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1

Fundamentals of Chemical Processes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a course that provides students with a fundamental understanding of the chemical, catalytic, and engineering sciences related to the chemical reactions taking place in a variety of reactors of different configurations. Also describes the eight major lecture topics, course examinations, and term papers. The course schedule is included.…

Moser, William R.

1985-01-01

2

How does surface life affect interior geological processes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

How does surface life affect interior geological processes? We propose that biologically-mediated processes operating on the surface of the Earth need to be incorporated into our understanding of the geological evolution of the Earth. We argue that biotic effects may penetrate the lithosphere and be responsible for altering the dynamics of mantle convection. Geological processes have played a fundamental role

James Dyke; Fabian Gans; Axel Kleidon

2010-01-01

3

The solution of fundamental problems of geodynamics, geophysics, geology and planetology  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the base of geodynamic model of the forced gravitational swing and displacement of shells of a planet under action of a gravitational attraction of surrounding (external) celestial bodies [1], [2] the fundamental problems of geodynamics, geology, planetology, geophysics, etc. have been studied and solved. 1). The mechanism of cyclic variations of activity of natural processes in various time scales.

Yury Barkin

2010-01-01

4

Oceanography - Marine Geological Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A first year course in oceanography with extensive Internet resources. Topics covered include: principles of thermodynamics, heat and mass transfer, fluid mechanics, continuum mechanics, and time-series analysis applied to marine geological and geophysical data; applications to transport of marine sediments; Pleistocene sedimentation and global climate change; and the thermal balance of the oceanic lithosphere. The link to the lecture schedule provides detailed supporting materials.

Mcduff, Russell

5

U.S. Geological Survey Fundamental Science Practices  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The USGS has a long and proud tradition of objective, unbiased science in service to the Nation. A reputation for impartiality and excellence is one of our most important assets. To help preserve this vital asset, in 2004 the Executive Leadership Team (ELT) of the USGS was charged by the Director to develop a set of fundamental science practices, philosophical premises, and operational principles as the foundation for all USGS research and monitoring activities. In a concept document, 'Fundamental Science Practices of the U.S. Geological Survey', the ELT proposed 'a set of fundamental principles to underlie USGS science practices.' The document noted that protecting the reputation of USGS science for quality and objectivity requires the following key elements: - Clearly articulated, Bureau-wide fundamental science practices. - A shared understanding at all levels of the organization that the health and future of the USGS depend on following these practices. - The investment of budget, time, and people to ensure that the USGS reputation and high-quality standards are maintained. The USGS Fundamental Science Practices (FSP) encompass all elements of research investigations, including data collection, experimentation, analysis, writing results, peer review, management review, and Bureau approval and publication of information products. The focus of FSP is on how science is carried out and how products are produced and disseminated. FSP is not designed to address the question of what work the USGS should do; that is addressed in USGS science planning handbooks and other documents. Building from longstanding existing USGS policies and the ELT concept document, in May 2006, FSP policies were developed with input from all parts of the organization and were subsequently incorporated into the Bureau's Survey Manual. In developing an implementation plan for FSP policy, the intent was to recognize and incorporate the best of USGS current practices to obtain the optimum overall program for our science. In January 2009, the USGS moved to full implementation of FSP. The FSP Advisory Committee (FSPAC) was formed to serve as the Bureau's working and standing committee to ensure the objectivity and quality of the Bureau's science information products and to provide support for the full implementation of FSP.

Fundamental Science Practices Advisory Committee

2011-01-01

6

Planetary Geology: Impact Processes on Asteroids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The fundamental geological and geophysical properties of asteroids were studied by theoretical and simulation studies of their collisional evolution. Numerical simulations incorporating realistic physical models were developed to study the collisional evo...

C. R. Chapman D. R. Davis R. Greenberg S. J. Weidenschilling

1982-01-01

7

Fundamentals of Frost Forecasting in Geological Engineering Investigations (Osnovy Merzlotnogo Prognoza pri Inzhenerno-Geologicheskikh Issledovaniyakh).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The textbook 'Fundamentals of Frost Forecasting in Geological Engineering Investigations' in regions of seasonally and permanently frozen rocks is the first and still the only contemporary textbook in the Soviet and foreign literature which embraces the m...

K. A. Kondrat yeva L. S. Garagulya V. A. Kudryavtsev V. G. Melamed

1977-01-01

8

FUNDAMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT RETRIEVABILITY OF HLW FROM A DEEP GEOLOGICAL REPOSITORY  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past years retrievability of HLW and of spent nuclear fuel after their disposal in a deep geological repository is increasingly receiving attention. Fundamental technological aspects of waste retrieval from a deep geological disposal are outlined in this paper based on a comprehensive analysis of a previous study. Main tasks in analyzing the generic feasibility of waste retrieval are

E. Biurrun; J. Lempert

9

Microwave processing: fundamentals and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In microwave processing, energy is supplied by an electromagnetic field directly to the material. This results in rapid heating throughout the material thickness with reduced thermal gradients. Volumetric heating can also reduce processing times and save energy. The microwave field and the dielectric response of a material govern its ability to heat with microwave energy. A knowledge of electromagnetic theory

E. T. Thostenson; T.-W. Chou

1999-01-01

10

Review of image processing fundamentals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Image processing through convolution, transform coding, spatial frequency alterations, sampling, and interpolation are considered. It is postulated that convolution in one domain (real or frequency) is equivalent to multiplication in the other (frequency or real), and that the relative amplitudes of the Fourier components must be retained to reproduce any waveshape. It is suggested that all digital systems may be considered equivalent, with a frequency content approximately at the Nyquist limit, and with a Gaussian frequency response. An optimized cubic version of the interpolation continuum image is derived as a set of cubic spines. Pixel replication has been employed to enlarge the visable area of digital samples, however, suitable elimination of the extraneous high frequencies involved in the visable edges, by defocusing, is necessary to allow the underlying object represented by the data values to be seen.

Billingsley, F. C.

1985-01-01

11

Fundamental Processes in Partially Ionized Plasmas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes research results on Fundamental Processes in Partially Ionized Plasmas obtained in the High Temperature Gasdynamics Laboratory at Stanford University. This research has emphasized studies of plasma properties and associated diagnosti...

C. H. Kruger C. Laux

1992-01-01

12

Migration of radionuclides in geologic media: Fundamental research needs  

SciTech Connect

An assessment of the fundamental research needs in understanding and predicting the migration of radionuclides in the subsurface is provided. Emphasis is on the following three technical areas: (1) aqueous speciation of radionuclides, (2) the interaction of radionuclides with substrates, and (3) intermediate-scale interaction studies. This research relates to important issues associated with environmental restoration and remediation of DOE sites contaminated with mixed radionuclide-organic wastes. 64 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Reed, D.T. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Zachara, J.M.; Wildung, R.E. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Wobber, F.J. (USDOE, Washington, DC (USA))

1990-01-01

13

Comparison Charts of Geological Processes: Terrestrial Planets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This chart presents information on the geological processes (volcanism, impact cratering, tectonics, and gradation) that have affected the Earth, Moon, and the terrestrial planets. Students compare the effects these processes have had on the Moon and planets. There is also a blank chart and a sheet of notes on the geological processes that may be used in conjunction with this chart. This chart is one of the activities for the Exploring Planets in the Classroom's Introduction to the Solar System.

14

Fundamental processes in partially ionized plasmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes research results on Fundamental Processes in Partially Ionized Plasmas obtained in the High Temperature Gasdynamics Laboratory at Stanford University. This research has emphasized studies of plasma properties and associated diagnostics. The present report discusses, in the first part, optical diagnostics in air plasmas and, in the second part, measurements of the radiative emission of such plasmas. These

Charles H. Kruger; Christophe Laux

1992-01-01

15

The solution of fundamental problems of geodynamics, geophysics, geology and planetology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the base of geodynamic model of the forced gravitational swing and displacement of shells of a planet under action of a gravitational attraction of surrounding (external) celestial bodies [1], [2] the fundamental problems of geodynamics, geology, planetology, geophysics, etc. have been studied and solved. 1). The mechanism of cyclic variations of activity of natural processes in various time scales. 2). The nature of eccentric positions of the core and the mantle of the Earth. A role of the Moon, the Sun, Neptune and other celestial bodies in activization of the swing of core-mantle system of the Earth. 3). Power of endogenous activity of planetary natural processes on planets and satellites. 4). The nature of correlations of natural processes with features of motion of baricenter of the solar system. 5). An explanation of influence of bodies of solar system on excitation of variations of planetary processes with Milankovitch's periods (in tens and hundred thousand years). 6). A possible explanation of geological cycles as result of excitation of solar system at its motion in a gravitational field of the Galaxy. 7). The phenomenon of polar inversion of natural processes on the Earth, both other planets and satellites. 8). Spasmodic (step-by-step) and catastrophic changes of activity of natural processes. 9). Sawtooth (gear curve) variations of natural processes. 10). The phenomenon of twisting of hemispheres (latitude zones) of celestial bodies. 11). Formation of the pear-shaped form of celestial bodies and the mechanism of its change. 10). Ordered planetary structures in spatial distribution of geological formations. 12). The phenomena of bipolarity of celestial bodies and antipodality of formations. Many fundamental problems of natural sciences have been obtained an explanation on the basis of developed geodynamic model (Barkin, 2002, 2009). The fundamental problems of celestial mechanics and geodynamics, geophysics and the geology, excited of scintific community in current of last decades and even centuries have been solved. The fundamental phenomena in rotation of the Earth: secular drift of a pole of its axis of rotation and non-tidal acceleration of axial rotation of a planet have received an explanation. Observable secular variations of a gravity, variations of a geopotential coefficients, secular drift of the center of mass of the Earth, secular changes of a global level of ocean and change of average levels of ocean in northern and southern hemispheres of the Earth, secular geodetic changes of the Earth in present period have been explained, etc. It is shown, that there is a uniform mechanism for many bodies of solar system of excitation of natural processes in their polar areas. In particular it is shown, that polar regions of many celestial bodies, including their soil layers, are sated by fluids. The last position obtains the precise confirmation in researches of subsoil waters and a water ice on Mars, the Moon, Mercury, etc. bodies of solar system. A wide number of the natural phenomena has been predicted by the author and these predictions have already obtained and obtain confirmations and an explanations in the data of modern observations and space missions. An existence of the seas in polar regions of the Titan, concentration of water ice in polar regions of Mercury, the Moon, Mars and other bodies of solar system has been predicted. The conclusion about fluid consentrations at polar regions of celestial bodies is extremely important for revealing of carbon deposits on the Earth, first of all in regions of Arctic and Antarctic. Work is partially supported by RFBR grants: N 08-02-00367, N-09-02-92113-JF. References 1. Barkin Yu.V. (2002) An explanation of endogenous activity of planets and satellites and its cyclisity. Isvestia sekcii nauk o Zemle Rossiiskoi akademii ectestvennykh nauk. Vyp. 9, M., VINITI, pp. 45-97. In Russian. 2. Barkin Yu.V. (2009) Moons and planets: mechanism of their life. Proceedings of International Conference 'Astronomy and World Heritage: across Time and Continents' (Kazan, 19-

Barkin, Yury

2010-05-01

16

Final Report - Fundamental Processes in Plasmas  

SciTech Connect

This research focuses on fundamental processes in plasmas, and emphasizes problems for which precise experimental tests of theory can be obtained. Experiments are performed on non-neutral plasmas, utilizing three electron traps and one ion trap with a broad range of operating regimes and diagnostics. Theory is focused on fundamental plasma and fluid processes underlying collisional transport and fluid turbulence, using both analytic techniques and medium-scale numerical simulations. The simplicity of these systems allows a depth of understanding and a precision of comparison between theory and experiment which is rarely possible for neutral plasmas in complex geometry. The recent work has focused on three areas in basic plasma physics. First, experiments and theory have probed fundamental characteristics of plasma waves: from the low-amplitude thermal regime, to inviscid damping and fluid echoes, to cold fluid waves in cryogenic ion plasmas. Second, the wide-ranging effects of dissipative separatrices have been studied experimentally and theoretically, finding novel wave damping and coupling effects and important plasma transport effects. Finally, correlated systems have been investigated experimentally and theoretically: UCSD experients have now measured the Salpeter correlation enhancement, and theory work has characterized the 'guiding center atoms of antihydrogen created at CERN.

O'Neil, Thomas M [PI, C. Fred Driscoll (Co-PI)

2009-01-01

17

Deterministic geologic processes and stochastic modeling  

SciTech Connect

Recent outcrop sampling at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, has produced significant new information regarding the distribution of physical properties at the site of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository. Consideration of the spatial distribution of measured values and geostatistical measures of spatial variability indicates that there are a number of widespread deterministic geologic features at the site that have important implications for numerical modeling of such performance aspects as ground water flow and radionuclide transport. These deterministic features have their origin in the complex, yet logical, interplay of a number of deterministic geologic processes, including magmatic evolution; volcanic eruption, transport, and emplacement; post-emplacement cooling and alteration; and late-stage (diagenetic) alteration. Because of geologic processes responsible for formation of Yucca Mountain are relatively well understood and operate on a more-or-less regional scale, understanding of these processes can be used in modeling the physical properties and performance of the site. Information reflecting these deterministic geologic processes may be incorporated into the modeling program explicitly, using geostatistical concepts such as soft information, or implicitly, through the adoption of a particular approach to modeling. It is unlikely that any single representation of physical properties at the site will be suitable for all modeling purposes. Instead, the same underlying physical reality will need to be described many times, each in a manner conducive to assessing specific performance issues.

Rautman, C.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flint, A.L. [Geological Survey, Mercury, NV (United States)

1991-12-31

18

Image processing applications for geologic mapping  

SciTech Connect

The use of satellite data, particularly Landsat images, for geologic mapping provides the geologist with a powerful tool. The digital format of these data permits applications of image processing to extract or enhance information useful for mapping purposes. Examples are presented of lithologic classification using texture measures, automatic lineament detection and structural analysis, and use of registered multisource satellite data. In each case, the additional mapping information provided relative to the particular treatment is evaluated. The goal is to provide the geologist with a range of processing techniques adapted to specific mapping problems.

Abrams, M.; Blusson, A.; Carrere, V.; Nguyen, T.; Rabu, Y.

1985-03-01

19

Fundamental processes in partially ionized plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report describes research results on Fundamental Processes in Partially Ionized Plasmas obtained in the High Temperature Gasdynamics Laboratory at Stanford University. This research has emphasized studies of plasma properties and associated diagnostics. The present report discusses, in the first part, optical diagnostics in air plasmas and, in the second part, measurements of the radiative emission of such plasmas. These experimental results have unveiled severe deficiencies in existing computer codes such as the widely used NASA code NEQAIR. Several modeling improvements are therefore proposed and included into NEQAIR. As a result, the enhanced version of the code is capable of predicting the radiative emission of air plasmas with better than 20 percent accuracy, as opposed to only orders of magnitude with the original version. Finally, the report presents first measurements of the radiative source strength of air for temperatures in the range between 5000 and 7500 K. To our knowledge, these are the first measurements of this important property in this temperature range. Excellent agreement is again obtained with the predictions of the enhanced NEQAIR code.

Kruger, Charles H.; Laux, Christophe

1992-11-01

20

Analysis of Geological Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A knowledge of structural geology is fundamental to understanding the processes by which the earth's crust has evolved. It is a subject of fundamental importance to students of geology, experienced field geologists and academic researchers as well as to petroleum and mining engineers. In contrast to many structural textbooks which dwell upon geometrical descriptions of geological structures, this book emphasises

Neville J. Price; John W. Cosgrove

1990-01-01

21

Religious fundamentalism and primitive projective processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In her book on the origins, nature and contemporary global significance of religious fundamentalism, Karen Armstrong cites the example of an early twentieth-century, ultra-Orthodox Jewish spirituality1 vehemently opposed to the creation of the state of Israel. Armstrong suggests that Such a spirituality may be characterized as ‘fundamentalist’ inasmuch as it appeals to the inerrancy of sacred texts to legitimize conceptions

James Springett

2003-01-01

22

The activated sludge process: Fundamentals of operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The procedures given here - based on extensive and intensive experience. Background information on process mechanics is followed by detailed consideration of control and troubleshooting practices. Contents: PREFACE AND INTRODUCTION; PROCESS MECHANICS; Basic Mechanism of Activated Sludge Systems; Formation of Activated Sludge; Growth of Microorganisms; Classifications of Microorganisms: Type, Environment, Age; Solids Separation and Return; FACTORS AFFECTING OPERATION; Raw Wastewater

R. Junkins; K. J. Deeny; T. H. Eckhoff

1983-01-01

23

Biological hydrogen production; fundamentals and limiting processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological hydrogen production has been known for over a century and research directed at applying this process to a practical means of hydrogen fuel production has been carried out for over a quarter century. The various approaches that have been proposed and investigated are reviewed and critical limiting factors identified. The low energy content of solar irradiation dictates that photosynthetic

Patrick C. Hallenbeck; John R. Benemann

2002-01-01

24

3-D visualization of geologic structures and processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interactive 3-D computer graphics techniques are used to visualize geologic structures and simulated geologic processes. Geometric models that serve as input to 3-D viewing programs are generated from contour maps, from serial sections, or directly from simulation program output. Choice of viewing parameters strongly affects the perception of irregular surfaces. An interactive 3-D rendering program and its graphical user interface provide visualization tools for structural geology, seismic interpretation, and visual post-processing of simulations. Dynamic display of transient ground-water simulations and sedimentary process simulations can visualize processes developing through time.

Pflug, R.; Klein, H.; Ramshorn, Ch.; Genter, M.; Stärk, A.

25

The Moon: Keystone To Understanding Planetary Geological Processes and History  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extensive and intensive exploration of the Earth's Moon by astronauts and an interna- tional array of automated spacecraft provides data on geology, geochemistry, miner- alogy, petrology, chronology, geophysics and internal structure unequaled except for Earth. This level of detail has proven fundamental to understanding planetary surface processes and evolution, and is essential to linking surface processes with internal and thermal evolution. On the basis of these data, the Moon is a laboratory for under- standing of planetary processes and a keystone for providing evolutionary perspective. Important comparative planetology issues being addressed by lunar studies include- Impact cratering: New information on the nature of the process, depth of excavation, role of oblique impact, nature of the modification stage, production of impact melt, ejecta emplacement dynamics, the role of volatile emplacement and fate, particularly at the poles, and the establishment of crater size-frequency distribution chronology. Magmatic activity: New insight into plutonism (intrusion) and volcanism (extrusion), and their role as major crustal building and resurfacing processes throughout history, as well as the distribution of mantle melting processes in space and time. The nature of magmatic activity during heavy bombardment (intrusion, extrusion, cryptomaria) and in later lunar history, in terms of the mare stratigraphic record, the distribution of basalt types, the distribution of melting in space and time, volume and flux informa- tion, and the full range of eruption styles and their petrogenetic significance. Tectonic activity: The Moon is the type location for tectonics on a one-plate planet which can be understood in the context of the complete lunar data set and extended to other planetary bodies. Issues include distinguishing magmatic and tectonic graben, estab- lishing the three-dimensional structure and chronology of wrinkle ridges and arches, determining the internal structure of mountain ranges and linking these events to lunar thermal evolution. Upcoming missions by ESA and Japan will provide important ad- ditional insight into a host of comparative planetological problems, including: Decon- volution of the complex record of early lunar crustal formation and evolution, relation of geological processes to the thermal evolution of the Moon and one-plate planets, establishment of a key planetary perspective on the first half of Solar System history, and extrapolation to the nature and evolution of terrestrial planetary bodies including Earth.

Head, J. W.

26

Geologic processes influence the effects of mining on aquatic ecosystems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geologic processes strongly influence water and sediment quality in aquatic ecosystems but rarely are geologic principles incorporated into routine biomonitoring studies. We test if elevated concentrations of metals in water and sediment are restricted to streams downstream of mines or areas that may discharge mine wastes. We surveyed 198 catchments classified as “historically mined” or “unmined,” and based on mineral-deposit criteria, to determine whether water and sediment quality were influenced by naturally occurring mineralized rock, by historical mining, or by a combination of both. By accounting for different geologic sources of metals to the environment, we were able to distinguish aquatic ecosystems limited by metals derived from natural processes from those due to mining. Elevated concentrations of metals in water and sediment were not restricted to mined catchments; depauperate aquatic communities were found in unmined catchments. The type and intensity of hydrothermal alteration and the mineral deposit type were important determinants of water and sediment quality as well as the aquatic community in both mined and unmined catchments. This study distinguished the effects of different rock types and geologic sources of metals on ecosystems by incorporating basic geologic processes into reference and baseline site selection, resulting in a refined assessment. Our results indicate that biomonitoring studies should account for natural sources of metals in some geologic environments as contributors to the effect of mines on aquatic ecosystems, recognizing that in mining-impacted drainages there may have been high pre-mining background metal concentrations.

Schmidt, Travis S.; Clements, William H.; Wanty, Richard B.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Church, Stanley E.; San Juan, Carma A.; Fey, David L.; Rockwell, Barnaby W.; DeWitt, Ed H.; Klein, Terry L.

2012-01-01

27

Geologic processes influence the effects of mining on aquatic ecosystems.  

PubMed

Geologic processes strongly influence water and sediment quality in aquatic ecosystems but rarely are geologic principles incorporated into routine biomonitoring studies. We test if elevated concentrations of metals in water and sediment are restricted to streams downstream of mines or areas that may discharge mine wastes. We surveyed 198 catchments classified as "historically mined" or "unmined," and based on mineral-deposit criteria, to determine whether water and sediment quality were influenced by naturally occurring mineralized rock, by historical mining, or by a combination of both. By accounting for different geologic sources of metals to the environment, we were able to distinguish aquatic ecosystems limited by metals derived from natural processes from those due to mining. Elevated concentrations of metals in water and sediment were not restricted to mined catchments; depauperate aquatic communities were found in unmined catchments. The type and intensity of hydrothermal alteration and the mineral deposit type were important determinants of water and sediment quality as well as the aquatic community in both mined and unmined catchments. This study distinguished the effects of different rock types and geologic sources of metals on ecosystems by incorporating basic geologic processes into reference and baseline site selection, resulting in a refined assessment. Our results indicate that biomonitoring studies should account for natural sources of metals in some geologic environments as contributors to the effect of mines on aquatic ecosystems, recognizing that in mining-impacted drainages there may have been high pre-mining background metal concentrations. PMID:22645817

Schmidt, Travis S; Clements, William H; Wanty, Richard B; Verplanck, Philip L; Church, Stanley E; San Juan, Carma A; Fey, David L; Rockwell, Barnaby W; DeWitt, Ed H; Klein, Terry L

2012-04-01

28

Business process simulation: a fundamental step supporting process centered management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Business processes are increasingly recognised as the key to competitive survival. The important opportunities inherent to this invisible economic asset are the foundations of process centred management. Simulation of business processes creates added value in understanding, analysing, and designing processes by introducing dynamic aspects. It provides decision support by anticipation of future changes in process design and improves understanding of

Marc Aguilar; Tankred Rautert; Alexander J. G. Pater

1999-01-01

29

Some process fundamentals of biomass gasification in dual fluidized bed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dual fluidised bed gasification technology is prospective because it produces high caloric product gas free of N2 dilution even when air is used to generate the gasification-required endothermic heat via in situ combustion. This study is devoted to providing the necessary process fundamentals for development of a bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) biomass gasifier coupled to a pneumatic transported riser

Takahiro Murakami; Guangwen Xu; Toshiyuki Suda; Yoshiaki Matsuzawa; Hidehisa Tani; Toshiro Fujimori

2007-01-01

30

FINAL REPORT. FUNDAMENTAL CHEMISTRY AND THERMODYNAMICS OF HYDROTHERMAL OXIDATION PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

The goal of this project was to address issues of fundamental chemistry and thermodynamic properties that currently limit the applicability of hydrothermal oxidation processes to the treatment of hazardous and radioactive DOE wastes. The primary issues are related to corrosion, i...

31

Fundamental processes in the evolutionary ecology of Lyme borreliosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolutionary ecology of many emerging infectious diseases, particularly vector-borne zoonoses, is poorly understood. Here, we aim to develop a biological, process-based framework for vector-borne zoonoses, using Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis in humans, as an example. We explore the fundamental biological processes that operate in this zoonosis and put forward hypotheses on how

Klára Hanincová; Jean I. Tsao; Gabriele Margos; Durland Fish; Nicholas H. Ogden; Klaus Kurtenbach

2006-01-01

32

Zonal biostratigraphy in the solution of the fundamental and applied problems of geology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problems of zonal stratigraphy of the early 21st century are discussed. The great advances achieved in recent years in using zones in geological practice are noted. At the same time, attention is drawn to the controversies existing in the interpretation of the concepts "biostratigraphic zone" and "chronozone," in the methods of drawing the boundaries of such zones, and in the assessment of the spatial scale of zones and in the understanding of them as stratigraphic units.

Gladenkov, Yu. B.

2010-12-01

33

Fundamental studies of catalytic processing of synthetic liquids  

SciTech Connect

This project revolves around understanding the fundamental processes involved in the catalytic removal of harmful oxygenated organics present in coal liquids. We are modelling the complex type of sulfided Mo catalyst proposed for these reactions with simple single crystal surfaces. These display a controlled range and number of reaction sites and can be extensively characterized by surface science techniques. We then investigate the reaction pathways for representative simple oxygenates upon these surfaces.

Watson, P.R.

1992-01-22

34

Geology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Geologic history and geographic distribution of Central New York's surface and subsurface mineral resources are described. Present and potential economic uses are identified; abandoned, semi-active, and active extraction sites are depicted; and resources ...

J. F. Davis

1970-01-01

35

Graphics processing, video digitizing, and presentation of geologic information  

SciTech Connect

Computer users have unparalleled opportunities to use powerful desktop computers to generate, manipulate, analyze and use graphic information for better communication. Processing graphic geologic information on a personal computer like the Amiga used for the projects discussed here enables geoscientists to create and manipulate ideas in ways once available only to those with access to large budgets and large mainframe computers. Desktop video applications such as video digitizing and powerful graphic processing application programs add a new dimension to the creation and manipulation of geologic information. Videotape slide shows and animated geology give geoscientists new tools to examine and present information. Telecommunication programs such as ATalk III, which can be used as an all-purpose telecommunications program or can emulate a Tektronix 4014 terminal, allow the user to access Sun and Prime minicomputers and manipulate graphic geologic information stored there. Graphics information displayed on the monitor screen can be captured and saved in the standard Amiga IFF graphic format. These IFF files can be processed using image processing programs such as Butcher. Butcher offers edge mapping, resolution conversion, color separation, false colors, toning, positive-negative reversals, etc. Multitasking and easy expansion that includes IBM-XT and AT co-processing offer unique capabilities for graphic processing and file transfer between Amiga-DOS and MS-DOS. Digital images produced by satellites and airborne scanners can be analyzed on the Amiga using the A-Image processing system developed by the CSIRO Division of Mathematics and Statistics and the School of Mathematics and Computing at Curtin University, Australia.

Sanchez, J.D. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (USA))

1990-02-01

36

Fundamental studies of chemical vapor deposition diamond growth processes  

SciTech Connect

We are developing laser spectroscopic techniques to foster a fundamental understanding of diamond film growth by hot filament chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Several spectroscopic techniques are under investigation to identify intermediate species present in the bulk reactor volume, the thin active volume immediately above the growing film, and the actual growing surface. Such a comprehensive examination of the overall deposition process is necessary because a combination of gas phase and surface chemistry is probably operating. Resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) techniques have been emphasized. A growth rector that permits through-the-substrate gas sampling for REMPI/time-of-flight mass spectroscopy has been developed. 7 refs., 2 figs.

Shaw, R.W.; Whitten, W.B.; Ramsey, J.M.; Heatherly, L.

1991-01-01

37

Geologic input to work processes at Duri Field, Indonesia  

SciTech Connect

Dud Field, central Sumatra, Indonesia, at 300,000 bbls per day from over 3000 wells is considered the world's largest steamflood. A project of this magnitude presents significant challenges during the planning, implementation, and operational phases. One of the biggest challenges was to increase the amount of geological data being used in decisions made on a daily basis in operations. This paper will focus on the contributions made by geologists to pattern analysis, a key process within the now, cross-functional, Asset Management Teams. The geological contribution to pattern analysis is zone correlation, geostatistical modeling, and establishment of flow units on a pattern basis. The tools necessary for the effort include statistics, formation evaluation, post steam resistivity logs, computer mapping (reserves, kh, Phi-H-So, transmissivity, 4D seismic). All applied on a pattern area to layers (15 acre patterns, 5-8 layers per pattern). The geology products are now integrated with other information, (temperature surveys, krypton surveys, PNC logs, well head temperatures, liner damage image), all previously used with little geology input. Each AMT is responsible for approximately 150-200 patterns and each pattern must be reviewed twice a year. Each work day of the year, up to 24 wells and all new data are reviewed. The pace of work requires dependable, easily communicated analyses. Estimates that this layer management of the steamflood increases the recovery efficiency by 5% at a minimum, a potential increase in reserves of 500 million barrels.

Primadi, H.; Jackson, W.D.; McNaboe, G.J.; Bamahry, L. (and others)

1996-01-01

38

Fundamental Research on Freezing Process of Water Accompanied by Blockade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fundamental research was carried out on freezing process of water accompanied by blockade. Firstly, experiment on freezing using a vinyl vessel was performed. The vessel containing water was sealed and frozen in a low temperature bath. As internal presure increased, ice started to break suddenly and then continued to break frequently. Secondly, metal vessel was used and similar experiment was performed. Strain gauge was placed at eight points evenly distributed in circumferential direction on the vessel. It was found that the force acting on the vessel was so great that the vessel entered into a plastic region in very short time. It was also found that ice cracks influence the local strain value but the value is almost independent to its neighboring measurements. Approximate analysis was performed and compared with the experiment using metal vessel. The following two cases were assumed in the calculation. (1) Ice is so easy to break that the stress in the ice can be ignored. (2) Ice never break and always stay in elastic region. The experimental results laid somewhere between them but subsequently it approached the case (1).

Saito, Akio; Okawa, Seiji; Saito, Seiji

39

Using Springs to Study Groundwater Flow and Active Geologic Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spring water provides a unique opportunity to study a range of subsurface processes in regions with few boreholes or wells. However, because springs integrate the signal of geological and hydrological processes over large spatial areas and long periods of time, they are an indirect source of information. This review illustrates a variety of techniques and approaches that are used to interpret measurements of isotopic tracers, water chemistry, discharge, and temperature. As an example, a set of springs in the Oregon Cascades is considered. By using tracers, temperature, and discharge measurements, it is possible to determine the mean-residence time of water, infer the spatial pattern and extent of groundwater flow, estimate basin-scale hydraulic properties, calculate the regional heat flow, and quantify the rate of magmatic intrusion beneath the volcanic arc.

Manga, Michael

40

FUNDAMENTAL CHEMISTRY AND THERMODYNAMICS OF HYDROTHERMAL OXIDATION PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this research is to determine experimentally the fundamental thermodynamic and phase-equilibrium properties which control inorganic chemical reactions in high-temperature aqueous solutions as directly related to the assessment of technology and avoidance of problem...

41

Fundamental studies of catalytic processing of synthetic liquids. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Liquids derived from coal contain relatively high amounts of oxygenated organic compounds, mainly in the form of phenols and furans that are deleterious to the stability and quality of these liquids as fuels. Hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) using Mo/W sulfide catalysts is a promising method to accomplish this removal, but our understanding of the reactions occurring on the catalyst surface during HDO is very limited. Rather than attempting to examine the complexities of real liquids and catalysts we have adopted an approach here using model systems amenable to surface-sensitive techniques that enable us to probe in detail the fundamental processes occurring during HDO at the surfaces of well-defined model catalysts. The results of this work may lead to the development of more efficient, selective and stable catalysts. Above a S/Mo ratio of about 0.5 ML, furan does not adsorb on sulfided Mo surfaces; as the sulfur coverage is lowered increasing amounts of furan can be adsorbed. Temperature-programmed reaction spectroscopy (TPRS) reveals that C-H, C-C and C-O bond scission occurs on these surfaces. Auger spectra show characteristic changes in the nature and amount of surface carbon. Comparisons with experiments carried out with CO, H{sub 2} and alkenes show that reaction pathways include -- direct abstraction of CO at low temperatures; cracking and release of hydrogen below its normal desorption temperature; dehydrogenatin of adsorbed hydrocarbon fragments; recombination of C and O atoms and dissolution of carbon into the bulk at high temperatures. Performing the adsorption or thermal reaction in 10{sup {minus}5} torr of hydrogen does not change the mode of reaction significantly.

Watson, P.R.

1994-06-15

42

Geologic Mapping, Volcanic Stages and Magmatic Processes in Hawaiian Volcanoes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of volcanic stages arose from geologic mapping of Hawaiian volcanoes. Subaerial Hawaiian lava successions can be divided generally into three constructional phases: an early (shield) stage dominated by thin-bedded basaltic lava flows commonly associated with a caldera; a later (postshield) stage with much thicker bedded, generally lighter colored lava flows commonly containing clinopyroxene; calderas are absent in this later stage. Following periods of quiescence of a half million years or more, some Hawaiian volcanoes have experienced renewed (rejuvenated) volcanism. Geological and petrographic relations irrespective of chemical composition led to the identification of mappable units on Niihau, Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Maui and Hawaii, which form the basis for this 3-fold division of volcanic activity. Chemical data have complicated the picture. There is a growing tendency to assign volcanic stage based on lava chemistry, principally alkalicity, into tholeiitic shield, alkalic postshield, and silica undersaturated rejuvenation, despite the evidence for interbedded tholeiitic and alkalic basalts in many shield formations, and the presence of mildly tholeiitic lavas in some postshield and rejuvenation formations. A consistent characteristic of lava compositions from most postshield formations is evidence for post-melting evolution at moderately high pressures (3-7 kb). Thus, the mapped shield to postshield transitions primarily reflect the disappearance of shallow magma chambers (and associated calderas) in Hawaiian volcanoes, not the earlier (~100 ka earlier in Waianae Volcano) decline in partial melting that leads to the formation of alkalic parental magmas. Petrological signatures of high-pressure evolution are high-temperature crystallization of clinopyroxene and delayed crystallization of plagioclase, commonly to <3 % MgO. Petrologic modeling using pMELTS and MELTS algorithms allows for quantification of the melting and fractionation conditions giving rise to various Hawaiian lithologies. This analysis indicates that the important magmatic process that links geologic mapping to volcanic stage is thermal state of the volcano, as manifest by depth of magma evolution. The only criterion for rejuvenation volcanism is the presence of a significant time break (more than several hundred thousand years) preceding eruption.

Sinton, J. M.

2005-12-01

43

The geological thought process: A help in developing business instincts  

SciTech Connect

Since the beginning of modern-day geology it has been understood that the present is the key to the past. However, when attempting to apply current geological models one discovers that there are no exact look-alikes. Thus, the geological discipline inherently accepts modifications, omissions, and relatively large margins of error compared with engineering. Geologists are comfortable in a world of non-unique solutions. Thus the experience in working with numerous geological settings is extremely critical in selecting the most reasonable geological interpretations, often by using a composite of specific models. One can not simply replace a dynamic geologist`s life-time of experiences and geologic instinct with simply a book-smart young upstart. Petroleum corporations accept geologic risk and manage it by drilling numerous wells in various geological provenances. Oil corporations have attempted to quantify and manage risk by using Monte Carlo simulations, thus invoking a formal discipline of risk. The acceptance of risk, results in an asset allocation approach to investing. Asset allocators attempt to reduce volatility and risk, inherently understanding that in any specific time interval anything can happen. Dollar cost averaging significantly reduces market risk over time, however it requires discipline and commitment. The single most important ingredient to a successful investing plan is to assign a reasonable holding period. Historically, a majority of the investment community demands instant gratification causing unneeded anxiety and failure. As in geology nothing can replace experience.

Epstein, S.A. [Dean Witter Reynolds, New York, NY (United States)

1995-09-01

44

Venus and the Earth's Archean: Geological mapping and process comparisons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction. The geological features, structures, thermal conditions, interpreted processes, and outstanding questions related to both the Earth's Archean and Venus share many similarities [1-3] and we are using a problem-oriented approach to Venus mapping, guided by insight from the Archean record of the Earth, to gain new perspectives on the evolution of Venus and Earth's Archean. The Earth's preserved and well-documented Archean record [4] provides important insight into high heat-flux tectonic and magmatic environments and structures [5] and the surface of Venus reveals the current configuration and recent geological record of analogous high-temperature environments unmodified by subsequent several billion years of segmentation and overprinting, as on Earth. Here we address the nature of the Earth's Archean, the similarities to and differences from Venus, and the specific Venus and Earth-Archean problems on which progress might be made through comparison. The Earth's Archean and its Relation to Venus. The Archean period of Earth's history extends from accretion/initial crust formation (sometimes called the Hadean) to 2.5 Ga and is thought of by most workers as being a transitional period between the earliest Earth and later periods largely dominated by plate tectonics (Proterozoic and Phanerozoic) [2, 4]. Thus the Archean is viewed as recording a critical period in Earth's history in which a transition took place from the types of primary and early secondary crusts seen on the Moon, Mars and Mercury [6] (and largely missing in the record of the Earth), to the style of crustal accretion and plate tectonics characterizing later Earth history. The Archean is also characterized by enhanced crustal and mantle temperatures leading to differences in deformation style and volcanism (e.g., komatiites) [2]. The preserved Archean crust is exposed in ~36 different cratons [4], forming the cores of most continental regions, and is composed of gneisses, plutons and greenstones. The geological record of the Archean Earth is considerably different than the Phanerozoic record and ongoing processes [1, 7]. The Archean record is characterized by evidence for enhanced mantle temperatures, different styles of crustal deformation (localized belts of high intensity deformation, tight high and low angle folds, diapiric-related deformation, significant lateral differences in lithospheric thickness (implied by 'cold' keels), significant evidence for crustal thickening processes and the burial and exhumation of thickened crust, abundant hightemperature komatiites, greenstone belts, "mafic plains"-type greenstones, positive gneissic and felsic diapirs, abundance of a distinctive TTG (tonalitetrondhjemite- granodiorite) assemblage, layered gabbro- anorthosite igneous intrusions, very abundant plume-derived basalts, unusual events interpreted to represent mantle instability and overturn, late stage granodiorites and granites derived from intracrustal melting, epicratonic basins, and production of large volumes of continental crust [1,4,5]. A major question in the study of the Archean is the nature of the geodynamic processes operating during this time. Do the geodynamic processes represent a steady-state accommodation to the Archean thermal environment, or do they represent a transitional or evolutionary phase? Does the Archean represent a particular unique style of vertical tectonics, as on oneplate planets, lateral tectonics (perhaps early plate tectonics) as on later Earth, or is it transitional in time (and perhaps in space), changing from one style to another during the Archean? What role do the enhanced mantle and crustal temperatures play in volcanism and tectonism during this period? Do global crustal and lithospheric density instabilities play a major role in the transition [8], perhaps causing catastrophic foundering and crustal overturn [9], as thought to have occurred on the Moon and Mars? Does vertical crustal accretion dominate over lateral crustal accretion, leading to density instabilities and planet-wide diapiric upwel

Head, J. W.; Hurwitz, D. M.; Ivanov, M. A.; Basilevsky, A. T.; Senthil Kumar, P.

2008-09-01

45

Towards understanding how surface life can affect interior geological processes: a non-equilibrium thermodynamics approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life has significantly altered the Earth's atmosphere, oceans and crust. To what extent has it also affected interior geological processes? To address this question, three models of geological processes are formulated: mantle convection, continental crust uplift and erosion and oceanic crust recycling. These processes are characterised as non-equilibrium thermodynamic systems. Their states of disequilibrium are maintained by the power generated

J. G. Dyke; F. Gans; A. Kleidon

2011-01-01

46

Process for structural geologic analysis of topography and point data  

DOEpatents

A quantitative method of geologic structural analysis of digital terrain data is described for implementation on a computer. Assuming selected valley segments are controlled by the underlying geologic structure, topographic lows in the terrain data, defining valley bottoms, are detected, filtered and accumulated into a series line segments defining contiguous valleys. The line segments are then vectorized to produce vector segments, defining valley segments, which may be indicative of the underlying geologic structure. Coplanar analysis is performed on vector segment pairs to determine which vectors produce planes which represent underlying geologic structure. Point data such as fracture phenomena which can be related to fracture planes in 3-dimensional space can be analyzed to define common plane orientation and locations. The vectors, points, and planes are displayed in various formats for interpretation.

Eliason, Jay R. (Richland, WA); Eliason, Valerie L. C. (Richland, WA)

1987-01-01

47

IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION OF FUNDAMENTAL TRANSPORT AND TRANSFORMATION PROCESS MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

Chemical fate models require explicit algorithms for computing the effects of transformation and transport processes on the spatial and temporal distribution of chemical concentrations. Transport processes in aquatic systems are driven by physical characteristics on the system an...

48

An Atomistic View on Fundamental Transport Processes on Metal Surfaces  

SciTech Connect

In this lecture I present an introduction to the time-resolved observation of atomic transport processes on metal surfaces using scanning tunneling microscopy video sequences. The experimental data is analyzed using scaling law concepts known from statistical thermodynamics. I will present studies from metal surfaces in vacuum as well as in electrolyte.

Giesen, Margret [Forschungzentrum Juelich, Institute for Bio- and Nanosystems IBN 4, D 52425 Juelich (Germany)

2007-06-14

49

A Topologically-based Framework for Simulating Complex Geological Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earth scientists acquire and interpret a variety of data in an attempt to define the best description of subsurface geological structures, or an earth model, as the data permit. The generation of numerical meshes derived from an earth model is a necessary critical step to provide specific data representations such as finite difference grids or finite element meshes, including the

Ulisses T. Mello; Paulo R. Cavalcanti

1998-01-01

50

fundamental aspects of the gold cyanidation process: a review  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews and examines the different theories that have been published concerning the chemistry, mechanisms of extraction, and rate-controlling factors involved in the dissolution of gold in alkaline cyanide solutions. Since Elsner (1846) recognized that oxygen or air was necessary for the dissolution of gold in cyanide solutions, and later when MacArthur and the Forrests (1889) patented the process, cyanidation has become widespread for gold extraction, replacing the amalgamation and chlorination processes because of its economic, metallurgical, and environmental advantages. Many investigations have been conducted relating to the kinetics of the dissolution of gold in alkaline cyanide solutions. Although the authors agree that the rate of gold dissolution is diffusion controlled, there is disagreement concerning the mechanisms of the reactions.

Cornejo, L.M.; Spottiswood, D.J.

1984-03-01

51

Integration of geostatistical techniques and intuitive geology in the 3-D modeling process  

SciTech Connect

The development of 3-D geologic models for reservoir description and simulation has traditionally relied on the computer derived interpolation of well data in a geocelluar stratigraphic framework. The quality of the interpolation has been directly dependent on the nature of the interpolation method, and ability of the Interpolation scheme to accurately predict the value of geologic attributes away from the well. Typically, interpolation methods employ deterministic or geostatistical algorithms which offer limited capacity for Integrating data derived from secondary analyses. These secondary analyses, which might include the results from 3-D seismic inversion, borehole imagery studies, or deductive reasoning, introduce a subjective component into what would otherwise be restricted to a purely mathematical treatment of geologic data. At Saudi ARAMCO an increased emphases is being placed on the role of the reservoir geologist in the development of 3-D geologic models. Quantitative results, based on numerical computations, are being enhanced with intuitive geology, derived from years of cumulative professional experience and expertise. Techniques such as template modeling and modified conditional simulation, are yielding 3-D geologic models, which not only more accurately reflect the geology of the reservoir, but also preserve geologic detail throughout the simulation process. This incorporation of secondary data sources and qualitative analysis has been successfully demonstrated in a clastic reservoir environment in Central Saudi Arabia, and serves as a prototype for future 3-D geologic model development.

Heine, C.J.; Cooper, D.H. (Saudi ARAMCO, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia))

1996-01-01

52

Fundamental Heat-Transfer Processes Related to Phase-Change Thermal-Storage Media.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research performed between June and December 1982 on fundamental heat transfer processes which occur in phase-change thermal storage systems is described. The research encompasses both freezing and melting, and includes both experiment and analysis. The e...

E. M. Sparrow

1982-01-01

53

[Fundamental bases of digital information processing in nuclear cardiology (III)].  

PubMed

This article describes the transformation of the gamma-camera images into digital form. The incidence of a gamma photon on the detector, produces two voltage pulses, which are proportional to the coordinates of the incidence points, and a digital pulse, indicative of the occurrence of the event. The coordinate pulses passes through a analog-digital converter, that is activated by the pulse. The result is the appearance of a digital number at the out-put of the converter, which is proportional to the voltage at its in-put. This number, is stored on the accumulation memory of the system, either on a list mode or on a matrix mode. Static images can be stored on a single matrix. Dynamic data can be stored on a series of matrixes, each representing a different period of acquisition. It is also possible to capture information on a series of matrixes syncronized with the electrocardiogram of the patient. In this instance, each matrix represents a distinct period of the cardiac cycle. Data stored on the memory, can be used to process and display images and quantitative histograms on a video screen. In order to do that, it is necessary to translate the digital data on the memory to voltage levels, and to transform these on light levels on the screen. This, is achieved through a digital analog converter. The reading of the digital memory must be syncronic with the electronic scanning of the video screen. PMID:6466002

Cuarón, A; González, C; García Moreira, C

54

Groundwater as a geologic agent: An overview of the causes, processes, and manifestations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present paper is to show that groundwater is a general geologic agent. This perception could not, and\\u000a did not, evolve until the system nature of basinal groundwater flow and its properties, geometries, and controlling factors\\u000a became recognized and understood through the 1960s and 1970s.\\u000a \\u000a The two fundamental causes for groundwater's active role in nature are its

József Tóth

1999-01-01

55

Combining geologic-process models and geostatistics for conditional simulation of 3-D subsurface heterogeneity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of simulation of aquifer heterogeneity is to produce a spatial model of the subsurface that represents a system such that it can be used to understand or predict flow and transport processes. Spatial simulation requires incorporation of data and geologic knowledge, as well as representation of uncertainty. Classical geostatistical techniques allow for the conditioning of data and uncertainty assessment, but models often lack geologic realism. Simulation of physical geologic processes of sedimentary deposition and erosion (process-based modeling) produces detailed, geologically realistic models, but conditioning to local data is limited at best. We present an aquifer modeling methodology that combines geologic-process models with object-based, multiple-point, and variogram-based geostatistics to produce geologically realistic realizations that incorporate geostatistical uncertainty and can be conditioned to data. First, the geologic features of grain size, or facies, distributions simulated by a process-based model are analyzed, and the statistics of feature geometry are extracted. Second, the statistics are used to generate multiple realizations of reduced-dimensional features using an object-based technique. Third, these realizations are used as multiple alternative training images in multiple-point geostatistical simulation, a step that can incorporate local data. Last, a variogram-based geostatistical technique is used to produce conditioned maps of depositional thickness and erosion. Successive realizations of individual strata are generated in depositional order, each dependent on previously simulated geometry, and stacked to produce a fully conditioned three-dimensional facies model that mimics the architecture of the process-based model. We demonstrate the approach for a typical subsea depositional complex.

Michael, H. A.; Li, H.; Boucher, A.; Sun, T.; Caers, J.; Gorelick, S. M.

2010-05-01

56

Geological images  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from Marli Bryant Miller, a professor at the University of Oregon, presents images of geological features from around the world. Photographs of glacial features, igneous and metamorphic rocks and processes, and structural geology are featured.

Miller, Marli B.; Oregon, University O.

57

Radiogenic strontium-87 as an index of geologic processes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The abundance of radiogenic Sr87 relative to Sr86 at the time of crystallization has been determined for 45 rocks. The total range in the ratio Sr87/Sr86 is less than 2 percent. Ratios for recent lavas range from 0.702 to 0.711. Oceanic basalts are closely grouped at 0.703, whereas ratios for continental volcanic rocks spread from 0.702 to 0.711. Among the volcanic rocks, ranging from basalt to rhyolite, no correlation was found between original ratio and rock type. Older mafic and felsic rocks that include both plutonic and extrusive types also cover this same range in original Sr87/Sr86 ratios; however, there is a definite trend with geologic time. Pre-cambrian rocks give values as low as 0.700. The data indicate that Sr87/Sr86 of the weathering crust has changed 1.1 percent in 3000 million years, while the ratio in the mantle has changed no more than 0.5 percent.

Hedge, C. E.; Walthall, F. G.

1963-01-01

58

Insight into fundamental aspects of the EDM process using multidischarge numerical simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrical discharge machining (EDM) process is a popular non-traditional machining process, but, although it is widely\\u000a used in industry, there is still a lack of scientific knowledge about its fundamentals. This paper discusses some aspects\\u000a of the discharge process at the sight of the results obtained with a previously developed thermal model, which is capable\\u000a of simulating the superposition

Borja Izquierdo; José Antonio Sánchez; Naiara Ortega; Soraya Plaza; Iñigo Pombo

2011-01-01

59

FUNDAMENTAL STUDIES OF IGNITION PROCESSES IN LARGE NATURAL GAS ENGINES USING LASER SPARK IGNITION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current report details project progress made during the first quarterly reporting period of the DOE sponsored project ''Fundamental studies of ignition processes in large natural gas engines using laser spark ignition''. The goal of the overall research effort is to develop a laser ignition system for natural gas engines, with a particular focus on using fiber optic delivery methods.

Azer Yalin; Morgan Defoort; Bryan Willson

2005-01-01

60

Martian Cratering 10. Progress in use of crater counts to interpret geological processes: Examples from two debris aprons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent controversies about systems of crater-count dating have been largely resolved, and with continuing refinements, crater counts will offer a fundamental geological tool to interpret not only ages, but also the nature of geological processes altering the surface of Mars. As an example of the latter technique, we present data on two debris aprons east of Hellas. The aprons show much shorter survival times of small craters than do the nearby contiguous plains. The order-of-magnitude depths of layers involved in the loss process can be judged from the depths of the affected craters. We infer that ice-rich layers in the top tens of meters of both aprons have lost crater topography within the last few 10 8 yr, probably due to flow or sublimation of ice-rich materials. Mantling by ice-rich deposits, associated with climate change cycles of obliquity change, has probably also affected both the aprons and the plains. The crater-count tool thus adds chronological and vertical dimensional information to purely morphological studies.

Hartmann, William K.; Werner, Stephanie C.

2010-06-01

61

Towards understanding how surface life can affect interior geological processes: a non-equilibrium thermodynamics approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Life has significantly altered the Earth's atmosphere, oceans and crust. To what extent has it also affected interior geological processes? To address this question, three models of geological processes are formulated: mantle convection, continental crust uplift and erosion and oceanic crust recycling. These processes are characterised as non-equilibrium thermodynamic systems. Their states of disequilibrium are maintained by the power generated from the dissipation of energy from the interior of the Earth. Altering the thickness of continental crust via weathering and erosion affects the upper mantle temperature which leads to changes in rates of oceanic crust recycling and consequently rates of outgassing of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Estimates for the power generated by various elements in the Earth system are shown. This includes, inter alia, surface life generation of 264 TW of power, much greater than those of geological processes such as mantle convection at 12 TW. This high power results from life's ability to harvest energy directly from the sun. Life need only utilise a small fraction of the generated free chemical energy for geochemical transformations at the surface, such as affecting rates of weathering and erosion of continental rocks, in order to affect interior, geological processes. Consequently when assessing the effects of life on Earth, and potentially any planet with a significant biosphere, dynamical models may be required that better capture the coupled nature of biologically-mediated surface and interior processes.

Dyke, J. G.; Gans, F.; Kleidon, A.

2011-06-01

62

Electroporation of Cell Membranes: The Fundamental Effects of Pulsed Electric Fields in Food Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using of pulsed electric fields (PEF) for killing of microorganisms in liquid foods is a promising new non-thermal food processing\\u000a and preservation technology. However, to implement and optimize this technology, a good understanding of the actual mechanisms\\u000a that govern microbial inactivation by this technique is required. Here, fundamentals of cell electroporation, which is considered\\u000a as underlying phenomenon of food processing

Gintautas Saulis

2010-01-01

63

Multi-scale interactions of geological processes during mineralization: cascade dynamics model and multifractal simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relations between mineralization and certain geological processes are established mostly by geologist's knowledge of field observations. However, these relations are descriptive and a quantitative model of how certain geological processes strengthen or hinder mineralization is not clear, that is to say, the mechanism of the interactions between mineralization and the geological framework has not been thoroughly studied. The dynamics behind these interactions are key in the understanding of fractal or multifractal formations caused by mineralization, among which singularities arise due to anomalous concentration of metals in narrow space. From a statistical point of view, we think that cascade dynamics play an important role in mineralization and studying them can reveal the nature of the various interactions throughout the process. We have constructed a multiplicative cascade model to simulate these dynamics. The probabilities of mineral deposit occurrences are used to represent direct results of mineralization. Multifractal simulation of probabilities of mineral potential based on our model is exemplified by a case study dealing with hydrothermal gold deposits in southern Nova Scotia, Canada. The extent of the impacts of certain geological processes on gold mineralization is related to the scale of the cascade process, especially to the maximum cascade division number nmax. Our research helps to understand how the singularity occurs during mineralization, which remains unanswered up to now, and the simulation may provide a more accurate distribution of mineral deposit occurrences that can be used to improve the results of the weights of evidence model in mapping mineral potential.

Yao, L.; Cheng, Q.

2011-03-01

64

Active geologic processes in Barrow Canyon, northeast Chukchi Sea  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Circulation patterns on the shelf and at the shelf break appear to dominate the Barrow Canyon system. The canyon's shelf portion underlies and is maintained by the Alaska Coastal Current (A.C.C.), which flows northeastward along the coast toward the northeast corner of the broad Chukchi Sea. Offshelf and onshelf advective processes are indicated by oceanographic measurements of other workers. These advective processes may play an important role in the production of bedforms that are found near the canyon head as well as in processes of erosion or non-deposition in the deeper canyon itself. Coarse sediments recovered from the canyon axis at 400 to 570 m indicate that there is presently significant flow along the canyon. The canyon hooks left at a point north of Point Barrow where the A.C.C. loses its coastal constriction. The left hook, as well as preferential west-wall erosion, continues down to the abyssal plain of the Canada Basin at 3800 m. A possible explanation for the preferential west-wall erosion along the canyon, at least for the upper few hundred meters, is that the occasional upwelling events, which cause nutrient-rich water to flow along the west wall would in turn cause larger populations of burrowing organisms to live there than on the east wall, and that these organisms cause high rates of bioerosion. This hypothesis assumes that the dominant factor in the canyon's erosion is biological activity, not current velocity. Sedimentary bedforms consisting of waves and furrows are formed in soft mud in a region on the shelf west of the canyon head; their presence there perhaps reflects: (a) the supply of fine suspended sediments delivered by the A.C.C. from sources to the south, probably the Yukon and other rivers draining northwestern Alaska; and (b) the westward transport of these suspended sediments by the prevailing Beaufort Gyre which flows along the outer shelf. ?? 1982.

Eittreim, S.; Grantz, A.; Greenberg, J.

1982-01-01

65

Use of clay minerals in reconstructing geological processes: recent advances and some perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews that clay literature from the last ten years, which is devoted to the applications of clay minerals in the interpretation of geological processes in sedimentary basins. The results, selected by the author as being of particular interest, are presented, arranged according to the successive phases of the rock cycle. The research field defined in the title has

J. Srodon

1999-01-01

66

Time-lapse motion picture technique applied to the study of geological processes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Light-weight, battery-operated timers were built and coupled to 16-mm motion-picture cameras having apertures controlled by photoelectric cells. The cameras were placed adjacent to Emmons Glacier on Mount Rainier. The film obtained confirms the view that exterior time-lapse photography can be applied to the study of slow-acting geologic processes.

Miller, R. D.; Crandell, D. R.

1959-01-01

67

Applying Seismic Methods to National Security Problems: Matched Field Processing With Geological Heterogeneity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seismic imaging and tracking methods have intelligence and monitoring applications. Current systems, however, do not adequately calibrate or model the unknown geological heterogeneity. Current systems are also not designed for rapid data acquisition and analysis in the field. This project seeks to build the core technological capabilities coupled with innovative deployment, processing, and analysis methodologies to allow seismic methods to

S Myers; S Larsen; J Wagoner; B Henderer; D McCallen; J Trebes; P Harben; D Harris

2003-01-01

68

Elucidating geological and biological processes underlying the diversification of Sulawesi tarsiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of their exceptionally long independent evolution, a range diminution of their Eocene relatives, and a remarkable subsequent diversification in Southeast Asia, tarsiers are of particular importance to evolutionary primatologists. Little is known, however, on the processes shaping the radiation of these small enigmatic primates---especially on the Indonesian island of Sulawesi, their center of endemism. Geological reconstructions and progress in

Stefan Merker; Christine Driller; Dyah Perwitasari-Farajallah; Joko Pamungkas; Hans Zischler

2009-01-01

69

Exploring the Relationship between Students' Understanding of Conventional Time and Deep (Geologic) Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many geologic processes occur in the context of geologic or deep time. Students of all ages demonstrate difficulty grasping this fundamental concept which impacts their ability to acquire other geoscience concepts. A concept of deep time requires the ability to sequence events on an immense temporal scale (succession) and to judge the durations of geologic processes based on the rates

Kim A. Cheek

2011-01-01

70

Rainwater as a chemical agent of geologic processes; a review  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chemical analyses of the rainwater collected at several localities are given to show the variations of the principal constitutents. In rock weathering and soil-forming processes, the chemical composition of rainwater has an important effect which has been evaluated for only a few arid areas. In humid regions the important amounts of calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium added yearly by rain may be expected to influence the composition of the soil water and thereby the cations in the exchange positions of soil clay minerals. The acquisition of cations by clay minerals may slow down chemical weathering. The stability of soil clay minerals is influenced by the constant accession of cations from rainwater. Conversely, the clay minerals modify the amounts and kinds of cations that are leached out by drainage waters. The stability of micaceous minerals in soils may be partly due to accessions of K +1 ions from rainwater. The pH of rainwater in any area varies considerably and seems to form a seasonal and regional pattern. The recorded pH values range from 3.0 to 9.8.

Carroll, Dorothy

1962-01-01

71

Pump-probe spectroscopy in organic semiconductors: monitoring fundamental processes of relevance in optoelectronics.  

PubMed

In this review we highlight the contribution of pump-probe spectroscopy to understand elementary processes taking place in organic based optoelectronic devices. The techniques described in this article span from conventional pump-probe spectroscopy to electromodulated pump-probe and the state-of-the-art confocal pump-probe microscopy. The article is structured according to three fundamental processes (optical gain, charge photogeneration and charge transport) and the contribution of these techniques on them. The combination of these tools opens up new perspectives for assessing the role of short-lived excited states on processes lying underneath organic device operation. PMID:22020959

Cabanillas-Gonzalez, Juan; Grancini, Giulia; Lanzani, Guglielmo

2011-10-24

72

Frictional Sliding of Cold Ice: A Fundamental Process Underlying Tectonic Activity Within Icy Satellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Frictional sliding is a fundamental process underlying tectonic activity within the crusts of Enceladus, Europa and other icy satellites. Provided that the coefficient of friction is not too high, sliding can account for the generation of active plumes within Enceladus "tiger stripes" and for the development of certain fracture features on Europa. This paper reviews current knowledge of frictional sliding in water ice Ih, and then raises a number of questions relevant to tectonic modeling.

Schulson, Erland M.

73

Corpus-based generation of fundamental frequency contours using generation process model and considering emotional focuses  

Microsoft Academic Search

We formerly conducted emotional speech synthesis using our corpus-based method of generating fundamental frequency (F0) contours from text. The method predicts command values of F0 contour generation process model instead of directly predicting F0 value of each time frame. A better control of F0 contours was realized by taking the emotional level of each bunsetsu into account: adding information on

Keikichi Hirose; Yasufumi Asano; Nobuaki Minematsu

2006-01-01

74

The Interactions of Contextualization and Abstraction Within and Between Media: A Fundamental Process of Media Ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contextual and abstract-dominant media, as related to the auditory\\/visual duality of media in McLuhan's term and heavy\\/light dichotomy in Innis’s terms, are both complementary and competitive. This paper explores the processes of contextualization and abstraction as fundamental aspects within every medium. I use this thesis to explore their roles in the interactions between media. There have been relatively few attempts

Norman Steinhart

75

A Fundamental Study of Convective Mixing Contributing to Dissolution Trapping of CO2 in Heterogeneous Geologic Media using Surrogate Fluids and Numerical Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide is considered as an important strategy to slow down global warming and hence climate change. Dissolution trapping is one of the primary mechanisms contributing to long-term storage of supercritical CO2 (scCO2) in deep saline geologic formations. When liquid scCO2 is injected into the formation, its density is less than density of brine. During the movement of injected scCO2 under the effect of buoyancy forces, it is immobilized due to capillary forces. With the progress of time, entrapped scCO2 dissolves in formation brine, and density-driven convective fingers are expected to be generated due to the higher density of the solute compared to brine. These fingers enhance mixing of dissolved CO2 in brine. The development and role of these convective fingers in mixing in homogeneous formations have been studied in past investigations. The goal of this study is to evaluate the contribution of convective mixing to dissolution trapping of scCO2 in naturally heterogeneous geologic formations via laboratory experiments and numerical analyses. To mimic the dissolution of scCO2 in formation brine under ambient laboratory conditions, a group of surrogate fluids were selected according to their density and viscosity ratios, and tested in different fluid/fluid mixtures and variety of porous media test systems. After selection of the appropriate fluid mixture, a set of experiments in a small test tank packed in homogeneous configurations was performed in order to analyze the fingering behavior. A second set of experiments was conducted for layered systems to study the effects of formation heterogeneity on convective mixing. To capture the dominant processes observed in the experiments, a Finite Volume based numerical code was developed. The model was then used to simulate more complex heterogeneous systems that were not represented in the experiments. Results of these analyses suggest that density-driven convective fingers that contributes to mixing in homogeneous formations may not be significantly contributing to mixing and hence dissolution trapping in heterogeneous formations. However, further experimental and modeling investigations are needed to investigate how the geologic architecture that defines the spatial distribution of low permeability zones contributes to overall dissolution trapping.

Illangasekare, Tissa; Agartan, Eliff; Trevisan, Luca; Cihan, Abdullah; Birkholzer, Jens; Zhou, Quanlin

2013-04-01

76

On the fundamental processes in molecular electrical doping of organic semiconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integer electron transfer between organic semiconductors (OSCs) and strong donor/acceptor molecules has been regarded as the fundamental mechanism of molecular electrical doping. However, this process entails a number of consequences that are in conflict with well-established concepts of organic-semiconductor physics such as the charge-induced appearance of polaronic states within the fundamental gap of the OSC. Here, from the results of (time-dependent) density-functional theory calculations on prototypical OSC/dopant pairs, we derive a new and different picture for the mechanism of molecular electrical doping, which resolves these inconsistencies. Common doping-related observations are rationalized through intermolecular hybridization of OSC and dopant frontier molecular orbitals. Controlling the degree of this hybridization thus naturally emerges as a strategy for the design of improved molecular dopants in future high-performance organic electronic devices.

Heimel, Georg; Salzmann, Ingo; Koch, Norbert

2012-06-01

77

Fundamental chemistry and thermodynamics of hydrothermal oxidation processes. 1998 annual progress report  

SciTech Connect

'The objective of this research program is to provide fundamental scientific information on the physical and chemical properties of solutes in aqueous solutions at high temperatures needed to assess and enhance the applicability of hydrothermal oxidation (HTO) to the remediation of DOE hazardous and mixed wastes. Potential limitations to the use of HTO technology include formation of deposits (scale) from precipitation of inorganic solutes in the waste, corrosion arising from formation of strong acids on oxidation of some organic compounds (e.g., chlorinated hydrocarbons), and unknown effects of fluid density and phase behavior at high temperatures. Focus areas for this project include measurements of the solubility and speciation of actinides and surrogates in model HTO process streams at high temperatures, and the experimental and theoretical development of equations of state for aqueous mixtures under HTO process conditions ranging above the critical temperature of water. A predictive level of understanding of the chemical and physical properties of HTO process streams is being developed through molecular-level simulations of aqueous solutions at high temperatures. Advances in fundamental understanding of phase behavior, density, and solute speciation at high temperatures and pressures contribute directly to the ultimate applicability of this process for the treatment of DOE hazardous and mixed wastes. Research in this project has been divided into individual tasks, with each contributing to a unified understanding of HTO processing problems related to the treatment of DOE wastes. This report summarizes progress attained after slightly less than two years of this three-year project.'

Simonson, J.M.; Mesmer, R.E.; Blencoe, J.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (US). Chemical and Analytical Sciences Div.; Cummings, P.T.; Chialvo, A.A. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (US)

1998-06-01

78

New developments in use of image processing for integrated geological and geophysical data evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Interactive work stations for seismic interpretation and mapping have been available for several years. Geological interpretation and display systems have also been available, but separate from the seismic interpretation work station. The need for integrated geological and geophysical systems is now greater than ever. The limits between the geologist's and geophysicist's work is overlapping more and more. The title explorationist would nowadays be more characteristic. In this paper, a system for integrated geological and geophysical interpretation and presentation using image processing will be presented. Integration of well data such as VSP, synthetic seismograms, electric logs, and stratigraphic logs with seismic data is important for the best correlation between wells and seismic. Composite displays and data bases present a unique way of doing this using an image processor. Seismic interpretation is often based on a previously defined geological model; therefore, it is important to be able to compare seismic interpretation with the geological model and vice versa. A new method of using image processing in depth conversion on either a single seismic line or on a map using a flexible velocity field will present the explorationist with instant ways to verify the interpretation. Once an interpretation is performed, the interpreted horizons can be used as input to a geophysical 3D seismic modeling concept. The user can input survey parameters as they were used during acquisition to produce synthetic seismograms and compare results with existing seismic data. When depth conversion parameters are established, the image processor performs this within seconds, and the final depth map is presented to the explorationist.

Miller, P.F.

1987-05-01

79

Geological Survey of Canada, Geodynamics Program: Earthquake Processes: Cascadia Subduction Zone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page explains the tectonic setting of the west coast of North America. It explains the process of the subduction of the Juan de Fuca plate beneath the North American plate. It describes the methods used to observe tectonic deformation caused by subduction, and explains how they are used to estimate earthquake potential in the region. Links are provided to the Geological Survey of Canada's Geodynamics Program home page, and to their Pacific Geoscience Centre page.

80

Digital image processing: a primer for JVIR authors and readers: part 1: the fundamentals.  

PubMed

Online submission of manuscripts will be mandatory for most journals in the near future. To prepare authors for this requirement and to acquaint readers with this new development, herein the basics of digital image processing are described. From the fundamentals of digital image architecture, through acquisition, editing, and storage of digital images, the steps necessary to prepare an image for online submission are reviewed. In this article, the first of a three-part series, the structure of the digital image is described. In subsequent articles, the acquisition and editing of digital images will be reviewed. PMID:14551267

LaBerge, Jeanne M; Andriole, Katherine P

2003-10-01

81

Fundamental processes of refractive index modifications during femtosecond laser waveguide writing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By using focused ultrashort pulsed laser radiation refractive index modifications are induced in glass in order to generate optical components. The understanding of physically fundamental processes induced by laser radiation is the basis for the systematic control and maximization of the refractive index change for the realization of three-dimensional, optical components for integrated optics like in-volume waveguides. In this paper fundamental processes which are induced by focused laser radiation in the volume of borosilicate glass D263 and fused silica are investigated. The glass materials are structured by laser radiation in the infrared spectral range (?=1045nm). By using femtosecond laser pulses with high repetition rates (f = 500 kHz), thermal processes like heat accumulation effects are induced leading to heat affected zones and thus waveguide cross sections with dimensions larger than the focal spot. The absorptivity during modification in relation to the applied pulse energy is measured for different repetition rates in both glass materials. Furthermore, the laser induced structural change in the glass matrix by the increase of three- and four-membered ring structures is proved with Raman spectroscopy.

Schaefer, D.; Schnitzler, D.; Kelbassa, I.

2013-03-01

82

Final report of ''Fundamental Surface Reaction Mechanisms in Fluorocarbon Plasma-Based Processing''  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a summary of results obtained in research supported by contract ''Fundamental Surface Reaction Mechanisms in Fluorocarbon Plasma-Based Processing'' (Contract No. DE-FG0200ER54608). In this program we advanced significantly the scientific knowledge base on low pressure fluorocarbon plasmas used for patterning of dielectric films and for producing fluorocarbon coatings on substrates. We characterized important neutral and ionic gas phase species that are incident at the substrate, and the processes that occur at relevant surfaces in contact with the plasma. The work was performed through collaboration of research groups at three universities where significantly different, complementary tools for plasma and surface characterization, computer simulation of plasma and surface processes exist. Exchange of diagnostic tools and experimental verification of key results at collaborating institutions, both experimentally and by computer simulations, was an important component of the approach taken in this work.

Gottlieb S. Oehrlein; H. Anderson; J. Cecchi; D. Graves

2004-09-21

83

Recent developments in modeling of hot rolling processes: Part I - Fundamentals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The numerical simulation of industrial rolling processes has gained substantial relevance over the past decades. A large variety of models have been put forward to simulate single and multiple rolling passes taking various interactions between the process, the microstructure evolution and the rolling mill into account. On the one hand, these include sophisticated approaches which couple models on all scales from the product's microstructure level up to the elastic behavior of the roll stand. On the other hand, simplified but fast models are used for on-line process control and automatic pass schedule optimization. This publication gives a short overview of the fundamental equations used in modeling of hot rolling of metals. Part II of this paper will present selected applications of hot rolling simulations.

Hirt, Gerhard; Bambach, Markus; Seuren, Simon; Henke, Thomas; Lohmar, Johannes

2013-05-01

84

Investigation of one of the most fundamental limits to parametric processes: two-photon absorption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among almost all the work done on parametric processes in the past, two-photon absorption (TPA) has been intentionally avoided by properly choosing the pump wavelength. On the contrary, we have purposely explored how TPA sets the fundamental limit on the optical parametric generation (OPG) and oscillation (OPO) by using periodically poled LiNbO3 (PPLN) as a testing nonlinear medium. Indeed, we have demonstrated that the TPA dramatically affects the characteristics of these two parametric processes. To our surprise, the OPO is actually not a preferred parametric process anymore compared with the OPG due to the presence of the strong TPA. In addition, the TPA can further be enhanced by self-focusing effect caused by accumulated thermal effect (ATE).

Mu, Xiaodong; Ding, Yujie J.

2004-11-01

85

Dependence of the triple-alpha process on the fundamental constants of nature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an ab initio calculation of the quark mass dependence of the ground state energies of 4He , 8Be and 12C , and of the energy of the Hoyle state in 12C . These investigations are performed within the framework of lattice chiral Effective Field Theory. We address the sensitivity of the production rate of carbon and oxygen in red giant stars to the fundamental constants of nature by considering the impact of variations in the light quark masses and the electromagnetic fine-structure constant on the reaction rate of the triple-alpha process. As carbon and oxygen are essential to life as we know it, we also discuss the implications of our findings for an anthropic view of the Universe. We find strong evidence that the physics of the triple-alpha process is driven by alpha clustering, and that shifts in the fundamental parameters at the ? 2-3% level are unlikely to be detrimental to the development of life. Tolerance against much larger changes cannot be ruled out at present, given the relatively limited knowledge of the quark mass dependence of the two-nucleon S -wave scattering parameters. Lattice QCD is expected to provide refined estimates of the scattering parameters in the future.

Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann; Lähde, Timo A.; Lee, Dean; Meißner, Ulf-G.

2013-07-01

86

Physical geology  

SciTech Connect

The book integrates current thinking on processes (plate techtonics, chemical cycles, changes throughout geologic time). It is an introduction to investigations into the way the earth works, how mountains are formed, how the atmosphere, hydrosphere, crust and mantle interact with each other. Treatments on climate, paleoclimatology and landscape evolution are included, as is a discussion on how human activity affects geological interactions.

Skinner, B.; Porter, S.

1987-01-01

87

Geodynamics applications of continuum physics to geological problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This textbook deals with the fundamental physical processes necessary for an understanding of plate tectonics and a variety of geologic phenomena. The first chapter reviews plate tectonics; its main purpose is to provide physics, chemistry, and engineering students with the geologic background necessary to understand the applications throughout the rest of the book. It goes on to discuss in following

D. L. Turcotte; G. Schubert

1982-01-01

88

Ganymede bright terrain at very high resolution - Geologic structure and regolith processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bright terrain on Ganymede is characterized by sets ('sulci') of relatively high albedo parallel ridges and troughs hundreds of meters in vertical relief and 10s of km wide, commonly bounded on either side by large, deep throughgoing grooves. Based on Voyager data, the formation of bright terrain has been plausibly attributed to the emplacement of water ice volcanics, followed by tectonic extension. Recent data returned from the Galileo spacecraft have provided the basis for an updated interpretation of these results. In addition, the return by Galileo of very high (11 m/pxl) resolution images of a region of bright terrain has allowed the examination and analysis of features as small as boulders, yielding a very local perspective of bright terrain characteristics. Using these images, we have classified several geological units within this unnamed sulcus, and have analyzed the various degradation states of these units in terms of local-scale processes. In this way, a picture of local geological processes in Ganymede's bright terrain has begun to emerge.

Yingst, R. A.; Head, J. W.; Moore, J. M.; Chapman, C. R.; Pappalardo, R.; Galileo IMAGING Team

1997-03-01

89

Evolution of geological processes; International Geological Congress, Session, 28th, Washington, DC, July 9-19, 1989, Reports  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Topics discussed include the initial stages in the evolution of lithosphere, the tectonic evolution of the lithosphere in the Precambrian and the Phanerozoic, the evolution of sedimentation and lithogenesis in the Precambrian and the Phanerozoic, the evolution of the paleoenvironment of the ocean, and the evolution of ore formation. Papers are presented on the evolution of granite-greenstone terrains according to Sm-Nd geochronometry; volcanic belts as indicators of the tectonic evolution of the eastern continental margin of Eurasia; and the role of the earth tides in the tectonic evolution of the earth. Attention is also given to the evolution of Alpine-type molasses, the phenomena of irreversibility and recurrence in ore-formation in the course of the earth's geological history, the main features in the evolution of volcanogenic ferroaccumulation in the Early Precambrian, and the evolution of hydrocarbon and ore formation in the sedimentary strata of platform regions.

Ianshin, A. L.

90

Chemical Sensing for Buried Landmines - Fundamental Processes Influencing Trace Chemical Detection  

SciTech Connect

Mine detection dogs have a demonstrated capability to locate hidden objects by trace chemical detection. Because of this capability, demining activities frequently employ mine detection dogs to locate individual buried landmines or for area reduction. The conditions appropriate for use of mine detection dogs are only beginning to emerge through diligent research that combines dog selection/training, the environmental conditions that impact landmine signature chemical vapors, and vapor sensing performance capability and reliability. This report seeks to address the fundamental soil-chemical interactions, driven by local weather history, that influence the availability of chemical for trace chemical detection. The processes evaluated include: landmine chemical emissions to the soil, chemical distribution in soils, chemical degradation in soils, and weather and chemical transport in soils. Simulation modeling is presented as a method to evaluate the complex interdependencies among these various processes and to establish conditions appropriate for trace chemical detection. Results from chemical analyses on soil samples obtained adjacent to landmines are presented and demonstrate the ultra-trace nature of these residues. Lastly, initial measurements of the vapor sensing performance of mine detection dogs demonstrates the extreme sensitivity of dogs in sensing landmine signature chemicals; however, reliability at these ultra-trace vapor concentrations still needs to be determined. Through this compilation, additional work is suggested that will fill in data gaps to improve the utility of trace chemical detection.

PHELAN, JAMES M.

2002-05-01

91

Fundamental research on novel process alternatives for coal gasification. Progress report, May 7-August 6, 1984  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this research program are (1) to determine the technical feasibility of and (2) to prepare preliminary process evaluations for each of two new approaches to coal gasification. The objective of Task 1, CO/sub 2/-Coal Gasification Concept, is to obtain fundamental information on a novel coal gasification process concept that involves pressurized carbon dioxide-coal gasification followed by a high-temperature carbon dioxide removal step that uses a metal oxide sorbent. The objective of Task 2, Internal Recirculation Catalysts Coal Gasification Process Concept, is to explore the use of novel semivolatile materials as internal recirculation catalysts for coal gasification. During this quarter, a detailed test plan was developed and approved for each of the three subtasks in Task 1 involving experimental work: CO/sub 2/-coal devolatilization studies; CO/sub 2/-coal char gasification studies; and CO/sub 2/ adsorption/desorption studies. Two coals were selected for testing: a North Dakota lignite and an Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal. These samples were processed for testing and analysis. The high-temperature thermobalance was readied for testing, instruments were calibrated, and some reactor tube components were replaced. Instrumentation for the CO/sub 2/ adsorption/desorption tests was specified; quotations are being requested from vendors. The literature on the effect of CO/sub 2/ on coal devolatilization characteristics was reviewed. A detailed analysis of the literature data is under way. For Task 2 a detailed test plan was developed and approved for each of the two subtasks in this program involving experimental work: laboratory-scale batch screening tests; and bench-scale tests. Construction of the experimental apparatus for batch screening tests was begun. New batch reactors capable of operation at high temperatures and high pressures under conditions of rapid pressure and temperature change have been received. 3 references, 5 figures.

Babu, S.P.

1984-08-01

92

Fundamental chemistry and thermodynamics of hydrothermal oxidation processes. 1997 annual progress report  

SciTech Connect

'The objective of this research program is to provide fundamental scientific information on the physical and chemical properties of solutes in aqueous solutions at high temperatures needed to assess and improve the applicability of hydrothermal oxidation (HTO) to the remediation of US Department of Energy (DOE) hazardous and mixed wastes. Investigators in two divisions at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Chemical and Analytical Sciences, and Chemical Technology) and at the University of Tennessee are focused on the solubility and speciation of actinides and surrogates in model HTO process streams at high temperatures, on the experimental and theoretical development of equations of state for aqueous mixtures containing noncondensible gases under HTO process conditions ranging above the critical temperature of water, and on achieving a predictive level of understanding of the chemical and physical properties of HTO process streams through molecular-level simulations of aqueous solutions at high temperatures. Specific tasks in these three efforts over the past year include measurements of solubility and identification of stable solid phases for UO{sub 3} in aqueous carbonate solutions at temperatures above 100 C, measurements of fluid-phase coexistence boundaries and densities of mixtures in (H{sub 2}O + N{sub 2} + CO{sub 2}) mixtures at high temperatures and pressures, and molecular dynamics simulations of water and aqueous solutions addressing the speciation of simple ionic solutes and the structure of water and aqueous solutions as functions of temperature and density. Research in this project has been divided into individual tasks, each addressing a particular scientific question and each contributing to a unified understanding of HTO processing problems related to the treatment of DOE hazardous and mixed wastes. The three primary tasks are (1) the determination of solubilities of inorganic compounds including actinides and surrogates to determine their likely fate during HTO processing, (2) experimental and modeling studies of the density and phase behavior of (water + gas) mixtures at high temperatures to determine the physical state of the process fluid, and (3) simulations of water and aqueous solutions at high temperatures and comparison with experimental results as a method for the development of accurate, comprehensive descriptions of the properties of aqueous fluids.'

Simonson, J.M.; Mesmer, R.E.; Blencoe, J.G.; Cummings, P.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (US); Chialvo, A.A. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (US)

1997-09-01

93

Pramipexole-induced disruption of behavioral processes fundamental to intertemporal choice.  

PubMed

Evaluating the effects of presession drug administration on intertemporal choice in nonhumans is a useful approach for identifying compounds that promote impulsive behavior in clinical populations, such as those prescribed the dopamine agonist pramipexole (PPX). Based on the results of previous studies, it is unclear whether PPX increases rats' impulsive choice or attenuates aspects of stimulus control. The present study was designed to experimentally isolate behavioral processes fundamental to intertemporal choice and challenge them pharmacologically with PPX administration. In Experiment 1, the hypothesis that PPX increases impulsive choice as a result of enhanced sensitivity to reinforcer delays was tested and disconfirmed. That is, acute PPX diminished delay sensitivity in a manner consistent with disruption of stimulus control whereas repeated PPX had no effect on delay sensitivity. Experiments 2 and 3 elaborated upon this finding by examining the effects of repeated PPX on rats' discrimination of response-reinforcer contingencies and reinforcer amounts, respectively. Accuracy of both discriminations was reduced by PPX. Collectively these results provide no support for past studies that have suggested PPX increases impulsive choice. Instead, PPX impairs stimulus control over choice behavior. The behavioral approach adopted herein could be profitably integrated with genetic and other biobehavioral models to advance our understanding of impulsive behavior associated with drug administration. PMID:23436721

Johnson, Patrick S; Stein, Jeffrey S; Smits, Rochelle R; Madden, Gregory J

2013-02-22

94

Practical petroleum geology  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the scope and content of the field of petroleum geology from the standpoint of the practicing petroleum geologist. Includes chapters on basic geological concepts, the sedimentation process, accumulation of hydrocarbons, exploration, economic examination, drilling of exploratory wells, recovering oil and gas (reservoir geology), and the relationship of geology to the petroleum industry as a whole.

Not Available

1985-01-01

95

A Temperature-Profile Method for Estimating Flow Processes inGeologic Heat Pipes  

SciTech Connect

Above-boiling temperature conditions, as encountered, forexample, in geothermal reservoirs and in geologic repositories for thestorage of heat-producing nuclear wastes, may give rise to stronglyaltered liquid and gas flow processes in porous subsurface environments.The magnitude of such flow perturbation is extremely hard to measure inthe field. We therefore propose a simple temperature-profile method thatuses high-resolution temperature data for deriving such information. Theenergy that is transmitted with the vapor and water flow creates a nearlyisothermal zone maintained at about the boiling temperature, referred toas a heat pipe. Characteristic features of measured temperature profiles,such as the differences in the gradients inside and outside of the heatpipe regions, are used to derive the approximate magnitude of the liquidand gas fluxes in the subsurface, for both steady-state and transientconditions.

Birkholzer, Jens T.

2004-12-06

96

A Temperature-Profile Method for Estimating Flow Processes in Geologic Heat Pipes  

SciTech Connect

Above-boiling temperature conditions, as encountered, for example, in geothermal reservoirs and in geologic repositories for the storage of heat-producing nuclear wastes, may give rise to strongly altered liquid and gas flow processes in porous subsurface environments. The magnitude of such flow perturbation is extremely hard to measure in the field. We therefore propose a simple temperature-profile method that uses high-resolution temperature data for deriving such information. The energy that is transmitted with the vapor and water flow creates a nearly isothermal zone maintained at about the boiling temperature, referred to as a heat pipe. Characteristic features of measured temperature profiles, such as the differences in the gradients inside and outside of the heat pipe regions, are used to derive the approximate magnitude of the liquid and gas fluxes in the subsurface, for both steady-state and transient conditions.

J.T. Birkholzer

2005-01-21

97

Improved understanding of geologic CO{sub 2} storage processes requires risk-driven field experiments  

SciTech Connect

The need for risk-driven field experiments for CO{sub 2} geologic storage processes to complement ongoing pilot-scale demonstrations is discussed. These risk-driven field experiments would be aimed at understanding the circumstances under which things can go wrong with a CO{sub 2} capture and storage (CCS) project and cause it to fail, as distinguished from accomplishing this end using demonstration and industrial scale sites. Such risk-driven tests would complement risk-assessment efforts that have already been carried out by providing opportunities to validate risk models. In addition to experimenting with high-risk scenarios, these controlled field experiments could help validate monitoring approaches to improve performance assessment and guide development of mitigation strategies.

Oldenburg, C.M.

2011-06-01

98

Processing map and well log data for geological and soil surveys  

SciTech Connect

Design of a system which accepts geological maps or soil maps, together with corresponding well logs and produces interpretation maps, is described. The major aim was to get a processing program that would be useful at an operational scale that avoids the use of special purpose graphics hardware. This was achieved by using segment encoding of lines and by treatment of mapped units as basic graphical units (atoms). The system operation was split into an input phase and a processed phase. Input- and file-building require some technical experience, but are a one-time affair, whereas subsequent processing requires less (graphical) resources and experience, but is of a repetitive nature. When writing processing programs, emphasis was placed on ease of adding options. Clever improvements of efficiency (e.g., disk traffic) were not deemed worthwhile or even wise. Two driving forces behind the project required the programs reported here. First was the observation that digital data can be used only if appropriate programs are readily available to produce required results without need for large investments in hardware. Second was the idea that digital tools could be most effective if they allow the end-user (customer) to interact directly with the full base of data without recourse to technical experts. The resulting system is operational and running on a VAX 11/750, coded in FORTRAN.

van Kuilenburg, J.

1986-01-01

99

Fundamental heat-transfer processes related to phase-change thermal-storage media  

SciTech Connect

Research performed between June and December 1982 on fundamental heat transfer processes which occur in phase-change thermal storage systems is described. The research encompasses both freezing and melting, and includes both experiment and analysis. The experimental portion of the work in progress is concerned with phase change which occurs within a closed cylinder or tube. In separate but interrelated freezing and melting experiments, the effect of the inclination of the tube in the gravity field was investigated. For freezing, it was found that despite local variations, the global (i.e., surface-averaged) freezing rate was virtually independent of the inclination of the tube. On the other hand, for melting, different regimes characterized by different melting rates were encountered as a function of the tube inclination. The rate of melting is least when the tube is vertical. At moderate angles relative to the vertical, gravity presses the melting solid against the tube, thereby accelerating the rate at which melting occurs. Numerical solutions obtained with an implicit-explicit finite difference scheme were employed to explore the effects of solid-solid phase transitions on freezing which occurs on a plane wall or on the outside surface of a cylinder. Another focus of the work was to take account of heat transfer at the solid-liquid interface due to natural convection in the adjacent liquid melt. In the presence of interfacial convection, freezing ceases when a critical thickness of the solidified layer is attained. The greater the interfacial convection, the smaller is the critical thickness and the shorter is the time required for its attainment. The heat liberated by the solid-solid transition reduces the thickness of the solidified layer but increases the rate of heat extraction at the cooled wall.

Sparrow, E.M.

1982-12-01

100

New processing of Cassini/VIMS data on potentially geologically varying regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a study of Titan's geology with a view to enhance our current understanding of the satellite's potentially geologically varying regions. We apply here a statistical method, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) [1, 2] and a radiative transfer method [3, 1] on three potentially "active" regions on Titan, i.e. regions possibly subject to change over time (in brightness and/or in color etc) [4] namely Tui Regio, Hotei Regio, and Sotra Facula. With our method of PCA we have managed to isolate specific regions of distinct and diverse chemical composition. Then, with our follow-up RT method, we retrieved the surface albedo of the three isolated regions and of the surrounding terrains with different spectral response. These methods enabled us to evaluate the atmospheric contribution and allowed us to better constrain the real surface alterations, by comparing the spectra of these regions. Finally, the temporal surface variation of Hotei Regio as suggested by Nelson et al. 2009 [5], has been tested through the use of the RT method while we have superimposed this area's Cassini Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) and RADAR data in order to 'view' the morphological potential. Even though we have used exactly the same dataset as Nelson and coauthors in 2009, we did not detect any significant surface albedo variations over time; this led us to revise the definition of "active" regions: even if these regions have not visually changed over the course of the Cassini mission, the determination of the chemical composition and the correlation with the morphological structures [6] observed in these areas do not rule out that past and/or ongoing cryovolcanic processes are still a possible interpretation.

Solomonidou, A.; Hirtzig, M.; Bratsolis, E.; Bampasidis, G.; Coustenis, A.; Kyriakopoulos, K.; Le Mouélic, S.; Rodriguez, S.; Jaumann, R.; Stephan, K.; Drossart, P.; Sotin, C.; Brown, R. H.; Seymour, K.; Moussas, X.

2012-09-01

101

Laboratory Study of Fundamental Plasma Processes in Astrophysics: Progress and Opportunities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances in astrophysics (including heliophysics) are led by new observations from recent satellites and ground-based observatories, revealing detailed plasma dynamics ranging from Earth's magnetospheric activity, solar wind turbulence, solar/stellar flares, gamma ray bursts, efficient energy release from hot accretion disks, to cosmic rays at highest energies. Many of these phenomena are surprising and demand better understanding. Motivated by these astrophysical observations, a large number of laboratory experiments, equipped by significant progress in controls, diagnostics, and numerical simulations, have been performed to study underlying fundamental plasma physics. This talk is intended to highlight recent achievements on the following three selected topics. (1) On the topic of magnetic reconnection,footnotetextM. Yamada, R. Kulsrud, and H. Ji, Magnetic Reconnection,'' Rev. Mod. Phys. 82 (2010) 603. which is considered to be responsible for rapid release of magnetic energy in astrophysics, the classical Sweet-Parker model has been tested successfully in collisional laboratory plasmas while two-fluid effects, including detailed electron-scale dynamics, are observed to be essential for fast reconnection. (2) On the topic of flow stability,footnotetextH. Ji, Current Status and Future Prospects for Laboratory Study of Angular Momentum Transport Relevant to Astrophysical Disks,'' Advances in Plasma Astrophysics, Proc. IAU Symp. #274, Sicily Island, Italy (2010) p.18. which is considered to govern accretion processes and turbulent mixing in highly dynamic astrophysical plasmas, a major candidate hydrodynamic instability of Keplerian flows has been effectively eliminated by laboratory experiments while the magnetic field effects on the flow stabilities are explored and quantified. (3) On the topic of shock waves, which are considered to be a generic mechanism for the observed particle heating and acceleration, laboratory experiments have successfully produced the shocks dominated by radiative processes, and experiments on generation of collisionless shocks are underway. Dynamic behaviors of the shock front consisting of fine structures are measured and quantitatively compared with the state-of-the-art numerical predictions. The bright future of this growing field will be reflected in discussions of several near term major scientific opportunities, highlighted from the report of a community-based Workshop on Opportunities in Plasma Astrophysics (WOPA).footnotetexthttp://www.pppl.gov/conferences/2010/WOPA

Ji, Hantao

2012-10-01

102

Investigating geologic features and processes: A field investigation for earth science students at Leif Erickson Park, Duluth, Minnesota.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is a field investigation where students observe and interpret the rocks types, geologic features, and processes typical to the north shore of Lake Superior. Students use their data to develop questions that could be further investigated and to predict the sequence of events leading to the formation of these rocks and features.

Severson, Laurie

103

Fundamentals of gas-particle separation processes at high temperature and pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews fundamental mechanisms by which particles can be separated from a gas stream at the conditions under which a coal gasifier must operate. Temperature and pressure-dependent terms that affect particle collection include gas density, gas viscosity, and the mean free path of the gas molecules. These terms can affect collection mechanisms substantially, so that collection characteristics under room

1988-01-01

104

Marine Geology of the Southwestern San Juan Islands: New Insights From Multibeam Imagery and Processed Aeromagnetic Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The San Juan Islands, located in the seismically active northern Puget Sound, have a complicated and not yet fully understood geologic history. This study is among the first marine geologic mapping efforts within the San Juan Islands, filling an important gap in an otherwise well-studied region. Existing geologic and geophysical data were combined with interpretations of new multibeam bathymetry and backscatter seafloor imagery to construct a seamless onshore - offshore geologic map of the southwestern San Juan Islands. Simrad EM1002 (95 kHz) and Reson 8101 (240 kHz) multibeam bathymetry and backscatter data were collected between October 2000 and November 2003 within Haro Strait, northeastern Strait of Juan de Fuca, and San Juan Channel. Sun-shaded images of the processed data reveal a complex network of faulted and fractured bedrock exposures, deep glaciated channels, Pleistocene glacial sediments, and dynamic bedforms. Distinct slump morphologies in multibeam and backscatter imagery suggest active slumping of recent sediments at the mouth of San Juan Channel. A number of previously inferred offshore geologic structures were extended and constrained based on distinct linear bedrock features visible in the multibeam imagery. Aeromagnetic data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1997 were processed to accentuate short-wavelength, presumably shallow, magnetic sources. The resultant derivative aeromagnetic map reveals a number of areas with distinctive anomaly patterns. Gradients in magnetic anomalies often corresponded with fault traces identified in high-resolution multibeam imagery and may reflect slight magnetic susceptibility contrasts across fault contacts. Aeromagnetic data also constrain two tectonostratigraphic terrane boundaries not identified in multibeam imagery: 1) the Buck Bay fault, which separates the Lopez Structural Complex and Decatur terrane from the underlying Constitution Formation, and 2) the Haro fault separating the Deadman Bay terrane of the San Juan Thrust system from the Wrangellia terrane on Vancouver Island.

Tilden, J. E.; Greene, H. G.; Blakely, R. J.

2004-12-01

105

Report of the second meeting of the consultants on coupled processes associated with geological disposal of nuclear waste  

SciTech Connect

The second meeting of the Consultants on Coupled Processes Associated with Geological Disposal of Nuclear Waste occurred on January 15-16, 1985 at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). All the consultants were present except Dr. K. Kovari, who presented comments in writing afterward. This report contains a brief summary of the presentations and discussions from the meeting. The main points of the speakers' topics are briefly summarized in the report. Some points that emerged during the discussions of the presentations are included in the text related to the respective talks. These comments are grouped under the headings: Comments on Coupled Processes in Unsaturated Fractured Porous Media, Comments on Overview of Coupled Processes, Presentations by Consultants on Selected Topics of Current Interest in Coupled Processes, and Recommendations for Underground Field Tests with Applications to Three Geologic Environments.

Tsang, Chin-Fu; Mangold, D.C.

1985-09-01

106

Geologic mapping of tectonic planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geological analysis of planets typically begins with the construction of a geologic map of the planets’ surfaces using remote data sets. Geologic maps provide the basis for interpretations of geologic histories, which in turn provide critical relations for understanding the range of processes that contributed to the evolution. Because geologic mapping should ultimately lead to the discovery of the types

Vicki L. Hansen

2000-01-01

107

The encyclopedia of applied geology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This compendium of engineering geology data includes contributions by experts from many countries. Topics center around the field of engineering geology, with special focus on landscapes, earth materials, and the ''management'' of geological processes. How to use geology to serve man is given particular attention. More than 80 entries deal with hydrology, rock structure monitoring, soil mechanics, and engineering geology.

Finkl

1984-01-01

108

Fundamental Study of Pore Scale Mechanisms in Microbial Improved Oil Recovery Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fundamental study of microscopic mechanisms and pore-level phenomena in the Microbial Improved Oil Recovery method has been\\u000a investigated. Understanding active mechanisms to increase oil recovery is the key to predict and plan MIOR projects successfully.\\u000a This article presents the results of visualization experiments carried out in a transparent pore network model. In order to\\u000a study the pore scale behavior

Mehdi Shabani Afrapoli; Samaneh Alipour; Ole Torsaeter

109

[Fundamental electron transfer processes at the single crystal semiconductor/liquid interface]. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

The last year`s work has focused on several aspects of the fundamental chemistry and physics semiconductor/liquid junction behavior. These projects have been directed primarily towards GaAs/liquid contacts, because GaAs/liquid systems provide high energy conversion efficiencies and offer an opportunity to gain mechanistic understanding of the factors that are important to control in an efficient photoelectrochemical energy conversion system.

Lewis, N.S.

1991-12-31

110

(Fundamental electron transfer processes at the single crystal semiconductor/liquid interface)  

SciTech Connect

The last year's work has focused on several aspects of the fundamental chemistry and physics semiconductor/liquid junction behavior. These projects have been directed primarily towards GaAs/liquid contacts, because GaAs/liquid systems provide high energy conversion efficiencies and offer an opportunity to gain mechanistic understanding of the factors that are important to control in an efficient photoelectrochemical energy conversion system.

Lewis, N.S.

1991-01-01

111

Predictive information processing is a fundamental learning mechanism present in early development: evidence from infants.  

PubMed

Evidence is presented that predictive coding is fundamental to brain function and present in early infancy. Indeed, mismatch responses to unexpected auditory stimuli are among the earliest robust cortical event-related potential responses, and have been measured in young infants in response to many types of deviation, including in pitch, timing, and melodic pattern. Furthermore, mismatch responses change quickly with specific experience, suggesting that predictive coding reflects a powerful, early-developing learning mechanism. PMID:22226901

Trainor, Laurel J

2012-01-06

112

Elucidating geological and biological processes underlying the diversification of Sulawesi tarsiers.  

PubMed

Because of their exceptionally long independent evolution, a range diminution of their Eocene relatives, and a remarkable subsequent diversification in Southeast Asia, tarsiers are of particular importance to evolutionary primatologists. Little is known, however, on the processes shaping the radiation of these small enigmatic primates-especially on the Indonesian island of Sulawesi, their center of endemism. Geological reconstructions and progress in applying DNA sequence information to divergence dating now provide us with the tools and background to comprehend tarsier dispersal. Here, we describe effects of plate-tectonic movements, Pleistocene sea level changes, and hybridization on the divergence of central Sulawesi tarsiers. We analyzed 12 microsatellites, the cytochrome b gene, the hypervariable region I of the mitochondrial control region, and the sex-determining region on the Y-chromosome from 144 specimens captured along a transect crossing a species boundary and a contact zone between 2 microplates. Based on these differentially inherited genetic markers, geographic information, and recordings of vocalizations, we demonstrate that the species boundary coincides with a tectonic suture. We estimate the most recent common ancestor of the 2 taxa to have lived 1.4 Mya, we describe asymmetrical introgressive hybridization, and we give evidence of unbiased dispersal in one species and male-biased dispersal in another species. This study exemplifies that the distribution of tarsier acoustic forms on Sulawesi is consistent with the allocation of genetic variability and that plate-tectonic and glacial events have left traceable marks in the biogeography of this island's unique fauna. PMID:19451646

Merker, Stefan; Driller, Christine; Perwitasari-Farajallah, Dyah; Pamungkas, Joko; Zischler, Hans

2009-05-18

113

Elucidating geological and biological processes underlying the diversification of Sulawesi tarsiers  

PubMed Central

Because of their exceptionally long independent evolution, a range diminution of their Eocene relatives, and a remarkable subsequent diversification in Southeast Asia, tarsiers are of particular importance to evolutionary primatologists. Little is known, however, on the processes shaping the radiation of these small enigmatic primates—especially on the Indonesian island of Sulawesi, their center of endemism. Geological reconstructions and progress in applying DNA sequence information to divergence dating now provide us with the tools and background to comprehend tarsier dispersal. Here, we describe effects of plate-tectonic movements, Pleistocene sea level changes, and hybridization on the divergence of central Sulawesi tarsiers. We analyzed 12 microsatellites, the cytochrome b gene, the hypervariable region I of the mitochondrial control region, and the sex-determining region on the Y-chromosome from 144 specimens captured along a transect crossing a species boundary and a contact zone between 2 microplates. Based on these differentially inherited genetic markers, geographic information, and recordings of vocalizations, we demonstrate that the species boundary coincides with a tectonic suture. We estimate the most recent common ancestor of the 2 taxa to have lived 1.4 Mya, we describe asymmetrical introgressive hybridization, and we give evidence of unbiased dispersal in one species and male-biased dispersal in another species. This study exemplifies that the distribution of tarsier acoustic forms on Sulawesi is consistent with the allocation of genetic variability and that plate-tectonic and glacial events have left traceable marks in the biogeography of this island's unique fauna.

Merker, Stefan; Driller, Christine; Perwitasari-Farajallah, Dyah; Pamungkas, Joko; Zischler, Hans

2009-01-01

114

Physical geology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The book integrates current thinking on processes (plate techtonics, chemical cycles, changes throughout geologic time). It is an introduction to investigations into the way the earth works, how mountains are formed, how the atmosphere, hydrosphere, crust and mantle interact with each other. Treatments on climate, paleoclimatology and landscape evolution are included, as is a discussion on how human activity affects

B. Skinner; S. Porter

1987-01-01

115

Differential preservation in the geologic record of intraoceanic arc sedimentary and tectonic processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Records of ancient intraoceanic arc activity, now preserved in continental suture zones, are commonly used to reconstruct paleogeography and plate motion, and to understand how continental crust is formed, recycled, and maintained through time. However, interpreting tectonic and sedimentary records from ancient terranes after arc-continent collision is complicated by preferential preservation of evidence for some arc processes and loss of evidence for others. In this synthesis we examine what is lost, and what is preserved, in the translation from modern processes to the ancient record of intraoceanic arcs. Composition of accreted arc terranes differs as a function of arc-continent collision geometry. 'Forward-facing' collision can accrete an oceanic arc on to either a passive or an active continental margin, with the arc facing the continent and colliding trench- and forearc-side first. In a 'backward-facing' collision, involving two subduction zones with similar polarity, the arc collides backarc-first with an active continental margin. The preservation of evidence for contemporary sedimentary and tectonic arc processes in the geologic record depends greatly on how well the various parts of the arc survive collision and orogeny in each case. Preservation of arc terranes likely is biased towards those that were in a state of tectonic accretion for tens of millions of years before collision, rather than tectonic erosion. The prevalence of tectonic erosion in modern intraoceanic arcs implies that valuable records of arc processes are commonly destroyed even before the arc collides with a continent. Arc systems are most likely to undergo tectonic accretion shortly before forward-facing collision with a continent, and thus most forearc and accretionary-prism material in ancient arc terranes likely is temporally biased toward the final stages of arc activity, when sediment flux to the trench was greatest and tectonic accretion prevailed. Collision geometry and tectonic erosion vs. accretion are important controls on the ultimate survival of material from the trench, forearc, arc massif, intra-arc basins, and backarc basins, and thus on how well an ancient arc terrane preserves evidence for tectonic processes such as subduction of aseismic ridges and seamounts, oblique plate convergence, and arc rifting. Forward-facing collision involves substantial recycling, melting, and fractionation of continent-derived material during and after collision, and so produces melts rich in silica and incompatible trace elements. As a result, forward-facing collision can drive the composition of accreted arc crust toward that of average continental crust.

Draut, Amy E.; Clift, Peter D.

2013-01-01

116

Fundamental studies of catalytic processing of synthetic liquids. Quarterly progress report, October 1, 1991--December 31, 1991  

SciTech Connect

This project revolves around understanding the fundamental processes involved in the catalytic removal of harmful oxygenated organics present in coal liquids. We are modelling the complex type of sulfided Mo catalyst proposed for these reactions with simple single crystal surfaces. These display a controlled range and number of reaction sites and can be extensively characterized by surface science techniques. We then investigate the reaction pathways for representative simple oxygenates upon these surfaces.

Watson, P.R.

1992-01-22

117

Methods of Analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory - Processing, Taxonomy, and Quality Control of Benthic Macroinvertebrate Samples.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Qualitative and quantitative methods to process benthic macroinvertebrate (BMI) samples have been developed and tested by the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Quality Laboratory Biological Group. The qualitative processing method is based on v...

I. S. Moulton J. L. Carter S. A. Grotheer T. F. Cuffney T. M. Short

2000-01-01

118

Geologic Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site provides an introduction to geologic maps. Topics covered include what is a geologic map, unique features of geologic maps, letter symbols, faults, and strike and dip. Users may click to view colored geologic maps, the geologic map of the United States and the geologic relief map of the United States.

Graymer, Russell

119

Sea-floor geology and sedimentary processes in the vicinity of Cross Rip Channel, Nantucket Sound, offshore southeastern Massachusetts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gridded multibeam bathymetry covers approximately 10.4 square kilometers of sea floor in the vicinity of Cross Rip Channel in Nantucket Sound, offshore southeastern Massachusetts. Although originally collected for charting purposes during National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration hydrographic survey H12007, these acoustic data, and the sea-floor sediment sampling and bottom photography stations subsequently occupied to verify them, show the composition and terrain of the seabed and provide information on sediment transport and benthic habitat. This report is part of an expanding series of cooperative studies by the U.S. Geological Survey, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management that provide a fundamental framework for research and resource-management activities (for example, windfarms, pipelines, and dredging) along the inner continental shelf offshore of Massachusetts.

Poppe, L. J.; McMullen, K.Y.; Ackerman, S. D.; Schaer, J. D.; Wright, D. B.

2012-01-01

120

User's manual for the National Water Information System of the U.S. Geological Survey: Automated Data Processing System (ADAPS)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Automated Data Processing System (ADAPS) was developed for the processing, storage, and retrieval of water data, and is part of the National Water Information System (NWIS) developed by the U.S. Geological Survey. NWIS is a distributed water database in which data can be processed over a network of computers at U.S. Geological Survey offices throughout the United States. NWIS comprises four subsystems: ADAPS, the Ground-Water Site Inventory System (GWSI), the Water-Quality System (QWDATA), and the Site-Specific Water-Use Data System (SWUDS). This section of the NWIS User's Manual describes the automated data processing of continuously recorded water data, which primarily are surface-water data; however, the system also allows for the processing of water-quality and ground-water data. This manual describes various components and features of the ADAPS, and provides an overview of the data processing system and a description of the system framework. The components and features included are: (1) data collection and processing, (2) ADAPS menus and programs, (3) command line functions, (4) steps for processing station records, (5) postprocessor programs control files, (6) the standard format for transferring and entering unit and daily values, and (7) relational database (RDB) formats.

Geological Survey (U.S.)

2003-01-01

121

Linking Geologic Framework to Nearshore Processes and Shoreline Change: Results from the Outer Banks of North Carolina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the coastal geology community, a consensus appears to have developed that the geologic framework of the inner-shelf plays an important role in shoreline change. It has yet to be determined, however, whether geology exerts a first-order control on shoreline dynamics and, if so, across what time and spatial scales. Furthermore, principal mechanisms that may link underlying geology and shoreline behavior remain poorly understood and untested. To this end, an extensive survey of the seafloor surface and shallow sub-bottom utilizing an interferometric swath bathymetry sonar system and a chirp sub-bottom profiler mounted on an amphibious vessel was conducted across the surf zone of the Outer Banks of North Carolina. Recent findings from a small region near Duck, North Carolina suggest a connection between partial exposure of pre-modern, non-sandy substrates in the surf zone and bar morphodynamics leading to the repeated occurrence of shoreline hotspots. Support from the US Geological Survey, US Army Corps of Engineers, and the Army Research Office has expanded this work to include a 40 km length of surf zone extending from Duck to Nags Head, North Carolina. Preliminary results from the larger survey are consistent with earlier findings at Duck which show: 1) an underlying ravinement surface with very irregular relief across the surf zone; 2) a thin cover of modern sand, ranging from 0 to a maximum of 2.5 m thick, with a surface morphology that does not necessarily mirror the underlying topography; 3) the presence of large transverse bars located beside exposures of non-sandy substrate; and 4) a spatial correlation between hotspots and regions with exposed non-sandy substrates and transverse bars in the surf zone. Future work will examine shoreline behavior and bar morphodynamics associated with the geologic framework of the nearshore over event and seasonal time scales. These observations will be designed to provide insight into the processes responsible for hotspot formation and to identify key geologic variables that could be incorporated into, and ultimately, improve shoreline evolution models.

McNinch, J. E.; Miselis, J. L.; Schupp, C. A.

2002-12-01

122

Basic petroleum geology, 2nd ed. , revised  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book contains revised and updated material, including approximately 200 additional illustrations and an extensive glossary of terms. A valuable reference for geology students and petroleum professionals, the text presents fundamental concepts of geology in terms of sedimentary deposition, petroleum occurrence, exploration, and recovery. This book contains information on geologic time, historical geology and stratigraphy; Minerals and rocks; Weathering erosion,

Link

1990-01-01

123

Influence in the Policy Making Process: the Rise of Economics at the Expense of Geology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientific influence in resource policy making reached a zenith in the early 1970s during the legislative monopoly in the United States Congress that produced command and control regulatory protection policies. This congressional consensus began in 1879 with legislation producing the U.S. Geological Survey. Other scientific agencies followed. The Congresses of the first half of the 20th century merely strengthened the

K. M. McCurdy

2007-01-01

124

Relationships between process fundamentals, facility design, and production control of semiconductor manufacturing systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basic interrelationships among yields, processing environments, and shop-floor scheduling in semiconductor wafer fabrication facilities are currently under study. In this paper, we focus on a hypothetical wafer fabrication facility producing 3D CMOS devices designed and developed at Purdue. A key step of this sequence of this process is silicon selective epitaxial growth (SEG). Our emphasis is on the effects of

Shannon Chen; Rieko C. Hase; Kaine Mordaunt; Reha M. Uzsoy; Christos G. Takoudis

1995-01-01

125

Influence in the Policy Making Process: the Rise of Economics at the Expense of Geology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientific influence in resource policy making reached a zenith in the early 1970s during the legislative monopoly in the United States Congress that produced command and control regulatory protection policies. This congressional consensus began in 1879 with legislation producing the U.S. Geological Survey. Other scientific agencies followed. The Congresses of the first half of the 20th century merely strengthened the influence of science in policy outcomes that was present in the earliest congressional debates. What then happened at the turn of the 21st century when representatives in the administration frequently dismissed sound science in their policy deliberations? Policy monopolies arise from agreement in principle, and alternately decline as rival ideas gain hold in policy space. The science policy monopoly began to face competition from economics when cost benefit analysis was introduced into political parlance in 1936, again in the 1950s as a successful blocking tactic by the minority in opposition to western dams, and in 1961 when systems analysis was introduced to the Department of Defense under Robert McNamara. As businessmen replaced farmers as the modal profession of legislators, the language of politics increasingly contained economic terms and concepts. A ternary diagram and a budget simplex have the same shape, but have different theoretical meanings and imply different processes. Policy consensus is not dissimilar to a mineral phase diagram, with boundary conditions marked by election magnitudes and majority parties. The 1980 elections brought economic principles into all aspects of government decision-making, with a particular long-term interest in reducing the size and scope of government. Since then the shift in policy jargon from science to economics has been incremental. With the 1994 Republican legislative majority, scientists, their programs, and the funds required to maintain data collection projects became targets. The Conservative Consensus resulting from the 2000 elections has disregarded and even ridiculed scientific experts, their analyses, and their data. The first step in rebuilding an effective policy consensus based on sound science is recognizing the phase transition that privileges conservative policy solutions which minimize science and elevate economic principles.

McCurdy, K. M.

2007-12-01

126

The geological processes time scale of the Ingozersky block TTG complex (Kola Peninsula)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ingozersky block located in the Tersky Terrane of the Kola Peninsula is composed of Archean gneisses and granitoids [1; 5; 8]. The Archaean basement complexes on the regional geological maps have called tonalite-trondemit-gneisses (TTG) complexes [6]. In the previous studies [1; 3; 4; 5; 7] within Ingozersky block the following types of rocks were established: biotite, biotite-amphibole, amphibole-biotite gneisses, granites, granodiorites and pegmatites [2]. In the rocks of the complex following corresponding sequence of endogenous processes observed (based on [5]): stage 1 - the biotitic gneisses formation; 2 - the introduction of dikes of basic rocks; 3 phase - deformation and foliation; 4 stage - implementation bodies of granite and migmatization; 5 stage - implementation of large pegmatite bodies; stage 6 - the formation of differently pegmatite and granite veins of low power, with and without garnet; stage 7 - quartz veins. Previous U-Pb isotopic dating of the samples was done for biotite gneisses, amphibole-biotite gneisses and biotite-amphibole gneisses. Thus, some Sm-Nd TDM ages are 3613 Ma - biotite gnesses, 2596 Ma - amphibole-biotite gnesses and 3493 Ma biotite-amphibole gneisses.. U-Pb ages of the metamorphism processes in the TTG complex are obtained: 2697±9 Ma - for the biotite gneiss, 2725±2 and 2667±7 Ma - for the amphibole-biotite gneisses, and 2727±5 Ma for the biotite-amphibole gneisses. The age defined for the biotite gneisses by using single zircon dating to be about 3149±46 Ma corresponds to the time of the gneisses protolith formation. The purpose of these studies is the age establishing of granite and pegmatite bodies emplacement and finding a geological processes time scale of the Ingozerskom block. Preliminary U-Pb isotopic dating of zircon and other accessory minerals were held for granites - 2615±8 Ma, migmatites - 2549±30 Ma and veined granites - 1644±7 Ma. As a result of the isotope U-Pb dating of the different Ingozerskogo TTG complex rocks, the following age-formation stages are determined: protolith of the biotite gneisses - 3149±46 Ma; metamorphism, deformation of rocks, foliation - 2727±5 - 2725±2 - 2697±9 - 2667±7 Ma, granite bodies formation - 2615±8 Ma and biotite gneisses migmatization - 2549±30 Ma, formation of different pegmatite and granite veins -1644±7 Ma. Author are grateful to Akad. Mitrofanov F.P. and Bayanova T.B. for the consultations. The work is supported by RFBR 12-05-31063, 11-05-00570. 1.Batieva I.D., Belkov I.V. Granitoidnie formacii Kolskogo poluostrova. // Ocgerki po petrologiy, mineralogiy i metallogeniy Kolskogo poluostrova. L.: Nauka. 1968. p. 5-143. (in russian) 2. Belkov I.V., Zagorodny V.G., Predovsky A.A. et al. Stratigraficheskoe raschlenenie i korrelyacia dokembria severo-vostochoi chasty Baltiyskogo shita. L.: Nauka. 1971. p. 141-150. (in russian) 3. Docembriskaya tektonica severo-vostochoi chasty Baltiyskogo shita (Ob'asnitelnaya zapiska k tektonicheskoi karte severo-vostochoi chasty Baltiyskogo shita 1:500000) / ed.: F.P.Mitrofanov. Apatity: KFAN SSSR. 1992. 112 P. (in russian) 4. Zagorodny V.G., Radchenko A.T. Tectonika i glubinnoe stroenie severo-vostochoi chasty Baltiyskogo shita. Apatity: KFA SSSR. 1978. p. 3-12. (in russian) 5. Kozlov N.E., Sorohtin N.O., Glaznev V.N. et al. Geologia Arhea Baltiskogo shita. S.Pb.: Nauka. 2006. 329 p. (in russian) 6. Mitrofanov F.P. Sovremennie problemy i nekotorie resheniya dokembriskoy geologii kratonov. (2001) Litosphera.2001. V 1. P. 5-14. (in russian) 7. Ob'asnitelnaya zapiska k geologicheskoy karte severo-vostochoi chasty Baltiyskogo shita 1:500000 / ed.: F.P.Mitrofanov. Apatity: KFAN SSSR. 1994. 95 P. (in russian) 8. Haritonov L.Y. Structura i stratigraphia karelid vostoka Baltiskogo shita. M.: Nedra. 1966. 354 P. (in russian)

Nitkina, Elena

2013-04-01

127

CO 2 Injection in Geological Formations: Determining Macroscale Coefficients from Pore Scale Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide (CO2) injections in geological formations are usually performed for enhanced hydrocarbon recovery in oil and gas reservoirs and\\u000a storage and sequestration in saline aquifers. Once CO2 is injected into the formation, it propagates in the porous rock by dispersion and convection. Chemical reactions between\\u000a brine ions and CO2 molecules and consequent reactions with mineral grains are also important

F. Javadpour

2009-01-01

128

Dangerous geological processes in the Baikal rift zone and adjacent territories  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the context of active endogenic, exogenic, and technogenic factors, the dynamics of developing geological hazards and risks\\u000a is estimated for the linear transport systems that run across the strong earthquake epicentral areas of the Baikal rift zone\\u000a and adjacent territories. The presence of ancient and new seismic structures in the modern relief can be regarded as an indicator\\u000a of

V. K. Laperdin; V. S. Imaev

2011-01-01

129

Fundamental Etching and Roughening Mechanisms of Photoresist Polymers during Plasma Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reducing the etching and roughening of photoresist polymers during plasma processing is required as optical lithography for integrated circuit manufacture is extended to patterning features with critical dimension control on the order of nanometers. We use a vacuum beam system to simulate plasma exposure but under well-defined conditions. Samples are exposed to well-characterized beams of ions, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation,

Dustin Nest; Ting-Ying Chung; David Graves; Florian Weilnboeck; Robert Bruce; Tsung Cheng Lin; Ray Phaneuf; Gottlieb Oehrlein; Eric Hudson; Deyan Wang; Cecily Andes

2009-01-01

130

I'm sorry to say, but your understanding of image processing fundamentals is absolutely wrong  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ongoing discussion whether modern vision systems have to be viewed as\\u000avisually-enabled cognitive systems or cognitively-enabled vision systems is\\u000agroundless, because perceptual and cognitive faculties of vision are separate\\u000acomponents of human (and consequently, artificial) information processing\\u000asystem modeling.

Emanuel Diamant; Kiriat Ono

2008-01-01

131

Foundations of Physical Theory, I: Force and Energy. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Fundamentals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This module is part of a series designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. This module is one of two units on the foundations of physical theory and the…

Pearson, Nolan E.

132

Education Policy-Planning Process: An Applied Framework. Fundamentals of Educational Planning 51.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet provides an introduction to the educational policy-making process for both experienced and new planners. Policy is defined as decisions designed to guide future decisions or to initiate and guide the implementation of previous decisions. Case studies of Burkina Faso, Jordan, Peru, and Thailand show how educational policy has played…

Haddad, Wadi D.; Demsky, Terri

133

Concepts of fundamental processes related to gasification of coal. Quarterly progress report, October-December 1980  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress reports for the following investigations are presented: (1) single stage catalytic coal gasification; (2) single stage coal gasification to high Btu gas; (3) reaction of aromatic compounds with steam. The objective of the first project is to optimize the process variables and catalyst systems to maximize methane yields. For project two, the objective is to investigate the potential for

1981-01-01

134

Concepts of fundamental processes related to gasification of coal. Quarterly progress report, July-September 1981  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research projects are described: (1) single stage catalytic coal gasification is an attractive concept as a direct method of producing high BTU gas from coal. This process involves the introduction of a coal-solvent slurry and hydrogen gas into a fixed bed catalytic reactor, which employs a catalyst high in hydrogenation and cracking activity. Steam may also be added to

1981-01-01

135

Concepts of fundamental processes related to gasification of coal. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1981  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress reports are presented for the studies on (1) single stage catalytic coal gasification, and (2) reaction of aromatic compounds with steam. The primary objective of (1) is to optimize the process variables and catalyst systems to maximize methane yields. During this quarter, the gasification system was set up and pressure tested. The electrical system was also completed and is

1981-01-01

136

A COMPLETE FERREDOXIN/THIOREDOXIN SYSTEM REGULATES FUNDAMENTAL PROCESSES IN AMYLOPLASTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A growing number of processes throughout biology are regulated by redox via thiol-disulfide exchange. This mechanism is particularly widespread in plants where almost 200 proteins have been linked to thioredoxin (Trx), a widely distributed small regulatory disulfide protein. The current study extend...

137

Thermodynamics of copper matte converting: Part I. Fundamentals of the noranda process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a computer-oriented thermodynamic method to analyze copper matte smelting and converting, the system of\\u000a which was ideally defined as consisting of five major components: Cu, Fe, S, O and SiO2. As an example of its application,\\u000a the method was demonstrated in establishing a steady-state model for the Noranda Process producing either metallic copper\\u000a or high grade matte.

M. Nagamori; P. J. Mackey

1978-01-01

138

Fundamental and applied aspects of the plasma-assisted nitriding process for aluminium and its alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The insufficient wear resistance of aluminium and its alloys is a well-known problem. Different surface treatment methods have been developed to increase the resistance. Compared to the electrochemical processes, the plasma-assisted nitriding of aluminium is a new method without ecological problems. In this paper different possibilities of plasma-activated nitriding are introduced. Due to the low electrical conductivity of the aluminium

H. R. Stock; C. Jarms; F. Seidel; J. E. Döring

1997-01-01

139

Fundamental processes within natural and constructed wetland ecosystems: short-term versus long-term objectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Use of wetland ecosystems,for water pollution control consists essentially of sustained induced disturbances as pollutants are loaded to complex,biological communities. Objectives are to maximize pollutant loading, incorporation, and retention while maintaining highest levels of community metabolism and minimal alteration of community,structure. Several basic processes are emphasized: (a) macrophyte productivity in relation to shoot:root ratios, and nutrient availability; (b) macrophyte

R. g. Wetzel

140

Concepts of fundamental processes related to gasification of coal. Quarterly progress report, January-March 1981  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective of the research on single stage catalytic coal gasification is to optimize the process variables and catalyst systems to maximize yields. The -200 mesh coal will be slurried in a hydrogen donor solvent, tetralin in a ratio of 2 parts solvent to 1 part coal by weight, and initially a sulfided Ni-W\\/SiOâ-AlâOâ catalyst will be used. All

1981-01-01

141

Slope processes in weathred volcaniclastic rocks of the Camaldoli hill (Naples, Italy): geological, structural and volcanological aspects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Camaldoli hill is the remnant of the north-eastern margin of the Campi Flegrei caldera (CFc), generated by two main collapses related to the Campanian Ignimbrite (CI; 39 ka) and Neapolitan Yellow Tuff (NYT; 15 ka) eruptions. We have reconstructed its geological, lithological and structural features, and their effects on slope instability. The backbone of the hill includes the remnants of two partially superposed tuff cones, lying between CI and NYT. All these rocks are mantled by a sequence of loose pyroclastic, anthropic and epiclastic deposits, with abrupt thickness and facies variations. Only the uppermost 50-100 cm have been reworked by exogenous agents and anthropic and biological activity. The hill is affected by three fault systems. Its structural setting is mainly due to reactivation of the CI caldera faults until 9.5 ka. Deformation younger than 15 ka is testified by landslide deposits, due to slope instability induced by volcanotectonism, and by a high-angle erosional unconformity, which likely is the response to a base level lowering, generated by faults activation. A detailed stratigraphic analysis of the reworked deposits at the foot of the slopes allowed us to define both depositional mechanisms and sedimentation rate. The results of combined volcanological, and geomorphological and engineering-geological (Calcaterra et al., this session) studies, allowed to constrain and quantify past geological processes and to hypothesise the future evolution of the hill's slopes.

Orsi, G.; di Vito, M. A.; de Vita, S.; Calcaterra, D.; Coppin, D.; Palma, B.; Parise, M.

2003-04-01

142

Geology of Kentucky  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains geologic maps of Kentucky, with a discussion of geologic time in regards to the rocks, minerals, fossils, and economic deposits found there. There are also sections that describe strata and geologic structures beneath the surface (faults, basins, and arches), the structural processes (folding and faulting) that create stratigraphic units, the geomorphology of the state, geologic information by county, a general description of geologic time, fossil, rocks, and minerals of Kentucky, and a virtual field trip through Natural Bridges State Park. Links are provided for further information.

143

Linking Geologic Framework to Nearshore Processes and Shoreline Change: Results from the Outer Banks of North Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the coastal geology community, a consensus appears to have developed that the geologic framework of the inner-shelf plays an important role in shoreline change. It has yet to be determined, however, whether geology exerts a first-order control on shoreline dynamics and, if so, across what time and spatial scales. Furthermore, principal mechanisms that may link underlying geology and shoreline

J. E. McNinch; J. L. Miselis; C. A. Schupp

2002-01-01

144

CO2-mineral Wettability and Implications for Understanding Leakage Processes from Geologic Carbon Sequestration Sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In geological carbon sequestration (GCS), leakage events will be difficult to predict because parcels of CO2 will travel over long length scales and encounter a number of heterogeneous formations and endogenous brine in their rise to the surface. A constitutive model of a rising parcel of CO2 includes at least three main forces: 1) buoyant forces, 2) surface tension forces, and 3) shear drag forces. Of these, surface tension forces are of great significance, especially for predicting capillary and mineral trapping, and are affected by surface tension and the three-phase contact angle between CO2, brine, and the solid host mineral surfaces. Very limited experimental data on contact angles in GCS relevant systems has been reported in the academic literature. Here, the contact angle of several of the rock and clay species prevailing near GCS sites, e.g. quartz, feldspar, calcite, kaolinite, smectite and illite, were measured under a range of relevant temperature, pressure and ionic strength conditions. The measurements were made in a custom-built high-pressure view cell by introducing precisely controlled pendant CO2 droplets of constant volume to smooth and clean mineral surfaces after saturating the surrounding brine with CO2 and images were recorded using a high resolution digital camera. Images were processed and the contact angle measured using ImageJ software with a plug-in designed for this purpose. To measure the contact angle of CO2 on clay surfaces, ultra-pure microscope glass slides were coated with cleaned and particle-size-separated clay particles using hydrolyzed polyvinyl alcohol to ensure adhesion and a continuous coating on the surface. The uniform morphology of the surface was confirmed using electron microscopy. Preliminary results demonstrate differences in contact angle between the tested minerals, with calcite > quartz > feldspar. The absolute differences between the minerals were on the order of 3-7%. The results also demonstrate that under higher temperature and pressure conditions, the contact angle decreases making the minerals more strongly wetting. For calcite, the contact angle decreases from 155.9o at 7MPa, 30oC (gas phase CO2) to 149.8o at 20MPa, 50oC (supercritical phase CO2), suggesting that contact angle is impacted by both temperature and pressure but also by CO2 phase. The contact angle measurements also indicate that some mineral surfaces can undergo surface hysteresis wherein surface reactions can result in changes in the surface energy and the contact angle. Of the minerals tested here calcite was found to be the most reactive and the contact angle changed from non-wetting to wetting over the period of several hours. The measurements reported here for pure mineral species enable the development of effective contact angles for heterogeneous materials that have undergone diagenesis are common on the surfaces of the consolidated and unconsolidated media.

Clarens, A. F.; Edwards, I.; Wang, S.

2011-12-01

145

Fundamentals and prospects of ultrashort laser radiation for material processing, surface analysis, and medical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultra-short laser-radiation has initiated a new era for medical laser applications as well as for laser applications in high- precision material processing. Entirely new prospects, in particular, their use for surgical applications and nano- technology, can be envisioned with ultra-short laser pulses, which are now available from pico- and femto-second laser systems. The development of broadband solid-state gain media opened new possibilities for ultra-short pulse generation. In particular, the development of all-solid-state ultra-short pulse devices promise to make such devices rigged and reduce their cost. Ultra-short laser light offers many advantages, as for instance low thermal damage and the possibility of efficient interaction of light with long wavelengths. Extremely high peak laser intensities, which can be achieved even with commercially available systems (typical values are 1015w/CM2 imply physical mechanisms, which reach beyond the classical model of (multi-) photon absorption as the principal energy transfer process. The consequences, as observed in, however still preliminary applications, result in many obvious advantages as for instance: efficient ablation; 2) minimization of collateral damage; 3) ablation thresholds and rates which are relatively insensitive to tissue type; 4) high control over ablation depth, achievable because only a small amount of tissue is ablated per pulse.

Husinsky, Wolfgang

2002-08-01

146

Fundamental approach to characterization and processing of coal-derived liquid (CDL): Final report  

SciTech Connect

Adsorption of molecular species found on catalyst surfaces is a necessary condition for catalytic hydroprocessing of coal-derived liquids (CDL). The adsorption thermodynamics are a function of the molecular structure of the adsorbing species, surface structure of the catalyst, and the mobile phase composition. A quantitative understanding of the adsorption process may prove useful in understanding the reaction kinetics and kinetic inhibition generally observed when hydroprocessing CDL. A novel technique for rapidly measuring the equilibrium adsorption constant on a catalyst surface has been developed. The equilibrium adsorption constant can be determined at differing temperatures and the thermodynamic properties of the adsorption can be determined. The adsorption enthalpy and entropy of nearly 50 compounds were measured for the gas phase interaction with Co-Mo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ hydrotreating catalyst. Results show that enthalpy, which is a measure of the electronic interaction, increases in negativity with increasing molecular weight, electron donating capability, aromaticity, and molecular polarity. For aromatic compounds, a good correlation is found between the enthalpy of adsorption and ionization potential. Entropy, which is a measure of geometric and spacial factors, was found to decrease (become more negative) with increasing molecular weight. Molecular symmetry also affects the entropy; the greater the symmetry, the more negative the entropy change. Empirical equations correlating the thermodynamic data with structural data have been developed. They have been used to predict the adsorption and possible catalytic process behavior of compounds which are present in CDL. 92 refs., 21 figs., 16 tabs.

Bunger, J.W.; Russell, C.P.; Horng, Jinp-Huei

1987-09-10

147

Using Snow to Teach Geology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A lesson plan, directed at middle school students and older, describes using snow to study the geological processes of solidification of molten material, sedimentation, and metamorphosis. Provides background information on these geological processes. (MCO)

Roth, Charles

1991-01-01

148

Comparison Between Stress and Strain Quantities of the Failure-Deformation Process of Fennoscandian Hard Rocks Using Geological Information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this paper was to compare the stress and strain quantities that are related to the failure-deformation process of hard rock. The data used here was obtained from laboratory uniaxial compression tests performed on different types of Fennoscandian hard rocks. The failure-deformation process quantities were compared at each deformation stage and for each single specimen. Moreover, geological information such as the rock origin process and the rock characteristics of the specimens were studied and linked to the stress and strain quantities. The purpose was to investigate the influence of the rock origin process and rock characteristics on these quantities. The main results of this study showed that the normalized crack damage lateral strain ( ? 3cd/ ? 3 p ) and the volumetric strain ( ? crv-ci and ? v-cd) quantities were strongly affected by the grain size. The normalized and volumetric quantities are weakly dependent on the mineral composition.

Pérez Hidalgo, Kelvis; Nordlund, Erling

2013-01-01

149

Fundamentals and Applications of a Plasma Processing System Based on Electron Beam Ionization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron beam (e-beam) ionization has been shown to be both efficient at producing plasma and scalable to large area (square meters). NRL has developed a number of advanced research tools culminating in a ``Large Area Plasma Processing System'' (LAPPS) based on an e-beam sheet geometry. We have demonstrated that the beam ionization process is fairly independent of gas composition and capable of producing low temperature plasma electrons (<0.5 eV in molecular gases) in high densities (10^9-10^12 cm-3). This system can offer increased control of plasma-to-surface fluxes and the ability to modify materials' surface properties uniformly over large areas. The systems to be discussed consist of continuous and pulsed planar plasma distributions generated by a magnetically collimated sheet of 2-3kV, < 1 mA/cm^2 electrons injected into a neutral gas background (oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur hexafluoride, argon). Typical operating pressures range from 20-150 mTorr with beam-collimating magnetic fields (100-200 Gauss) for plasma localization. The attributes of beam-generated plasmas make them ideal for many materials applications. These systems have been investigated for a broad range of applications, including surface activation, line edge roughening, and anisotropic etching of polymers, electron-ion and ion-ion plasma etching, low-temperature metal nitriding and thin film deposition (reactive sputtering and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition). Details of some of these applications will be discussed in terms of the critical plasma physics and chemistry, with complementary time-resolved in situ plasma diagnostics (Langmuir probes, microwave transmission, energy-resolved mass spectrometry and laser spectroscopy).

Leonhardt, Darrin

2006-10-01

150

High-Speed Deflagration and Detonation: Fundamentals and Control. International Colloquium on Control and Detonation Processes Held in Moscow, Russia on July 4-7, 2000.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Twenty two papers on fundamentals of high-speed deflagrations and detonations written by international experts are assembled in this volume. The papers have been presented at the International Colloquium on Control of Detonation Processes held in Moscow, ...

A. A. Borisov D. W. Netzer G. D. Roy S. M. Frolov

2001-01-01

151

Fundamental analysis of piezocatalysis process on the surfaces of strained piezoelectric materials.  

PubMed

Recently, the strain state of a piezoelectric electrode has been found to impact the electrochemical activity taking place between the piezoelectric material and its solution environment. This effect, dubbed piezocatalysis, is prominent in piezoelectric materials because the strain state and electronic state of these materials are strongly coupled. Herein we develop a general theoretical analysis of the piezocatalysis process utilizing well-established piezoelectric, semiconductor, molecular orbital and electrochemistry frameworks. The analysis shows good agreement with experimental results, reproducing the time-dependent voltage drop and H? production behaviors of an oscillating piezoelectric Pb(Mg?/?Nb?/?)O?-32PbTiO? (PMN-PT) cantilever in deionized water environment. This study provides general guidance for future experiments utilizing different piezoelectric materials, such as ZnO, BaTiO?, PbTiO?, and PMN-PT. Our analysis indicates a high piezoelectric coupling coefficient and a low electrical conductivity are desired for enabling high electrochemical activity; whereas electrical permittivity must be optimized to balance piezoelectric and capacitive effects. PMID:23831736

Starr, Matthew B; Wang, Xudong

2013-01-01

152

Advanced small rocket chambers. Basic program and option 2: Fundamental processes and material evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Propellants, chamber materials, and processes for fabrication of small high performance radiation cooled liquid rocket engines were evaluated to determine candidates for eventual demonstration in flight-type thrusters. Both storable and cryogenic propellant systems were considered. The storable propellant systems chosen for further study were nitrogen tetroxide oxidizer with either hydrazine or monomethylhydrazine as fuel. The cryogenic propellants chosen were oxygen with either hydrogen or methane as fuel. Chamber material candidates were chemical vapor deposition (CVD) rhenium protected from oxidation by CVD iridium for the chamber hot section, and film cooled wrought platinum-rhodium or regeneratively cooled stainless steel for the front end section exposed to partially reacted propellants. Laser diagnostics of the combustion products near the hot chamber surface and measurements at the surface layer were performed in a collaborative program at Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA. The Material Sample Test Apparatus, a laboratory system to simulate the combustion environment in terms of gas and material temperature, composition, and pressure up to 6 Atm, was developed for these studies. Rocket engine simulator studies were conducted to evaluate the materials under simulated combustor flow conditions, in the diagnostic test chamber. These tests used the exhaust species measurement system, a device developed to monitor optically species composition and concentration in the chamber and exhaust by emission and absorption measurements.

Jassowski, Donald M.

1993-09-01

153

Coupled-channels quantum theory of electronic flux density in electronically adiabatic processes: fundamentals.  

PubMed

The Born-Oppenheimer (BO) description of electronically adiabatic molecular processes predicts a vanishing electronic flux density (j(e)), =1/2?dR[?(b) (x;R) - ?(a) (x;R)] even though the electrons certainly move in response to the movement of the nuclei. This article, the first of a pair, proposes a quantum-mechanical "coupled-channels" (CC) theory that allows the approximate extraction of j(e) from the electronically adiabatic BO wave function . The CC theory is detailed for H(2)(+), in which case j(e) can be resolved into components associated with two channels ? (=a,b), each of which corresponds to the "collision" of an "internal" atom ? (proton a or b plus electron) with the other nucleus ? (proton b or a). The dynamical role of the electron, which accommodates itself instantaneously to the motion of the nuclei, is submerged in effective electronic probability (population) densities, ?(?), associated with each channel (?). The ?(?) densities are determined by the (time-independent) BO electronic energy eigenfunction, which depends parametrically on the configuration of the nuclei, the motion of which is governed by the usual BO nuclear Schrödinger equation. Intuitively appealing formal expressions for the electronic flux density are derived for H(2)(+). PMID:22103768

Diestler, D J

2011-11-21

154

Method of aperture synthesis: Fundamental relations and data processing in aperture synthesis systems (review)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The theory of aperture synthesis for solution of astrophysical problems regarding the structure of radiation sources is based on the time correlation function for signals from space-diverse receiver elements. This correlation function is approximately equal to the product of the surface integral of the filter frequency characteristic times the sought radioluminance (power flux density) distribution of respect to angle. In the Fourier transform domain the radioluminance distribution is the product of the antenna space-frequency characteristic and the space-coherence function. The mathematical procedure for aperture synthesis reduces to calculation of the radioluminance distribution as such. Conventional linear methods of data analysis and processing for this purpose include cleaning of large side lobes by sequential suppression of strong sources so as to reveal otherwise masked weak sources. Recently there were conceived other methods, namely: (1) using a priori information about the source dimensions; (2) utilizing the positive-definiteness of the coherence function; discretization and composition of the radioluminance distribution with adaptation of its elements relative to location.

Turchin, V. I.

1984-09-01

155

Exploratory cell research and fundamental processes study in solid state electrochemical cells  

SciTech Connect

Last year this program demonstrated that alternative to lithium had some merit on which to base new polymer electrolyte batteries and other electrochemical devices. We reported that Na, Zn, and Cu electrolytes have modest conductivities at 100{degree}C. Some preliminary cell cycling data were reported with V{sub 6}O{sub 13} insertion cathodes, and the successful cell cycling suggested that N{sup +}, Zn{sup +2} could be inserted and removed reversibly in the cathode material. Also, thin-film polymer cathodes were shown by impedance measurements to have three characteristic regions of behavior. Each region had different controlling processes with relaxation time constants that could be separated with careful manipulation of film thickness, morphology, and charging level. The present report gives results of the continuation of these studies. In particular, the sodium system was studied more intensively with conductivity measurements on sodium triflate in poly(ethyleneoxide)(PEO), and cell studies with V{sub 6}O{sub 13} and poly(pyrrole)(PPY) cathodes. The impedance work was concluded and several directions of new work in that area were identified. The insertion studies with single crystal V{sub 6}O{sub 13} were concluded on this program and transferred to NSF funding. 29 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

Smyrl, W.H.; Owens, B.B.; White, H.S. (Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis, MN (USA). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science)

1990-06-01

156

Fundamental Analysis of Piezocatalysis Process on the Surfaces of Strained Piezoelectric Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, the strain state of a piezoelectric electrode has been found to impact the electrochemical activity taking place between the piezoelectric material and its solution environment. This effect, dubbed piezocatalysis, is prominent in piezoelectric materials because the strain state and electronic state of these materials are strongly coupled. Herein we develop a general theoretical analysis of the piezocatalysis process utilizing well-established piezoelectric, semiconductor, molecular orbital and electrochemistry frameworks. The analysis shows good agreement with experimental results, reproducing the time-dependent voltage drop and H2 production behaviors of an oscillating piezoelectric Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-32PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) cantilever in deionized water environment. This study provides general guidance for future experiments utilizing different piezoelectric materials, such as ZnO, BaTiO3, PbTiO3, and PMN-PT. Our analysis indicates a high piezoelectric coupling coefficient and a low electrical conductivity are desired for enabling high electrochemical activity; whereas electrical permittivity must be optimized to balance piezoelectric and capacitive effects.

Starr, Matthew B.; Wang, Xudong

2013-07-01

157

Impact, and its implications for geology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The publication of seminal texts on geology and on meteoritics in the 1790s, laid the groundwork for the emergence of each discipline as a modern branch of science. Within the past three decades, impact cratering has become universally accepted as a process that sculptures the surfaces of planets and satellites throughout the solar system. Nevertheless, one finds in-depth discussions of impact processes mainly in books on the Moon or in surveys of the Solar System. The historical source of the separation between meteoritics and geology is easy to identify. It began with Hutton. Meteorite impact is an extraordinary event acting instantaneously from outside the Earth. It violates Hutton's principles, which were enlarged upon and firmly established as fundamental to the geological sciences by Lyell. The split between meteoritics and geology surely would have healed as early as 1892 if the investigations conducted by Gilbert (1843-1918) at the crater in northern Arizona had yielded convincing evidence of meteorite impact. The 1950s and 1960s saw a burgeoning of interest in impact processes. The same period witnessed the so-called revolution in the Earth Sciences, when geologists yielded up the idea of fixed continents and began to view the Earth's lithosphere as a dynamic array of horizontally moving plates. Plate tectonics, however, is fully consistent with the geological concepts inherited from Hutton: the plates slowly split, slide, and suture, driven by forces intrinsic to the globe.

Marvin, Ursula B.

158

Cellular automata modelling of the cementation process of the Turin (Italy) subsoil conglomerate (``ceppo''),based on a three-dimensional geological model of the city subsoil.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Turin (Italy) subsoil is mainly made up by alluvial gravels and sands (Pleistocene), characterised by high cementation degree variability, covered by a thin thickness of loess. These alluvial sediments, of about 40 m deep, overlay lacustrine clays (Villafranchiano), locally heteropic with marine sandstones (Pliocene). The reconstruction of the areal distribution of cementation phenomena of the Turin urban subsoil is of fundamental importance within the context of planning and carrying out works in the city subsoil, as well as for preliminary evaluating the stability of such underground works. Moreover, analyses of spatial distribution of soil cementation could be usefully applied for estimating the propagation of waste-polluted fluids, and for reducing either the natural or human-induced risk, related to the overworking of urban area subsoils. The development of mathematical models commonly needs to deal with several interacting physical and chemical phenomena. A deterministic Cellular Automata (CA) model for the evaluation of cementation processes in the conglomerates of the Turin urban subsoil has recently been developed, by using a three-dimensional geological model of the city subsoil based on boreholes data. The model is able to simulate the spatial distribution of the cementation process in the studied area: it has been derived from two pre-existing CA models, i.e. SCAVATU and CABOTO. Geological, mineralogical-petrographic and sedimentological studies of the soil cementation, and a chemical-physical study of the carbonatic equilibria, have first been carried out. These studies pointed out the presence of meniscus cements (which suggest a meteoric diagenesis) and gave fundamental cues for the development of base hypothesis on the genesis of cementation in the considered area. A macroscopic Cellular Automata model has accordingly been developed, in order to simulate the principal phenomena which take place during the cementation process. The model has a ''layered structure'', composed of the following three layers: 1) the first quantitatively describes pluviometric events in the Turin area. The global amount of rain is subdivided into ''run-off'' and ''infiltration'', by using the c.i.p. value. This layer concerns only the space region in which the run-off occurs: such cells have been classified as ''A'' type. 2) the second layer describes the fluid flow of ''water'' through the soil (i.e. loess and conglomerate). It concerns the space region of the Turin subsoil: such cells have been classified as ''B'' type. 3) the third layer describes the chemical-physical phenomena of ''solute transport'', ''diffusion and chemical reactions of dissolution'', and ''precipitation of calcium carbonate''. Inside the above mentioned cells, the chemical-physical phenomena are allowed to occur. Owing to their high complexity, the global phenomena under consideration have been decomposed into ''elementary'' processes (run-off, infiltration and chemical-physical reactions) and properly translated into CA local rules. The model, opportunely implemented in a parallel computing environment, allows to simulate the process of cementation of the Turin urban subsoil: as mentioned above, it could be therefore usefully applied for mitigating natural and man-induced hazards in the study area.

Bello, S.; de Rienzo, F.; Nardi, G.

2003-04-01

159

Ground Penetrating Radar Field Studies of Lunar-Analog Geologic Settings and Processes: Barringer Meteor Crater and Northern Arizona Volcanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to assess the capabilities of GPR in planetary geologic studies, we measure and characterize GPR signatures of geologic environments that may be encountered on the Moon and compare them with ground-truth observations of subsurface exposures.

P. S. Russell; J. A. Grant; K. K. Williams; L. M. Carter; W. B. Garry; D. B. J. Bussey

2011-01-01

160

Image Gallery for Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These images of geologic phenomena are used to supplement introductory geology classes at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. The images are categorized under plutonic, volcanic and sedimentary rocks; structural geology; weathering; and coastlines. There are photographs of different kinds of volcanoes; lavas and pyroclastic rocks; volcanic hazards; different types of sedimentary rocks and sedimentary structures; folds and faults; beach processes; and barrier islands.

Glazner, Allen

161

Ion-enhanced oxidation of aluminum as a fundamental surface process during target poisoning in reactive magnetron sputtering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasma deposition of aluminum oxide by reactive magnetron sputtering (RMS) using an aluminum target and argon and oxygen as working gases is an important technological process. The undesired oxidation of the target itself, however, causes the so-called target poisoning, which leads to strong hysteresis effects during RMS operation. The oxidation occurs by chemisorption of oxygen atoms and molecules with a simultaneous ion bombardment being present. This heterogenous surface reaction is studied in a quantified particle beam experiment employing beams of oxygen molecules and argon ions impinging onto an aluminum-coated quartz microbalance. The oxidation and/or sputtering rates are measured with this microbalance and the resulting oxide layers are analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The sticking coefficient of oxygen molecules is determined to 0.015 in the zero coverage limit. The sputtering yields of pure aluminum by argon ions are determined to 0.4, 0.62, and 0.8 at 200, 300, and 400 eV. The variation in the effective sticking coefficient and sputtering yield during the combined impact of argon ions and oxygen molecules is modeled with a set of rate equations. A good agreement is achieved if one postulates an ion-induced surface activation process, which facilitates oxygen chemisorption. This process may be identified with knock-on implantation of surface-bonded oxygen, with an electric-field-driven in-diffusion of oxygen or with an ion-enhanced surface activation process. Based on these fundamental processes, a robust set of balance equations is proposed to describe target poisoning effects in RMS.

Kuschel, Thomas; von Keudell, Achim

2010-05-01

162

Ion-enhanced oxidation of aluminum as a fundamental surface process during target poisoning in reactive magnetron sputtering  

SciTech Connect

Plasma deposition of aluminum oxide by reactive magnetron sputtering (RMS) using an aluminum target and argon and oxygen as working gases is an important technological process. The undesired oxidation of the target itself, however, causes the so-called target poisoning, which leads to strong hysteresis effects during RMS operation. The oxidation occurs by chemisorption of oxygen atoms and molecules with a simultaneous ion bombardment being present. This heterogenous surface reaction is studied in a quantified particle beam experiment employing beams of oxygen molecules and argon ions impinging onto an aluminum-coated quartz microbalance. The oxidation and/or sputtering rates are measured with this microbalance and the resulting oxide layers are analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The sticking coefficient of oxygen molecules is determined to 0.015 in the zero coverage limit. The sputtering yields of pure aluminum by argon ions are determined to 0.4, 0.62, and 0.8 at 200, 300, and 400 eV. The variation in the effective sticking coefficient and sputtering yield during the combined impact of argon ions and oxygen molecules is modeled with a set of rate equations. A good agreement is achieved if one postulates an ion-induced surface activation process, which facilitates oxygen chemisorption. This process may be identified with knock-on implantation of surface-bonded oxygen, with an electric-field-driven in-diffusion of oxygen or with an ion-enhanced surface activation process. Based on these fundamental processes, a robust set of balance equations is proposed to describe target poisoning effects in RMS.

Kuschel, Thomas; Keudell, Achim von [Research Group Reactive Plasmas, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, 44780 Bochum (Germany)

2010-05-15

163

Marine Geology of the Southwestern San Juan Islands: New Insights From Multibeam Imagery and Processed Aeromagnetic Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The San Juan Islands, located in the seismically active northern Puget Sound, have a complicated and not yet fully understood geologic history. This study is among the first marine geologic mapping efforts within the San Juan Islands, filling an important gap in an otherwise well-studied region. Existing geologic and geophysical data were combined with interpretations of new multibeam bathymetry and

J. E. Tilden; H. G. Greene; R. J. Blakely

2004-01-01

164

Determining the rates of geological processes in a large-scale metamorphic complex: a multi-method approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metamorphic complexes occur at the Earth's surface in many places all over the world. The combined application of different geochronological and thermochronological techniques may help to constrain the rates of geological processes which led to the formation of such metamorphic belts. In this contribution we present the results of a multi-method approach aimed at constraining the timing of burial, heating, partial melting, cooling and exhumation of the Chugach Metamorphic Complex (CMC) of southern Alaska. The CMC is a large scale (ca. 300x50 km) upper amphibolite facies complex developed in an extreme forearc position in a Late Cretaceous to Paleocene accretionary prism. We present (1) U-Pb LA-ICP-MS ages of detrital zircons from the complex, which constrain the depositional age of the sedimentary rocks in which the complex developed to ~60-65 Ma, (2) U-Pb SHRIMP ages of monazite and zircon, linked by geochemical and textural analyses to the metamorphic history of the rocks, which constrain the timing of heating, peak metamorphism and partial melting to only ~3 Ma at ~54-51 Ma, and (3) 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages of muscovite and biotite as well as zircon fission track ages, which constrain the timing of cooling and exhumation to ~50-25 Ma. Combined with thermobarometry and pseudosection modelling conducted on the same samples, these radiometric ages reveal a surprisingly short metamorphic cycle: sedimentation followed by heating and burial to ~650-700°C and ~8-10 kbar occurred over a short time period of ~5-10 Ma, and cooling down to ~350°C occurred at least in the western part of the complex over a period of ~5-8 Ma. These results can be used to calculate rates of geological processes: heating rates are in the order of ~60-140°C/Ma, and cooling rates vary from ~30- 180°C/Ma in the west to 6-10°C/Ma in the southeast of the complex. Burial and exhumation rates are more difficult to constrain and depend on the pressure distribution throughout the crustal column during metamorphism, but vary between 0.5-10 mm/a. Whereas the peak metamorphic conditions are consistent with conductive heating in a regional metamorphic cycle, the high rates of heating and cooling are harder to reconcile with such processes. Advective mechanisms involving the transport of mass and/or heat are likely to have been involved. These data demonstrate the usefulness of combining different geochronological methods for determining rates and mechanisms of geological processes on a regional scale.

Gasser, D.; Bruand, E.; Stuewe, K.; Rubatto, D.; Kloetzli, U. S.; Foster, D. A.

2010-12-01

165

Casting new physicochemical light on the fundamental biological processes in single living cells by using Raman microspectroscopy.  

PubMed

This Personal Account highlights the capabilities of spontaneous Raman microspectroscopy for studying fundamental biological processes in a single living cell. Raman microspectroscopy provides time- and space-resolved vibrational Raman spectra that contain detailed information on the structure and dynamics of biomolecules in a cell. By using yeast as a model system, we have made great progress in the development of this methodology. The results that we have obtained so far are described herein with an emphasis placed on how three cellular processes, that is, cell-division, respiration, and cell-death, are traced and elucidated with the use of time- and space-resolved structural information that is extracted from the Raman spectra. For cell-division, compositional- and structural changes of various biomolecules are observed during the course of the whole cell cycle. For respiration, the redox state of mitochondrial cytochromes, which is inferred from the resonance Raman bands of cytochromes, is used to evaluate the respiration activity of a single cell, as well as that of isolated mitochondrial particles. Special reference is made to the "Raman spectroscopic signature of life", which is a characteristic Raman band at 1602 cm(-1) that is found in yeast cells. This signature reflects the cellular metabolic activity and may serve as a measure of mitochondrial dysfunction. For cell-death, "cross-talk" between the mitochondria and the vacuole in a dying cell is suggested. PMID:23129551

Kaliaperumal, Venkatesh; Hamaguchi, Hiro-o

2012-11-05

166

Polypyrimidine tract binding protein homologs from Arabidopsis are key regulators of alternative splicing with implications in fundamental developmental processes.  

PubMed

Alternative splicing (AS) generates transcript variants by variable exon/intron definition and massively expands transcriptome diversity. Changes in AS patterns have been found to be linked to manifold biological processes, yet fundamental aspects, such as the regulation of AS and its functional implications, largely remain to be addressed. In this work, widespread AS regulation by Arabidopsis thaliana Polypyrimidine tract binding protein homologs (PTBs) was revealed. In total, 452 AS events derived from 307 distinct genes were found to be responsive to the levels of the splicing factors PTB1 and PTB2, which predominantly triggered splicing of regulated introns, inclusion of cassette exons, and usage of upstream 5' splice sites. By contrast, no major AS regulatory function of the distantly related PTB3 was found. Dependent on their position within the mRNA, PTB-regulated events can both modify the untranslated regions and give rise to alternative protein products. We find that PTB-mediated AS events are connected to diverse biological processes, and the functional implications of selected instances were further elucidated. Specifically, PTB misexpression changes AS of PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR6, coinciding with altered rates of abscisic acid-dependent seed germination. Furthermore, AS patterns as well as the expression of key flowering regulators were massively changed in a PTB1/2 level-dependent manner. PMID:23192226

Rühl, Christina; Stauffer, Eva; Kahles, André; Wagner, Gabriele; Drechsel, Gabriele; Rätsch, Gunnar; Wachter, Andreas

2012-11-27

167

Preliminary paper - Integrated control process for the development of the mined geologic disposal system  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 430.1, Life Cycle Asset Management, begins to focus DOE Programs and Projects on the total system life cycle instead of looking at project execution or operation as individual components. As DOE begins to implement this order, the DOE Management and Operating contractors must develop a process to control not only the contract baseline but also the overall life cycle baseline. This paper presents an integrated process that is currently being developed on the Yucca Mountain Project for DOE. The process integrates the current contract/project baseline management process with the management control process for design and the configuration management change control process.

Daniel, Russell B.; Harbert, Kevin R.; Calloway, David E.

1997-11-26

168

Geology of the Colorado Plateau  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page provides a general description of the geology of the Colorado Plateau. Topics include information about the various geologic environments and processes active during the Precambrian and the Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras.

Institute, Colorado P.

169

Geological Evolution of Lada Terra, Venus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents geologic history of Lada Terra of Venus. Geological mapping revealed formation of large-scale extensional belts, coronae, and volcanogenic plains. The sequence of geologic events provides clues to deeper geodynamic processes.

Kumar, P. S.; Head, J. W.

2011-03-01

170

Archeological Geology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the rapid expansion of archeological geology, especially in the area of archeological excavations, where geologists use dating techniques and knowledge of geological events to interpret archeological sites. (MLH)|

Rapp, George

1977-01-01

171

Radiometric Dating in Geology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Described are several aspects and methods of quantitatively measuring geologic time using a constant-rate natural process of radioactive decay. Topics include half lives and decay constants, radiogenic growth, potassium-argon dating, rubidium-strontium dating, and the role of geochronology in support of geological exploration. (DS)|

Pankhurst, R. J.

1980-01-01

172

Radiometric Dating in Geology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are several aspects and methods of quantitatively measuring geologic time using a constant-rate natural process of radioactive decay. Topics include half lives and decay constants, radiogenic growth, potassium-argon dating, rubidium-strontium dating, and the role of geochronology in support of geological exploration. (DS)

Pankhurst, R. J.

1980-01-01

173

Layer Cake Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This classroom activity uses a cake to demonstrate geologic processes and introduce geologic terms. Students will learn how folds and faults occur, recognize the difference in behavior between brittle and ductile rocks, and attempt to predict structures likely to result from application of various forces to layered rocks. They will also attempt to interpret 'core samples' to determine subsurface rock structure.

Wagner, John

174

Structural Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, this site describes the basics of structural geology with text and images. The page includes the discussion of stress, strain, strike and dip, faults, folds, mountain building, erosion, economic geology, and environmental geology. This is a nice introduction to the basic topics in geology. Images from the field help to enhance the topics on the site. Instructors can use this resource to help create or simply enhance their curriculum.

2009-05-21

175

Thermal Conduction - A Tool for Exploring Geological Processes on the Earth and Other Bodies in our Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Thermal conduction is a fundamental physical process, one which controls many aspects of the volcanic and tectonic evolution of bodies within our solar system. Using transmission of thermal energy through the crust of the Earth as an initial, physically intuitive conceptual model, the module's background material will (a) help students deduce the thermal conduction equation-a second order differential which can be constructed from first principles, (b) evaluate volume-adjusted conduction incorporating internal heat generation and temperature change, and (c) explore special forms of the equation such as steady state conduction and thermal diffusion.

Grosfils, Eric

176

Effect of modeling factors on the dissolution-diffusion-convection process during CO2 geological storage in deep saline formations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that during CO2 geological storage, density-driven convective activity can significantly accelerate the dissolution of injected CO2 into water. This action could limit the escape of supercritical CO2 from the storage formation through vertical pathways such as fractures, faults and abandoned wells, consequently increasing permanence and security of storage. First, we investigated the effect of numerical perturbation caused by time and grid resolution and the convergence criteria on the dissolution-diffusion-convection (DDC) process. Then, using the model with appropriate spatial and temporal resolution, some uncertainty parameters investigated in our previous paper such as initial gas saturation and model boundaries, and other factors such as relative liquid permeability and porosity modification were used to examine their effects on the DDC process. Finally, we compared the effect of 2D and 3D models on the simulation of the DDC process. The above modeling results should contribute to clear understanding and accurate simulation of the DDC process, especially the onset of convective activity, and the CO2 dissolution rate during the convection-dominated stage.

Zhang, Wei

2013-06-01

177

The importance of both geological and pedological processes in control of grain size and sedimentation rates in Peoria Loess  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The loess-paleosol succession in the Peoria Loess in southern Illinois is characterized as alternating loess layers and weathering bands, known as paleosol A horizons. The fast loess accumulation during the late Wisconsin glaciation interacted with the incipient pedogenesis and caused unclear boundaries of loess-paleosol alternations in soil horizonation and mineralogy. Parameters of grain size distribution, sedimentation rate, matrix carbonate content and diffuse reflectance (i.e. soil colors and iron oxides) are used in this paper to discuss the geological and pedological influences for the Peoria Loess in Keller Farm section in southern Illinois. The multi-proxy analysis revealed that many paleosol A horizons, defined by the diffuse reflectance variability, contain finer-grained materials with a relatively higher sedimentation rate. It suggests that glaciofluvial sediments were available in the source areas for uploading eolian dust during the temporary ice sheet retreats. The denser vegetation and wetter surface soils on the loess deposit area could increase the dust trapping efficiency and caused a greater accumulation rate of loess deposits. The coarser-grained materials and slower sedimentation rate are often found in loess layers. It suggests that strong surface winds transported the coarser-grained materials from local dust sources and sparse vegetation and dry surface soils reduced the dust trapping efficiency during the ice sheet readvance. The strong interactions between the geological and pedological processes played an important role on the loess-paleosol alternations in southern Illinois during the late Wisconsin glaciation. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Wang, H.; Mason, J. A.; Balsam, W. L.

2006-01-01

178

Exogenic Geological Processes as a Source of Formation of Bottom Silt in the Votkinskoe Reservoir  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experience shows that bottom silt accumulating on reservoir beds directly affects the occurrence of biological, chemical, and physical processes in the mineral substrate of the flooded river valley, in the water mass, and, in some cases, even in the low atmospheric layers [1]. Arriving from the outside and accumulating in the bowl of the reservoir the organomineral substance permanently changes

N. N. Nazarov

2002-01-01

179

Processes of lunar crater degradation: Changes in style with geologic time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lunar crater degradation can be divided into two time periods based on differing styles and rates of crater degradation processes.\\u000a Comparison of lunar radiometric age scales and the relative degradation of crater morphologic features for craters larger\\u000a than about 5 km diam shows that Period I, prior to about 3.85–3.95 b.y. ago, is characterized by a high influx rate and

James W. Head

1975-01-01

180

Influence of fluvial processes on the Quaternary geologic framework of the continental shelf, North Carolina, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital, single-channel, high-resolution seismic reflection profiles were acquired from the insular continental shelf of North Carolina, USA along a data grid extending from Oregon Inlet northward 48 km to Duck, North Carolina and from the nearshore zone seaward approximately 28 km (total surveyed area=1334 km2). These data were processed and interpreted to delineate principal reflecting horizons and develop a three-dimensional

Stephen K. Boss; Charles W. Hoffman; Brett Cooper

2002-01-01

181

Slope processes in weathered volcaniclastic rocks of the Camaldoli hill (Naples, Italy): Geomorphologic and Engineering-Geological aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the geological study performed by Orsi et al. (this session), the main results of a geomorphologic and engineering-geological investigation of the stability conditions of the Camaldoli hill (urban area of Naples) are here presented. The Camaldoli hill, the highest peak of the Phlegraean Fields caldera (452 m asl), is characterized by relief energy of a few hundreds of meters,

D. Calcaterra; D. Coppin; B. Palma; M. Parise; G. Orsi; S. de Vita; M. A. di Vito

2003-01-01

182

Quaternary geology and sedimentary processes in the vicinity of Six Mile Reef, eastern Long Island Sound  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Six Mile Reef, a sandy, 22-m-high shoal trending east-west and located about 7.8 km off the Connecticut coast, has a core of postglacial marine deltaic deposits mantled by tidally reworked modern sediments. Sedimentary environments off the eastern end of the shoal are characterized by processes associated with long-term erosion or nondeposition, a mobile-sediment-limited seafloor armored by gravelly sand, and scattered elongate fields of barchanoid sand waves. The barchanoid waves reach amplitudes of 20 m, are concave westward, and occur in individual and coalesced forms that become progressively more complex westward. The seafloor on and adjacent to the shoal is characterized by processes associated with coarse bedload transport and covered primarily with asymmetrical transverse sand waves. The transverse waves exceed 8 m in amplitude, have slip faces predominantly oriented to the west and southwest, and have straight, slightly sinuous, and curved crests. Megaripples, which mimic the asymmetry of the sand waves, are commonly present on stoss slopes and in troughs; current ripples are ubiquitous. The amplitude and abundance of large bedforms decrease markedly westward of Six Mile Reef. The seabed there is covered with small, degraded ripples, reflecting lower-energy environments and processes associated with sorting and reworking of seafloor sediments. Megaripples and current ripples on the sand waves suggest that transport is active and that the bedforms are propagating under the present hydraulic regime. Net bedload sediment transport is primarily to the west, as evidenced by textural trends of surficial sediments, orientation of the barchanoid waves, and asymmetry of the transverse waves and of the scour marks around bedrock outcrops, boulders, and shipwrecks. One exception occurs at the western tip of the shoal, where sand-wave morphology indicates long-term eastward transport, suggesting that countercurrents in this area shape the shoal and are important to its maintenance.

Poppe, L. J.; Williams, S. J.; Moser, M. S.; Forfinski, N. A.; Stewart, H. F.; Doran, E. F.

2008-01-01

183

Slope processes in weathered volcaniclastic rocks of the Camaldoli hill (Naples, Italy): Geomorphologic and Engineering-Geological aspects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the geological study performed by Orsi et al. (this session), the main results of a geomorphologic and engineering-geological investigation of the stability conditions of the Camaldoli hill (urban area of Naples) are here presented. The Camaldoli hill, the highest peak of the Phlegraean Fields caldera (452 m asl), is characterized by relief energy of a few hundreds of meters, and by high slope gradients, which frequently reach the verticality. Low-order, structurally controlled channels drain the hillslopes; the development of stepped longitudinal profiles in the channels is related to the alternance of rocks and soils. The geological framework of the hill represent a further factor predisposing to mass movements and soil erosion. The Camaldoli hill is in fact characterized, as already highlighted by Orsi et al., by a basal sequence of jointed weak tuffs, overlain by some tens of metres of loose, unconsolidated pyroclastic terrains, ranging in age from about 12.000 and 4.000 yrs. BP. The latter deposits are generally weathered in their upper layers, as a consequence of interaction with decay agents and of past slope instabilities. Present-day morphodynamics of the hill is ruled by the occurrence of a variety of slope processes. Shallow landslides involve the weathered portion of the youngest pyroclastic products, showing features typical of slides or falls. Such events, which usually start in the upper reaches of the slope, may undergo different evolution, essentially controlled by the local slope morphology: (i) low-mobility soil slides-debris flows on open slopes; (ii) slides/falls evolving to hyperconcentrated flows along channels. The first processes have been seldom observed on open slopes, while the transition from slides/falls to hyperconcentrated flows along channels seems much more diffuse in the study area. The flows are generally fed, under intense to extreme rainfall events, by the re-mobilization of pre-existing landslide debris. The upper tuff formations (namely, the Neapolitan Yellow Tuff) are involved in falls and topple failures, which can detach volumes up to some tens of cubic metres, frequently reaching the lowest sectors of the slope, close to, if not within, the urbanized area. Eventually, accelerated soil erosion plays a major role in the open slopes, where evidences of sheet, rills and gullies have been surveyed. Joining the contribution of volcanologists and engineering-geologists, a tentative evaluation of the volumes susceptible to be mobilized by instability processes acting on the surficial, weathered cover of the loose pyroclastics was performed, adopting different methodologies. The so obtained results are compared and discussed in the paper: overall, they provide evidence of a widespread proneness to slope instability, which in turn may result into a serious threat to the diffuse settlements and infrastructures located at the Camaldoli’s foothill.

Calcaterra, D.; Coppin, D.; Palma, B.; Parise, M.; Orsi, G.; de Vita, S.; di Vito, M. A.

2003-04-01

184

Fundamentalism and \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a socio-cultural phenomenon fundamentalism may be understood as ideological rigidity. Religious worldviews, characteristic of orally transmitted religious traditions, are reshaped as orthodoxies measured by written texts as religious traditions become literate. Ideology is a characteristic of literate religion in so far as literate religion is decontextualized, which means that it requires the justification provided by either the hermeneutics of

Leland J. White

1988-01-01

185

GWM: A Ground-Water Management Process for the U.S. Geological Survey Modular Ground-Water Model (MODFLOW-2000).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

GWM is a Ground-Water Management Process for the U.S. Geological Survey modular three-dimensional ground-water model, MODFLOW-2000. GWM uses a response-matrix approach to solve several types of linear, nonlinear, and mixed-binary linear ground-water manag...

D. P. Ahlfeld P. M. Barlow A. E. Mulligan

2005-01-01

186

Genesis of karren in Kentucky Lake, Tennessee: Interaction of geologic structure, weathering processes, and bioerosion  

SciTech Connect

While karst features formed along marine coastlines are commonly reported, shoreline karst features produced within lacustrine systems have received little attention. The shoreline of Bond Island'' in Kentucky Lake has evolved a distinctive karren geomorphology not recognized elsewhere in the lake. The karren consist of well-developed clint and grike topography, trench formation, solution pits, flutes, and runnels, and pit and tunnel development. Two processes are responsible for the karren. First, freshwater dissolution and wave action on structurally fractured Decatur Limestone (Silurian) mechanically and chemically weaken the entire exposed surface. Second, a seasonal cycle of winter freeze-thaw and frost wedging followed by spring bioerosion overprints the first set of processes. Bioerosion by chemical dissolution involving a complex association of predominantly chironomids, algae, fungi, and bryozoa results in preferential dissolution along joints, stylolites, and bedding planes to form shallow spindle-shaped solution pits over the entire surface and sides of the karren. The solution pits average 1 cm length by 0.4 cm depth densely covering rock surfaces. This study suggests that seasonal bioerosion may constitute a more important geomorphic factor in lacustrine systems than previously recognized.

Gibson, M.A.; Smith, W.L. (Univ. of Tennessee, Martin, TN (United States))

1993-03-01

187

Lunar geology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of a lunar geological map is traced, from the post-war period through the final Apollo mission. The impact of geological discoveries on earth on lunar geology is explained, and the use of photographs of the lunar surface to deduce its stratigraphy is described. The confirmation of the ages of various parts of the moon's surface through analysis of moon rocks is also discussed.

Shoemaker, E.

188

Antarctic Dry Valleys: Geological Processes in Hyperarid, Hypothermal Environments and Implications for Water on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Antarctic Dry Valleys (ADV) are characterized by mean annual temperatures (MAT) well below the freezing point of water and are among the coldest and driest environments on Earth. In spite of these extreme conditions, seasonal temperatures (ST) and peak daytime temperatures (PDT) can locally exceed the melting point of water in certain settings in certain microenvironments. Three major microenvironments (upland stable zone, inland mixed zone, coastal thaw zone) are defined in the ADV on the basis of measurements of atmospheric temperatures (MAT/ST), soil moisture and relative humidity, and the concurrent availability and mobility of water; these microenvironments show variations in the abundance and character of different geomorphic features. For example, in the coldest upland stable zone melting is almost non-existent and sublimation polygons dominate; ice-wedge polygons occur in the coastal thaw zone where seasonal temperatures can exceed the melting temperature of water; sand-wedge polygons occur in the inland mixed zone. The ADV are characterized by a regional permafrost layer and a shallow ice table. In contrast to more temperate latitudes on Earth where the hydrological system and cycle are vertically integrated, the ADV hydrological system consists of a horizontally stratified hydrological cycle; the regional permafrost layer precludes vertical exchange of surface water and deep groundwater below the permafrost. Local near-surface meltwater is produced seasonally, flows across the surface to create gullies, channels and small fluvial features, and soaks into the dry upper part of the permafrost, running downslope along the top of the ice table in a perched aquifer. In this context, melting of seasonal and perennial surface and very near surface snow and ice deposits during peak seasonal and peak daytime temperatures causes a range of fluvial and liquid water-related features in the coastal thaw zone and inland mixed zone. Among the features and processes that we have analyzed and instrumented over numerous field seasons in the ADV are rock-weathering processes, debris-covered glaciers, viscous flow features, polygons, active gullies, recurring slope lineae, fluvial channels, and small ponds and lakes. Key to understanding these features in the ADV has proven to be: 1) location of surface microenvironments that sequester seasonal and perennial snow and ice, 2) understanding the importance of peak daytime and seasonal temperatures, in contrast to MAT, 3) the role of the shallow ice table in producing a perched aquifer in the dry part of the soil layer above the top of the ice table, 4) understanding the importance of short-term peak melting events (revealed by time-lapse images and environmental instrumentation), 5) measuring seasonal rates of vertical propagation and depths of penetration of the melting geotherm, 6) determining the role of salt exchange in hyporheic zone processes and alteration of rocks and soils, and water chemistry, and 7) analysis of the role of insolation and slope orientation in melting processes. These factors also have important implications for the study and interpretation of water-related features and the climate history of Mars. Similarities are observed between the ADV microenvironments and latitudinal zones and geomorphic feature distributions on Mars.

Head, J.; Dickson, J. L.; Levy, J. S.; Baker, D. M. H.; Marchant, D. R.

2012-04-01

189

Development of geological processes on the Earth and their impact on the early biosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Though life has been already existed in the Paleoarchean, biosphere started rapid development only in Paleoproterozoic from about 2.4-2.3 Ga. It was practically coincided with period of irreversible change of tectonomagmatic activity on the Earth, when high-Mg magmatism of the early Precambrian, derived from depleted mantle, gave place to the geochemical-enriched Fe-Ti basalts [12]. New type of magmas was characterized by elevated and high contents of elements which are required for metabolism and fermentation. It suggests that this event acted as a trigger for environmental changes and rapid evolution of biosphere, supplying a qualitatively new biophilic material to the Earth's surface. Venus and Mars developed at the same scenario; very likely, that at the beginning liquid water occurred on them; however, processes of the planetary development were favorable for the biosphere evolution only on the Earth.

Sharkov, E.

2012-09-01

190

California Geological Survey: Geologic Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This index provides access to a selection of geologic maps of California, as well as an overview of geologic and other mapping activities in the state. The index, which can be accessed by clicking on an interactive map of the state, contains lists of selected geologic maps in California prepared by the Regional Geologic Mapping Project (RGMP). The RGMP staff monitors the literature and collects references that contain geologic mapping that may be useful for future compilations. In addition, the site has information about Caltrans Highway Corridor Mapping, The Mineral Resources and Mineral Hazards Mapping Program, North Coast Watersheds Assessment Program, The Timber Harvesting Plan Enforcement Program, and The Seismic Hazards Mapping Program. A set of links is provided to other sources of geologic maps and map information.

191

North Cascades Geology: Geologic Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes the period of geologic time spanned by the rocks of the North Cascades area of Washington. Users can access a simplified geologic time scale that provides links to geologic events in the North Cascades region. These include the deposition of various terranes, periods of intrusion and metamorphism, the beginning of the Cascade volcanic arc, and periods of major glaciation. Links to related materials are also provided.

192

A Domain Decomposition Approach for Large-Scale Simulations of Flow Processes in Hydrate-Bearing Geologic Media  

SciTech Connect

Simulation of the system behavior of hydrate-bearing geologic media involves solving fully coupled mass- and heat-balance equations. In this study, we develop a domain decomposition approach for large-scale gas hydrate simulations with coarse-granularity parallel computation. This approach partitions a simulation domain into small subdomains. The full model domain, consisting of discrete subdomains, is still simulated simultaneously by using multiple processes/processors. Each processor is dedicated to following tasks of the partitioned subdomain: updating thermophysical properties, assembling mass- and energy-balance equations, solving linear equation systems, and performing various other local computations. The linearized equation systems are solved in parallel with a parallel linear solver, using an efficient interprocess communication scheme. This new domain decomposition approach has been implemented into the TOUGH+HYDRATE code and has demonstrated excellent speedup and good scalability. In this paper, we will demonstrate applications for the new approach in simulating field-scale models for gas production from gas-hydrate deposits.

Zhang, Keni; Moridis, G.J.; Wu, Y.-S.; Pruess, K.

2008-07-01

193

Yellowstone Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Yellowstone National Park website provides geological information about the Park. Links include geologic highlights, hydrothermal features, reports by park geologists, and scientists' talks (videos). A wide array of information can be found on these links and the webpage is expanding as more topics are added.

Park, Yellowstone N.

194

Engineering Geology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Engineering geology remains a potpourri of applied classical geology, and 1977 witnessed an upswing in demand for these services. Traditional foundation-related work was slight, but construction related to national needs increased briskly. Major cities turned to concerns of transit waste-water treatment and solid-waste disposal. (Author/MA)

Hatheway, Allen W.

1978-01-01

195

Geology of caves  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A cave is a natural opening in the ground extending beyond the zone of light and large enough to permit the entry of man. Occurring in a wide variety of rock types and caused by widely differing geological processes, caves range in size from single small rooms to intercorinecting passages many miles long. The scientific study of caves is called speleology (from the Greek words spelaion for cave and logos for study). It is a composite science based on geology, hydrology, biology, and archaeology, and thus holds special interest for earth scientists of the U.S. Geological Survey.

Morgan, I. M., Davies, W. E.

1991-01-01

196

Geology of Mars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides information about the six geological processes that are either currently operating on Mars or have operated during Martian history. These include the aeolian, cratering, hydro, landslides, tectonic, and volcanic processes. Example images of the results of these processes are provided.

Hsui, Albert T.

2004-07-14

197

Fundamentals of Physical Geography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Fundamentals of Physical Geography website is designed to be a free online textbook for University and College students studying introductory Physical Geography. Version 1.0 of Fundamentals of Physical Geography contains over three hundred pages of information and more than four hundred 2-D illustrations, photographs, and animated graphics. Besides having the traditional text and 2-D graphics, this information source also has a number of animated graphics, an interactive glossary of terms, a study guide, web pages with links to other Internet resources related to Physical Geography, and a search engine to find information on the Fundamentals of Physical Geography website. The current purpose of this work is to supplement the printed textbooks used in Universities and Colleges with an information source that is interactive and rich in multimedia. The comprehensive table of contents includes chapters on: Introduction to Physical Geography, Maps, Remote Sensing, and GIS, The Science of Physical Geography, Introduction to Systems Theory, The Universe, Earth, Natural Spheres, and GAIA, Energy and Matter, Introduction to Meteorology and Climatology, Introduction to Hydrology, Introduction to Biogeography and Ecology, Introduction to Geology, and Introduction to Geomorphology

Pidwirny, Michael

2000-09-07

198

Measurement Fundamentals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 26-minute video, the second in a series of twelve, is part of the web-based course for K-8 teachers entitled Learning Math: Measurement offered by the Annenberg Foundation. Participants explore procedures for measuring and learn about standard units in the metric and customary systems, the relationships among units, and the approximate nature of measurement. In this video participants examine fundamental ideas such as unit iteration, partitioning and precision, ratio, and scale. To access the video from this link click on the VoD icon that is next to the video 2 description.

Chapin, Suzanne H.

2002-01-01

199

Geology Field Trips as Performance Evaluations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the most important goals the author has for students in his introductory-level physical geology course is to give them the conceptual skills for solving geologic problems on their own. He wants students to leave his course as individuals who can use their knowledge of geologic processes and logic to figure out the extended geologic history…

Bentley, Callan

2009-01-01

200

Geologic Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Earth is very old -- 4.5 billion years or more -- according to recent estimates. This vast span of time, called geologic time by earth scientists, is difficult to comprehend in the familiar time units of months and years, or even centuries. How then do scientists reckon geologic time, and why do they believe the Earth is so old? A great part of the secret of the Earth's age is locked up in its rocks, and our centuries-old search for the key led to the beginning and nourished the growth of geologic science.

Newman, William L.

1997-01-01

201

Geologic time  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Earth is very old 4 1/2 billion years or more according to recent estimates. This vast span of time, called geologic time by earth scientists, is difficult to comprehend in the familiar time units of months and years, or even centuries. How then do scientists reckon geologic time, and why do they believe the Earth is so old? A great part of the secret of the Earth's age is locked up in its rocks, and our centuries-old search for the key led to the beginning and nourished the growth of geologic science.

Newman, William L.

2000-01-01

202

Influence of processing time on nanoparticle generation during picosecond-pulsed fundamental and second harmonic laser ablation of metals in tetrahydrofuran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of fundamental and second harmonic wavelength on ablation efficiency and nanoparticle properties is studied during picosecond laser ablation of silver, zinc, and magnesium in polymer-doped tetrahydrofuran. Laser ablation in stationary liquid involves simultaneously the fabrication of nanoparticles by ablation of the target material and fragmentation of dispersed nanoparticles by post irradiation. The ratio in which the laser pulse energy contributes to these processes depends on laser wavelength and colloidal properties. For plasmon absorbers (silver), using the second harmonic wavelength leads to a decrease of the nanoparticle productivity over process time along with exponential decrease in particle diameter, while using the fundamental wavelength results in a constant ablation rate and linear decrease in particle diameter. For colloids made of materials without plasmon absorption (zinc, magnesium), laser scattering is the colloidal property that limits nanoparticle productivity by Mie-scattering of dispersed nanoparticle clusters.

Schwenke, Andreas; Wagener, Philipp; Nolte, Stefan; Barcikowski, Stephan

2011-07-01

203

Integrating Collective Work Aspects in the Design Process: An Analysis Case Study of the Robotic Surgery Using Communication as a Sign of Fundamental Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Ergonomic criteria are receiving increasing attention from designers but their applications don’t ensure that technology matches\\u000a the system’s constraints and its reliability. The aim of this paper is to study how robotic surgery induces fundamental changes\\u000a in the collective work using communication as a sign of the adaptation processes. First, we compared verbal communication\\u000a between surgeons in two conditions (laparoscopy

Anne-Sophie Nyssen; Adelaide Blavier

2009-01-01

204

Mathematical Geology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The year 1978 marked a continued trend toward practical applications in mathematical geology. Developments included work in interactive computer graphics, factor analysis, the vanishing tons problem, universal kriging, and resource estimating. (BB)

McCammon, Richard B.

1979-01-01

205

Engineering Geology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Briefly reviews the increasing application of geologic principles, techniques and data to engineering practices in the areas of land use and zoning controls, resource management energy programs and other fields. (BR)

Lee, Fitzhugh T.

1974-01-01

206

Geologic Timeline  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dive into the depths of time with this Geologic Timeline. The farther you scroll down, the farther back in time you'll travel. Also, the longer a period is on this page, the longer it lasted in history!

2000-01-01

207

Schoolyard Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set of lessons provides teachers with ideas on how to turn their schoolyards into a rich geologic experience that students will find familiar, easily accessible, and personally relevant. The three lesson plans feature materials on mapping, rock descriptions and geologic interpretations, ages of rocks, and dinosaur tracks. Lesson 1, "Map Your Schoolyard," teaches students what maps are, what they are used for, and some features used on maps (north arrow, scale bar, legend, etc.). Lesson 2, "Rock Stories," illustrates how to make geologic observations and what important properties of rocks to look for. Lesson 3, "GeoSleuth Schoolyard," teaches students that geology is a lot like detective work, in which geologists infer the sequence and timing of events by collecting evidence and making observations. Relevant California state science standards are also listed.

208

Slope processes in weathred volcaniclastic rocks of the Camaldoli hill (Naples, Italy): geological, structural and volcanological aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Camaldoli hill is the remnant of the north-eastern margin of the Campi Flegrei caldera (CFc), generated by two main collapses related to the Campanian Ignimbrite (CI; 39 ka) and Neapolitan Yellow Tuff (NYT; 15 ka) eruptions. We have reconstructed its geological, lithological and structural features, and their effects on slope instability. The backbone of the hill includes the remnants

G. Orsi; M. A. di Vito; S. de Vita; D. Calcaterra; D. Coppin; B. Palma; M. Parise

2003-01-01

209

Effects of climatic and geological processes during the pleistocene on the evolutionary history of the northern cavefish, Amblyopsis spelaea (teleostei: amblyopsidae).  

PubMed

Climatic and geological processes associated with glaciation cycles during the Pleistocene have been implicated in influencing patterns of genetic variation and promoting speciation of temperate flora and fauna. However, determining the factors promoting divergence and speciation is often difficult in many groups because of our limited understanding of potential vicariant barriers and connectivity between populations. Pleistocene glacial cycles are thought to have significantly influenced the distribution and diversity of subterranean invertebrates; however, impacts on subterranean aquatic vertebrates are less clear. We employed several hypothesis-driven approaches to assess the impacts of Pleistocene climatic and geological changes on the Northern Cavefish, Amblyopsis spelaea, whose current distribution occurs near the southern extent of glacial advances in North America. Our results show that the modern Ohio River has been a significant barrier to dispersal and is correlated with patterns of genetic divergence. We infer that populations were isolated in two refugia located north and south of the Ohio River during the most recent two glacial cycles with evidence of demographic expansion in the northern isolate. Finally, we conclude that climatic and geological processes have resulted in the formation of cryptic forms and advocate recognition of two distinct phylogenetic lineages currently recognized as A. spelaea. PMID:23550752

Niemiller, Matthew L; McCandless, James R; Reynolds, R Graham; Caddle, James; Near, Thomas J; Tillquist, Christopher R; Pearson, William D; Fitzpatrick, Benjamin M

2012-12-20

210

Pennsylvania Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Three decades after it was published, the Second Geological Survey of Pennsylvania was described as "the most remarkable series of reports ever issued by any survey." Considering the diversity of other geological reports, this was no small compliment. Drawing on support from the Marion and Kenneth Pollock Libraries Program Fund, the Pennsylvania State University Libraries' Digital Preservation Unit was able to digitize not only this fabled Survey, but also the Third and Fourth Surveys as well. Visitors can use the search engine on the homepage to look for items of interest, or they can just browse through the collection at their leisure. The surveys include various maps and illustrations that track mineral deposits and the disposition and location of other natural resources. Additionally, users can look through a miscellaneous set of publications from the early 20th century related to survey work performed by the U.S. Geological Survey.

211

Teaching Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This rather remarkable website contains a great collection of resources for web-based instruction and demonstrations of geology concepts. The collection includes, under Classroom demonstration, the very useful SeisMac 3.0, which is an application for Mac OS X that turns a laptop computer into a " low-resolution strong-motion accelerometer," or a basic seismograph. It works by accessing the computer's Sudden Motion Sensor in order to display real-time, three axis accelerations graphs. Visitors can use the application to watch the seismic waves go up and down just by tapping their feet on the floor nearby. Other resources include Virtual Earth (an "interactive minicourse on thermal convection") and a link to Geology in the news, which collates important news stories with a geological theme.

212

Geology 201: Non-linear processes in geofluids or Why does the Earth look the way it does?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many patterns we observe on the Earth’s surface are a result of fluid transport, fluxes, and phase changes. Coastlines, drainage networks, river deltas, types of rock deformation and the driving mechanism for plate tectonics all result from fluid flows exhibiting complex behavior. Currently, undergraduate students often do not have conceptual frameworks necessary for understanding non-linear systems. Their prior experiences have often emphasized linear and non-directional relationships, but most physical systems are inherently nonlinear in nature. We have found it difficult to explain ideas such as feedbacks, hysteresis, and phase transitions to students without prior exposure to complex system behavior. Here we will present a curriculum designed for sophomore-level undergraduates that will use concepts of flow to explain origin of the features we see on the Earth’s surface, while simultaneously teaching fundamental properties of complex-system behavior. Example features will come from tectonics, mantle convection, geomorphology, and hydrology. We will provide an outline of course materials where students will first be exposed to physical and conceptual models of non-linear behavior and then follow up with understanding the equations governing these processes. Examples: Rock rheologies using food analogies and then exploring material constitutive equations, stream channel avulsion using a classroom teaching flume, then a one-dimensional model of bifurcating flow in a channel. We chose the sophomore level specifically so students are introduced early in their academic career and thus have the conceptual frameworks and quantitative skills necessary to work with complex systems as they advance to upper level courses. Learning goals for the course we present will include the ability to recognize non-linear behavior, and the development of a level of comfort with these concepts.

Orr, C. H.; Cooper, C. M.

2010-12-01

213

Geological pattern formation by growth and dissolution in aqueous systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although many geological processes take place on time scales that are very long compared with the human experience, essentially all geological processes, fast or slow, are far from equilibrium processes. Surprisingly often, geological processes lead to the formation of quite simple and distinctive patterns, which hint at an underlying simplicity in many complex geological systems.. The ability to predict the

Paul Meakin; B. Jamtveit

2009-01-01

214

Geologic Explorations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of the latest offerings from the North Carolina State University's Web site Science Junction (last mentioned in the November 25, 1998 Scout Report) is the Geologic Explorations page. By clicking on the respective coordinates of each location, users can explore twelve areas in the western United States with 360-degree panoramic QuickTime movies and digital photography. Set up as a type of lesson for students, the main page suggests paying close attention to the unique geologic features and gives a few questions to answer about each area. The site is very easy to use and provides some breathtaking vistas of some of the most beautiful areas of the US.

Bodzin, Alec M.

2001-01-01

215

Reactive Transport Modelling of CO2 Storage in Saline Aquifers to Elucidate Fundamental Processes, Trapping Mechanisms, and Sequestration Partitioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultimate fate of CO injected into saline aquifers for environmental isolation is governed by three interdependent yet conceptually distinct processes: CO migration as a buoyant immiscible fluid phase, direct chemical interaction of this rising plume with ambient saline waters, and its indirect chemical interaction with aquifer and cap-rock minerals through the aqueous wetting phase. Each process is directly linked

J. W. Johnson; J. J. Nitao; K. G. Knauss

2004-01-01

216

Fundamental considerations on the mechanisms of silver cementation onto zinc particles in the Merril–Crowe process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies on the Merrill–Crowe process as applied to silver recovery have shown that one half of the used zinc powder is wasted in water reduction at high cyanide concentrations, while the other half reduces silver ions from the cyanide solution. However, the cementation mechanisms as an electrochemical process taking place on the zinc surface do not explain the split of

G. Viramontes Gamboa; M. Medina Noyola; A. López Valdivieso

2005-01-01

217

Fundamental Processess in Gaseous Reactions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fundamental processes in gas phase reactions (primarily decomposition and recombination reactions of simple diatomic and triatomic molecules) were studied using shock wave techniques. The investigation of energy transfer processes covered more areas: lase...

D. F. Hornig G. E. Leroi

1969-01-01

218

Capture cross section measurements of krypton and xenon isotopes and the fundamental parameters of the s-process  

SciTech Connect

The capture cross sections of Kr and Xe isotopes have been determined by a fast cyclic activation technique. The data were used to perform s-process calculations with phenomenological models. The weak and the main s-process component were studied. Astrophysical parameters were determined in the frame of the model, i.e., iron seed abundance, the neutron exposure, average number of neutrons captured by the iron seed, the temperature dependence of the neutron exposure, neutron density, temperature, and electron density. The solar abundances of Kr and Xe were determined. From the Kr-85 branching the pulse width of a pulsed s-process was estimated. The isotopic anomaly Xe-S, s-process Xe, was investigated. 51 refs.

Beer, H. (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Federal Republic of Germany))

1991-07-01

219

Polycyclism, a fundamental tree growth process, decline with recent climate change: the example of Pinus halepensis Mill. in Mediterranean France  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycyclism, the ability for a plant to produce several flushes in the same growing season, is a key process of plant development.\\u000a Polycyclism frequency is likely to change with the anticipated climate trend, expected to impact plant growth over the next\\u000a century. However, polycyclism processes are not well described in the literature, and an important lack of knowledge prevents\\u000a any

François Girard; Michel Vennetier; Samira Ouarmim; Yves Caraglio; Laurent Misson

2011-01-01

220

Geologic Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains 24 questions on the topic of geologic time, which covers dating techniques and unconformities. This is part of the Principles of Earth Science course at the University of South Dakota. Users submit their answers and are provided immediate feedback.

Heaton, Timothy

221

Geologic Time.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the historical development of the concept of geologic time. Develops the topic by using the major discoveries of geologists, beginning with Steno and following through to the discovery and use of radiometric dating. An extensive reference list is provided. (JM)|

Albritton, Claude C., Jr.

1984-01-01

222

FUNDAMENTAL AREAS OF PHENOMENOLOGY (INCLUDING APPLICATIONS): A Tunable Acousto-Optic Fiber Filter Based on Two Simultaneous Mode Coupling Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dynamically tunable fiber filter realizing complex spectra of phase-shifted long period fiber gratings (LPFGs) is proposed and demonstrated experimentally. The principle of the filter is based on two acousto-optic coupling processes occurring simultaneously. The first coupling process acts as a normal LPFG, while the second makes the coupling direction of the first process change continuously, leading to a similar transmission spectrum with the phase-shifted LPFGs, in which the changing of coupling direction is realized by the discrete phase shifts of the index modulation. By adjusting the acoustic drive signals, its transmission spectrum can be dynamically tuned to realize the phase-shifted LPFGs' spectra under different phase shift numbers and locations.

Miao, Ren; Zhang, Wei; Feng, Xue; Zhao, Jian-Hui; Liu, Xiao-Ming

2009-07-01

223

InAs Based Quantum Dots for Quantum Information Processing:. from Fundamental Physics to 'plug and Play' Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Semiconductor quantum dots have attracted much interest in implementing solid-state quantum information processing. Using InAs based quantum dots, we demonstrate quantum coupling between two stacked quantum dot molecules in electroluminescence, controlling Stark shifts of single quantum dots in electroluminescence, and 'plug and play' single photon emission at telecommunication wavelengths.

Xu, Xiulai; Andreev, Aleksey; Brossard, Frederic; Hammura, Kiyotaka; Williams, David

2009-06-01

224

Principles of nuclear geology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book treats the basic principles of nuclear physics and the mineralogy, geochemistry, distribution and ore deposits of uranium and thorium. The application of nuclear methodology in radiogenic heat and thermal regime of the earth, radiometric prospecting, isotopic age dating, stable isotopes and cosmic-ray produced isotopes is covered. Geological processes, such as metamorphic chronology, petrogenesis, groundwater movement, and sedimentation rate

Aswathanarayana

1985-01-01

225

Genome-wide binding of the orphan nuclear receptor TR4 suggests its general role in fundamental biological processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The orphan nuclear receptor TR4 (human testicular receptor 4 or NR2C2) plays a pivotal role in a variety of biological and metabolic processes. With no known ligand and few known target genes, the mode of TR4 function was unclear. RESULTS: We report the first genome-wide identification and characterization of TR4 in vivo binding. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high

Henriette O'Geen; Yu-Hsuan Lin; Xiaoqin Xu; Lorigail Echipare; Vitalina M Komashko; Daniel He; Seth Frietze; Osamu Tanabe; Lihong Shi; Maureen A Sartor; James D Engel; Peggy J Farnham

2010-01-01

226

The Geology of Callisto  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geology of Callisto is not boring. Although cratered terrain dominates Callisto (a key end-member of the Jovian satellite system), a number of more interesting features are apparent. Cratered terrain is broken into irregular mappable bright and dark subunits that vary in albedo by a factor of 2, and several relatively smooth units are depleted of small craters. Some of these areas may have been volcanically resurfaced. Lineaments, including parallel and radial sets, may be evidence for early global tectonism. Frost deposition occurs in cold traps, and impact scars have formed from tidally disrupted comets. Geologic evidence suggests that Callisto does have a chemically differentiated crust. Central pit and central dome craters and palimpsests are common. The preferred interpretation is that a relatively ice-rich material, at depths of 5 km or more, has been mobilized during impact and exposed as domes or palimpsests. The close similarity in crater morphologies and dimensions indicates that the outermost 10 km or so of Callisto may be as differentiated as on Ganymede. The geology of cratered terrain on Callisto is simpler than that of cratered terrain on Ganymede, however. Orbital evolution and tidal heating may provide the answer to the riddle of why Callisto and Ganymede are so different (Malhotra, 1991). We should expect a few surprises and begin to answer some fundamental questions when Callisto is observed by Galileo in late 1996.

Schenk, Paul M.

1995-09-01

227

Geologic nozzles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sonic velocities of geologic fluids, such as volcanic magmas and geothermal fluids, can be as low as 1 m\\/s. Critical velocities in large rivers can be of the order of 1-10 m\\/s. Because velocities of fluids moving in these settings can exceed these characteristic velocities, sonic and supersonic gas flow and critical and supercritical shallow-water flow can occur. The importance

Susan Werner Kieffer

1989-01-01

228

Physical Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Tulane University course covers the nature of the Earth, the development of its surficial features, and the results of the interaction of chemical, physical, and biological factors on the planet. Lecture notes are about energy and minerals; igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks; weathering and soils; geologic time; mass wasting; streams; groundwater; wind action and deserts; oceans; deformation of rock; earthquakes and the interior of the Earth; global tectonics; planetary changes; and glaciers.

Nelson, Stephen

229

Characterizing Lunar Crustal Geology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In our initiative to return to the Moon, knowledge of regional crustal geology is necessary both for locating resources of scientific interest and for establishing a sustained human presence. Characterizing crustal geology with global remote sensing data is difficult due to the types of weathering processes experienced by an airless, geologically torpid planetary body, which tend to reduce lithologic contrast and obscure the lithology of true bedrock. Fortunately, these processes are relatively straightforward, involving parameters with largely understood, fixed rates of flux. We describe a methodology for characterizing the chemical and mineralogical compositions of discrete geologic units, interpreted from remotely sensed surface spectra. The method utilizes two established techniques: small impact ejecta viewing and extrapolation (SIEVE) (McCord et al., JGR 1981; Staid & Pieters, LPSC 29; Kramer et al., LPSC 36; Kramer et al., JGR (in review)) and spectral mixing analysis (SMA) (Adams & Gillespie, Cambridge Univ. Press 2006, and references therein). The results of this work will be invaluable for identifying regions of interest for current and future lunar missions, such as Chandrayaan-1, carrying NASA's Moon Mineralogy Mapper, and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. Furthermore, the methodology can be used to explore other planetary bodies that experience similar weathering processes (e.g., Mercury, Ceres, Vesta, and Mars).

Kramer, G.; Combe, J.; McCord, T.

2007-12-01

230

Fundamental research on novel process alternatives for coal gasification: Progress report for the period May 7-August 6, 1984  

SciTech Connect

During this quarter, a detailed test plan was developed and approved for each of the three subtasks in this program involving experimental work: CO/sub 2/-Coal Devolatilization Studies; CO/sub 2/-Coal Char Gasification Studies; and CO/sub 2/ Adsorption/Desorption Studies. Two coals were selected for testing: a North Dakota lignite and an Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal. The high-temperature thermobalance was readied for testing, instruments were calibrated, and some reactor tube components were replaced. Instrumentation for the CO/sub 2/ adsorption/desorption tests was specified. The literature on the effect of CO/sub 2/ on coal devolatilization characteristics was reviewed. A detailed analysis of the literature data is under way. A detailed test plan was developed and approved for the internal recirculation catalysts coal gasification process concept.

Babu, S.P.

1985-04-01

231

Using Digital Databases to Create Geologic Maps for the 21st Century: A GIS Model for Geologic, Environmental, Cultural and Transportation Data from Southern Rhode Island.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Knowledge of surface and subsurface geology is fundamental to the planning and development of new or modified transportation systems. Toward this end, we have compiled a model GIS database consisting of important geologic, cartographic, environmental, and...

O. D. Hermes A. I. Veeger N. Hamidzada D. P. Murray

2002-01-01

232

Cold seeps in the eastern Mediterranean a quantitative geological-biological-chemical investigation of causes, processes and implications- a preliminary seismic study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cold seepage of gas/water from the seafloor is one of the most important indications of active processes occurring in the subsurface of continental margins. The location and development of these seeps is, among other things, associated with mass sedimentary transport, resulting from slope failure (e.g. submarine landslides). Studies have shown that endemic ecological systems tend to develop in the shallow subsurface and seafloor near these sites, whose existence is directly related to utilization of the escaping gas. A large and unknown part of the carbon cycle is connected to the reduction and release of methane to the water column. However a precise evaluation of the fraction that eventually reaches the atmosphere as an important greenhouse gas is unknown. During the past few years a number of studies around the world have focused on the combination of geological, biological and chemical aspects of cold seeps. Despite this, many questions still remain unanswered, such as the geological mechanisms generating the seeps, the chemical composition of the seeps, which biological ecosystems base their existence on the seeps and how microbiological process in the subsurface effect the composition and rate of gas release. The eastern Mediterranean basin is one of the most interesting and least studied regions as far as cold seep systems are concerned. The basin is considered to be an "ecological desert" with respect to available nutrients and biological diversity. Here we present new results from a high-resolution Sparker seismic survey carried out offshore northern Israel to map the location of gas seepages on the seafloor. A number of shallow cores were extracted from the target areas and water was sampled for chemical analysis. These data will be integrated as a pilot for a larger, interdisciplinary study to identify, map and characterize the geology, biology and chemistry of gas seepages in the eastern Mediterranean.

Lazar, M.; Schattner, U.

2009-04-01

233

Geological features indicative of processes related to the hematite formation in Meridiani Planum and Aram Chaos, Mars: a comparison with diagenetic hematite deposits in southern Utah, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to understand the formation of the few but large, hematite deposits on Mars, comparisons are often made with terrestrial hematite occurrences. In southern Utah, hematite concretions have formed within continental sandstones and are exposed as extensive weathered-out beds. The hematite deposits are linked to geological and geomorphological features such as knobs, buttes, bleached beds, fractures and rings. These terrestrial features are visible in aerial and satellite images, which enables a comparison with similar features occurring extensively in the martian hematite-rich areas. The combination of processes involved in the movement and precipitation of iron in southern Utah can provide new insights in the context of the hematite formation on Mars. Here we present a mapping of the analogue geological and geomorphological features in parts of Meridiani Planum and Aram Chaos. Based on mapping comparisons with the Utah occurrences, we present models for the formation of the martian analogues, as well as a model for iron transport and precipitation on Mars. Following the Utah model, high albedo layers and rings in the mapped area on Mars are due to removal or lack of iron, and precipitation of secondary diagenetic minerals as fluids moved up along fractures and permeable materials. Hematite was precipitated intraformationally where the fluid transporting the reduced iron met oxidizing conditions. Our study shows that certain geological/geomorphological features can be linked to the hematite formation on Mars and that pH differences could suffice for the transport of the iron from an orthopyroxene volcanoclastic source rock. The presence of organic compounds can enhance the iron mobilization and precipitation processes. Continued studies will focus on possible influence of biological activity and/or methane in the formation of the hematite concretions in Utah and on Mars.

Ormö, Jens; Komatsu, Goro; Chan, Marjorie A.; Beitler, Brenda; Parry, William T.

2004-10-01

234

Thermospray Mass Spectrometry Ionization Processes: Fundamental Mechanisms for Speciation, Separation and Characterization of Organic Complexants in DOE Wastes  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this research was to develop and enhance our understanding of the identity of major organic complexant species and their products with metals in aqueous mixtures such as those found in DOE radioactive tank wastes. Our approach to achieving this objective was a series of incremental studies involving cooperative efforts at ORNL and at the University of Minnesota. Investigations at ORNL characterized soft ionization mass spectrometry processes for the complexant species by developing and interpreting positive and negative ion thermospray mass spectrometry (TMS) of some organic complexants and their decomposition products and relating the spectral distributions to gas phase chemistry. This knowledge of the gas phase chemistry can be related to known solution chemistry behavior. At the University of Minnesota liquid chromatography separations on zirconia-based chromatographic supports were studied in 2 order to understand the separation of organic complexants and the products formed by complexants with metals in complex aqueous mixtures. This information was used to define the conditions needed to introduce a simplified chemical stream into the mass spectrometer. Ultimately the knowledge gained from these parallel efforts were combined at ORNL to characterize the complexant species in a multi-component aqueous mixture. The final objective was to develop the analytical capability needed to identify complexant species and to define chemical equilibria for these species in DOE waste streams.

Bostick, Debra T.; Caton, John E.; Carr, Mabbott, Gary

2001-12-31

235

Thermospray Mass Spectrometry Ionization Processes Fundamental Mechanisms for Speciation, Separation and Characterization of Organic Complexants in DOE Wastes  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this research is to develop and enhance our understanding of the chemical equilibria for major organic complexant species and their products with metals in aqueous mixtures such as those found in DOE radioactive tank wastes. Our approach to achieving this objective is a series of incremental studies involving cooperative efforts at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and at the University of Minnesota. Investigations at ORNL are characterizing soft ionization mass spectrometry processes for the complexant species by developing and interpreting positive and negative ion thermospray mass spectrometry (TMS) of some organic complexants and their decomposition products and relating the spectral distributions to gas phase chemistry. Subsequently this knowledge of the gas phase chemistry will be related to known solution chemistry behavior. At the University of Minnesota liquid chromatography separations on zirconia-based chromatographic supports are being studied in order to understand the separation of organic complexants and the products formed by complexants with metals in complex aqueous mixtures; and thereby define the conditions needed to introduce a simplified chemical stream into the mass spectrometer. Ultimately the knowledge gained from these parallel efforts will be combined at ORNL to characterize the complexant species in a multi-component aqueous mixture with the final objective being to develop the analytical capability needed to define chemical equilibria for complexant species in DOE waste streams.

Caton, John E.; Bostick, Debra, T.; Carr, Peter W.; Mabbott, Gary

1999-06-01

236

Exploring the fundamentals of radical assisted NO{sub x} reduction processes of coal combustors. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes experimental studies performed at Carnegie Mellon University to study the parameters that affect the performance of plasma-assisted ammonia radical injection for NO{sub x} control from stationary combustion sources. First, the NO{sub x} reduction potential of hot ammonia injection was studied to determine whether the use of the plasma for radical generation was key to the high NO{sub x} reduction potential of the plasma deNO{sub x} process. It was found that while some of the NO{sub x} reduction in the plasma deNO{sub x} demonstration experiments could be attributed to the enhanced thermal breakdown of NH{sub 3} into NO{sub x} reducing radicals, the effect of using the plasma accounted for 15--35% absolute additional NO{sub x} reduction beyond any thermal benefit. This benefit of using the plasma increases with increased excess air and decreased flue gas temperature. With the benefit of using the plasma verified on the larger scale of a demonstration experiment, two additional experiments were performed to study the parameters that affect plasma deNO{sub x} performance on the local level. The opposed flow experiment failed to produce significant NO{sub x} reduction, although it did highlight some key aspects of plasma performance with ammonia injection. The reverse injection experiment successfully demonstrated the effects of NO-stream temperature, plasma power, and ammonia flow rate on plasma deNO{sub x} performance. Finally, a preliminary study of the chemical kinetics of the plasma deNO{sub x} system was performed. This study highlighted the importance of effective plasma temperature and the residence time of the reagent at that temperature to efficient radical generation.

Chess, K.; Yao, S.C.; Russell, A.G.

1996-05-31

237

Tour of Park Geology: Shoreline Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service (NPS) site provides links to shoreline geology fieldnotes for National Parks, Monuments, and Recreation Areas. When appropriate, fieldnotes include visitor information, geology, maps, photographs, multimedia resources, geologic research, and teacher features (lessons for teaching geology with National Park examples). Some of the parks included on this site: Acadia National Park, Everglades National Park, and Padre Island National Seashore.

238

Structural and stratigraphic evolution of the central Mississippi Canyon area: Interaction of salt tectonics and slope processes in the formation of engineering and geologic hazards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Approximately 720 square miles of digital 3-dimensional seismic data covering the eastern Mississippi Canyon area, Gulf of Mexico, continental shelf was used to examine the structural and stratigraphic evolution of the geology in the study area. The analysis focused on salt tectonics and sequence stratigraphy to develop a geologic model for the study area and its potential impact on engineering and geologic hazards. Salt in the study area was found to be established structural end-members derived from shallow-emplaced salt sheets. The transition from regional to local salt tectonics was identified through structural deformation of the stratigraphic section on the seismic data and occurred no later than ˜450,000 years ago. From ˜450,000 years to present, slope depositional processes have become the dominant geologic process in the study area. Six stratigraphic sequences (I-VI) were identified in the study area and found to correlate with sequences previously defined for the Eastern Mississippi Fan. Condensed sections were the key to the correlation. The sequence stratigraphy for the Eastern Mississippi Fan can be extended ˜28 miles west, adding another ˜720 square miles to the interpreted Fan. A previously defined channel within the Eastern Fan was identified in the study area and extended the channel ˜28 miles west. Previous work on the Eastern Fan identified the source of the Fan to be the Mobile River; however, extending the channel west suggests the sediment source to be from the Mississippi River, not the Mobile River. Further evidence for this was found in ponded turbidites whose source has been previously established as the Mississippi River. Ages of the stratigraphic sequences were compared to changes in eustatic sea level. The formation stratigraphic sequences appear decoupled from sea level change with "pseudo-highstands" forming condensed sections during pronounced Pleistocene sea level lowstands. Miocene and Pleistocene depositional analogues suggest the location of the shifting Mississippi River Pleistocene depocenter is a more dominant influence on sequence formation. Thus, the application of traditional sequence interpretation with respect to sea level change should be reconsidered to also account for the shifting depocenter for both the study area as well as the broader Eastern Mississippi Fan.

Brand, John Richard

239

Sediment Studies Refute EIS Hypothesis, While Most Fundamental Process Questions Remain Unanswered: An Update on Experiments in Grand Canyon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For three decades, sediment researchers have pondered the question of whether or not operations at Glen Canyon Dam could be adjusted to maintain downstream sand resources in Grand Canyon. Prior to the era when managed floods were proposed as a strategy to conserve sand inputs below the dam, Laursen et al. (1976) concluded that erosion of sandbars below the dam would be an inevitable, yet protracted post-dam process. Despite this earliest conclusion, the operational strategy for sandbar maintenance since 1996, has been based on two hypotheses: first, much of the sand introduced by tributaries downstream from the dam can accumulate in the channel over multiple years under operations associated with average-to-below average hydrology; and second, controlled floods can move that accumulated sand from the channel bed to shorelines, thereby rebuilding bars in a sustainable manner. Recent work has shown that the first hypothesis is false (Rubin et al., 2002). High resolution data for the ecosystem sand mass balance between 1999 and 2004, indicate no accumulation of tributary sand inputs in the main channel, despite a drought resulting in minimum annual release volumes from 2000 through 2004. Sandbar data also indicate that erosion has not been mitigated by re-operation strategies since 1991. On the basis of these data, researchers have again identified uncertainty regarding a flow strategy that will result in sustainable sandbars. If a successful flow strategy can not be devised, then managers may have to choose between abandoning sandbar restoration objectives, or pursuing sediment augmentation. Experimental fluctuating-flow treatments are also being evaluated for their potential to limit populations of introduced rainbow trout, yet these options are already known to increase sand export. While many institutional barriers to large-scale sediment experiments in Grand Canyon have recently been bridged through a science-based, adaptive management approach, protracted drought throughout the Upper Colorado River Basin now poses a natural barrier to testing the key sediment hypothesis. Downstream sand production from the Paria River remains at its lowest level in 80 years, while water storage in Lake Powell approaches 40 percent of capacity. As scientists wait out delays in sediment experimentation forced by the current drought, managers have already approved limited sediment augmentation feasibility studies aimed at identifying options for managing physical habitats. With regard to conventional thinking about regulation and management of natural hydrologic systems, some important lessons may be learned from the current situation. Rubin, D.M., Topping, D.J., Schmidt, J.C., Hazel, J., Kaplinski, M. and Melis, T.S., 2002, Recent Sediment Studies Refute Glen Canyon Dam EIS Hypothesis: Eos, vol. 83, no. 25, p. 273-278. Laursen, E.M., Ince, S. and Pollack, J., 1976, On Sediment Transport Through the Grand Canyon, Proceedings of the 3rd Federal Interagency Sedimentation Conference, Denver, CO, vol. 1, p. 4-76 - 4-87.

Melis, T. S.; Topping, D. J.; Wright, S. A.; Rubin, D. M.; Schmidt, J. C.; Hazel, J. E.; Kaplinski, M. A.; Parnell, R. A.

2004-12-01

240

Fundamental Investigations of Luminescent Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main purpose of the research was to study the fundamental processes occurring in luminescent materials after the primary act of energy absorption. A second objective was to search for new luminescent substances of possible technological importance gui...

G. A. Crosby

1968-01-01

241

Geological assessing of urban environments with a systematic mapping survey: The 1:5000 urban geological map of Catalonia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ground features of urban areas and the geologic processes that operate on them are, in general, strongly altered from their natural original condition as a result of anthropogenic activities. Assessing the stability of the ground, the flooding areas, and, the health risk as a consequence of soil pollution, are, among others, fundamental topics of urban areas that require a better understanding. The development of systematic urban geological mapping projects provides valuable resources to address these issues. Since 2007, the Institut Geologic de Catalunya (IGC) runs an urban geological mapping project, to provide accurate geologic information of county capitals and towns of more than 10000 inhabitants of Catalonia. The urban zones of 131 towns will be surveyed for this project, totalizing an area of about 2200 km2 to be mapped in 15 years. According to the 2008 census, the 82 % of the population of Catalonia (7.242.458 inhabitants) lives in the areas to be mapped in this project. The mapping project integrates in a GIS environment the following subjects: - Data from pre-existing geotechnical reports, historical geological and topographical maps and, from historical aerial photographs. - Data from available borehole databases. - Geological characterization of outcrops inside the urban network and neighbouring areas. - Geological, chemical and physical characterisation of representative rocks, sediments and soils. - Ortophotographs (0.5 m pixel size) and digital elevation models (5 meter grid size) made from historical aerial photographs, to depict land use changes, artificial deposits and geomorphological elements that are either hidden or destroyed by urban sprawl. - Detailed geological mapping of quaternary sediments, subsurface bedrock and artificial deposits. - Data from subsurface prospection in areas with insufficient or confuse data. - 3D modelling of the main geological surfaces such as the top of the pre-quaternary basement. All the gathered data is harmonised and stored it in a database. The analysis of the database allows to compile and print the 1:5000 scale urban geological map according to the 1:5000 topographic grid of Catalonia. The map is composed by a principal map, geologic cross sections and several complementary maps, charts and tables. Regardless of the geological map units, the principal map also includes the main artificial deposits (such as infilled river valleys and road embankments), very recent or current superficial deposits, contours of outcropping areas, structural data and other relevant information gathered in stations, sampling points, boreholes indicating the thickness of artificial deposits and the depth of the pre-quaternary basement, contour lines of the top of the pre-quaternary basement surface and, water level data. The complementary maps and charts may change depending on the gathered data, the geological features of the area and the urban typology. However, the most representative complementary maps that includes the printed urban map are the quaternary subsurface bedrock map and the isopach map of thickness of quaternary and anthropogenic deposits. The map also includes charts and tables of relevant physical and chemical parameters of the geological materials, harmonised downhole lithological columns from selected boreholes, and, photographs and figures illustrating the geology of the mapped area and how urbanisation has changed the natural environment. The object of this systematic urban mapping survey is to provide a robust database to be used in targeted studies related to urban planning, geoengineering works, soil pollution and other important environmental issues that society should deal in the future.

Vilà, Miquel; Pi, Roser; Cirés, Jordi; de Paz, Ana; Berástegui, Xavier

2010-05-01

242

Medical Geology in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A large body of evidence points to significant health effects resulting from our interactions with the physical environment\\u000a and we continue to recognise connections between geological materials and processes and human and animal disease. In Africa,\\u000a these relationships have been observed for many years, but only recently have any real attempts been made to formalise their\\u000a study. Africa is a

T. C. Davies

243

Principles of nuclear geology  

SciTech Connect

This book treats the basic principles of nuclear physics and the mineralogy, geochemistry, distribution and ore deposits of uranium and thorium. The application of nuclear methodology in radiogenic heat and thermal regime of the earth, radiometric prospecting, isotopic age dating, stable isotopes and cosmic-ray produced isotopes is covered. Geological processes, such as metamorphic chronology, petrogenesis, groundwater movement, and sedimentation rate are focussed on.

Aswathanarayana, U.

1985-01-01

244

Geological hazards programs and research in the U. S. A  

SciTech Connect

Geological hazards have been studied for centuries, but government support of research to lessen their effects is relatively new. This article briefly describes government programs and research underway in the U.S.A. that are directed towards reducing losses of life and property from earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and landslides. The National Earthquake program is described, including four basic research areas: plate tectonics; estimation of the earthquakes; and effects and hazards assessment. The Volcano Studies Program has three areas of research: fundamentals of volcanoes; hazards assessments; and volcano monitoring. Three research areas are included in landslide studies: land slide processes; prediction; inventory and susceptibility studies.

Filson, J.R. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA))

1988-01-01

245

Biotic survival in the cryobiosphere on geological scale: implication for astro\\/terrestrial biogeoscience  

Microsoft Academic Search

In current opinion the most fundamental aspect of any environment, the temperature regime, acts as a regulator of all of the physical-chemical reactions and forms the basis of all biological processes. Now hard data indicate the biotic survival over geological periods from subzero temperatures (down to -27oC in permafrost and to -50oC in ice) to positive one in amber and

D. Gilichinsky

2003-01-01

246

Fundamental understanding and integration of rapid thermal processing, PECVD, and screen printing for cost-effective, high-efficiency silicon photovoltaic devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The final hurdle preventing widespread application of photovoltaics is cost-effectiveness. Solar cell efficiencies in the laboratory have reached 24%, but industrial cells, constrained by low-cost, high-throughput processes, are limited to 10-15%. This thesis focuses on industrially relevant technologies such as rapid thermal processing (RTP), PECVD, and screen-printing to simplify and speed up cell processing yet maintain the key features that give high efficiencies in the laboratory. RTP utilizes tungsten-halogen and UV lamps as a source of high energy photons that induce thermal and photophysical effects which can significantly increase the kinetics of semiconductor processes such as diffusion, oxidation, and annealing. PECVD also serves as a promising low-cost candidate for SiN/SiOsb2 antireflection coatings and passivation. Finally, screen printing serves as a very high-throughput technology for contact formation as a low-cost alternative to photolithography. Integration of these technologies into a single cell fabrication sequence, however, revealed the susceptibility to low internal quantum efficiencies in the long and short wavelengths. For example, the inherent rapid cooling during RTP can degrade minority-carrier lifetime and long wavelength response. Lack of knowledge in tailoring RTP emitter diffusion profiles coupled with less than perfect PECVD surface passivation and parasitic SiN absorption was found to limit short wavelength response. Problems like these limited RTP cell efficiencies to only 15.4% prior to this thesis. Through a combination of fundamental understanding of device physics, materials and device characterization, modeling, and cell fabrication these losses were quantified and overcome in this thesis. An in-situ annealing cycle during RTP was optimized to prevent quenching-induced lifetime degradation and to preserve high long wavelength response. Measurement of SiN extinction coefficients to compute parasitic absorption, optimization of emitter profiles, and engineering of a high-quality rapid thermal oxide (RTO) for surface passivation, eliminated short wavelength losses. Identical performance to conventional furnace-processed cells was achieved in half the processing time. Record-high RTP efficiencies >19% were achieved using photolithography. Screen-printed contacts on RTP cells reduced processing time by another factor of >four and resulted in >16%-efficient manufacturable cells. These results have brought photovoltaics one step closer to cost-effective commercialization.

Doshi, Parag Mahendra

247

Geological Time Scale  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document describes how geologic time is approached in discussions of geologic topics. The uses of relative time and absolute time are compared, and a geologic time scale is provided to represent both concepts. References are provided.

248

Marine Geology: Research Beneath the Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Another informative offering from the US Geological Survey is the Marine Geology: Research Beneath the Sea Web site. Visitors can read about the agency's Marine Geology program which "strives to increase our understanding of the geology of the lands covered by water." Topics include methods and equipment used for the research, plate tectonics, resources in the marine realm, predicting effects of marine processes, new frontiers, and even images of marine geology. This interesting and unique site does a good job of explaining and educating the public on this important segment of the agency's research.

249

Vesta: A Geological Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations from the Dawn spacecraft [1] enable the derivation of the asteroid 4Vesta's shape, facilitate mapping of the surface geology, and provide the first evidence for interpreting Vesta's geological evolution. Science data were acquired during the approach to Vesta, a circular polar (Survey) orbit at an altitude of 2700 km providing ~ 230 m/pix camera scale, and during a circular high-altitude mapping orbit (HAMO) at 700 km altitude with a camera scale of ~ 65 m/pixel. Currently Dawn is orbiting Vesta in a low-altitude mapping orbit (LAMO) at 210 km altitude, yielding a global image coverage of ~20 m/pixel at the time of EGU [2,3,4,5]. Geomorphology and distribution of surface features provide evidence for impact cratering, tectonic activity, and regolith and probable volcanic processes. Craters with dark rays, bright rays, and dark rim streaks have been observed, suggesting buried stratigraphy. The largest fresh craters retain a simple bowl-shaped morphology, with depth/diameter ratios roughly comparable to lunar values. The largest crater Rheasilvia, an ~500 km diameter depression at the south pole, includes an incomplete inward facing cuspate scarp and a large central mound surrounded by unusual complex arcuate ridge and groove patterns, and overlies an older ~400 km wide basin. A set of large equatorial troughs is related to these south polar structures. Vesta exhibits rugged topography ranging from -22 km to +19 km relative to a best fit ellipsoidal shape. Vesta's topography has a much greater range in elevation relative to its radius (15%) than do the Moon and Mars (1%) or the Earth (0.3%), but less than highly battered smaller asteroids like Lutetia (40%). This also identifies Vesta as a transitional body between asteroids and planets. The surface of Vesta exhibits very steep topographic slopes that are near the angle of repose. Impacts onto these steep surfaces, followed by slope failure, make resurfacing - due to impacts and their associated gravitational forces and seismic activity - an important geologic process on Vesta that significantly alters the morphology of geologic features and adds to the complexity of its geologic history. In general, Vesta's geology is more like the Moon and rocky planets than other asteroids.

Jaumann, R.

2012-04-01

250

The NASA\\/USGS Planetary Geologic Mapping Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA's Planetary Geologic Mapping Program (PGM) publishes geologic maps of the planets based on released, geodetically controlled spacecraft data. The general objectives of PGM include (1) production of geologic maps that will greatly increase our knowledge of the materials and processes that have contributed to the evolution of Solar System bodies, and (2) geologic surveys of areas of special interest

K. Tanaka

2006-01-01

251

Geology of a complex kimberlite pipe (K2 pipe, Venetia Mine, South Africa): insights into conduit processes during explosive ultrabasic eruptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

K2 is a steep-sided kimberlite pipe with a complex internal geology. Geological mapping, logging of drillcore and petrographic\\u000a studies indicate that it comprises layered breccias and pyroclastic rocks of various grain sizes, lithic contents and internal\\u000a structures. The pipe comprises two geologically distinct parts: K2 West is a layered sequence of juvenile- and lithic-rich\\u000a breccias, which dip 20–45° inwards, and

R. J. Brown; M. Tait; M. Field; R. S. J. Sparks

2009-01-01

252

Modelling of Geological Structures Using Emergence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A complex system based approach is used to model geological structures. Preliminary work is presented to show how mutually interacting agents can be used to probe local regions and obtain emergent behaviour of its geometrical properties. Models are built bottom up from the smaller components to simulate regions from camp scales to regional scales. In nature, very complex structures exhibiting discontinuous and heterogeneous features are common. Modelling such regions using conventional methods is cumbersome and influences between close proximity zones are generally not considered. Agents are able to detect local and global features in the entire model space, as detailed as the data set allows. These features are incorporated into the interpolation of a modeled zone if those features are coupled to that location. We attempt to see if opportunities exist for exploiting complex systems approaches in what is a classical knowledge driven modelling domain with high emphasis on expert interpretive methods. Geological maps (2D, 3D or 4D) are fundamentally an emergent result of an iterative mental process which focuses on reconciling disparate data. The end goal of our research is to point a way forward in which complexity can support the simulation of maps and thus support the interpretive workflow.

Hillier, M.; de Kemp, E. A.; Sprague, K.

2009-05-01

253

Results from an International Simulation Study on Coupled Thermal,Hydrological, and Mechanical (THM) Processes near Geological NuclearWaste Repositories  

SciTech Connect

As part of the ongoing international DECOVALEX project, four research teams used five different models to simulate coupled thermal, hydrological, and mechanical (THM) processes near waste emplacement drifts of geological nuclear waste repositories. The simulations were conducted for two generic repository types, one with open and the other with back-filled repository drifts, under higher and lower postclosure temperatures, respectively. In the completed first model inception phase of the project, a good agreement was achieved between the research teams in calculating THM responses for both repository types, although some disagreement in hydrological responses is currently being resolved. In particular, good agreement in the basic thermal-mechanical responses was achieved for both repository types, even though some teams used relatively simplified thermal-elastic heat-conduction models that neglected complex near-field thermal-hydrological processes. The good agreement between the complex and simplified process models indicates that the basic thermal-mechanical responses can be predicted with a relatively high confidence level.

Rutqvist, Jonny; Rutqvist, J.; Barr, D.; Birkholzer, J.T.; Chijimatsu, M.; Kolditz, O.; Liu, Q.-S; Oda, Y.; Wang, W.; Zhang, C.-Y.

2007-10-23

254

Fundamentals of the dwarf fundamental plane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: Star-forming dwarfs are studied to elucidate the physical underpinnings of their fundamental plane. Processes controlling dynamics are evaluated, connections between quiescent and bursting dwarfs are examined, and the viability of using structural properties of dwarfs to determine distances is assessed. Methods: Deep surface photometry in Ks is presented for 19 star-forming dwarfs. The data are amalgamated with previously published observations to create a sample of 66 galaxies suitable for exploring how global properties and kinematics are connected. Results: It is confirmed that residuals in the Tully-Fisher relation are correlated with surface brightness, but that even after accomodating the surface brightness dependence through the dwarf fundamental plane, residuals in absolute magnitude are far larger than expected from observational errors. Rather, a morefundamental plane is identified which connects the potential to HI line width and surface brightness. Residuals correlate with the axis ratio in a way which can be accommodated by recognizing the galaxies to be oblate spheroids viewed at varying angles. Correction of surface brightnesses to face-on leads to a correlation among the potential, line width, and surface brightness for which residuals are entirely attributable to observational uncertainties. The mean mass-to-light ratio of the diffuse component of the galaxies is constrained to be 0.88 ± 0.20 in Ks. Blue compact dwarfs lie in the same plane as dwarf irregulars. The dependence of the potential on line width is less strong than expected for virialized systems, but this may be because surface brightness is acting as a proxy for variations in the mass-to-light ratio from galaxy to galaxy. Altogether, the observations suggest that gas motions are predominantly disordered and isotropic, that they are a consequence of gravity, not turbulence, and that the mass and scale of dark matter haloes scale with the amount and distribution of luminous matter. The tight relationship between the potential and observables offers the promise of determining distances to unresolved star-forming dwarfs to an accuracy comparable to that provided by the Tully-Fisher relation for spirals. Based on observations acquired from CFHT, CTIO, ESO, OAN-SPM, and SAAO.

McCall, M. L.; Vaduvescu, O.; Pozo Nunez, F.; Barr Dominguez, A.; Fingerhut, R.; Unda-Sanzana, E.; Li, B.; Albrecht, M.

2012-04-01

255

Geologic versus wildfire controls on hillslope processes and debris flow initiation in the Green River canyons of Dinosaur National Monument  

Microsoft Academic Search

As in many areas of high relief, debris flows are an important process linkage between hillslopes and the Green River in the canyons of the eastern Uinta Mountains, yet the physical conditions that lead to debris flow initiation are unknown. A recent episode of enhanced debris-flow and wildfire activity provided an opportunity to examine the geomorphic impact of fire and

Isaac J. Larsen; Joel L. Pederson; John C. Schmidt

2006-01-01

256

Geological processes and site structure: Assessing integrity at a Late Paleolithic open-air site in northern France  

Microsoft Academic Search

The difficulty of reading the archaeological record of caves and rock shelters is becoming increasingly obvious to Paleolithic researchers. Although some open-air sites are thought to avoid such taphonomic complications, interpreting their archaeological record is less straight- forward than assumed. Postdepositional processes may obscure structure in configurations of features and artifacts. Recently developed techniques for the excavation and analysis of

James G. Enloe

2006-01-01

257

Results from an International Simulation Study on Couples Thermal, Hydrological, and Mechanical (THM) Processes Near Geological Nuclear Waste Repositories  

SciTech Connect

As part of the ongoing international code comparison project DECOVALEX, four research teams used five different models to simulate coupled thermal, hydrological, and mechanical (THM) processes near underground waste emplacement drifts. The simulations were conducted for two generic repository types with open or back-filled repository drifts under higher and lower post-closure temperature, respectively. In the completed first model inception phase of the project, a good agreement was achieved between the research teams in calculating THM responses for both repository types, although some disagreement in hydrological responses are currently being resolved. Good agreement in the basic thermal-mechanical responses was achieved for both repository types, even with some teams using relatively simplified thermal-elastic heat-conduction models that neglect complex near-field thermal-hydrological processes. The good agreement between the complex and simplified (and well-known) process models indicates that the basic thermal-mechanical responses can be predicted with a relatively high confidence level. The research teams have now moved on to the second phase of the project, the analysis of THM-induced permanent (irreversible) changes and the impact of those changes on the fluid flow field near an emplacement drift.

J. Rutqvist; J.T> Birkholzer; M. Chijimatsu; O. Kolditz; Q.S. Liu; Y. Oda; W. Wang; C.Y. Zhang

2006-02-01

258

History of Geology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses: (1) geologists and the history of geology; (2) American historians and the history of geology; (3) history of geology in the 1980s; (4) sources for the history of geology (bibliographies, dictionaries, encyclopedias, handbooks, periodicals, public/official histories, compilations, and books); (5) research opportunities; and (6) other…

Greene, Mott T.

1985-01-01

259

A fundamental problem with the kinematic interpretation of geological structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-steady flows are ubiquitous in nature. Not only do imposed boundary conditions vary with time and rock rheology change during the course of deformation but also deformation is generally heterogeneous and all of these conditions lead to non-steady flow histories.In modern kinematic analysis, flow apophyses, the instantaneous stretching axes and the vorticity vector, collectively referred to as the `eigen directions'

Dazhi Jiang; Paul F Williams

1999-01-01

260

Tennessee Division of Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the Geology Division of the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation. It provides information on the division's programs, including geologic hazards research, public service, education programs, basic and applied research on geology and mineral resources, publication of geologic information, permitting of oil and gas wells, and regulation of Tennessee's oil and gas industry. Materials include a catalog of publications, maps, geologic bulletins, and the Public Information series of pamphlets; the Geology Division Newsletter; and information on the state's mineral industry. There is also a section on the Gray Fossil Site, an unusual assemblage of fossils and sedimentary geology encountered during road construction near the town of Gray, Tenessee.

261

Assessing Fundamental Science  

NSF Publications Database

A Report from the Subcommittee on Research Committee on Fundamental Science National Science and Technology Council National Science and Technology Council Commitee on Fundamental Science Subcommitee on Research This document was last modified on July 9, 1996.

262

Geologic exploration of solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The processes that must have operated on the early Earth have been deduced from evidence from ancient surfaces of the Moon and planets. In particular, such comparative studies have demonstrated that only two geologic processes have been widespread throughout the history of the solar system: impact cratering and volcanism. Impact craters have formed throughout solar system history, indeed the planets

Wood

1987-01-01

263

Oklahoma Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Oklahoma Geological Survey is a state agency dedicated to geological research and public service. This site contains information on earthquakes, geographic names, general Oklahoma geology, and the mountains and water resources of the state. There are educational materials available to order, many of which are free. Geologic maps indicate rock types and ages, as well as the geologic provinces of the state. Links are provided for more resources.

264

Vermont Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Vermont Geological Survey, also known as the Division of Geology and Mineral Resources in the Department of Environmental Conservation, conducts surveys and research relating to the geology, mineral resources and topography of the State. This site provides details about the states geology with a downloadable state geologic map and key, state rock information, gold in Vermont, fossils found in the state, bedrock mapping details, stream geomorphology, the Champlain thrust fault, earthquakes, radioactive waste and links for additional information.

265

Exchange Rates and Fundamentals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We show analytically that in a rational expectations present-value model, an asset price manifests near-random walk behavior if fundamentals are I (1) and the factor for discounting future fundamentals is near one. We argue that this result helps explain the well-known puzzle that fundamental variables such as relative money supplies, outputs,…

Engel, Charles; West, Kenneth D.

2005-01-01

266

Geological models of petroleum entrapment  

SciTech Connect

Assessing petroleum potential of a sedimentary basin requires an in depth knowledge of the relative timings of seven geological factors: source rock, hydrocarbon generation and maturation, primary migration, secondary migration, trap, reservoir rock, and cap or sealing rock. The main theme of this book is to estimate the relative timings of these events through simple geological modelling. The methods discussed in the book use graphs, charts and some simple mathematics. Assuming limited availability of data, Dr. Magara distinguishes static and dynamic elements and attempts to integrate evidence and inference fundamental to the practical exploration for oil and gas. His essential prediction is that even with limited data, or where, by definition, the record no longer exists, marginal predictive capability is superior to no prediction at all.

Magara, K.

1986-01-01

267

Planetary geology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solar system is considered along with the significance of meteorites as samples of the universe, the origin of planets, and earth's-eye view of the moon, previews of the lunar surface, aspects of impact cratering, lunar igneous processes, the mapping of the moon, the exploration of the moon in connection with the Apollo lunar landings, and the scientific payoff from

N. M. Short

1975-01-01

268

Geologic Mapping of Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planetary geologic mapping involves integrating a terrestrial-based understanding of surface and subsurface processes and mapping principles to investigate scientific questions. Mars mappers must keep in mind that physical processes, such as wind and flowing water on Mars, are or were different from terrestrial processes because the planetary atmospheres have changed differently over time. Geologic mapping of Mars has traditionally been done by hand using overlays on photomosaics of Viking Orbiter and Mariner images. Photoclinometry and shadow measurements have been used to determine elevations, and the distribution and size of craters have been used to determine the relative ages of surfaces- more densely cratered surfaces are older. Some mappers are now using computer software (ranging from Photoshop to ArcInfo) to facilitate mapping, though their applications must be carefully executed so that registration of the images remains true. Images and some mapping results are now available on the internet, and new data from recent missions to Mars (Pathfinder and Surveyor) will offer clarifying information to mapping efforts. This paper consists chiefly of pictures and diagrams.

Price, Katherine H.

1998-05-01

269

Geologic processes in the RWMC area, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: Implications for long term stability and soil erosion at the radioactive waste management complex  

SciTech Connect

The Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) is the disposal and storage facility for low-level radioactive waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Transuranic waste and mixed wastes were also disposed at the RWMC until 1970. It is located in the southwestern part of the INEL about 80 km west of Idaho Falls, Idaho. The INEL occupies a portion of the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP), a low-relief, basalt, and sediment-floored basin within the northern Rocky Mountains and northeastern Basin and Range Province. It is a cool and semiarid, sagebrush steppe desert characterized by irregular, rolling terrain. The RWMC began disposal of INEL-generated wastes in 1952, and since 1954, wastes have been accepted from other Federal facilities. Much of the waste is buried in shallow trenches, pits, and soil vaults. Until about 1970, trenches and pits were excavated to the basalt surface, leaving no sediments between the waste and the top of the basalt. Since 1970, a layer of sediment (about 1 m) has been left between the waste and the basalt. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has developed regulations specific to radioactive-waste disposal, including environmental standards and performance objectives. The regulation applicable to all DOE facilities is DOE Order 5820.2A (Radioactive Waste Management). An important consideration for the performance assessment of the RWMC is the long-term geomorphic stability of the site. Several investigators have identified geologic processes and events that could disrupt a radioactive waste disposal facility. Examples of these {open_quotes}geomorphic hazards{close_quotes} include changes in stream discharge, sediment load, and base level, which may result from climate change, tectonic processes, or magmatic processes. In the performance assessment, these hazards are incorporated into scenarios that may affect the future performance of the RWMC.

Hackett, W.R.; Tullis, J.A.; Smith, R.P. [and others

1995-09-01

270

OneGeology-Europe - The Challenges and progress of implementing a basic geological infrastructure for Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

OneGeology-Europe is making geological spatial data held by the geological surveys of Europe more easily discoverable and accessible via the internet. This will provide a fundamental scientific layer to the European Plate Observation System Rich geological data assets exist in the geological survey of each individual EC Member State, but they are difficult to discover and are not interoperable. For those outside the geological surveys they are not easy to obtain, to understand or to use. Geological spatial data is essential to the prediction and mitigation of landslides, subsidence, earthquakes, flooding and pollution. These issues are global in nature and their profile has also been raised by the OneGeology global initiative for the International Year of Planet Earth 2008. Geology is also a key dataset in the EC INSPIRE Directive, where it is also fundamental to the themes of natural risk zones, energy and mineral resources. The OneGeology-Europe project is delivering a web-accessible, interoperable geological spatial dataset for the whole of Europe at the 1:1 million scale based on existing data held by the European geological surveys. Proof of concept will be applied to key areas at a higher resolution and some geological surveys will deliver their data at high resolution. An important role is developing a European specification for basic geological map data and making significant progress towards harmonising the dataset (an essential first step to addressing harmonisation at higher data resolutions). It is accelerating the development and deployment of a nascent international interchange standard for geological data - GeoSciML, which will enable the sharing and exchange of the data within and beyond the geological community within Europe and globally. The geological dataset for the whole of Europe is not a centralized database but a distributed system. Each geological survey implements and hosts an interoperable web service, delivering their national harmonized geological data. These datasets are registered in a multilingual catalogue, who is one the main part of this system. This catalogue and a common metadata profile allows the discovery of national geological and applied geological maps at all scapes, Such an architecture is facilitating re-use and addition of value by a wide spectrum of users in the public and private sector and identifying, documenting and disseminating strategies for the reduction of technical and business barriers to re-use. In identifying and raising awareness in the user and provider communities, it is moving geological knowledge closer to the end-user where it will have greater societal impact and ensure fuller exploitation of a key data resource gathered at huge public expense. The project is providing examples of best practice in the delivery of digital geological spatial data to users, e.g. in the insurance, property, engineering, planning, mineral resource and environmental sectors. The scientifically attributed map data of the project will provide a pan-European base for science research and, importantly, a prime geoscience dataset capable of integration with other data sets within and beyond the geoscience domain. This presentation will demonstrate the first results of this project and will indicate how OneGeology-Europe is ensuring that Europe may play a leading role in the development of a geoscience spatial data infrastructure (SDI) globally.

Asch, Kristine; Tellez-Arenas, Agnes

2010-05-01

271

Periods of active permafrost layer formation during the geological history of Mars: Implications for circum-polar and mid-latitude surface processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Permafrost is ground remaining frozen (temperatures are below the freezing point of water) for more than two consecutive years. An active layer in permafrost regions is defined as a near-surface layer that undergoes freeze-thaw cycles due to day-average surface and soil temperatures oscillating about the freezing point of water. A "dry" active layer may occur in parched soils without free water or ice but significant geomorphic change through cryoturbation is not produced in these environments. A wet active layer is currently absent on Mars. We use recent calculations on the astronomical forcing of climate change to assess the conditions under which an extensive active layer could form on Mars during past climate history. Our examination of insolation patterns and surface topography predicts that an active layer should form on Mars in the geological past at high latitudes as well as on pole-facing slopes at mid-latitudes during repetitive periods of high obliquity. We examine global high-resolution MOLA topography and geological features on Mars and find that a distinctive latitudinal zonality of the occurrence of steep slopes and an asymmetry of steep slopes at mid-latitudes can be attributed to the effect of active layer processes. We conclude that the formation of an active layer during periods of enhanced obliquity throughout the most recent period of the history of Mars (the Amazonian) has led to significant degradation of impact craters, rapidly decreasing the steep slopes characterizing pristine landforms. Our analysis suggests that an active layer has not been present on Mars in the last ˜5 Ma, and that conditions favoring the formation of an active layer were reached in only about 20% of the obliquity excursions between 5 and 10 Ma ago. Conditions favoring an active layer are not predicted to be common in the next 10 Ma. The much higher obliquity excursions predicted for the earlier Amazonian appear to be responsible for the significant reduction in magnitude of crater interior slopes observed at higher latitudes on Mars. The observed slope asymmetry at mid-latitudes suggests direct insolation control, and hence low atmospheric pressure, during the high obliquity periods throughout the Amazonian. We formulate predictions on the nature and distribution of candidate active layer features that could be revealed by higher resolution imaging data.

Kreslavsky, Mikhail A.; Head, James W.; Marchant, David R.

2008-02-01

272

Kentucky Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Kentucky maintains the Kentucky Geological Survey Web site. Visitors will find a number of educational general information pages on rocks and minerals, fossils, coal, geologic hazards, industrial minerals, maps and GIS, oil and natural gas, and water, as well as the general geology of Kentucky. Each page contains specific information, data, and research summaries from the university. The geology of Kentucky page, for example, shows a map of geologic periods and gives descriptions of the rock strata in the state, a description of its landforms, and a geological photo album of physiographic regions and points of interest.

1997-01-01

273

Fundamental approach to dipmeter analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, in dipmeter analysis, depositional patterns are delineated for environmental, structural, and stratigraphic interpretations. The proposed method is a fundamental approach using raw data measurements from the dipmeter sonde to help the geologist describe subsurface structures on a stratigraphic scale. Raw data are available at the well site, require no post-processing, are cost effective, easy to use, require only a

M. B. Enderlin; D. K. T. Hansen

1988-01-01

274

Interfacial photochemistry: Fundamentals and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article deals with the photochemical processes occurring at semiconductorlliquid and semiconductorlgas interfaces and gives an overview of fundamentals and applications of TiO, photocatalysis together with the photoelectrochemical characterization of diamond thin films and azobenzene derivative (ABD) monolayers. The first part of this paper discusses the TiO, photocatalysis with a special emphasis on kinetic aspects of photocatalysis under very low

A. Fujishima; Tata N. Rao

275

Constraints from Field Geology for Numerical Modeling of the Crustal Overturn Processes During the Cretaceous High-Magma-Flux Episode in the Central and Southern Sierra Nevada, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Building on prior studies, recent fieldwork combined with geochronology, thermobarometry and geochemistry studies in the Cretaceous Sierra Nevada arc reveal the following arc-scale features: 1) The Middle to Late Cretaceous Sierra Nevada arc has a 30-35 km thick granodioritic to tonalitic upper-middle crust and may have had up to 30-35 km of mafic to ultramafic lower crust, including dehydrated amphibolitic residues. 2) Plutons emplaced during the ~20 myr long High-Magma-Flux Episode (HMFE, 105-85 Ma) include large batholiths (~1000 km2 at exposure level) with growth histories occurring over millions of years (e.g. ~9 myr for Tuolumne Batholith). Magma pulses creating such large intrusions could vary from up to 103 km3 in dimension depending on different growth models. 3) In the central Sierra Nevada, emplacement depths of the granitoid plutons during the HMFE are 7-15 km with shallow emplaced plutons’ solidi at usually ~700 -760 °C. 4) Plutons intruding only slightly older volcanic host rocks in the central and southern Sierra Nevada indicate that host rocks’ downward displacement of ~7-25 km depths occurred within 1-3 myr. This process is accompanied with the long-lived arc exhumation since at least middle Jurassic. 5) Steep syn-emplacement subsolidus lineations, rim monoclines, and plastic shear strain in pluton aureoles suggest ductile deformations of host rock materials. 6) Partial melting occurred along the margins of plutons and in the middle-lower crust, as represented in the more deeply exposed southern Sierra (30-45 km). 7) Magmatic to subsolidus foliations in plutons and ductile shear zones in host rocks indicate NW-trending transpressional tectonics during the HMFE. 8) Isotopic oxygen data and mass balance calculation indicate that crustal components provides more than 50% of the entire arc’s mass. Intra-crustal magma sources of the HMFE are sustained possibly by thickened crust due to contractional tectonics. These observations in the central and southern Sierra Nevada allow us to apply the MILAMIN_VEP, a thermo-mechanical marker-in-cell visco-elasto-plastic finite element code, to simulate more realistic scenarios of arc-scale material exchange processes. The code deals with continuous changes of density, water content, and partial melting conditions of lithosphere rocks based on calculated thermodynamic phase diagrams of differential rock types (using Perple_X). The model also takes the central Andes as a possible modern analogy for the Cretaceous Sierra Nevada. Seismic lithospherical structures, geothermal gradient, and other geological constraints are considered in the model. Aiming to yield geologically and geophysically testable results, the simulations test the hypothesis of host rock downward flow or crustal overturn processes during the HMFE, transpressional tectonics and exhumation, and to shed light on the mechanisms and controlling factors of the downward flow processes.

Cao, W.; Paterson, S. R.; Kaus, B. J.; Anderson, J. L.; Memeti, V.

2010-12-01

276

PROCEEDINGS: JOINT SYMPOSIUM ON DRY SO2 AND SIMULTANEOUS SO2/NOX CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES (1ST). VOLUME 1. FUNDAMENTAL RESEARCH AND PROCESS DEVELOPMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Forty six papers describing recent advances in dry sorbent injection technologies for SO2 control were presented at the 1st Joint Symposium on Dry SO2 and Simultaneous SO2/NOx Control Technologies. These papers covered the following topics: fundamental research; pilot-scale devel...

277

Fundamental Thermodynamics of Actinide-Bearing Mineral Waste Forms  

SciTech Connect

The landmark record of decision in January 2000 by the US Department of Energy stated that at least 17 tons of surplus weapons plutonium will be converted to a mineral waste material and disposed of in a geological repository similar to the proposed Yucca Mountain nuclear waste site in Nevada. The need for fundamental thermodynamic properties (e.g., entropy, enthalpy and free energy of formation) of specific actinide-bearing mineral phases, related non-actinide phases, and potential decomposition phases is vital to waste material formulation, fabrication process optimization, environmental modeling, and licensing a proposed mineral waste material. Two and one half years ago we began a study designed to obtain the first measured values for the formation energetics of phases related to the disposal of this surplus weapons plutonium.

Williamson, Mark A.

2000-06-01

278

Pristine Noachian crust and key geologic transitions in the lower walls of Valles Marineris: Insights into early igneous processes on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Valles Marineris is a unique vertical section through the uppermost kilometers of the martian crust. Its location, east of the Tharsis bulge, and its water-related history, fuel a great diversity of rock types in this area (Carr, M.H., Head, J.W. [2010]. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 294, 185-203). HiRISE and CRISM data available over the walls of the canyon were analyzed to infer the importance of magmatic and sedimentary processes through time. This contribution provides a complete morphologic and mineralogic characterization of the cross-section of rocks exposed in the canyon walls. Low-calcium pyroxene and olivine are detected in the lower portion of the walls, in association with morphologically distinct outcrops, leading to the idea that pristine Noachian crust might be exposed. Phyllosilicates are also present within the walls, but they appear to correspond to an alteration product. No proper sedimentary layers were observed within the walls of Valles Marineris at the resolution available today. All these detections are limited to the eastern portion of Valles Marineris, especially Juventae, Coprates, Capri, and Ganges chasmata. Preserved Noachian crustal material is rare on the martian surface and is rarely exposed in its pristine geologic context. Such detections lend precious information about early igneous processes. This survey also supports observations from the nearby impact crater central peaks (Quantin, C., Flahaut, J., Allemand, P. [2009]. Lunar Planet. Sci. 10; Quantin, C., Flahaut, J., Clenet, H., Allemand, P., Thomas, P. [2011]. Icarus, submitted for publication) and suggests that the western part of Valles Marineris may be cut into another material, consistent with lavas or volcanic sediments.

Flahaut, Jessica; Quantin, Cathy; Clenet, Harold; Allemand, Pascal; Mustard, John F.; Thomas, Pierre

2012-09-01

279

The Geology of Atlantis Basin, Mars, and Its Astrobiological Interest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here is presented a general description of the Atlantis Basin geology, where the existence of different geological features seem to indicate the long-term presence of a thermal source and a water reservoir stable enaough to sustain biological processes.

M. A. de Pablo; A. G. Fairén; A. Márquez

2004-01-01

280

National Park Service: Tour of Park Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The tour of Park geologic resources includes pages specific to individual National Parks, Monuments, Recreation Areas, Preserves, Seacoasts, Reserves, and Recreation Areas. These pages are indexed by park name, state, or by one of the following topics: basin and range, caves, Colorado Plateau, fossils, glaciers, hot springs, human use, mountain building, oldest rocks, plate tectonics, river systems, sand dunes, shoreline geology, or volcanoes. Organization of each of the pages typically follows a NPS template with categories for park geology, maps, photographs, geologic research, related links, visitor information, multimedia, and "teacher features" (educational resources and links for teaching geology with National Park examples.) Common subjects that are addressed at various park sites include: minerals, rocks, fossils, cave and karst systems, coastlines, glaciers, volcanoes, faults, landforms, landslides, structures, fluvial systems, sediments, soils, stratigraphic relations, processes that form or act on geologic features and their chemical compositions, and the history of the planet and its life forms.

281

MODFLOW-2000, the U.S. Geological Survey Modular Ground-Water Model--Documentation of the SEAWAT-2000 Version with the Variable-Density Flow Process (VDF) and the Integrated MT3DMS Transport Process (IMT)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

SEAWAT-2000 is the latest release of the SEAWAT computer program for simulation of three-dimensional, variable-density, transient ground-water flow in porous media. SEAWAT-2000 was designed by combining a modified version of MODFLOW-2000 and MT3DMS into a single computer program. The code was developed using the MODFLOW-2000 concept of a process, which is defined as ?part of the code that solves a fundamental equation by a specified numerical method.? SEAWAT-2000 contains all of the processes distributed with MODFLOW-2000 and also includes the Variable-Density Flow Process (as an alternative to the constant-density Ground-Water Flow Process) and the Integrated MT3DMS Transport Process. Processes may be active or inactive, depending on simulation objectives; however, not all processes are compatible. For example, the Sensitivity and Parameter Estimation Processes are not compatible with the Variable-Density Flow and Integrated MT3DMS Transport Processes. The SEAWAT-2000 computer code was tested with the common variable-density benchmark problems and also with problems representing evaporation from a salt lake and rotation of immiscible fluids.

Langevin, Christian D.; Shoemaker, W. Barclay; Guo, Weixing

2003-01-01

282

Risk Assessment, Risk Management and Remediation for the Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste and Storage of Carbon Dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Risk assessment, risk management and remediation in the fields of geological disposal of radioactive waste (RW) and storage\\u000a of carbon dioxide (CO2) are discussed and compared. In both fields detailed site characterization is a fundamental requirement and it is necessary\\u000a to consider the evolution of the system over long timescales so that natural analogues for key processes can be valuable.

Philip Maul

283

Geophysics & Geology Inspected.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes findings of a recently published report of the Canadian Geoscience Council, which includes the following topics regarding college geology: facilities; teaching; undergraduate enrollments; postgraduate enrollments; geologic research; and integration of Canadian geoscience with other countries. (CS)

Neale, E. R. W.

1981-01-01

284

GSA Geologic Time Scale  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Geological Society of America (GSA) site contains a detailed geologic time scale as an educational resource. It may be downloaded to a larger size, and includes all Eras, Eons, Periods, Epochs and ages as well as magnetic polarity information.

1999-01-01

285

Geologic Report for the Beaufort Sea Planning Area, Alaska: Regional Geology, Petroleum Geology, Environmental Geology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 192-page report provides a summary of the geologic framework, hydrocarbon potential, and physical environment of the offshore area tentatively scheduled for Federal OCS (Outer Continental Shelf) Oil and Gas Lease Sale 97. The geologic interpretation i...

J. D. Craig K. W. Sherwood P. P. Johnson

1985-01-01

286

Geologic spatial analysis  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the development of geologic spatial analysis research which focuses on conducting comprehensive three-dimensional analysis of regions using geologic data sets that can be referenced by latitude, longitude, and elevation/depth. (CBS)

Thiessen, R.L.; Eliason, J.R.

1989-01-01

287

Applications of imaging radar to geology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tone, texture, and features imaged by radars were studied. A variety of computer image processing techniques were developed to reveal characteristics of these scences. Field checking of sites suggests links between the geology and the images. Tonal studies examine the effects of varying frequency polarization, and illumination geometry. Most surficial geologic units in Death Valley, California, are distinguishable by use

M. I. Daily

1985-01-01

288

Louisiana Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Louisiana Geological Survey, located at Louisiana State University, developed this website to promote its goal to provide geological and environmental data that will allow for environmentally sound natural resource development and economic decisions. Users can find general information about the Survey's mission, staff, plan, and history. The website features the research and publications of the Basin Research, Cartographic, Coastal, Geologic Mapping, and Water and Environmental sections. Researchers can discover stratigraphic charts of Louisiana, information on lignite resources, and other geologic data.

289

South Carolina Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The South Carolina Geological Survey (SCGS) homepage contains information about state mapping, education and outreach programs, and recent news. For educators, there is the Earth Science education series of publications which includes presentations and page-size graphics on such topics as earthquakes, plate tectonics, geologic time, fossils, and others. Other materials include information on mineral resources, links to organizations in and about South Carolina geology, the South Carolina core repository, the Geologic Map of South Carolina, and others.

290

Geological Survey Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If your research or interests lie in the geology of South Dakota, then the state's Geological Survey Program Web site is for you. Offered are online publications and maps, a geologic reference database, a lithologic logs database, digital base maps, a water quality database, and several other quality information sources worth checking out.

291

Teaching Sedimentary Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains a variety of resources for faculty members who teach undergraduate sedimentary geology. You will find links to a growing collection of activities and assignments, internet and computer resources, useful articles, presentations from the summer 2006 workshop on teaching sedimentary geology, and lots of creative ideas for teaching sedimentary geology.

292

Geology on a Sand Budget  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earth science teaches know how frustrating it can be to spend hundreds of dollars on three-dimensional (3-D) models of Earth's geologic features, only to use the models for a few class periods. To avoid emptying an already limited science budget, teachers can use a simple alternative to the expensive 3-D models--sand. Modeling geologic processes and features with sand is an effective way for teachers to promote student understanding of Earth science topics, quickly assess students' prior knowledge, and identify common misconceptions.

Kane, Jacqueline

2004-09-01

293

Co2 geological sequestration  

SciTech Connect

Human activities are increasingly altering the Earth's climate. A particular concern is that atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) may be rising fast because of increased industrialization. CO{sub 2} is a so-called ''greenhouse gas'' that traps infrared radiation and may contribute to global warming. Scientists project that greenhouse gases such as CO{sub 2} will make the arctic warmer, which would melt glaciers and raise sea levels. Evidence suggests that climate change may already have begun to affect ecosystems and wildlife around the world. Some animal species are moving from one habitat to another to adapt to warmer temperatures. Future warming is likely to exceed the ability of many species to migrate or adjust. Human production of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuels (such as at coal-fired power plants) is not likely to slow down soon. It is urgent to find somewhere besides the atmosphere to put these increased levels of CO{sub 2}. Sequestration in the ocean and in soils and forests are possibilities, but another option, sequestration in geological formations, may also be an important solution. Such formations could include depleted oil and gas reservoirs, unmineable coal seams, and deep saline aquifers. In many cases, injection of CO2 into a geological formation can enhance the recovery of hydrocarbons, providing value-added byproducts that can offset the cost of CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration. Before CO{sub 2} gas can be sequestered from power plants and other point sources, it must be captured. CO{sub 2} is also routinely separated and captured as a by-product from industrial processes such as synthetic ammonia production, H{sub 2} production, and limestone calcination. Then CO{sub 2} must be compressed into liquid form and transported to the geological sequestration site. Many power plants and other large emitters of CO{sub 2} are located near geological formations that are amenable to CO{sub 2} sequestration.

Xu, Tianfu

2004-11-18

294

GWM-a ground-water management process for the U.S. Geological Survey modular ground-water model (MODFLOW-2000)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

GWM is a Ground?Water Management Process for the U.S. Geological Survey modular three?dimensional ground?water model, MODFLOW?2000. GWM uses a response?matrix approach to solve several types of linear, nonlinear, and mixed?binary linear ground?water management formulations. Each management formulation consists of a set of decision variables, an objective function, and a set of constraints. Three types of decision variables are supported by GWM: flow?rate decision variables, which are withdrawal or injection rates at well sites; external decision variables, which are sources or sinks of water that are external to the flow model and do not directly affect the state variables of the simulated ground?water system (heads, streamflows, and so forth); and binary variables, which have values of 0 or 1 and are used to define the status of flow?rate or external decision variables. Flow?rate decision variables can represent wells that extend over one or more model cells and be active during one or more model stress periods; external variables also can be active during one or more stress periods. A single objective function is supported by GWM, which can be specified to either minimize or maximize the weighted sum of the three types of decision variables. Four types of constraints can be specified in a GWM formulation: upper and lower bounds on the flow?rate and external decision variables; linear summations of the three types of decision variables; hydraulic?head based constraints, including drawdowns, head differences, and head gradients; and streamflow and streamflow?depletion constraints. The Response Matrix Solution (RMS) Package of GWM uses the Ground?Water Flow Process of MODFLOW to calculate the change in head at each constraint location that results from a perturbation of a flow?rate variable; these changes are used to calculate the response coefficients. For linear management formulations, the resulting matrix of response coefficients is then combined with other components of the linear management formulation to form a complete linear formulation; the formulation is then solved by use of the simplex algorithm, which is incorporated into the RMS Package. Nonlinear formulations arise for simulated conditions that include water?table (unconfined) aquifers or head?dependent boundary conditions (such as streams, drains, or evapotranspiration from the water table). Nonlinear formulations are solved by sequential linear programming; that is, repeated linearization of the nonlinear features of the management problem. In this approach, response coefficients are recalculated for each iteration of the solution process. Mixed?binary linear (or mildly nonlinear) formulations are solved by use of the branch and bound algorithm, which is also incorporated into the RMS Package. Three sample problems are provided to demonstrate the use of GWM for typical ground?water flow management problems. These sample problems provide examples of how GWM input files are constructed to specify the decision variables, objective function, constraints, and solution process for a GWM run. The GWM Process runs with the MODFLOW?2000 Global and Ground?Water Flow Processes, but in its current form GWM cannot be used with the Observation, Sensitivity, Parameter?Estimation, or Ground?Water Transport Processes. The GWM Process is written with a modular structure so that new objective functions, constraint types, and solution algorithms can be added.

Ahlfeld, David P.; Barlow, Paul M.; Mulligan, Anne E.

2005-01-01

295

Fundamentals of preparative and nonlinear chromatography  

SciTech Connect

The second edition of Fundamentals of Preparative and Nonlinear Chromatography is devoted to the fundamentals of a new process of purification or extraction of chemicals or proteins widely used in the pharmaceutical industry and in preparative chromatography. This process permits the preparation of extremely pure compounds satisfying the requests of the US Food and Drug Administration. The book describes the fundamentals of thermodynamics, mass transfer kinetics, and flow through porous media that are relevant to chromatography. It presents the models used in chromatography and their solutions, discusses the applications made, describes the different processes used, their numerous applications, and the methods of optimization of the experimental conditions of this process.

Guiochon, Georges A [ORNL; Felinger, Attila [ORNL; Katti, Anita [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Shirazi, Dean G [unknown

2006-02-01

296

Utah Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the Utah Geological Survey. Materials available here include news articles and information on geologic hazards; information on places of geological interest; and popular geology topics such as earthquakes, rocks and minerals, fossils, economic resources, groundwater resources, and others. Educational resources include teaching kits, the 'Teacher's Corner' column in the survey's newsletter, and a series of 'Glad You Asked' articles on state geological topics. There is also an extensive list of free K-12 educational materials, as well as a set of curriculum materials such as activity packets, slide shows, and teachers' handbooks, which are available to order.

2011-03-30

297

Virtual-Geology.Info  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At virtual-geology.info, Roger Suthren, a professor at Oxford Brookes University, offers educational materials on geologic phenomena throughout the world. Users can take virtual field trips to study the geology of Scotland, Alaska, and France. In the Regional Geology link, visitors can view wonderful pictures of the volcanoes of Germany, Italy, France, and Greece. Educators can find images of sediments and sedimentary rocks which can be used in a variety of classroom exercises. The website supplies descriptions and additional educational links about sedimentology and environmental geology.

298

Ohio Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the Ohio Geological Survey. Materials available through the site include a variety of publications, particularly the Survey's reports, bulletins, information circulars, guidebooks, and many others. There is an extensive selection of maps, including topographic maps in several scales, and downloadable geologic maps of several themes (drift thickness, bedrock geology, karst areas, glacial geology, and many others), as well as digital maps and data. The interactive maps section features online map viewers of abandoned mines, earthquake epicenters, surficial geology, geology of Lake Erie, and others. The educational resources page has links to the 'Hands On Earth' series of activities, GeoFacts (short bulletins on Ohio geological topics), nontechnical educational leaflets, field guides, and links to other publications, rock and mineral clubs, educational associations, and related websites. There is also a link to the Ohio Seismic Network, a network of seismograph stations located at colleges, universities, and other institutions that collects and disseminates information about earthquakes in Ohio.

299

Geological consequences of superplumes  

SciTech Connect

Superplumes are suggested to have caused the period of constant normal magnetic polarity in mid-Cretaceous time (124-83 Ma) and, possibly, the period of constant reversed polarity in Pennsylvania-Permian time (323-248 Ma). These times coincide with increases in world temperature, deposition of black shales, oil generation, and eustatic sea level in the mid-Cretaceous, and increased coal generation and gas accumulation in the Pennsylvanian-Permian, accompanied by an intracratonic Pennsylvanian transgression of epicontinental seas. These geologic anomalies are associated with episodes of increased world-wide ocean-crust production and mantle outgassing, especially of carbon and nutrients. These superplumes originated just above the core-mantle boundary, significantly increased convection in the outer core, and stopped the magnetic field reversal process for 41 m.y. in the Cretaceous and 75 m.y. in Pennsylvanian-Permian time.

Larson, R.L. (Univ. of Rhode Island, Narragansett (United States))

1991-10-01

300

Geology of National Parks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This is a set of two sheets of 3D images showing geologic features of many National Parks. Red-and-cyan viewing glasses are need to see the three-dimensional effect. A search on the World Wide Web will yield many sites about anaglyphs and where to get 3D glasses. Red-blue glasses will do but red-cyan glasses are a little better. This publication features a photo quiz game: Name that park! where you can explore, interpret, and identify selected park landscapes. Can you identify landscape features in the images? Can you explain processes that may have helped form the landscape features? You can get the answers online.

Stoffer, Philip W.

2008-01-01

301

Fundamentals of Petroleum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Basic information on petroleum is presented in this book prepared for naval logistics officers. Petroleum in national defense is discussed in connection with consumption statistics, productive capacity, world's resources, and steps in logistics. Chemical and geological analyses are made in efforts to familiarize methods of refining, measuring,…

Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

302

Unraveling Geological History: Glaciers and Faults at Discovery Park, Seattle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This introductory geology field exercise asks students to make individual observations about parts of an outcrop, then combine their observations in larger teams to interpret the overall geological history of the exposure. Content learning includes stratigraphy, faulting, and local geologic history; process learning includes data gathering and recording, hypothesis formation, and outlining helpful evidence that could be gathered in the future.

Tucker, Trileigh

303

Geological features indicative of processes related to the hematite formation in Meridiani Planum and Aram Chaos, Mars: a comparison with diagenetic hematite deposits in southern Utah, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to understand the formation of the few but large, hematite deposits on Mars, comparisons are often made with terrestrial hematite occurrences. In southern Utah, hematite concretions have formed within continental sandstones and are exposed as extensive weathered-out beds. The hematite deposits are linked to geological and geomorphological features such as knobs, buttes, bleached beds, fractures and rings. These

Jens Ormö; Goro Komatsu; Marjorie A. Chan; Brenda Beitler; William T. Parry

2004-01-01

304

Introductory Geology From the Liberal Arts Approach: A Geology-Sociology Linked Course  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geology can be a hard sell to college students, especially to college students attending small, liberal arts institutions in localities that lack exaggerated topography. At these schools, Geology departments that wish to grow must work diligently to attract students to the major; professors must be able to convince a wider audience of students that geology is relevant to their everyday lives. Toward this end, a Physical Geology course was linked with an introductory Sociology course through the common theme of Consumption. The same students took the two courses in sequence, beginning with the Sociology course and ending with Physical Geology; thus, students began by discussing the role of consumption in society and ended by learning about the geological processes and implications of consumption. Students were able to ascertain the importance of geology in their daily lives by connecting Earth processes to specific products they consume, such as cell phones and bottled water. Students were also able to see the connection between seemingly disparate fields of study, which is a major goal of the liberal arts. As a theme, Consumption worked well to grab the attention of students interested in diverse issues, such as environmental science or social justice. A one-hour lecture illustrating the link between sociology and geology was developed for presentation to incoming freshmen and their parents to advertise the course. Initial response has been positive, showing an increase in awareness of geological processes among students with a wide range of interests.

Walsh, E. O.; Davis, E.

2008-12-01

305

Jewish Fundamentalism in Israel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

History, Development, evolution and current significance to Jewish fundamental Ism in Israel. Study traces origins of this movement to Rabbi Abraham Isaac Kook through the Gush Emunim and includes an indepth analysis of the book The Zionist Revolution by ...

I. S. Lustick

1986-01-01

306

Fundamentals of NMR  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This e-text presents an introduction to the fundamentals of NMR covering magnetic resonance, pulsed NMR, relaxation, chemical shift, spin-spin coupling, the nuclear Overhauser effect and chemical exchange. The document may be downloaded in PDF format.

James, Thomas L.

2011-03-30

307

Fundamentals of Salvo Warfare.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis presents a detailed study of the fundamentals of modern naval surface missile combat and, thought the vehicles of combat modeling, simulation, and quantitative analysis, describes a method of evaluating tactics. It establishes three basic laws...

J. R. Cares

1990-01-01

308

Louisiana Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the Louisiana Geological Survey (LGS). The site includes general information about LGS and its various offices, as well as an overview of the Basin Research Energy Section, the oil, gas, and coal research section of LGS. The publications and data page features a catalog and ordering information for documents on mineral resources, fossils, water resources, geological bulletins and maps, and many others, as well as a selection of downloadable maps, including 30 x 60 minute geologic quadrangles, a generalized geologic map of the state with accompanying text, and an online map viewer of the state with selectable layers (geology, water bodies, cultural features, and Landsat imagery). There is also an online listing of well logs, grouped by parish, online listings of core samples, grouped by state, and downloadable public information documents on a variety of geologic topics.

309

Geologic Time: Online Edition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Offered by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) as a general interest publication, this site is an online edition of a text by the same name, offering a concise overview of the concepts associated with the age of the Earth. The online edition was revised in October of 1997 to reflect current thinking on this topic. Section headers are Geologic Time, Relative Time Scale, Major Divisions of Geologic Time, Index Fossils, Radiometric Time Scale, and Age of the Earth.

1997-10-09

310

Sedimentology and petroleum geology  

SciTech Connect

This book presents an introduction to sedimentology as well as petroleum geology. It integrates both subjects, which are closely related but mostly treated separately. The author covers the basic aspects of sedimentology, sedimentary geochemistry and diagenesis. Principles of stratigraphy, seismic stratigraphy and basin modelling forms the base for the part on petroleum geology. Subjects discussed include the composition of kerogen and hydrocarbons, theories of migration and trapping of hydrocarbons and properties of reservoir rocks. Introductions to well logging and production geology are given.

Bjorlykke, K.O. (Oslo Univ. (Norway))

1989-01-01

311

Pennsylvania Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the Pennsylvania Geological Survey. Users can access digital maps, data, and Geographic Information Systems (GIS), information on economic resources, and information on field mapping in the state. Classroom resources include a set of lesson plans on Pennsylvania geology; 'Rock Boxes', a set of rock samples which can be ordered; information on mineral collecting; and a series of educational publications, page-sized maps, and the 'Trail of Geology' park guide.

2011-03-29

312

The Geology of Virginia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the College of William of Mary Department of Geology comes the Geology of Virginia Web site. From the Appalachian Plateau to the coastal plain, visitors can explore the geology and physical characteristics of the diverse landscape of the commonwealth of Virginia through simple descriptions and well designed graphics. Even if you don't live in the area, the site does a good job of capturing the interest of anyone looking for quality material on the presented subjects.

1997-01-01

313

Practical petroleum geology  

SciTech Connect

This book contains the following eight chapters: Basic Concepts of Geology; Sedimentation; Oil and Gas Accumulation; Exploration; Economics; Well Sitting; Field Development; and Past, Present and Future. The goal of the book is to present a description of the field of petroleum geology that is centered on the point of view of the practicing petroleum geologist. After the beginning three chapters of pure geology, slanted toward the petroleum geologist's interest in oil and gas, the discussion turns toward more active concerns.

Leecraft, J.

1985-01-01

314

Icelandic Geology Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The main feature of this site from Hamrahlio College of Reykjavik, Iceland is an interactive geological map of Iceland showing lava flows and glaciers. Other highlights include links to related Icelandic geology pages (e.g., The Effect of Diatom Mining, Iceland's Ministry of the Environment), news sources and journals, and Icelandic geological societies (not all are in English). A recommended resource for glaciologists, volcanologists, and educators in earth science.

Douglas, Georg R.

315

Map Showing Geology, Oil and Gas Fields and Geologic Provinces of Africa, Ver. 2.0  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Geological Survey offers the Map Showing Geology, Oil and Gas Fields and Geologic Provinces of Africa Web site and report. The agency's goal for the pieces includes assessing the undiscovered and technically recoverable oil and gas resources of the world. The site includes various descriptions of what the map depicts and how data was processed using Geographic Information Systems. Once the interactive map is activated, users can search and click the map of Africa to view geologic provinces, oil and gas fields, as well as the various surface geological classifications. Although the interface is a bit cumbersome and works best with a fast Internet connection, the unique information provided should draw the attention of those interested in geology. [JAB

Ahlbrandt, Thomas S.; Persits, F. M.; Tuttle, M. L.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Brownfield, M. E.; Takahashi, K. I.

316

Phylogeographic patterns of genetic diversity in eastern Mediterranean water frogs have been determined by geological processes and climate change in the Late Cenozoic.  

PubMed

AIM: Our aims were to assess the phylogeographic patterns of genetic diversity in eastern Mediterranean water frogs and to estimate divergence times using different geological scenarios. We related divergence times to past geological events and discuss the relevance of our data for the systematics of eastern Mediterranean water frogs. LOCATION: The eastern Mediterranean region. METHODS: Genetic diversity and divergence were calculated using sequences of two protein-coding mitochondrial (mt) genes: ND2 (1038 bp, 119 sequences) and ND3 (340 bp, 612 sequences). Divergence times were estimated in a Bayesian framework under four geological scenarios representing alternative possible geological histories for the eastern Mediterranean. We then compared the different scenarios using Bayes factors and additional geological data. RESULTS: Extensive genetic diversity in mtDNA divides eastern Mediterranean water frogs into six main haplogroups (MHG). Three MHGs were identified on the Anatolian mainland; the most widespread MHG with the highest diversity is distributed from western Anatolia to the northern shore of the Caspian Sea, including the type locality of Pelophylax ridibundus. The other two Anatolian MHGs are restricted to south-eastern Turkey, occupying localities west and east of the Amanos mountain range. One of the remaining three MHGs is restricted to Cyprus; a second to the Levant; the third was found in the distribution area of European lake frogs (P. ridibundus group), including the Balkans. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: Based on geological evidence and estimates of genetic divergence we hypothesize that the water frogs of Cyprus have been isolated from the Anatolian mainland populations since the end of the Messinian salinity crisis (MSC), i.e. since c. 5.5-5.3 Ma, while our divergence time estimates indicate that the isolation of Crete from the mainland populations (Peloponnese, Anatolia) most likely pre-dates the MSC. The observed rates of divergence imply a time window of c. 1.6-1.1 million years for diversification of the largest Anatolian MHG; divergence between the two other Anatolian MHGs may have begun about 3.0 Ma, apparently as a result of uplift of the Amanos Mountains. Our mtDNA data suggest that the Anatolian water frogs and frogs from Cyprus represent several undescribed species. PMID:22473251

Ak?n, Ci?dem; Bilgin, C Can; Beerli, Peter; Westaway, Rob; Ohst, Torsten; Litvinchuk, Spartak N; Uzzell, Thomas; Bilgin, Metin; Hotz, Hansjürg; Guex, Gaston-Denis; Plötner, Jörg

2010-11-01

317

Phylogeographic patterns of genetic diversity in eastern Mediterranean water frogs have been determined by geological processes and climate change in the Late Cenozoic  

PubMed Central

Aim Our aims were to assess the phylogeographic patterns of genetic diversity in eastern Mediterranean water frogs and to estimate divergence times using different geological scenarios. We related divergence times to past geological events and discuss the relevance of our data for the systematics of eastern Mediterranean water frogs. Location The eastern Mediterranean region. Methods Genetic diversity and divergence were calculated using sequences of two protein-coding mitochondrial (mt) genes: ND2 (1038 bp, 119 sequences) and ND3 (340 bp, 612 sequences). Divergence times were estimated in a Bayesian framework under four geological scenarios representing alternative possible geological histories for the eastern Mediterranean. We then compared the different scenarios using Bayes factors and additional geological data. Results Extensive genetic diversity in mtDNA divides eastern Mediterranean water frogs into six main haplogroups (MHG). Three MHGs were identified on the Anatolian mainland; the most widespread MHG with the highest diversity is distributed from western Anatolia to the northern shore of the Caspian Sea, including the type locality of Pelophylax ridibundus. The other two Anatolian MHGs are restricted to south-eastern Turkey, occupying localities west and east of the Amanos mountain range. One of the remaining three MHGs is restricted to Cyprus; a second to the Levant; the third was found in the distribution area of European lake frogs (P. ridibundus group), including the Balkans. Main conclusions Based on geological evidence and estimates of genetic divergence we hypothesize that the water frogs of Cyprus have been isolated from the Anatolian mainland populations since the end of the Messinian salinity crisis (MSC), i.e. since c. 5.5-5.3 Ma, while our divergence time estimates indicate that the isolation of Crete from the mainland populations (Peloponnese, Anatolia) most likely pre-dates the MSC. The observed rates of divergence imply a time window of c. 1.6-1.1 million years for diversification of the largest Anatolian MHG; divergence between the two other Anatolian MHGs may have begun about 3.0 Ma, apparently as a result of uplift of the Amanos Mountains. Our mtDNA data suggest that the Anatolian water frogs and frogs from Cyprus represent several undescribed species.

Ak?n, Cigdem; Bilgin, C. Can; Beerli, Peter; Westaway, Rob; Ohst, Torsten; Litvinchuk, Spartak N.; Uzzell, Thomas; Bilgin, Metin; Hotz, Hansjurg; Guex, Gaston-Denis; Plotner, Jorg

2010-01-01

318

Arizona Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the Arizona Geological Survey. Information accessible here includes maps, information on oil, gas, and minerals in the state, back issues of the survey's newsletter, and a list of resources for public education in the state. These resources include information centers for Arizona geology and Earth Science, the survey's geology library and bibliographic database, a repository of rock cuttings and cores, and a contact for earth science education who will assist teacher groups in introducing local geology to their classes.

319

Understanding Geologic Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an exercise in which students are reintroduced to geologic maps and encouraged to "deconstruct" the map into constituent elements in order to understand the geologic history of the area. The preceding lectures in the course have recapitulated material that the students have covered in Introduction to Physical Geology. During class, the students work through the maps that were part of lab exercises in the Intro level course, so that basic concepts are recalled (superposition, cross-cutting relationships, basic faults and folds). The final product is a geologic history of this map area.

Burberry, Cara

320

Modeling Geologic Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students convert major events in Earth history from years before present into scale distances. After a list of events and their scale distances have been formulated, students construct a geologic time scale on 5 meters of adding machine paper, beginning with the formation of the Earth. Students will investigate change through geologic time; design, construct and interpret a model of geologic time; relate major events in Earth history to the geologic time scale; and compare and relate the span of Earth history to events of historical time and of the human lifetime. Some sample events and their approximate relative ages are included.

Firebaugh, James

321

Geologic Mapping Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise is designed to simulate how a basic geological investigation of a site takes place. A basic geological investigation includes familiarizing yourself with the unconsolidated sediments, rocks, structural geology, and groundwater present at your site. As part of this exercise you will have to properly identify a variety of rock types and sediments, create maps that represent data you collected at each location, and complete a basic report of your findings (optional). Once completed, this exercise should give students a basic understanding of how the various concepts used throughout the semester are applied in the real world in the form of a geological investigation.

Smith, Andrew

322

Geologic mapping of Europa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Galileo data enable the major geological units, structures, and surface features to be identified on Europa. These include five primary units (plains, chaos, band, ridge, and crater materials) and their subunits, along with various tectonic structures such as faults. Plains units are the most widespread. Ridged plains material spans a wide range of geological ages, including the oldest recognizable features on Europa, and appears to represent a style of tectonic resurfacing, rather than cryovolcanism. Smooth plains material typically embays other terrains and units, possibly as a type of fluid emplacement, and is among the youngest material units observed. At global scales, plains are typically mapped as undifferentiated plains material, although in some areas differences can be discerned in the near infrared which might be related to differences in ice grain size. Chaos material is composed of plains and other preexisting materials that have been severely disrupted by inferred internal activity; chaos is characterized by blocks of icy material set in a hummocky matrix. Band material is arrayed in linear, curvilinear, wedge-shaped, or cuspate zones with contrasting albedo and surface textures with respect to the surrounding terrain. Bilateral symmetry observed in some bands and the relationships with the surrounding units suggest that band material forms by the lithosphere fracturing, spreading apart, and infilling with material derived from the subsurface. Ridge material is mapped as a unit on local and some regional maps but shown with symbols at global scales. Ridge material includes single ridges, doublet ridges, and ridge complexes. Ridge materials are considered to represent tectonic processes, possibly accompanied by the extrusion or intrusion of subsurface materials, such as diapirs. The tectonic processes might be related to tidal flexing of the icy lithosphere on diurnal or longer timescales. Crater materials include various interior (smooth central, rough inner, and annular massif) and exterior (continuous ejecta) subunits. Structural features and landforms are shown with conventional symbols. Type localities for the units are identified, along with suggestions for portraying the features on geological maps, including colors and letter abbreviations for material units. Implementing these suggestions by the planetary mapping community would facilitate comparisons of maps for different parts of Europa and contribute to an eventual global synthesis of its complex geology. On the basis of initial mapping results, a stratigraphic sequence is suggested in which ridged plains form the oldest unit on Europa, followed by development of band material and individual ridges. Band materials tend to be somewhat older than ridges, but in many areas the two units formed simultaneously. Similarly, the formation of most chaos follows the development of ridged plains; although chaos is among the youngest materials on Europa, some chaos units might have formed contemporaneously with ridged plains. Smooth plains generally embay all other units and are late-stage in the evolution of the surface. C1 craters are superposed on ridged plains but are crosscut by other materials, including bands and ridges. Most c2 craters postdate all other units, but a few c2 craters are cut by ridge material. C3 craters constitute the youngest recognizable material on Europa. Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.

Greeley, R.; Figueredo, P. H.; Williams, D. A.; Chuang, F. C.; Klemaszewski, J. E.; Kadel, S. D.; Prockter, L. M.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Head, III, J. W.; Collins, G. C.; Spaun, N. A.; Sullivan, R. J.; Moore, J. M.; Senske, D. A.; Tufts, B. R.; Johnson, T. V.; Belton, M. J. S.; Tanaka, K. L.

2000-01-01

323

Geologic repositories for radioactive waste: the nuclear regulatory commission geologic comments on the environmental assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NRC staff completed its review of the Environmental Assessments (EAs) issued by the Department of Energy (DOE) in December, 1984, in support of the site selection processes established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA). The EAs contain geologic information on nine sites that DOE has identified as potentially acceptable for the first geologic repository in accordance

P. S. Justus; J. S. Trapp; K. B. Westbrook; R. Lee; M. B. Blackford; B. Rice

1985-01-01

324

Strategic Information Resources Management: Fundamental Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses six fundamental information resources management (IRM) practices in successful organizations that can improve government service delivery performance. Highlights include directing changes, integrating IRM decision making into a strategic management process, performance management, maintaining an investment philosophy, using business…

Caudle, Sharon L.

1996-01-01

325

Fundamental Aspects of Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fundamental aspects of heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) technology were investigated, including Be diffusion in MBE growth, the effects of epitaxial structure variations on HBT technology, effects of selected device processing methods on HBT perfor...

D. L. Miller P. M. Asbeck

1986-01-01

326

Experimental Investigation on Cold-Roll-Forming Process Effects of Forming Factors and Process Variables on Product Shape, Forming Loads and Torques in Forming Process for Fundamental Cross-Sectional Profiles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of various forming factors and process variables on the forming of sheet metal products are discussed. The forming factors are identified and their contribution to the mechanical properties of the metal sheet are defined. The subjects discusse...

H. Suzuki M. Kiuchi S. Nakajima

1972-01-01

327

Geology in coal resource utilization  

SciTech Connect

The 37 papers in this book were compiled with an overriding theme in mind: to provide the coal industry with a comprehensive source of information on how geology and geologic concepts can be applied to the many facets of coal resource location, extraction, and utilization. The chapters have been arranged to address the major coal geology subfields of Exploration and Reserve Definition, Reserve Estimation, Coalbed Methane, Underground Coal Gasification, Mining, Coal Quality Concerns, and Environmental Impacts, with papers distributed on the basis of their primary emphasis. To help guide one through the collection, the author has included prefaces at the beginning of each chapter. They are intended as a brief lead-in to the subject of the chapter and an acknowledgement of the papers' connections to the subject and contributions to the chapter. In addition, a brief cross-reference section has been included in each preface to help one find papers of interest in other chapters. The subfields of coal geology are intimately intertwined, and investigations in one area may impact problems in another area. Some subfields tend to blur at their edges, such as with reserve definition and reserve estimation. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

Peters, D.C. (ed.)

1991-01-01

328

New Quasar Studies Keep Fundamental Physical Constant Constant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Very Large Telescope sets stringent limit on possible variation of the fine-structure constant over cosmological time Summary Detecting or constraining the possible time variations of fundamental physical constants is an important step toward a complete understanding of basic physics and hence the world in which we live. A step in which astrophysics proves most useful. Previous astronomical measurements of the fine structure constant - the dimensionless number that determines the strength of interactions between charged particles and electromagnetic fields - suggested that this particular constant is increasing very slightly with time. If confirmed, this would have very profound implications for our understanding of fundamental physics. New studies, conducted using the UVES spectrograph on Kueyen, one of the 8.2-m telescopes of ESO's Very Large Telescope array at Paranal (Chile), secured new data with unprecedented quality. These data, combined with a very careful analysis, have provided the strongest astronomical constraints to date on the possible variation of the fine structure constant. They show that, contrary to previous claims, no evidence exist for assuming a time variation of this fundamental constant. PR Photo 07/04: Relative Changes with Redshift of the Fine Structure Constant (VLT/UVES) A fine constant To explain the Universe and to represent it mathematically, scientists rely on so-called fundamental constants or fixed numbers. The fundamental laws of physics, as we presently understand them, depend on about 25 such constants. Well-known examples are the gravitational constant, which defines the strength of the force acting between two bodies, such as the Earth and the Moon, and the speed of light. One of these constants is the so-called "fine structure constant", alpha = 1/137.03599958, a combination of electrical charge of the electron, the Planck constant and the speed of light. The fine structure constant describes how electromagnetic forces hold atoms together and the way light interacts with atoms. But are these fundamental physical constants really constant? Are those numbers always the same, everywhere in the Universe and at all times? This is not as naive a question as it may seem. Contemporary theories of fundamental interactions, such as the Grand Unification Theory or super-string theories that treat gravity and quantum mechanics in a consistent way, not only predict a dependence of fundamental physical constants with energy - particle physics experiments have shown the fine structure constant to grow to a value of about 1/128 at high collision energies - but allow for their cosmological time and space variations. A time dependence of the fundamental constants could also easily arise if, besides the three space dimensions, there exist more hidden dimensions. Already in 1955, the Russian physicist Lev Landau considered the possibility of a time dependence of alpha. In the late 1960s, George Gamow in the United States suggested that the charge of the electron, and therefore also alpha, may vary. It is clear however that such changes, if any, cannot be large or they would already have been detected in comparatively simple experiments. Tracking these possible changes thus requires the most sophisticated and precise techniques. Looking back in time In fact, quite strong constraints are already known to exist for the possible variation of the fine structure constant alpha. One such constraint is of geological nature. It is based on measures taken in the ancient natural fission reactor located near Oklo (Gabon, West Africa) and which was active roughly 2,000 million years ago. By studying the distribution of a given set of elements - isotopes of the rare earths, for example of samarium - which were produced by the fission of uranium, one can estimate whether the physical process happened at a faster or slower pace than we would expect it nowadays. Thus we can measure a possible change of the value of the fundamental constant at play here, alpha. However, the observed distribution of the elemen

2004-03-01

329

Process and device for injecting a liquid agent used for treating a geological formation in the vicinity of a well bore traversing this formation  

SciTech Connect

A technique is disclosed for liquid treating a geological formation. It comprises spraying the liquid with a pressurized carrier gas, using a spraying pipe whose length and diameter are adjusted as a function of the pressure prevailing at the level of the formation and of the characteristics of the injected liquid and the pressurized carrier gas, so that the size of the liquid droplets at the outlet of the spraying pipe has a narrow range of distribution about a single preselected value.

Colonna, J.; Fitremann, Jm.; Genin, R.; Sarda, Jp.

1984-02-14

330

The role of slab detachment processes in the opening of the western–central Mediterranean basins: some geological and geophysical evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the geological and geophysical data from the central and western Mediterranean region and the present-day upper mantle structure derived from tomographic studies are utilized in order to define the Oligocene–Recent geodynamic evolution for the area. In line with previous work, we suggest that the Miocene–Quaternary opening of the western and central Mediterranean basins is the result of

E. Carminati; M. J. R Wortel; W. Spakman; R. Sabadini

1998-01-01

331

The Serra Pelada Au-PGE deposit, Serra dos Carajás (Pará State, Brazil): geological and geochemical indications for a composite mineralising process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Serra Pelada Au-PGE-rich deposit is located in the Serra dos Carajás, a leading mining area in Brazil. This region is characterised by a complex geological and structural framework and is affected by deep lateritisation which has lasted for more than 70 Ma. The Serra Pelada deposit is emplaced in a late-Archean low-grade metasedimentary sequence (Rio Fresco\\/Águas Claras Formation) which

Marilena Moroni; Vicente A. Girardi; Alfredo Ferrario

2001-01-01

332

Carbon dioxide reaction processes in a model brine aquifer at 200 °C and 200 bars: implications for geologic sequestration of carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reactive behavior of supercritical CO2 under conditions relevant to geologic storage and sequestration of C is largely unknown. Experiments were conducted in a flexible cell hydrothermal apparatus to determine the extent of fluid–rock reactions, in addition to carbonate mineral precipitation, that may occur in a brine aquifer–aquitard system that simulates a saline aquifer storage scenario. The system was held

John P. Kaszuba; David R. Janecky; Marjorie G. Snow

2003-01-01

333

Evolution of U fractionation processes through geologic time : consequences for the variation of U deposit types from Early Earth to Present  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

U deposits are known at nearly all stages of the geological cycle, but are not known prior to 2.95 Ga. Also, U deposit types vary greatly from Mesoarchean to Present. Most of these changes through time can be attributed to major modifications in the geodynamic evolution of the Earth, in magmatic fractionation processes, in the composition of the Atmosphere and in the nature of life. The first U-rich granites able to crystallize uraninite, appeared at about 3.1 Ga. They correspond to the most fractionated terms of high-K calcalkaline suites, resulting from crystal fractionation of magmas possibly derived from melting of mantle wedges enriched in K, U, Th. Highly fractionated peraluminous leucogranites, able to crystallize uraninite, appeared at about 2.6 Ga. Erosion of these two granite types led to the detrital accumulation of uraninite that formed the first U deposits on Earth: the Quartz Pebble Conglomerates from 2.95 to 2.4 Ga. From 2.3 Ga onwards, uprise of oxygen level in the atmosphere led to the oxidation of U(IV) to U(VI), U transport in solution, and exuberant development of marine algae in epicontinental platform sediments. From 2.3 to 1.8 Ga large amounts of U, previously accumulated as U(IV) minerals, were dissolved and trapped preferentially in passive margin settings, in organic-rich sediments, and which led to the formation of the world’s largest Paleoproterozoic U provinces, e.g. : the Wollaston belt, Canada and the Cahill Formation, Australia. During and after the worldwide 2.1-1.75 Ga orogenic events, responsible for the formation of the Nuna supercontinent, U trapped in these formations was the source for several types of mineralization: (i) metamorphosed U-mineralized graphitic schists, calcsilicates and meta-arkoses, (ii) diagenetic-hydrothermal remobilization with the formation of the first deposits related to redox processes at 2.0 Ga (Oklo, Gabon), (iii) partial melting of U-rich metasediments forming the uraninite disseminations in pegmatoids (Charlebois, Canada), (iv) hydrothermal remobilization in veins (Beaverlodge, Canada) at about 1.75 Ga, and (v) U mineralization related to Na-metasomatism (Lagoa Real, Brazil ; Central Ukraine). After 1.75 Ga, a long period of tectonic quiescence occurred on the Earth, and large intracontinental basins, comprising at their base thick oxidized siliciclastic sequences were formed in many parts of the Nuna. In the Athabasca (Canada) and Kombolgie (Australia) basins, the siliciclastic sediments represented huge aquitards for sodic brines derived from overlying evaporites. The brines became calcic when infiltrated into the basement and leached U dominantly from Paleoproterozoic epicontinental sediments, their anatectic derivatives and high-K-U granites, to form the unconformity related U deposits. By the end of Silurian, with the apparition of land plants, deposits hosted by continental to marginal marine sandstone (roll front, tabular, tectono-lithologic, paleovalleys) became widespread. The largest volcanic related U-deposits are mostly known during the Mesozoic and calcrete are only known during late Caenozoic to Quaternary, but this may by due to the non preservation from erosion of such deposits formed at very shallow levels.

Cuney, M.

2009-12-01

334

Some aspects of fundamental chemistry of the Universal Extraction (UNEX) process for the simultaneous separation of major radionuclides (cesium, strontium, actinides, and lanthanides) from radioactive wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Scientists at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and Khlopin Radium Institute (KRI) collaboratively developed and validated\\u000a the concept of a Universal Extraction (UNEX) process for simultaneously removing the major radionuclides (Cs, Sr, actinides,\\u000a and lanthanides) from acidic radioactive waste in a single solvent extraction process. The process chemistry is unique and\\u000a complicated, since the extractants, chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide (CCD), polyethylene

T. A. Luther; R. S. Herbst; D. R. Peterman; R. D. Tillotson; T. G. Garn; V. A. Babain; I. V. Smirnov; E. S. Stoyanov; N. G. Antonov

2006-01-01

335

Monte Carlo fundamentals  

SciTech Connect

This report is composed of the lecture notes from the first half of a 32-hour graduate-level course on Monte Carlo methods offered at KAPL. These notes, prepared by two of the principle developers of KAPL`s RACER Monte Carlo code, cover the fundamental theory, concepts, and practices for Monte Carlo analysis. In particular, a thorough grounding in the basic fundamentals of Monte Carlo methods is presented, including random number generation, random sampling, the Monte Carlo approach to solving transport problems, computational geometry, collision physics, tallies, and eigenvalue calculations. Furthermore, modern computational algorithms for vector and parallel approaches to Monte Carlo calculations are covered in detail, including fundamental parallel and vector concepts, the event-based algorithm, master/slave schemes, parallel scaling laws, and portability issues.

Brown, F.B.; Sutton, T.M.

1996-02-01

336

Geology of California. Second Edition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two introductory chapters familiarize readers with basic geologic concepts. The following chapters describe the geology of each of California's 11 geomorphic provinces; the San Andreas fault and offshore geology are discussed in two separate chapters. Four appendices acquaint readers with technical words and terms, common minerals and rocks in California, geologic time, and geologic theories that pertain to California. During

R. M. Norris; R. W. Webb

1990-01-01

337

Earthquakes and Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students investigate the relationship between intensity of ground motion and type of rock or alluvium, as seen in the 1994 Northridge, California earthquake. They will examine a map of Mercalli intensity, a cross-section showing geologic structures and rock types, and a map of surficial geology, and answer questions pertaining to amplification of ground motion and S-wave velocities.

Ozsvath, David

338

SOPAC marine geology atlases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Geological Survey conducted a series of marine geologic and geophysical cruises in the southwest Pacific Ocean in 1982 and 1984 as part of a program with participation by Australia and New Zealand. These two SOPAC expeditions obtained various data, which have been compiled into a series of charts and thematic products for the offshore areas of Tonga, Fiji,

T. E. Chase; B. A. Seekins; J. D. Young; J. A. Wahler

1986-01-01

339

Geological hydrogen storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The probably least expensive form of hydrogen storage would be geological storage in formations easy to excavate, such as salt dome intrusions near the surface (which can be excavated by water flushing) or vertically curved, capped aquifer layers not requiring excavation at all. Such geological formation are already in use for natural gas storage and have proven very stable. Consideration

Bent Sørensen

340

Earthquakes and Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students investigate the relationship between intensity of ground motion and type of rock or alluvium, as seen in the 1994 Northridge, California earthquake. They will examine a map of Mercalli intensity, a cross-section showing geologic structures and rock types, and a map of surficial geology, and answer questions pertaining to amplification of ground motion and S-wave velocities.

Ozsvath, David

2011-09-06

341

People and Geology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides background information on the many natural resources we extract from the earth's crust, including metals, graphite, and other minerals, as well as fossil fuels. Contains teaching activities such as a geologic scavenger hunt, a geology chronology, and the recycling of aluminum. Includes a reproducible handout for the activity on aluminum.…

Naturescope, 1987

1987-01-01

342

Forensic geology exhumed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic geology binds applied geology to the world of legal controversy and action. However, the term ``forensic'' is often misconstrued. Although even some attorneys apply it only to the marshalling of evidence in criminal cases, it has a much broader definition. One dictionary defines it as ``pertaining to, connected with, or used in courts of law or public discussion and

Joseph Didier Martinez

1991-01-01

343

Structural Geology Techniques  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Wisconsin - Green Bay has created this collection of material and instructions on how to analyze and plot structural geology data. Topics covered includes planes, lines, relations between lines and planes, geologic structures, intersection of structures with topography, stereonet techniques, stress and strain, and analysis of complex structures.

Dutch, Steven

2009-05-21

344

California Geological Survey - Landslides  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page from the CA Geological Survey (CGS) presents information on landslides as well as maps and products of various past and present CGS programs to map and respond to landslides in the state of California, including the Forest and Watershed Geology Program, the Seismic Hazards Zonation Program, the Caltrans Highway Corridor Mapping project, and the Landslide Map Index.

Survey, California G.

345

National Geologic Map Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Geologic Map Database (NGMDB) is an Internet-based system for query and retrieval of earth-science map information, created as a collaborative effort between the USGS and the Association of American State Geologists. Its functions include providing a catalog of available map information; a data repository; and a source for general information on the nature and intended uses of the various types of earth-science information. The map catalog is a comprehensive, searchable catalog of all geoscience maps of the United States, in paper or digital format. It includes maps published in geological survey formal series and open-file series, maps in books, theses and dissertations, maps published by park associations, scientific societies, and other agencies, as well as publications that do not contain a map but instead provide a geological description of an area (for example, a state park). The geologic-names lexicon (GEOLEX) is a search tool for lithologic and geochronologic unit names. It now contains roughly 90% of the geologic names found in the most recent listing of USGS-approved geologic names. Current mapping activities at 1:24,000- and 1:100,000-scale are listed in the Geologic Mapping in Progress Database. Information on how to find topographic maps and list of geology-related links is also available.

1997-01-01

346

Marine Geological Discoveries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site by a Norwegian researcher features descriptions of marine geological formations: pockmarks, mud volcanoes, deep-water coral reefs, and gas hydrates. Using ROV technology, he has taken photos of these deep seafloor features, and compares them to geological structures seen on land, and even on the moon.

347

People and Geology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides background information on the many natural resources we extract from the earth's crust, including metals, graphite, and other minerals, as well as fossil fuels. Contains teaching activities such as a geologic scavenger hunt, a geology chronology, and the recycling of aluminum. Includes a reproducible handout for the activity on aluminum.…

Naturescope, 1987

1987-01-01

348

LOMONOSOV AND MODERN GEOLOGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tribute to Mikhail V. Lomonosov on the occasion of his 250th anniversary of his birth enables better students of the history of geological science to identify the obvious confusion and glaring flaws in this overstated presentation of Lomonosov as the father of geology. Perhaps it will stimulate interest in Lomonosov's On Terrestrial Strata, published in 1763. The article contains

V. Ye Khain

1963-01-01

349

Wyoming State Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This agency's mission is to study, examine, and seek an understanding of the geology, mineral resources, and physical features of the State; to prepare, publish, and distribute reports and maps of Wyoming's geology, mineral resources, and physical features; and to provide information, advice, and services related to the geology, mineral resources, and physical features of the State. This site contains details and reports about metals in Wyoming, earthquakes and other hazards, coal, industrial minerals, uranium, oil and gas. The field trip section contains details about various areas to visit with students and gives a general geologic description. There is also a searchable bibliography with publications about Wyoming geology. Links are provided for additional resources.

350

Metamorphic and magmatic processes in the central part of the Lapland granulite belt: correlation of geological and petrological study with results of isotopic dating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on geological and petrological study the sequence of magmatic and metamorphic events in the central part of the Lapland granulite belt (the Lotta river area, Kola Peninsula, Russia) has been reconstructed, that allows to reveal physical and chemical conditions of individual episodes in the history of the studied region, and make a correct correlation of petrological data with the results of isotopic dating. It was established that all metapelitic associations found within the studied region, are products of allochemical alterations of "felsic" quartz-feldspar granulites and embedded basic rocks. First granulite moderate-pressure metamorphism (T = 630-730°C, P = 4.0-5.7 kbar) occurred 1.97 -1.96 Ga. The crystallization temperature of metamorphic zircons of this stage (according to Ti contents) is 709-742°C - consistent with petrological data. Basic magmatism - intrusion of small bodies and dykes of gabbro and gabbro-norites took place 1.96 Ga and clearly separates two episodes of granulite facies metamorphism. Granulite HP metamorphism (780-860°C and 6.8-9.5 kbar) and syncollision diathectic S-granitoid formation occurred 1.92-1.91 Ga. The beginning of metamorphism associated with the crystallization of synmetamorphic enderbites - 1929-1925 Ma. The age of metamorphic granulite zircons is 1921-1917 Ma. Crystallization temperature of these zircons is 756-856°C, also consistent with petrological data. Polyphase inclusion in zircons: Kfs + Qtz, Kfs + Qtz + Pl and inclusion of Bt suggest that the formation of zircon occurred simultaneously with the formation of the paragenesis Grt + Bt + Pl + Sil + Qtz (± Kfs). Sm-Nd isochrone for Grt-Cpx-WR-Pl gave an age of 1918 ± 30 Ma. According to petrological data Grt and Cpx growth occurred at isothermal decompression stage with the pressure drop up to 6 kbar. Central parts of clinopyroxene contain up to 10% jadeite component and rims of about 2%. U-Pb garnet age 1925-1932 Ma coincides well with Sm-Nd garnet age. The fact that different minerals and different isotopic systems show the same ages speaks about rapid cooling, when the isotopic system closed soon after mineral formation and the obtained age is crystallization age but not cooling age. Formation of leucogranites as a result of sillimanite-garnet gneiss melting occurred at 1915 -1910 Ma. Zircons in leucogranites contain the same inclusion (Kfs, Sil and Qtz) as granulite zircons, which means, that they have been formed simultaneously with the formation of Sil and the presence of Kfs in paragenesis. Crystallization temperatures of these diathectic zircons - 801-826 ° C overlaps with the crystallization temperature of granulite zircons, as well as an age range of their crystallization. Analysis of the geochemical characteristics of zircons (content and distribution of incompatible elements) and U-Pb dating showed that the formation of granulite and diathectic zircons crystallized from the melt during the same diathectic process. Crystallization temperatures, as determined by Ti contents, are in good agreement with the metamorphic temperatures, defined by generally accepted geothermometers. Isobaric cooling to 657°C and 6.5 kbar in conditions of amphibolite and epidote-amphibolite facies occurred 1912-1906 Ma ago. The final stage of the complex evolution - intrusive granite magmatism (veins and small body of enderbites, granites, plagiopegmatites) was 1.89 -1.88 Ma. The further cooling history of the belt was determined by U-Pb dating of titanites and rutiles (1.88-1.87 Ga) and last low-T hydrothermal alterations are fixed by Rb-Sr system of minerals (1.72 Ga). The work is supported by RFBR grant 07-05-00759

Kaulina, Tatiana; Japaskurt, Vasily; Nerovich, Liudmila

2010-05-01

351

Origins of Sinuous and Braided Channels on Ascraeus Mons, Mars — A Keck Geology Consortium Undergraduate Research Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This Keck Geology Consortium project, involving four undergrad geology students, mapped and analyzed sinuous channel features on Ascraeus Mons, Mars, to better understand the role of volcanic and fluvial processes in the geological evolution of Mars.

de Wet, A. P.; Bleacher, J. E.; Garry, W. B.

2012-03-01

352

Fundamentals of zoological scaling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most introductory physics courses emphasize highly idealized problems with unique well-defined answers. Though many textbooks complement these problems with estimation problems, few books present anything more than an elementary discussion of scaling. This paper presents some fundamentals of scaling in the zoological domain-a domain complex by any standard, but one also well suited to illustrate the power of very simple

Herbert Lin

1982-01-01

353

Reading Is Fundamental, 1977.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reading Is Fundamental (RIF) is a national, nonprofit organization designed to motivate children to read by making a wide variety of inexpensive books available to them and allowing the children to choose and keep books that interest them. This annual report for 1977 contains the following information on the RIF project: an account of the…

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. National Reading is Fun-damental Program.

354

Fundamentals of Carrier Transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fundamentals of Carrier Transport explores the behavior of charged carriers in semiconductors and semiconductor devices for readers without an extensive background in quantum mechanics and solid-state physics. This second edition contains many new and updated sections, including a completely new chapter on transport in ultrasmall devices and coverage of \\

Mark Lundstrom

2000-01-01

355

Food Service Fundamentals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on food service fundamentals is designed to provide a general background in the basic aspects of the food service program in the Marine Corps; it is adaptable for nonmilitary instruction. Introductory materials include specific information for MCI…

Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

356

Fundamentals of Diesel Engines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the fundamentals of diesel engine mechanics. Addressed in the three individual units of the course are the following topics: basic principles of diesel mechanics; principles, mechanics, and…

Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

357

Fundamentals of Library Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Being a great teacher is part and parcel of being a great librarian. In this book, veteran instruction services librarian McAdoo lays out the fundamentals of the discipline in easily accessible language. Succinctly covering the topic from top to bottom, he: (1) Offers an overview of the historical context of library instruction, drawing on recent…

McAdoo, Monty L.

2012-01-01

358

Fundamentals of quantitative research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main purpose of this article is to introduce some important fundamental concepts of quantitative research to readers especially novice researchers. It comprises types of research, definitions of quantitative research, different types and assumptions of quantitative research, when to use and not to use quantitative methods, advantages, common approaches and samples of quantitative research, and common misconceptions. Besides, a set

Suphat Sukamolson

359

The Fundamental Property Relation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses a basic equation in thermodynamics (the fundamental property relation), focusing on a logical approach to the development of the relation where effects other than thermal, compression, and exchange of matter with the surroundings are considered. Also demonstrates erroneous treatments of the relation in three well-known textbooks. (JN)|

Martin, Joseph J.

1983-01-01

360

Fundamentals of klystron testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fundamentals of klystron testing is a text primarily intended for the indoctrination of new klystron group test stand operators. It should significantly reduce the familiarization time of a new operator, making him an asset to the group sooner than has been experienced in the past. The new employee must appreciate the mission of SLAC before he can rightfully be expected

Caldwell; J. W. Jr

1978-01-01

361

Importance of Charles Lyell’s works for the formation of scientific geological ideology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ch. Lyell’s works, the main work among which entitled Principles of Geology was published 180 years ago in 1830, created a new concept and laid the groundwork for modern geological science, methods\\u000a for the study of geological processes and geological history based on the investigation of recent environments and processes.\\u000a These propositions with natural corrections are also used in geological

V. G. Kuznetsov

2011-01-01

362

Essential Elements of Geologic Reports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Described is a report outline for geologic reports. Essential elements include title; abstract; introduction; stratigraphy; petrography; geochemistry; petrology; geophysics; structural geology; geologic history; modeling; economics; conclusions; and recommendations. (Author/CW)|

Webb, Elmer James

1988-01-01

363

Indiana Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the Indiana Geological Survey (IGS). Site materials include information on Earth science issues such as groundwater, mapping, coal and mineral resources, oil and gas, and seismic hazards. There is also information on the geologic time scale and stratigraphic record, rocks and minerals, fossils (including nautiloids of the Ordovician period in Indiana), caves and karst topography in Indiana, and glacial geology. The Geographic Information Ssytems (GIS) and mapping section includes a GIS atlas for the state, an online map viewer, links to the Indiana coal mine information system, petroleum database management system, and a download page where users can access GIS datasets for the state.

364

Journal of Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the University of Chicago Press's Journals Division, the Journal of Geology is currently available online free of charge (note: subscription fees may soon apply, but no initiation date is provided). This first-rate technical journal, which publishes "research and theory in geophysics, geochemistry, sedimentology, geomorphology, petrology, plate tectonics, volcanology, structural geology, mineralogy, and planetary sciences" has been in print form since 1893. All of the 1999 issues of the Journal of Geology electronic edition are available here. Internet users can access full-text articles with internal links to references and figures (html, .pdf. .ps).

365

Formation evaluation: Geological procedures  

SciTech Connect

This volume goes beyond a discussion of petroleum geology and the techniques of hydrocarbon (oil and gas) logging as a reservoir evaluation tool. It provides the logging geologist with a review of geological techniques and classification systems that will ensure the maximum development of communicable geological information. Contents include: 1. Introduction--cuttings recovery, cutting sampling, core sampling, rock classification; 2. Detrital rocks--classification, description; 3. Carbonate rocks--classification, description; 4. Chemical rocks-introduction, siliceous rocks, ferruginous rocks, aluminous rocks, phosphatic rocks, aluminous rocks, carbonaceous rocks; 5. Igneous and metamorpbic rocks; Appendix; References and Index.

Whittaker, A.

1985-01-01

366

What is Geologic Time?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage of the National Park Service (NPS) and United States Geological Survey (USGS) discusses geologic time and what it represents. Beginning about 4.6 billion years ago and ending in the present day, this site exhibits (to scale) the various eras, periods, eons, and epochs of Earth's history with a downloadable geologic time scale available. Links provide maps of what the Earth looked like at various times in its history, as well as a description of how scientists developed the time scale and how they know the age of the Earth.

367

A process for evaluating exploration prospects  

SciTech Connect

In 1989, Chevron Overseas Petroleum, Inc., developed a process to allow management to compare a wide variety of global exploration opportunities on a uniform and consistent basis. Over the next five years, the process evolved into an effective method to plan exploration programs on a basis of value incorporating prospect ranking, budget allocation, and technology management. The final product is a continuous process and includes, within a single organizational unit, the integration of geologic risk assessment, probabilistic distribution of prospect hydrocarbon volumes, engineering development planning, and prospect economics. The process is based on the concepts of the play and hydrocarbon system. Other steps of the process (geologic risk assessment, volumetric estimation, engineering support, economic evaluation, and postdrill feedback) are considered extensions of fundamental knowledge and understanding of the underlying geological, engineering, and fiscal constraints imposed by these concepts. A foundation is set, describing the geologic framework and the prospect in terms of the play concept-source, reservoir, trap (including seal), and dynamics (timing/migration). The information and data from this description become the basis for 98 subsequent steps in the process. Risk assessment assigns a probability of success to each of these four elements of the lay concept, and multiplication of these probabilities yields the probability of geological success.

Otis, R.M.; Schneidermann, N. [Chevron Oversees Petroleum, Inc., San Ramon, CA (United States)

1997-07-01

368

Redefining the Fundamental Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Every researcher must make some fundamental questions. A researcher's questions should include the following: (1) What is the nature of the reality that I wish to study? (2) How will I know it? (3) What must I do to know it? (4) Who am I? (5) Where is God in this? and (6) For religious educators--How does my research lead to a world of peace and…

Crain, Margaret Ann

2006-01-01

369

CNC Router Fundamentals Orientation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These zipped documents from MatEd provide information on designing a course on CNC Router Fundamentals Orientation. At the end of the course, students will be able to identify manufactured projects or products that are compatible for production on CNC routers, operate a Techno brand CNC router, and have proposed a project to reinforce these concepts. The documents include a draft syllabus, contact information for the author of the course, a sample new course proposal form, and a course outline.

Kraft, Patrick

2012-10-23

370

Digital Fundamentals: Course Materials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This course provided by eSyst describes digital fundamentals. An introduction explains the traditional view and systems view of this topic. The course includes numerous instructor presentations and student guides. Topics for these include serial digital interfaces, circuit boards, and microprocessors. A detailed course outline, student learning outcomes, and links to additional online resources are also provided. Users must create a free, quick login in order to download the materials.

2012-07-03

371

Geologic drivers of late ordovician faunal change in laurentia: investigating links between tectonics, speciation, and biotic invasions.  

PubMed

Geologic process, including tectonics and global climate change, profoundly impact the evolution of life because they have the propensity to facilitate episodes of biogeographic differentiation and influence patterns of speciation. We investigate causal links between a dramatic faunal turnover and two dominant geologic processes operating within Laurentia during the Late Ordovician: the Taconian Orogeny and GICE related global cooling. We utilize a novel approach for elucidating the relationship between biotic and geologic changes using a time-stratigraphic, species-level evolutionary framework for articulated brachiopods from North America. Phylogenetic biogeographic analyses indicate a fundamental shift in speciation mode-from a vicariance to dispersal dominated macroevolutionary regime-across the boundary between the Sandbian to Katian Stages. This boundary also corresponds to the onset of renewed intensification of tectonic activity and mountain building, the development of an upwelling zone that introduced cool, nutrient-rich waters into the epieric seas of eastern Laurentia, and the GICE isotopic excursion. The synchronicity of these dramatic geologic, oceanographic, and macroevolutionary changes supports the influence of geologic events on biological evolution. Together, the renewed tectonic activity and oceanographic changes facilitated fundamental changes in habitat structure in eastern North America that reduced opportunities for isolation and vicariance. They also facilitated regional biotic dispersal of taxa that led to the subsequent establishment of extrabasinal (=invasive) species and may have led to a suppression of speciation within Laurentian faunas. Phylogenetic biogeographic analysis further indicates that the Richmondian Invasion was a multidirectional regional invasion event that involved taxa immigrating into the Cincinnati region from basins located near the continental margins and within the continental interior. PMID:23869215

Wright, David F; Stigall, Alycia L

2013-07-15

372

Geologic Drivers of Late Ordovician Faunal Change in Laurentia: Investigating Links between Tectonics, Speciation, and Biotic Invasions  

PubMed Central

Geologic process, including tectonics and global climate change, profoundly impact the evolution of life because they have the propensity to facilitate episodes of biogeographic differentiation and influence patterns of speciation. We investigate causal links between a dramatic faunal turnover and two dominant geologic processes operating within Laurentia during the Late Ordovician: the Taconian Orogeny and GICE related global cooling. We utilize a novel approach for elucidating the relationship between biotic and geologic changes using a time-stratigraphic, species-level evolutionary framework for articulated brachiopods from North America. Phylogenetic biogeographic analyses indicate a fundamental shift in speciation mode—from a vicariance to dispersal dominated macroevolutionary regime—across the boundary between the Sandbian to Katian Stages. This boundary also corresponds to the onset of renewed intensification of tectonic activity and mountain building, the development of an upwelling zone that introduced cool, nutrient-rich waters into the epieric seas of eastern Laurentia, and the GICE isotopic excursion. The synchronicity of these dramatic geologic, oceanographic, and macroevolutionary changes supports the influence of geologic events on biological evolution. Together, the renewed tectonic activity and oceanographic changes facilitated fundamental changes in habitat structure in eastern North America that reduced opportunities for isolation and vicariance. They also facilitated regional biotic dispersal of taxa that led to the subsequent establishment of extrabasinal (=invasive) species and may have led to a suppression of speciation within Laurentian faunas. Phylogenetic biogeographic analysis further indicates that the Richmondian Invasion was a multidirectional regional invasion event that involved taxa immigrating into the Cincinnati region from basins located near the continental margins and within the continental interior.

Wright, David F.; Stigall, Alycia L.

2013-01-01

373

Web Geologic Time Scale  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of California-Berkeley Museum of Paleontology (last mentioned in the June 16, 1995 Scout Report) has recently updated its Web Geologic Time Scale, an online feature that helps users learn about the geologic timeline and explore related museum exhibits. The familiar geologic timeline appears on the main page of the Web site, with hypertext links for each division of time. Every page of the Web Geologic Time Machine site is liberally sprinkled with links to related UCMP Web pages; think of it as a portal to all online information available from the museum. Altogether, this Web site provides a well-organized and comprehensive resource for learning how the planet has changed over time, and would be a great addition to earth or life sciences classroom material for a broad range of grades.

1994-01-01

374

Comprehending Geologic Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online calculator helps students understand the classic analogy of relating the geologic time scale to a yard stick. It will help reinforce the concept of the briefness of human history relative to the age of the Earth.

375

Interactive Geologic Timeline Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this learning activity, students use a web-based geologic timeline to examine temperature, CO2 concentration, and ice cover data to investigate how climate has changed during the last 715 million years.

University, Environmental L.

376

Geologic Puzzles: Morrison Formation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Images of faulted strata, tilted turbidites, and beach rocks bring the field into the classroom, giving students practice in doing what geoscientists do. These images are examples of geologic puzzles.

Macdonald, Heather

377

Economic Geology (Oil & Gas)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Briefly reviews the worldwide developments in petroleum geology in 1971, including exploration, new fields, and oil production. This report is condensed from the October Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. (PR)|

Geotimes, 1972

1972-01-01

378

Curating Geological Collections.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

ONR funding was used to accomplish the long-term goals of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography Geological Collections, which have been and continue to be, to serve the scientific community by acquisition, maintenance, conservation and curation of marin...

J. W. Hawkins A. Sanfilippo

2004-01-01

379

Geology in the field  

SciTech Connect

This book is an entirely new one-volume text and reference that covers the procedures essential to geologic field studies. It presents information not found in other field geology texts, including identification and modern classification of rocks, means of recognizing and interpreting primary structures in rocks (which reveal their origin), coverage of engineering geologic maps, and recognition of recently active faults. The procedures are described thoroughly enough so that students can proceed largely on their own. It follows the typical sequence of a student's experience in learning field work-starting with the first observation of an outcrop and proceeding to methods of measurement and mapping, ending with preparation of a full geologic report.

Compton, R.R.

1985-01-01

380

Photos of structural geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page contains four categories of structural geology photos: brittle structures, ductile structures, active tectonics, and unconformities. All photos are freely downloadable and are at resolutions sufficient for power point.

Miller, Marli

381

North Dakota Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the North Dakota Geological Survey. Site materials include information on the state's oil, gas and coal resources, maps, publications, and regulations. The paleontology page features educational articles, information on fossil collecting, articles about fossil exhibits, and information on the state fossil collection. The state GIS hub creates and distributes digital spatial data that conforms to national mapping standards. The teaching tools page includes illustrations and descriptions of rocks and minerals found in the state, as well as information on meteorites and newsletter articles about teaching North Dakota geology. There are also links to landslide maps, surficial geology maps, and links to other survey publications such as reports, bulletins, field studies, other geological and topographic maps, and information on groundwater resources.

382

USGS Geologic Hazards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Geologic Hazards section of the US Geological Survey (USGS) conducts research into the causes of geological phenomena such as landslides and earthquakes. The homepage connects visitors to the Geologic Hazards team's three main areas of endeavor. Geomagnetism provides links to the National Geomagnetic Information Center; Magnetic Observatories, Models, and Charts; and the Geomagnetic Information Node, which receives geomagnetic observatory data from around the world. The Landslide group studies the "causes and mechanisms of ground failure" to prevent "long-term losses and casualties." Their section provides links to the program and information center, publications, events, and current projects. The Earthquakes department hosts a wealth of information, including neotectonics, engineering seismology, and paleoseismology. Interactive maps are also provided.

383

External Resource: Geology Jeopardy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Geology Jeopardy game can by used by the individual to review concepts in earth science or in the classroom as a classroom activity. Topics: rocks, minerals, topography, plate tectonics, weathering, erosion, astronomy, meteorology.

1900-01-01

384

Current status and future perspectives of electron interactions with molecules, clusters, surfaces, and interfaces [Workshop on Fundamental challenges in electron-driven chemistry; Workshop on Electron-driven processes: Scientific challenges and technological opportunities  

SciTech Connect

This report is based largely on presentations and discussions at two workshops and contributions from workshop participants. The workshop on Fundamental Challenges in Electron-Driven Chemistry was held in Berkeley, October 9-10, 1998, and addressed questions regarding theory, computation, and simulation. The workshop on Electron-Driven Processes: Scientific Challenges and Technological Opportunities was held at Stevens Institute of Technology, March 16-17, 2000, and focused largely on experiments. Electron-molecule and electron-atom collisions initiate and drive almost all the relevant chemical processes associated with radiation chemistry, environmental chemistry, stability of waste repositories, plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, plasma processing of materials for microelectronic devices and other applications, and novel light sources for research purposes (e.g. excimer lamps in the extreme ultraviolet) and in everyday lighting applications. The life sciences are a rapidly advancing field where the important role of electron-driven processes is only now beginning to be recognized. Many of the applications of electron-initiated chemical processes require results in the near term. A large-scale, multidisciplinary and collaborative effort should be mounted to solve these problems in a timely way so that their solution will have the needed impact on the urgent questions of understanding the physico-chemical processes initiated and driven by electron interactions.

Becker, Kurt H.; McCurdy, C. William; Orlando, Thomas M.; Rescigno, Thomas N.

2000-09-01

385

Fundamental study of NO/sub x/ reduction processes during staged combustion of pulverized coal. Technical progress report, January-March 1982. [Two-stage Combustion  

SciTech Connect

This project is being conducted to investigate NO/sub x/ reduction processes during the staged combustion of pulverized coal. This report describes the progress of technical activities in the quarter of January through March, 1982. Test apparatus includes a test furnace, pulverized coal burner, air preheater, heat exchanger, and baghouses. Sampling and monitoring equipment are described. A detailed test plan was devised to investigate the effects of a set of system input parameters on NO/sub x/ emissions during staged combustion. The test plan and parameters are described. Preliminary results are presented. (DMC)

Yang, R.J.

1982-04-01

386

Geology and Human Health  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains a variety of educational and supporting materials for faculty teaching in the emerging field of geology and human health. You will find links to internet resources, books, teaching activities, and a group email list, as well as posters, presentations and discussions from the spring 2004 workshop on Geology and Human Health. These resources reflect the contributions of faculty members from across the country and the collections will continue to grow as materials are developed.

387

Introduction to Petroleum Geology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Petroleum geology comprises those geological disciplines which are of greatest significance for the finding and recovery of oil and gas. Since\\u000a most of the obvious and “easy to find” petroleum already has been discovered it is necessary to use sophisticated methods\\u000a in the exploration of sedimentary basins. These include advanced geophysical techniques and basin modelling. There is also\\u000a much more

Knut Bjørlykke

388

Geology of Scotland  

Microsoft Academic Search

MAY I supplement Prof. Green's history of geological mapping in Scotland (NATURE, vol. xlvii. p. 49) by pointing out that Mr. Cruchley published, on March 23, 1840, ``A Geological Map of Scotland by Dr. MacCulloch, F.R.S., &c., published by order of the Lords of the Treasury by S. Arrowsmith, Hydrographer to the King.'' This fine map is on the scale

Grenville A. J. Cole

1892-01-01

389

Interpreting Geologic Sections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Athro, Limited is a for-profit corporation that publishes high school and college level biology, earth science, and geology course supplements and independent learning materials on the Web. This site provides instruction in interpreting the order of events in three hypothetical and one real geological section. For each section there is a list of events and an animation of the history of the section once the student has decided on the order of events.

Morris, Paul

390

Fundamental Materials Research and Advanced Process Development for Thin-Film CIS-Based Photovoltaics: Final Technical Report, 2 October 2001 - 30 September 2005  

SciTech Connect

The objectives for this thin-film copper-indium-diselenide (CIS) solar cell project cover the following areas: Develop and characterize buffer layers for CIS-based solar cell; grow and characterize chemical-bath deposition of Znx Cd1-xS buffer layers grown on CIGS absorbers; study effects of buffer-layer processing on CIGS thin films characterized by the dual-beam optical modulation technique; grow epitaxial CuInSe2 at high temperature; study the defect structure of CGS by photoluminescence spectroscopy; investigate deep-level defects in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells by deep-level transient spectroscopy; conduct thermodynamic modeling of the isothermal 500 C section of the Cu-In-Se system using a defect model; form alpha-CuInSe2 by rapid thermal processing of a stacked binary compound bilayer; investigate pulsed non-melt laser annealing on the film properties and performance of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells; and conduct device modeling and simulation of CIGS solar cells.

Anderson, T. J.; Li, S. S.; Crisalle, O. D.; Craciun, V.

2006-09-01

391

WIPP site and vicinity geological field trip  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) is conducting an assessment of the radiological health risks to people from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). As a part of this work, EEG is making an effort to improve the understanding of those geological issues concerning the WIPP site which may affect the radiological consequences of the proposed repository. One of the important geological issues to be resolved is the timing and the nature of the dissolution processes which may have affected the WIPP site. EEG organized a two-day conference of geological scientists, titled Geotechnical Considerations for Radiological Hazard Assessment of WIPP on January 17-18, 1980. During this conference, it was realized that a field trip to the site would further clarify the different views on the geological processes active at the site. The field trip of June 16-18, 1980 was organized for this purpose. This report provides a summary of the field trip activities along with the participants post field trip comments. Important field stops are briefly described, followed by a more detailed discussion of critical geological issues. The report concludes with EEG's summary and recommendations to the US Department of Energy for further information needed to more adequately resolve concerns for the geologic and hydrologic integrity of the site.

Chaturvedi, L.

1980-10-01

392

Fundamentals of Ground Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrologic sciences continue to grow in importance as issues of drought, population growth and pollution, and politics come together to raise water issues to new levels. While groundwater hydrology plays a central role in the hydrologic sciences, relatively few comprehensive textbooks cover this field.Between 1959 and 1979, Ground Water Hydrology (D.K.Todd) guided students and professionals. In 1979, Groundwater, (R.A. Freeze and J.A. Cherry) integrated geology and hydrology physics and chemistry and science and engineering. That text was followed in 1980 by Applied Hydrogeology (C.W. Fetter). Addressing a need for a new textbook, Physical and Chemical Hydrogeology (P.A. Domenico and F.W. Schwartz) was published in 1990.

Schincariol, Robert A.

393

Fundamental approach to characterization and processing of coal-derived-liquid (CDL). Seventh quarterly report, March-May 1986. [Distillates from SRC-II coal liquids  

SciTech Connect

Adsorption thermodynamic properties of nearly fifty model compounds have been measured. Data have been used to develop a model to predict adsorption equilibrium based on molecular structure of the adsorbing species. Molecular weight has a major influence on both heat of adsorption and entropy of adsorption values. Additional contributions are observed from aromatic rings and polar (hydrogen bonding) functionalities. The model has been used to predict the adsorption of three fractions distilled from SRC-II coal-derived-liquid (CDL). Theoretical considerations of the steady state composition of surface adsorbed species in a flow system reveal that with a broad boiling range material only the heaviest portion is adsorbed on the catalyst. These findings have major implications to catalytic processing of CDL. The results of the adsorption measurements and from the theoretical considerations will be related to kinetics derived from catalytic hydroprocessing of the distillates. 11 figs, 6 tabs.

Bunger, J.W.

1986-07-02

394

Geological mapping of the moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new 1:5,000,000 scale geological map of the moon has been compiled at the Geological Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences. This paper gives a brief description of the legend of this map, and compares this map to previous geological maps compiled at the Geological Institute.

Sukhanov, A. L.

395

Visualization in Undergraduate Geology Courses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visualization is an essential skill in undergraduate geology courses as it is for expert geologists. Geology students and geologists must visualize the shape of the land from topographic maps, the three-dimensional geometry of geologic structures from limited exposures, and the geologic history recorded in sequences of layers and in natural landscapes. Interactive animations have proven successful in helping college students

Stephen Reynolds; Julia Johnson; Michael Piburn; Debra Leedy; Joshua Coyan; Melanie Busch

396

CCRS - Fundamentals of Remote Sensing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial covers the essential elements of remote sensing throughout five chapters: Fundamentals, Sensors, Microwaves, Image Analysis, and Applications. The chapters are subdivided into numerous topics, which proceed in a sequential order and cover the seven basic elements which together compose the remote sensing process: 1.Energy Source or Illumination, 2.Radiation and the Atmosphere, 3.Interaction with the Target, 4.Recording of Energy by the Sensor, 5.Transmission, Reception, and Processing, 6.Interpretation and Analysis, and 7.Application. Also touched on are electromagnetic radiation, the electromagnetic spectrum, radiation, and passive vs. active sensing. Graphics and animations accompany each subsection. Also encountered at the end of each section are two features - Did You Know and Whiz Quiz. These segments are designed to expand the applications of the covered concepts and test the knowledge of the resource user.

397

Fundamental experiments in velocimetry  

SciTech Connect

One can understand what velocimetry does and does not measure by understanding a few fundamental experiments. Photon Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) is an interferometer that will produce fringe shifts when the length of one of the legs changes, so we might expect the fringes to change whenever the distance from the probe to the target changes. However, by making PDV measurements of tilted moving surfaces, we have shown that fringe shifts from diffuse surfaces are actually measured only from the changes caused by the component of velocity along the beam. This is an important simplification in the interpretation of PDV results, arising because surface roughness randomizes the scattered phases.

Briggs, Matthew Ellsworth [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hull, Larry [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shinas, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

398

Fundamental Experiments in Velocimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One can understand what velocimetry does and does not measure by understanding a few fundamental experiments. Photon Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) is an interferometer that will produce fringe shifts when the length of one of the legs changes, so we might expect the fringes to change whenever the distance from the probe to the target changes. However, by making PDV measurements of tilted moving surfaces, we have shown that fringe shifts from diffuse surfaces are actually measured only from the changes caused by the component of velocity along the beam. This is an important simplification in the interpretation of PDV results, arising because surface roughness randomizes the scattered phases.

Briggs, Matthew; Holtkamp, David; Hull, Larry; Shinas, Michael

2009-06-01

399

The Secularization of Geology Textbooks in the United States in the Nineteenth Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This historical study traces in detail the gradual change in point of view in nineteenth century geology textbooks from religious fundamentalism to secularism. Scientific progress is identified as a major factor in bringing about this change. In the early decades of the nineteenth century authors stressed that geology was in accord with Christian…

Wittmer, Paul William

400

Fundamental approach to characterization and processing of coal-derived-liquid (CDL). Second quarterly report, December 1, 1984-February 28, 1985  

SciTech Connect

Attention was paid this quarter to the theoretical aspects of the adsorption process. In the original proposal it was suggested that a measure of equilibrium constant could be obtained relative to some reference compound by relating the relative retention time. Further consideration has revealed that absolute equilibrium constants can be obtained by use of the formula, K = V/sub g/(T/sub r/-T/sub o/) divided by V/sub c/T/sub o/ where: K = equilibrium constant; V/sub g/ = volume of gas in the column; V/sub c/ = volume of catalyst in the column; T/sub r/ = retention time of solute; T/sub o/ = time for carrier gas to pass through the column V/sub g//Q, where Q = carrier gas volumetric flow rate. From determination of K at several temperatures the enthalpy and entropy of adsorption can be ascertained by the relationship: ln (K) = -..delta..H/RT + ..delta..S/R. Data was gathered this quarter on equilibrium adsorption of model compounds over Co/Mo hydrotreating catalyst in the general temperature regime of 250 to 300/sup 0/C. Model compounds measured were cyclohexane, benzene, ethyl benzene, toluene, cumene, benzothiophene and naphthalene. Treatment of the data by the above mentioned procedure yielded highly encouraging results. Enthalpy is seen to increase as the elector donating capability of the ring system increases. Entropy is seen to increase as the size of the molecule is increased or when molecular symetry is reduced through substitution. These results support the validity of the theoretical and experimental approach.

Bunger, J.W.

1985-01-01

401

Study of fundamental chemical processes in explosive decomposition by laser-powered homogeneous pyrolysis. Final report 1 jul 78-31 aug 81  

SciTech Connect

Very Low-Pressure Pyrolysis studies of 2,4-dinitrotoluene decomposition resulted in decomposition rates consistent with log (ks) = 12.1 - 43.9/2.3 RT. These results support the conclusion that previously reported 'anomalously' low Arrhenius parameters for the homogeneous gas-phase decomposition of ortho-nitrotoluene actually represent surface-catalyzed reactions. Preliminary qualitative results for pyrolysis of ortho-nitrotouene in the absence of hot reactor walls, using the Laser-Powered Homogeneous Pyrolysis technique (LPHP), provide further support for this conclusion: only products resulting from Ph-NO2 bond scission were observed; no products indicating complex intramolecular oxidation-reduction or elimination processes could be detected. The LPHP technique was successfully modified to use a pulsed laser and a heated flow system, so that the technique becomes suitable for study of surface-sensitive, low vapor pressure substrates such as TNT. The validity and accuracy of the technique was demonstrated by applying it to the decomposition of substances whose Arrhenius parameters for decomposition were already well known. IR-fluorescence measurements show that the temperature-space-time behavior under the present LPHP conditions is in agreement with expectations and with requirements which must be met if the method is to have quantitative validity. LPHP studies of azoisopropane decomposition, chosen as a radical-forming test reaction, show the accepted literature parameters to be substantially in error and indicate that the correct values are in all probability much closer to those measured in this work: log (k/s) = 13.9 - 41.2/2.3 RT.

McMillen, D.F.; Golden, D.M.

1981-11-12

402

Fundamentals of pyrosequencing.  

PubMed

Context.-DNA sequencing is critical to identifying many human genetic disorders caused by DNA mutations, including cancer. Pyrosequencing is less complex, involves fewer steps, and has a superior limit of detection compared with Sanger sequencing. The fundamental basis of pyrosequencing is that pyrophosphate is released when a deoxyribonucleotide triphosphate is added to the end of a nascent strand of DNA. Because deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates are sequentially added to the reaction and because the pyrophosphate concentration is continuously monitored, the DNA sequence can be determined. Objective.-To demonstrate the fundamental principles of pyrosequencing. Data Sources.-Salient features of pyrosequencing are demonstrated using the free software program Pyromaker ( http://pyromaker.pathology.jhmi.edu ), through which users can input DNA sequences and other pyrosequencing parameters to generate the expected pyrosequencing results. Conclusions.-We demonstrate how mutant and wild-type DNA sequences result in different pyrograms. Using pyrograms of established mutations in tumors, we explain how to analyze the pyrogram peaks generated by different dispensation sequences. Further, we demonstrate some limitations of pyrosequencing, including how some complex mutations can be indistinguishable from single base mutations. Pyrosequencing is the basis of the Roche 454 next-generation sequencer and many of the same principles also apply to the Ion Torrent hydrogen ion-based next-generation sequencers. PMID:23991743

Harrington, Colleen T; Lin, Elaine I; Olson, Matthew T; Eshleman, James R

2013-09-01

403

Once in a Million Years: Teaching Geologic Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors advocate that students frequently lack fundamental numerical literacy on the order of millions or billions, and that this comprehension is critical to grasping key evolutionary concepts related to the geologic time scale, the origin and diversification of life on earth, and other concepts such as the national debt, human population…

Lewis, Susan E.; Lampe, Kristen A.; Lloyd, Andrew J.

2005-01-01

404

Geological research for public outreach and education in Lithuania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Successful IYPE activities and implementation of Geoheritage day in Lithuania increased public awareness in geology. A series of projects introducing geology to the general public and youth, supported by EU funds and local communities, were initiated. Researchers from the scientific and applied geology institutions of Lithuania participated in these projects and provided with the geological data. In one case, the Lithuanian Survey of Protected Areas supported the installation of a series of geological exhibitions in several regional and national parks. An animation demonstrating glacial processes was chosen for most of these because the Lithuanian surface is largely covered with sedimentary deposits of the Nemunas (Weichselian) glaciation. Researchers from the Lithuanian Geological Survey used the mapping results to demonstrate real glacial processes for every chosen area. In another case, 3D models showing underground structures of different localities were based on detailed geological maps and profiles obtained for that area. In case of the Sartai regional park, the results of previous geological research projects provided the possibility to create a movie depicting the ca. 2 Ga geological evolution of the region. The movie starts with the accretion of volcanic island arcs on the earlier continental margin at ca. 2 Ga and deciphers later Precambrian tectonic and magmatic events. The reconstruction is based on numerous scientific articles and interpretation of geophysical data. Later Paleozoic activities and following erosion sculptured the surface which was covered with several ice sheets in Quaternary. For educational purpose, a collection of minerals and rocks at the Forestry Institute was used to create an exhibition called "Cycle of geological processes". Forestry scientists and their students are able to study the interactions of geodiversity and biodiversity and to understand ancient and modern geological processes leading to a soil formation. An aging exposition at the Museum of Erratic Boulders in NW Lithuania is being rearranged for educational purposes, to show the major rock types and their origins more clearly. A new exhibition is supplemented with computer portals presenting geological processes, geological quizzes, animations etc. Magmatism, metamorphism, sedimentation and other geological processes are demonstrated using erratic boulders brought by glaciers from Scandinavia and northern Russia. A part of the exhibition is devoted to glaciation processes and arrival of ice sheets to Lithuania. Visitors are able to examine large erratic boulder groups in a surrounding park and to enjoy beautiful environment. The exhibition also demonstrates mineral resources of Lithuania, different fossils and stones from a human body. In all cases it was recognised that a lack of geological information limits the use of geology for public outreach. Ongoing scientific research is essential in many places as well as a mediator's job for interpreting the results of highly specialised research results and to adapt them for public consumption.

Skridlaite, Grazina; Guobyte, Rimante

2013-04-01

405

Minnesota Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Minnesota Geological Survey (MGS) was established in 1872 as part of the University of Minnesota. The function of the MGS is to serve "the people of Minnesota by providing systematic geoscience information to support stewardship of water, land, and mineral resources." This website from the Digital Conservancy at the University of Minnesota provides access to all of items published by the MGS. The items are contained within the Collections area, and visitors will find headings here such as "Geology of Minnesota Parks," "County Atlas Series," and the "Bulletin of the Minnesota Geological and Natural History Survey." First-time visitors can check out the Recent Submissions area on the right-hand side of the page to look over some new findings, including hydrogeological maps of different counties around the state. One item that should not be missed is the "Geology of Minnesota: A Centennial Volume" from 1972. It's a tremendous volume and one that cannot be ignored by students of the physical landscape and geological history of the state.

2012-09-21

406

Connecting Soils and Glacial Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of this activity is to provide students an opportunity to connect soil science to surficial geology by using a Soil Surveys. By the end of the activity, students should be able to use a Soil Survey to identify and interpret landforms and surficial features. This activity can be adapted to variety of process (ex. eolian deposits, glacial deposits, bedrock weathering, etc.). County-level soil surveys are available in both paper and online formats for the majority of the United States. Designed for a geomorphology course Has minimal/no quantitative component

Dolliver, Holly

407

Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium processing site at Naturita, Colorado. Remedial Action Selection Report, Appendix B of Attachment 2: Geology report, Final  

SciTech Connect

The uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado, is one of 24 inactive uranium mill sites designated to be cleaned up by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), 42 USC {section} 7901 et seq. Part of the UMTRCA requires that the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) concur with the DOE`s remedial action plan (RAP) and certify that the remedial action conducted at the site complies with the standards promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Included in the RAP is this Remedial Action Selection Report (RAS), which describes the proposed remedial action for the Naturita site. An extensive amount of data and supporting information has been generated and evaluated for this remedial action. These data and supporting information are not incorporated into this single document but are included or referenced in the supporting documents. The RAP consists of this RAS and four supporting documents or attachments. This Attachment 2, Geology Report describes the details of geologic, geomorphic, and seismic conditions at the Dry Flats disposal site.

Not Available

1994-03-01

408

Cosmology and Fundamental Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Astro2010 Science Frontier Panel Cosmology and Fundamental Physics' scope encompassed the early universe, the microwave background, the reionization and galaxy formation up to virialization of protogalaxies, large scale structure, the intergalactic medium, the determination of cosmological parameters, dark matter, dark energy, tests of gravity, astronomically determined physical constants, and high energy physics using astronomical messengers. The Panel identified 4 questions that it believed will form the focus for research in the coming decade: (1) How did the Universe Begin? (2) Why is the Universe Accelerating? (3) WHat is the Dark Matter? and (4) What Are the Properties of Neutrinos? The panel also identified gravity wave astronomy as a discovery area of tremendous promise.

Spergel, David N.

2011-05-01

409

Wall of fundamental constants  

SciTech Connect

We consider the signatures of a domain wall produced in the spontaneous symmetry breaking involving a dilatonlike scalar field coupled to electromagnetism. Domains on either side of the wall exhibit slight differences in their respective values of the fine-structure constant, {alpha}. If such a wall is present within our Hubble volume, absorption spectra at large redshifts may or may not provide a variation in {alpha} relative to the terrestrial value, depending on our relative position with respect to the wall. This wall could resolve the contradiction between claims of a variation of {alpha} based on Keck/Hires data and of the constancy of {alpha} based on Very Large Telescope data. We derive the properties of the wall and the parameters of the underlying microscopic model required to reproduce the possible spatial variation of {alpha}. We discuss the constraints on the existence of the low-energy domain wall and describe its observational implications concerning the variation of the fundamental constants.

Olive, Keith A. [William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 55455 (United States); School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 55455 (United States); Peloso, Marco [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 55455 (United States); Uzan, Jean-Philippe [Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, UMR-7095 du CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis bd Arago, 75014 Paris (France); Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, Cape Town University, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); National Institute for Theoretical Physics (NITheP), Stellenbosch 7600 (South Africa)

2011-02-15

410

Fundamentals in Nuclear Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This course on nuclear physics leads the reader to the exploration of the field from nuclei to astrophysical issues. Much nuclear phenomenology can be understood from simple arguments such as those based on the Pauli principle and the Coulomb barrier. This book is concerned with extrapolating from such arguments and illustrating nuclear systematics with experimental data. Starting with the basic concepts in nuclear physics, nuclear models, and reactions, the book covers nuclear decays and the fundamental electro-weak interactions, radioactivity, and nuclear energy. After the discussions of fission and fusion leading into nuclear astrophysics, there is a presentation of the latest ideas about cosmology. As a primer this course will lay the foundations for more specialized subjects. This book emerged from a series of topical courses the authors delivered at the Ecole Polytechnique and will be useful for graduate students and for scientists in a variety of fields.

Basdevant, Jean-Louis, Rich, James, Spiro, Michael

411

Geology of Io  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geologic mapping of the Jovian satellite Io has been completed at 1:15,000,000 scale for an area lying between +40 and -90 deg latitude and 230 and 45 deg longitude, which includes portions of the Ruwa Patera quadrangle (Ji2) and the Lerna Region (Ji4) and the westernmost section of the Colchis Region (Ji3). Image resolution in the mapped area is commonly 0.5 to 2 km/pxl. High resolution areas (less than .5 km/pxl) are located near the south pole (Lerna Region) and in eastern Ruwa Patera quadrangle. Geologic maps for the Ruwa Patera quadrangle (Ji2) and the Lerna Region (Ji4) have been produced at 1:5,000,000 scale. The present effort reexamines the previously mapped areas and synthesizes the geology of Io on a global scale.

Greeley, R.; Craddock, R. A.; Crown, D. A.; Leshin, L. A.; Schaber, G. G.

1987-05-01

412

Geology for Everyone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Geological Survey of Ireland website can increase the public's excitement about geology by offering simple, straightforward materials on the basics of geology. The website is divided into numerous themes such as Volcanoes, Rocks, Caves, and the Water Cycle. The links from each of the headings introduce the topic with simple descriptions and remarkable pictures and offer easy experiments when applicable. Students and educators can take virtual tours of the Ox Mountains, Killiney Beach, and other Irish landscapes. Everyone should visit the Landscapes for the Living link, which offers outstanding images of the diverse landscapes of Europe. While some of the themes are currently under construction, including Planet Earth, Plate Tectonics, and Earthquakes, the authors indicate that these materials will be added in the near future.

413

The geology of Ganymede  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A broad outline of the geologic history of Ganymede is presented, obtained from a first attempt to map the geology on a global scale and to interpret the characteristics of the observed geologic units. Features of the ancient cratered terrain such as craters and palimpsests, furrows and troughs, are discussed. The grooved terrain is described, including its sulci and cells, and the age relation of these units is considered along with the structure and origin of this terrain. The Gilgamesh Basin and Western Equatorial Basin in the post grooved terrain are treated, as are the bright and dark ray craters and the regolith. The development of all these regions and features is discussed in context. For the regolith, this includes the effect of water migration, sputtering, and thermal annealing. The histories of the ancient cratered terrain, the grooved terrain, and the post grooved terrain are presented.

Shoemaker, E. M.; Lucchitta, B. K.; Wilhelms, D. E.; Plescia, J. B.; Squyres, S. W.

414

SOPAC marine geology atlases  

SciTech Connect

The US Geological Survey conducted a series of marine geologic and geophysical cruises in the southwest Pacific Ocean in 1982 and 1984 as part of a program with participation by Australia and New Zealand. These two SOPAC expeditions obtained various data, which have been compiled into a series of charts and thematic products for the offshore areas of Tonga, Fiji, Vanuatu, the Solomon Islands, and Papua New Guinea. The maps and charts presently being compiled or revised combine previously collected data with information from the SOPAC expeditions. Regional charts at a scale of approximately 1:3 million are included, and more detailed coverage is available at 1:1 million. Additional geologic information-such as gravity, magnetics, and possibly sediment isopachs-is provided on overlays to the topographic base charts. Reproductions of the seismic reflection data are also included, and tracklines with both time marks and shotpoints will permit correlation with the analog and digital seismic records.

Chase, T.E.; Seekins, B.A.; Young, J.D.; Wahler, J.A.

1986-07-01

415

Geology By Lightplane  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1966, Professor Louis J. Maher of the University of Wisconsin-Madison's Department of Geology and Geophysics piloted a department-owned Cessna over the continental US taking photos for use in his geology courses. As Maher flew, his trusty co-pilot and graduate assistant, Charles Mansfield, snapped the photos. The resulting collection is an assortment of breathtaking images of classic geological features, now available online for noncommercial use by educators (download via FTP). Maher gives us birds-eye views of structural features in Wyoming's Wind River Range, sedimentary strata in Arches National Park and the Grand Canyon, glacial landscapes in Northern Minnesota, and ancient lava flows in Arizona, to name just a few.

Maher, Louis J.

2001-01-01

416

Sedimentology and petroleum geology  

SciTech Connect

In this introduction to sedimentology and petroleum geology the subjects, which are closely related but mostly treated separately, are integrated. The first part covers the basic aspects of sedimentology, sedimentary geochemistry and diagenesis, including brief discussions of flow in rivers and channels, types of sediment transport, lake and river deposits, deltas (river-dominated, tide-dominated, and wave-dominated) and the water budget. Principles of stratigraphy, seismic stratigraphy and basin modeling form the basis for the last part on petroleum geology. Here subjects include the composition of kerogen and hydrocarbons, theories of migration and trapping of hydrocarbons and properties of reservoir rocks. Finally, short introductions to well logging and production geology are given.

Bjorlykke, K.

1989-01-01

417

Global sedimentary geology program  

SciTech Connect

The Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, in collaboration with the International Association of Sedimentologists and the International Union of Geological Sciences Committee on Sedimentology, is developing a new international study under the provisional title of Global Sedimentary Geology Program (GSGP). Initially, three research themes are being considered: (1) event stratigraphy-the documentation of examples of mass extinctions, eustatic fluctuations in sea level, major episodes of volcanisms, and changes in ocean composition; (2) facies models in time and space-an expansion of the existing data base of examples of facies models (e.G., deltas, fluvial deposits, and submarine fans) and global-scale study of the persistence of facies at various times in geologic history; and (3) sedimentary indices of paleogeography and tectonics-the use of depositional facies and faunas in paleogeography and in assessing the timing, locus, and characteristics of tectonism. Plans are being developed to organize pilot projects in each of these themes.

Ginsburg, R.N.; Clifton, H.E.; Weimer, R.J.

1986-07-01

418

Project Primary Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Project Primary is a collaboration of professors from the departments of Botany-Microbiology, Chemistry, Education, Geology, Physics, and Zoology at Ohio Wesleyan University and K-3 teachers from Ohio's Delaware, Marion, and Union Counties to produce hands-on activities for the teaching of science. The geology activities are appropriate for children in grades K-12. Collectively, the goals for these activities are to demonstrate the inter-relatedness of life and the physical planet, the importance of understanding scientific phenomena for all people, not just future scientists, to impart knowledge which leads through student curiosity to continued inquiry, and to spur creativity. Topics covered include earthquakes, behavior of Earth materials, plate tectonics, the surface of the Earth, volcanoes, and geologic time and the evolution of the Earth.

Fryer, Karen

419

Principles of isotope geology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discussions of methods of isotope dating using Rb-Sr, K-Ar, ⁴°Ar\\/³⁹Ar, Re-Os, Lu-Hf, K-Ca, U, Tb-Pb, ¹⁴C, common lead, S,O,H, fission track, and U-series disequilibrium are included in respective chapters. Introductory chapters discussing the basics of isotope geology, atomic structure, decay mechanisms and mass spectrometry are included along with two appendices; the geological time scale for the Phanerzoic and a fitting

G Faure

1977-01-01

420

Understanding Geological Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this classroom activity, middle school students gain an understanding of geologic time. The activity opens with background information for teachers about carbon and radiometric dating. In a classroom discussion, students share what they know about geologic time. Then, working in small groups responsible for different eras, students create a timeline for their assigned era by conducting library and Internet research. The activity concludes by having students review all the timelines to compare how long humans have been on the Earth to the length of time dinosaurs inhabited the planet.

421

Petroleum development geology  

SciTech Connect

An overview of geological concepts and reservoir engineering practices as they apply to the field of development (production) geology is presented. The author touches on nearly every aspect of the field in the 21 chapters of the book. He summarizes the basic depositional origin, sedimentary characteristics, and petrology of hydrocarbon-bearing rocks. He discusses physical properties, origin, and migration of subsurface oil and gas, oil field water, and their behavior, including subsurface pressures and fluid mechanics. Also covered are various methods of estimating reserves, the major tools of the trade and their limitations, and case histories.

Dickey, P.A.

1986-01-01

422

Yosemite in Depth: Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reference provides detailed information and activities related to the geology of Yosemite National Park. The introduction provides a history of ideas on Yosemite's origin. An overview describes the geologic history of the Sierra Nevada Mountains. An interactive timeline is featured to provide users with a temporal reference on park history. For students, there is a field journal with interactive questions and exercises about the park, and a set of online activities that take place on the park's Mirror Lake Trail. Links to a glossary are embedded in the text, and a list of references is provided.

423

Fundamental studies of polymer filtration  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objectives of this project were (1) to develop an enhanced fundamental understanding of the coordination chemistry of hazardous-metal-ion complexation with water-soluble metal-binding polymers, and (2) to exploit this knowledge to develop improved separations for analytical methods, metals processing, and waste treatment. We investigated features of water-soluble metal-binding polymers that affect their binding constants and selectivity for selected transition metal ions. We evaluated backbone polymers using light scattering and ultrafiltration techniques to determine the effect of pH and ionic strength on the molecular volume of the polymers. The backbone polymers were incrementally functionalized with a metal-binding ligand. A procedure and analytical method to determine the absolute level of functionalization was developed and the results correlated with the elemental analysis, viscosity, and molecular size.

Smith, B.F.; Lu, M.T.; Robison, T.W.; Rogers, Y.C.; Wilson, K.V.

1998-12-31

424

Understand vacuum-system fundamentals  

SciTech Connect

Crude vacuum unit heavy vacuum gas-oil (HVGO) yield is significantly impacted by ejector-system performance, especially at conditions below 20 mmHg absolute pressure. A deepcut vacuum unit, to reliably meet the yields, calls for proper design of all the major pieces of equipment. Ejector-system performance at deepcut vacuum column pressures may be independently or concurrently affected by: atmospheric column overflash, stripper performance or cutpoint; vacuum column top temperature and heat balance; light vacuum gas-oil (LVGO) pumparound entrainment to the ejector system; cooling-water temperature; motive steam pressure; non-condensible loading, either air leakage or cracked light-end hydrocarbons; condensible hydrocarbons; intercondenser or aftercondenser fouling ejector internal erosion or product build-up; and system vent back pressure. The paper discusses gas-oil yields; ejector-system fundamentals; condensers; vacuum-system troubleshooting; process operations; and a case study of deepcut operations.

Martin, G.R. (Process Consulting Services, Grapevine, TX (United States)); Lines, J.R. (Graham Manufacturing Co., Inc., Batavia, NY (United States)); Golden, S.W. (Glitsch, Inc., Dallas, TX (United States))

1994-10-01

425

Fundamental issues in questionnaire design.  

PubMed

The questionnaire is probably the most common form of data collection tool used in nursing research. There is a misconception that anyone with a clear grasp of English and a modicum of common sense can design an effective questionnaire. Contrary to such common belief, this article will demonstrate that questionnaire design is a complex and time consuming process, but a necessary labour to ensure valid and reliable data is collected. In addition, meticulous construction is more likely to yield data that can be utilized in the pursuit of objective, quantitative and generalizable truths, upon which practice and policy decisions can be formulated. This article examines a myriad of fundamental issues surrounding questionnaire design, which encompass question wording, question order, presentation, administration and data collection, amongst other issues. PMID:10693384

Murray, P

1999-07-01

426

Topographic Maps are Fundamental to Sensory Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In all mammals, much of the neocortex consists of orderly representations or maps of receptor surfaces that are typically topographic at a global level, while being modular at the local level. These representations appear to emerge in development as a result of a few interacting factors, and different aspects of brain maps may be developmentally linked. As a result, evolutionary

Jon H Kaas

1997-01-01

427

Fundamental Aspects of the Refining Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Current theories of Low Consistency (LC) refining are addressed. In some cases, reference is also made to High Consistency (HC) refining and to the refining of mechanical pulps. In today's refiners, fibers undergo refining in a narrow gap. The most widely...

S. Hietanen K. Ebeling

1991-01-01

428

Life on Guam: Geology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit is part of a series of materials produced by a project to develop locally applicable class, lab, and field materials in ecology and social studies for Guam junior and senior high schools. While the materials were designed for Guam, they can be adapted to other localities. This unit is designed to acquaint the students with the geology of…

Elkins, Gail

429

Geology of Wisconsin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Included are a teacher's guidebook and two filmstrips, "Geology of Wisconsin," and associated materials. The following are described: outline of objectives; suggested use of the filmstrips and guidebook; outline of the filmstrip content; four pages of illustrations suitable for duplication; a test for each filmstrip; and a list of additional…

Madison Public Schools, WI.

430

Geologic controls on radon  

SciTech Connect

This text provides a review of recent research on geological controls of [sup 222]Rn concentrations in soil gas in relation to the problem of high indoor radon concentrations in houses. The importance of the subject matter is highlighted in the preface by the observation that the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates that 15,000 to 25,000 deaths result from radon-induced lung cancer each year in the United States. The text contains 8 Chapters: (1) Geology of radon in the United States; (2) Sensitivity of soil radon to geology and the distribution of radon and uranium in the Hylas Zone Area, Virginia; (3) Geologic and environmental implications of high soil-gas radon concentrations in The Great Valley, Jefferson and Berkeley Counties, West Virginia; (4) Soil radon distribution in glaciated areas: an example from the New Jersey Highlands; (5) Radon in the coastal plain of Texas, Alabama, and New Jersey; (6) Effects of weather and soil characteristics on temporal variations in soil-gas radon concentrations; (7) A theoretical model for the flux of radon from rock to ground water; (8) The influence of season, bedrock, overburden, and house construction on airborne levels of radon in Maine homes. The individual chapters are written by different authors in the form of self-contained research papers, each of which is followed by a comprehensive list of references.

Gates, A.E.; Gundersen, L.C.S. (eds.)

1992-01-01

431

Geology of Callisto.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The geology of Callisto is not boring. Although cratered terrain dominates Callisto (a key end-member of the Jovian satellite system), a number of more interesting features are apparent. Cratered terrain is broken into irregular map-able bright and dark s...

P. M. Schenk

1995-01-01

432

Marine Geology and Geophysics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration website provides bathymetry, topography and relief data; digital coastlines; an interactive coastline extractor; ocean mapping; the geomorphology and bathymetry of the Great Lakes; geological data of the seafloor, and total sediment thickness; and geophysical data, including trackline measurements of gravity, and magnetics from global ocean areas.

433

Geology of Io.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Geologic mapping of the Jovian satellite Io has been completed at 1:15,000,000 scale for an area lying between +40 and -90 deg latitude and 230 and 45 deg longitude, which includes portions of the Ruwa Patera quadrangle (Ji2) and the Lerna Region (Ji4) an...

R. Greeley R. A. Craddock D. A. Crown L. A. Leshin G. G. Schaber

1987-01-01

434

Appendix E: Geology  

SciTech Connect

This appendix provides a detailed description of geology under the Central Plateau of the Hanford Site, emphasizing the areas around tank farms. It is to be published by client CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., as part of a larger, multi-contractor technical report.

Reidel, Steve; Chamness, Mickie A.

2008-01-17

435

Apollo's geology lesson  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An historical account of the Apollo Project's lunar rock samples are presented. The discovery of the rocks and the methods and equipment used in analyzing them are discussed. The results of the analysis of the lunar samples are briefly summarized with respect to lunar geology, evolution, and origin.

Goodman, Billy

1994-06-01

436

Geologic Structures Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the variables governing the brittle and ductile behavior of rocks, the simple geological structures associated with differential stress, and look at and apply real data to evaluate the depth to the brittle-ductile transition in the crust and how that depth can change temporarily due to sudden changes in stress introduced by large earthquakes.

Leland, John

437

Geological and Inorganic Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a review focusing on techniques and their application to the analysis of geological and inorganic materials that offer significant changes to research and routine work. Covers geostandards, spectroscopy, plasmas, microbeam techniques, synchrotron X-ray methods, nuclear activation methods, chromatography, and electroanalytical methods.…

Jackson, L. L.; And Others

1989-01-01

438

Geologic exploration of Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scientific objectives and methods involved in a geologic exploration of Mars from a manned outpost are discussed. The constraints on outpost activities imposed by the limited crew size, limited amount of time available for science, the limited diversity of scientific expertise, and the competition between scientific disciplines are addressed. Three examples of possible outpost locations are examined: the Olympus

J. B. Plescia

1990-01-01

439

Glacial Geology of Wisconsin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication is a teacher's resource and guidebook for the presentation of the three filmstrips in the "Glacial Geology of Wisconsin" series. The first filmstrip is subtitled, "Evidence of the Glaciers," the second "How the Glaciers Reshaped the Landscape," and the third "Fossils of the Ice Age." Included are a list of objectives, an outline…

Madison Public Schools, WI.

440

Urban Geology (GEOL357)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage describes the Urban Geology class at California State University - Los Angeles. The course explores the natural environment in and around urban population centers and looks at how planners can mitigate the effects of natural phenomena such as earthquakes, floods, and landslides.

California State University, L. A.

441

Geology: The Active Earth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. The topic of this issue is "Geology: The Active Earth." Contents are organized into the following…

Braus, Judy, Ed.

1987-01-01

442

Lyell's Geological Texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

RECENTLY, while referring to Charles Lyell' ``Elements of Geology'', it was found that the Yale Library copy, of date September 12, 1839, had been sent by the publishers to Benjamin Silliman. This was the first American edition from the first London edition as published by Kay Bros., Philadelphia, with 316 pages and 295 figures in the text. After one hundred

G. R. Wieland

1940-01-01

443

Elements of petroleum geology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work surveys the modern science of petroleum geology. Its aim is twofold: to describe generation, migration, and entrapment of oil and gas, and to outline the various procedures used in their location, evaluation, and production. Selley begins the book with an account of the physical and chemical properties of petroleum, followed by a review of the methods of petroleum

Selley

1985-01-01

444

Geology of Crater Lake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Geology of Crater Lake is a resource for an introductory course on the geology of Mount Mazama and the Crater Lake caldera. The actual course consists of two evening presentations and a one-day field trip. The presentations outline the mountain's geologic setting, eruptive history, and potential hazards. The field trip affords an opportunity to examine volcanic and glacial features around the caldera rim and to explore one of the most spectacular lakes in the world. Upon successful completion of this course a student will be capable of the following: to describe the geologic setting of Mount Mazama and the other Cascade volcanoes; to identify andesite, dacite, and basalt and explain how the compositions of the lavas that form these rocks influence their eruptive characters; and to outline the major types of hazards that future eruptions of Mount Mazama may pose to regional communities. Along with a course syllabus, a bibliography and related links are available. Those registered for the course can visit the Gradebook to view their marks.

Hirt, William

445

Soviet geology, 1976  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geological history of the Jurassic period shows that the most abrupt change in physiogeographical, and particularly in climatic, conditions occured not at its lower or upper limit but at the boundary between the middle and late epochs. This is shown especially clearly by a study of the lacustral and continental sediments which form such a significant feature of the

V. A. Vakhrameyev

1976-01-01

446

Geology en Espanol  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a program in which an introductory geology class was conducted in Spanish at Western Michigan University. Although difficulties were encountered, the author evaluated the program as a great success, and a valuable experience for the person who wants to be effectively bilingual in his profession. (JR)|

McGehee, Richard V.

1973-01-01

447

Topographic Maps Illustrating Common Geologic Features (title provided or enhanced by cataloger)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Links are provided to topographic maps that illustrate common geologic features and processes, such as igneous activity, mass movement, streams, underground water, glaciers, wind, ocean basins, geologic structures, and waves or currents. Cultural features and map symbols are also covered.

Slaymaker, Susan

448

Overlay accuracy fundamentals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, the performance of overlay metrology is evaluated mainly based on random error contributions such as precision and TIS variability. With the expected shrinkage of the overlay metrology budget to < 0.5nm, it becomes crucial to include also systematic error contributions which affect the accuracy of the metrology. Here we discuss fundamental aspects of overlay accuracy and a methodology to improve accuracy significantly. We identify overlay mark imperfections and their interaction with the metrology technology, as the main source of overlay inaccuracy. The most important type of mark imperfection is mark asymmetry. Overlay mark asymmetry leads to a geometrical ambiguity in the definition of overlay, which can be ~1nm or less. It is shown theoretically and in simulations that the metrology may enhance the effect of overlay mark asymmetry significantly and lead to metrology inaccuracy ~10nm, much larger than the geometrical ambiguity. The analysis is carried out for two different overlay metrology technologies: Imaging overlay and DBO (1st order diffraction based overlay). It is demonstrated that the sensitivity of DBO to overlay mark asymmetry is larger than the sensitivity of imaging overlay. Finally, we show that a recently developed measurement quality metric serves as a valuable tool for improving overlay metrology accuracy. Simulation results demonstrate that the accuracy of imaging overlay can be improved significantly by recipe setup optimized using the quality metric. We conclude that imaging overlay metrology, complemented by appropriate use of measurement quality metric, results in optimal overlay accuracy.

Kandel, Daniel; Levinski, Vladimir; Sapiens, Noam; Cohen, Guy; Amit, Eran; Klein, Dana; Vakshtein, Irina

2012-03-01

449

Fundamentals of Atmospheric Radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This textbook fills a gap in the literature for teaching material suitable for students of atmospheric science and courses on atmospheric radiation. It covers the fundamentals of emission, absorption, and scattering of electromagnetic radiation from ultraviolet to infrared and beyond. Much of the book applies to planetary atmosphere. The authors are physicists and teach at the largest meteorology department of the US at Penn State. Craig T. Bohren has taught the atmospheric radiation course there for the past 20 years with no book. Eugene Clothiaux has taken over and added to the course notes. Problems given in the text come from students, colleagues, and correspondents. The design of the figures especially for this book is meant to ease comprehension. Discussions have a graded approach with a thorough treatment of subjects, such as single scattering by particles, at different levels of complexity. The discussion of the multiple scattering theory begins with piles of plates. This simple theory introduces concepts in more advanced theories, i.e. optical thickness, single-scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter. The more complicated theory, the two-stream theory, then takes the reader beyond the pile-of-plates theory. Ideal for advanced undergraduate and graduate students of atmospheric science.

Bohren, Craig F.; Clothiaux, Eugene E.

2006-02-01

450

Geologic Map Database of Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The purpose of this report is to release a digital geologic map database for the State of Texas. This database was compiled for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Program, National Surveys and Analysis Project, whose goal is a nationwide assemblage of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and other data. This release makes the geologic data from the Geologic Map of Texas available in digital format. Original clear film positives provided by the Texas Bureau of Economic Geology were photographically enlarged onto Mylar film. These films were scanned, georeferenced, digitized, and attributed by Geologic Data Systems (GDS), Inc., Denver, Colorado. Project oversight and quality control was the responsibility of the U.S. Geological Survey. ESRI ArcInfo coverages, AMLs, and shapefiles are provided.

Stoeser, Douglas B.; Shock, Nancy; Green, Gregory N.; Dumonceaux, Gayle M.; Heran, William D.

2005-01-01

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