according to whether they function in a dominant (oncogenes) or recessive (tumor suppressor genes) manner in a cancer cell. However, there are many cancer "gene-chameleons", which behave distinctly in opposite way in the different experimental settings showing antagonistic duality. In contrast to the widely accepted view that mutant NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenases 1/2 (IDH1/2) and associated metabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate (R)-enantiomer are intrinsically "the drivers" of tumourigenesis, mutant IDH1/2 inhibited, promoted or had no effect on cell proliferation, growth and tumorigenicity in diverse experiments. Similar behavior was evidenced for dozens of cancer genes. Gene function is dependent on genetic network, which is defined by the genome context. The overall changes in karyotype can result in alterations of the role and function of the same genes and pathways. The diverse cell lines and tumor samples have been used in experiments for proving gene tumor promoting/suppressive activity. They all display heterogeneous individual karyotypes and disturbed signaling networks. Consequently, the effect and function of gene under investigation can be opposite and versatile in cells with different genomes that may explain antagonistic duality of cancer genes and the cell type- or the cellular genetic/context-dependent response to the same protein. Antagonistic duality of cancer genes might contribute to failure of chemotherapy. Instructive examples of unexpected activity of cancer genes and "paradoxical" effects of different anticancer drugs depending on the cellular genetic context/signaling network are discussed. PMID:23933273

Stepanenko, A A; Vassetzky, Y S; Kavsan, V M

2013-10-25

96

Human Intellectual Disability Genes Form Conserved Functional Modules in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Intellectual Disability (ID) disorders, defined by an IQ below 70, are genetically and phenotypically highly heterogeneous. Identification of common molecular pathways underlying these disorders is crucial for understanding the molecular basis of cognition and for the development of therapeutic intervention strategies. To systematically establish their functional connectivity, we used transgenic RNAi to target 270 ID gene orthologs in the Drosophila eye. Assessment of neuronal function in behavioral and electrophysiological assays and multiparametric morphological analysis identified phenotypes associated with knockdown of 180 ID gene orthologs. Most of these genotype-phenotype associations were novel. For example, we uncovered 16 genes that are required for basal neurotransmission and have not previously been implicated in this process in any system or organism. ID gene orthologs with morphological eye phenotypes, in contrast to genes without phenotypes, are relatively highly expressed in the human nervous system and are enriched for neuronal functions, suggesting that eye phenotyping can distinguish different classes of ID genes. Indeed, grouping genes by Drosophila phenotype uncovered 26 connected functional modules. Novel links between ID genes successfully predicted that MYCN, PIGV and UPF3B regulate synapse development. Drosophila phenotype groups show, in addition to ID, significant phenotypic similarity also in humans, indicating that functional modules are conserved. The combined data indicate that ID disorders, despite their extreme genetic diversity, are caused by disruption of a limited number of highly connected functional modules. PMID:24204314

Oortveld, Merel A. W.; Keerthikumar, Shivakumar; Oti, Martin; Nijhof, Bonnie; Fernandes, Ana Clara; Kochinke, Korinna; Castells-Nobau, Anna; van Engelen, Eva; Ellenkamp, Thijs; Eshuis, Lilian; Galy, Anne; van Bokhoven, Hans; Habermann, Bianca; Brunner, Han G.; Zweier, Christiane; Verstreken, Patrik; Huynen, Martijn A.; Schenck, Annette

2013-01-01

97

Tissue-specific promoter utilisation of the kallikrein-related peptidase genes, KLK5 and KLK7, and cellular localisation of the encoded proteins suggest roles in exocrine pancreatic function.  

PubMed

Abstract Tissue kallikrein (kallikrein 1) was first identified in pancreas and is the namesake of the kallikrein-related peptidase (KLK) family. KLK1 and the other 14 members of the human KLK family are encoded by 15 serine protease genes clustered at chromosome 19q13.4. Our Northern blot analysis of 19 normal human tissues for expression of KLK4 to KLK15 identified pancreas as a common expression site for the gene cluster spanning KLK5 to KLK13, as well as for KLK15 which is located adjacent to KLK1. Consistent with previous reports detailing the ability of KLK genes to generate organ- and disease-specific transcripts, detailed molecular and in silico analyses indicated that KLK5 and KLK7 generate transcripts in pancreas variant from those in skin or ovary. Consistently, we identified in the promoters of these KLK genes motifs which conform with consensus binding sites for transcription factors conferring pancreatic expression. In addition, immunohistochemical analysis revealed predominant localisation of KLK5 and KLK7 in acinar cells of the exocrine pancreas, suggesting roles for these enzymes in digestion. Our data also support expression patterns derived from gene duplication events in the human KLK cluster. These findings suggest that, in addition to KLK1, other related KLK enzymes will function in the exocrine pancreas. PMID:18163887

Dong, Ying; Matigian, Nick; Harvey, Tracey J; Samaratunga, Hemamali; Hooper, John D; Clements, Judith A

2008-02-01

98

Differentially-expressed genes in rice infected by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae relative to a flagellin-deficient mutant reveal potential functions of flagellin in host–pathogen interactions  

PubMed Central

Background Plants have evolved a sensitive defense response system that detects and recognizes various pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) (e.g. flagellin) and induces immune responses to protect against invasion. Transcriptional responses in rice to PAMPs produced by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), the bacterial blight pathogen, have not yet been defined. Results We characterized transcriptomic responses in rice inoculated with the wildtype (WT) Xoo and flagellin-deficient mutant ?fliC through RNA-seq analysis. Digital gene expression (DGE) analysis based on Solexa/Illumina sequencing was used to investigate transcriptomic responses in 30 day-old seedlings of rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Nipponbare). 1,680 genes were differentially-expressed (DEGs) in rice inoculated with WT relative to ?fliC; among which 1,159 genes were up-regulated and 521 were down-regulated. Expression patterns of 12 randomly-selected DEGs assayed by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) were similar to those detected by DGE analyses, confirming reliability of the DGE data. Functional annotations revealed the up-regulated DEGs are involved in the cell wall, lipid and secondary metabolism, defense response and hormone signaling, whereas the down-regulated ones are associated with photosynthesis. Moreover, 57 and 21 specifically expressed genes were found after WT and ?fliC treatments, respectively. Conclusions DEGs were identified in rice inoculated with WT Xoo relative to ?fliC. These genes were predicted to function in multiple biological processes, including the defense response and photosynthesis in rice. This study provided additional insights into molecular basis of rice response to bacterial infection and revealed potential functions of bacterial flagellin in the rice-Xoo interactions. PMID:25187853

2014-01-01

99

RNA Interference for Wheat Functional Gene Analysis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

RNA interference (RNAi) refers to a common mechanism of RNA-based post-transcriptional gene silencing in eukaryotic cells. In model plant species such as Arabidopsis and rice, RNAi has been routinely used to characterize gene function and to engineer novel phenotypes. In polyploid species, this appr...

100

DNA Methylation and Gene Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

In most higher organisms, DNA is modified after synthesis by the enzymatic conversion of many cytosine residues to 5-methylcytosine. For several years, control of gene activity by DNA methylation has been recognized as a logically attractive possibility, but experimental support has proved elusive. However, there is now reason to believe, from recent studies, that DNA methylation is a key element

Aharon Razin; Arthur D. Riggs

1980-01-01

101

Genomic structure and functional characterization of the promoter region of human IkappaB kinase-related kinase IKKi/IKKvarepsilon gene.  

PubMed

The inducible IkappaB kinase (IKKi/IKKepsilon) is a recently described serine-threonine kinase that activates the transcription factors NFkappaB, interferon regulatory factor-3 (IRF3) and CCAAA/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBPdelta). Several inflammatory agents have been shown to induce the expression of the IKKi gene in macrophages and other cell types but the mechanism is unknown. We have found that the IKKi expression was constitutive in human chondrocytes from OA cartilage and a human chondrocytic cell line C28/I2 but was up-regulated by the inflammatory cytokines TNFalpha or IL-1betain an NFkappaB-dependent manner. To understand the constitutive and inducible expression of the IKKi gene we localized the transcription start site (TSS), cloned and sequenced a 2 kb genomic DNA fragment 5' of the TSS and characterized the putative promoter region (PPR), and identified the motifs therein that are required for basal and cytokine-induced IKKi gene promoter activity. We found that IKKi core promoter was TATA-less and by using PCR generated deletion mutants of the PPR we found that the cis-elements responsible for basal transcriptional activity were located between -51 and -100 bp upstream of the TSS while the cytokine response elements were located distally between -501 and -1000 bp upstream of the TSS. The DNA region containing the cytokine response elements had two kappaB sites as the most relevant regulatory motifs. The results of site-directed mutagenesis revealed that the kappaB site located between -833 and -847 bp upstream of the TSS was biologically functional and required for cytokine-induced IKKi promoter activity in human chondrocytes and HeLa cells. The silence of the other kappaB site (-816/-802) was positional, rather than sequence-specific. Over-expression of NFkappaB p65 mimics the TNFalpha-induced activation of the IKKi promoter. Also the gel shift assay suggested that NFkappaB p65 is responsible for activation of the IKKi promoter. These data for the first time characterize the promoter region and provide further insights into the transcriptional regulation of IKKi in human chondrocytes and other cell types. PMID:15939554

Wang, Naizhen; Ahmed, Salahuddin; Haqqi, Tariq M

2005-06-20

102

Rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and pyrazinamide susceptibility related to pncA mutations in sputum specimens through an integrated gene-to-protein function approach.  

PubMed

Testing the pyrazinamide (PZA) susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates is challenging. In a previous paper, we described the development of a rapid colorimetric test for the PZA susceptibility of M. tuberculosis by a PCR-based in vitro-synthesized-pyrazinamidase (PZase) assay. Here, we present an integrated approach to detect M. tuberculosis and PZA susceptibility directly from sputum specimens. M. tuberculosis was detected first, using a novel long-fragment quantitative real-time PCR (LF-qPCR), which amplified a fragment containing the whole pncA gene. Then, the positive amplicons were sequenced to find mutations in the pncA gene. For new mutations not found in the Tuberculosis Drug Resistance Mutation Database (www.tbdreamdb.com), the in vitro PZase assay was used to test the PZA resistance. This approach could detect M. tuberculosis within 3 h with a detection limit of 7.8 copies/reaction and report the PZA susceptibility within 2 days. In an initial testing of 213 sputum specimens, the LF-qPCR found 53 positive samples with 92% sensitivity and 97% specificity compared to the culture test for M. tuberculosis detection. DNA sequencing of the LF-qPCR amplicons revealed that 49 samples were PZA susceptible and 1 was PZA resistant. In the remaining 3 samples, with new pncA mutations, the in vitro PZase assay found that 1 was PZA susceptible and 2 were PZA resistant. This integrated approach provides a rapid, efficient, and relatively low-cost solution for detecting M. tuberculosis and PZA susceptibility without culture. PMID:24226918

Li, Heng; Chen, Jun; Zhou, Man; Geng, Xuelei; Yu, Junping; Wang, Weihua; Zhang, Xian-En; Wei, Hongping

2014-01-01

103

Rapid Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Pyrazinamide Susceptibility Related to pncA Mutations in Sputum Specimens through an Integrated Gene-to-Protein Function Approach  

PubMed Central

Testing the pyrazinamide (PZA) susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates is challenging. In a previous paper, we described the development of a rapid colorimetric test for the PZA susceptibility of M. tuberculosis by a PCR-based in vitro-synthesized-pyrazinamidase (PZase) assay. Here, we present an integrated approach to detect M. tuberculosis and PZA susceptibility directly from sputum specimens. M. tuberculosis was detected first, using a novel long-fragment quantitative real-time PCR (LF-qPCR), which amplified a fragment containing the whole pncA gene. Then, the positive amplicons were sequenced to find mutations in the pncA gene. For new mutations not found in the Tuberculosis Drug Resistance Mutation Database (www.tbdreamdb.com), the in vitro PZase assay was used to test the PZA resistance. This approach could detect M. tuberculosis within 3 h with a detection limit of 7.8 copies/reaction and report the PZA susceptibility within 2 days. In an initial testing of 213 sputum specimens, the LF-qPCR found 53 positive samples with 92% sensitivity and 97% specificity compared to the culture test for M. tuberculosis detection. DNA sequencing of the LF-qPCR amplicons revealed that 49 samples were PZA susceptible and 1 was PZA resistant. In the remaining 3 samples, with new pncA mutations, the in vitro PZase assay found that 1 was PZA susceptible and 2 were PZA resistant. This integrated approach provides a rapid, efficient, and relatively low-cost solution for detecting M. tuberculosis and PZA susceptibility without culture. PMID:24226918

Li, Heng; Chen, Jun; Zhou, Man; Geng, Xuelei; Yu, Junping; Wang, Weihua; Zhang, Xian-En

2014-01-01

104

Gene networks in Drosophila melanogaster: integrating experimental data to predict gene function  

PubMed Central

Background Discovering the functions of all genes is a central goal of contemporary biomedical research. Despite considerable effort, we are still far from achieving this goal in any metazoan organism. Collectively, the growing body of high-throughput functional genomics data provides evidence of gene function, but remains difficult to interpret. Results We constructed the first network of functional relationships for Drosophila melanogaster by integrating most of the available, comprehensive sets of genetic interaction, protein-protein interaction, and microarray expression data. The complete integrated network covers 85% of the currently known genes, which we refined to a high confidence network that includes 20,000 functional relationships among 5,021 genes. An analysis of the network revealed a remarkable concordance with prior knowledge. Using the network, we were able to infer a set of high-confidence Gene Ontology biological process annotations on 483 of the roughly 5,000 previously unannotated genes. We also show that this approach is a means of inferring annotations on a class of genes that cannot be annotated based solely on sequence similarity. Lastly, we demonstrate the utility of the network through reanalyzing gene expression data to both discover clusters of coregulated genes and compile a list of candidate genes related to specific biological processes. Conclusions Here we present the the first genome-wide functional gene network in D. melanogaster. The network enables the exploration, mining, and reanalysis of experimental data, as well as the interpretation of new data. The inferred annotations provide testable hypotheses of previously uncharacterized genes. PMID:19758432

Costello, James C; Dalkilic, Mehmet M; Beason, Scott M; Gehlhausen, Jeff R; Patwardhan, Rupali; Middha, Sumit; Eads, Brian D; Andrews, Justen R

2009-01-01

105

The ubiquilin gene family: evolutionary patterns and functional insights  

PubMed Central

Background Ubiquilins are proteins that function as ubiquitin receptors in eukaryotes. Mutations in two ubiquilin-encoding genes have been linked to the genesis of neurodegenerative diseases. However, ubiquilin functions are still poorly understood. Results In this study, evolutionary and functional data are combined to determine the origin and diversification of the ubiquilin gene family and to characterize novel potential roles of ubiquilins in mammalian species, including humans. The analysis of more than six hundred sequences allowed characterizing ubiquilin diversity in all the main eukaryotic groups. Many organisms (e. g. fungi, many animals) have single ubiquilin genes, but duplications in animal, plant, alveolate and excavate species are described. Seven different ubiquilins have been detected in vertebrates. Two of them, here called UBQLN5 and UBQLN6, had not been hitherto described. Significantly, marsupial and eutherian mammals have the most complex ubiquilin gene families, composed of up to 6 genes. This exceptional mammalian-specific expansion is the result of the recent emergence of four new genes, three of them (UBQLN3, UBQLN5 and UBQLNL) with precise testis-specific expression patterns that indicate roles in the postmeiotic stages of spermatogenesis. A gene with related features has independently arisen in species of the Drosophila genus. Positive selection acting on some mammalian ubiquilins has been detected. Conclusions The ubiquilin gene family is highly conserved in eukaryotes. The infrequent lineage-specific amplifications observed may be linked to the emergence of novel functions in particular tissues. PMID:24674348

2014-01-01

106

Identification of N-terminal receptor activity-modifying protein residues important for calcitonin gene-related peptide, adrenomedullin, and amylin receptor function.  

PubMed

Calcitonin-family receptors comprise calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CL) or calcitonin receptor and receptor activity-modifying protein (RAMP) pairings. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptors are CL/RAMP1, whereas adrenomedullin (AM) receptors are CL/RAMP2 (AM1 receptor) or CL/RAMP3 (AM2 receptor). Amylin (Amy) receptors are RAMP hetero-oligomers with the calcitonin receptor (AMY1, AMY2, and AMY3, respectively). How RAMPs change G protein-coupled receptor pharmacology is not fully understood. We exploited sequence differences between RAMP1 and RAMP3 to identify individual residues capable of altering receptor pharmacology. Alignment of human RAMPs revealed eight residues that are conserved in RAMP2 and RAMP3 but are different in RAMP1. We hypothesized that residues in RAMP2 and RAMP3, but not RAMP1, are responsible for making CL/RAMP2 and CL/RAMP3 AM receptors. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we introduced individual RAMP3 residues into RAMP1 and vice versa in these eight positions. Mutant or wild-type RAMPs were transfected into Cos7 cells with CL or the insert-negative form of the calcitonin receptor [CT(a)]. Agonist-stimulated cAMP production and cell-surface expression of constructs were measured. Position 74 in RAMP1 and RAMP3 was critical for determining AM potency and affinity, and Phe93 in RAMP1 was an important contributor to alphaCGRP potency at CGRP receptors. Mutant RAMP/CT(a) receptor complexes displayed different phenotypes. It is noteworthy that RAMP1 S103N and W74E mutations led to enhanced rAmy potency, probably related to increased cell-surface expression of these complexes. This differs from the effect on CL-based receptors where expression was unchanged. Targeted substitution has emphasized the importance of position 74 in RAMP1/RAMP3 as a key determinant of AM pharmacology. PMID:18593822

Qi, Tao; Christopoulos, George; Bailey, Richard J; Christopoulos, Arthur; Sexton, Patrick M; Hay, Debbie L

2008-10-01

107

Morpholinos: studying gene function in the chick  

PubMed Central

The use of morpholinos for perturbing gene function in the chick, Gallus gallus, has led to many important discoveries in developmental biology. This technology makes use of in vivo electroporation, which allows gain and loss of function in a temporally, and spatially controlled manner. Using this method, morpholinos can be transfected into embryonic tissues from early to late developmental stages. In this article, we describe the methods currently used in our laboratory to knock down gene function using morpholinos in vivo. We also detail how morpholinos are used to provide consistency of the results, and describe two protocols to visualise the morpholino after electroporation. In addition, we provide guidance on avoiding potential pitfalls, and suggestions for troubleshooting solutions. These revised techniques provide a practical starting point for investigating gene function in the chick. PMID:24184187

Norris, Anneliese; Streit, Andrea

2014-01-01

108

Rhizobium meliloti Genes Required for Nodule Development are Related to Chromosomal Virulence Genes in Agrobacterium tumefaciens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symbiotically essential genes have been identified in Rhizobium meliloti that are structurally and functionally related to chromosomal virulence (chv) genes of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Homologous sequences also exist in the genomes of other fast-growing rhizobia including Rhizobium trifolii, Rhizobium leguminosarum, and Rhizobium phaseoli. In Agrobacterium, the chvA and chvB loci are known to be essential for oncogenic transformation of dicotyledonous plants

T. Dylan; L. Ielpi; S. Stanfield; L. Kashyap; C. Douglas; M. Yanofsky; E. Nester; D. R. Helinski; G. Ditta

1986-01-01

109

Microarray analysis of genes and gene functions in disc degeneration  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to screen differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in human degenerative intervertebral discs (IVDs), and to perform functional analysis on these DEGs. The gene expression profile was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database (GSE34095)and included six human IVD samples: three degenerative and three non-degenerative. The DEGs between the normal and disease samples were identified using R packages. The online software WebGestalt was used to perform the functional analysis of the DEGs, followed by Osprey software to search for interactions between the DEGs. The Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery was utilized to annotate the DEGs in the interaction network and then the DEGs were uploaded to the Connectivity Map database to search for small molecules. In addition, the active binding sites for the hub genes in the network were obtained, based on the Universal Protein database. By comparing the gene expression profiles of the non-degenerative and degenerative IVDs, the DEGs between the samples were identified. The DEGs were significantly associated with transforming growth factor ? and the extracellular matrix. Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) was identified as the hub gene of the interaction network of DEGs. In addition, MMP2 was found to be upregulated in degenerative IVDs. The screened small molecules and the active binding sites of MMP2 may facilitate the development of methods to inhibit overexpression of MMP2. PMID:24396401

TANG, YANCHUN; WANG, SHAOKUN; LIU, YING; WANG, XUYUN

2014-01-01

110

Neural networks approaches for discovering the learnable correlation between gene function and gene expression in mouse  

E-print Network

Neural networks approaches for discovering the learnable correlation between gene function and gene Keywords: Gene function prediction Self organizing maps (SOM) Multilayer perceptrons (MLP) Gene expression Neural networks a b s t r a c t Identifying gene function has many useful applications. Identifying gene

Morris, Quaid

111

Gene Transfers Between Distantly Related Organisms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the completion of numerous microbial genome sequences, reports of individual gene transfers between distantly related prokaryotes have become commonplace. On the other hand, transfers between prokaryotes and eukaryotes still excite the imagination. Many of these claims may be premature, but some are certainly valid. In this chapter, the kinds of supporting data needed to propose transfers between distantly related organisms and cite some interesting examples are considered.

Doolittle, Russell F.

2003-01-01

112

Association of Functional Polymorphisms from Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Serotonin-Related Genes with Depressive Symptoms after a Medical Stressor in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Depressive symptoms are common in older adults after a disabling medical event and interfere with rehabilitation and recovery from the disability. This prospective study examined the role of genetic polymorphisms implicated in synaptic integrity and stress-associated depression as predictors of depressive symptoms after hip fracture. We recruited healthy comparisons from the community and participants with hip fracture after surgical fixation from Saint Louis, Missouri hospitals. We examined the valine (Val) to methionine (Met) polymorphism in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), serotonin 1A receptor (5HT1a-rs6295) polymorphism, and the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5HTTLPR) interaction with the rs25531 A to G single nucleotide polymorphism (5HTTLPR-rs25531) as predictors of depressive symptoms. We also examined whether depressive symptoms mediate the influence of BDNF genotype on functional recovery. Among 429 participants with hip fracture, BDNF Met/Met carriers developed significantly more depressive symptoms than Val/Val carriers during a four-week period after the fracture (p=.012). BDNF genotype also predicted functional recovery over the ensuing year, mediated by its effects on depressive symptoms (CI: 0.07-3.37). Unlike prior studies of stressful life events, the S? 5HTTLPR-rs25531 variant did not predict higher levels of depressive symptoms; instead, we report an exploratory finding of an epistatic effect between BDNF and 5HTTLPR-rs25531 whereby the compounded effects of two LA alleles and BDNF Met/Met genotype elevate risk of depressive symptoms after hip fracture (p=.006). No differences between 5HT1a genotypes were found. Our findings suggest plasticity-related genetic factors contribute to the neural mechanisms of mental and functional well-being after a disabling medical stressor. PMID:25781924

Rawson, Kerri S.; Dixon, David; Nowotny, Petra; Ricci, William M.; Binder, Ellen F.; Rodebaugh, Thomas L.; Wendleton, Leah; Doré, Peter; Lenze, Eric J.

2015-01-01

113

Review of Literature: Genes Related to Postaxial Polydactyly  

PubMed Central

Background: Postaxial polydactyly (PAP) is one of the commonest congenital malformations and usually is associated to several syndromes. There is no primary investigational strategy for PAP cases with single gene disorder in literature. PAP cases with single gene disorder can be classified according to common pathways and molecular basis. Molecular classification may help in diagnostic approach. Materials and Methods: All single gene disorders associated with PAP reported on PubMed and OMIM are analyzed and classified according to molecular basis. Results: Majority of genes related to cilia structure and functions are associated with PAP, so we classified them as ciliopathies and non-ciliopathies groups. Genes related to Shh–Gli3 pathway was the commonest group in non-ciliopathies. Conclusion: Genes related to cilia are most commonly related to PAP due to their indirect relationship to Shh–Gli3 signaling pathway. Initially, PAP may be the only clinical finding with ciliopathies so those cases need follow up. Proper diagnosis is helpful for management and genetic counseling. Molecular approach may help to define pleiotropy. PMID:25717468

Verma, Prashant Kumar; El-Harouni, Ashraf A.

2015-01-01

114

Studying Functions of All Yeast Genes Simultaneously  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of studying the functions of all the genes of a given species of microorganism simultaneously has been developed in experiments on Saccharomyces cerevisiae (commonly known as baker's or brewer's yeast). It is already known that many yeast genes perform functions similar to those of corresponding human genes; therefore, by facilitating understanding of yeast genes, the method may ultimately also contribute to the knowledge needed to treat some diseases in humans. Because of the complexity of the method and the highly specialized nature of the underlying knowledge, it is possible to give only a brief and sketchy summary here. The method involves the use of unique synthetic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequences that are denoted as DNA bar codes because of their utility as molecular labels. The method also involves the disruption of gene functions through deletion of genes. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a particularly powerful experimental system in that multiple deletion strains easily can be pooled for parallel growth assays. Individual deletion strains recently have been created for 5,918 open reading frames, representing nearly all of the estimated 6,000 genetic loci of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Tagging of each deletion strain with one or two unique 20-nucleotide sequences enables identification of genes affected by specific growth conditions, without prior knowledge of gene functions. Hybridization of bar-code DNA to oligonucleotide arrays can be used to measure the growth rate of each strain over several cell-division generations. The growth rate thus measured serves as an index of the fitness of the strain.

Stolc, Viktor; Eason, Robert G.; Poumand, Nader; Herman, Zelek S.; Davis, Ronald W.; Anthony Kevin; Jejelowo, Olufisayo

2006-01-01

115

Fine-scale mergers of chloroplast and mitochondrial genes create functional, transcompartmentally chimeric mitochondrial genes  

PubMed Central

The mitochondrial genomes of flowering plants possess a promiscuous proclivity for taking up sequences from the chloroplast genome. All characterized chloroplast integrants exist apart from native mitochondrial genes, and only a few, involving chloroplast tRNA genes that have functionally supplanted their mitochondrial counterparts, appear to be of functional consequence. We developed a novel computational approach to search for homologous recombination (gene conversion) in a large number of sequences and applied it to 22 mitochondrial and chloroplast gene pairs, which last shared common ancestry some 2 billion years ago. We found evidence of recurrent conversion of short patches of mitochondrial genes by chloroplast homologs during angiosperm evolution, but no evidence of gene conversion in the opposite direction. All 9 putative conversion events involve the atp1/atpA gene encoding the alpha subunit of ATP synthase, which is unusually well conserved between the 2 organelles and the only shared gene that is widely sequenced across plant mitochondria. Moreover, all conversions were limited to the 2 regions of greatest nucleotide and amino acid conservation of atp1/atpA. These observations probably reflect constraints operating on both the occurrence and fixation of recombination between ancient homologs. These findings indicate that recombination between anciently related sequences is more frequent than previously appreciated and creates functional mitochondrial genes of chimeric origin. These results also have implications for the widespread use of mitochondrial atp1 in phylogeny reconstruction. PMID:19805364

Hao, Weilong; Palmer, Jeffrey D.

2009-01-01

116

Gene Function Prediction Based on the Gene Ontology Hierarchical Structure  

PubMed Central

The information of the Gene Ontology annotation is helpful in the explanation of life science phenomena, and can provide great support for the research of the biomedical field. The use of the Gene Ontology is gradually affecting the way people store and understand bioinformatic data. To facilitate the prediction of gene functions with the aid of text mining methods and existing resources, we transform it into a multi-label top-down classification problem and develop a method that uses the hierarchical relationships in the Gene Ontology structure to relieve the quantitative imbalance of positive and negative training samples. Meanwhile the method enhances the discriminating ability of classifiers by retaining and highlighting the key training samples. Additionally, the top-down classifier based on a tree structure takes the relationship of target classes into consideration and thus solves the incompatibility between the classification results and the Gene Ontology structure. Our experiment on the Gene Ontology annotation corpus achieves an F-value performance of 50.7% (precision: 52.7% recall: 48.9%). The experimental results demonstrate that when the size of training set is small, it can be expanded via topological propagation of associated documents between the parent and child nodes in the tree structure. The top-down classification model applies to the set of texts in an ontology structure or with a hierarchical relationship. PMID:25192339

Cheng, Liangxi; Lin, Hongfei; Hu, Yuncui; Wang, Jian; Yang, Zhihao

2014-01-01

117

Gene Ontology and KEGG Enrichment Analyses of Genes Related to Age-Related Macular Degeneration  

PubMed Central

Identifying disease genes is one of the most important topics in biomedicine and may facilitate studies on the mechanisms underlying disease. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a serious eye disease; it typically affects older adults and results in a loss of vision due to retina damage. In this study, we attempt to develop an effective method for distinguishing AMD-related genes. Gene ontology and KEGG enrichment analyses of known AMD-related genes were performed, and a classification system was established. In detail, each gene was encoded into a vector by extracting enrichment scores of the gene set, including it and its direct neighbors in STRING, and gene ontology terms or KEGG pathways. Then certain feature-selection methods, including minimum redundancy maximum relevance and incremental feature selection, were adopted to extract key features for the classification system. As a result, 720 GO terms and 11 KEGG pathways were deemed the most important factors for predicting AMD-related genes. PMID:25165703

Zhang, Jian; Xing, ZhiHao; Ma, Mingming; Wang, Ning; Cai, Yu-Dong; Chen, Lei; Xu, Xun

2014-01-01

118

Annotation of gene function in citrus using gene expression information and co-expression networks  

PubMed Central

Background The genus Citrus encompasses major cultivated plants such as sweet orange, mandarin, lemon and grapefruit, among the world’s most economically important fruit crops. With increasing volumes of transcriptomics data available for these species, Gene Co-expression Network (GCN) analysis is a viable option for predicting gene function at a genome-wide scale. GCN analysis is based on a “guilt-by-association” principle whereby genes encoding proteins involved in similar and/or related biological processes may exhibit similar expression patterns across diverse sets of experimental conditions. While bioinformatics resources such as GCN analysis are widely available for efficient gene function prediction in model plant species including Arabidopsis, soybean and rice, in citrus these tools are not yet developed. Results We have constructed a comprehensive GCN for citrus inferred from 297 publicly available Affymetrix Genechip Citrus Genome microarray datasets, providing gene co-expression relationships at a genome-wide scale (33,000 transcripts). The comprehensive citrus GCN consists of a global GCN (condition-independent) and four condition-dependent GCNs that survey the sweet orange species only, all citrus fruit tissues, all citrus leaf tissues, or stress-exposed plants. All of these GCNs are clustered using genome-wide, gene-centric (guide) and graph clustering algorithms for flexibility of gene function prediction. For each putative cluster, gene ontology (GO) enrichment and gene expression specificity analyses were performed to enhance gene function, expression and regulation pattern prediction. The guide-gene approach was used to infer novel roles of genes involved in disease susceptibility and vitamin C metabolism, and graph-clustering approaches were used to investigate isoprenoid/phenylpropanoid metabolism in citrus peel, and citric acid catabolism via the GABA shunt in citrus fruit. Conclusions Integration of citrus gene co-expression networks, functional enrichment analysis and gene expression information provide opportunities to infer gene function in citrus. We present a publicly accessible tool, Network Inference for Citrus Co-Expression (NICCE, http://citrus.adelaide.edu.au/nicce/home.aspx), for the gene co-expression analysis in citrus. PMID:25023870

2014-01-01

119

The GeneMANIA prediction server: biological network integration for gene prioritization and predicting gene function  

PubMed Central

GeneMANIA (http://www.genemania.org) is a flexible, user-friendly web interface for generating hypotheses about gene function, analyzing gene lists and prioritizing genes for functional assays. Given a query list, GeneMANIA extends the list with functionally similar genes that it identifies using available genomics and proteomics data. GeneMANIA also reports weights that indicate the predictive value of each selected data set for the query. Six organisms are currently supported (Arabidopsis thaliana, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, Mus musculus, Homo sapiens and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and hundreds of data sets have been collected from GEO, BioGRID, Pathway Commons and I2D, as well as organism-specific functional genomics data sets. Users can select arbitrary subsets of the data sets associated with an organism to perform their analyses and can upload their own data sets to analyze. The GeneMANIA algorithm performs as well or better than other gene function prediction methods on yeast and mouse benchmarks. The high accuracy of the GeneMANIA prediction algorithm, an intuitive user interface and large database make GeneMANIA a useful tool for any biologist. PMID:20576703

Warde-Farley, David; Donaldson, Sylva L.; Comes, Ovi; Zuberi, Khalid; Badrawi, Rashad; Chao, Pauline; Franz, Max; Grouios, Chris; Kazi, Farzana; Lopes, Christian Tannus; Maitland, Anson; Mostafavi, Sara; Montojo, Jason; Shao, Quentin; Wright, George; Bader, Gary D.; Morris, Quaid

2010-01-01

120

Visually Relating Gene Expression and in vivo DNA Binding Data  

SciTech Connect

Gene expression and in vivo DNA binding data provide important information for understanding gene regulatory networks: in vivo DNA binding data indicate genomic regions where transcription factors are bound, and expression data show the output resulting from this binding. Thus, there must be functional relationships between these two types of data. While visualization and data analysis tools exist for each data type alone, there is a lack of tools that can easily explore the relationship between them. We propose an approach that uses the average expression driven by multiple of ciscontrol regions to visually relate gene expression and in vivo DNA binding data. We demonstrate the utility of this tool with examples from the network controlling early Drosophila development. The results obtained support the idea that the level of occupancy of a transcription factor on DNA strongly determines the degree to which the factor regulates a target gene, and in some cases also controls whether the regulation is positive or negative.

Huang, Min-Yu; Mackey, Lester; Ker?; nen, Soile V. E.; Weber, Gunther H.; Jordan, Michael I.; Knowles, David W.; Biggin, Mark D.; Hamann, Bernd

2011-09-20

121

Functionalization of a protosynaptic gene expression network  

PubMed Central

Assembly of a functioning neuronal synapse requires the precisely coordinated synthesis of many proteins. To understand the evolution of this complex cellular machine, we tracked the developmental expression patterns of a core set of conserved synaptic genes across a representative sampling of the animal kingdom. Coregulation, as measured by correlation of gene expression over development, showed a marked increase as functional nervous systems emerged. In the earliest branching animal phyla (Porifera), in which a nearly complete set of synaptic genes exists in the absence of morphological synapses, these “protosynaptic” genes displayed a lack of global coregulation although small modules of coexpressed genes are readily detectable by using network analysis techniques. These findings suggest that functional synapses evolved by exapting preexisting cellular machines, likely through some modification of regulatory circuitry. Evolutionarily ancient modules continue to operate seamlessly within the synapses of modern animals. This work shows that the application of network techniques to emerging genomic and expression data can provide insights into the evolution of complex cellular machines such as the synapse. PMID:22723359

Conaco, Cecilia; Bassett, Danielle S.; Zhou, Hongjun; Arcila, Mary Luz; Degnan, Sandie M.; Degnan, Bernard M.; Kosik, Kenneth S.

2012-01-01

122

Conservation of gene function in behaviour  

PubMed Central

Behaviour genetic research has shown that a given gene or gene pathway can influence categorically similar behaviours in different species. Questions about the conservation of gene function in behaviour are increasingly tractable. This is owing to the surge of DNA and 'omics data, bioinformatic tools, as well as advances in technologies for behavioural phenotyping. Here, we discuss how gene function, as a hierarchical biological phenomenon, can be used to examine behavioural homology across species. The question can be addressed independently using different levels of investigation including the DNA sequence, the gene's position in a genetic pathway, spatial–temporal tissue expression and neural circuitry. Selected examples from the literature are used to illustrate this point. We will also discuss how qualitative and quantitative comparisons of the behavioural phenotype, its function and the importance of environmental and social context should be used in cross-species comparisons. We conclude that (i) there are homologous behaviours, (ii) they are hard to define and (iii) neurogenetics and genomics investigations should help in this endeavour. PMID:21690128

Reaume, Christopher J.; Sokolowski, Marla B.

2011-01-01

123

Transitive Functional Annotation by Shortest-path Analysis of Gene Expression Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

attribute to link genes of the same biological pathway. Based on large-scale yeast microarray expression data, we use the shortest-path analysis to identify transitive genes between two given genes from the same biological process. We find that not only functionally related genes with correlated expression profiles are identified but also those without. In the latter case, we compare our method

Xianghong Zhou; Ming-Chih J. Kao; Wing Hung Wong

2002-01-01

124

Molecular and Functional Characterization of Broccoli EMBRYONIC FLOWER 2 Genes  

PubMed Central

Polycomb group (PcG) proteins regulate major developmental processes in Arabidopsis. EMBRYONIC FLOWER 2 (EMF2), the VEFS domain-containing PcG gene, regulates diverse genetic pathways and is required for vegetative development and plant survival. Despite widespread EMF2-like sequences in plants, little is known about their function other than in Arabidopsis and rice. To study the role of EMF2 in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica cv. Elegance) development, we identified two broccoli EMF2 (BoEMF2) genes with sequence homology to and a similar gene expression pattern to that in Arabidopsis (AtEMF2). Reducing their expression in broccoli resulted in aberrant phenotypes and gene expression patterns. BoEMF2 regulates genes involved in diverse developmental and stress programs similar to AtEMF2 in Arabidopsis. However, BoEMF2 differs from AtEMF2 in the regulation of flower organ identity, cell proliferation and elongation, and death-related genes, which may explain the distinct phenotypes. The expression of BoEMF2.1 in the Arabidopsis emf2 mutant (Rescued emf2) partially rescued the mutant phenotype and restored the gene expression pattern to that of the wild type. Many EMF2-mediated molecular and developmental functions are conserved in broccoli and Arabidopsis. Furthermore, the restored gene expression pattern in Rescued emf2 provides insights into the molecular basis of PcG-mediated growth and development. PMID:22537758

Chen, Long-Fang O.; Lin, Chun-Hung; Lai, Ying-Mi; Huang, Jia-Yuan; Sung, Zinmay Renee

2012-01-01

125

Klotho, a Gene Related to a Syndrome Resembling Human Premature Aging, Functions in a Negative Regulatory Circuit of Vitamin D Endocrine System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The klotho gene encodes a novel type I membrane protein of -glycosidase family and is expressed principally in distal tubule cells of the kidney and choroid plexus in the brain. These mutants dis- played abnormal calcium and phosphorus ho- meostasis together with increased serum 1,25- (OH)2D. In kl \\/ mice at the age of 3 wk, elevated levels of serum

HIROSHI TSUJIKAWA; YOKO KUROTAKI; TOSHIHIKO FUJIMORI; KAZUHIKO FUKUDA; YO-ICHI NABESHIMA

2003-01-01

126

Functional analysis of the uropathogenic Escherichia coli R049 gene.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the function of the novel uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) gene R049 during host infection. We infected the urinary tracts of mice with E. coli UPEC132 or the R049 deletion mutant UPEC132?R049.The mouse kidneys were harvested at 4 and 8h post-infection and screened for differentially expressed genes by microarray analysis. We identified 379 and 515 differentially expressed genes at 4 and 8 h post-infection, respectively. Thirty-four of these genes were associated with inflammatory and immune signaling pathways, including those related to mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling, leukocyte transendothelial migration, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, Toll-like receptor signaling, and apoptosis. Protein binding (GO 0005515) was the most prevalent molecular function in the Gene Ontology terms related to differentially expressed genes. In conclusion, R049 expression in UPEC132 is related to the early innate immune and inflammatory responses in UPEC-infected hosts. This work lays the foundation for further research on anti-infective immunity against UPEC. PMID:25644951

Yang, Dongjing; Dong, Jie; Su, Xu; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Li; Li, Li; Lv, Likun; Guo, Liru

2015-02-01

127

Different Genes Interact with Particulate Matter and Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Affecting Lung Function  

E-print Network

stress related genes modify the effects of ambient air pollution or tobacco smoking on lung function genes and pathways potentially mediate PM10 and tobacco smoke effects on lung function decline. IgnoringDifferent Genes Interact with Particulate Matter and Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Affecting Lung

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

128

Neural Networks Approaches for Discovering the Learnable Correlation between Gene Function and Gene  

E-print Network

Neural Networks Approaches for Discovering the Learnable Correlation between Gene Function and Gene University of Toronto Toronto, ON. emad@cs.toronto.edu Abstract. Identifying gene function has many useful applications. Identifying gene function based on gene expression data is much easier in prokaryotes than

Bonner, Anthony

129

Rice functionality, starch structure and the genes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Through collaborative efforts among USDA scientists at Beaumont, Texas, we have gained in-depth knowledge of how rice functionality, i.e. the texture of the cooked rice, rice processing properties, and starch gelatinization temperature, are associated with starch-synthesis genes and starch structure...

130

Gene expression module-based chemical function similarity search.  

PubMed

Investigation of biological processes using selective chemical interventions is generally applied in biomedical research and drug discovery. Many studies of this kind make use of gene expression experiments to explore cellular responses to chemical interventions. Recently, some research groups constructed libraries of chemical related expression profiles, and introduced similarity comparison into chemical induced transcriptome analysis. Resembling sequence similarity alignment, expression pattern comparison among chemical intervention related expression profiles provides a new way for chemical function prediction and chemical-gene relation investigation. However, existing methods place more emphasis on comparing profile patterns globally, which ignore noises and marginal effects. At the same time, though the whole information of expression profiles has been used, it is difficult to uncover the underlying mechanisms that lead to the functional similarity between two molecules. Here a new approach is presented to perform biological effects similarity comparison within small biologically meaningful gene categories. Regarding gene categories as units, a reduced similarity matrix is generated for measuring the biological distances between query and profiles in library and pointing out in which modules do chemical pairs resemble. Through the modularization of expression patterns, this method reduces experimental noises and marginal effects and directly correlates chemical molecules with gene function modules. PMID:18842630

Li, Yun; Hao, Pei; Zheng, Siyuan; Tu, Kang; Fan, Haiwei; Zhu, Ruixin; Ding, Guohui; Dong, Changzheng; Wang, Chuan; Li, Xuan; Thiesen, H-J; Chen, Y Eugene; Jiang, Hualiang; Liu, Lei; Li, Yixue

2008-11-01

131

Norrie disease gene: Characterization of deletions and possible function  

SciTech Connect

Positional cloning experiments have resulted recently in the isolation of a candidate gene for Norrie disease (pseudoglioma; NDP), a severe X-linked neuro-developmental disorder. Here the authors report the isolation and analysis of human genomic DNA clones encompassing the NDP gene. The gene spans 28 kb and consists of 3 exons, the first of which is entirely contained within the 5{prime} untranslated region. Detailed analysis of genomic deletions in Norrie patients shows that they are heterogeneous, both in size and in position. By PCR analysis, they found that expression of the NDP gene was not confined to the eye or to the brain. An extensive DNA and protein sequence comparison between the human NDP gene and related genes from the database revealed homology with cysteine-rich protein-binding domains of immediate--early genes implicated in the regulation of cell proliferation. They propose that NDP is a molecule related in function to these genes and may be involved in a pathway that regulates neural cell differentiation and proliferation. 19 refs., 2 figs.

Chen, Z.Y.; Battinelli, E.M.; Hendriks, R.W.; Craig, I.W. [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom)] [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom); Powell, J.F. [Institute of Psychiatry, London (United Kingdom)] [Institute of Psychiatry, London (United Kingdom); Middleton-Price, H. [Univ. of London (United Kingdom)] [Univ. of London (United Kingdom); Sims, K.B.; Breakefield, X.O. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA (United States)] [Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA (United States)

1993-05-01

132

Gene analogue finder: a GRID solution for finding functionally analogous gene products  

PubMed Central

Background To date more than 2,1 million gene products from more than 100000 different species have been described specifying their function, the processes they are involved in and their cellular localization using a very well defined and structured vocabulary, the gene ontology (GO). Such vast, well defined knowledge opens the possibility of compare gene products at the level of functionality, finding gene products which have a similar function or are involved in similar biological processes without relying on the conventional sequence similarity approach. Comparisons within such a large space of knowledge are highly data and computing intensive. For this reason this project was based upon the use of the computational GRID, a technology offering large computing and storage resources. Results We have developed a tool, GENe AnaloGue FINdEr (ENGINE) that parallelizes the search process and distributes the calculation and data over the computational GRID, splitting the process into many sub-processes and joining the calculation and the data on the same machine and therefore completing the whole search in about 3 days instead of occupying one single machine for more than 5 CPU years. The results of the functional comparison contain potential functional analogues for more than 79000 gene products from the most important species. 46% of the analyzed gene products are well enough described for such an analysis to individuate functional analogues, such as well-known members of the same gene family, or gene products with similar functions which would never have been associated by standard methods. Conclusion ENGINE has produced a list of potential functionally analogous relations between gene products within and between species using, in place of the sequence, the gene description of the GO, thus demonstrating the potential of the GO. However, the current limiting factor is the quality of the associations of many gene products from non-model organisms that often have electronic associations, since experimental information is missing. With future improvements of the GO, this limit will be reduced. ENGINE will manifest its power when it is applied to the whole GODB of more than 2,1 million gene products from more than 100000 organisms. The data produced by this search is planed to be available as a supplement to the GO database as soon as we are able to provide regular updates. PMID:17767718

Tulipano, Angelica; Donvito, Giacinto; Licciulli, Flavio; Maggi, Giorgio; Gisel, Andreas

2007-01-01

133

Functional gene diversity of oolitic sands from Great Bahama Bank.  

PubMed

Despite the importance of oolitic depositional systems as indicators of climate and reservoirs of inorganic C, little is known about the microbial functional diversity, structure, composition, and potential metabolic processes leading to precipitation of carbonates. To fill this gap, we assess the metabolic gene carriage and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) development in microbial communities associated with oolitic carbonate sediments from the Bahamas Archipelago. Oolitic sediments ranging from high-energy 'active' to lower energy 'non-active' and 'microbially stabilized' environments were examined as they represent contrasting depositional settings, mostly influenced by tidal flows and wave-generated currents. Functional gene analysis, which employed a microarray-based gene technology, detected a total of 12,432 of 95,847 distinct gene probes, including a large number of metabolic processes previously linked to mineral precipitation. Among these, gene-encoding enzymes for denitrification, sulfate reduction, ammonification, and oxygenic/anoxygenic photosynthesis were abundant. In addition, a broad diversity of genes was related to organic carbon degradation, and N2 fixation implying these communities has metabolic plasticity that enables survival under oligotrophic conditions. Differences in functional genes were detected among the environments, with higher diversity associated with non-active and microbially stabilized environments in comparison with the active environment. EPS showed a gradient increase from active to microbially stabilized communities, and when combined with functional gene analysis, which revealed genes encoding EPS-degrading enzymes (chitinases, glucoamylase, amylases), supports a putative role of EPS-mediated microbial calcium carbonate precipitation. We propose that carbonate precipitation in marine oolitic biofilms is spatially and temporally controlled by a complex consortium of microbes with diverse physiologies, including photosynthesizers, heterotrophs, denitrifiers, sulfate reducers, and ammonifiers. PMID:24612324

Diaz, M R; Van Norstrand, J D; Eberli, G P; Piggot, A M; Zhou, J; Klaus, J S

2014-05-01

134

Highlights of glycosylation and adhesion related genes involved in myogenesis  

PubMed Central

Background Myogenesis is initiated by myoblast differentiation and fusion to form myotubes and muscle fibres. A population of myoblasts, known as satellite cells, is responsible for post-natal growth of muscle and for its regeneration. This differentiation requires many changes in cell behaviour and its surrounding environment. These modifications are tightly regulated over time and can be characterized through the study of changes in gene expression associated with this process. During the initial myogenesis steps, using the myoblast cell line C2C12 as a model, Janot et al. (2009) showed significant variations in expression for genes involved in pathways of glycolipid synthesis. In this study we used murine satellite cells (MSC) and their ability to differentiate into myotubes or early fat storage cells to select glycosylation related genes whose variation of expression is myogenesis specific. Results The comparison of variant genes in both MSC differentiation pathways identified 67 genes associated with myogenesis. Comparison with data obtained for C2C12 revealed that only 14 genes had similar expression profiles in both cell types and that 17 genes were specifically regulated in MSC. Results were validated statistically by without a priori clustering. Classification according to protein function encoded by these 31 genes showed that the main regulated cellular processes during this differentiation were (i) remodeling of the extracellular matrix, particularly, sulfated structures, (ii) down-regulation of O-mannosyl glycan biosynthesis, and (iii) an increase in adhesion protein expression. A functional study was performed on Itga11 and Chst5 encoding two highly up-regulated proteins. The inactivation of Chst5 by specific shRNA delayed the fusion of MSC. By contrast, the inactivation of Itga11 by specific shRNA dramatically decreased the fusion ability of MSC. This result was confirmed by neutralization of Itga11 product by specific antibodies. Conclusions Our screening method detected 31 genes specific for myogenic differentiation out of the 383 genes studied. According to their function, interaction networks of the products of these selected genes converged to cell fusion. Functional studies on Itga11 and Chst5 demonstrated the robustness of this screening. PMID:25051993

2014-01-01

135

Inflammation and Neurological Disease-Related Genes are Differentially Expressed in Depressed Patients with Mood Disorders and Correlate with Morphometric and Functional Imaging Abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Depressed patients show evidence of both proinflammatory changes and neurophysiological abnormalities such as increased amygdala reactivity and volumetric decreases of the hippocampus and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). However, very little is known about the relationship between inflammation and neuroimaging abnormalities in mood disorders. A whole genome expression analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells yielded 12 protein-coding genes (ADM, APBB3, CD160, CFD, CITED2, CTSZ, IER5, NFKBIZ, NR4A2, NUCKS1, SERTAD1, TNF) that were differentially expressed between 29 unmedicated depressed patients with a mood disorder (8 bipolar disorder, 21 major depressive disorder) and 24 healthy controls (HCs). Several of these genes have been implicated in neurological disorders and/or apoptosis. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis yielded two genes networks, one centered around TNF with NFK?, TGF?, and ERK as connecting hubs, and the second network indicating cell cycle and/or kinase signaling anomalies. fMRI scanning was conducted using a backward-masking task in which subjects were presented with emotionally-valenced faces. Compared with HCs, the depressed subjects displayed a greater hemodynamic response in the right amygdala, left hippocampus, and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex to masked sad versus happy faces. The mRNA levels of several genes were significantly correlated with the hemodynamic response of the amygdala, vmPFC and hippocampus to masked sad versus happy faces. Differentially-expressed transcripts were significantly correlated with thickness of the left subgenual ACC, and volume of the hippocampus and caudate. Our results raise the possibility that molecular-level immune dysfunction can be mapped onto macro-level neuroimaging abnormalities, potentially elucidating a mechanism by which inflammation leads to depression. PMID:23064081

Savitz, Jonathan; Frank, Mark Barton; Victor, Teresa; Bebak, Melissa; Marino, Julie H.; Bellgowan, Patrick S.F.; McKinney, Brett A.; Bodurka, Jerzy; Teague, T. Kent; Drevets, Wayne C.

2012-01-01

136

Microbial functional gene diversity with a shift of subsurface redox conditions during In Situ uranium reduction.  

PubMed

To better understand the microbial functional diversity changes with subsurface redox conditions during in situ uranium bioremediation, key functional genes were studied with GeoChip, a comprehensive functional gene microarray, in field experiments at a uranium mill tailings remedial action (UMTRA) site (Rifle, CO). The results indicated that functional microbial communities altered with a shift in the dominant metabolic process, as documented by hierarchical cluster and ordination analyses of all detected functional genes. The abundance of dsrAB genes (dissimilatory sulfite reductase genes) and methane generation-related mcr genes (methyl coenzyme M reductase coding genes) increased when redox conditions shifted from Fe-reducing to sulfate-reducing conditions. The cytochrome genes detected were primarily from Geobacter sp. and decreased with lower subsurface redox conditions. Statistical analysis of environmental parameters and functional genes indicated that acetate, U(VI), and redox potential (E(h)) were the most significant geochemical variables linked to microbial functional gene structures, and changes in microbial functional diversity were strongly related to the dominant terminal electron-accepting process following acetate addition. The study indicates that the microbial functional genes clearly reflect the in situ redox conditions and the dominant microbial processes, which in turn influence uranium bioreduction. Microbial functional genes thus could be very useful for tracking microbial community structure and dynamics during bioremediation. PMID:22327592

Liang, Yuting; Van Nostrand, Joy D; N'guessan, Lucie A; Peacock, Aaron D; Deng, Ye; Long, Philip E; Resch, C Tom; Wu, Liyou; He, Zhili; Li, Guanghe; Hazen, Terry C; Lovley, Derek R; Zhou, Jizhong

2012-04-01

137

Microbial Functional Gene Diversity with a Shift of Subsurface Redox Conditions during In Situ Uranium Reduction  

PubMed Central

To better understand the microbial functional diversity changes with subsurface redox conditions during in situ uranium bioremediation, key functional genes were studied with GeoChip, a comprehensive functional gene microarray, in field experiments at a uranium mill tailings remedial action (UMTRA) site (Rifle, CO). The results indicated that functional microbial communities altered with a shift in the dominant metabolic process, as documented by hierarchical cluster and ordination analyses of all detected functional genes. The abundance of dsrAB genes (dissimilatory sulfite reductase genes) and methane generation-related mcr genes (methyl coenzyme M reductase coding genes) increased when redox conditions shifted from Fe-reducing to sulfate-reducing conditions. The cytochrome genes detected were primarily from Geobacter sp. and decreased with lower subsurface redox conditions. Statistical analysis of environmental parameters and functional genes indicated that acetate, U(VI), and redox potential (Eh) were the most significant geochemical variables linked to microbial functional gene structures, and changes in microbial functional diversity were strongly related to the dominant terminal electron-accepting process following acetate addition. The study indicates that the microbial functional genes clearly reflect the in situ redox conditions and the dominant microbial processes, which in turn influence uranium bioreduction. Microbial functional genes thus could be very useful for tracking microbial community structure and dynamics during bioremediation. PMID:22327592

Liang, Yuting; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; N?Guessan, Lucie A.; Peacock, Aaron D.; Deng, Ye; Long, Philip E.; Resch, C. Tom; Wu, Liyou; He, Zhili; Li, Guanghe; Hazen, Terry C.; Lovley, Derek R.

2012-01-01

138

Gene functional dynamics: environment as a trigger?  

PubMed

Recent decades have seen the deciphering of the human genome and, also, progress in studies related to the effects of space-weather on humans. The progress in genetics allows us to connect many human pathologies with specific gene abnormalities. Concomitantly it has been shown that many congenital and adherent diseases, and the timing of death are connected with space factors such as solar activity (SA), geomagnetic activity (GMA), cosmic ray activity (CRA), and space neutron and proton flux. Here arises the question to what extent gene expression is affected by the aforementioned space physical activity parameters. This is the motto of this hypothetical paper. In conclusion, the space-weather-related timing of many medical events invites presumption that gene activity is a changing phenomenon and space weather components may be playing a regulatory role in these changes. PMID:24259246

Stoupel, Eliyahu G

2014-05-01

139

The systematic functional characterisation of Xq28 genes prioritises candidate disease genes  

PubMed Central

Background Well known for its gene density and the large number of mapped diseases, the human sub-chromosomal region Xq28 has long been a focus of genome research. Over 40 of approximately 300 X-linked diseases map to this region, and systematic mapping, transcript identification, and mutation analysis has led to the identification of causative genes for 26 of these diseases, leaving another 17 diseases mapped to Xq28, where the causative gene is still unknown. To expedite disease gene identification, we have initiated the functional characterisation of all known Xq28 genes. Results By using a systematic approach, we describe the Xq28 genes by RNA in situ hybridisation and Northern blotting of the mouse orthologs, as well as subcellular localisation and data mining of the human genes. We have developed a relational web-accessible database with comprehensive query options integrating all experimental data. Using this database, we matched gene expression patterns with affected tissues for 16 of the 17 remaining Xq28 linked diseases, where the causative gene is unknown. Conclusion By using this systematic approach, we have prioritised genes in linkage regions of Xq28-mapped diseases to an amenable number for mutational screens. Our database can be queried by any researcher performing highly specified searches including diseases not listed in OMIM or diseases that might be linked to Xq28 in the future. PMID:16503986

Kolb-Kokocinski, Anja; Mehrle, Alexander; Bechtel, Stephanie; Simpson, Jeremy C; Kioschis, Petra; Wiemann, Stefan; Wellenreuther, Ruth; Poustka, Annemarie

2006-01-01

140

Molecular cloning and functional analysis of three genes encoding polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins from Capsicum annuum, and their relation to increased resistance to two fungal pathogens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are plant cell wall glycoproteins that can inhibit fungal endopolygalacturonases (PGs). Inhibiting by PGIPs directly reduces potential PG activity in specific plant pathogenic fungi, reducing their aggressiveness. Here, we isolated and functionally chara...

141

Functional Genomic and Proteomic Analysis Reveals Disruption of Myelin-Related Genes and Translation in a Mouse Model of Early Life Neglect  

PubMed Central

Early life neglect is an important public health problem which can lead to lasting psychological dysfunction. Good animal models are necessary to understand the mechanisms responsible for the behavioral and anatomical pathology that results. We recently described a novel model of early life neglect, maternal separation with early weaning (MSEW), that produces behavioral changes in the mouse that persist into adulthood. To begin to understand the mechanism by which MSEW leads to these changes we applied cDNA microarray, next-generation RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq), label-free proteomics, multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) proteomics, and methylation analysis to tissue samples obtained from medial prefrontal cortex to determine the molecular changes induced by MSEW that persist into adulthood. The results show that MSEW leads to dysregulation of markers of mature oligodendrocytes and genes involved in protein translation and other categories, an apparent downward biasing of translation, and methylation changes in the promoter regions of selected dysregulated genes. These findings are likely to prove useful in understanding the mechanism by which early life neglect affects brain structure, cognition, and behavior. PMID:21629843

Bordner, Kelly A.; George, Elizabeth D.; Carlyle, Becky C.; Duque, Alvaro; Kitchen, Robert R.; Lam, TuKiet T.; Colangelo, Christopher M.; Stone, Kathryn L.; Abbott, Thomas B.; Mane, Shrikant M.; Nairn, Angus C.; Simen, Arthur A.

2011-01-01

142

Characterization of the virulence-related genes of Xylella fastidiosa  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To elucidate the role of virulence genes of Xylella fastidiosa (Xf), responsible for Pierce’s disease in grapes, a site-directed deletion method was employed to knock out virulence-related genes of Xf strain Temecula. Six virulence-related genes were selected, of which three genes were annotated to...

143

dlk1/FA1 regulates the function of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells by modulating gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and immune response-related factors.  

PubMed

dlk1/FA1 (delta-like 1/fetal antigen-1) is a member of the epidermal growth factor-like homeotic protein family whose expression is known to modulate the differentiation signals of mesenchymal and hematopoietic stem cells in bone marrow. We have demonstrated previously that Dlk1 can maintain the human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) in an undifferentiated state. To identify the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects, we compared the basal gene expression pattern in Dlk1-overexpressing hMSC cells (hMSC-dlk1) versus control hMSC (negative for Dlk1 expression) by using Affymetrix HG-U133A microarrays. In response to Dlk1 expression, 128 genes were significantly up-regulated (with >2-fold; p < 0.001), and 24% of these genes were annotated as immune response-related factors, including pro-inflammatory cytokines, in addition to factors involved in the complement system, apoptosis, and cell adhesion. Also, addition of purified FA1 to hMSC up-regulated the same factors in a dose-dependent manner. As biological consequences of up-regulating these immune response-related factors, we showed that the inhibitory effects of dlk1 on osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation of hMSC are associated with Dlk1-induced cytokine expression. Furthermore, Dlk1 promoted B cell proliferation, synergized the immune response effects of the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide on hMSC, and led to marked transactivation of the NF-kappaB. Our data suggest a new role for Dlk1 in regulating the multiple biological functions of hMSC by influencing the composition of their microenvironment "niche." Our findings also demonstrate a role for Dlk1 in mediating the immune response. PMID:17182623

Abdallah, Basem M; Boissy, Patrice; Tan, Qihua; Dahlgaard, Jesper; Traustadottir, Gunnhildur A; Kupisiewicz, Katarzyna; Laborda, Jorge; Delaisse, Jean-Marie; Kassem, Moustapha

2007-03-01

144

In silico prioritisation of candidate genes for prokaryotic gene function discovery: an application of phylogenetic profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In silico candidate gene prioritisation (CGP) aids the discovery of gene functions by ranking genes according to an objective relevance score. While several CGP methods have been described for identifying human disease genes, corresponding methods for prokaryotic gene function discovery are lacking. Here we present two prokaryotic CGP methods, based on phylogenetic profiles, to assist with this task. RESULTS:

Frank P. Y. Lin; Enrico W. Coiera; Ruiting Lan; Vitali Sintchenko

2009-01-01

145

Inferring gene transcriptional modulatory relations: a genetical genomics approach  

SciTech Connect

Bayesian network modeling is a promising approach to define and evaluate gene expression circuits in diverse tissues and cell types under different experimental conditions. The power and practicality of this approach can be improved by restricting the number of potential interactions among genes and by defining causal relations before evaluating posterior probabilities for billions of networks. A newly developed genetical genomics method that combines transcriptome profiling with complex trait analysis now provides strong constraints on network architecture. This method detects those chromosomal intervals responsible for differences in mRNA expression using quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping. We have developed an efficient Bayesian approach that exploits the genetical genomics method to focus computational effort on the most plausible gene modulatory networks. We exploit a dense marker map for a genetic reference population (GRP) that consists of 32 BXD strains of mice made by intercrossing two progenitor strains- C57BL/6J and DBA/2J. These progenitors differ at 1.3 million known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), all of which can be exploited to estimate the probability that a gene contains functional polymorphisms that segregate within the GRP. We constructed 66 candidate networks that include all the candidate modulator genes located in the 209 statistically significant trans-acting QTL regions. SNPs that distinguish between the two progenitor strains were used to further winnow the list of candidate modulators. Bayesian network was then used to identify the genetic modulatory relations that best explain the microarray data.

Li, Hongqiang [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Lu, Lu [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Manly, Kenneth [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Chesler, Elissa J [ORNL; Bao, Lei [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Wang, Jintao [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Zhou, Mi [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Williams, Robert [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Cui, Yan [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis

2005-01-01

146

Elucidating gene function and function evolution through comparison of co-expression networks of plants  

PubMed Central

The analysis of gene expression data has shown that transcriptionally coordinated (co-expressed) genes are often functionally related, enabling scientists to use expression data in gene function prediction. This Focused Review discusses our original paper (Large-scale co-expression approach to dissect secondary cell wall formation across plant species, Frontiers in Plant Science 2:23). In this paper we applied cross-species analysis to co-expression networks of genes involved in cellulose biosynthesis. We showed that the co-expression networks from different species are highly similar, indicating that whole biological pathways are conserved across species. This finding has two important implications. First, the analysis can transfer gene function annotation from well-studied plants, such as Arabidopsis, to other, uncharacterized plant species. As the analysis finds genes that have similar sequence and similar expression pattern across different organisms, functionally equivalent genes can be identified. Second, since co-expression analyses are often noisy, a comparative analysis should have higher performance, as parts of co-expression networks that are conserved are more likely to be functionally relevant. In this Focused Review, we outline the comparative analysis done in the original paper and comment on the recent advances and approaches that allow comparative analyses of co-function networks. We hypothesize that in comparison to simple co-expression analysis, comparative analysis would yield more accurate gene function predictions. Finally, by combining comparative analysis with genomic information of green plants, we propose a possible composition of cellulose biosynthesis machinery during earlier stages of plant evolution. PMID:25191328

Hansen, Bjoern O.; Vaid, Neha; Musialak-Lange, Magdalena; Janowski, Marcin; Mutwil, Marek

2014-01-01

147

Gene Profiling of Mta1 Identifies Novel Gene Targets and Functions  

PubMed Central

Background Metastasis-associated protein 1 (MTA1), a master dual co-regulatory protein is found to be an integral part of NuRD (Nucleosome Remodeling and Histone Deacetylation) complex, which has indispensable transcriptional regulatory functions via histone deacetylation and chromatin remodeling. Emerging literature establishes MTA1 to be a valid DNA-damage responsive protein with a significant role in maintaining the optimum DNA-repair activity in mammalian cells exposed to genotoxic stress. This DNA-damage responsive function of MTA1 was reported to be a P53-dependent and independent function. Here, we investigate the influence of P53 on gene regulation function of Mta1 to identify novel gene targets and functions of Mta1. Methods Gene expression analysis was performed on five different mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) samples (i) the Mta1 wild type, (ii) Mta1 knock out (iii) Mta1 knock out in which Mta1 was reintroduced (iv) P53 knock out (v) P53 knock out in which Mta1 was over expressed using Affymetrix Mouse Exon 1.0 ST arrays. Further Hierarchical Clustering, Gene Ontology analysis with GO terms satisfying corrected p-value<0.1, and the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis were performed. Finally, RT-qPCR was carried out on selective candidate genes. Significance/Conclusion This study represents a complete genome wide screen for possible target genes of a coregulator, Mta1. The comparative gene profiling of Mta1 wild type, Mta1 knockout and Mta1 re-expression in the Mta1 knockout conditions define “bona fide” Mta1 target genes. Further extensive analyses of the data highlights the influence of P53 on Mta1 gene regulation. In the presence of P53 majority of the genes regulated by Mta1 are related to inflammatory and anti-microbial responses whereas in the absence of P53 the predominant target genes are involved in cancer signaling. Thus, the presented data emphasizes the known functions of Mta1 and serves as a rich resource which could help us identify novel Mta1 functions. PMID:21364872

Eswaran, Jeyanthy; Kumar, Rakesh

2011-01-01

148

Function of the Trithorax- like gene during Drosophila development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maintenance of homeotic gene expression during Drosophila development relies on the Polycomb and the trithorax groups of genes. Classically, the Polycomb proteins act as repressors of homeotic gene function, whereas trithorax proteins function as activators. However, recent investigation has indicated that some of these maintenance genes may act both as repressors and activators. One of those is the Drosophila Trithorax-like

Fernando Bejarano; Ana Busturia

2004-01-01

149

A complementation method for functional analysis of mammalian genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our progress in understanding mammalian gene function has lagged behind that of gene identification. New methods for mammalian gene functional ana- lysis are needed to accelerate the process. In yeast, the powerful genetic shuffle system allows deletion of any chromosomal gene by homologous recombina- tion and episomal expression of a mutant allele in the same cell. Here, we report a

Juana Maria Gonzalez-Santos; Huibi Cao; Anan Wang; David R. Koehler; Bernard Martin; Roya Navab; Jim Hu

2005-01-01

150

Migraine genes and the relation to gender.  

PubMed

Migraine is an episodic brain disorder that is characterized by recurrent attacks of severe unilateral headache that are accompanied by various neurological symptoms. In addition, many patients have what is called an aura with visual and sensory disturbances. The majority of patients are female, suggesting that female hormones play an important role in the pathophysiology of the disorder. The molecular mechanisms, however, underlying this female preponderance are not well understood. It can be expected that the field of genetics that aims at identifying genetic factors that cause migraine by lowering the threshold for attacks will unravel some of these mechanisms. The 3 best known migraine genes encode ion transporters and were identified in families with familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM), a rare subtype of migraine with aura. FHM gene mutations cause alterations in mechanisms that control and modulate the neurotransmitter balance in the brain. Transgenic mice knock-in with human pathogenic mutations that were shown to exhibit some migraine-relevant features were very helpful in dissecting molecular mechanisms of migraine and pointed to a central role for cortical glutamate. In addition, transgenic mice that overexpress human RAMP1 exist and exhibit an increased sensitivity to calcitonin gene-related peptide. Findings from genetic and animal experiments on gender differences in migraine are discussed. Recently, a role for glutamate also came forward from a genome-wide association study in common migraine. By deciphering genetic and pathogenic migraine pathways, it can be expected that in the near future we will better understand mechanisms behind the female preponderance in migraine. PMID:21631474

Shyti, Reinald; de Vries, Boukje; van den Maagdenberg, Arn

2011-06-01

151

ALLOANTISERUM-INDUCED INHIBITION OF IMMUNE RESPONSE GENE PRODUCT FUNCTION  

PubMed Central

It has been previously demonstrated that alloantisera can specifically block the activation of T lymphocytes by antigens, the response to which is linked to the presence of histocompatibility (H) types against which the alloantisera are directed. Thus, strain 13 anti-2 serum can inhibit the activation of (2 x 13)F1 T lymphocytes by a DNP derivative of a copolymer of L-glutamic acid and L-lysine (DNP-GL), an antigen the response to which is controlled by a 2-linked Ir gene. It was proposed that alloantisera can inhibit T-lymphocyte antigen recognition through interference with the activity of immune response (Ir) gene products. In order to further study whether the inhibitory antibodies within the alloantisera are directed against H antigens or against the products of the Ir genes, we have examined whether the anti-2 serum can inhibit the function of an Ir gene (the L-glutamic acid and L-alanine [GA] gene), which is normally linked to strain 2 H genes when this gene occurs in an outbred animal lacking strain 2 H genes. In the majority of cases, the anti-2 serum was capable of inhibiting the in vitro proliferative response to GA of T cells derived from animals that were GA+2+, but the serum had little if any effect on the GA response of T cells from GA+2- animals. Furthermore, an antiserum prepared in strain 13 animals against the lymphoid cells of a GA+2- outbred animal was devoid of inhibitory activity on the GA response of cells from a (2 x 13)F1, while an antiserum prepared in strain 13 animals against the lymphoid cells of a GA+2+ outbred animal was capable of specifically inhibiting the response to GA. It thus appears that the inhibition of the GA response by the anti-2 serum is primarily mediated via antibodies directed toward strain 2 H antigens rather than antibodies specific for the product of the GA Ir gene. The mechanism of alloantiserum induced suppression of Ir gene function would then be by steric interference with the Ir gene product on the cell surface, rather than by direct binding to it. This conclusion implies that the products of both the H genes and the Ir genes are physically related on the cell surface. The implications of such a relationship in terms of the fluid-mosaic model of the lymphocyte surface are discussed. PMID:4591175

Shevach, Ethan M.; Green, Ira; Paul, William E.

1974-01-01

152

Physicochemical Evolution and Molecular Adaptation of the Cetacean Osmoregulation-related Gene UT-A2 and Implications for Functional Studies  

PubMed Central

Cetaceans have an enigmatic evolutionary history of re-invading aquatic habitats. One of their essential adaptabilities that has enabled this process is their homeostatic strategy adjustment. Here, we investigated the physicochemical evolution and molecular adaptation of the cetacean urea transporter UT-A2, which plays an important role in urine concentration and water homeostasis. First, we cloned UT-A2 from the freshwater Yangtze finless porpoise, after which bioinformatics analyses were conducted based on available datasets (including freshwater baiji and marine toothed and baleen whales) using MEGA, PAML, DataMonkey, TreeSAAP and Consurf. Our findings suggest that the UT-A2 protein shows folding similar to that of dvUT and UT-B, whereas some variations occurred in the functional So and Si regions of the selectivity filter. Additionally, several regions of the cetacean UT-A2 protein have experienced molecular adaptations. We suggest that positive-destabilizing selection could contribute to adaptations by influencing its biochemical and conformational character. The conservation of amino acid residues within the selectivity filter of the urea conduction pore is likely to be necessary for urea conduction, whereas the non-conserved amino acid replacements around the entrance and exit of the conduction pore could potentially affect the activity, which could be interesting target sites for future mutagenesis studies. PMID:25762239

Wang, Jingzhen; Yu, Xueying; Hu, Bo; Zheng, Jinsong; Xiao, Wuhan; Hao, Yujiang; Liu, Wenhua; Wang, Ding

2015-01-01

153

Physicochemical Evolution and Molecular Adaptation of the Cetacean Osmoregulation-related Gene UT-A2 and Implications for Functional Studies.  

PubMed

Cetaceans have an enigmatic evolutionary history of re-invading aquatic habitats. One of their essential adaptabilities that has enabled this process is their homeostatic strategy adjustment. Here, we investigated the physicochemical evolution and molecular adaptation of the cetacean urea transporter UT-A2, which plays an important role in urine concentration and water homeostasis. First, we cloned UT-A2 from the freshwater Yangtze finless porpoise, after which bioinformatics analyses were conducted based on available datasets (including freshwater baiji and marine toothed and baleen whales) using MEGA, PAML, DataMonkey, TreeSAAP and Consurf. Our findings suggest that the UT-A2 protein shows folding similar to that of dvUT and UT-B, whereas some variations occurred in the functional So and Si regions of the selectivity filter. Additionally, several regions of the cetacean UT-A2 protein have experienced molecular adaptations. We suggest that positive-destabilizing selection could contribute to adaptations by influencing its biochemical and conformational character. The conservation of amino acid residues within the selectivity filter of the urea conduction pore is likely to be necessary for urea conduction, whereas the non-conserved amino acid replacements around the entrance and exit of the conduction pore could potentially affect the activity, which could be interesting target sites for future mutagenesis studies. PMID:25762239

Wang, Jingzhen; Yu, Xueying; Hu, Bo; Zheng, Jinsong; Xiao, Wuhan; Hao, Yujiang; Liu, Wenhua; Wang, Ding

2015-01-01

154

A guide to the Lhc genes and their relatives in Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lhc super-gene family encodes the light-harvesting chlorophyll a\\/b-binding (LHC) proteins that constitute the antenna system of the photosynthetic apparatus, and also includes some relatives whose functions are more or less unknown. The Lhc super-gene family of Arabidopsis contains >30 members and the databases contain >1000 EST clones originating from these genes. This article presents an overview of these genes

Stefan Jansson

1999-01-01

155

The Groucho-related Gene Family Regulates the Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Gene through Interaction  

E-print Network

- related gene (GRG) family of co-repressors is expressed in a model cell line for the GnRH neuron and co increases as the neurons enter the anterior forebrain (15). Moreover, GnRH gene expression increasesThe Groucho-related Gene Family Regulates the Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Gene through

Mellon, Pamela L.

156

Influence of Rice Development on the Function of Bacterial Blight Resistance Genes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Disease resistance genes most commonly used in breeding programs are single, dominant, resistance (R) genes with relative effectiveness influenced by plant developmental stage. Knowing the developmental stages at which an R gene is functional is important for disease management. In rice, resistanc...

157

Bacterial Genes in the Aphid Genome: Absence of Functional Gene Transfer from Buchnera to Its Host  

PubMed Central

Genome reduction is typical of obligate symbionts. In cellular organelles, this reduction partly reflects transfer of ancestral bacterial genes to the host genome, but little is known about gene transfer in other obligate symbioses. Aphids harbor anciently acquired obligate mutualists, Buchnera aphidicola (Gammaproteobacteria), which have highly reduced genomes (420–650 kb), raising the possibility of gene transfer from ancestral Buchnera to the aphid genome. In addition, aphids often harbor other bacteria that also are potential sources of transferred genes. Previous limited sampling of genes expressed in bacteriocytes, the specialized cells that harbor Buchnera, revealed that aphids acquired at least two genes from bacteria. The newly sequenced genome of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, presents the first opportunity for a complete inventory of genes transferred from bacteria to the host genome in the context of an ancient obligate symbiosis. Computational screening of the entire A. pisum genome, followed by phylogenetic and experimental analyses, provided strong support for the transfer of 12 genes or gene fragments from bacteria to the aphid genome: three LD–carboxypeptidases (LdcA1, LdcA2,?LdcA), five rare lipoprotein As (RlpA1-5), N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase (AmiD), 1,4-beta-N-acetylmuramidase (bLys), DNA polymerase III alpha chain (?DnaE), and ATP synthase delta chain (?AtpH). Buchnera was the apparent source of two highly truncated pseudogenes (?DnaE and ?AtpH). Most other transferred genes were closely related to genes from relatives of Wolbachia (Alphaproteobacteria). At least eight of the transferred genes (LdcA1, AmiD, RlpA1-5, bLys) appear to be functional, and expression of seven (LdcA1, AmiD, RlpA1-5) are highly upregulated in bacteriocytes. The LdcAs and RlpAs appear to have been duplicated after transfer. Our results excluded the hypothesis that genome reduction in Buchnera has been accompanied by gene transfer to the host nuclear genome, but suggest that aphids utilize a set of duplicated genes acquired from other bacteria in the context of the Buchnera–aphid mutualism. PMID:20195500

Nikoh, Naruo; McCutcheon, John P.; Kudo, Toshiaki; Miyagishima, Shin-ya; Moran, Nancy A.; Nakabachi, Atsushi

2010-01-01

158

Bacterial genes in the aphid genome: absence of functional gene transfer from Buchnera to its host.  

PubMed

Genome reduction is typical of obligate symbionts. In cellular organelles, this reduction partly reflects transfer of ancestral bacterial genes to the host genome, but little is known about gene transfer in other obligate symbioses. Aphids harbor anciently acquired obligate mutualists, Buchnera aphidicola (Gammaproteobacteria), which have highly reduced genomes (420-650 kb), raising the possibility of gene transfer from ancestral Buchnera to the aphid genome. In addition, aphids often harbor other bacteria that also are potential sources of transferred genes. Previous limited sampling of genes expressed in bacteriocytes, the specialized cells that harbor Buchnera, revealed that aphids acquired at least two genes from bacteria. The newly sequenced genome of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, presents the first opportunity for a complete inventory of genes transferred from bacteria to the host genome in the context of an ancient obligate symbiosis. Computational screening of the entire A. pisum genome, followed by phylogenetic and experimental analyses, provided strong support for the transfer of 12 genes or gene fragments from bacteria to the aphid genome: three LD-carboxypeptidases (LdcA1, LdcA2,psiLdcA), five rare lipoprotein As (RlpA1-5), N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase (AmiD), 1,4-beta-N-acetylmuramidase (bLys), DNA polymerase III alpha chain (psiDnaE), and ATP synthase delta chain (psiAtpH). Buchnera was the apparent source of two highly truncated pseudogenes (psiDnaE and psiAtpH). Most other transferred genes were closely related to genes from relatives of Wolbachia (Alphaproteobacteria). At least eight of the transferred genes (LdcA1, AmiD, RlpA1-5, bLys) appear to be functional, and expression of seven (LdcA1, AmiD, RlpA1-5) are highly upregulated in bacteriocytes. The LdcAs and RlpAs appear to have been duplicated after transfer. Our results excluded the hypothesis that genome reduction in Buchnera has been accompanied by gene transfer to the host nuclear genome, but suggest that aphids utilize a set of duplicated genes acquired from other bacteria in the context of the Buchnera-aphid mutualism. PMID:20195500

Nikoh, Naruo; McCutcheon, John P; Kudo, Toshiaki; Miyagishima, Shin-ya; Moran, Nancy A; Nakabachi, Atsushi

2010-02-01

159

Coexpression network based on natural variation in human gene expression reveals gene interactions and functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genes interact in networks to orchestrate cellular processes. Analysis of these networks provides insights into gene interactions and functions. Here, we took advantage of normal variation in human gene expression to infer gene net- works, which we constructed using correlations in expression levels of more than 8.5 million gene pairs in immortalized B cells from three independent samples. The resulting

Renuka R. Nayak; Michael Kearns; Richard S. Spielman; Vivian G. Cheung

2009-01-01

160

Implication of synapse-related genes in bipolar disorder by linkage and gene expression analyses  

PubMed Central

Several chromosomal regions have been linked to bipolar disorder (BD). However, the search for specific genes has been hampered by inconsistent findings, partly due to genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity. We focused on lithium-responsive bipolar patients, a subgroup thought to be more homogeneous and conducted a multistage study including an initial linkage study followed up by fine mapping and gene expression. Our sample consisted of 36 families (275 genotyped individuals, 132 affected) recruited through probands who were responders to long-term lithium treatment. We conducted a genome-wide scan with 811 microsatellite markers followed by fine mapping. Gene expression studies of candidate regions were conducted on six post-mortem prefrontal brain regions of 20 individuals (8 BD and 12 controls). We identified regions 3p25, 3p14 and 14q11 as showing the highest genome-wide linkage signal (LOD 2.53, 2.04 and 3.19, respectively). Fine mapping provided further support for 3p25, while only modest support was found in the other two regions. We identified a group of synaptic, mitochondrial and apoptotic genes with altered expression patterns in BD. Analysis of an independent microarray dataset supported the implication of synapse-related and mitochondrial genes in BD. In conclusion, using two complementary strategies, we found evidence of linkage to lithium-responsive BD on 3p25, 3p14 and 14q11 as well as significantly dysregulated genes on these regions suggesting altered synaptic and mitochondrial function in BD. Further studies are warranted to demonstrate the functional role of these genes in BD. PMID:20667171

de Lara, Catalina Lopez; Jaitovich-Groisman, Iris; Cruceanu, Cristiana; Mamdani, Firoza; Lebel, Véronique; Yerko, Volodymyr; Beck, Angus; Young, L. Trevor; Rouleau, Guy; Grof, Paul; Alda, Martin; Turecki, Gustavo

2012-01-01

161

Structure-function evolution of the Transforming acidic coiled coil genes revealed by analysis of phylogenetically diverse organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Examination of ancient gene families can provide an insight into how the evolution of gene structure can relate to function. Functional homologs of the evolutionarily conserved transforming acidic coiled coil (TACC) gene family are present in organisms from yeast to man. However, correlations between functional interactions and the evolution of these proteins have yet to be determined. RESULTS: We

Ivan H Still; Ananthalakshmy K Vettaikkorumakankauv; Anthony DiMatteo; Ping Liang

2004-01-01

162

Functional and evolutionary correlates of gene constellations in the Drosophila melanogaster genome that deviate from the stereotypical gene architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The biological dimensions of genes are manifold. These include genomic properties, (e.g., X\\/autosomal linkage, recombination) and functional properties (e.g., expression level, tissue specificity). Multiple properties, each generally of subtle influence individually, may affect the evolution of genes or merely be (auto-)correlates. Results of multidimensional analyses may reveal the relative importance of these properties on the evolution of genes, and

Shuwei Li; Ching-Hua Shih; Michael H Kohn

2010-01-01

163

Association of tissue lineage and gene expression: conservatively and differentially expressed genes define common and special functions of tissues  

PubMed Central

Background Embryogenesis is the process by which the embryo is formed, develops, and establishes developmental hierarchies of tissues. The recent advance in microarray technology made it possible to investigate the tissue specific patterns of gene expression and their relationship with tissue lineages. This study is focused on how tissue specific functions, tissue lineage, and cell differentiation are correlated, which is essential to understand embryonic development and organism complexity. Results We performed individual gene and gene set based analysis on multiple tissue expression data, in association with the classic topology of mammalian fate maps of embryogenesis. For each sub-group of tissues on the fate map, conservatively, differentially and correlatively expressed genes or gene sets were identified. Tissue distance was found to correlate with gene expression divergence. Tissues of the ectoderm or mesoderm origins from the same segments on the fate map shared more similar expression pattern than those from different origins. Conservatively expressed genes or gene sets define common functions in a tissue group and are related to tissue specific diseases, which is supported by results from Gene Ontology and KEGG pathway analysis. Gene expression divergence is larger in certain human tissues than in the mouse homologous tissues. Conclusion The results from tissue lineage and gene expression analysis indicate that common function features of neighbor tissue groups were defined by the conservatively expressed genes and were related to tissue specific diseases, and differentially expressed genes contribute to the functional divergence of tissues. The difference of gene expression divergence in human and mouse homologous tissues reflected the organism complexity, i.e. distinct neural development levels and different body sizes. PMID:21172044

2010-01-01

164

Phylogenetic and functional gene structure shifts of the oral microbiomes in periodontitis patients.  

PubMed

Determining the composition and function of subgingival dental plaque is crucial to understanding human periodontal health and disease, but it is challenging because of the complexity of the interactions between human microbiomes and human body. Here, we examined the phylogenetic and functional gene differences between periodontal and healthy individuals using MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons and a specific functional gene array (a combination of GeoChip 4.0 for biogeochemical processes and HuMiChip 1.0 for human microbiomes). Our analyses indicated that the phylogenetic and functional gene structure of the oral microbiomes were distinctly different between periodontal and healthy groups. Also, 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis indicated that 39 genera were significantly different between healthy and periodontitis groups, and Fusobacterium, Porphyromonas, Treponema, Filifactor, Eubacterium, Tannerella, Hallella, Parvimonas, Peptostreptococcus and Catonella showed higher relative abundances in the periodontitis group. In addition, functional gene array data showed that a lower gene number but higher signal intensity of major genes existed in periodontitis, and a variety of genes involved in virulence factors, amino acid metabolism and glycosaminoglycan and pyrimidine degradation were enriched in periodontitis, suggesting their potential importance in periodontal pathogenesis. However, the genes involved in amino acid synthesis and pyrimidine synthesis exhibited a significantly lower relative abundance compared with healthy group. Overall, this study provides new insights into our understanding of phylogenetic and functional gene structure of subgingival microbial communities of periodontal patients and their importance in pathogenesis of periodontitis. PMID:24671083

Li, Yan; He, Jinzhi; He, Zhili; Zhou, Yuan; Yuan, Mengting; Xu, Xin; Sun, Feifei; Liu, Chengcheng; Li, Jiyao; Xie, Wenbo; Deng, Ye; Qin, Yujia; VanNostrand, Joy D; Xiao, Liying; Wu, Liyou; Zhou, Jizhong; Shi, Wenyuan; Zhou, Xuedong

2014-09-01

165

Age-related regulation of genes: slow homeostatic changes and age-dimension technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through systematic studies of pro- and anti-blood coagulation factors, we have determined molecular mechanisms involving two genetic elements, age-related stability element (ASE), GAGGAAG and age-related increase element (AIE), a unique stretch of dinucleotide repeats (AIE). ASE and AIE are essential for age-related patterns of stable and increased gene expression patterns, respectively. Such age-related gene regulatory mechanisms are also critical for explaining homeostasis in various physiological reactions as well as slow homeostatic changes in them. The age-related increase expression of the human factor IX (hFIX) gene requires the presence of both ASE and AIE, which apparently function additively. The anti-coagulant factor protein C (hPC) gene uses an ASE (CAGGAG) to produce age-related stable expression. Both ASE sequences (G/CAGAAG) share consensus sequence of the transcriptional factor PEA-3 element. No other similar sequences, including another PEA-3 consensus sequence, GAGGATG, function in conferring age-related gene regulation. The age-regulatory mechanisms involving ASE and AIE apparently function universally with different genes and across different animal species. These findings have led us to develop a new field of research and applications, which we named “age-dimension technology (ADT)”. ADT has exciting potential for modifying age-related expression of genes as well as associated physiological processes, and developing novel, more effective prophylaxis or treatments for age-related diseases.

Kurachi, Kotoku; Zhang, Kezhong; Huo, Jeffrey; Ameri, Afshin; Kuwahara, Mitsuhiro; Fontaine, Jean-Marc; Yamamoto, Kei; Kurachi, Sumiko

2002-11-01

166

Using Text Analysis to Identify Functionally Coherent Gene Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of large-scale genomic information (such as sequence data or expression patterns) frequently involves grouping genes on the basis of common experimental features. Often, as with gene expression clustering, there are too many groups to easily identify the functionally relevant ones. One valuable source of information about gene function is the published literature. We present a method, neighbor divergence,

Soumya Raychaudhuri; Hinrich Schutze; Russ B. Altman

2002-01-01

167

Systematic analysis of genes required for synapse structure and function  

E-print Network

phenotypes2,3 ; however, RNAi has had limited success in the study of neuronal genes due to the insensitivitySystematic analysis of genes required for synapse structure and function Derek Sieburth1 *, Quee a systematic screen to identify genes required for the function or development of Caenorhabditis elegans

Kennedy, Scott

168

Polyploidization Altered Gene Functions in Cotton (Gossypium spp.)  

E-print Network

Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is an important crop plant that is widely grown to produce both natural textile fibers and cottonseed oil. Cotton fibers, the economically more important product of the cotton plant, are seed trichomes derived from individual cells of the epidermal layer of the seed coat. It has been known for a long time that large numbers of genes determine the development of cotton fiber, and more recently it has been determined that these genes are distributed across At and Dt subgenomes of tetraploid AD cottons. In the present study, the organization and evolution of the fiber development genes were investigated through the construction of an integrated genetic and physical map of fiber development genes whose functions have been verified and confirmed. A total of 535 cotton fiber development genes, including 103 fiber transcription factors, 259 fiber development genes, and 173 SSR-contained fiber ESTs, were analyzed at the subgenome level. A total of 499 fiber related contigs were selected and assembled. Together these contigs covered about 151 Mb in physical length, or about 6.7 % of the tetraploid cotton genome. Among the 499 contigs, 397 were anchored onto individual chromosomes. Results from our studies on the distribution patterns of the fiber development genes and transcription factors between the At and Dt subgenomes showed that more transcription factors were from Dt subgenome than At, whereas more fiber development genes were from At subgenome than Dt. Combining our mapping results with previous reports that more fiber QTLs were mapped in Dt subgenome than At subgenome, the results

Zhanyou Xu; John Z. Yu; Jaemin Cho; Jing Yu; Russell J. Kohel; Richard G. Percy

169

Drosophila Genes That Affect Meiosis Duration Are among the Meiosis Related Genes That Are More Often Found Duplicated  

PubMed Central

Using a phylogenetic approach, the examination of 33 meiosis/meiosis-related genes in 12 Drosophila species, revealed nine independent gene duplications, involving the genes cav, mre11, meiS332, polo and mtrm. Evidence is provided that at least eight out of the nine gene duplicates are functional. Therefore, the rate at which Drosophila meiosis/meiosis-related genes are duplicated and retained is estimated to be 0.0012 per gene per million years, a value that is similar to the average for all Drosophila genes. It should be noted that by using a phylogenetic approach the confounding effect of concerted evolution, that is known to lead to overestimation of the duplication and retention rate, is avoided. This is an important issue, since even in our moderate size sample, evidence for long-term concerted evolution (lasting for more than 30 million years) was found for the meiS332 gene pair in species of the Drosophila subgenus. Most striking, in contrast to theoretical expectations, is the finding that genes that encode proteins that must follow a close stoichiometric balance, such as polo, mtrm and meiS332 have been found duplicated. The duplicated genes may be examples of gene neofunctionalization. It is speculated that meiosis duration may be a trait that is under selection in Drosophila and that it has different optimal values in different species. PMID:21423746

Reis, Micael; Sousa-Guimarães, Sofia; Vieira, Cristina P.; Sunkel, Cláudio E.; Vieira, Jorge

2011-01-01

170

418 Research Paper The Drosophila grapes gene is related to checkpoint gene  

E-print Network

418 Research Paper The Drosophila grapes gene is related to checkpoint gene chk1/rad27 may affect feedback control during early syncytial divisions. Results: The Drosophila grp gene encodes a predicted serine/threonine kinase and has significant homology to chk1/rad27, a gene required for a DNA

Sullivan, William T.

171

GEO: the Gene Expression Omnibus A family of databases for gene expression related data  

E-print Network

GEO: the Gene Expression Omnibus A family of databases for gene expression related data http Contact: info@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov Scope and access The Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) is a public repository databases, data and record types While GEO was originally established to host gene expression data, it has

Levin, Judith G.

172

Odd-skipped related 2 regulates genes related to proliferation and development  

SciTech Connect

Cell proliferation is a biological process in which chromosomes replicate in one cell and equally divide into two daughter cells. Our previous findings suggested that Odd-skipped related 2 (Osr2) plays an important role in cellular quiescence and proliferation under epigenetic regulation. However, the mechanism used by Osr2 to establish and maintain proliferation is unknown. To examine the functional role of Osr2 in cell proliferation, we analyzed its downstream target genes using microarray analysis following adenovirus-induced overexpression of Osr2 as well as knockdown with Osr2 siRNA, which showed that Osr2 regulates a multitude of genes involved in proliferation and the cell cycle, as well as development. Additional proliferation assays also indicated that Osr2 likely functions to elicit cell proliferation. Together, these results suggest that Osr2 plays important roles in proliferation and development.

Kawai, Shinji, E-mail: skawai@dent.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Oral Frontier Biology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, Suita-Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)] [Department of Oral Frontier Biology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, Suita-Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Abiko, Yoshimitsu [Department of Biochemistry, Nihon University School of Dentistry at Matsudo, Matsudo-Chiba 271-8587 (Japan)] [Department of Biochemistry, Nihon University School of Dentistry at Matsudo, Matsudo-Chiba 271-8587 (Japan); Amano, Atsuo [Department of Oral Frontier Biology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, Suita-Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)] [Department of Oral Frontier Biology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, Suita-Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

2010-07-23

173

Identification and function analysis of contrary genes in Dupuytren's contracture.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to analyze the expression of genes involved in Dupuytren's contracture (DC), using bioinformatic methods. The profile of GSE21221 was downloaded from the gene expression ominibus, which included six samples, derived from fibroblasts and six healthy control samples, derived from carpal?tunnel fibroblasts. A Distributed Intrusion Detection System was used in order to identify differentially expressed genes. The term contrary genes is proposed. Contrary genes were the genes that exhibited opposite expression pattterns in the positive and negative groups, and likely exhibited opposite functions. These were identified using Coexpress software. Gene ontology (GO) function analysis was conducted for the contrary genes. A network of GO terms was constructed using the reduce and visualize gene ontology database. Significantly expressed genes (801) and contrary genes (98) were screened. A significant association was observed between Chitinase?3?like protein 1 and ten genes in the positive gene set. Positive regulation of transcription and the activation of nuclear factor??B (NF??B)?inducing kinase activity exhibited the highest degree values in the network of GO terms. In the present study, the expression of genes involved in the development of DC was analyzed, and the concept of contrary genes proposed. The genes identified in the present study are involved in the positive regulation of transcription and activation of NF??B?inducing kinase activity. The contrary genes and GO terms identified in the present study may potentially be used for DC diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25760233

Ji, Xianglu; Tian, Feng; Tian, Lijie

2015-07-01

174

Transport of Magnesium by a Bacterial Nramp-Related Gene  

PubMed Central

Magnesium is an essential divalent metal that serves many cellular functions. While most divalent cations are maintained at relatively low intracellular concentrations, magnesium is maintained at a higher level (?0.5–2.0 mM). Three families of transport proteins were previously identified for magnesium import: CorA, MgtE, and MgtA/MgtB P-type ATPases. In the current study, we find that expression of a bacterial protein unrelated to these transporters can fully restore growth to a bacterial mutant that lacks known magnesium transporters, suggesting it is a new importer for magnesium. We demonstrate that this transport activity is likely to be specific rather than resulting from substrate promiscuity because the proteins are incapable of manganese import. This magnesium transport protein is distantly related to the Nramp family of proteins, which have been shown to transport divalent cations but have never been shown to recognize magnesium. We also find gene expression of the new magnesium transporter to be controlled by a magnesium-sensing riboswitch. Importantly, we find additional examples of riboswitch-regulated homologues, suggesting that they are a frequent occurrence in bacteria. Therefore, our aggregate data discover a new and perhaps broadly important path for magnesium import and highlight how identification of riboswitch RNAs can help shed light on new, and sometimes unexpected, functions of their downstream genes. PMID:24968120

Rodionov, Dmitry A.; Freedman, Benjamin G.; Senger, Ryan S.; Winkler, Wade C.

2014-01-01

175

Hierarchical classification of functionally equivalent genes in prokaryotes  

PubMed Central

Functional classification of genes represents a fundamental problem to many biological studies. Most of the existing classification schemes are based on the concepts of homology and orthology, which were originally introduced to study gene evolution but might not be the most appropriate for gene function prediction, particularly at high resolution level. We have recently developed a scheme for hierarchical classification of genes (HCGs) in prokaryotes. In the HCG scheme, the functional equivalence relationships among genes are first assessed through a careful application of both sequence similarity and genomic neighborhood information; and genes are then classified into a hierarchical structure of clusters, where genes in each cluster are functionally equivalent at some resolution level, and the level of resolution goes higher as the clusters become increasingly smaller traveling down the hierarchy. The HCG scheme is validated through comparisons with the taxonomy of the prokaryotic genomes, Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs) of genes and the Pfam system. We have applied the HCG scheme to 224 complete prokaryotic genomes, and constructed a HCG database consisting of a forest of 5339 multi-level and 15?770 single-level trees of gene clusters covering ?93% of the genes of these 224 genomes. The validation results indicate that the HCG scheme not only captures the key features of the existing classification schemes but also provides a much richer organization of genes which can be used for functional prediction of genes at higher resolution and to help reveal evolutionary trace of the genes. PMID:17353185

Wu, Hongwei; Mao, Fenglou; Olman, Victor; Xu, Ying

2007-01-01

176

The evolution of the plastid chromosome in land plants: gene content, gene order, gene function  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review bridges functional and evolutionary aspects of plastid chromosome architecture in land plants and their putative\\u000a ancestors. We provide an overview on the structure and composition of the plastid genome of land plants as well as the functions\\u000a of its genes in an explicit phylogenetic and evolutionary context. We will discuss the architecture of land plant plastid\\u000a chromosomes, including

Susann WickeGerald; Gerald M. Schneeweiss; Claude W. dePamphilis; Kai F. Müller; Dietmar Quandt

2011-01-01

177

Gene Coexpression Network Analysis as a Source of Functional Annotation for Rice Genes  

PubMed Central

With the existence of large publicly available plant gene expression data sets, many groups have undertaken data analyses to construct gene coexpression networks and functionally annotate genes. Often, a large compendium of unrelated or condition-independent expression data is used to construct gene networks. Condition-dependent expression experiments consisting of well-defined conditions/treatments have also been used to create coexpression networks to help examine particular biological processes. Gene networks derived from either condition-dependent or condition-independent data can be difficult to interpret if a large number of genes and connections are present. However, algorithms exist to identify modules of highly connected and biologically relevant genes within coexpression networks. In this study, we have used publicly available rice (Oryza sativa) gene expression data to create gene coexpression networks using both condition-dependent and condition-independent data and have identified gene modules within these networks using the Weighted Gene Coexpression Network Analysis method. We compared the number of genes assigned to modules and the biological interpretability of gene coexpression modules to assess the utility of condition-dependent and condition-independent gene coexpression networks. For the purpose of providing functional annotation to rice genes, we found that gene modules identified by coexpression analysis of condition-dependent gene expression experiments to be more useful than gene modules identified by analysis of a condition-independent data set. We have incorporated our results into the MSU Rice Genome Annotation Project database as additional expression-based annotation for 13,537 genes, 2,980 of which lack a functional annotation description. These results provide two new types of functional annotation for our database. Genes in modules are now associated with groups of genes that constitute a collective functional annotation of those modules. Additionally, the expression patterns of genes across the treatments/conditions of an expression experiment comprise a second form of useful annotation. PMID:21799793

Childs, Kevin L.; Davidson, Rebecca M.; Buell, C. Robin

2011-01-01

178

Functional-Network-Based Gene Set Analysis Using Gene-Ontology  

PubMed Central

To account for the functional non-equivalence among a set of genes within a biological pathway when performing gene set analysis, we introduce GOGANPA, a network-based gene set analysis method, which up-weights genes with functions relevant to the gene set of interest. The genes are weighted according to its degree within a genome-scale functional network constructed using the functional annotations available from the gene ontology database. By benchmarking GOGANPA using a well-studied P53 data set and three breast cancer data sets, we will demonstrate the power and reproducibility of our proposed method over traditional unweighted approaches and a competing network-based approach that involves a complex integrated network. GOGANPA’s sole reliance on gene ontology further allows GOGANPA to be widely applicable to the analysis of any gene-ontology-annotated genome. PMID:23418449

Chang, Billy; Kustra, Rafal; Tian, Weidong

2013-01-01

179

From a gene list to biological function Scoring Gene Ontology terms  

E-print Network

From a gene list to biological function ­ Scoring Gene Ontology terms ­ Adrian Alexa alexa in Practical DNA Microarray Analysis, Berlin, March 2, 2006 #12;Overview ¾ Gene sets enrichment ¾ Scoring GO, 2005 ­1­ #12;Overview ¾ Gene sets enrichment ¾ Scoring GO Terms ¾ Topology based GO Terms scoring

Spang, Rainer

180

From a gene list to biological function Scoring Gene Ontology terms  

E-print Network

From a gene list to biological function ­ Scoring Gene Ontology terms ­ Adrian Alexa alexa in Practical DNA Microarray Analysis, Berlin, December 1, 2005 #12;GO Terms scoring Overview ¾ Gene sets Berlin, December 1, 2005 ­1­ #12;GO Terms scoring Overview ¾ Gene sets enrichment ¾ Scoring GO Terms

Spang, Rainer

181

From a gene list to biological function Scoring Gene Ontology terms  

E-print Network

From a gene list to biological function ­ Scoring Gene Ontology terms ­ Adrian Alexa alexa in Practical DNA Microarray Analysis, Saarbr¨ucken, September 22, 2005 #12;GO Terms scoring Overview ¾ Gene Adrian Alexa Saarbr¨ucken, September 22, 2005 ­1­ #12;GO Terms scoring Overview ¾ Gene sets enrichment

Spang, Rainer

182

SNP in starch biosynthesis genes associated with nutritional and functional properties of rice  

PubMed Central

Starch is a major component of human diets. The relative contribution of variation in the genes of starch biosynthesis to the nutritional and functional properties of the rice was evaluated in a rice breeding population. Sequencing 18 genes involved in starch synthesis in a population of 233 rice breeding lines discovered 66 functional SNPs in exonic regions. Five genes, AGPS2b, Isoamylase1, SPHOL, SSIIb and SSIVb showed no polymorphism. Association analysis found 31 of the SNP were associated with differences in pasting and cooking quality properties of the rice lines. Two genes appear to be the major loci controlling traits under human selection in rice, GBSSI (waxy gene) and SSIIa. GBSSI influenced amylose content and retrogradation. Other genes contributing to retrogradation were GPT1, SSI, BEI and SSIIIa. SSIIa explained much of the variation in cooking characteristics. Other genes had relatively small effects. PMID:22870386

Kharabian-Masouleh, Ardashir; Waters, Daniel L. E.; Reinke, Russell F.; Ward, Rachelle; Henry, Robert J.

2012-01-01

183

Mining the Gene Wiki for functional genomic knowledge  

PubMed Central

Background Ontology-based gene annotations are important tools for organizing and analyzing genome-scale biological data. Collecting these annotations is a valuable but costly endeavor. The Gene Wiki makes use of Wikipedia as a low-cost, mass-collaborative platform for assembling text-based gene annotations. The Gene Wiki is comprised of more than 10,000 review articles, each describing one human gene. The goal of this study is to define and assess a computational strategy for translating the text of Gene Wiki articles into ontology-based gene annotations. We specifically explore the generation of structured annotations using the Gene Ontology and the Human Disease Ontology. Results Our system produced 2,983 candidate gene annotations using the Disease Ontology and 11,022 candidate annotations using the Gene Ontology from the text of the Gene Wiki. Based on manual evaluations and comparisons to reference annotation sets, we estimate a precision of 90-93% for the Disease Ontology annotations and 48-64% for the Gene Ontology annotations. We further demonstrate that this data set can systematically improve the results from gene set enrichment analyses. Conclusions The Gene Wiki is a rapidly growing corpus of text focused on human gene function. Here, we demonstrate that the Gene Wiki can be a powerful resource for generating ontology-based gene annotations. These annotations can be used immediately to improve workflows for building curated gene annotation databases and knowledge-based statistical analyses. PMID:22165947

2011-01-01

184

Complexity of gene circuits, Pfaan functions and morphogenesis problem  

E-print Network

Complexity of gene circuits, PfaÆan functions and morphogenesis problem Sergey VAKULENKO 1 , Dmitry modulaire [7]. 1 #12; 1 Introduction Mathematically, the biological morphogenesis problem (how complicated

Grigoriev, Dima

185

Land use change alters functional gene diversity, composition and abundance in Amazon forest soil microbial communities.  

PubMed

Land use change in the Amazon rainforest alters the taxonomic structure of soil microbial communities, but whether it alters their functional gene composition is unknown. We used the highly parallel microarray technology GeoChip 4.0, which contains 83,992 probes specific for genes linked nutrient cycling and other processes, to evaluate how the diversity, abundance and similarity of the targeted genes responded to forest-to-pasture conversion. We also evaluated whether these parameters were reestablished with secondary forest growth. A spatially nested scheme was employed to sample a primary forest, two pastures (6 and 38 years old) and a secondary forest. Both pastures had significantly lower microbial functional genes richness and diversity when compared to the primary forest. Gene composition and turnover were also significantly modified with land use change. Edaphic traits associated with soil acidity, iron availability, soil texture and organic matter concentration were correlated with these gene changes. Although primary and secondary forests showed similar functional gene richness and diversity, there were differences in gene composition and turnover, suggesting that community recovery was not complete in the secondary forest. Gene association analysis revealed that response to ecosystem conversion varied significantly across functional gene groups, with genes linked to carbon and nitrogen cycling mostly altered. This study indicates that diversity and abundance of numerous environmentally important genes respond to forest-to-pasture conversion and hence have the potential to affect the related processes at an ecosystem scale. PMID:24806276

Paula, Fabiana S; Rodrigues, Jorge L M; Zhou, Jizhong; Wu, Liyou; Mueller, Rebecca C; Mirza, Babur S; Bohannan, Brendan J M; Nüsslein, Klaus; Deng, Ye; Tiedje, James M; Pellizari, Vivian H

2014-06-01

186

Gene-environment interaction and male reproductive function  

PubMed Central

As genetic factors can hardly explain the changes taking place during short time spans, environmental and lifestyle-related factors have been suggested as the causes of time-related deterioration of male reproductive function. However, considering the strong heterogeneity of male fecundity between and within populations, genetic variants might be important determinants of the individual susceptibility to the adverse effects of environment or lifestyle. Although the possible mechanisms of such interplay in relation to the reproductive system are largely unknown, some recent studies have indicated that specific genotypes may confer a larger risk of male reproductive disorders following certain exposures. This paper presents a critical review of animal and human evidence on how genes may modify environmental effects on male reproductive function. Some examples have been found that support this mechanism, but the number of studies is still limited. This type of interaction studies may improve our understanding of normal physiology and help us to identify the risk factors to male reproductive malfunction. We also shortly discuss other aspects of gene-environment interaction specifically associated with the issue of reproduction, namely environmental and lifestyle factors as the cause of sperm DNA damage. It remains to be investigated to what extent such genetic changes, by natural conception or through the use of assisted reproductive techniques, are transmitted to the next generation, thereby causing increased morbidity in the offspring. PMID:20348940

Axelsson, Jonatan; Bonde, Jens Peter; Giwercman, Yvonne L.; Rylander, Lars; Giwercman, Aleksander

2010-01-01

187

Functions Encoded by Pyrrolnitrin Biosynthetic Genes from Pseudomonas fluorescens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyrrolnitrin is a secondary metabolite derived from tryptophan and has strong antifungal activity. Recently we described four genes, prnABCD, from Pseudomonas fluorescens that encode the biosynthesis of pyrrolnitrin. In the work presented here, we describe the function of each prn gene product. The four genes encode proteins identical in size and serology to proteins present in wild-type Pseudomonas fluorescens, but

SABINE KIRNER; PHILIP E. HAMMER; D. STEVEN HILL; ANNETT ALTMANN; ILONA FISCHER; LAURA J. WEISLO; MIKE LANAHAN; KARL-HEINZ VAN PEE; JAMES M. LIGON

1998-01-01

188

Introduction An evolutionarily conserved function of Hox genes is to  

E-print Network

5191 Introduction An evolutionarily conserved function of Hox genes is to assign positional as a model to understand the role of Hox genes in segmental patterning (Barrow et al., 2000; Bell et al; Studer et al., 1996). A plethora of genetic and embryological experiments have established that Hox genes

Capecchi, Mario R.

189

Reconstruction of a Functional Human Gene Network, with an Application for Prioritizing Positional Candidate Genes  

PubMed Central

Most common genetic disorders have a complex inheritance and may result from variants in many genes, each contributing only weak effects to the disease. Pinpointing these disease genes within the myriad of susceptibility loci identified in linkage studies is difficult because these loci may contain hundreds of genes. However, in any disorder, most of the disease genes will be involved in only a few different molecular pathways. If we know something about the relationships between the genes, we can assess whether some genes (which may reside in different loci) functionally interact with each other, indicating a joint basis for the disease etiology. There are various repositories of information on pathway relationships. To consolidate this information, we developed a functional human gene network that integrates information on genes and the functional relationships between genes, based on data from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, the Biomolecular Interaction Network Database, Reactome, the Human Protein Reference Database, the Gene Ontology database, predicted protein-protein interactions, human yeast two-hybrid interactions, and microarray coexpressions. We applied this network to interrelate positional candidate genes from different disease loci and then tested 96 heritable disorders for which the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man database reported at least three disease genes. Artificial susceptibility loci, each containing 100 genes, were constructed around each disease gene, and we used the network to rank these genes on the basis of their functional interactions. By following up the top five genes per artificial locus, we were able to detect at least one known disease gene in 54% of the loci studied, representing a 2.8-fold increase over random selection. This suggests that our method can significantly reduce the cost and effort of pinpointing true disease genes in analyses of disorders for which numerous loci have been reported but for which most of the genes are unknown. PMID:16685651

Franke, Lude; Bakel, Harm van; Fokkens, Like; de Jong, Edwin D.; Egmont-Petersen, Michael; Wijmenga, Cisca

2006-01-01

190

Identification of immunity related genes to study the Physalis peruviana--Fusarium oxysporum pathosystem.  

PubMed

The Cape gooseberry (Physalisperuviana L) is an Andean exotic fruit with high nutritional value and appealing medicinal properties. However, its cultivation faces important phytosanitary problems mainly due to pathogens like Fusarium oxysporum, Cercosporaphysalidis and Alternaria spp. Here we used the Cape gooseberry foliar transcriptome to search for proteins that encode conserved domains related to plant immunity including: NBS (Nucleotide Binding Site), CC (Coiled-Coil), TIR (Toll/Interleukin-1 Receptor). We identified 74 immunity related gene candidates in P. peruviana which have the typical resistance gene (R-gene) architecture, 17 Receptor like kinase (RLKs) candidates related to PAMP-Triggered Immunity (PTI), eight (TIR-NBS-LRR, or TNL) and nine (CC-NBS-LRR, or CNL) candidates related to Effector-Triggered Immunity (ETI) genes among others. These candidate genes were categorized by molecular function (98%), biological process (85%) and cellular component (79%) using gene ontology. Some of the most interesting predicted roles were those associated with binding and transferase activity. We designed 94 primers pairs from the 74 immunity-related genes (IRGs) to amplify the corresponding genomic regions on six genotypes that included resistant and susceptible materials. From these, we selected 17 single band amplicons and sequenced them in 14 F. oxysporum resistant and susceptible genotypes. Sequence polymorphisms were analyzed through preliminary candidate gene association, which allowed the detection of one SNP at the PpIRG-63 marker revealing a nonsynonymous mutation in the predicted LRR domain suggesting functional roles for resistance. PMID:23844210

Enciso-Rodríguez, Felix E; González, Carolina; Rodríguez, Edwin A; López, Camilo E; Landsman, David; Barrero, Luz Stella; Mariño-Ramírez, Leonardo

2013-01-01

191

Identification of Immunity Related Genes to Study the Physalis peruviana – Fusarium oxysporum Pathosystem  

PubMed Central

The Cape gooseberry (Physalisperuviana L) is an Andean exotic fruit with high nutritional value and appealing medicinal properties. However, its cultivation faces important phytosanitary problems mainly due to pathogens like Fusarium oxysporum, Cercosporaphysalidis and Alternaria spp. Here we used the Cape gooseberry foliar transcriptome to search for proteins that encode conserved domains related to plant immunity including: NBS (Nucleotide Binding Site), CC (Coiled-Coil), TIR (Toll/Interleukin-1 Receptor). We identified 74 immunity related gene candidates in P. peruviana which have the typical resistance gene (R-gene) architecture, 17 Receptor like kinase (RLKs) candidates related to PAMP-Triggered Immunity (PTI), eight (TIR-NBS-LRR, or TNL) and nine (CC–NBS-LRR, or CNL) candidates related to Effector-Triggered Immunity (ETI) genes among others. These candidate genes were categorized by molecular function (98%), biological process (85%) and cellular component (79%) using gene ontology. Some of the most interesting predicted roles were those associated with binding and transferase activity. We designed 94 primers pairs from the 74 immunity-related genes (IRGs) to amplify the corresponding genomic regions on six genotypes that included resistant and susceptible materials. From these, we selected 17 single band amplicons and sequenced them in 14 F. oxysporum resistant and susceptible genotypes. Sequence polymorphisms were analyzed through preliminary candidate gene association, which allowed the detection of one SNP at the PpIRG-63 marker revealing a nonsynonymous mutation in the predicted LRR domain suggesting functional roles for resistance. PMID:23844210

Enciso-Rodríguez, Felix E.; González, Carolina; Rodríguez, Edwin A.; López, Camilo E.; Landsman, David; Barrero, Luz Stella; Mariño-Ramírez, Leonardo

2013-01-01

192

Characterization of age-related gene expression profiling in bone marrow and epididymal adipocytes  

PubMed Central

Background While an increase in bone marrow adiposity is associated with age-related bone disease, the function of bone marrow adipocytes has not been studied. The aim of this study was to characterize and compare the age-related gene expression profiles in bone marrow adipocytes and epididymal adipocytes. Results A total of 3918 (13.7%) genes were differentially expressed in bone marrow adipocytes compared to epididymal adipocytes. Bone marrow adipocytes revealed a distinct gene profile with low expression of adipocyte-specific genes peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?), fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), perilipin (Plin1), adipsin (CFD) and high expression of genes associated with early adipocyte differentiation (CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBP?), regulator of G-protein signaling 2 (RGS2). In addition, a number of genes including secreted frizzled related protein 4 (SFRP4), tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?), transforming growth factor beta 1(TGF?1), G-protein coupled receptor 109A (GPR109A) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), that could affect adipose-derived signaling to bone are markedly increased in bone marrow adipocytes. Age had a substantial effect on genes associated with mitochondria function and inflammation in bone marrow adipocytes. Twenty seven genes were significantly changed with age in both adipocyte depots. Among these genes, IL6 and GPR109A were significantly reduced with age in both adipocyte depots. Conclusions Overall, gene profiling reveals a unique phenotype for primary bone marrow adipocytes characterized by low adipose-specific gene expression and high expression of inflammatory response genes. Bone marrow and epididymal adipocytes share a common pathway in response to aging in mice, but age has a greater impact on global gene expression in epididymal than in bone marrow adipocytes. Genes that are differentially expressed at greater levels in the bone marrow are highly regulated with age. PMID:21545734

2011-01-01

193

Recent achievement in gene cloning and functional genomics in soybean.  

PubMed

Soybean is a model plant for photoperiodism as well as for symbiotic nitrogen fixation. However, a rather low efficiency in soybean transformation hampers functional analysis of genes isolated from soybean. In comparison, rapid development and progress in flowering time and photoperiodic response have been achieved in Arabidopsis and rice. As the soybean genomic information has been released since 2008, gene cloning and functional genomic studies have been revived as indicated by successfully characterizing genes involved in maturity and nematode resistance. Here, we review some major achievements in the cloning of some important genes and some specific features at genetic or genomic levels revealed by the analysis of functional genomics of soybean. PMID:24311973

Xia, Zhengjun; Zhai, Hong; Lü, Shixiang; Wu, Hongyan; Zhang, Yupeng

2013-01-01

194

New tools to determine gene function in maize  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Benavente and Scofield’s Commentary highlights a report in an upcoming volume of New Phytologist, where van der Linde et al. report significant progress that should facilitate the process of establishing the function of maize genes (‘Systemic virus induced gene silencing allows functional characteri...

195

Relations between Prosodic Variables and Communicative Functions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three children were observed interacting with their mothers before the onset of single words, when vocabulary consisted of 10 words, and when it consisted of 50 words. Relations between communicative functions and acoustic analysis of prosodic variables were studied. Considerable variability was found in the number of rises produced overall and…

Flax, Judy; And Others

1991-01-01

196

Concerted down-regulation of immune-system related genes predicts metastasis in colorectal carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background This study aimed at the identification of prognostic gene expression markers in early primary colorectal carcinomas without metastasis at the time point of surgery by analyzing genome-wide gene expression profiles using oligonucleotide microarrays. Methods Cryo-conserved tumor specimens from 45 patients with early colorectal cancers were examined, with the majority of them being UICC stage II or earlier and with a follow-up time of 41–115 months. Gene expression profiling was performed using Whole Human Genome 4x44K Oligonucleotide Microarrays. Validation of microarray data was performed on five of the genes in a smaller cohort. Results Using a novel algorithm based on the recursive application of support vector machines (SVMs), we selected a signature of 44 probes that discriminated between patients developing later metastasis and patients with a good prognosis. Interestingly, almost half of the genes was related to the patients’ immune response and showed reduced expression in the metastatic cases. Conclusions Whereas up to now gene signatures containing genes with various biological functions have been described for prediction of metastasis in CRC, in this study metastasis could be well predicted by a set of gene expression markers consisting exclusively of genes related to the MHC class II complex involved in immune response. Thus, our data emphasize that the proper function of a comprehensive network of immune response genes is of vital importance for the survival of colorectal cancer patients. PMID:24495478

2014-01-01

197

Vitamin D related genes in lung development and asthma pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

Background Poor maternal vitamin D intake is a risk factor for subsequent childhood asthma, suggesting that in utero changes related to vitamin D responsive genes might play a crucial role in later disease susceptibility. We hypothesized that vitamin D pathway genes are developmentally active in the fetal lung and that these developmental genes would be associated with asthma susceptibility and regulation in asthma. Methods Vitamin D pathway genes were derived from PubMed and Gene Ontology surveys. Principal component analysis was used to identify characteristic lung development genes. Results Vitamin D regulated genes were markedly over-represented in normal human (odds ratio OR 2.15, 95% confidence interval CI: 1.69-2.74) and mouse (OR 2.68, 95% CI: 2.12-3.39) developing lung transcriptomes. 38 vitamin D pathway genes were in both developing lung transcriptomes with >63% of genes more highly expressed in the later than earlier stages of development. In immortalized B-cells derived from 95 asthmatics and their unaffected siblings, 12 of the 38 (31.6%) vitamin D pathway lung development genes were significantly differentially expressed (OR 3.00, 95% CI: 1.43-6.21), whereas 11 (29%) genes were significantly differentially expressed in 43 control versus vitamin D treated immortalized B-cells from Childhood Asthma Management Program subjects (OR 2.62, 95% CI: 1.22-5.50). 4 genes, LAMP3, PIP5K1B, SCARB2 and TXNIP were identified in both groups; each displays significant biologic plausibility for a role in asthma. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate a significant association between early lung development and asthma–related phenotypes for vitamin D pathway genes, supporting a genomic mechanistic basis for the epidemiologic observations relating maternal vitamin D intake and childhood asthma susceptibility. PMID:24188128

2013-01-01

198

Functional analysis of mouse Polycomb group genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two groups of genes, the Polycomb group (Pc-G) and trithorax group (trx-G), have been identified in Drosophila to provide a transcriptional memory mechanism. They ensure the maintenance of transcription patterns of key regulators such as the Hox genes and thereby the correct execution of developmental programmes. Recent data suggest that this memory mechanism is conserved in vertebrates and plants. Here

M. van Lohuizen

1998-01-01

199

Prefrontal executive function associated coupling relates to Huntington's disease stage.  

PubMed

Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG)-repeat expansion in the huntingtin (HTT) gene. Early changes that may precede clinical manifestation of movement disorder include executive dysfunction. The aim of this study was to identify functional network correlates of impaired higher cognitive functioning in relation to HD stage. Blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) functional-magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and structural-MRI were performed in 53 subjects with the HD-mutation (41 prodromals, 12 early affected) and 52 controls. Disease stage was estimated for each subject with HD-mutation based on age, length of the CAG-repeat expansion mutation and also putaminal atrophy. The Tower of London test was administered with three levels of complexity during fMRI as a challenge of executive function. Functional brain networks of interest were identified based on cortical gray matter voxel-clusters with significantly enhanced task-related functional coupling to the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) area. While prodromal HD-subjects showed similar performance levels as controls, multivariate analysis of task-related functional coupling to the MPFC identified reduced connectivity in prodromal and early manifest HD-subjects for a cluster including mainly parts of the left premotor area. Secondary testing indicated a significant moderator effect for task complexity on group differences and on the degree of correlation to measures of HD stage. Our data suggest that impaired premotor-MPFC coupling reflects HD stage related dysfunction of cognitive systems involved in executive function and may be present in prodromal HD-subjects that are still cognitively normal. Additional longitudinal studies may reveal temporal relationships between impaired task-related premotor-MPFC coupling and other brain changes in HD. PMID:23906595

Unschuld, Paul G; Liu, Xinyang; Shanahan, Megan; Margolis, Russell L; Bassett, Susan S; Brandt, Jason; Schretlen, David J; Redgrave, Graham W; Hua, Jun; Hock, Christoph; Reading, Sarah A; van Zijl, Peter C M; Pekar, James J; Ross, Christopher A

2013-01-01

200

Genetic Regulation of Caenorhabditis elegans Lysosome Related Organelle Function  

PubMed Central

Lysosomes are membrane-bound organelles that contain acid hydrolases that degrade cellular proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and oligosaccharides, and are important for cellular maintenance and protection against age-related decline. Lysosome related organelles (LROs) are specialized lysosomes found in organisms from humans to worms, and share many of the features of classic lysosomes. Defective LROs are associated with human immune disorders and neurological disease. Caenorhabditis elegans LROs are the site of concentration of vital dyes such as Nile red as well as age-associated autofluorescence. Even though certain short-lived mutants have high LRO Nile red and high autofluorescence, and other long-lived mutants have low LRO Nile red and low autofluorescence, these two biologies are distinct. We identified a genetic pathway that modulates aging-related LRO phenotypes via serotonin signaling and the gene kat-1, which encodes a mitochondrial ketothiolase. Regulation of LRO phenotypes by serotonin and kat-1 in turn depend on the proton-coupled, transmembrane transporter SKAT-1. skat-1 loss of function mutations strongly suppress the high LRO Nile red accumulation phenotype of kat-1 mutation. Using a systems approach, we further analyzed the role of 571 genes in LRO biology. These results highlight a gene network that modulates LRO biology in a manner dependent upon the conserved protein kinase TOR complex 2. The results implicate new genetic pathways involved in LRO biology, aging related physiology, and potentially human diseases of the LRO. PMID:24204312

Soukas, Alexander A.; Carr, Christopher E.; Ruvkun, Gary

2013-01-01

201

A metabolic gene cluster in Lotus japonicus discloses novel enzyme functions and products in triterpene biosynthesis.  

PubMed

Genes for triterpene biosynthetic pathways exist as metabolic gene clusters in oat and Arabidopsis thaliana plants. We characterized the presence of an analogous gene cluster in the model legume Lotus japonicus. In the genomic regions flanking the oxidosqualene cyclase AMY2 gene, genes for two different classes of cytochrome P450 and a gene predicted to encode a reductase were identified. Functional characterization of the cluster genes was pursued by heterologous expression in Nicotiana benthamiana. The gene expression pattern was studied under different developmental and environmental conditions. The physiological role of the gene cluster in nodulation and plant development was studied in knockdown experiments. A novel triterpene structure, dihydrolupeol, was produced by AMY2. A new plant cytochrome P450, CYP71D353, which catalyses the formation of 20-hydroxybetulinic acid in a sequential three-step oxidation of 20-hydroxylupeol was characterized. The genes within the cluster are highly co-expressed during root and nodule development, in hormone-treated plants and under various environmental stresses. A transcriptional gene silencing mechanism that appears to be involved in the regulation of the cluster genes was also revealed. A tightly co-regulated cluster of functionally related genes is involved in legume triterpene biosynthesis, with a possible role in plant development. PMID:23909862

Krokida, Afrodite; Delis, Costas; Geisler, Katrin; Garagounis, Constantine; Tsikou, Daniela; Peña-Rodríguez, Luis M; Katsarou, Dimitra; Field, Ben; Osbourn, Anne E; Papadopoulou, Kalliope K

2013-11-01

202

Predicting function: from genes to genomes and back1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predicting function from sequence using computational tools is a highly complicated procedure that is generally done for each gene individually. This review focuses on the added value that is provided by completely sequenced genomes in function prediction. Various levels of sequence annotation and function prediction are discussed, ranging from genomic sequence to that of complex cellular processes. Protein function is

Peer Bork; Thomas Dandekar; Yolande Diaz-Lazcoz; Frank Eisenhaber; Martijn Huynen; Yanping Yuan

1998-01-01

203

DNA methylome and transcriptome sequencing in human ovarian granulosa cells links age-related changes in gene expression to gene body methylation and 3'-end GC density.  

PubMed

Diminished ovarian function occurs early and is a primary cause for age-related decline in female fertility; however, its underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study investigated the roles that genome and epigenome structure play in age-related changes in gene expression and ovarian function, using human ovarian granulosa cells as an experimental system. DNA methylomes were compared between two groups of women with distinct age-related differences in ovarian functions, using both Methylated DNA Capture followed by Next Generation Sequencing (MethylCap-seq) and Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing (RRBS); their transcriptomes were investigated using mRNA-seq. Significant, non-random changes in transcriptome and DNA methylome features are observed in human ovarian granulosa cells as women age and their ovarian functions deteriorate. The strongest correlations between methylation and the age-related changes in gene expression are not confined to the promoter region; rather, high densities of hypomethylated CpG-rich regions spanning the gene body are preferentially associated with gene down-regulation. This association is further enhanced where CpG regions are localized near the 3'-end of the gene. Such features characterize several genes crucial in age-related decline in ovarian function, most notably the AMH (Anti-Müllerian Hormone) gene. The genome-wide correlation between the density of hypomethylated intragenic and 3'-end regions and gene expression suggests previously unexplored mechanisms linking epigenome structure to age-related physiology and pathology. PMID:25682867

Yu, Bo; Russanova, Valya R; Gravina, Silvia; Hartley, Stephen; Mullikin, James C; Ignezweski, Alice; Graham, James; Segars, James H; DeCherney, Alan H; Howard, Bruce H

2015-02-28

204

ORIGINAL ARTICLE William's syndrome: gene expression is related to  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE William's syndrome: gene expression is related to parental origin and regional, Ursula Bellugi5 and Julie R Korenberg1,6 William's syndrome (WS) features a spectrum of neurocognitive.5 Keywords: William's syndrome; gene expression; RT-PCR; parental origin; GTF2I INTRODUCTION William

205

Characterization of the Murine VEGF-Related Factor Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe here the molecular cloning and characterization of the murine homolog of the human vascular endothelial growth factor-related factor (VRF) gene. cDNAs for two alternatively spliced forms of the murine vrf gene have been isolated, the putative translation products of which differ at their carboxyl termini due to a shift in reading frame caused by insertion, or lack thereof,

Steven Townson; Jacob Lagercrantz; Sean Grimmond; Ginters Silins; Magnus Nordenskjöld; Günther Weber; Nicholas Hayward

1996-01-01

206

Functional analysis of mouse Polycomb group genes.  

PubMed

Two groups of genes, the Polycomb group (Pc-G) and trithorax group (trx-G), have been identified in Drosophila to provide a transcriptional memory mechanism. They ensure the maintenance of transcription patterns of key regulators such as the Hox genes and thereby the correct execution of developmental programmes. Recent data suggest that this memory mechanism is conserved in vertebrates and plants. Here we discuss current insights into the role of mouse Pc-G genes, with a particular focus on the best-studied Bmi1, Mel18 and M33 genes, as representative examples. Common phenotypes observed in knockout mice mutant for each of these genes indicate an important role for Pc-G genes not only in regulation of Hox gene expression and axial skeleton development but also in control of proliferation and survival of haematopoietic cell lineages. Proliferation defects are also observed in other cell lineages derived from these null-mutant mice, and provide new tools to study the impact of Pc-G deregulation on cell cycle control. PMID:9487388

van Lohuizen, M

1998-01-01

207

The Complete Spectrum of Yeast Chromosome Instability Genes Identifies Candidate CIN Cancer Genes and Functional Roles for ASTRA Complex Components  

PubMed Central

Chromosome instability (CIN) is observed in most solid tumors and is linked to somatic mutations in genome integrity maintenance genes. The spectrum of mutations that cause CIN is only partly known and it is not possible to predict a priori all pathways whose disruption might lead to CIN. To address this issue, we generated a catalogue of CIN genes and pathways by screening ?2,000 reduction-of-function alleles for 90% of essential genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Integrating this with published CIN phenotypes for other yeast genes generated a systematic CIN gene dataset comprised of 692 genes. Enriched gene ontology terms defined cellular CIN pathways that, together with sequence orthologs, created a list of human CIN candidate genes, which we cross-referenced to published somatic mutation databases revealing hundreds of mutated CIN candidate genes. Characterization of some poorly characterized CIN genes revealed short telomeres in mutants of the ASTRA/TTT components TTI1 and ASA1. High-throughput phenotypic profiling links ASA1 to TTT (Tel2-Tti1-Tti2) complex function and to TORC1 signaling via Tor1p stability, consistent with the role of TTT in PI3-kinase related kinase biogenesis. The comprehensive CIN gene list presented here in principle comprises all conserved eukaryotic genome integrity pathways. Deriving human CIN candidate genes from the list allows direct cross-referencing with tumor mutational data and thus candidate mutations potentially driving CIN in tumors. Overall, the CIN gene spectrum reveals new chromosome biology and will help us to understand CIN phenotypes in human disease. PMID:21552543

Stirling, Peter C.; Bloom, Michelle S.; Solanki-Patil, Tejomayee; Smith, Stephanie; Sipahimalani, Payal; Li, Zhijian; Kofoed, Megan; Ben-Aroya, Shay; Myung, Kyungjae; Hieter, Philip

2011-01-01

208

RNA interference can be used to disrupt gene function in tardigrades  

PubMed Central

How morphological diversity arises is a key question in evolutionary developmental biology. As a long-term approach to address this question, we are developing the water bear Hypsibius dujardini (Phylum Tardigrada) as a model system. We expect that using a close relative of two well-studied models, Drosophila (Phylum Arthropoda) and Caenorhabditis elegans (Phylum Nematoda), will facilitate identifying genetic pathways relevant to understanding the evolution of development. Tardigrades are also valuable research subjects for investigating how organisms and biological materials can survive extreme conditions. Methods to disrupt gene activity are essential to each of these efforts, but no such method yet exists for the Phylum Tardigrada. We developed a protocol to disrupt tardigrade gene functions by double-stranded RNA-mediated RNA interference (RNAi). We show that targeting tardigrade homologs of essential developmental genes by RNAi produced embryonic lethality, whereas targeting green fluorescent protein did not. Disruption of gene functions appears to be relatively specific by two criteria: targeting distinct genes resulted in distinct phenotypes that were consistent with predicted gene functions, and by RT-PCR, RNAi reduced the level of a target mRNA and not a control mRNA. These studies represent the first evidence that gene functions can be disrupted by RNAi in the phylum Tardigrada. Our results form a platform for dissecting tardigrade gene functions for understanding the evolution of developmental mechanisms and survival in extreme environments. PMID:23187800

Tenlen, Jennifer R.; McCaskill, Shaina; Goldstein, Bob

2012-01-01

209

RNA interference can be used to disrupt gene function in tardigrades.  

PubMed

How morphological diversity arises is a key question in evolutionary developmental biology. As a long-term approach to address this question, we are developing the water bear Hypsibius dujardini (Phylum Tardigrada) as a model system. We expect that using a close relative of two well-studied models, Drosophila (Phylum Arthropoda) and Caenorhabditis elegans (Phylum Nematoda), will facilitate identifying genetic pathways relevant to understanding the evolution of development. Tardigrades are also valuable research subjects for investigating how organisms and biological materials can survive extreme conditions. Methods to disrupt gene activity are essential to each of these efforts, but no such method yet exists for the Phylum Tardigrada. We developed a protocol to disrupt tardigrade gene functions by double-stranded RNA-mediated RNA interference (RNAi). We showed that targeting tardigrade homologs of essential developmental genes by RNAi produced embryonic lethality, whereas targeting green fluorescent protein did not. Disruption of gene functions appears to be relatively specific by two criteria: targeting distinct genes resulted in distinct phenotypes that were consistent with predicted gene functions and by RT-PCR, RNAi reduced the level of a target mRNA and not a control mRNA. These studies represent the first evidence that gene functions can be disrupted by RNAi in the phylum Tardigrada. Our results form a platform for dissecting tardigrade gene functions for understanding the evolution of developmental mechanisms and survival in extreme environments. PMID:23187800

Tenlen, Jennifer R; McCaskill, Shaina; Goldstein, Bob

2013-05-01

210

Information-based methods for predicting gene function from systematic gene knock-downs  

PubMed Central

Background The rapid annotation of genes on a genome-wide scale is now possible for several organisms using high-throughput RNA interference assays to knock down the expression of a specific gene. To date, dozens of RNA interference phenotypes have been recorded for the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Although previous studies have demonstrated the merit of using knock-down phenotypes to predict gene function, it is unclear how the data can be used most effectively. An open question is how to optimally make use of phenotypic observations, possibly in combination with other functional genomics datasets, to identify genes that share a common role. Results We compared several methods for detecting gene-gene functional similarity from phenotypic knock-down profiles. We found that information-based measures, which explicitly incorporate a phenotype's genomic frequency when calculating gene-gene similarity, outperform non-information-based methods. We report the presence of newly predicted modules identified from an integrated functional network containing phenotypic congruency links derived from an information-based measure. One such module is a set of genes predicted to play a role in regulating body morphology based on their multiply-supported interactions with members of the TGF-? signaling pathway. Conclusion Information-based metrics significantly improve the comparison of phenotypic knock-down profiles, based upon their ability to enhance gene function prediction and identify novel functional modules. PMID:18959798

Weirauch, Matthew T; Wong, Christopher K; Byrne, Alexandra B; Stuart, Joshua M

2008-01-01

211

Baxter Q- operator and functional relations  

E-print Network

We obtain the Baxter Q-operators in the $U_q(\\hat{sl}_2)$ invariant integrable models as a special limits of the quantum transfer matrices corresponding to different spins in the auxiliary space both from the functional relations and from the explicit calculations. We derive the Baxter equation from the well known fusion relations for the transfer matrices. Our method is valid for an arbitrary integrable model corresponding to the quantum group $U_q(\\hat{sl}_2)$ for example for the XXZ- spin chain.

A. A. Ovchinnikov

2015-01-19

212

Analysis of the [lambda] S? gene function by mutational suppressors  

E-print Network

are tolerant to colicin K. Another gene, the rex gene is responsible for the exclusion of phage T4rII (figure 1A) . This activity is not seen in a tolB background. Lysis in a tolB lysogen can occur in the absence of a functional S gene. Presumably...ANALYSIS OF THE 1 S GENE FUNCTION BY MUTATIONAL SUPPRESSORS A Thesis by CHARLES DAVID SOHASKEY Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE...

Sohaskey, Charles David

1992-01-01

213

Role of G-protein-coupled receptor-related genes in insecticide resistance of the mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus.  

PubMed

G-protein-coupled receptors regulate signal transduction pathways and play diverse and pivotal roles in the physiology of insects, however, the precise function of GPCRs in insecticide resistance remains unclear. Using quantitative RT-PCR and functional genomic methods, we, for the first time, explored the function of GPCRs and GPCR-related genes in insecticide resistance of mosquitoes, Culex quinquefasciatus. A comparison of the expression of 115 GPCR-related genes at a whole genome level between resistant and susceptible Culex mosquitoes identified one and three GPCR-related genes that were up-regulated in highly resistant Culex mosquito strains, HAmCq(G8) and MAmCq(G6), respectively. To characterize the function of these up-regulated GPCR-related genes in resistance, the up-regulated GPCR-related genes were knockdown in HAmCq(G8) and MAmCq(G6) using RNAi technique. Knockdown of these four GPCR-related genes not only decreased resistance of the mosquitoes to permethrin but also repressed the expression of four insecticide resistance-related P450 genes, suggesting the role of GPCR-related genes in resistance is involved in the regulation of resistance P450 gene expression. This results help in understanding of molecular regulation of resistance development in Cx. quinquefasciatus. PMID:25262705

Li, Ting; Liu, Lena; Zhang, Lee; Liu, Nannan

2014-01-01

214

Role of G-protein-coupled Receptor-related Genes in Insecticide Resistance of the Mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus  

PubMed Central

G-protein-coupled receptors regulate signal transduction pathways and play diverse and pivotal roles in the physiology of insects, however, the precise function of GPCRs in insecticide resistance remains unclear. Using quantitative RT-PCR and functional genomic methods, we, for the first time, explored the function of GPCRs and GPCR-related genes in insecticide resistance of mosquitoes, Culex quinquefasciatus. A comparison of the expression of 115 GPCR-related genes at a whole genome level between resistant and susceptible Culex mosquitoes identified one and three GPCR-related genes that were up-regulated in highly resistant Culex mosquito strains, HAmCqG8 and MAmCqG6, respectively. To characterize the function of these up-regulated GPCR-related genes in resistance, the up-regulated GPCR-related genes were knockdown in HAmCqG8 and MAmCqG6 using RNAi technique. Knockdown of these four GPCR-related genes not only decreased resistance of the mosquitoes to permethrin but also repressed the expression of four insecticide resistance-related P450 genes, suggesting the role of GPCR-related genes in resistance is involved in the regulation of resistance P450 gene expression. This results help in understanding of molecular regulation of resistance development in Cx. quinquefasciatus. PMID:25262705

Li, Ting; Liu, Lena; Zhang, Lee; Liu, Nannan

2014-01-01

215

A yeast functional screen predicts new candidate ALS disease genes  

PubMed Central

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating and universally fatal neurodegenerative disease. Mutations in two related RNA-binding proteins, TDP-43 and FUS, that harbor prion-like domains, cause some forms of ALS. There are at least 213 human proteins harboring RNA recognition motifs, including FUS and TDP-43, raising the possibility that additional RNA-binding proteins might contribute to ALS pathogenesis. We performed a systematic survey of these proteins to find additional candidates similar to TDP-43 and FUS, followed by bioinformatics to predict prion-like domains in a subset of them. We sequenced one of these genes, TAF15, in patients with ALS and identified missense variants, which were absent in a large number of healthy controls. These disease-associated variants of TAF15 caused formation of cytoplasmic foci when expressed in primary cultures of spinal cord neurons. Very similar to TDP-43 and FUS, TAF15 aggregated in vitro and conferred neurodegeneration in Drosophila, with the ALS-linked variants having a more severe effect than wild type. Immunohistochemistry of postmortem spinal cord tissue revealed mislocalization of TAF15 in motor neurons of patients with ALS. We propose that aggregation-prone RNA-binding proteins might contribute very broadly to ALS pathogenesis and the genes identified in our yeast functional screen, coupled with prion-like domain prediction analysis, now provide a powerful resource to facilitate ALS disease gene discovery. PMID:22065782

Couthouis, Julien; Hart, Michael P.; Shorter, James; DeJesus-Hernandez, Mariely; Erion, Renske; Oristano, Rachel; Liu, Annie X.; Ramos, Daniel; Jethava, Niti; Hosangadi, Divya; Epstein, James; Chiang, Ashley; Diaz, Zamia; Nakaya, Tadashi; Ibrahim, Fadia; Kim, Hyung-Jun; Solski, Jennifer A.; Williams, Kelly L.; Mojsilovic-Petrovic, Jelena; Ingre, Caroline; Boylan, Kevin; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Dickson, Dennis W.; Clay-Falcone, Dana; Elman, Lauren; McCluskey, Leo; Greene, Robert; Kalb, Robert G.; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Ludolph, Albert; Robberecht, Wim; Andersen, Peter M.; Nicholson, Garth A.; Blair, Ian P.; King, Oliver D.; Bonini, Nancy M.; Van Deerlin, Vivianna; Rademakers, Rosa; Mourelatos, Zissimos; Gitler, Aaron D.

2011-01-01

216

Saliva Microbiota Carry Caries-Specific Functional Gene Signatures  

PubMed Central

Human saliva microbiota is phylogenetically divergent among host individuals yet their roles in health and disease are poorly appreciated. We employed a microbial functional gene microarray, HuMiChip 1.0, to reconstruct the global functional profiles of human saliva microbiota from ten healthy and ten caries-active adults. Saliva microbiota in the pilot population featured a vast diversity of functional genes. No significant distinction in gene number or diversity indices was observed between healthy and caries-active microbiota. However, co-presence network analysis of functional genes revealed that caries-active microbiota was more divergent in non-core genes than healthy microbiota, despite both groups exhibited a similar degree of conservation at their respective core genes. Furthermore, functional gene structure of saliva microbiota could potentially distinguish caries-active patients from healthy hosts. Microbial functions such as Diaminopimelate epimerase, Prephenate dehydrogenase, Pyruvate-formate lyase and N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase were significantly linked to caries. Therefore, saliva microbiota carried disease-associated functional signatures, which could be potentially exploited for caries diagnosis. PMID:24533043

Chang, Xingzhi; Yuan, Xiao; Tu, Qichao; Yuan, Tong; Deng, Ye; Hemme, Christopher L.; Van Nostrand, Joy; Cui, Xinping; He, Zhili; Chen, Zhenggang; Guo, Dawei; Yu, Jiangbo; Zhang, Yue; Zhou, Jizhong; Xu, Jian

2014-01-01

217

Isolation and characterization of human calcitonin gene-related peptide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rat calcitonin gene has recently been shown to encode a novel peptide (rat calcitonin gene-related peptide, rCGRP) thought to be produced in nervous tissue after tissue-specific RNA processing1,2. This peptide has so far been identified only in rat tissue, by immunocytochemistry and immunoassay. We now report the isolation of a related (89% homology) peptide from human tissue (hCGRP) which

Howard R. Morris; Maria Panico; Tony Etienne; John Tippins; Samia I. Girgis; Iain MacIntyre

1984-01-01

218

Sexual Dimorphism in the Expression of Mitochondria-Related Genes in Rat Heart at Different Ages  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Moreover, sex and age are considered major risk factors in the development of CVDs. Mitochondria are vital for normal cardiac function, and regulation of mitochondrial structure and function may impact susceptibility to CVD. To identify potential role of mitochondria in sex-related differences in susceptibility to CVD, we analyzed the basal expression levels of mitochondria-related genes in the hearts of male and female rats. Whole genome expression profiling was performed in the hearts of young (8-week), adult (21-week), and old (78-week) male and female Fischer 344 rats and the expression of 670 unique genes related to various mitochondrial functions was analyzed. A significant (p<0.05) sexual dimorphism in expression levels of 46, 114, and 41 genes was observed in young, adult and old rats, respectively. Gene Ontology analysis revealed the influence of sex on various biological pathways related to cardiac energy metabolism at different ages. The expression of genes involved in fatty acid metabolism was significantly different between the sexes in young and adult rat hearts. Adult male rats also showed higher expression of genes associated with the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex compared to females. In young and adult hearts, sexual dimorphism was not noted in genes encoding oxidative phosphorylation. In old rats, however, a majority of genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation had higher expression in females compared to males. Such basal differences between the sexes in cardiac expression of genes associated with energy metabolism may indicate a likely involvement of mitochondria in susceptibility to CVDs. In addition, female rats showed lower expression levels of apoptotic genes in hearts compared to males at all ages, which may have implications for better preservation of cardiac mass in females than in males. PMID:25615628

Vijay, Vikrant; Han, Tao; Moland, Carrie L.; Kwekel, Joshua C.; Fuscoe, James C.; Desai, Varsha G.

2015-01-01

219

Implications of functional similarity for gene regulatory interactions  

PubMed Central

If one gene regulates another, those two genes are likely to be involved in many of the same biological functions. Conversely, shared biological function may be suggestive of the existence and nature of a regulatory interaction. With this in mind, we develop a measure of functional similarity between genes based on annotations made to the Gene Ontology in which the magnitude of their functional relationship is also indicative of a regulatory relationship. In contrast to other measures that have previously been used to quantify the functional similarity between genes, our measure scales the strength of any shared functional annotation by the frequency of that function's appearance across the entire set of annotations. We apply our method to both Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene annotations and find that the strength of our scaled similarity measure is more predictive of known regulatory interactions than previously published measures of functional similarity. In addition, we observe that the strength of the scaled similarity measure is correlated with the structural importance of links in the known regulatory network. By contrast, other measures of functional similarity are not indicative of any structural importance in the regulatory network. We therefore conclude that adequately adjusting for the frequency of shared biological functions is important in the construction of a functional similarity measure aimed at elucidating the existence and nature of regulatory interactions. We also compare the performance of the scaled similarity with a high-throughput method for determining regulatory interactions from gene expression data and observe that the ontology-based approach identifies a different subset of regulatory interactions compared with the gene expression approach. We show that combining predictions from the scaled similarity with those from the reconstruction algorithm leads to a significant improvement in the accuracy of the reconstructed network. PMID:22298814

Glass, Kimberly; Ott, Edward; Losert, Wolfgang; Girvan, Michelle

2012-01-01

220

Distant positioning of proteasomal proteolysis relative to actively transcribed genes  

PubMed Central

While it is widely acknowledged that the ubiquitin–proteasome system plays an important role in transcription, little is known concerning the mechanistic basis, in particular the spatial organization of proteasome-dependent proteolysis at the transcription site. Here, we show that proteasomal activity and tetraubiquitinated proteins concentrate to nucleoplasmic microenvironments in the euchromatin. Such proteolytic domains are immobile and distinctly positioned in relation to transcriptional processes. Analysis of gene arrays and early genes in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos reveals that proteasomes and proteasomal activity are distantly located relative to transcriptionally active genes. In contrast, transcriptional inhibition generally induces local overlap of proteolytic microdomains with components of the transcription machinery and degradation of RNA polymerase II. The results establish that spatial organization of proteasomal activity differs with respect to distinct phases of the transcription cycle in at least some genes, and thus might contribute to the plasticity of gene expression in response to environmental stimuli. PMID:21306993

Scharf, Andrea; Grozdanov, Petar N.; Veith, Roman; Kubitscheck, Ulrich; Meier, U. Thomas; von Mikecz, Anna

2011-01-01

221

Origin and evolution of genes related to ABA metabolism and its signaling pathways.  

PubMed

Since plants cannot move to avoid stress, they have sophisticated acclimation mechanisms against a variety of abiotic stresses. The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays essential roles in abiotic stress tolerances in land plants. Therefore, it is interesting to address the evolutionary origins of ABA metabolism and its signaling pathways in land plants. Here, we focused on 48 ABA-related Arabidopsis thaliana genes with 11 protein functions, and generated 11 orthologous clusters of ABA-related genes from A. thaliana, Arabidopsis lyrata, Populus trichocarpa, Oryza sativa, Selaginella moellendorffii, and Physcomitrella patens. Phylogenetic analyses suggested that the common ancestor of these six species possessed most of the key protein functions of ABA-related genes. In two species (A. thaliana and O. sativa), duplicate genes related to ABA signaling pathways contribute to the expression variation in different organs or stress responses. In particular, there is significant expansion of gene families related to ABA in evolutionary periods associated with morphological divergence. Taken together, these results suggest that expansion of the gene families related to ABA signaling pathways may have contributed to the sophisticated stress tolerance mechanisms of higher land plants. PMID:21626211

Hanada, Kousuke; Hase, Takeshi; Toyoda, Tetsuro; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Okamoto, Masanori

2011-07-01

222

Phase analysis of circadian-related genes in two tissues  

PubMed Central

Background Recent circadian clock studies using gene expression microarray in two different tissues of mouse have revealed not all circadian-related genes are synchronized in phase or peak expression times across tissues in vivo. Instead, some circadian-related genes may be delayed by 4–8 hrs in peak expression in one tissue relative to the other. These interesting biological observations prompt a statistical question regarding how to distinguish the synchronized genes from genes that are systematically lagged in phase/peak expression time across two tissues. Results We propose a set of techniques from circular statistics to analyze phase angles of circadian-related genes in two tissues. We first estimate the phases of a cycling gene separately in each tissue, which are then used to estimate the paired angular difference of the phase angles of the gene in the two tissues. These differences are modeled as a mixture of two von Mises distributions which enables us to cluster genes into two groups; one group having synchronized transcripts with the same phase in the two tissues, the other containing transcripts with a discrepancy in phase between the two tissues. For each cluster of genes we assess the association of phases across the tissue types using circular-circular regression. We also develop a bootstrap methodology based on a circular-circular regression model to evaluate the improvement in fit provided by allowing two components versus a one-component von-Mises model. Conclusion We applied our proposed methodologies to the circadian-related genes common to heart and liver tissues in Storch et al. [2], and found that an estimated 80% of circadian-related transcripts common to heart and liver tissues were synchronized in phase, and the other 20% of transcripts were lagged about 8 hours in liver relative to heart. The bootstrap p-value for being one cluster is 0.063, which suggests the possibility of two clusters. Our methodologies can be extended to analyze peak expression times of circadian-related genes across more than two tissues, for example, kidney, heart, liver, and the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus. PMID:16504088

Liu, Delong; Peddada, Shyamal D; Li, Leping; Weinberg, Clarice R

2006-01-01

223

Identification of developmental competence-related genes in mature porcine oocytes.  

PubMed

Oocyte competence is a key factor limiting female fertility, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms that contribute to oocyte competence remain unclear. The objective of this study was to elucidate specific genes whose function contributes to oocyte competence. We observed that 6 of 20 target genes examined were differentially expressed between adult (more competent) and prepubertal (less competent) porcine in vitro matured (IVM) oocytes. These genes were the cholesterol synthesis-related gene HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR), fatty acid oxidation genes acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 3 (ACSL3) and long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACADL), glycolytic genes fructose 1,6 bisphosphate aldolase (ALDOA) and lactate dehydrogenase C (LDHC), and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF). These 6 genes, as well as 3 other genes [porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV), transcribed loci 10 (TL10), serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 1 (SRSF1)], were further analyzed by comparing transcript abundance in IVM and in vivo matured (VVM) prepubertal and adult porcine oocytes. Among these 9 target genes, 5 were differentially expressed between IVM and VVM prepubertal oocytes, while 8 genes were differentially expressed between IVM and VVM adult oocytes. No genes were differentially expressed between VVM prepubertal and adult oocytes. A functional study of TNF demonstrated that depletion of endogenous TNF decreased oocyte competence and TNFAIP6 expression in cumulus cells, while TNF in IVM medium regulated TNFAIP6 expression in cumulus cells. Differential expression of the genes identified in this study suggests that these genes may be functionally relevant to oocyte competence. PMID:21774025

Yuan, Ye; Ida, Jennifer M; Paczkowski, Melissa; Krisher, Rebecca L

2011-08-01

224

ICan: An Integrated Co-Alteration Network to Identify Ovarian Cancer-Related Genes  

PubMed Central

Background Over the last decade, an increasing number of integrative studies on cancer-related genes have been published. Integrative analyses aim to overcome the limitation of a single data type, and provide a more complete view of carcinogenesis. The vast majority of these studies used sample-matched data of gene expression and copy number to investigate the impact of copy number alteration on gene expression, and to predict and prioritize candidate oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. However, correlations between genes were neglected in these studies. Our work aimed to evaluate the co-alteration of copy number, methylation and expression, allowing us to identify cancer-related genes and essential functional modules in cancer. Results We built the Integrated Co-alteration network (ICan) based on multi-omics data, and analyzed the network to uncover cancer-related genes. After comparison with random networks, we identified 155 ovarian cancer-related genes, including well-known (TP53, BRCA1, RB1 and PTEN) and also novel cancer-related genes, such as PDPN and EphA2. We compared the results with a conventional method: CNAmet, and obtained a significantly better area under the curve value (ICan: 0.8179, CNAmet: 0.5183). Conclusion In this paper, we describe a framework to find cancer-related genes based on an Integrated Co-alteration network. Our results proved that ICan could precisely identify candidate cancer genes and provide increased mechanistic understanding of carcinogenesis. This work suggested a new research direction for biological network analyses involving multi-omics data. PMID:25803614

Zhou, Yuanshuai; Liu, Yongjing; Li, Kening; Zhang, Rui; Qiu, Fujun; Zhao, Ning; Xu, Yan

2015-01-01

225

Functional Identification of the Proteus mirabilis Core Lipopolysaccharide Biosynthesis Genes?  

PubMed Central

In this study, we report the identification of genes required for the biosynthesis of the core lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) of two strains of Proteus mirabilis. Since P. mirabilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae share a core LPS carbohydrate backbone extending up to the second outer-core residue, the functions of the common P. mirabilis genes was elucidated by genetic complementation studies using well-defined mutants of K. pneumoniae. The functions of strain-specific outer-core genes were identified by using as surrogate acceptors LPSs from two well-defined K. pneumoniae core LPS mutants. This approach allowed the identification of two new heptosyltransferases (WamA and WamC), a galactosyltransferase (WamB), and an N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (WamD). In both strains, most of these genes were found in the so-called waa gene cluster, although one common core biosynthetic gene (wabO) was found outside this cluster. PMID:20622068

Aquilini, Eleonora; Azevedo, Joana; Jimenez, Natalia; Bouamama, Lamiaa; Tomás, Juan M.; Regué, Miguel

2010-01-01

226

Combining classifiers to predict gene function in Arabidopsis thaliana using large-scale gene expression measurements  

PubMed Central

Background Arabidopsis thaliana is the model species of current plant genomic research with a genome size of 125 Mb and approximately 28,000 genes. The function of half of these genes is currently unknown. The purpose of this study is to infer gene function in Arabidopsis using machine-learning algorithms applied to large-scale gene expression data sets, with the goal of identifying genes that are potentially involved in plant response to abiotic stress. Results Using in house and publicly available data, we assembled a large set of gene expression measurements for A. thaliana. Using those genes of known function, we first evaluated and compared the ability of basic machine-learning algorithms to predict which genes respond to stress. Predictive accuracy was measured using ROC50 and precision curves derived through cross validation. To improve accuracy, we developed a method for combining these classifiers using a weighted-voting scheme. The combined classifier was then trained on genes of known function and applied to genes of unknown function, identifying genes that potentially respond to stress. Visual evidence corroborating the predictions was obtained using electronic Northern analysis. Three of the predicted genes were chosen for biological validation. Gene knockout experiments confirmed that all three are involved in a variety of stress responses. The biological analysis of one of these genes (At1g16850) is presented here, where it is shown to be necessary for the normal response to temperature and NaCl. Conclusion Supervised learning methods applied to large-scale gene expression measurements can be used to predict gene function. However, the ability of basic learning methods to predict stress response varies widely and depends heavily on how much dimensionality reduction is used. Our method of combining classifiers can improve the accuracy of such predictions – in this case, predictions of genes involved in stress response in plants – and it effectively chooses the appropriate amount of dimensionality reduction automatically. The method provides a useful means of identifying genes in A. thaliana that potentially respond to stress, and we expect it would be useful in other organisms and for other gene functions. PMID:17888165

Lan, Hui; Carson, Rachel; Provart, Nicholas J; Bonner, Anthony J

2007-01-01

227

Interspecies Comparison of a Gene Pair with Partially Redundant Function: The rst and kirre Genes in D. virilis and D. melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Abstract\\u000a \\u000a The D. melanogaster rst and kirre genes encode two highly related immunoglobulin-like cell adhesion molecules that function redundantly during embryonic muscle\\u000a development. The two genes appear to be derived from a common ancestor by gene duplication. Gene duplications have been proposed\\u000a to be of major evolutionary significance since duplicated redundant sequences can accumulate mutations without detrimental\\u000a effects for the

Martin Strünkelnberg; H. Gert de Couet; Alexander H. Hertenstein; Karl-Friedrich H. Fischbach

2003-01-01

228

Different Genes Interact with Particulate Matter and Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Affecting Lung Function Decline in the General Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundOxidative stress related genes modify the effects of ambient air pollution or tobacco smoking on lung function decline. The impact of interactions might be substantial, but previous studies mostly focused on main effects of single genes.ObjectivesWe studied the interaction of both exposures with a broad set of oxidative-stress related candidate genes and pathways on lung function decline and contrasted interactions

Ivan Curjuric; Medea Imboden; Rachel Nadif; Ashish Kumar; Christian Schindler; Margot Haun; Florian Kronenberg; Nino Künzli; Harish Phuleria; Dirkje S. Postma; Erich W. Russi; Thierry Rochat; Florence Demenais; Nicole M. Probst-Hensch

2012-01-01

229

Functionally Enigmatic Genes: A Case Study of the Brain Ignorome  

PubMed Central

What proportion of genes with intense and selective expression in specific tissues, cells, or systems are still almost completely uncharacterized with respect to biological function? In what ways do these functionally enigmatic genes differ from well-studied genes? To address these two questions, we devised a computational approach that defines so-called ignoromes. As proof of principle, we extracted and analyzed a large subset of genes with intense and selective expression in brain. We find that publications associated with this set are highly skewed—the top 5% of genes absorb 70% of the relevant literature. In contrast, approximately 20% of genes have essentially no neuroscience literature. Analysis of the ignorome over the past decade demonstrates that it is stubbornly persistent, and the rapid expansion of the neuroscience literature has not had the expected effect on numbers of these genes. Surprisingly, ignorome genes do not differ from well-studied genes in terms of connectivity in coexpression networks. Nor do they differ with respect to numbers of orthologs, paralogs, or protein domains. The major distinguishing characteristic between these sets of genes is date of discovery, early discovery being associated with greater research momentum—a genomic bandwagon effect. Finally we ask to what extent massive genomic, imaging, and phenotype data sets can be used to provide high-throughput functional annotation for an entire ignorome. In a majority of cases we have been able to extract and add significant information for these neglected genes. In several cases—ELMOD1, TMEM88B, and DZANK1—we have exploited sequence polymorphisms, large phenome data sets, and reverse genetic methods to evaluate the function of ignorome genes. PMID:24523945

Pandey, Ashutosh K.; Lu, Lu; Wang, Xusheng; Homayouni, Ramin; Williams, Robert W.

2014-01-01

230

Gene functional classification from heterogeneous data Paul Pavlidis  

E-print Network

functional classifications from a heterogeneous data set consisting of DNA microarray expression measurements of this machinery. A complementary view is provided by data from DNA microarray hybridization experiments is the result of a functional link. Gene function can also be inferred from DNA microarray expression data

Noble, William Stafford

231

An improved chemically inducible gene switch that functions in the monocotyledonous plant sugar cane.  

PubMed

Chemically inducible gene switches can provide precise control over gene expression, enabling more specific analyses of gene function and expanding the plant biotechnology toolkit beyond traditional constitutive expression systems. The alc gene expression system is one of the most promising chemically inducible gene switches in plants because of its potential in both fundamental research and commercial biotechnology applications. However, there are no published reports demonstrating that this versatile gene switch is functional in transgenic monocotyledonous plants, which include some of the most important agricultural crops. We found that the original alc gene switch was ineffective in the monocotyledonous plant sugar cane, and describe a modified alc system that is functional in this globally significant crop. A promoter consisting of tandem copies of the ethanol receptor inverted repeat binding site, in combination with a minimal promoter sequence, was sufficient to give enhanced sensitivity and significantly higher levels of ethanol inducible gene expression. A longer CaMV 35S minimal promoter than was used in the original alc gene switch also substantially improved ethanol inducibility. Treating the roots with ethanol effectively induced the modified alc system in sugar cane leaves and stem, while an aerial spray was relatively ineffective. The extension of this chemically inducible gene expression system to sugar cane opens the door to new opportunities for basic research and crop biotechnology. PMID:24142380

Kinkema, Mark; Geijskes, R Jason; Shand, Kylie; Coleman, Heather D; De Lucca, Paulo C; Palupe, Anthony; Harrison, Mark D; Jepson, Ian; Dale, James L; Sainz, Manuel B

2014-03-01

232

Predicting preferential DNA vector insertion sites: implications for functional genomics and gene therapy  

PubMed Central

Viral and transposon vectors have been employed in gene therapy as well as functional genomics studies. However, the goals of gene therapy and functional genomics are entirely different; gene therapists hope to avoid altering endogenous gene expression (especially the activation of oncogenes), whereas geneticists do want to alter expression of chromosomal genes. The odds of either outcome depend on a vector's preference to integrate into genes or control regions, and these preferences vary between vectors. Here we discuss the relative strengths of DNA vectors over viral vectors, and review methods to overcome barriers to delivery inherent to DNA vectors. We also review the tendencies of several classes of retroviral and transposon vectors to target DNA sequences, genes, and genetic elements with respect to the balance between insertion preferences and oncogenic selection. Theoretically, knowing the variables that affect integration for various vectors will allow researchers to choose the vector with the most utility for their specific purposes. The three principle benefits from elucidating factors that affect preferences in integration are as follows: in gene therapy, it allows assessment of the overall risks for activating an oncogene or inactivating a tumor suppressor gene that could lead to severe adverse effects years after treatment; in genomic studies, it allows one to discern random from selected integration events; and in gene therapy as well as functional genomics, it facilitates design of vectors that are better targeted to specific sequences, which would be a significant advance in the art of transgenesis. PMID:18047689

Hackett, Christopher S; Geurts, Aron M; Hackett, Perry B

2007-01-01

233

NEUROTRANSMITTER TRANSPORTERS: THREE IMPORTANT GENE FAMILIES FOR NEURONAL FUNCTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Three distinct gene families encode transporter proteins that aid in temporal and spatial buffering of neurotransmitter and neurotransmitter metabolite concentrations and allow neurons to cycle and recycle transmitter molecules. Analyses of these gene families and their products are likely to enhance understanding of the molecular neurobiology of neuronal function and may elucidate contributors to the genetic etiologies of neurological

GEORGE R. UHL; PETER S. JOHNSON

1994-01-01

234

Epigenetic Regulation of Neural Gene Expression and Neuronal Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development and function of the CNS requires accurate gene transcription control in response to proper environ- mental signals. Epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, and other chromatin-remodeling events, are critically important in mediating precise neural gene regulation. This review focuses on discussing the role of DNA methylation and histone modifications in neural lineage differentiation, synaptic plas- ticity and

JIAN FENG; SHAUN FOUSE; GUOPING FAN

2007-01-01

235

Exploration of Essential Gene Functions via Titratable Promoter Alleles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nearly 20% of yeast genes are required for viability, hindering genetic analysis with knockouts. We created promoter-shutoff strains for over two-thirds of all essential yeast genes and subjected them to morphological analysis, size profiling, drug sensitivity screening, and microarray expression profiling. We then used this compendium of data to ask which phenotypic features characterized different functional classes and used these

Sanie Mnaimneh; Armaity P Davierwala; Jennifer Haynes; Jason Moffat; Wen-Tao Peng; Wen Zhang; Xueqi Yang; Jeff Pootoolal; Gordon Chua; Andres Lopez; Miles Trochesset; Darcy Morse; Nevan J Krogan; Shawna L Hiley; Zhijian Li; Quaid Morris; Jörg Grigull; Nicholas Mitsakakis; Christopher J Roberts; Jack F Greenblatt; Charles Boone; Chris A Kaiser; Brenda J Andrews; Timothy R Hughes

2004-01-01

236

Relating Perturbation Magnitude to Temporal Gene Expression in Biological Systems  

SciTech Connect

A method to quantitatively relate stress to response at the level of gene expression is described using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism. Stress was defined as the magnitude of perturbation and strain was defined as the magnitude of cumulative response in terms of gene expression. Expression patterns of sixty genes previously reported to be significantly impacted by osmotic shock or belonging to the high-osmotic glycerol, glycerolipid metabolism, and glycolysis pathways were determined following perturbations of increasing sodium chloride concentrations (0, 0.5, 0.7, 1.0, 1.5, and 1.4 M). Expression of these genes was quantified temporally using reverse transcriptase real time polymerase chain reaction. The magnitude of cumulative response was obtained by calculating the total moment of area of the temporal response envelope for all the 60 genes, either together or for the set of genes related to each pathway. A non-linear relationship between stress and response was observed for the range of stress studied. This study examines a quantitative approach to quantify the strain at the level of gene expression to relate stress to strain in biological systems. The approach should be generally applicable to quantitatively evaluate the response of organisms to environmental change.

Callister, Stephen J.; Parnell, John J.; Pfrender, Michael E.; Hashsham, Syed

2009-03-19

237

Using Text Analysis to Identify Functionally Coherent Gene Groups  

E-print Network

based on their associated scientific literature. The method uses statistical natural language processing of genes shares a common biological function by automatic analysis of scientific text. It requires only

Batzoglou, Serafim

238

Functional independence of circadian clocks that regulate plant gene expression  

E-print Network

Functional independence of circadian clocks that regulate plant gene expression Simon C. Thain and behaviour of most eukaryotes, controlling an orderly succession of physiological processes in plants. Peripheral plant and animal tissues also maintain circadian rhythms when isolated in culture

Millar, Andrew J.

239

A functional genomics method for assaying gene function in phytopathogenic fungi through host-induced gene silencing mediated by agroinfiltration.  

PubMed

With the rapid growth of genomic information, there is an increasing demand for efficient analysis tools to study the function of predicted genes coded in genomes. Agroinfiltration, the delivery of gene constructs into plant cells by Agrobacterium tumefaciens infiltrated into leaves, is one such versatile, simple, and rapid technique that is increasingly used for transient gene expression assay in plants. In this chapter, we focus on the use of agroinfiltration as a functional genomics research tool in molecular plant pathology. Specifically, we describe in detail its use in expressing phytopathogenic fungal gene sequences in a host plant to induce RNA silencing of corresponding genes inside the pathogen, a method which has been termed host-induced gene silencing (HIGS). We target the fungal pathogen Puccinia triticina which causes leaf rust on its wheat host, but the method is applicable to a variety of pathosystems. PMID:25740365

Panwar, Vinay; McCallum, Brent; Bakkeren, Guus

2015-01-01

240

NHR-23 dependent collagen and hedgehog-related genes required for molting  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: {yields} NHR-23 is a critical regulator of nematode development and molting. {yields} The manuscript characterizes the loss-of-function phenotype of an nhr-23 mutant. {yields} Whole genome expression analysis identifies new potential targets of NHR-23. {yields} Hedgehog-related genes are identified as NHR-23 dependent genes. {yields} New link between sterol mediated signaling and regulation by NHR-23 is found. -- Abstract: NHR-23, a conserved member of the nuclear receptor family of transcription factors, is required for normal development in Caenorhabditis elegans where it plays a critical role in growth and molting. In a search for NHR-23 dependent genes, we performed whole genome comparative expression microarrays on both control and nhr-23 inhibited synchronized larvae. Genes that decreased in response to nhr-23 RNAi included several collagen genes. Unexpectedly, several hedgehog-related genes were also down-regulated after nhr-23 RNAi. A homozygous nhr-23 deletion allele was used to confirm the RNAi knockdown phenotypes and the changes in gene expression. Our results indicate that NHR-23 is a critical co-regulator of functionally linked genes involved in growth and molting and reveal evolutionary parallels among the ecdysozoa.

Kouns, Nathaniel A.; Nakielna, Johana; Behensky, Frantisek [Laboratory of Model Systems, Institute of Inherited Metabolic Disorders, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic)] [Laboratory of Model Systems, Institute of Inherited Metabolic Disorders, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic); Krause, Michael W. [Laboratory of Molecular Biology, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [Laboratory of Molecular Biology, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Kostrouch, Zdenek [Laboratory of Model Systems, Institute of Inherited Metabolic Disorders, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic)] [Laboratory of Model Systems, Institute of Inherited Metabolic Disorders, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic); Kostrouchova, Marta, E-mail: marta.kostrouchova@lf1.cuni.cz [Laboratory of Model Systems, Institute of Inherited Metabolic Disorders, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic)] [Laboratory of Model Systems, Institute of Inherited Metabolic Disorders, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic)

2011-10-07

241

Identification of developmental competence-related genes in mature porcine oocytes  

PubMed Central

Oocyte competence is a key factor limiting female fertility, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms that contribute to oocyte competence remain unclear. The objective of this study was to elucidate specific genes whose function contributes to oocyte competence. We observed that 6 of 20 target genes examined were differentially expressed between adult (more competent) and prepubertal (less competent) porcine in vitro matured (IVM) oocytes. These genes were the cholesterol synthesis related gene HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR), fatty acid oxidation genes acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 3 (ACSL3) and long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACADL), glycolytic genes fructose 1,6 bisphosphate aldolase (ALDOA) and lactate dehydrogenase C (LDHC), and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF). These 6 genes, as well as 3 other genes (porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV), transcribed loci 10 (TL10), serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 1 (SRSF1)), were further analyzed by comparing transcript abundance in IVM and in vivo matured (VVM) prepubertal and adult porcine oocytes. Among these 9 target genes, five were differentially expressed between IVM and VVM prepubertal oocytes, while eight genes were differentially expressed between IVM and VVM adult oocytes. None was differentially expressed between VVM prepubertal and adult oocytes. A functional study of TNF demonstrated that depletion of endogenous TNF decreased oocyte competence and TNFAIP6 expression in cumulus cells, while TNF in IVM medium regulated TNFAIP6 expression in cumulus cells. Differential expression of the genes identified in this study suggests that these genes may be functionally relevant to oocyte competence. PMID:21774025

Yuan, Ye; Ida, Jennifer M.; Paczkowski, Melissa; Krisher, Rebecca L.

2011-01-01

242

A functional recT gene for recombineering of Clostridium.  

PubMed

Recombineering is an efficient genetic manipulation method employing the mechanism of phagenic RecT-mediated homologous recombination. To develop a recombineering method for Clostridium, a putative recT gene (CPF0939) from Clostridium perfringens genome was functionally verified in a clostridial host Clostridium acetobutylicum. We show that a short synthetic oligonucleotide can be introduced into the target site for specific point mutation. This functional recT gene would therefore contribute to development of recombineering tools for Clostridium. PMID:24384234

Dong, Hongjun; Tao, Wenwen; Gong, Fuyu; Li, Yin; Zhang, Yanping

2014-03-10

243

Identification of Colorectal Cancer Related Genes with mRMR and Shortest Path in Protein-Protein Interaction Network  

PubMed Central

One of the most important and challenging problems in biomedicine and genomics is how to identify the disease genes. In this study, we developed a computational method to identify colorectal cancer-related genes based on (i) the gene expression profiles, and (ii) the shortest path analysis of functional protein association networks. The former has been used to select differentially expressed genes as disease genes for quite a long time, while the latter has been widely used to study the mechanism of diseases. With the existing protein-protein interaction data from STRING (Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes), a weighted functional protein association network was constructed. By means of the mRMR (Maximum Relevance Minimum Redundancy) approach, six genes were identified that can distinguish the colorectal tumors and normal adjacent colonic tissues from their gene expression profiles. Meanwhile, according to the shortest path approach, we further found an additional 35 genes, of which some have been reported to be relevant to colorectal cancer and some are very likely to be relevant to it. Interestingly, the genes we identified from both the gene expression profiles and the functional protein association network have more cancer genes than the genes identified from the gene expression profiles alone. Besides, these genes also had greater functional similarity with the reported colorectal cancer genes than the genes identified from the gene expression profiles alone. All these indicate that our method as presented in this paper is quite promising. The method may become a useful tool, or at least plays a complementary role to the existing method, for identifying colorectal cancer genes. It has not escaped our notice that the method can be applied to identify the genes of other diseases as well. PMID:22496748

Liu, Lei; Cai, Yu-Dong; Chou, Kuo-Chen

2012-01-01

244

Differential rescue of visceral and cardiac defects in Drosophila by vertebrate tinman-related genes  

PubMed Central

tinman, a mesodermal NK2-type homeobox gene, is absolutely required for the subdivision of the early Drosophila mesoderm and for the formation of the heart as well as the visceral muscle primordia. Several vertebrate relatives of tinman, many of which are predominately expressed in the very early cardiac progenitors (and pharyngeal endoderm), also seem to promote heart development. Here, we show that most of these vertebrate tinman-related genes can readily substitute for Drosophila tinman function in promoting visceral mesoderm-specific marker gene expression, but much less in promoting cardiac-specific gene expression indicative of heart development. In addition, another mesodermal NK2-type gene from Drosophila, bagpipe, which is normally only needed for visceral mesoderm but not heart development, cannot substitute for tinman at all. These data indicate that the functional equivalence of the tinman-related subclass of NK2-type genes (in activating markers of visceral mesoderm development in Drosophila) is specific to this subclass and distinct from other homeobox genes. Despite the apparent overall conservation of heart development between vertebrates and invertebrates, the differential rescue of visceral mesoderm versus heart development suggests that some of the molecular mechanisms of organ formation may have diverged during evolution. PMID:9689086

Park, Maijon; Lewis, Carol; Turbay, David; Chung, Amy; Chen, Jau-Nian; Evans, Sylvia; Breitbart, Roger E.; Fishman, Mark C.; Izumo, Seigo; Bodmer, Rolf

1998-01-01

245

Functional gene groups are concentrated within chromosomes, among chromosomes and in the nuclear space  

E-print Network

, among other mechanisms. In contrast to prokaryotes, in which genes of a common function are often-random organization of co-functioning genes is found in prokaryotes, where genes, usually from the same functional

Shamir, Ron

246

Genome-wide identification and functional analyses of calmodulin genes in Solanaceous species  

PubMed Central

Background Calmodulin (CaM) is a major calcium sensor in all eukaryotes. It binds calcium and modulates the activity of a wide range of downstream proteins in response to calcium signals. However, little is known about the CaM gene family in Solanaceous species, including the economically important species, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and the gene silencing model plant, Nicotiana benthamiana. Moreover, the potential function of CaM in plant disease resistance remains largely unclear. Results We performed genome-wide identification of CaM gene families in Solanaceous species. Employing bioinformatics approaches, multiple full-length CaM genes were identified from tomato, N. benthamiana and potato (S. tuberosum) genomes, with tomato having 6 CaM genes, N. benthamiana having 7 CaM genes, and potato having 4 CaM genes. Sequence comparison analyses showed that three tomato genes, SlCaM3/4/5, two potato genes StCaM2/3, and two sets of N. benthamiana genes, NbCaM1/2/3/4 and NbCaM5/6, encode identical CaM proteins, yet the genes contain different intron/exon organization and are located on different chromosomes. Further sequence comparisons and gene structural and phylogenetic analyses reveal that Solanaceous species gained a new group of CaM genes during evolution. These new CaM genes are unusual in that they contain three introns in contrast to only a single intron typical of known CaM genes in plants. The tomato CaM (SlCaM) genes were found to be expressed in all organs. Prediction of cis-acting elements in 5' upstream sequences and expression analyses demonstrated that SlCaM genes have potential to be highly responsive to a variety of biotic and abiotic stimuli. Additionally, silencing of SlCaM2 and SlCaM6 altered expression of a set of signaling and defense-related genes and resulted in significantly lower resistance to Tobacco rattle virus and the oomycete pathogen, Pythium aphanidermatum. Conclusions The CaM gene families in the Solanaceous species tomato, N. benthamiana and potato were identified through a genome-wide analysis. All three plant species harbor a small set of genes that encode identical CaM proteins, which may manifest a strategy of plants to retain redundancy or enhanced quantitative gene function. In addition, Solanaceous species have evolved one new group of CaM genes during evolution. CaM genes play important roles in plant disease resistance to a variety of pathogens. PMID:23621884

2013-01-01

247

The Coded Functions of Noncoding RNAs for Gene Regulation  

PubMed Central

For eukaryotes, fine tuning of gene expression is necessary to coordinate complex genetic information. Recent studies have shown that noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) play central roles in this process. For example, ncRNAs participate in multiple diverse functions such as mRNA degradation, epigenetic regulation and alternative splicing. The findings regarding this new player in gene regulation suggest that the mechanism of gene regulation is much more complicated and subtle than previously thought. In this review, new findings concerning the role of ncRNAs in gene regulation are discussed. PMID:21359682

An, Sojin; Song, Ji-Joon

2011-01-01

248

Manipulation of gene function in Xenopus laevis  

PubMed Central

Xenopus laevis embryos are particularly well suited to address questions requiring either knockdown or overexpression of genes in a tissue-specific fashion during vertebrate embryonic development. These manipulations are achieved by targeted injection of either antisense morpholino oligonucleotides, or synthetic mRNAs, respectively, into the early embryo. Herein we offer detailed protocols describing how to design and perform these experiments successfully, as well as a brief discussion of considerations for performing a microarray analysis in this organism. PMID:21805261

Mimoto, Mizuho S.; Christian, Jan L.

2012-01-01

249

A graphic method for identification of novel glioma related genes.  

PubMed

Glioma, as the most common and lethal intracranial tumor, is a serious disease that causes many deaths every year. Good comprehension of the mechanism underlying this disease is very helpful to design effective treatments. However, up to now, the knowledge of this disease is still limited. It is an important step to understand the mechanism underlying this disease by uncovering its related genes. In this study, a graphic method was proposed to identify novel glioma related genes based on known glioma related genes. A weighted graph was constructed according to the protein-protein interaction information retrieved from STRING and the well-known shortest path algorithm was employed to discover novel genes. The following analysis suggests that some of them are related to the biological process of glioma, proving that our method was effective in identifying novel glioma related genes. We hope that the proposed method would be applied to study other diseases and provide useful information to medical workers, thereby designing effective treatments of different diseases. PMID:25050377

Gao, Yu-Fei; Shu, Yang; Yang, Lei; He, Yi-Chun; Li, Li-Peng; Huang, GuaHua; Li, Hai-Peng; Jiang, Yang

2014-01-01

250

Mapping and Functional Characterization of Candidate Genes  

E-print Network

computational genetic method and tools and used them to functionally explore specific genetic variants (AAS), we developed and implemented a bioinformatics method in a tool called PASE. The predictions for further functional evaluations. We also studied a previously mapped radial network of interacting QTLs

251

Monitoring Murine Skeletal Muscle Function for Muscle Gene Therapy  

PubMed Central

The primary function of skeletal muscle is to generate force. Muscle force production is compromised in various forms of acquired and/or inherited muscle diseases. An important goal of muscle gene therapy is to recover muscle strength. Genetically engineered mice and spontaneous mouse mutants are readily available for preclinical muscle gene therapy studies. In this chapter, we outlined the methods commonly used for measuring murine skeletal muscle function. These include ex vivo and in situ analysis of the contractile profile of a single intact limb muscle (the extensor digitorium longus for ex vivo assay and the tibialis anterior muscle for in situ assay), grip force analysis, and downhill treadmill exercise. Force measurement in a single muscle is extremely useful for pilot testing of new gene therapy protocols by local gene transfer. Grip force and treadmill assessments offer body-wide evaluation following systemic muscle gene therapy. PMID:21194022

Hakim, Chady H.; Li, Dejia; Duan, Dongsheng

2011-01-01

252

Functions of the gene products of Escherichia coli.  

PubMed Central

A list of currently identified gene products of Escherichia coli is given, together with a bibliography that provides pointers to the literature on each gene product. A scheme to categorize cellular functions is used to classify the gene products of E. coli so far identified. A count shows that the numbers of genes concerned with small-molecule metabolism are on the same order as the numbers concerned with macromolecule biosynthesis and degradation. One large category is the category of tRNAs and their synthetases. Another is the category of transport elements. The categories of cell structure and cellular processes other than metabolism are smaller. Other subjects discussed are the occurrence in the E. coli genome of redundant pairs and groups of genes of identical or closely similar function, as well as variation in the degree of density of genetic information in different parts of the genome. PMID:7508076

Riley, M

1993-01-01

253

Algal genes in the closest relatives of animals.  

PubMed

The spread of photosynthesis is one of the most important but controversial topics in eukaryotic evolution. Because of massive gene transfer from plastids to the nucleus and because of the possibility that plastids have been lost in evolution, algal genes in aplastidic organisms often are interpreted as footprints of photosynthetic ancestors. These putative plastid losses, in turn, have been cited as support for scenarios involving the spread of plastids in broadscale eukaryotic evolution. Phylogenomic analyses identified more than 100 genes of possible algal origin in Monosiga, a unicellular species from choanoflagellates, a group considered to be the closest protozoan relatives of animals and to be primitively heterotrophic. The vast majority of these algal genes appear to be derived from haptophytes, diatoms, or green plants. Furthermore, more than 25% of these algal genes are ultimately of prokaryotic origin and were spread secondarily to Monosiga. Our results show that the presence of algal genes may be expected in many phagotrophs or taxa of phagotrophic ancestry and therefore does not necessarily represent evidence of plastid losses. The ultimate prokaryotic origin of some algal genes and their simultaneous presence in both primary and secondary photosynthetic eukaryotes either suggest recurrent gene transfer events under specific environments or support a more ancient origin of primary plastids. PMID:20627874

Sun, Guiling; Yang, Zefeng; Ishwar, Arjun; Huang, Jinling

2010-12-01

254

Functional Conservation of Gsdma Cluster Genes Specifically Duplicated in the Mouse Genome  

PubMed Central

Mouse Gasdermin A3 (Gsdma3) is the causative gene for dominant skin mutations exhibiting alopecia. Mouse has two other Gsdma3-related genes, Gsdma and Gsdma2, whereas human and rat have only one related gene. To date, no skin mutation has been reported for human GSDMA and rat Gsdma as well as mouse Gsdma and Gsdma2. Therefore, it is possible that only Gsdma3 has gain-of-function type mutations to cause dominant skin phenotype. To elucidate functional divergence among the Gsdma-related genes in mice, and to infer the function of the human and rat orthologs, we examined in vivo function of mouse Gsdma by generating Gsdma knockout mice and transgenic mice that overexpress wild-type Gsdma or Gsdma harboring a point mutation (Alanine339Threonine). The Gsdma knockout mice shows no visible phenotype, indicating that Gsdma is not essential for differentiation of epidermal cells and maintenance of the hair cycle, and that Gsdma is expressed specifically both in the inner root sheath of hair follicles and in suprabasal cell layers, whereas Gsdma3 is expressed only in suprabasal layers. By contrast, both types of the transgenic mice exhibited epidermal hyperplasia resembling the Gsdma3 mutations, although the phenotype depended on the genetic background. These results indicate that the mouse Gsdma and Gsdma3 genes share common function to regulate epithelial maintenance and/or homeostasis, and suggest that the function of human GSDMA and rat Gsdma, which are orthologs of mouse Gsdma, is conserved as well. PMID:23979942

Tanaka, Shigekazu; Mizushina, Youichi; Kato, Yoriko; Tamura, Masaru; Shiroishi, Toshihiko

2013-01-01

255

Functional gene array-based analysis of microbial communities in heavy metals-contaminated lake sediments.  

PubMed

Lake DePue (IL, USA) has been contaminated for > 80 years by an adjacent Zn-smelting facility. Previous work indicated that sulfate reduction increased and biomass declined as pore-water metal concentrations increased, while 16S rRNA gene profiles remained relatively stable. To better understand this phenomenon, the sediment microbial community structure and functional potential were investigated using a functional gene microarray (GeoChip) targeting > 10,000 functional genes. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling and clustering analyses showed that the overall community structure was similar across all sites based on the relative abundance of all detected genes, but some individual gene categories did show differences. A subset of sulfate reduction genes (dsr) and the most relevant metal resistance genes were more abundant than other categories and were highly correlated with metal contamination. The most significant correlations were between pore-water metal concentrations and dsr, with Zn, Cd, and Mn as the most predictive for the presence of dsr. These results suggest that metal contamination influences sediment microbial community structure and function by increasing the abundance of relevant metal-resistant and sulfate-reducing populations. These populations therefore appear to contribute significantly to the resistance and stability of the microbial communities throughout the gradient of metal contamination in Lake DePue. PMID:23710534

Kang, Sanghoon; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Gough, Heidi L; He, Zhili; Hazen, Terry C; Stahl, David A; Zhou, Jizhong

2013-11-01

256

Identification of an Orphan Receptor Gene as a Type 1 Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide Receptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a 37 residue neuropeptide that is distantly related to adrenomedullin, We have recently reported the cloning and expression of an adrenomedullin receptor which is ? 30% homologous to the canine orphan receptor RDC-1. Therefore we tested the hypothesis that RDC-1 was a CGRP receptor. The RDC-1 gene was expressed in COS-7 cells and showed a

S. Kapas; A. J. L. Clark

1995-01-01

257

Predictive screening for regulators of conserved functional gene modules (gene batteries) in mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The expression of gene batteries, genomic units of functionally linked genes which are activated by similar sets of cis- and trans-acting regulators, has been proposed as a major determinant of cell specialization in metazoans. We developed a predictive procedure to screen the mouse and human genomes and transcriptomes for cases of gene-battery-like regulation. RESULTS: In a screen that covered

Sven Nelander; Erik Larsson; Erik Kristiansson; Robert Månsson; Olle Nerman; Mikael Sigvardsson; Petter Mostad; Per Lindahl

2005-01-01

258

Functional Analysis of an ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter Gene in Botrytis cinerea by Gene Disruption  

Microsoft Academic Search

  The BMR1 gene encoding an ABC transporter was cloned from Botrytis cinerea. To examine the function of BMR1 in B. cinerea, we isolated BMR1-deficient mutants after gene disruption. Disruption vector pBcDF4 was constructed by replacing the BMR1-coding region with a hygromycin B phosphotransferase gene (hph) cassette. The BMR1 disruptants had an increased sensitivity to polyoxin and iprobenfos. Polyoxin and iprobenfos,

Masami NAKAJIMA; Junko SUZUKII; Takehiko HOSAKA; Tadaaki HIBIZ; Katsumi AKUTSU

2001-01-01

259

Equations relating structure functions of all orders  

E-print Network

The hierarchy of exact equations are given that relate two-spatial-point velocity structure functions of arbitrary order with other statistics. Because no assumption is used, the exact statistical equations can apply to any flow for which the Navier-Stokes equations are accurate and no matter how small the number of samples in the ensemble. The exact statistical equations can be used to verify DNS computations and to detect their limitations because if DNS data are used to evaluate the exact statistical equations, then the equations should balance to within numerical precision, otherwise a computational problem is indicated. The equations allow quantification of the approach to local homogeneity and to local isotropy. Testing the balance of the equations allows detection of scaling ranges for quantification of inertial-range exponents. The second-order equations lead to Kolmogorov's equation. All higher-order equations contain a statistic composed of one factor of the two-point difference of the pressure grad...

Hill, R J

2001-01-01

260

Rapid Determination of Gene Function by Virus-Induced Gene Silencing in Wheat and Barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The cereal crops are essential components to the human and animal food supply. Solutions to many of the problems challenging cereal production will require identification of genes responsible for particular traits. Unfortunately, the process of identifying gene function is very slow and complex in ...

261

Gene evolution and functions of extracellular matrix proteins in teeth  

PubMed Central

The extracellular matrix (ECM) not only provides physical support for tissues, but it is also critical for tissue development, homeostasis and disease. Over 300 ECM molecules have been defined as comprising the “core matrisome” in mammals through the analysis of whole genome sequences. During tooth development, the structure and functions of the ECM dynamically change. In the early stages, basement membranes (BMs) separate two cell layers of the dental epithelium and the mesenchyme. Later in the differentiation stages, the BM layer is replaced with the enamel matrix and the dentin matrix, which are secreted by ameloblasts and odontoblasts, respectively. The enamel matrix genes and the dentin matrix genes are each clustered in two closed regions located on human chromosome 4 (mouse chromosome 5), except for the gene coded for amelogenin, the major enamel matrix protein, which is located on the sex chromosomes. These genes for enamel and dentin matrix proteins are derived from a common ancestral gene, but as a result of evolution, they diverged in terms of their specific functions. These matrix proteins play important roles in cell adhesion, polarity, and differentiation and mineralization of enamel and dentin matrices. Mutations of these genes cause diseases such as odontogenesis imperfect (OI) and amelogenesis imperfect (AI). In this review, we discuss the recently defined terms matrisome and matrixome for ECMs, as well as focus on genes and functions of enamel and dentin matrix proteins. PMID:23539364

Yoshizaki, Keigo; Yamada, Yoshihiko

2013-01-01

262

Mining Disease-Resistance Genes in Roses: Functional and Molecular Characterization of the Rdr1 Locus  

PubMed Central

The interaction of roses with the leaf spot pathogen Diplocarpon rosae (the cause of black spot on roses) is an interesting pathosystem because it involves a long-lived woody perennial, with life history traits very different from most model plants, and a hemibiotrophic pathogen with moderate levels of gene flow. Here we present data on the molecular structure of the first monogenic dominant resistance gene from roses, Rdr1, directed against one isolate of D. rosae. Complete sequencing of the locus carrying the Rdr1 gene resulted in a sequence of 265,477?bp with a cluster of nine highly related TIR–NBS–LRR (TNL) candidate genes. After sequencing revealed candidate genes for Rdr1, we implemented a gene expression analysis and selected five genes out of the nine TNLs. We then silenced the whole TNL gene family using RNAi (Rdr1–RNAi) constructed from the most conserved sequence region and demonstrated a loss of resistance in the normally resistant genotype. To identify the functional TNL gene, we further screened the five TNL candidate genes with a transient leaf infiltration assay. The transient expression assay indicated a single TNL gene (muRdr1H), partially restoring resistance in the susceptible genotype. Rdr1 was found to localize within the muRdr1 gene family; the genes within this locus contain characteristic motifs of active TNL genes and belong to a young cluster of R genes. The transient leaf assay can be used to further analyze the rose black spot interaction and its evolution, extending the analyses to additional R genes and to additional pathogenic types of the pathogen. PMID:22639591

Terefe-Ayana, Diro; Yasmin, Aneela; Le, Thanh Loan; Kaufmann, Helgard; Biber, Anja; Kühr, Astrid; Linde, Marcus; Debener, Thomas

2011-01-01

263

Aging alters the expression of genes for neuroprotection and synaptic function following acute estradiol treatment  

PubMed Central

This study used microarray analysis to examine age-related changes in gene expression 6 and 12 hr following a single estradiol injection in ovariectomized mice. Estradiol-responsive gene expression at the 6 hr time point was reduced in aged (18 mo) animals compared to young (4 mo) and middle-aged (MA, 12 mo) mice. Examination of gene clustering within biological and functional pathways indicated that young and MA mice exhibited increased expression of genes for cellular components of the synapse and decreased expression of genes related to oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial dysfunction. At the 12 hr time point, estradiol-responsive gene expression increased in aged animals and decreased in young and MA mice compared to the 6 hr time point. Gene clustering analysis indicated that aged mice exhibited increased expression of genes for signaling pathways that are rapidly influenced by estradiol. The age differences in gene expression for rapid signaling pathways may relate to disparity in basal pathway activity and estradiol mediated activation of rapid signaling cascades. PMID:19790252

Aenlle, Kristina K.; Foster, Thomas C.

2009-01-01

264

Transferred interbacterial antagonism genes augment eukaryotic innate immune function.  

PubMed

Horizontal gene transfer allows organisms to rapidly acquire adaptive traits. Although documented instances of horizontal gene transfer from bacteria to eukaryotes remain rare, bacteria represent a rich source of new functions potentially available for co-option. One benefit that genes of bacterial origin could provide to eukaryotes is the capacity to produce antibacterials, which have evolved in prokaryotes as the result of eons of interbacterial competition. The type VI secretion amidase effector (Tae) proteins are potent bacteriocidal enzymes that degrade the cell wall when delivered into competing bacterial cells by the type VI secretion system. Here we show that tae genes have been transferred to eukaryotes on at least six occasions, and that the resulting domesticated amidase effector (dae) genes have been preserved for hundreds of millions of years through purifying selection. We show that the dae genes acquired eukaryotic secretion signals, are expressed within recipient organisms, and encode active antibacterial toxins that possess substrate specificity matching extant Tae proteins of the same lineage. Finally, we show that a dae gene in the deer tick Ixodes scapularis limits proliferation of Borrelia burgdorferi, the aetiologic agent of Lyme disease. Our work demonstrates that a family of horizontally acquired toxins honed to mediate interbacterial antagonism confers previously undescribed antibacterial capacity to eukaryotes. We speculate that the selective pressure imposed by competition between bacteria has produced a reservoir of genes encoding diverse antimicrobial functions that are tailored for co-option by eukaryotic innate immune systems. PMID:25470067

Chou, Seemay; Daugherty, Matthew D; Peterson, S Brook; Biboy, Jacob; Yang, Youyun; Jutras, Brandon L; Fritz-Laylin, Lillian K; Ferrin, Michael A; Harding, Brittany N; Jacobs-Wagner, Christine; Yang, X Frank; Vollmer, Waldemar; Malik, Harmit S; Mougous, Joseph D

2015-02-01

265

Involvement of Trichoderma Trichothecenes in the Biocontrol Activity and Induction of Plant Defense-Related Genes  

PubMed Central

Trichoderma species produce trichothecenes, most notably trichodermin and harzianum A (HA), by a biosynthetic pathway in which several of the involved proteins have significant differences in functionality compared to their Fusarium orthologues. In addition, the genes encoding these proteins show a genomic organization differing from that of the Fusarium tri clusters. Here we describe the isolation of Trichoderma arundinaceum IBT 40837 transformants which have a disrupted or silenced tri4 gene, a gene encoding a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase that oxygenates trichodiene to give rise to isotrichodiol, and the effect of tri4 gene disruption and silencing on the expression of other tri genes. Our results indicate that the tri4 gene disruption resulted in a reduced antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea and Rhizoctonia solani and also in a reduced ability to induce the expression of tomato plant defense-related genes belonging to the salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonate (JA) pathways against B. cinerea, in comparison to the wild-type strain, indicating that HA plays an important function in the sensitization of Trichoderma-pretreated plants against this fungal pathogen. Additionally, the effect of the interaction of T. arundinaceum with B. cinerea or R. solani and with tomato seedlings on the expressions of the tri genes was studied. PMID:22562989

Malmierca, M. G.; Cardoza, R. E.; Alexander, N. J.; McCormick, S. P.; Hermosa, R.; Monte, E.

2012-01-01

266

Involvement of Trichoderma trichothecenes in the biocontrol activity and induction of plant defense-related genes.  

PubMed

Trichoderma species produce trichothecenes, most notably trichodermin and harzianum A (HA), by a biosynthetic pathway in which several of the involved proteins have significant differences in functionality compared to their Fusarium orthologues. In addition, the genes encoding these proteins show a genomic organization differing from that of the Fusarium tri clusters. Here we describe the isolation of Trichoderma arundinaceum IBT 40837 transformants which have a disrupted or silenced tri4 gene, a gene encoding a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase that oxygenates trichodiene to give rise to isotrichodiol, and the effect of tri4 gene disruption and silencing on the expression of other tri genes. Our results indicate that the tri4 gene disruption resulted in a reduced antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea and Rhizoctonia solani and also in a reduced ability to induce the expression of tomato plant defense-related genes belonging to the salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonate (JA) pathways against B. cinerea, in comparison to the wild-type strain, indicating that HA plays an important function in the sensitization of Trichoderma-pretreated plants against this fungal pathogen. Additionally, the effect of the interaction of T. arundinaceum with B. cinerea or R. solani and with tomato seedlings on the expressions of the tri genes was studied. PMID:22562989

Malmierca, M G; Cardoza, R E; Alexander, N J; McCormick, S P; Hermosa, R; Monte, E; Gutiérrez, S

2012-07-01

267

Application of antisense oligonucleotides for gene functionalization and target validation.  

PubMed

The Human Genome Project (complete sequencing of the human genome) will be complete soon and the information made available to the biomedical community. Although the project is not yet complete, it has dramatically changed the practice of biomedical sciences. With enormous amounts of information available from sequencing efforts, increasing demands are being put on researchers to quickly determine the biochemical function of novel molecular targets and to validate them as appropriate for drug discovery endeavors. Antisense oligonucleotides are an ideal technology for gene functionalization and target validation. They are an efficient methodology for gene functionalization and target validation and are a proven technology. Antisense technology can answer questions with a high degree of precision and it is a versatile technology. In this review the use of antisense oligonucleotides as a research tool for gene functionalization and target validation is discussed. PMID:11713801

Bennett, C F; Cowsert, L M

1999-06-01

268

Functional genes of non-model arthropods  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Technology and bioinformatics facilitate studies of non-model organisms, including pest insects and insect biological control agents. A cDNA library prepared from a laboratory-reared colony of Lygus lineolaris male nymphs identified sequences that appeared to have known functions or close homologues...

269

Differential gene expression in mouse retina related to regional differences in vulnerability to hyperoxia  

PubMed Central

Purpose In the C57BL/6J mouse retina, hyperoxia-induced degeneration of photoreceptors shows strong regional variation, beginning at a locus ~0.5 mm inferior to the optic disc. To identify gene expression differences that might underlie this variability in vulnerability, we have used microarray techniques to describe regional (superior-inferior) variations in gene expression in the retina. Methods Young adult C57BL/6J mice raised in dim cyclic illumination (12 h at 5 lx and 12 h in darkness) were exposed to hyperoxia (75% oxygen for two weeks). Retinas were collected from hyperoxia-exposed and control animals without fixation and divided into superior and inferior halves. RNA was extracted from each sample, purified, and hybridized to Mouse Gene 1.0 ST arrays (Affymetrix). The consistency of the microarray results was assessed using quantitative PCR for selected genes. Expression data were analyzed to identify genes and ncRNAs whose differential expression between the superior and inferior retina could be associated with relative vulnerability to hyperoxia. Results In control retinas, only two genes showed a fold difference in expression >2 between the superior and inferior retina; another 25 showed a fold difference of 1.5–2.0. Of these 27, the functions of six genes, including ventral anterior homeobox containing gene 2 (Vax2) and T-box 5 (Tbox5), are related to parameters of anatomic development and the functions of five are related to sensory perception. Among the latter, short-wave-sensitive cone opsin (Opn1sw) was more strongly expressed in the inferior retina and medium-wave-sensitive cone opsin (Opn1mw) in the superior retina. This is consistent with known differences in S- and M-cone distribution, confirming our separation of retinal regions. The highest fold difference was reported for membrane metalloendopeptidase (Mme), a member from the metallothionein group of cytoprotective proteins. To identify genes whose regulation by hyperoxia was significantly different between the inferior and superior retina, we calculated the “fold margin” (FM, the difference between hyperoxia-induced regulation in the inferior and superior retina) for each gene, and identified genes for which abs(FM) > 0.5. Genes thus identified numbered 112, and included many immune-, cell defense-, and inflammation- related genes. Conclusions Gene expression analysis revealed relatively subtle differences between inferior and superior regions of control C57BL/6J retinas, with only 27 genes showing an expression difference >1.5 fold. Among these, genes related to cytoprotection and apoptosis were included, along with genes related to central projections and cone-type differences. After hyperoxia-induced photoreceptor degeneration had begun, the number of genes that showed significant expression differences between the inferior and superior retina more than quadrupled, with genes related to immune processes, defense processes, and inflammation being numerically dominant. PMID:20454693

Natoli, Riccardo; Valter, Krisztina; Stone, Jonathan

2010-01-01

270

Functions Encoded by Pyrrolnitrin Biosynthetic Genes from Pseudomonas fluorescens  

PubMed Central

Pyrrolnitrin is a secondary metabolite derived from tryptophan and has strong antifungal activity. Recently we described four genes, prnABCD, from Pseudomonas fluorescens that encode the biosynthesis of pyrrolnitrin. In the work presented here, we describe the function of each prn gene product. The four genes encode proteins identical in size and serology to proteins present in wild-type Pseudomonas fluorescens, but absent from a mutant from which the entire prn gene region had been deleted. The prnA gene product catalyzes the chlorination of l-tryptophan to form 7-chloro-l-tryptophan. The prnB gene product catalyzes a ring rearrangement and decarboxylation to convert 7-chloro-l-tryptophan to monodechloroaminopyrrolnitrin. The prnC gene product chlorinates monodechloroaminopyrrolnitrin at the 3 position to form aminopyrrolnitrin. The prnD gene product catalyzes the oxidation of the amino group of aminopyrrolnitrin to a nitro group to form pyrrolnitrin. The organization of the prn genes in the operon is identical to the order of the reactions in the biosynthetic pathway. PMID:9537395

Kirner, Sabine; Hammer, Philip E.; Hill, D. Steven; Altmann, Annett; Fischer, Ilona; Weislo, Laura J.; Lanahan, Mike; van Pée, Karl-Heinz; Ligon, James M.

1998-01-01

271

Steroidogenesis-related gene expression in the rat ovary exposed to melatonin supplementation  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To analyze steroidogenesis-related gene expression in the rat ovary exposed to melatonin supplementation. METHODS: Thirty-two virgin adult female rats were randomized to two groups as follows: the control group GI received vehicle and the experimental group GII received melatonin supplementation (10 µg/night per animal) for 60 consecutive days. After the treatment, animals were anesthetized and the collected ovaries were immediately placed in liquid nitrogen for complementary deoxyribonucleic acid microarray analyses. A GeneChip® Kit Rat Genome 230 2.0 Affymetrix Array was used for gene analysis and the experiment was repeated three times for each group. The results were normalized with the GeneChip® Operating Software program and confirmed through analysis with the secondary deoxyribonucleic acid-Chip Analyzer (dChip) software. The data were confirmed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. Genes related to ovarian function were further confirmed by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: We found the upregulation of the type 9 adenylate cyclase and inhibin beta B genes and the downregulation of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element modulator and cytochrome P450 family 17a1 genes in the ovarian tissue of GII compared to those of the control group. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that melatonin supplementation decreases gene expression of cyclic adenosine monophosphate, which changes ovarian steroidogenesis. PMID:25789524

Lima, Gisele Negro; Maganhin, Carla Cristina; Simões, Ricardo Santos; Baracat, Maria Cândida Pinheiro; da Silva Sasso, Gisela Rodrigues; Fuchs, Luiz Fernando Portugal; de Jesus Simões, Manuel; Baracat, Edmund Chada; Júnior, José Maria Soares

2015-01-01

272

Identification of Genes Related to Beak Deformity of Chickens Using Digital Gene Expression Profiling  

PubMed Central

Frequencies of up to 3% of beak deformity (normally a crossed beak) occur in some indigenous chickens in China, such as and Beijing-You. Chickens with deformed beaks have reduced feed intake, growth rate, and abnormal behaviors. Beak deformity represents an economic as well as an animal welfare problem in the poultry industry. Because the genetic basis of beak deformity remains incompletely understood, the present study sought to identify important genes and metabolic pathways involved in this phenotype. Digital gene expression analysis was performed on deformed and normal beaks collected from Beijing-You chickens to detect global gene expression differences. A total of >11 million cDNA tags were sequenced, and 5,864,499 and 5,648,877 clean tags were obtained in the libraries of deformed and normal beaks, respectively. In total, 1,156 differentially expressed genes (DEG) were identified in the deformed beak with 409 being up-regulated and 747 down-regulated in the deformed beaks. qRT-PCR using eight genes was performed to verify the results of DGE profiling. Gene ontology (GO) analysis highlighted that genes of the keratin family on GGA25 were abundant among the DEGs. Pathway analysis showed that many DEGs were linked to the biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids and glycerolipid metabolism. Combining the analyses, 11 genes (MUC, LOC426217, BMP4, ACAA1, LPL, ALDH7A1, GLA, RETSAT, SDR16C5, WWOX, and MOGAT1) were highlighted as potential candidate genes for beak deformity in chickens. Some of these genes have been identified previously, while others have unknown function with respect to thus phenotype. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first genome-wide study to investigate the transcriptome differences in the deformed and normal beaks of chickens. The DEGs identified here are worthy of further functional characterization. PMID:25198128

Sun, Yanyan; Liu, Ranran; Liu, Nian; Li, Dongli; Wen, Jie; Chen, Jilan

2014-01-01

273

Knots in the family tree: evolutionary relationships and functions of knox homeobox genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knotted-like homeobox (knox) genes constitute a gene family in plants. Class I knox genes are expressed in shoot apical meristems, and (with notable exceptions) not in lateral organ primordia. Class II genes have more diverse expression patterns. Loss and gain of function mutations indicate that knox genes are important regulators of meristem function. Gene duplication has contributed to the evolution

Leonore Reiser; Patricia Sánchez-Baracaldo; Sarah Hake

2000-01-01

274

The prediction of candidate genes for cervix related cancer through gene ontology and graph theoretical approach.  

PubMed

With rapidly changing technology, prediction of candidate genes has become an indispensable task in recent years mainly in the field of biological research. The empirical methods for candidate gene prioritization that succors to explore the potential pathway between genetic determinants and complex diseases are highly cumbersome and labor intensive. In such a scenario predicting potential targets for a disease state through in silico approaches are of researcher's interest. The prodigious availability of protein interaction data coupled with gene annotation renders an ease in the accurate determination of disease specific candidate genes. In our work we have prioritized the cervix related cancer candidate genes by employing Csaba Ortutay and his co-workers approach of identifying the candidate genes through graph theoretical centrality measures and gene ontology. With the advantage of the human protein interaction data, cervical cancer gene sets and the ontological terms, we were able to predict 15 novel candidates for cervical carcinogenesis. The disease relevance of the anticipated candidate genes was corroborated through a literature survey. Also the presence of the drugs for these candidates was detected through Therapeutic Target Database (TTD) and DrugMap Central (DMC) which affirms that they may be endowed as potential drug targets for cervical cancer. PMID:24647578

Hindumathi, V; Kranthi, T; Rao, S B; Manimaran, P

2014-06-01

275

EpilepsyGene: a genetic resource for genes and mutations related to epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Epilepsy is one of the most prevalent chronic neurological disorders, afflicting about 3.5–6.5 per 1000 children and 10.8 per 1000 elderly people. With intensive effort made during the last two decades, numerous genes and mutations have been published to be associated with the disease. An organized resource integrating and annotating the ever-increasing genetic data will be imperative to acquire a global view of the cutting-edge in epilepsy research. Herein, we developed EpilepsyGene (http://61.152.91.49/EpilepsyGene). It contains cumulative to date 499 genes and 3931 variants associated with 331 clinical phenotypes collected from 818 publications. Furthermore, in-depth data mining was performed to gain insights into the understanding of the data, including functional annotation, gene prioritization, functional analysis of prioritized genes and overlap analysis focusing on the comorbidity. An intuitive web interface to search and browse the diversified genetic data was also developed to facilitate access to the data of interest. In general, EpilepsyGene is designed to be a central genetic database to provide the research community substantial convenience to uncover the genetic basis of epilepsy. PMID:25324312

Ran, Xia; Li, Jinchen; Shao, Qianzhi; Chen, Huiqian; Lin, Zhongdong; Sun, Zhong Sheng; Wu, Jinyu

2015-01-01

276

Heterologous expression and functional analysis of the wheat group 1 pathogenesis-related (PR-1) proteins  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The group 1 pathogenesis-related (PR-1) proteins have been widely used as hallmarks of plant defense pathways, but their biological functions are still unknown. We report here the functional analysis of two basic PR-1 proteins following the identification of the wheat PR-1 gene family (Lu et al., 20...

277

Common polymorphisms in dopamine-related genes combine to produce a ‘schizophrenia-like' prefrontal hypoactivity  

PubMed Central

Individual changes in dopamine-related genes influence prefrontal activity during cognitive-affective processes; however, the extent to which common genetic variations combine to influence prefrontal activity is unknown. We assessed catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val108/158Met (rs4680) and dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) G-T (rs2283265) single nucleotide polymorphisms and functional magnetic resonance imaging during an emotional response inhibition test in 43 healthy adults and 27 people with schizophrenia to determine the extent to which COMT Val108/158Met and DRD2 G-T polymorphisms combine to influence prefrontal response to cognitive-affective challenges. We found an increased number of cognitive-deficit risk alleles in these two dopamine-regulating genes predict reduced prefrontal activation during response inhibition in healthy adults, mimicking schizophrenia-like prefrontal hypoactivity. Our study provides evidence that functionally related genes can combine to produce a disease-like endophenotype. PMID:24495967

Vercammen, A; Weickert, C S; Skilleter, A J; Lenroot, R; Schofield, P R; Weickert, T W

2014-01-01

278

Relating the Implementation Techniques of Functional and Functional Logic Languages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional logic languages are declarative programming languages that integratethe programming paradigms of functional and logic languages within a single framework.They are extensions of functional languages with principles derived from logicprogramming. Narrowing, the evaluation mechanism of functional logic languages,can be defined as a generalization of reduction, the evaluation mechanism of purelyfunctional languages. The unidirectional pattern matching, which is used for parameter...

Rita Loogen; RWTH Aachen

1993-01-01

279

RGFinder: A System for Determining Semantically Related Genes Using GO Graph Minimum Spanning Tree.  

PubMed

Biologists often need to know the set S(') of genes that are the most functionally and semantically related to a given set S of genes. For determining the set S('), most current gene similarity measures overlook the structural dependencies among the Gene Ontology (GO) terms annotating the set S, which may lead to erroneous results. We introduce in this paper a biological search engine called RGFinder that considers the structural dependencies among GO terms by employing the concept of existence dependency. RGFinder assigns a weight to each edge in GO graph to represent the degree of relatedness between the two GO terms connected by the edge. The value of the weight is determined based on the following factors: 1) type of the relation represented by the edge (e.g., an "is-a" relation is assigned a different weight than a "part-of" relation), 2) the functional relationship between the two GO terms connected by the edge, and 3) the string-substring relationship between the names of the two GO terms connected by the edge. RGFinder then constructs a minimum spanning tree of GO graph based on these weights. In the framework of RGFinder, the set S(') is annotated to the GO terms located at the lowest convergences of the subtree of the minimum spanning tree that passes through the GO terms annotating set S. We evaluated RGFinder experimentally and compared it with four gene set enrichment systems. Results showed marked improvement. PMID:25343765

Taha, Kamal

2015-01-01

280

Molecular characterization of cbf? gene and identification of new transcription variants: Implications for function.  

PubMed

The CBF? gene encodes a transcription factor that, in combination with CBF? (also called Runx, runt-related transcription factor) regulates expression of several target genes. CBF? interacts with all Runx family members, such as RUNX2, a regulator of bone-related gene transcription that contains a conserved DNA-binding domain. CBF? stimulates DNA binding of the Runt domain, and is essential for most of the known functions of RUNX2. A comparative analysis of the zebrafish cbf? gene and protein, and of its orthologous identified homologous proteins in different species indicates a highly conserved function. We cloned eleven zebrafish cbf? gene transcripts, one resulting in the known Cbf? protein (with 187 aa), and three additional variants resulting from skipping exon 5a (resulting in a protein with 174 aa) or exon 5b (resulting in a protein with 201 aa), both observed for the first time in zebrafish, and a completely novel isoform containing both exon 5a and 5b (resulting in a protein with 188 aa). Functional analysis of these isoforms provides insight into their role in regulating gene transcription. From the other variants two are premature termination Cbf? forms, while the others show in-frame exon-skipping causing changes in the Cbf? domain that may affect its function. PMID:25575784

Simões, B; Conceição, N; Matias, A C; Bragança, J; Kelsh, R N; Cancela, M L

2015-02-01

281

APOLIPOPROTEIN E GENE AND EARLY AGE-RELATED MACULOPATHY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene and early age-related maculopathy (ARM) in middle-aged persons. DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: Participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (n = 10139; age range, 49-73 ye...

282

upregulation of cancer-related genes and RESEARCH Open Access  

E-print Network

expression profiles of transformed cells. Keywords: Cancer, DNA methylation, distal control elements. The relationships between aberrant DNA methylation and the altered expression profiles of cancer cells are alsoupregulation of cancer-related genes and RESEARCH Open Access DNA methylation of distal regulatory

Friedman, Nir

283

MAPPING R-GENES IN RICE WILD RELATIVES (ORYZA SPP.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rice sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn and leaf blast caused by Magnaporthe grisea (T.T. Herbert) Yaegashi & Udagawa are major fungal diseases of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.). Rice wild relatives (Oryza spp.) are the source of several resistance (R-) genes including those for bla...

284

A comprehensive functional analysis of tissue specificity of human gene expression  

PubMed Central

Background In recent years, the maturation of microarray technology has allowed the genome-wide analysis of gene expression patterns to identify tissue-specific and ubiquitously expressed ('housekeeping') genes. We have performed a functional and topological analysis of housekeeping and tissue-specific networks to identify universally necessary biological processes, and those unique to or characteristic of particular tissues. Results We measured whole genome expression in 31 human tissues, identifying 2374 housekeeping genes expressed in all tissues, and genes uniquely expressed in each tissue. Comprehensive functional analysis showed that the housekeeping set is substantially larger than previously thought, and is enriched with vital processes such as oxidative phosphorylation, ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis, translation and energy metabolism. Network topology of the housekeeping network was characterized by higher connectivity and shorter paths between the proteins than the global network. Ontology enrichment scoring and network topology of tissue-specific genes were consistent with each tissue's function and expression patterns clustered together in accordance with tissue origin. Tissue-specific genes were twice as likely as housekeeping genes to be drug targets, allowing the identification of tissue 'signature networks' that will facilitate the discovery of new therapeutic targets and biomarkers of tissue-targeted diseases. Conclusion A comprehensive functional analysis of housekeeping and tissue-specific genes showed that the biological function of housekeeping and tissue-specific genes was consistent with tissue origin. Network analysis revealed that tissue-specific networks have distinct network properties related to each tissue's function. Tissue 'signature networks' promise to be a rich source of targets and biomarkers for disease treatment and diagnosis. PMID:19014478

Dezs?, Zoltán; Nikolsky, Yuri; Sviridov, Evgeny; Shi, Weiwei; Serebriyskaya, Tatiana; Dosymbekov, Damir; Bugrim, Andrej; Rakhmatulin, Eugene; Brennan, Richard J; Guryanov, Alexey; Li, Kelly; Blake, Julie; Samaha, Raymond R; Nikolskaya, Tatiana

2008-01-01

285

Function of the Evx-2 gene in the morphogenesis of vertebrate limbs.  

PubMed Central

Vertebrate gene members of the HoxD complex are essential for proper development of the appendicular skeletons. Inactivation of these genes induces severe alterations in the size and number of bony elements. Evx-2, a gene related to the Drosophila even-skipped (eve) gene, is located close to Hoxd-13 and is expressed in limbs like the neighbouring Hoxd genes. To investigate whether this tight linkage reflects a functional similarity, we produced a null allele of Evx-2. Furthermore, and because Hoxd-13 function is prevalent over that of nearby Hoxd genes, we generated two different double mutant loci wherein both Evx-2 and Hoxd-13 were inactivated in cis. The analysis of these various genetic configurations revealed the important function of Evx-2 during the development of the autopod as well as its genetic interaction with Hoxd-13. These results show that, in limbs, Evx-2 functions like a Hoxd gene. A potential evolutionary scenario is discussed, in which Evx-2 was recruited by the HoxD complex in conjunction with the emergence of digits in an ancestral tetrapod. Images PMID:8978698

Hérault, Y; Hraba-Renevey, S; van der Hoeven, F; Duboule, D

1996-01-01

286

Global Properties and Functional Complexity of Human Gene Regulatory Variation  

PubMed Central

Identification and functional interpretation of gene regulatory variants is a major focus of modern genomics. The application of genetic mapping to molecular and cellular traits has enabled the detection of regulatory variation on genome-wide scales and revealed an enormous diversity of regulatory architecture in humans and other species. In this review I summarise the insights gained and questions raised by a decade of genetic mapping of gene expression variation. I discuss recent extensions of this approach using alternative molecular phenotypes that have revealed some of the biological mechanisms that drive gene expression variation between individuals. Finally, I highlight outstanding problems and future directions for development. PMID:23737752

Gaffney, Daniel J.

2013-01-01

287

Function and expression pattern of nonsyndromic deafness genes  

PubMed Central

Hearing loss is the most common sensory disorder, present in 1 of every 500 newborns. To date, 46 genes have been identified that cause nonsyndromic hearing loss, making it an extremely heterogeneous trait. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the inner ear function and expression pattern of these genes. In general, they are involved in hair bundle morphogenesis, form constituents of the extracellular matrix, play a role in cochlear ion homeostasis or serve as transcription factors. During the past few years, our knowledge of genes involved in hair bundle morphogenesis has increased substantially. We give an up-to-date overview of both the nonsyndromic and Usher syndrome genes involved in this process, highlighting proteins that interact to form macromolecular complexes. For every gene, we also summarize its expression pattern and impact on hearing at the functional level. Gene-specific cochlear expression is summarized in a unique table by structure/cell type and is illustrated on a cochlear cross-section, which is available online via the Hereditary Hearing Loss Homepage. This review should provide auditory scientists the most relevant information for all identified nonsyndromic deafness genes. PMID:19601806

Hilgert, Nele; Smith, Richard J.H.; Van Camp, Guy

2010-01-01

288

RNAi-mediated gene function analysis in skin.  

PubMed

We have recently developed a method for RNAi-mediated gene function analysis in skin (Beronja et al., Nat Med 16:821-827, 2010). It employs ultrasound-guided in utero microinjections of lentivirus into the amniotic cavity of embryonic day 9 mice, which result in rapid, efficient, and stable transduction into mouse skin. Our technique greatly extends the available molecular and genetic toolbox for comprehensive functional examination of outstanding problems in epidermal biology. In its simplest form, as a single-gene function analysis via shRNA-mediated gene knockdown, our technique requires no animal mating and may need as little as only a few days between manipulation and phenotypic analysis. PMID:23325656

Beronja, Slobodan; Fuchs, Elaine

2013-01-01

289

RNAi-Mediated Gene Function Analysis in Skin  

PubMed Central

We have recently developed a method for RNAi-mediated gene function analysis in skin (Beronja et al., Nat Med 16:821–827, 2010). It employs ultrasound-guided in utero microinjections of lentivirus into the amniotic cavity of embryonic day 9 mice, which result in rapid, efficient, and stable transduction into mouse skin. Our technique greatly extends the available molecular and genetic toolbox for comprehensive functional examination of outstanding problems in epidermal biology. In its simplest form, as a single-gene function analysis via shRNA-mediated gene knockdown, our technique requires no animal mating and may need as little as only a few days between manipulation and phenotypic analysis. PMID:23325656

Beronja, Slobodan; Fuchs, Elaine

2014-01-01

290

Zebrafish Nodal-Related Genes Are Implicated in Axial Patterning and Establishing Left–Right Asymmetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nodal-related 1 (ndr1)andnodal-related 2 (ndr2)genes in zebrafish encode members of the nodal subgroup of the transforming growth factor-? superfamily. We report the expression patterns and functional characteristics of these factors, implicating them in the establishment of dorsal–ventral polarity and left–right asymmetry.Ndr1is expressed maternally, andndr1andndr2are expressed during blastula stage in the blastoderm margin. During gastrulation,ndrexpression subdivides the shield into two domains:

Michael R. Rebagliati; Reiko Toyama; Cornelia Fricke; Pascal Haffter; Igor B. Dawid

1998-01-01

291

Using Genetically Engineered Animal Models in the Postgenomic Era to Understand Gene Function in Alcoholism  

PubMed Central

Over the last 50 years, researchers have made substantial progress in identifying genetic variations that underlie the complex phenotype of alcoholism. Not much is known, however, about how this genetic variation translates into altered biological function. Genetic animal models recapitulating specific characteristics of the human condition have helped elucidate gene function and the genetic basis of disease. In particular, major advances have come from the ability to manipulate genes through a variety of genetic technologies that provide an unprecedented capacity to determine gene function in the living organism and in alcohol-related behaviors. Even newer genetic-engineering technologies have given researchers the ability to control when and where a specific gene or mutation is activated or deleted, allowing investigators to narrow the role of the gene’s function to circumscribed neural pathways and across development. These technologies are important for all areas of neuroscience, and several public and private initiatives are making a new generation of genetic-engineering tools available to the scientific community at large. Finally, high-throughput “next-generation sequencing” technologies are set to rapidly increase knowledge of the genome, epigenome, and transcriptome, which, combined with genetically engineered mouse mutants, will enhance insight into biological function. All of these resources will provide deeper insight into the genetic basis of alcoholism. PMID:23134044

Reilly, Matthew T.; Harris, R. Adron; Noronha, Antonio

2012-01-01

292

PHYLOGENOMICS - GUIDED VALIDATION OF FUNCTION FOR CONSERVED UNKNOWN GENES  

SciTech Connect

Identifying functions for all gene products in all sequenced organisms is a central challenge of the post-genomic era. However, at least 30-50% of the proteins encoded by any given genome are of unknown function, or wrongly or vaguely annotated. Many of these 'unknown' proteins are common to prokaryotes and plants. We accordingly set out to predict and experimentally test the functions of such proteins. Our approach to functional prediction is integrative, coupling the extensive post-genomic resources available for plants with comparative genomics based on hundreds of microbial genomes, and functional genomic datasets from model microorganisms. The early phase is computer-assisted; later phases incorporate intellectual input from expert plant and microbial biochemists. The approach thus bridges the gap between automated homology-based annotations and the classical gene discovery efforts of experimentalists, and is much more powerful than purely computational approaches to identifying gene-function associations. Among Arabidopsis genes, we focused on those (2,325 in total) that (i) are unique or belong to families with no more than three members, (ii) are conserved between plants and prokaryotes, and (iii) have unknown or poorly known functions. Computer-assisted selection of promising targets for deeper analysis was based on homology .. independent characteristics associated in the SEED database with the prokaryotic members of each family, specifically gene clustering and phyletic spread, as well as availability of functional genomics data, and publications that could link candidate families to general metabolic areas, or to specific functions. In-depth comparative genomic analysis was then performed for about 500 top candidate families, which connected ~55 of them to general areas of metabolism and led to specific functional predictions for a subset of ~25 more. Twenty predicted functions were experimentally tested in at least one prokaryotic organism via reverse genetics, metabolic profiling, functional complementation, and recombinant protein biochemistry. Our approach predicted and validated functions for 10 formerly uncharacterized protein families common to plants and prokaryotes; none of these functions had previously been correctly predicted by computational methods. The functions of five more are currently being validated. Experimental testing of diverse representatives of these families combined with in silica analysis allowed accurate projection of the annotations to hundreds more sequenced genomes.

V, DE CRECY-LAGARD; D, HANSON A

2012-01-03

293

‘RetinoGenetics’: a comprehensive mutation database for genes related to inherited retinal degeneration  

PubMed Central

Inherited retinal degeneration (IRD), a leading cause of human blindness worldwide, is exceptionally heterogeneous with clinical heterogeneity and genetic variety. During the past decades, tremendous efforts have been made to explore the complex heterogeneity, and massive mutations have been identified in different genes underlying IRD with the significant advancement of sequencing technology. In this study, we developed a comprehensive database, ‘RetinoGenetics’, which contains informative knowledge about all known IRD-related genes and mutations for IRD. ‘RetinoGenetics’ currently contains 4270 mutations in 186 genes, with detailed information associated with 164 phenotypes from 934 publications and various types of functional annotations. Then extensive annotations were performed to each gene using various resources, including Gene Ontology, KEGG pathways, protein–protein interaction, mutational annotations and gene–disease network. Furthermore, by using the search functions, convenient browsing ways and intuitive graphical displays, ‘RetinoGenetics’ could serve as a valuable resource for unveiling the genetic basis of IRD. Taken together, ‘RetinoGenetics’ is an integrative, informative and updatable resource for IRD-related genetic predispositions. Database URL: http://www.retinogenetics.org/. PMID:24939193

Ran, Xia; Cai, Wei-Jun; Huang, Xiu-Feng; Liu, Qi; Lu, Fan; Qu, Jia; Wu, Jinyu; Jin, Zi-Bing

2014-01-01

294

Intra-relation reconstruction from inter-relation: miRNA to gene expression  

PubMed Central

Background In computational biology, a novel knowledge has been obtained mostly by identifying 'intra-relation,' the relation between entities on a specific biological level such as from gene expression or from microRNA (miRNA) and many such researches have been successful. However, intra-relations are not fully explaining complex cancer mechanisms because the inter-relation information between different levels of genomic data is missing, e.g. miRNA and its target genes. The 'inter-relation' between different levels of genomic data can be constructed from biological experimental data as well as genomic knowledge. Methods Previously, we have proposed a graph-based framework that integrates with multi-layers of genomic data, copy number alteration, DNA methylation, gene expression, and miRNA expression, for the cancer clinical outcome prediction. However, the limitation of previous work was that we integrated with multi-layers of genomic data without considering of inter-relationship information between genomic features. In this paper, we propose a new integrative framework that combines genomic dataset from gene expression and genomic knowledge from inter-relation between miRNA and gene expression for the clinical outcome prediction as a pilot study. Results In order to demonstrate the validity of the proposed method, the prediction of short-term/long-term survival for 82 patients in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) was adopted as a base task. Based on our results, the accuracy of our predictive model increases because of incorporation of information fused over genomic dataset from gene expression and genomic knowledge from inter-relation between miRNA and gene expression. Conclusions In the present study, the intra-relation of gene expression was reconstructed from inter-relation between miRNA and gene expression for prediction of short-term/long-term survival of GBM patients. Our finding suggests that the utilization of external knowledge representing miRNA-mediated regulation of gene expression is substantially useful for elucidating the cancer phenotype. PMID:24521265

2013-01-01

295

Titanium nanotubes activate genes related to bone formation in vitro  

PubMed Central

Background: Titanium is used worldwide to make osseointegrable devices, thanks to its favorable characteristics as mechanical proprieties and biocompatibility, demonstrated by in vivo studies with animal models and clinical trials over a forty-year period. However, the exact genetic effect of the titanium layer on cells is still not well characterized. Materials and Methods: To investigate how titanium nanotubes stimulate osteoblasts differentiation and proliferation, some osteoblast genes (SP7, RUNX2, COL3A1, COL1A1, ALPL, SPP1 and FOSL1) were analyzed by quantitative Real Time RT- PCR. Results: After 15 days, osteoblasts cultivated on titanium naotube showed the up-regulation of bone related genes SP7, ENG, FOSL1 and SPP1 and the down-regulation of RUNX2, COL3A1, COL1A1, and ALPL. After 30 days of treatment, the bone related genes SP7, ENG, FOSL1 and RUNX2 were up-regulated while COL3A1, COL1A1, ALPL and SPP1 were down-regulated. Conclusions: Our results, demonstrates that titanium nanotubes can lead to osteoblast differentiation and extracellular matrix deposition and mineralization in dental pulp stem cells by the activation of osteoblast related genes SPP1, FOSL1 and RUNX2. PMID:23814577

Pozio, Alfonso; Palmieri, Annalisa; Girardi, Ambra; Cura, Francesca; Carinci, Francesco

2012-01-01

296

Bach2 maintains T cells in a naive state by suppressing effector memory-related genes  

PubMed Central

The transcriptional repressor BTB and CNC homology 2 (Bach2) is thought to be mainly expressed in B cells with specific functions such as class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation, but its function in T cells is not known. We found equal Bach2 expression in T cells and analyzed its function using Bach2-deficient (?/?) mice. Although T-cell development was normal, numbers of peripheral naive T cells were decreased, which rapidly produced Th2 cytokines after TCR stimulation. Bach2?/? naive T cells highly expressed genes related to effector-memory T cells such as CCR4, ST-2 and Blimp-1. Enhanced expression of these genes induced Bach2?/? naive T cells to migrate toward CCR4-ligand and respond to IL33. Forced expression of Bach2 restored the expression of these genes. Using Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-seq analysis, we identified S100 calcium binding protein a, Heme oxigenase 1, and prolyl hydroxylase 3 as Bach2 direct target genes, which are highly expressed in effector-memory T cells. These findings indicate that Bach2 suppresses effector memory-related genes to maintain the naive T-cell state and regulates generation of effector-memory T cells. PMID:23754397

Tsukumo, Shin-ichi; Unno, Midori; Muto, Akihiko; Takeuchi, Arata; Kometani, Kohei; Kurosaki, Tomohiro; Igarashi, Kazuhiko; Saito, Takashi

2013-01-01

297

Defining functional distance using manifold embeddings of gene ontology annotations  

PubMed Central

Although rigorous measures of similarity for sequence and structure are now well established, the problem of defining functional relationships has been particularly daunting. Here, we present several manifold embedding techniques to compute distances between Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotations and consequently estimate functional distances between protein domains. To evaluate accuracy, we correlate the functional distance to the well established measures of sequence, structural, and phylogenetic similarities. Finally, we show that manual classification of structures into folds and superfamilies is mirrored by proximity in the newly defined function space. We show how functional distances place structure–function relationships in biological context resulting in insight into divergent and convergent evolution. The methods and results in this paper can be readily generalized and applied to a wide array of biologically relevant investigations, such as accuracy of annotation transference, the relationship between sequence, structure, and function, or coherence of expression modules. PMID:17595300

Lerman, Gilad; Shakhnovich, Boris E.

2007-01-01

298

Presence and Functionality of Mating Type Genes in the Supposedly Asexual Filamentous Fungus Aspergillus oryzae  

PubMed Central

The potential for sexual reproduction in Aspergillus oryzae was assessed by investigating the presence and functionality of MAT genes. Previous genome studies had identified a MAT1-1 gene in the reference strain RIB40. We now report the existence of a complementary MAT1-2 gene and the sequencing of an idiomorphic region from A. oryzae strain AO6. This allowed the development of a PCR diagnostic assay, which detected isolates of the MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 genotypes among 180 strains assayed, including industrial tane-koji isolates. Strains used for sake and miso production showed a near-1:1 ratio of the MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 mating types, whereas strains used for soy sauce production showed a significant bias toward the MAT1-2 mating type. MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 isogenic strains were then created by genetic manipulation of the resident idiomorph, and gene expression was compared by DNA microarray and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) methodologies under conditions in which MAT genes were expressed. Thirty-three genes were found to be upregulated more than 10-fold in either the MAT1-1 host strain or the MAT1-2 gene replacement strain relative to each other, showing that both the MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 genes functionally regulate gene expression in A. oryzae in a mating type-dependent manner, the first such report for a supposedly asexual fungus. MAT1-1 expression specifically upregulated an ?-pheromone precursor gene, but the functions of most of the genes affected were unknown. The results are consistent with a heterothallic breeding system in A. oryzae, and prospects for the discovery of a sexual cycle are discussed. PMID:22327593

Wada, Ryuta; Maruyama, Jun-ichi; Yamaguchi, Haruka; Yamamoto, Nanase; Wagu, Yutaka; Paoletti, Mathieu; Archer, David B.; Dyer, Paul S.

2012-01-01

299

Core promoter functions in the regulation of gene expression of Drosophila dorsal target genes.  

PubMed

Developmental processes are highly dependent on transcriptional regulation by RNA polymerase II. The RNA polymerase II core promoter is the ultimate target of a multitude of transcription factors that control transcription initiation. Core promoters consist of core promoter motifs, e.g. the initiator, TATA box, and the downstream core promoter element (DPE), which confer specific properties to the core promoter. Here, we explored the importance of core promoter functions in the dorsal-ventral developmental gene regulatory network. This network includes multiple genes that are activated by different nuclear concentrations of Dorsal, an NF?B homolog transcription factor, along the dorsal-ventral axis. We show that over two-thirds of Dorsal target genes contain DPE sequence motifs, which is significantly higher than the proportion of DPE-containing promoters in Drosophila genes. We demonstrate that multiple Dorsal target genes are evolutionarily conserved and functionally dependent on the DPE. Furthermore, we have analyzed the activation of key Dorsal target genes by Dorsal, as well as by another Rel family transcription factor, Relish, and the dependence of their activation on the DPE motif. Using hybrid enhancer-promoter constructs in Drosophila cells and embryo extracts, we have demonstrated that the core promoter composition is an important determinant of transcriptional activity of Dorsal target genes. Taken together, our results provide evidence for the importance of core promoter composition in the regulation of Dorsal target genes. PMID:24634215

Zehavi, Yonathan; Kuznetsov, Olga; Ovadia-Shochat, Avital; Juven-Gershon, Tamar

2014-04-25

300

Evolution of the Vertebrate Paralemmin Gene Family: Ancient Origin of Gene Duplicates Suggests Distinct Functions  

PubMed Central

Paralemmin-1 is a protein implicated in plasma membrane dynamics, the development of filopodia, neurites and dendritic spines, as well as the invasiveness and metastatic potential of cancer cells. However, little is known about its mode of action, or about the biological functions of the other paralemmin isoforms: paralemmin-2, paralemmin-3 and palmdelphin. We describe here evolutionary analyses of the paralemmin gene family in a broad range of vertebrate species. Our results suggest that the four paralemmin isoform genes (PALM1, PALM2, PALM3 and PALMD) arose by quadruplication of an ancestral gene in the two early vertebrate genome duplications. Paralemmin-1 and palmdelphin were further duplicated in the teleost fish specific genome duplication. We identified a unique sequence motif common to all paralemmins, consisting of 11 highly conserved residues of which four are invariant. A single full-length paralemmin homolog with this motif was identified in the genome of the sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus and an isolated putative paralemmin motif could be detected in the genome of the lancelet Branchiostoma floridae. This allows us to conclude that the paralemmin gene family arose early and has been maintained throughout vertebrate evolution, suggesting functional diversification and specific biological roles of the paralemmin isoforms. The paralemmin genes have also maintained specific features of gene organisation and sequence. This includes the occurrence of closely linked downstream genes, initially identified as a readthrough fusion protein with mammalian paralemmin-2 (Palm2-AKAP2). We have found evidence for such an arrangement for paralemmin-1 and -2 in several vertebrate genomes, as well as for palmdelphin and paralemmin-3 in teleost fish genomes, and suggest the name paralemmin downstream genes (PDG) for this new gene family. Thus, our findings point to ancient roles for paralemmins and distinct biological functions of the gene duplicates. PMID:22855693

Hultqvist, Greta; Ocampo Daza, Daniel; Larhammar, Dan; Kilimann, Manfred W.

2012-01-01

301

Functional validation of GWAS gene candidates for abnormal liver function during zebrafish liver development  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed numerous associations between many phenotypes and gene candidates. Frequently, however, further elucidation of gene function has not been achieved. A recent GWAS identified 69 candidate genes associated with elevated liver enzyme concentrations, which are clinical markers of liver disease. To investigate the role of these genes in liver homeostasis, we narrowed down this list to 12 genes based on zebrafish orthology, zebrafish liver expression and disease correlation. To assess the function of gene candidates during liver development, we assayed hepatic progenitors at 48 hours post fertilization (hpf) and hepatocytes at 72 hpf using in situ hybridization following morpholino knockdown in zebrafish embryos. Knockdown of three genes (pnpla3, pklr and mapk10) decreased expression of hepatic progenitor cells, whereas knockdown of eight genes (pnpla3, cpn1, trib1, fads2, slc2a2, pklr, mapk10 and samm50) decreased cell-specific hepatocyte expression. We then induced liver injury in zebrafish embryos using acetaminophen exposure and observed changes in liver toxicity incidence in morphants. Prioritization of GWAS candidates and morpholino knockdown expedites the study of newly identified genes impacting liver development and represents a feasible method for initial assessment of candidate genes to instruct further mechanistic analyses. Our analysis can be extended to GWAS for additional disease-associated phenotypes. PMID:23813869

Liu, Leah Y.; Fox, Caroline S.; North, Trista E.; Goessling, Wolfram

2013-01-01

302

Functional validation of GWAS gene candidates for abnormal liver function during zebrafish liver development.  

PubMed

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed numerous associations between many phenotypes and gene candidates. Frequently, however, further elucidation of gene function has not been achieved. A recent GWAS identified 69 candidate genes associated with elevated liver enzyme concentrations, which are clinical markers of liver disease. To investigate the role of these genes in liver homeostasis, we narrowed down this list to 12 genes based on zebrafish orthology, zebrafish liver expression and disease correlation. To assess the function of gene candidates during liver development, we assayed hepatic progenitors at 48 hours post fertilization (hpf) and hepatocytes at 72 hpf using in situ hybridization following morpholino knockdown in zebrafish embryos. Knockdown of three genes (pnpla3, pklr and mapk10) decreased expression of hepatic progenitor cells, whereas knockdown of eight genes (pnpla3, cpn1, trib1, fads2, slc2a2, pklr, mapk10 and samm50) decreased cell-specific hepatocyte expression. We then induced liver injury in zebrafish embryos using acetaminophen exposure and observed changes in liver toxicity incidence in morphants. Prioritization of GWAS candidates and morpholino knockdown expedites the study of newly identified genes impacting liver development and represents a feasible method for initial assessment of candidate genes to instruct further mechanistic analyses. Our analysis can be extended to GWAS for additional disease-associated phenotypes. PMID:23813869

Liu, Leah Y; Fox, Caroline S; North, Trista E; Goessling, Wolfram

2013-09-01

303

Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Insights into Inflammatory Genes  

PubMed Central

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects approximately 8.7% of elderly people worldwide (>55 years old). AMD is characterized by a multifactorial aetiology that involves several genetic and environmental risk factors (genes, ageing, smoking, family history, dietary habits, oxidative stress, and hypertension). In particular, ageing and cigarette smoking (including oxidative compounds and reactive oxygen species) have been shown to significantly increase susceptibility to the disease. Furthermore, different genes (CFH, CFI, C2, C3, IL-6, IL-8, and ARMS2) that play a crucial role in the inflammatory pathway have been associated with AMD risk. Several genetic and molecular studies have indicated the participation of inflammatory molecules (cytokines and chemokines), immune cells (macrophages), and complement proteins in the development and progression of the disease. Taking into consideration the genetic and molecular background, this review highlights the genetic role of inflammatory genes involved in AMD pathogenesis and progression. PMID:25478207

Ragazzo, Michele; Missiroli, Filippo; Borgiani, Paola; Angelucci, Francesco; Marsella, Luigi Tonino; Cusumano, Andrea; Novelli, Giuseppe; Ricci, Federico; Giardina, Emiliano

2014-01-01

304

29 CFR 1208.4 - Material relating to representation function.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Material relating to representation function. 1208.4 Section 1208... § 1208.4 Material relating to representation function. (a) The documents...evidence submitted in connection with a representation dispute and the investigatory...

2011-07-01

305

29 CFR 1208.4 - Material relating to representation function.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Material relating to representation function. 1208.4 Section 1208... § 1208.4 Material relating to representation function. (a) The documents...evidence submitted in connection with a representation dispute and the investigatory...

2012-07-01

306

29 CFR 1208.4 - Material relating to representation function.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Material relating to representation function. 1208.4 Section 1208... § 1208.4 Material relating to representation function. (a) The documents...evidence submitted in connection with a representation dispute and the investigatory...

2010-07-01

307

A Functional Gene Array for Detection of Bacterial Virulence Elements  

PubMed Central

Emerging known and unknown pathogens create profound threats to public health. Platforms for rapid detection and characterization of microbial agents are critically needed to prevent and respond to disease outbreaks. Available detection technologies cannot provide broad functional information about known or novel organisms. As a step toward developing such a system, we have produced and tested a series of high-density functional gene arrays to detect elements of virulence and antibiotic resistance mechanisms. Our first generation array targets genes from Escherichia coli strains K12 and CFT073, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus. We determined optimal probe design parameters for gene family detection and discrimination. When tested with organisms at varying phylogenetic distances from the four target strains, the array detected orthologs for the majority of targeted gene families present in bacteria belonging to the same taxonomic family. In combination with whole-genome amplification, the array detects femtogram concentrations of purified DNA, either spiked in to an aerosol sample background, or in combinations from one or more of the four target organisms. This is the first report of a high density NimbleGen microarray system targeting microbial antibiotic resistance and virulence mechanisms. By targeting virulence gene families as well as genes unique to specific biothreat agents, these arrays will provide important data about the pathogenic potential and drug resistance profiles of unknown organisms in environmental samples. PMID:18478124

Jaing, Crystal; Gardner, Shea; McLoughlin, Kevin; Mulakken, Nisha; Alegria-Hartman, Michelle; Banda, Phillip; Williams, Peter; Gu, Pauline; Wagner, Mark; Manohar, Chitra; Slezak, Tom

2008-01-01

308

A Dickkopf- 3-related gene is expressed in differentiating nematocytes in the basal metazoan Hydra.  

PubMed

In vertebrate development the Dickkopf protein family carries out multiple functions and is represented by at least four different genes with distinct biological activities. In invertebrates such as Drosophila and Caenorhabditis, Dickkopf genes have so far not been identified. Here we describe the identification and characterization of a Dickkopf gene with a deduced amino acid sequence closely related to that of chicken Dkk-3 in the basal metazoan Hydra. HyDkk-3 appears to be the only Dickkopf gene in Hydra. The gene is expressed in the gastric region in nematocytes at a late differentiation stage. In silico searches of EST and genome databases indicated the absence of Dkk genes from the protostomes Drosophila and Caenorhabditis, whereas within the deuterostomes, a Dkk-3 gene could be identified in the genome of the urochordate Ciona intestinalis. The results indicate that at an early stage of evolution of multicellularity Dickkopf proteins have already played important roles as developmental signals. They also suggest that vertebrate Dkk-1, 2 and 4 may have originated from a common ancestor gene of Dkk-3. PMID:14727109

Fedders, Henning; Augustin, René; Bosch, Thomas C G

2004-02-01

309

Gene-Gene Interaction and Functional Impact of Polymorphisms on Innate Immune Genes in Controlling Plasmodium falciparum Blood Infection Level  

PubMed Central

Genetic variations in toll-like receptors and cytokine genes of the innate immune pathways have been implicated in controlling parasite growth and the pathogenesis of Plasmodium falciparum mediated malaria. We previously published genetic association of TLR4 non-synonymous and TNF-? promoter polymorphisms with P.falciparum blood infection level and here we extend the study considerably by (i) investigating genetic dependence of parasite-load on interleukin-12B polymorphisms, (ii) reconstructing gene-gene interactions among candidate TLRs and cytokine loci, (iii) exploring genetic and functional impact of epistatic models and (iv) providing mechanistic insights into functionality of disease-associated regulatory polymorphisms. Our data revealed that carriage of AA (P?=?0.0001) and AC (P?=?0.01) genotypes of IL12B 3?UTR polymorphism was associated with a significant increase of mean log-parasitemia relative to rare homozygous genotype CC. Presence of IL12B+1188 polymorphism in five of six multifactor models reinforced its strong genetic impact on malaria phenotype. Elevation of genetic risk in two-component models compared to the corresponding single locus and reduction of IL12B (2.2 fold) and lymphotoxin-? (1.7 fold) expressions in patients'peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells under TLR4Thr399Ile risk genotype background substantiated the role of Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction derived models. Marked reduction of promoter activity of TNF-? risk haplotype (C-C-G-G) compared to wild-type haplotype (T-C-G-G) with (84%) and without (78%) LPS stimulation and the loss of binding of transcription factors detected in-silico supported a causal role of TNF-1031. Significantly lower expression of IL12B+1188 AA (5 fold) and AC (9 fold) genotypes compared to CC and under-representation (P?=?0.0048) of allele A in transcripts of patients' PBMCs suggested an Allele-Expression-Imbalance. Allele (A+1188C) dependent differential stability (2 fold) of IL12B-transcripts upon actinomycin-D treatment and observed structural modulation (P?=?0.013) of RNA-ensemble were the plausible explanations for AEI. In conclusion, our data provides functional support to the hypothesis that de-regulated receptor-cytokine axis of innate immune pathway influences blood infection level in P. falciparum malaria. PMID:23071570

Basu, Madhumita; Das, Tania; Ghosh, Alip; Majumder, Subhadipa; Maji, Ardhendu Kumar; Kanjilal, Sumana Datta; Mukhopadhyay, Indranil; Roychowdhury, Susanta; Banerjee, Soma; Sengupta, Sanghamitra

2012-01-01

310

Towards the Discovery of Diseases Related by Genes Using Vertex Similarity Measures  

E-print Network

Towards the Discovery of Diseases Related by Genes Using Vertex Similarity Measures Hung-Hsuan Chen--Discovering the relationships of gene to gene, gene to its related diseases, and diseases implicated in common genes is important. However, traditional biological methods can be expensive. Here, we show that the diseases

Giles, C. Lee

311

Gene co-expression network and function modules in three types of glioma.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to identify the disease?associated genes and their functions involved in the development of three types of glioma (astrocytoma, glioblastoma and oligodendroglioma) with DNA microarray technology, and to analyze their differences and correlations. First, the gene expression profile GSE4290 was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, then the probe?level data were pre?processed and the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified with limma package in R language. Gene functions of the selected DEGs were further analyzed with the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery. After the co?expression network of DEGs was constructed by Cytoscape, the functional modules were mined and enrichment analysis was performed, and then the similarities and differences between any two types of glioma were compared. A total of 1151 genes between normal and astrocytoma tissues, 684 genes between normal and malignant glioma tissues, and 551 genes between normal and oligodendroglioma tissues were filtered as DEGs, respectively. By constructing co?expression networks of DEGs, a total of 77232, 455 and 987 interactions were involved in the differentially co?expressed networks of astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma and glioblastoma, respectively. The functions of DEGs were consistent with the modules in astrocytoma, glioblastoma and oligodendroglioma, which were mainly enriched in neuron signal transmission, immune responses and synthesis of organic acids, respectively. Model functions of astrocytoma and glioblastoma were similar (mainly related with immune response), while the model functions of oligodendroglioma differed markedly from that of the other two types. The identification of the associations among these three types of glioma has potential clinical utility for improving the diagnosis of different types of glioma in the future. In addition, these results have marked significance in studying the underlying mechanisms, distinguishing between normal and cancer tissues, and examining novel therapeutic strategies for patients with glioma. PMID:25435164

Li, Gang; Pan, Weiran; Yang, Xiaoxiao; Miao, Jinming

2015-04-01

312

Promoter methylation of tumor-related genes in gastric carcinogenesis.  

PubMed

Aberrant promoter methylation and subsequent silencing of cancer-related genes has been recognized as an important pathway involved in gastric carcinogenesis. In fact, several factors are believed to contribute to its induction in gastric epithelia, including aging, diet, chronic inflammation and infection of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). However, the underling mechanisms are not completely identified, despite the belief that increased expression or activity of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), or decreased demethylation activity may contribute to the excessive methylation. A great number of genes with promoter methylation have been observed in gastric cancer (GC), among which p16INK4A (p16), Mut L homologue 1 (MLH1), Epithelial-cadherin (E-cadherin), Runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3), adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), Ras association domain family 1A (RASSF1A) and Death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) have been extensively studied. Unlike the distinct methylation characterization in single genes, methylation analysis of multiple genes may provide more information in risk prediction, early detection, prognosis assessment and chemotherapy choice for GC. Specifically, particular monitoring and screening should be performed on those over 45 years old, with precancerous gastric disease or infection of H. pylori or EBV. As an alternative to tumor tissues, methylation detection in patient sera or gastric washes may also be used in risk prediction and early detection. However, what still poses a great challenge as well as a puzzle is the determination of the very genes that should be used in methylation analysis. Because epigenetic alterations are normally reversible, drugs or chemical compounds with demethylating activity, such as 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) could be used in the treatment of patients with multiple gene methylation. In view of the adverse effects of 5-aza-dC, DNMT-targeted strategy has been proposed and may prove to be more effective than demethylating agents. PMID:22936446

Zhao, Chenghai; Bu, Xianmin

2012-10-01

313

Calcitonin gene-related peptide: key regulator of cutaneous immunity.  

PubMed

Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) has been viewed as a neuropeptide and vasodilator. However, CGRP is more appropriately thought of as a pleiotropic signalling molecule. Indeed, CGRP has key regulatory functions on immune and inflammatory processes within the skin. CGRP-containing nerves are intimately associated with epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs), and CGRP has profound regulatory effects on Langerhans cell antigen-presenting capability. When LCs are exposed to CGRP in vitro, their ability to present antigen for in vivo priming of naïve mice or elicitation of delayed-type hypersensitivity is inhibited in at least some situations. Administration of CGRP intradermally inhibits acquisition of immunity to Th1-dominant haptens applied to the injected site while augmenting immunity to Th2-dominant haptens, although the cellular targets of activity in these experiments remain unclear. Although CGRP can be a pro-inflammatory agent, several studies have demonstrated that administration of CGRP can inhibit the elicitation of inflammation by inflammatory stimuli in vivo. In this regard, CGRP inhibits the release of certain chemokines by stimulated endothelial cells. This is likely to be physiologically relevant as cutaneous blood vessels are innervated by sensory nerves. Exciting new studies suggest a significant role for CGRP in the pathogenesis of psoriasis and, most strikingly, that CGRP inhibits the ability of LCs to transmit the human immunodeficiency virus 1 to T lymphocytes. A more complete understanding of the role of CGRP in the skin immune system may lead to new and novel approaches for the therapy of immune-mediated skin disorders. PMID:25534428

Granstein, R D; Wagner, J A; Stohl, L L; Ding, W

2015-03-01

314

Effects of microcystin-LR on bacterial and fungal functional genes profile in rat gut.  

PubMed

The short-term exposure to microcystin-LR (MC-LR, one of the most common and toxic variants generated by toxigenic cyanobacteria) induced gut dysfunction such as generation of reactive oxygen species, cell erosion and deficient intestinal absorption of nutrients. However, till now, little is known about its impact on gut microbial community, which has been considered as necessary metabolic assistant and stresses resistant entities for the host. This study was designed to reveal the shift of microbial functional genes in the gut of rat orally gavaged with MC-LR. GeoChip detected a high diversity of bacterial and fungal genes involved in basic metabolic processes and stress resistance. The results showed that the composition of functional genes was significantly changed in rat gut after one week of exposure to MC-LR, and we found some relatively enriched genes that are involved in carbon degradation including chitin, starch and limonene metabolism, and these genes were mainly derived from fungal and bacterial pathogens. In addition, we found large amounts of significantly enriched genes relevant to degradation of the specific carbon compounds, aromatics. The dysbiosis of bacterial and fungal flora gave an implication of pathogens invasion. The enriched gene functions could be linked to acute gastroenteritis induced by MC-LR. PMID:25617596

Lin, Juan; Chen, Jun; He, Jun; Chen, Jing; Yan, Qingyun; Zhou, Jizhong; Xie, Ping

2015-03-01

315

The maize brown midrib4 (bm4) gene encodes a functional folylpolyglutamate synthase  

PubMed Central

Mutations in the brown midrib4 (bm4) gene affect the accumulation and composition of lignin in maize. Fine-mapping analysis of bm4 narrowed the candidate region to an approximately 105 kb interval on chromosome 9 containing six genes. Only one of these six genes, GRMZM2G393334, showed decreased expression in mutants. At least four of 10 Mu-induced bm4 mutant alleles contain a Mu insertion in the GRMZM2G393334 gene. Based on these results, we concluded that GRMZM2G393334 is the bm4 gene. GRMZM2G393334 encodes a putative folylpolyglutamate synthase (FPGS), which functions in one-carbon (C1) metabolism to polyglutamylate substrates of folate-dependent enzymes. Yeast complementation experiments demonstrated that expression of the maize bm4 gene in FPGS-deficient met7 yeast is able to rescue the yeast mutant phenotype, thus demonstrating that bm4 encodes a functional FPGS. Consistent with earlier studies, bm4 mutants exhibit a modest decrease in lignin concentration and an overall increase in the S:G lignin ratio relative to wild-type. Orthologs of bm4 include at least one paralogous gene in maize and various homologs in other grasses and dicots. Discovery of the gene underlying the bm4 maize phenotype illustrates a role for FPGS in lignin biosynthesis. PMID:25495051

Li, Li; Hill-Skinner, Sarah; Liu, Sanzhen; Beuchle, Danielle; Tang, Ho Man; Yeh, Cheng-Ting; Nettleton, Dan; Schnable, Patrick S

2015-01-01

316

The maize brown midrib4 (bm4) gene encodes a functional folylpolyglutamate synthase.  

PubMed

Mutations in the brown midrib4 (bm4) gene affect the accumulation and composition of lignin in maize. Fine-mapping analysis of bm4 narrowed the candidate region to an approximately 105 kb interval on chromosome 9 containing six genes. Only one of these six genes, GRMZM2G393334, showed decreased expression in mutants. At least four of 10 Mu-induced bm4 mutant alleles contain a Mu insertion in the GRMZM2G393334 gene. Based on these results, we concluded that GRMZM2G393334 is the bm4 gene. GRMZM2G393334 encodes a putative folylpolyglutamate synthase (FPGS), which functions in one-carbon (C1) metabolism to polyglutamylate substrates of folate-dependent enzymes. Yeast complementation experiments demonstrated that expression of the maize bm4 gene in FPGS-deficient met7 yeast is able to rescue the yeast mutant phenotype, thus demonstrating that bm4 encodes a functional FPGS. Consistent with earlier studies, bm4 mutants exhibit a modest decrease in lignin concentration and an overall increase in the S:G lignin ratio relative to wild-type. Orthologs of bm4 include at least one paralogous gene in maize and various homologs in other grasses and dicots. Discovery of the gene underlying the bm4 maize phenotype illustrates a role for FPGS in lignin biosynthesis. PMID:25495051

Li, Li; Hill-Skinner, Sarah; Liu, Sanzhen; Beuchle, Danielle; Tang, Ho Man; Yeh, Cheng-Ting; Nettleton, Dan; Schnable, Patrick S

2015-02-01

317

Functional demarcation of the Fusarium core trichothecene gene cluster.  

PubMed

Many Fusarium species produce toxic sesquiterpenoids known as trichothecenes, including deoxynivalenol and nivalenol by Fusarium graminearum and T-2 toxin by Fusarium sporotrichioides. These toxins are potent inhibitors of protein synthesis and are a significant agricultural problem due to their adverse affect on human, animal, and plant health. Previously, 10-12 co-regulated orthologous genes within a 26-kb region were identified in F. graminearum and F. sporotrichioides, respectively. A majority of these clustered genes have been shown to be involved in different aspects of trichothecene metabolism including 7 of 15 biosynthetic steps. Three other biosynthetic steps are carried out by genes located elsewhere in the genome. In this study, we sequenced 14-16 kb of DNA on both sides of the core clusters and identified 12 new ORFs in both Fusarium species. Although the predicted functions of some of the new ORFs are consistent with some unassigned biochemical reactions, gene expression and gene deletion studies indicate that none are required for trichothecene biosynthesis. These results provide evidence to demarcate both ends of the core trichothecene gene cluster. Index descriptors: Fungal secondary metabolite, Pathogenic fungi, Gene cluster, Fusarium, Trichothecene, DON PMID:14998528

Brown, Daren W; Dyer, Rex B; McCormick, Susan P; Kendra, David F; Plattner, Ronald D

2004-04-01

318

Structural and functional analysis of aldolase B mutants related to hereditary fructose intolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) is a recessively inherited disorder of carbohydrate metabolism caused by impaired function of human liver aldolase (B isoform). 25 enzyme-impairing mutations have been identified in the aldolase B gene. We have studied the HFI-related mutant recombinant proteins W147R, A149P, A174D, L256P, N334K and ?6ex6 in relation to aldolase B function and structure using kinetic assays and

Gabriella Esposito; Luigi Vitagliano; Rita Santamaria; Antonietta Viola; Adriana Zagari; Francesco Salvatore

2002-01-01

319

Functional association networks as priors for gene regulatory network inference  

PubMed Central

Motivation: Gene regulatory network (GRN) inference reveals the influences genes have on one another in cellular regulatory systems. If the experimental data are inadequate for reliable inference of the network, informative priors have been shown to improve the accuracy of inferences. Results: This study explores the potential of undirected, confidence-weighted networks, such as those in functional association databases, as a prior source for GRN inference. Such networks often erroneously indicate symmetric interaction between genes and may contain mostly correlation-based interaction information. Despite these drawbacks, our testing on synthetic datasets indicates that even noisy priors reflect some causal information that can improve GRN inference accuracy. Our analysis on yeast data indicates that using the functional association databases FunCoup and STRING as priors can give a small improvement in GRN inference accuracy with biological data. Contact: matthew.studham@scilifelab.se Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:24931976

Studham, Matthew E.; Nordling, Torbjörn E.M.; Nelander, Sven; Sonnhammer, Erik L. L.

2014-01-01

320

Ascorbate peroxidase-related (APx-R) is not a duplicable gene  

PubMed Central

Phylogenetic, genomic and functional analyses have allowed the identification of a new class of putative heme peroxidases, so called APx-R (APx-Related). These new class, mainly present in the green lineage (including green algae and land plants), can also be detected in other unicellular chloroplastic organisms. Except for recent polyploid organisms, only single-copy of APx-R gene was detected in each genome, suggesting that the majority of the APx-R extra-copies were lost after chromosomal or segmental duplications. In a similar way, most APx-R co-expressed genes in Arabidopsis genome do not have conserved extra-copies after chromosomal duplications and are predicted to be localized in organelles, as are the APx-R. The member of this gene network can be considered as unique gene, well conserved through the evolution due to a strong negative selection pressure and a low evolution rate. PMID:22231200

Dunand, Christophe; Mathé, Catherine; Lazzarotto, Fernanda; Margis, Rogério; Margis-Pinheiro, Marcia

2011-01-01

321

Functional screening in Drosophila identifies Alzheimer's disease susceptibility genes  

E-print Network

Functional screening in Drosophila identifies Alzheimer's disease susceptibility genes and implicates Tau-mediated mechanisms Joshua M. Shulman1,2,3, , Selina Imboywa4,5,7,10, Nikolaos Giagtzoglou1; Accepted September 20, 2013 Using a Drosophila model of Alzheimer's disease (AD), we systematically

Perrimon, Norbert

322

Mapping miRNA Regulation to Functional Gene Sets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distinct cellular functions and biological process of cells will likely be reflected in alteration in levels of genes as well as their regulatory components, such as the level of miRNAs. By employing systems biology approaches, we will be able to unambiguously identify the regulatory pathways and biological processes that are unique to specific disease states or responses to treatment. In

Yidong Chen; Hung-I Harry Chen; Yufei Huang

2009-01-01

323

Functional Consequences of Integrin Gene Mutations in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Integrins are cell-surface receptors responsible for cell attachment to extracellular matrices and to other cells. The application of mouse,genetics has significantly increased our understanding of integrin function in vivo. In this review, we summarize the phenotypes of mice carrying mutant integrin genes and compare them with phenotypes of

Daniel Bouvard; Cord Brakebusch; Erika Gustafsson; Attila Aszo Di; Therese Bengtsson; Alejandro Berna; Reinhard Fässler

324

Associations between DNA methylation and schizophrenia-related intermediate phenotypes - A gene set enrichment analysis.  

PubMed

Multiple genetic approaches have identified microRNAs as key effectors in psychiatric disorders as they post-transcriptionally regulate expression of thousands of target genes. However, their role in specific psychiatric diseases remains poorly understood. In addition, epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation, which affect the expression of both microRNAs and coding genes, are critical for our understanding of molecular mechanisms in schizophrenia. Using clinical, imaging, genetic, and epigenetic data of 103 patients with schizophrenia and 111 healthy controls of the Mind Clinical Imaging Consortium (MCIC) study of schizophrenia, we conducted gene set enrichment analysis to identify markers for schizophrenia-associated intermediate phenotypes. Genes were ranked based on the correlation between DNA methylation patterns and each phenotype, and then searched for enrichment in 221 predicted microRNA target gene sets. We found the predicted hsa-miR-219a-5p target gene set to be significantly enriched for genes (EPHA4, PKNOX1, ESR1, among others) whose methylation status is correlated with hippocampal volume independent of disease status. Our results were strengthened by significant associations between hsa-miR-219a-5p target gene methylation patterns and hippocampus-related neuropsychological variables. IPA pathway analysis of the respective predicted hsa-miR-219a-5p target genes revealed associated network functions in behavior and developmental disorders. Altered methylation patterns of predicted hsa-miR-219a-5p target genes are associated with a structural aberration of the brain that has been proposed as a possible biomarker for schizophrenia. The (dys)regulation of microRNA target genes by epigenetic mechanisms may confer additional risk for developing psychiatric symptoms. Further study is needed to understand possible interactions between microRNAs and epigenetic changes and their impact on risk for brain-based disorders such as schizophrenia. PMID:25598502

Hass, Johanna; Walton, Esther; Wright, Carrie; Beyer, Andreas; Scholz, Markus; Turner, Jessica; Liu, Jingyu; Smolka, Michael N; Roessner, Veit; Sponheim, Scott R; Gollub, Randy L; Calhoun, Vince D; Ehrlich, Stefan

2015-06-01

325

Interorganellar gene transfer in bryophytes: the functional nad7 gene is nuclear encoded in Marchantia polymorpha  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nad7 gene, encoding subunit 7 of NADH dehydrogenase, is mitochondrially encoded in seed plants. In the liverwort, Marchantia polymorpha, only a pseudogene is located in the mitochondrial genome. We have now identified the functional nad7 gene copy in the nuclear genome of Marchantia, coding for a polypeptide of 468 amino acids. The nuclear-encoded nad7 has lost the two group

Y. Kobayashi; V. Knoop; H. Fukuzawa; A. Brennicke; K. Ohyama

1997-01-01

326

A Multicolor Panel of Novel Lentiviral “Gene Ontology” (LeGO) Vectors for Functional Gene Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional gene analysis requires the possibility of overexpression, as well as downregulation of one, or ideally several, potentially interacting genes. Lentiviral vectors are well suited for this purpose as they ensure stable expression of complementary DNAs (cDNAs), as well as short-hairpin RNAs (shRNAs), and can efficiently transduce a wide spectrum of cell targets when packaged within the coat proteins of

Kristoffer Weber; Udo Bartsch; Carol Stocking; Boris Fehse

2008-01-01

327

Relating Functional Groups to the Periodic Table  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An introduction to organic chemistry functional groups and their ionic variants is presented. Functional groups are ordered by the position of their specific (hetero) atom in the periodic table. Lewis structures are compared with their corresponding condensed formulas. (Contains 5 tables.)

Struyf, Jef

2009-01-01

328

Functional Genomic Analysis of Cotton Genes with Agrobacterium-Mediated Virus-Induced Gene Silencing  

PubMed Central

Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is one of the most agronomically important crops worldwide for its unique textile fiber production and serving as food and feed stock. Molecular breeding and genetic engineering of useful genes into cotton have emerged as advanced approaches to improve cotton yield, fiber quality, and resistance to various stresses. However, the understanding of gene functions and regulations in cotton is largely hindered by the limited molecular and biochemical tools. Here, we describe the method of an Agrobacterium infiltration-based virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) assay to transiently silence endogenous genes in cotton at 2-week-old seedling stage. The genes of interest could be readily silenced with a consistently high efficiency. To monitor gene silencing efficiency, we have cloned cotton GrCla1 from G. raimondii, a homolog gene of Arabidopsis Cloroplastos alterados 1 (AtCla1) involved in chloroplast development, and inserted into a tobacco rattle virus (TRV) binary vector pYL156. Silencing of GrCla1 results in albino phenotype on the newly emerging leaves, serving as a visual marker for silencing efficiency. To further explore the possibility of using VIGS assay to reveal the essential genes mediating disease resistance to Verticillium dahliae, a fungal pathogen causing severe Verticillium wilt in cotton, we developed a seedling infection assay to inoculate cotton seedlings when the genes of interest are silenced by VIGS. The method we describe here could be further explored for functional genomic analysis of cotton genes involved in development and various biotic and abiotic stresses. PMID:23386302

Gao, Xiquan; Shan, Libo

2015-01-01

329

Functional genomic analysis of cotton genes with agrobacterium-mediated virus-induced gene silencing.  

PubMed

Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is one of the most agronomically important crops worldwide for its unique textile fiber production and serving as food and feed stock. Molecular breeding and genetic engineering of useful genes into cotton have emerged as advanced approaches to improve cotton yield, fiber quality, and resistance to various stresses. However, the understanding of gene functions and regulations in cotton is largely hindered by the limited molecular and biochemical tools. Here, we describe the method of an Agrobacterium infiltration-based virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) assay to transiently silence endogenous genes in cotton at 2-week-old seedling stage. The genes of interest could be readily silenced with a consistently high efficiency. To monitor gene silencing efficiency, we have cloned cotton GrCla1 from G. raimondii, a homolog gene of Arabidopsis Cloroplastos alterados 1 (AtCla1) involved in chloroplast development, and inserted into a tobacco rattle virus (TRV) binary vector pYL156. Silencing of GrCla1 results in albino phenotype on the newly emerging leaves, serving as a visual marker for silencing efficiency. To further explore the possibility of using VIGS assay to reveal the essential genes mediating disease resistance to Verticillium dahliae, a fungal pathogen causing severe Verticillium wilt in cotton, we developed a seedling infection assay to inoculate cotton seedlings when the genes of interest are silenced by VIGS. The method we describe here could be further explored for functional genomic analysis of cotton genes involved in development and various biotic and abiotic stresses. PMID:23386302

Gao, Xiquan; Shan, Libo

2013-01-01

330

Large-scale identification of human genes implicated in epidermal barrier function  

PubMed Central

Background During epidermal differentiation, keratinocytes progressing through the suprabasal layers undergo complex and tightly regulated biochemical modifications leading to cornification and desquamation. The last living cells, the granular keratinocytes (GKs), produce almost all of the proteins and lipids required for the protective barrier function before their programmed cell death gives rise to corneocytes. We present here the first analysis of the transcriptome of human GKs, purified from healthy epidermis by an original approach. Results Using the ORESTES method, 22,585 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were produced that matched 3,387 genes. Despite normalization provided by this method (mean 4.6 ORESTES per gene), some highly transcribed genes, including that encoding dermokine, were overrepresented. About 330 expressed genes displayed less than 100 ESTs in UniGene clusters and are most likely to be specific for GKs and potentially involved in barrier function. This hypothesis was tested by comparing the relative expression of 73 genes in the basal and granular layers of epidermis by quantitative RT-PCR. Among these, 33 were identified as new, highly specific markers of GKs, including those encoding a protease, protease inhibitors and proteins involved in lipid metabolism and transport. We identified filaggrin 2 (also called ifapsoriasin), a poorly characterized member of the epidermal differentiation complex, as well as three new lipase genes clustered with paralogous genes on chromosome 10q23.31. A new gene of unknown function, C1orf81, is specifically disrupted in the human genome by a frameshift mutation. Conclusion These data increase the present knowledge of genes responsible for the formation of the skin barrier and suggest new candidates for genodermatoses of unknown origin. PMID:17562024

Toulza, Eve; Mattiuzzo, Nicolas R; Galliano, Marie-Florence; Jonca, Nathalie; Dossat, Carole; Jacob, Daniel; de Daruvar, Antoine; Wincker, Patrick; Serre, Guy; Guerrin, Marina

2007-01-01

331

HuMiChip: Development of a Functional Gene Array for the Study of Human Microbiomes  

SciTech Connect

Microbiomes play very important roles in terms of nutrition, health and disease by interacting with their hosts. Based on sequence data currently available in public domains, we have developed a functional gene array to monitor both organismal and functional gene profiles of normal microbiota in human and mouse hosts, and such an array is called human and mouse microbiota array, HMM-Chip. First, seed sequences were identified from KEGG databases, and used to construct a seed database (seedDB) containing 136 gene families in 19 metabolic pathways closely related to human and mouse microbiomes. Second, a mother database (motherDB) was constructed with 81 genomes of bacterial strains with 54 from gut and 27 from oral environments, and 16 metagenomes, and used for selection of genes and probe design. Gene prediction was performed by Glimmer3 for bacterial genomes, and by the Metagene program for metagenomes. In total, 228,240 and 801,599 genes were identified for bacterial genomes and metagenomes, respectively. Then the motherDB was searched against the seedDB using the HMMer program, and gene sequences in the motherDB that were highly homologous with seed sequences in the seedDB were used for probe design by the CommOligo software. Different degrees of specific probes, including gene-specific, inclusive and exclusive group-specific probes were selected. All candidate probes were checked against the motherDB and NCBI databases for specificity. Finally, 7,763 probes covering 91.2percent (12,601 out of 13,814) HMMer confirmed sequences from 75 bacterial genomes and 16 metagenomes were selected. This developed HMM-Chip is able to detect the diversity and abundance of functional genes, the gene expression of microbial communities, and potentially, the interactions of microorganisms and their hosts.

Tu, Q.; Deng, Ye; Lin, Lu; Hemme, Chris L.; He, Zhili; Zhou, Jizhong

2010-05-17

332

Characterisation of Mal d 1-related genes in Malus  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been suggested that there are at least 15 Mal d 1-related (PR10) genes in one genotype of apple (Malus?×?domestica Borkh.). We sequenced cDNA libraries of cultivar ‘Royal Gala’ and identified 12 members of the Mal d 1 family, including the previously reported Mal d 1b and Mal d 1d, an allelic variant of the previously reported Mal d

Lesley L. Beuning; Judith H. Bowen; Helena A. Persson; Diane Barraclough; Sean Bulley; Elspeth A. MacRae

2004-01-01

333

The design of a gene chip for functional immunological studies on a high-quality control platform.  

PubMed

We have created an immunology-related microarray chip containing primarily known genes with well-studied functional properties. By looking at known genes rather than expressed sequence tags, we hope to gain a better understanding of immunological pathways and how they work. The immunology gene chip contains genes from the following functional categories: T cell genes; B cell genes; dendritic cell genes; chemokine and cytokine genes; apoptosis genes; cell cycle genes; cell interaction genes; general hematology and immunology genes; and adhesion genes. We have also developed a novel three-color cDNA array platform in which arrays are directly visualized before hybridization, which allows us to select only high-quality chips for our experiments. In an effort to provide quantitative quality control for each array element as well as the entire chip, we have developed Matarray, a software package for image processing and data acquisition. With Matarray, we have built a quantitative data filtering and normalization scheme that has proved to be more efficient than the existing methods. The list of immunology chip genes is available from the authors. PMID:14679077

Waukau, Jill; Jailwala, Parthav; Wang, Youmin; Khoo, Huoy-Jii; Ghosh, Soumitra; Wang, Xujing; Hessner, Martin J

2003-11-01

334

Transcriptional Analysis of Essential Genes of the Escherichia coli Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Gene Cluster by Functional Replacement with the Analogous Salmonella typhimurium Gene Cluster  

PubMed Central

The genes encoding several key fatty acid biosynthetic enzymes (called the fab cluster) are clustered in the order plsX-fabH-fabD-fabG-acpP-fabF at min 24 of the Escherichia coli chromosome. A difficulty in analysis of the fab cluster by the polar allele duplication approach (Y. Zhang and J. E. Cronan, Jr., J. Bacteriol. 178:3614–3620, 1996) is that several of these genes are essential for the growth of E. coli. We overcame this complication by use of the fab gene cluster of Salmonella typhimurium, a close relative of E. coli, to provide functions necessary for growth. The S. typhimurium fab cluster was isolated by complementation of an E. coli fabD mutant and was found to encode proteins with >94% homology to those of E. coli. However, the S. typhimurium sequences cannot recombine with the E. coli sequences required to direct polar allele duplication via homologous recombination. Using this approach, we found that although approximately 60% of the plsX transcripts initiate at promoters located far upstream and include the upstream rpmF ribosomal protein gene, a promoter located upstream of the plsX coding sequence (probably within the upstream gene, rpmF) is sufficient for normal growth. We have also found that the fabG gene is obligatorily cotranscribed with upstream genes. Insertion of a transcription terminator cassette (?-Cm cassette) between the fabD and fabG genes of the E. coli chromosome abolished fabG transcription and blocked cell growth, thus providing the first indication that fabG is an essential gene. Insertion of the ?-Cm cassette between fabH and fabD caused greatly decreased transcription of the fabD and fabG genes and slower cellular growth, indicating that fabD has only a weak promoter(s). PMID:9642179

Zhang, Yan; Cronan, John E.

1998-01-01

335

Functional conservation and diversification of class E floral homeotic genes in rice (Oryza sativa).  

PubMed

Mutant analyses in different eudicotyledonous flowering plants demonstrated that SEPALLATA-like MADS-box genes are required for the specification of sepals, petals, stamens and carpels, and for floral determinacy, thus defining class E floral organ identity genes. SEP-like genes encode MADS-domain transcription factors and constitute an angiosperm-specific gene clade whose members show remarkably different degrees of redundancy and sub-functionalization within eudicots. To better understand the evolutionary dynamics of SEP-like genes throughout the angiosperms we have knocked down SEP-like genes of rice (Oryza sativa), a distant relative of eudicots within the flowering plants. Plants affected in both OsMADS7 and OsMADS8 show severe phenotypes including late flowering, homeotic changes of lodicules, stamens and carpels into palea/lemma-like organs, and a loss of floral determinacy. Simultaneous knockdown of the four rice SEP-like genes OsMADS1, OsMADS5, OsMADS7 and OsMADS8, leads to homeotic transformation of all floral organs except the lemma into leaf-like organs. This mimics the phenotype observed with the sep1 sep2 sep3 sep4 quadruple mutant of Arabidopsis. Detailed analyses of the spatial and temporal mRNA expression and protein interaction patterns corresponding to the different rice SEP-like genes show strong similarities, but also gene-specific differences. These findings reveal conservation of SEP-like genes in specifying floral determinacy and organ identities since the separation of eudicots and monocots about 150 million years ago. However, they indicate also monocot-specific neo- and sub-functionalization events and hence underscore the evolutionary dynamics of SEP-like genes. Moreover, our findings corroborate the view that the lodicules of grasses are homologous to eudicot petals. PMID:20003164

Cui, Rongfeng; Han, Jiakun; Zhao, Suzhen; Su, Kunmei; Wu, Feng; Du, Xiaoqiu; Xu, Qijiang; Chong, Kang; Theissen, Günter; Meng, Zheng

2010-03-01

336

Characterization of thermotolerance-related genes in grapevine (Vitis vinifera).  

PubMed

We report the cloning and characterization of heat shock-induced genes in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.). Using the cDNA subtraction method, four heat shock-induced genes were identified in heat shock-treated Pinot noir grapevine. The four genes were immediately induced and upregulated in leaves and berry skins by heat treatment at 45 degrees C. The recovery treatment at 26 degrees C reduced the upregulated transcription of the heat shock-induced genes to near basal levels. The predicted amino acid sequences of three genes, HSG4, HSG14, and HSG19, showed high homologies to those of known small heat shock proteins of other plants. The predicted amino acid sequence of the fourth gene, HSG1, has two conserved motifs, the IQ motif and the Bcl-2-associated athanogene (BAG) domain, suggesting that HSG1 may be a member of the BAG family in grapevine. Although no morphological changes were observed, the overexpression Arabidopsis lines of HSG1, HSG4, HSG14, or HSG19 exhibited faster growth including floral transition than the control line, suggesting that the constitutive expression of HSG1, HSG4, HSG14, or HSG19 protein resulted in increased growth rates without any detectable harm. The thermotolerance test demonstrated that all of the overexpression lines remained viable and noticeably healthy compared with the control line even after exposure to severe heat shock, suggesting that HSG1, HSG4, HSG14, or HSG19 protein might be related to the acquisition of thermotolerance in grapevine. PMID:20096476

Kobayashi, Masayuki; Katoh, Hironori; Takayanagi, Tsutomu; Suzuki, Shunji

2010-07-01

337

Genome-wide expression analysis reveals dysregulation of myelination-related genes in chronic schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Neuropathological and brain imaging studies suggest that schizophrenia may result from neurodevelopmental defects. Cytoarchitectural studies indicate cellular abnormalities suggestive of a disruption in neuronal connectivity in schizophrenia, particularly in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Yet, the molecular mechanisms underlying these findings remain unclear. To identify molecular substrates associated with schizophrenia, DNA microarray analysis was used to assay gene expression levels in postmortem dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of schizophrenic and control patients. Genes determined to have altered expression levels in schizophrenics relative to controls are involved in a number of biological processes, including synaptic plasticity, neuronal development, neurotransmission, and signal transduction. Most notable was the differential expression of myelination-related genes suggesting a disruption in oligodendrocyte function in schizophrenia. PMID:11296301

Hakak, Yaron; Walker, John R.; Li, Cheng; Wong, Wing Hung; Davis, Kenneth L.; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Haroutunian, Vahram; Fienberg, Allen A.

2001-01-01

338

Baculoviruses deficient in ie1 gene function abrogate viral gene expression in transduced mammalian cells  

SciTech Connect

One of the newest niches for baculoviruses-based technologies is their use as vectors for mammalian cell transduction and gene therapy applications. However, an outstanding safety issue related to such use is the residual expression of viral genes in infected mammalian cells. Here we show that infectious baculoviruses lacking the major transcriptional regulator, IE1, can be produced in insect host cells stably transformed with IE1 expression constructs lacking targets of homologous recombination that could promote the generation of wt-like revertants. Such ie1-deficient baculoviruses are unable to direct viral gene transcription to any appreciable degree and do not replicate in normal insect host cells. Most importantly, the residual viral gene expression, which occurs in mammalian cells infected with wt baculoviruses is reduced 10 to 100 fold in cells infected with ie1-deficient baculoviruses. Thus, ie1-deficient baculoviruses offer enhanced safety features to baculovirus-based vector systems destined for use in gene therapy applications.

Efrose, Rodica; Swevers, Luc; Iatrou, Kostas, E-mail: iatrou@bio.demokritos.g

2010-10-25

339

MiR-210 disturbs mitotic progression through regulating a group of mitosis-related genes  

PubMed Central

MiR-210 is up-regulated in multiple cancer types but its function is disputable and further investigation is necessary. Using a bioinformatics approach, we identified the putative target genes of miR-210 in hypoxia-induced CNE cells from genome-wide scale. Two functional gene groups related to cell cycle and RNA processing were recognized as the major targets of miR-210. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism and biological consequence of miR-210 in cell cycle regulation, particularly mitosis. Hypoxia-induced up-regulation of miR-210 was highly correlated with the down-regulation of a group of mitosis-related genes, including Plk1, Cdc25B, Cyclin F, Bub1B and Fam83D. MiR-210 suppressed the expression of these genes by directly targeting their 3?-UTRs. Over-expression of exogenous miR-210 disturbed mitotic progression and caused aberrant mitosis. Furthermore, miR-210 mimic with pharmacological doses reduced tumor formation in a mouse metastatic tumor model. Taken together, these results implicate that miR-210 disturbs mitosis through targeting multi-genes involved in mitotic progression, which may contribute to its inhibitory role on tumor formation. PMID:23125370

He, Jie; Wu, Jiangbin; Xu, Naihan; Xie, Weidong; Li, Mengnan; Li, Jianna; Jiang, Yuyang; Yang, Burton B.; Zhang, Yaou

2013-01-01

340

Age related diastolic function in amateur athletes.  

PubMed

Diastolic function get worse with increasing age. Aim of this study was to investigate the impact of aerobic training on diastolic function with increasing age with speckle tracking echocardiography. We enrolled 125 amateur swimmers (AG), divided in three groups at increasing age: young athletes, adult athletes (AG2), old athletes (AG3). We enrolled 95 sedentary controls (SG) age-matched with athletes and divided into three groups: young sedentary group, adult sedentary group (SG2) and old sedentary group (SG3). AG had better diastolic function than SG. AG showed lower left ventricular twist than controls. E/A ratio got worse at increasing of age in all population (r = -0.34; p < 0.001); particularly in SG2 and SG3 there was a worsening of diastolic function respect to diastolic function of AG2 and AG3; in fact E/A ratio decreased with aging. Furthermore in SG E/A ratio showed a linear correlation with age (r = -0.54; p < 0.001); in AG this correlation was lost. Therefore the training and age were independent predictor of E/A (respectively ? = -0.27; p = 0.004; ? = -0.24, p = 0.008). Regular and aerobic training may minimize aging changes of diastolic function. This training-effect may play a key role to preserve diastolic filling in older athletes. PMID:25795025

Santoro, Amato; Alvino, Federico; Antonelli, Giovanni; Cassano, Francesco Emmanuel; De Vito, Raffaella; Cameli, Matteo; Mondillo, Sergio

2015-03-01

341

Molecular cloning of allelopathy related genes and their relation to HHO in Eupatorium adenophorum.  

PubMed

In this study, conserved sequence regions of HMGR, DXR, and CHS (encoding 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase, 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase and chalcone synthase, respectively) were amplified by reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR from Eupatorium adenophorum. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that the expression of CHS was related to the level of HHO, an allelochemical isolated from E. adenophorum. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed that there was no significant difference in expression of genes among three different tissues, except for CHS. Southern blotting indicated that at least three CHS genes are present in the E. adenophorum genome. A full-length cDNA from CHS genes (named EaCHS1, GenBank ID: FJ913888) was cloned. The 1,455 bp cDNA contained an open reading frame (1,206 bp) encoding a protein of 401 amino acids. Preliminary bioinformatics analysis of EaCHS1 revealed that EaCHS1 was a member of CHS family, the subcellular localization predicted that EaCHS1 was a cytoplasmic protein. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of conserved sequences of these genes and of a full-length EaCHS1 gene in E. adenophorum. The results indicated that CHS gene is related to allelopathy of E. adenophorum. PMID:21127986

Guo, Huiming; Pei, Xixiang; Wan, Fanghao; Cheng, Hongmei

2011-10-01

342

Use of functional gene arrays for elucidating in situ biodegradation  

PubMed Central

Microarrays have revolutionized the study of microbiology by providing a high-throughput method for examining thousands of genes with a single test and overcome the limitations of many culture-independent approaches. Functional gene arrays (FGA) probe a wide range of genes involved in a variety of functions of interest to microbial ecology (e.g., carbon degradation, N fixation, metal resistance) from many different microorganisms, cultured and uncultured. The most comprehensive FGA to date is the GeoChip array, which targets tens of thousands of genes involved in the geochemical cycling of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur, metal resistance and reduction, energy processing, antibiotic resistance and contaminant degradation as well as phylogenetic information (gyrB). Since the development of GeoChips, many studies have been performed using this FGA and have shown it to be a powerful tool for rapid, sensitive, and specific examination of microbial communities in a high-throughput manner. As such, the GeoChip is well-suited for linking geochemical processes with microbial community function and structure. This technology has been used successfully to examine microbial communities before, during, and after in situ bioremediation at a variety of contaminated sites. These studies have expanded our understanding of biodegradation and bioremediation processes and the associated microorganisms and environmental conditions responsible. This review provides an overview of FGA development with a focus on the GeoChip and highlights specific GeoChip studies involving in situ bioremediation. PMID:23049526

Nostrand, Joy D. Van; He, Zhili; Zhou, Jizhong

2012-01-01

343

The Drosophila gene escargot encodes a zinc finger motif found in snail-related genes.  

PubMed

Two independent P-element enhancer detection lines were obtained that express lacZ in a pattern of longitudinal stripes early in germband elongation. In this paper, molecular and genetic characterization of a gene located near these transposons is presented. Sequence analysis of a cDNA clone from the region reveals that this gene has a high degree of similarity with the Drosophila snail gene (Boulay et al., 1987). The sequence similarity extends over 400 nucleotides, and includes a region encoding five tandem zinc finger motifs (72% nucleotide identity; 76% amino acid identity). This region is also conserved in the snail homologue from Xenopus laevis (76% nucleotide identity; 83% amino acid identity) (Sargent and Bennett, 1990). We have named the Drosophila snail-related gene escargot (esg), and the region of sequence conservation common to all three genes the 'snailbox'. A number of Drosophila genomic DNA fragments cross-hybridize to a probe from the snailbox region suggesting that snail and escargot are members of a multigene family. The expression pattern of escargot is dynamic and complex. Early in germband elongation, escargot RNA is expressed in a pattern of longitudinal stripes identical to the one observed in the two enhancer detection lines. Later in development, escargot is expressed in cells that will form the larval imaginal tissues, escargot is allelic with l(2)35Ce, an essential gene located near snail in the genome. PMID:1571289

Whiteley, M; Noguchi, P D; Sensabaugh, S M; Odenwald, W F; Kassis, J A

1992-02-01

344

Changes of the expressions of immune-related genes after ventromedial hypothalamic lesioning. Systematic review of the literature.  

PubMed

Over the past 20 years, the functional autonomy of both the immune and central nervous systems has been successfully challenged. Although the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) is one of the centers of parasympathetic nervous system, to date, there has been little reported regarding the role of the hypothalamus in directly changing the expression of immune-related genes. Recently, it has been reported that VMH lesions can directly change the expression of immune-related gene families. The present review focuses on the relationships between the VMH and the expressions of immune-related genes. PMID:23411096

Kiba, Takayoshi; Yagyu, Kiyomi

2013-04-15

345

Functional Studies of Regulatory Genes in the Sea Urchin Embryo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea urchin embryos are characterized by an extremely simple mode of development, rapid cleavage, high transparency, and well-defined cell lineage. Although they are not suitable for genetic studies, other approaches are successfully used to unravel mechanisms and molecules involved in cell fate specification and morphogenesis. Microinjection is the elective method to study gene function in sea urchin embryos. It is used to deliver precise amounts of DNA, RNA, oligonucleotides, peptides, or antibodies into the eggs or even into blastomeres. Here we describe microinjection as it is currently applied in our laboratory and show how it has been used in gene perturbation analyses and dissection of cis-regulatory DNA elements.

Cavalieri, Vincenzo; Bernardo, Maria Di; Spinelli, Giovanni

346

Transcriptome analysis revealed positive selection of immune-related genes in tilapia.  

PubMed

High-throughput sequencing of transcriptome promises a new approach for detecting evolutionary divergence among species. Up to now, the information about evolution of immune genes in cultured fish, especially in tilapias which would aid to understand the molecular basis of immune phenotypic differentiation is still lack. Thus, in the present study, we used high-throughput sequencing to obtain large amount of gene sequences in blue tilapia and characterized the diversity of orthologs among Nile tilapia, blue tilapia and zebrafish. A total of 52,424,506 raw reads, representing 31,404 unigenes were obtained from blue tilapia cDNA library of mixed tissues, including brain, pituitary, gill, heart, liver, spleen, kidney, intestine, muscle, testis and ovary. Based on Ks value, we calculated that the divergence time between Nile tilapia and blue tilapia is 2.93 million years ago. And the tilapias are both apart from zebrafish in 197 million years ago. Furthermore, the positive selected genes were identified by calculating of Ka/Ks ratio. Several immune-related genes were identified as positively selected genes, such as Notch2 and nfatc3b. Considering that these genes play crucial role in immune regulating function, the immune system genes met a great variation under environment selection in tilapias which suggests fast evolution in immune system of cultured tilapias. PMID:25659230

Xiao, Jun; Zhong, Huan; Liu, Zhen; Yu, Fan; Luo, Yongju; Gan, Xi; Zhou, Yi

2015-05-01

347

Status of genes encoding the mitochondrial S1 ribosomal protein in closely-related legumes.  

PubMed

The rps1 gene, which encodes ribosomal protein S1 of the mitochondrial ribosome in flowering plants, is located in the mitochondrion of some but not all species, and this is assumed to reflect multiple gene transfers to the nucleus. We investigated its status in legumes and found that in alfalfa, sweet clover and fenugreek, the mitochondrial-located rps1 is a pseudogene, in contrast to intact, transcribed and edited rps1 genes in the mitochondria of rest harrow, pea, soybean and bean. Among these lineages, the genomic environment upstream of rps1 differs, and this contrasts with a stable downstream linkage with the first two exons of the trans-split nad5 gene. Consequently, the rps1 transcript profiles differ for each of these closely-related species, and typically do not include monocistronic rps1 or nad5 mRNAs. In alfalfa, sweet clover and fenugreek, the functional rps1 gene is located in the nucleus and it is still flanked by residual non-coding mitochondrial sequences. Notably, the upstream ones provide part of the 5' UTR as well as the 3' splice site of an intron preceding rps1. This exploitation of non-coding mitochondrial sequences in nuclear gene activation adds to a growing list of mechanisms by which successful transfer of mitochondrial genes is achieved. PMID:17961935

Hazle, Thomas; Bonen, Linda

2007-12-15

348

Expression and interaction analysis of Arabidopsis Skp1-related genes.  

PubMed

Specific protein degradation has been observed in several aspects of development and differentiation in many organisms. One example of such proteolysis is regulated by protein polyubiquitination that is promoted by the SCF complex consisting of Skp1, cullin, and an F-box protein. We examined the activities of the Arabidopsis Skp1-related proteins (ASKs). Among 19 annotated ASK genes, we isolated 16 of the corresponding cDNAs (ASK1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, 19), and examined their gene products for interactions with 24 representatives of F-box proteins carrying various classes of the C-terminal domains using the yeast two-hybrid system. As a result, we found diverse binding specificities: ASK1, ASK2, ASK11 and ASK12 interacted well with COI1, FKF1, UFO-like protein, LRR-containing F-box proteins, and other F-box proteins with unknown C-terminal motifs. We also observed specific interaction between F-box proteins and ASK3, ASK9, ASK13, ASK14, ASK16 and ASK18. In contrast, we detected no interaction between any of the 12 ASK proteins and F-box proteins containing CRFA, CRFB or CRFC domains. Both histochemical and RT-PCR analysis of eight ASK genes expression revealed unique expression patterns for the respective genes. PMID:14749489

Takahashi, Naoki; Kuroda, Hirofumi; Kuromori, Takashi; Hirayama, Takashi; Seki, Motoaki; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Shimada, Hiroaki; Matsui, Minami

2004-01-01

349

Characterization of XET-Related Genes of Rice  

PubMed Central

To elucidate the mechanism of internodal elongation in rice (Oryza sativa L.), we analyzed genes encoding xyloglucan endotransglycosylase (XET), a cell wall-loosening enzyme essential for cell elongation. Four rice XET-related (XTR) genes, OsXTR1, OsXTR2, OsXTR3, and OsXTR4, were isolated and their expression patterns in rice plants determined. The expression of the four XTR genes showed different patterns of organ specificity and responses to several plant hormones. OsXTR1 and OsXTR3 were up-regulated by gibberellin and brassinosteroids, whereas OsXTR2 and OsXTR4 showed no clear response to these hormones. Expression of the four XTR genes was also investigated in elongating internodes at different developmental stages. OsXTR1 and OsXTR3 were preferentially expressed in the elongating zone of internodes, while OsXTR2 and OsXTR4 were expressed in nodes and in the divisional and elongating zones of internodes. In three genetic mutants with abnormal heights, the expression of OsXTR1 and OsXTR3 correlated with the height of the mutants, whereas no such correlation was observed for OsXTR2 and OsXTR4. Based on these observations, we discuss the roles that OsXTR1 and OsXTR3 may play in internodal elongation in rice. PMID:10712549

Uozu, Sakurako; Tanaka-Ueguchi, Miyako; Kitano, Hidemi; Hattori, Kazumi; Matsuoka, Makoto

2000-01-01

350

Altered Expression of Immune-Related Genes in Children with Down Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) have a high incidence of immunological alterations with increased susceptibility to bacterial and viral infections and high frequency of different types of hematologic malignancies and autoimmune disorders. In the current study, we profiled the expression pattern of 92 immune-related genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of two different groups, children with DS and control children, to identify differentially expressed genes that might be of pathogenetic importance for the development and phenotype of the immunological alterations observed in individuals with DS. PBMCs samples were obtained from six DS individuals with karyotypically confirmed full trisomy 21 and six healthy control individuals (ages 2–6 years). Gene expression was profiled in duplicate according to the manufacturer's instructions provided by commercially available TaqMan Human Immune Array representing 92 immune function genes and four reference genes on a 96-plex gene card. A set of 17 differentially expressed genes, not located on chromosome 21 (HSA21), involved in immune and inflammatory pathways was identified including 13 genes (BCL2, CCL3, CCR7, CD19, CD28, CD40, CD40LG, CD80, EDN1, IKBKB, IL6, NOS2 and SKI) significantly down-regulated and four genes (BCL2L1, CCR2, CCR5 and IL10) significantly up-regulated in children with DS. These findings highlight a list of candidate genes for further investigation into the molecular mechanism underlying DS pathology and reinforce the secondary effects of the presence of a third copy of HSA21. PMID:25222269

Zampieri, Bruna Lancia; Biselli-Périco, Joice Matos; de Souza, Jorge Estefano Santana; Bürger, Matheus Carvalho; Silva Júnior, Wilson Araújo; Goloni-Bertollo, Eny Maria; Pavarino, Érika Cristina

2014-01-01

351

A relative variation-based method to unraveling gene regulatory networks.  

PubMed

Gene regulatory network (GRN) reconstruction is essential in understanding the functioning and pathology of a biological system. Extensive models and algorithms have been developed to unravel a GRN. The DREAM project aims to clarify both advantages and disadvantages of these methods from an application viewpoint. An interesting yet surprising observation is that compared with complicated methods like those based on nonlinear differential equations, etc., methods based on a simple statistics, such as the so-called Z-score, usually perform better. A fundamental problem with the Z-score, however, is that direct and indirect regulations can not be easily distinguished. To overcome this drawback, a relative expression level variation (RELV) based GRN inference algorithm is suggested in this paper, which consists of three major steps. Firstly, on the basis of wild type and single gene knockout/knockdown experimental data, the magnitude of RELV of a gene is estimated. Secondly, probability for the existence of a direct regulation from a perturbed gene to a measured gene is estimated, which is further utilized to estimate whether a gene can be regulated by other genes. Finally, the normalized RELVs are modified to make genes with an estimated zero in-degree have smaller RELVs in magnitude than the other genes, which is used afterwards in queuing possibilities of the existence of direct regulations among genes and therefore leads to an estimate on the GRN topology. This method can in principle avoid the so-called cascade errors under certain situations. Computational results with the Size 100 sub-challenges of DREAM3 and DREAM4 show that, compared with the Z-score based method, prediction performances can be substantially improved, especially the AUPR specification. Moreover, it can even outperform the best team of both DREAM3 and DREAM4. Furthermore, the high precision of the obtained most reliable predictions shows that the suggested algorithm may be very helpful in guiding biological experiment designs. PMID:22363578

Wang, Yali; Zhou, Tong

2012-01-01

352

Functionally relevant diversity of closely related Nitrospira in activated sludge.  

PubMed

Nitrospira are chemolithoautotrophic nitrite-oxidizing bacteria that catalyze the second step of nitrification in most oxic habitats and are important for excess nitrogen removal from sewage in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). To date, little is known about their diversity and ecological niche partitioning within complex communities. In this study, the fine-scale community structure and function of Nitrospira was analyzed in two full-scale WWTPs as model ecosystems. In Nitrospira-specific 16S rRNA clone libraries retrieved from each plant, closely related phylogenetic clusters (16S rRNA identities between clusters ranged from 95.8% to 99.6%) within Nitrospira lineages I and II were found. Newly designed probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) allowed the specific detection of several of these clusters, whose coexistence in the WWTPs was shown for prolonged periods of several years. In situ ecophysiological analyses based on FISH, relative abundance and spatial arrangement quantification, as well as microautoradiography revealed functional differences of these Nitrospira clusters regarding the preferred nitrite concentration, the utilization of formate as substrate and the spatial coaggregation with ammonia-oxidizing bacteria as symbiotic partners. Amplicon pyrosequencing of the nxrB gene, which encodes subunit beta of nitrite oxidoreductase of Nitrospira, revealed in one of the WWTPs as many as 121 species-level nxrB operational taxonomic units with highly uneven relative abundances in the amplicon library. These results show a previously unrecognized high diversity of Nitrospira in engineered systems, which is at least partially linked to niche differentiation and may have important implications for process stability. PMID:25148481

Gruber-Dorninger, Christiane; Pester, Michael; Kitzinger, Katharina; Savio, Domenico F; Loy, Alexander; Rattei, Thomas; Wagner, Michael; Daims, Holger

2015-03-01

353

Relations among Functional Systems in Behavior Analysis  

PubMed Central

This paper proposes that an organism's integrated repertoire of operant behavior has the status of a biological system, similar to other biological systems, like the nervous, cardiovascular, or immune systems. Evidence from a number of sources indicates that the distinctions between biological and behavioral events is often misleading, engendering counterproductive explanatory controversy. A good deal of what is viewed as biological (often thought to be inaccessible or hypothetical) can become publicly measurable variables using currently available and developing technologies. Moreover, such endogenous variables can serve as establishing operations, discriminative stimuli, conjoint mediating events, and maintaining consequences within a functional analysis of behavior and need not lead to reductionistic explanation. I suggest that explanatory misunderstandings often arise from conflating different levels of analysis and that behavior analysis can extend its reach by identifying variables operating within a functional analysis that also serve functions in other biological systems. PMID:17575907

Thompson, Travis

2007-01-01

354

Virus-induced gene silencing is a versatile tool for unraveling the functional relevance of multiple abiotic-stress-responsive genes in crop plants  

PubMed Central

Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an effective tool for gene function analysis in plants. Over the last decade, VIGS has been successfully used as both a forward and reverse genetics technique for gene function analysis in various model plants, as well as crop plants. With the increased identification of differentially expressed genes under various abiotic stresses through high-throughput transcript profiling, the application of VIGS is expected to be important in the future for functional characterization of a large number of genes. In the recent past, VIGS was proven to be an elegant tool for functional characterization of genes associated with abiotic stress responses. In this review, we provide an overview of how VIGS is used in different crop species to characterize genes associated with drought-, salt-, oxidative- and nutrient-deficiency-stresses. We describe the examples from studies where abiotic stress related genes are characterized using VIGS. In addition, we describe the major advantages of VIGS over other currently available functional genomics tools. We also summarize the recent improvements, limitations and future prospects of using VIGS as a tool for studying plant responses to abiotic stresses. PMID:25071806

Ramegowda, Venkategowda; Mysore, Kirankumar S.; Senthil-Kumar, Muthappa

2014-01-01

355

Common Variants in Mendelian Kidney Disease Genes and Their Association with Renal Function  

PubMed Central

Many common genetic variants identified by genome-wide association studies for complex traits map to genes previously linked to rare inherited Mendelian disorders. A systematic analysis of common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes responsible for Mendelian diseases with kidney phenotypes has not been performed. We thus developed a comprehensive database of genes for Mendelian kidney conditions and evaluated the association between common genetic variants within these genes and kidney function in the general population. Using the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man database, we identified 731 unique disease entries related to specific renal search terms and confirmed a kidney phenotype in 218 of these entries, corresponding to mutations in 258 genes. We interrogated common SNPs (minor allele frequency >5%) within these genes for association with the estimated GFR in 74,354 European-ancestry participants from the CKDGen Consortium. However, the top four candidate SNPs (rs6433115 at LRP2, rs1050700 at TSC1, rs249942 at PALB2, and rs9827843 at ROBO2) did not achieve significance in a stage 2 meta-analysis performed in 56,246 additional independent individuals, indicating that these common SNPs are not associated with estimated GFR. The effect of less common or rare variants in these genes on kidney function in the general population and disease-specific cohorts requires further research. PMID:24029420

Fuchsberger, Christian; Köttgen, Anna; O’Seaghdha, Conall M.; Pattaro, Cristian; de Andrade, Mariza; Chasman, Daniel I.; Teumer, Alexander; Endlich, Karlhans; Olden, Matthias; Chen, Ming-Huei; Tin, Adrienne; Kim, Young J.; Taliun, Daniel; Li, Man; Feitosa, Mary; Gorski, Mathias; Yang, Qiong; Hundertmark, Claudia; Foster, Meredith C.; Glazer, Nicole; Isaacs, Aaron; Rao, Madhumathi; Smith, Albert V.; O’Connell, Jeffrey R.; Struchalin, Maksim; Tanaka, Toshiko; Li, Guo; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Atkinson, Elizabeth J.; Lohman, Kurt; Cornelis, Marilyn C.; Johansson, Åsa; Tönjes, Anke; Dehghan, Abbas; Couraki, Vincent; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; Sorice, Rossella; Kutalik, Zoltan; Lehtimäki, Terho; Esko, Tõnu; Deshmukh, Harshal; Ulivi, Sheila; Chu, Audrey Y.; Murgia, Federico; Trompet, Stella; Imboden, Medea; Kollerits, Barbara; Pistis, Giorgio; Harris, Tamara B.; Launer, Lenore J.; Aspelund, Thor; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Schmidt, Helena; Hofer, Edith; Hu, Frank; Demirkan, Ayse; Oostra, Ben A.; Turner, Stephen T.; Ding, Jingzhong; Andrews, Jeanette S.; Freedman, Barry I.; Giulianini, Franco; Koenig, Wolfgang; Illig, Thomas; Döring, Angela; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Zgaga, Lina; Zemunik, Tatijana; Boban, Mladen; Minelli, Cosetta; Wheeler, Heather E.; Igl, Wilmar; Zaboli, Ghazal; Wild, Sarah H.; Wright, Alan F.; Campbell, Harry; Ellinghaus, David; Nöthlings, Ute; Jacobs, Gunnar; Biffar, Reiner; Ernst, Florian; Homuth, Georg; Kroemer, Heyo K.; Nauck, Matthias; Stracke, Sylvia; Völker, Uwe; Völzke, Henry; Kovacs, Peter; Stumvoll, Michael; Mägi, Reedik; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Aulchenko, Yurii S.; Polasek, Ozren; Hastie, Nick; Vitart, Veronique; Helmer, Catherine; Wang, Jie Jin; Stengel, Bénédicte; Ruggiero, Daniela; Bergmann, Sven; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma; Nikopensius, Tiit; Province, Michael; Colhoun, Helen; Doney, Alex; Robino, Antonietta; Krämer, Bernhard K.; Portas, Laura; Ford, Ian; Buckley, Brendan M.; Adam, Martin; Thun, Gian-Andri; Paulweber, Bernhard; Haun, Margot; Sala, Cinzia; Mitchell, Paul; Ciullo, Marina; Vollenweider, Peter; Raitakari, Olli; Metspalu, Andres; Palmer, Colin; Gasparini, Paolo; Pirastu, Mario; Jukema, J. Wouter; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M.; Kronenberg, Florian; Toniolo, Daniela; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Coresh, Josef; Schmidt, Reinhold; Ferrucci, Luigi; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Borecki, Ingrid; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Liu, Yongmei; Curhan, Gary C.; Rudan, Igor; Gyllensten, Ulf; Wilson, James F.; Franke, Andre; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Rettig, Rainer; Prokopenko, Inga; Witteman, Jacqueline; Hayward, Caroline; Ridker, Paul M.; Bochud, Murielle; Heid, Iris M.; Siscovick, David S.; Fox, Caroline S.; Kao, W. Linda; Böger, Carsten A.

2013-01-01

356

Common variants in Mendelian kidney disease genes and their association with renal function.  

PubMed

Many common genetic variants identified by genome-wide association studies for complex traits map to genes previously linked to rare inherited Mendelian disorders. A systematic analysis of common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes responsible for Mendelian diseases with kidney phenotypes has not been performed. We thus developed a comprehensive database of genes for Mendelian kidney conditions and evaluated the association between common genetic variants within these genes and kidney function in the general population. Using the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man database, we identified 731 unique disease entries related to specific renal search terms and confirmed a kidney phenotype in 218 of these entries, corresponding to mutations in 258 genes. We interrogated common SNPs (minor allele frequency >5%) within these genes for association with the estimated GFR in 74,354 European-ancestry participants from the CKDGen Consortium. However, the top four candidate SNPs (rs6433115 at LRP2, rs1050700 at TSC1, rs249942 at PALB2, and rs9827843 at ROBO2) did not achieve significance in a stage 2 meta-analysis performed in 56,246 additional independent individuals, indicating that these common SNPs are not associated with estimated GFR. The effect of less common or rare variants in these genes on kidney function in the general population and disease-specific cohorts requires further research. PMID:24029420

Parsa, Afshin; Fuchsberger, Christian; Köttgen, Anna; O'Seaghdha, Conall M; Pattaro, Cristian; de Andrade, Mariza; Chasman, Daniel I; Teumer, Alexander; Endlich, Karlhans; Olden, Matthias; Chen, Ming-Huei; Tin, Adrienne; Kim, Young J; Taliun, Daniel; Li, Man; Feitosa, Mary; Gorski, Mathias; Yang, Qiong; Hundertmark, Claudia; Foster, Meredith C; Glazer, Nicole; Isaacs, Aaron; Rao, Madhumathi; Smith, Albert V; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Struchalin, Maksim; Tanaka, Toshiko; Li, Guo; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Atkinson, Elizabeth J; Lohman, Kurt; Cornelis, Marilyn C; Johansson, Asa; Tönjes, Anke; Dehghan, Abbas; Couraki, Vincent; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Sorice, Rossella; Kutalik, Zoltan; Lehtimäki, Terho; Esko, Tõnu; Deshmukh, Harshal; Ulivi, Sheila; Chu, Audrey Y; Murgia, Federico; Trompet, Stella; Imboden, Medea; Kollerits, Barbara; Pistis, Giorgio; Harris, Tamara B; Launer, Lenore J; Aspelund, Thor; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Mitchell, Braxton D; Boerwinkle, Eric; Schmidt, Helena; Hofer, Edith; Hu, Frank; Demirkan, Ayse; Oostra, Ben A; Turner, Stephen T; Ding, Jingzhong; Andrews, Jeanette S; Freedman, Barry I; Giulianini, Franco; Koenig, Wolfgang; Illig, Thomas; Döring, Angela; Wichmann, H-Erich; Zgaga, Lina; Zemunik, Tatijana; Boban, Mladen; Minelli, Cosetta; Wheeler, Heather E; Igl, Wilmar; Zaboli, Ghazal; Wild, Sarah H; Wright, Alan F; Campbell, Harry; Ellinghaus, David; Nöthlings, Ute; Jacobs, Gunnar; Biffar, Reiner; Ernst, Florian; Homuth, Georg; Kroemer, Heyo K; Nauck, Matthias; Stracke, Sylvia; Völker, Uwe; Völzke, Henry; Kovacs, Peter; Stumvoll, Michael; Mägi, Reedik; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Aulchenko, Yurii S; Polasek, Ozren; Hastie, Nick; Vitart, Veronique; Helmer, Catherine; Wang, Jie Jin; Stengel, Bénédicte; Ruggiero, Daniela; Bergmann, Sven; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma; Nikopensius, Tiit; Province, Michael; Colhoun, Helen; Doney, Alex; Robino, Antonietta; Krämer, Bernhard K; Portas, Laura; Ford, Ian; Buckley, Brendan M; Adam, Martin; Thun, Gian-Andri; Paulweber, Bernhard; Haun, Margot; Sala, Cinzia; Mitchell, Paul; Ciullo, Marina; Vollenweider, Peter; Raitakari, Olli; Metspalu, Andres; Palmer, Colin; Gasparini, Paolo; Pirastu, Mario; Jukema, J Wouter; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M; Kronenberg, Florian; Toniolo, Daniela; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Shuldiner, Alan R; Coresh, Josef; Schmidt, Reinhold; Ferrucci, Luigi; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Borecki, Ingrid; Kardia, Sharon L R; Liu, Yongmei; Curhan, Gary C; Rudan, Igor; Gyllensten, Ulf; Wilson, James F; Franke, Andre; Pramstaller, Peter P; Rettig, Rainer; Prokopenko, Inga; Witteman, Jacqueline; Hayward, Caroline; Ridker, Paul M; Bochud, Murielle; Heid, Iris M; Siscovick, David S; Fox, Caroline S; Kao, W Linda; Böger, Carsten A

2013-12-01

357

Functional gene group analysis identifies synaptic gene groups as risk factor for schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Schizophrenia is a highly heritable disorder with a polygenic pattern of inheritance and a population prevalence of ?1%. Previous studies have implicated synaptic dysfunction in schizophrenia. We tested the accumulated association of genetic variants in expert-curated synaptic gene groups with schizophrenia in 4673 cases and 4965 healthy controls, using functional gene group analysis. Identifying groups of genes with similar cellular function rather than genes in isolation may have clinical implications for finding additional drug targets. We found that a group of 1026 synaptic genes was significantly associated with the risk of schizophrenia (P=7.6 × 10?11) and more strongly associated than 100 randomly drawn, matched control groups of genetic variants (P<0.01). Subsequent analysis of synaptic subgroups suggested that the strongest association signals are derived from three synaptic gene groups: intracellular signal transduction (P=2.0 × 10?4), excitability (P=9.0 × 10?4) and cell adhesion and trans-synaptic signaling (P=2.4 × 10?3). These results are consistent with a role of synaptic dysfunction in schizophrenia and imply that impaired intracellular signal transduction in synapses, synaptic excitability and cell adhesion and trans-synaptic signaling play a role in the pathology of schizophrenia. PMID:21931320

Lips, E S; Cornelisse, L N; Toonen, R F; Min, J L; Hultman, C M; Holmans, P A; O'Donovan, M C; Purcell, S M; Smit, A B; Verhage, M; Sullivan, P F; Visscher, P M; Posthuma, D

2012-01-01

358

Family expansion and gene rearrangements contributed to the functional specialization of PRDM genes in vertebrates  

PubMed Central

Background Progressive diversification of paralogs after gene expansion is essential to increase their functional specialization. However, mode and tempo of this divergence remain mostly unclear. Here we report the comparative analysis of PRDM genes, a family of putative transcriptional regulators involved in human tumorigenesis. Results Our analysis assessed that the PRDM genes originated in metazoans, expanded in vertebrates and further duplicated in primates. We experimentally showed that fast-evolving paralogs are poorly expressed, and that the most recent duplicates, such as primate-specific PRDM7, acquire tissue-specificity. PRDM7 underwent major structural rearrangements that decreased the number of encoded Zn-Fingers and modified gene splicing. Through internal duplication and activation of a non-canonical splice site (GC-AG), PRDM7 can acquire a novel intron. We also detected an alternative isoform that can retain the intron in the mature transcript and that is predominantly expressed in human melanocytes. Conclusion Our findings show that (a) molecular evolution of paralogs correlates with their expression pattern; (b) gene diversification is obtained through massive genomic rearrangements; and (c) splicing modification contributes to the functional specialization of novel genes. PMID:17916234

Fumasoni, Irene; Meani, Natalia; Rambaldi, Davide; Scafetta, Gaia; Alcalay, Myriam; Ciccarelli, Francesca D

2007-01-01

359

EST sequencing and gene expression profiling of defence-related genes from Persea americana infected with Phytophthora cinnamomi  

PubMed Central

Background Avocado (Persea americana) belongs to the Lauraceae family and is an important commercial fruit crop in over 50 countries. The most serious pathogen affecting avocado production is Phytophthora cinnamomi which causes Phytophthora root rot (PRR). Root pathogens such as P. cinnamomi and their interactions with hosts are poorly understood and despite the importance of both the avocado crop and the effect Phytophthora has on its cultivation, there is a lack of molecular knowledge underpinning our understanding of defence strategies against the pathogen. In order to initiate a better understanding of host-specific defence we have generated EST data using 454 pyrosequencing and profiled nine defence-related genes from Pc-infected avocado roots. Results 2.0 Mb of data was generated consisting of ~10,000 reads on a single lane of the GS FLX platform. Using the Newbler assembler 371 contigs were assembled, of which 367 are novel for Persea americana. Genes were classified according to Gene Ontology terms. In addition to identifying root-specific ESTs we were also able to identify and quantify the expression of nine defence-related genes that were differentially regulated in response to P. cinnamomi. Genes such as metallothionein, thaumatin and the pathogenesis related PsemI, mlo and profilin were found to be differentially regulated. Conclusions This is the first study in elucidating the avocado root transcriptome as well as identifying defence responses of avocado roots to the root pathogen P. cinnamomi. Our data is currently the only EST data that has been generated for avocado rootstocks, and the ESTs identified in this study have already been useful in identifying defence-related genes as well as providing gene information for other studies looking at processes such as ROS regulation as well as hypoxia in avocado roots. Our EST data will aid in the elucidation of the avocado transcriptome and identification of markers for improved rootstock breeding and screening. The characterization of the avocado transcriptome will furthermore form a basis for functional genomics of basal angiosperms. PMID:22108245

2011-01-01

360

Functional Analysis of the Two Brassica AP3 Genes Involved in Apetalous and Stamen Carpelloid  

E-print Network

The Arabidopsis homeotic genes APETALA3 (AP3) and PISTILLATA (PI) are B genes which encode MADS-box transcription factors and specify petal and stamen identities. In the current study, the stamen carpelloid (SC) mutants, HGMS and AMS, of B. rapa and B. napus were investigated and two types of AP3 genes, B.AP3.a and B.AP3.b, were functional characterized. B.AP3.a and B.AP3.b share high similarity in amino acid sequences except for 8 residues difference located at the C-terminus. Loss of this 8 residues in B.AP3.b led to the change of PI-derived motifs. Meanwhile, B.AP3.a specified petal and stamen development, whereas B.AP3.b only specified stamen development. In B. rapa, the mutations of both genes generated the SC mutant HGMS. In B. napus that contained two B.AP3.a and two B.AP3.b, loss of the two B.AP3.a functions was the key reason for the apetalous mutation, however, the loss-of-function in all four AP3 was related to the SC mutant AMS. We inferred that the 8 residues or the PI-derived motif in AP3 gene probably relates to petal formation.

Yanfeng Zhang; Xuefang Wang; Wenxue Zhang; Fei Yu; Jianhua Tian; Dianrong Li

2011-01-01

361

Functional analysis of the two Brassica AP3 genes involved in apetalous and stamen carpelloid phenotypes.  

PubMed

The Arabidopsis homeotic genes APETALA3 (AP3) and PISTILLATA (PI) are B genes which encode MADS-box transcription factors and specify petal and stamen identities. In the current study, the stamen carpelloid (SC) mutants, HGMS and AMS, of B. rapa and B. napus were investigated and two types of AP3 genes, B.AP3.a and B.AP3.b, were functional characterized. B.AP3.a and B.AP3.b share high similarity in amino acid sequences except for 8 residues difference located at the C-terminus. Loss of this 8 residues in B.AP3.b led to the change of PI-derived motifs. Meanwhile, B.AP3.a specified petal and stamen development, whereas B.AP3.b only specified stamen development. In B. rapa, the mutations of both genes generated the SC mutant HGMS. In B. napus that contained two B.AP3.a and two B.AP3.b, loss of the two B.AP3.a functions was the key reason for the apetalous mutation, however, the loss-of-function in all four AP3 was related to the SC mutant AMS. We inferred that the 8 residues or the PI-derived motif in AP3 gene probably relates to petal formation. PMID:21738595

Zhang, Yanfeng; Wang, Xuefang; Zhang, Wenxue; Yu, Fei; Tian, Jianhua; Li, Dianrong; Guo, Aiguang

2011-01-01

362

A retrocopy of a gene can functionally displace the source gene in evolution  

PubMed Central

The e(y)2 gene of Drosophila melanogaster encodes the ubiquitous evolutionarily conserved co-activator of RNA polymerase II that is involved in transcription regulation of a high number of genes. The Drosophila e(y)2b gene, paralogue of the e(y)2 has been found. The analysis of structure of the e(y)2, e(y)2b and its orthologues from other species reveals that the e(y)2 gene derived as a result of retroposition of the e(y)2b during Drosophila evolution. The mRNA-derived retrogenes lack introns or regulatory regions; most of them become pseudogenes whereas some acquire tissue-specific functions. Here we describe the different situation: the e(y)2 retrogene performs the general function and is ubiquitously expressed, while the source gene is functional only in a small group of male germ cells. This must have resulted from retroposition into a transcriptionally favorable region of the genome. PMID:16314324

Krasnov, Aleksey N.; Kurshakova, Maria M.; Ramensky, Vasily E.; Mardanov, Pavel V.; Nabirochkina, Elena N.; Georgieva, Sofia G.

2005-01-01

363

Effects of soil type and farm management on soil ecological functional genes and microbial activities  

SciTech Connect

Relationships between soil microbial diversity and soil function are the subject of much debate. Process-level analyses have shown that microbial function varies with soil type and responds to soil management. However, such measurements cannot determine the role of community structure and diversity in soil function. The goal of this study was to investigate the role of gene frequency and diversity, measured by microarray analysis, on soil processes. The study was conducted in an agro-ecosystem characterized by contrasting management practices and soil types. Eight pairs of adjacent commercial organic and conventional strawberry fields were matched for soil type, strawberry variety, and all other environmental conditions. Soil physical, chemical and biological analyses were conducted including functional gene microarrays (FGA). Soil physical and chemical characteristics were primarily determined by soil textural type (coarse vs fine-textured), but biological and FGA measures were more influenced by management (organic vs conventional). Organically managed soils consistently showed greater functional activity as well as FGA signal intensity (SI) and diversity. Overall FGA SI and diversity were correlated to total soil microbial biomass. Functional gene group SI and/or diversity were correlated to related soil chemical and biological measures such as microbial biomass, cellulose, dehydrogenase, ammonium and sulfur. Management was the dominant determinant of soil biology as measured by microbial gene frequency and diversity, which paralleled measured microbial processes.

Reeve, Jennifer [Washington State University; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL; Carpenter-Boggs, Lynne [Washington State University; Kang, S. [University of Oklahoma; Zhou, Jizhong [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Reganold, John P. [Washington State University

2010-01-01

364

Systematic analysis of experimental phenotype data reveals gene functions.  

PubMed

High-throughput phenotyping projects in model organisms have the potential to improve our understanding of gene functions and their role in living organisms. We have developed a computational, knowledge-based approach to automatically infer gene functions from phenotypic manifestations and applied this approach to yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), nematode worm (Caenorhabditis elegans), zebrafish (Danio rerio), fruitfly (Drosophila melanogaster) and mouse (Mus musculus) phenotypes. Our approach is based on the assumption that, if a mutation in a gene [Formula: see text] leads to a phenotypic abnormality in a process [Formula: see text], then [Formula: see text] must have been involved in [Formula: see text], either directly or indirectly. We systematically analyze recorded phenotypes in animal models using the formal definitions created for phenotype ontologies. We evaluate the validity of the inferred functions manually and by demonstrating a significant improvement in predicting genetic interactions and protein-protein interactions based on functional similarity. Our knowledge-based approach is generally applicable to phenotypes recorded in model organism databases, including phenotypes from large-scale, high throughput community projects whose primary mode of dissemination is direct publication on-line rather than in the literature. PMID:23626672

Hoehndorf, Robert; Hardy, Nigel W; Osumi-Sutherland, David; Tweedie, Susan; Schofield, Paul N; Gkoutos, Georgios V

2013-01-01

365

Brain region-specific altered expression and association of mitochondria-related genes in autism  

PubMed Central

Background Mitochondrial dysfunction (MtD) has been observed in approximately five percent of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). MtD could impair highly energy-dependent processes such as neurodevelopment, thereby contributing to autism. Most of the previous studies of MtD in autism have been restricted to the biomarkers of energy metabolism, while most of the genetic studies have been based on mutations in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Despite the mtDNA, most of the proteins essential for mitochondrial replication and function are encoded by the genomic DNA; so far, there have been very few studies of those genes. Therefore, we carried out a detailed study involving gene expression and genetic association studies of genes related to diverse mitochondrial functions. Methods For gene expression analysis, postmortem brain tissues (anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG), motor cortex (MC) and thalamus (THL)) from autism patients (n=8) and controls (n=10) were obtained from the Autism Tissue Program (Princeton, NJ, USA). Quantitative real-time PCR arrays were used to quantify the expression of 84 genes related to diverse functions of mitochondria, including biogenesis, transport, translocation and apoptosis. We used the delta delta Ct (??Ct) method for quantification of gene expression. DNA samples from 841 Caucasian and 188 Japanese families were used in the association study of genes selected from the gene expression analysis. FBAT was used to examine genetic association with autism. Results Several genes showed brain region-specific expression alterations in autism patients compared to controls. Metaxin 2 (MTX2), neurofilament, light polypeptide (NEFL) and solute carrier family 25, member 27 (SLC25A27) showed consistently reduced expression in the ACG, MC and THL of autism patients. NEFL (P = 0.038; Z-score 2.066) and SLC25A27 (P = 0.046; Z-score 1.990) showed genetic association with autism in Caucasian and Japanese samples, respectively. The expression of DNAJC19, DNM1L, LRPPRC, SLC25A12, SLC25A14, SLC25A24 and TOMM20 were reduced in at least two of the brain regions of autism patients. Conclusions Our study, though preliminary, brings to light some new genes associated with MtD in autism. If MtD is detected in early stages, treatment strategies aimed at reducing its impact may be adopted. PMID:23116158

2012-01-01

366

Iron deficiency alters expression of dopamine-related genes in the ventral midbrain in mice  

PubMed Central

A clear link exists between iron deficiency (ID) and nigrostriatal dopamine malfunction. This link appears to play an important role in at least restless legs syndrome (RLS) if not several other neurological diseases. Yet, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The effects of ID on gene expression in the brain have not been studied extensively. Here, to better understand how exactly ID alters dopamine functioning, we investigated the effects of ID on gene expression in the brain, seeking to identify any potential transcription-based mechanisms. We used six strains of recombinant inbred mice (BXD type) known to differ in susceptibility to ID in the brain. Upon weaning, we subjected mice from each strain to either an iron-deficient or iron-adequate diet. After 100 days of dietary treatment, we measured the effects of ID on gene expression in the ventral midbrain (VMB), a region containing the substantia nigra. The substantia nigra is the base of the nigrostriatal dopamine pathway and a region particularly affected by iron loss in RLS. We screened for ID-induced changes in expression, inclu