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Sea Level Change, A Fundamental Process When Interpreting Coastal Geology and Geography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the meaning of sea level change and identifies the major factors responsible for this occurrence. Elaborates on the theory and processes involved in indirect measurement of changes in sea volume. Also explains how crustal movement affects sea level. (ML)

Zeigler, John M.



Field Geology/Processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The field geology/process group examined the basic operations of a terrestrial field geologist and the manner in which these operations could be transferred to a planetary lander. Four basic requirements for robotic field geology were determined: geologic content; surface vision; mobility; and manipulation. Geologic content requires a combination of orbital and descent imaging. Surface vision requirements include range, resolution, stereo, and multispectral imaging. The minimum mobility for useful field geology depends on the scale of orbital imagery. Manipulation requirements include exposing unweathered surfaces, screening samples, and bringing samples in contact with analytical instruments. To support these requirements, several advanced capabilities for future development are recommended. Capabilities include near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy, hyper-spectral imaging, multispectral microscopy, artificial intelligence in support of imaging, x ray diffraction, x ray fluorescence, and rock chipping.

Allen, Carlton; Jakes, Petr; Jaumann, Ralf; Marshall, John; Moses, Stewart; Ryder, Graham; Saunders, Stephen; Singer, Robert



Fall 2014 -Fundamentals of Research Geology 5020  

E-print Network

minutes for questions) on any scientific subject of your choice (i.e. not limited to geologic topics student presentations. These include a resume; a chalk talk on any scientific topic that will be video taped and reviewed; a scientific poster; a web page; and your final proposal to be presented in both

Heller, Paul


Oceanography - Marine Geological Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A first year course in oceanography with extensive Internet resources. Topics covered include: principles of thermodynamics, heat and mass transfer, fluid mechanics, continuum mechanics, and time-series analysis applied to marine geological and geophysical data; applications to transport of marine sediments; Pleistocene sedimentation and global climate change; and the thermal balance of the oceanic lithosphere. The link to the lecture schedule provides detailed supporting materials.

Mcduff, Russell


Fundamentals of Geophysical Data Processing  

SciTech Connect

The 274-page Fundamentals of Geophysical Data Processing is about the use of computer programs for analysis of geophysical data to help determine the constitution of the earth's interior. This process enables a geophysicist to locate petroleum and mineral prospects. Contents include: Transforms; On-side functions; Spectral factorization; Resolution; Matrices and multichannel time series; Data modeling by least squares; Waveform application of least squares; Layers revealed by scattered wave filtering; Mathematical physics in stratified media; Initial-value problems in two and three dimensions and seismic data processing with the wave equation.

Claerbout, J.F.



Computer image processing: Geologic applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer image processing of digital data was performed to support several geological studies. The specific goals were to: (1) relate the mineral content to the spectral reflectance of certain geologic materials, (2) determine the influence of environmental factors, such as atmosphere and vegetation, and (3) improve image processing techniques. For detection of spectral differences related to mineralogy, the technique of band ratioing was found to be the most useful. The influence of atmospheric scattering and methods to correct for the scattering were also studied. Two techniques were used to correct for atmospheric effects: (1) dark object subtraction, (2) normalization of use of ground spectral measurements. Of the two, the first technique proved to be the most successful for removing the effects of atmospheric scattering. A digital mosaic was produced from two side-lapping LANDSAT frames. The advantages were that the same enhancement algorithm can be applied to both frames, and there is no seam where the two images are joined.

Abrams, M. J.



Fundamentals of Biomedical Image Processing  

PubMed Central

Automatic biomedical image processing has enjoyed increased popularity of late, primarily because it can be used to enhance images to measure and count accurately and quickly in various types of applications. Preliminary background and basic terminology commonly used in biomedical image processing will be reviewed. Among these are sources and forms of biomedical images, image enhancement, searching and analysis modes in biomedical image processing, and possible output formats. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 10Fig. 11

Huang, H.K.



Planetary geology: Impact processes on asteroids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fundamental geological and geophysical properties of asteroids were studied by theoretical and simulation studies of their collisional evolution. Numerical simulations incorporating realistic physical models were developed to study the collisional evolution of hypothetical asteroid populations over the age of the solar system. Ideas and models are constrained by the observed distributions of sizes, shapes, and spin rates in the asteroid belt, by properties of Hirayama families, and by experimental studies of cratering and collisional phenomena. It is suggested that many asteroids are gravitationally-bound "rubble piles.' Those that rotate rapidly may have nonspherical quasi-equilibrium shapes, such as ellipsoids or binaries. Through comparison of models with astronomical data, physical properties of these asteroids (including bulk density) are determined, and physical processes that have operated in the solar system in primordial and subsequent epochs are studied.

Chapman, C. R.; Davis, D. R.; Greenberg, R.; Weidenschilling, S. J.



Health benefits of geologic materials and geologic processes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The reemerging field of Medical Geology is concerned with the impacts of geologic materials and geologic processes on animal and human health. Most medical geology research has been focused on health problems caused by excess or deficiency of trace elements, exposure to ambient dust, and on other geologically related health problems or health problems for which geoscience tools, techniques, or databases could be applied. Little, if any, attention has been focused on the beneficial health effects of rocks, minerals, and geologic processes. These beneficial effects may have been recognized as long as two million years ago and include emotional, mental, and physical health benefits. Some of the earliest known medicines were derived from rocks and minerals. For thousands of years various clays have been used as an antidote for poisons. "Terra sigillata," still in use today, may have been the first patented medicine. Many trace elements, rocks, and minerals are used today in a wide variety of pharmaceuticals and health care products. There is also a segment of society that believes in the curative and preventative properties of crystals (talismans and amulets). Metals and trace elements are being used in some of today's most sophisticated medical applications. Other recent examples of beneficial effects of geologic materials and processes include epidemiological studies in Japan that have identified a wide range of health problems (such as muscle and joint pain, hemorrhoids, burns, gout, etc.) that may be treated by one or more of nine chemically distinct types of hot springs, and a study in China indicating that residential coal combustion may be mobilizing sufficient iodine to prevent iodine deficiency disease. ?? 2006 MDPI. All rights reserved.

Finkelman, R.B.



Comparison Charts of Geological Processes: Terrestrial Planets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This chart presents information on the geological processes (volcanism, impact cratering, tectonics, and gradation) that have affected the Earth, Moon, and the terrestrial planets. Students compare the effects these processes have had on the Moon and planets. There is also a blank chart and a sheet of notes on the geological processes that may be used in conjunction with this chart. This chart is one of the activities for the Exploring Planets in the Classroom's Introduction to the Solar System.


Fundamental issues in the geology and geophysics of venus.  


A number of important and currently unresolved issues in the global geology and geophysics of Venus will be addressable with the radar imaging, altimetry, and gravity measurements now forthcoming from the Magellan mission. Among these are the global volcanic flux and the rate of formation of new crust; the global heat flux and its regional variations; the relative importance of localized hot spots and linear centers of crustal spreading to crustal formation and tectonics; and the planform of mantle convection on Venus and the nature of the interactions among interior convective flow, near-surface deformation and magmatism. PMID:17769271

Solomon, S C; Head, J W



Fundamental issues in the geology and geophysics of Venus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of important and currently unresolved issues in the global geology and geophysics of Venus will be addressable with the radar imaging, altimetry, and gravity measurements now forthcoming from the Magellan mission. Among these are the global volcanic flux and the rate of formation of new crust; the global heat flux and its regional variations; the relative importance of localized hot spots and linear centers of crustal spreading to crustal formation and tectonics; and the planform of mantle convection on Venus and the nature of the interactions among interior convective flow, near-surface deformation, and magmatism.

Solomon, S. C.; Head, J. W.



Fundamentals of fluidized bed chemical processes  

SciTech Connect

Chemical processes based on the use of fluidized solids, although widely used on an industrial scale for some four decades, are currently increasing in importance as industry looks for improved methods for handling and reacting solid materials. This book provides background necessary for an understanding of the technique of gas-solid fluidization. Contents: Some Fundamental Aspects of Fluidization-General Features of Gas-Solid Fluidization; Minimum Fluidization Velocity; Inter-particle forces; Liquid-Solid Fluidization; Bubbles; Slugging; Entrainment and Elutriation; Particle Movement; Bed Viscosity; Fluidization Under Pressure. Fluidized-Bed Reactor Models-ome Individual Models; Model Comparisons; Multiple Region Models. Catalytic Cracking-Process Developments Riser Cracking; Catalysis; Process Chemistry; Kinetics; Process Models. Combustion and Gasification-Plant Developments; Oil and Gas Combustion; Desulphurization; No/sub x/ Emissions; Coal Gassification. Miscellaneous Processes-Phthalic Anhydride (1,3-isobezofurandione); Acrylonitrile (prop-3-enenitrile); Vinyl Chloride (chloroethene); Titanium Dioxide; Uranium Processing; Sulphide Roasting; Indexes.

Yates, J.G.



Fundamental Processes in Plasmas. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This research focuses on fundamental processes in plasmas, and emphasizes problems for which precise experimental tests of theory can be obtained. Experiments are performed on non-neutral plasmas, utilizing three electron traps and one ion trap with a broad range of operating regimes and diagnostics. Theory is focused on fundamental plasma and fluid processes underlying collisional transport and fluid turbulence, using both analytic techniques and medium-scale numerical simulations. The simplicity of these systems allows a depth of understanding and a precision of comparison between theory and experiment which is rarely possible for neutral plasmas in complex geometry. The recent work has focused on three areas in basic plasma physics. First, experiments and theory have probed fundamental characteristics of plasma waves: from the low-amplitude thermal regime, to inviscid damping and fluid echoes, to cold fluid waves in cryogenic ion plasmas. Second, the wide-ranging effects of dissipative separatrices have been studied experimentally and theoretically, finding novel wave damping and coupling effects and important plasma transport effects. Finally, correlated systems have been investigated experimentally and theoretically: UCSD experients have now measured the Salpeter correlation enhancement, and theory work has characterized the 'guiding center atoms of antihydrogen created at CERN.

O'Neil, Thomas M.; Driscoll, C. Fred



Image Processing Applications for Geologic Mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of satellite data, particularly Landsat images, for geologic mapping provides the geologist with a powerful tool. The digital format of these data permits applications of image processing to extract or enhance information useful for mapping purposes. Examples are presented of lithologic classification using texture measures, automatic lineament detection and structural analysis, and use of registered multisource satellite data.

Michael Abrams; Annick Blusson; Veronique Carrere; Phu Thien Nguyen; Yves Rabu



Fundamental optical processes in armchair carbon nanotubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single-wall carbon nanotubes provide ideal model one-dimensional (1-D) condensed matter systems in which to address fundamental questions in many-body physics, while, at the same time, they are leading candidates for building blocks in nanoscale optoelectronic circuits. Much attention has been recently paid to their optical properties, arising from 1-D excitons and phonons, which have been revealed via photoluminescence, Raman scattering, and ultrafast optical spectroscopy of semiconducting carbon nanotubes. On the other hand, dynamical properties of metallic nanotubes have been poorly explored, although they are expected to provide a novel setting for the study of electron-hole pairs in the presence of degenerate 1-D electrons. In particular, (n,n)-chirality, or armchair, metallic nanotubes are truly gapless with massless carriers, ideally suited for dynamical studies of Tomonaga-Luttinger liquids. Unfortunately, progress towards such studies has been slowed by the inherent problem of nanotube synthesis whereby both semiconducting and metallic nanotubes are produced. Here, we use post-synthesis separation methods based on density gradient ultracentrifugation and DNA-based ion-exchange chromatography to produce aqueous suspensions strongly enriched in armchair nanotubes. Through resonant Raman spectroscopy of the radial breathing mode phonons, we provide macroscopic and unambiguous evidence that density gradient ultracentrifugation can enrich ensemble samples in armchair nanotubes. Furthermore, using conventional, optical absorption spectroscopy in the near-infrared and visible range, we show that interband absorption in armchair nanotubes is strongly excitonic. Lastly, by examining the G-band mode in Raman spectra, we determine that observation of the broad, lower frequency (G-) feature is a result of resonance with non-armchair ``metallic'' nanotubes. These findings regarding the fundamental optical absorption and scattering processes in metallic carbon nanotubes lay the foundation for further spectroscopic studies to probe many-body physical phenomena in one dimension.

Hároz, Erik H.; Duque, Juan G.; Tu, Xiaomin; Zheng, Ming; Hight Walker, Angela R.; Hauge, Robert H.; Doorn, Stephen K.; Kono, Junichiro



Image processing applications for geologic mapping  

SciTech Connect

The use of satellite data, particularly Landsat images, for geologic mapping provides the geologist with a powerful tool. The digital format of these data permits applications of image processing to extract or enhance information useful for mapping purposes. Examples are presented of lithologic classification using texture measures, automatic lineament detection and structural analysis, and use of registered multisource satellite data. In each case, the additional mapping information provided relative to the particular treatment is evaluated. The goal is to provide the geologist with a range of processing techniques adapted to specific mapping problems.

Abrams, M.; Blusson, A.; Carrere, V.; Nguyen, T.; Rabu, Y.



Fundamental processes in partially ionized plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report describes research results on Fundamental Processes in Partially Ionized Plasmas obtained in the High Temperature Gasdynamics Laboratory at Stanford University. This research has emphasized studies of plasma properties and associated diagnostics. The present report discusses, in the first part, optical diagnostics in air plasmas and, in the second part, measurements of the radiative emission of such plasmas. These experimental results have unveiled severe deficiencies in existing computer codes such as the widely used NASA code NEQAIR. Several modeling improvements are therefore proposed and included into NEQAIR. As a result, the enhanced version of the code is capable of predicting the radiative emission of air plasmas with better than 20 percent accuracy, as opposed to only orders of magnitude with the original version. Finally, the report presents first measurements of the radiative source strength of air for temperatures in the range between 5000 and 7500 K. To our knowledge, these are the first measurements of this important property in this temperature range. Excellent agreement is again obtained with the predictions of the enhanced NEQAIR code.

Kruger, Charles H.; Laux, Christophe



Significant achievements in the Planetary Geology Program. [geologic processes, comparative planetology, and solar system evolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Developments reported at a meeting of principal investigators for NASA's planetology geology program are summarized. Topics covered include: constraints on solar system formation; asteriods, comets, and satellites; constraints on planetary interiors; volatiles and regoliths; instrument development techniques; planetary cartography; geological and geochemical constraints on planetary evolution; fluvial processes and channel formation; volcanic processes; Eolian processes; radar studies of planetary surfaces; cratering as a process, landform, and dating method; and the Tharsis region of Mars. Activities at a planetary geology field conference on Eolian processes are reported and techniques recommended for the presentation and analysis of crater size-frequency data are included.

Head, J. W. (editor)



Impact as a Geologic Process: Motivations to Drill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocean drilling has a vital role to play in the study of impact as a geologic process. All rocky planets undergo impact by asteroids or comets as a process that changes the surface and subsurface of the planet over geologic time. In the case of large impacts these changes can be drastic with effects to the local hydrology, mineral content,

Joanna Morgan; Sean Gulick; Christian Koeberl; Richard Grieve; Gail Christeson


Reactive atomization and deposition process: Fundamental mechanisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A modification of spray forming process, namely reactive atomization and deposition (RAD) process, where a reactive gas or gas mixture (e.g., O 2-N2) is used to replace an inert gas, was investigated. First, oxidation behavior during RAD process was numerically analyzed. It is shown that, the overall volume fraction of oxides in the RAD material increases with increasing the atomization pressure, the pouring temperature and the O2 concentration and decreasing the melt flow rate. Second, the influence of in-situ reactions on grain size during RAD process was investigated. By analyzing the influence of in-situ reactions on nucleation behavior during flight and deposition (numerically), as well as on grain coarsening during slow solidification of the remaining liquid phase and grain growth during the solid phase cooling (experimentally), it is predicted that, under the same processing conditions, average grain size in the RAD material is slightly smaller than that in the material processed by spray deposition using N 2 (SDN). Third, size, distribution and morphology of oxides in as-sprayed RAD materials were experimentally studied. It is shown that, oxides exhibit a thin-plate morphology and are distributed at the three typical spatial locations with a dimension scale on an order from tenths of micrometers to micrometers. Fourth, an analytical model was established to describe the oxide fragmentation in the deposition stage during RAD process. With an assumption of disc-shaped oxide dispersoids, the following dimension scales of oxide dispersoids in as-sprayed materials are predicted: on an order from tenths of micrometers to micrometers in diameter and tens of nanometers in thickness. Fifth, an analytical model was established to describe the oxide fragmentation during working processes in a RAD material. It is predicted that, in the worked RAD materials, oxide dispersoid discs exhibit a size scale on an order of tens of nanometers for both diameter and thickness, under typical working conditions. Ultra-high deformation may fragment oxides into ultra-fine dispersoids with a size scale on an order of nanometers. Finally, thermal stability of RAD 5083 Al is investigated via measurements of microhardness and tensile properties. The experimental data indicate a higher thermal stability for RAD 5083 Al relative to 5DN and commercial 5083 Al.

Lin, Yaojun


Axioms and fundamental equations of image processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Image-processing transforms must satisfy a list of formal requirements. We discuss these requirements and classify them into three categories: “architectural requirements” like locality, recursivity and causality in the scale space, “stability requirements” like the comparison principle and “morphological requirements”, which correspond to shape-preserving properties (rotation invariance, scale invariance, etc.). A complete classification is given of all image multiscale transforms satisfying

Luis Alvarez; Frédéric Guichard; Pierre-Louis Lions; Jean-Michel Morel



Delegation--A Fundamental Management Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Administrators may employ delegation to perform work effectively, increase their own effectiveness, and advance the development of subordinates through job enrichment. The steps in the delegation process include task identification, assessment of skills necessary to execute the task, selection of the subordinate for the task, communication of the…

Rees, Ruth


Geologic processes on Venus: An update  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies of Venera 15 and 16 radar image and altimetry data and reevaluation of Pioneer Venus and earlier Venera data have greatly expanded the perception of the variety and complexity of geologic processes on Venus. PV data have discriminated four highland regions (each different in geomorphic appearance), a large upland rolling plains region, and smaller areas of lowland plains. Two highland volcanic centers were identified that may be presently active, as suggested by their geomorphologic appearance combined with positive gravity anomalies, lightning strike clusters, and a change in SO2 content in the upper atmosphere. Geochemical data obtained by the Venera landers have indicated that one upland area and nearby rolling plains are composed of volcanic rocks, probably basalts or syenites. New Venera radar images of the Ishtar Terra region show folded and/or faulted linear terrain and associated volcanic features that may have been deformed by both compressional and extensional forces. Lowland surfaces resemble the mare basaltic lava flows that fill basins on the Moon, Mars and Earth. Ubiquitous crater like forms may be of either volcanic or impact origin; the origin of similar lunar features was determined by the character of their ejecta deposits.

Masursky, H.



Fundamental concepts of digital image processing  

SciTech Connect

The field of a digital-image processing has experienced dramatic growth and increasingly widespread applicability in recent years. Fortunately, advances in computer technology have kept pace with the rapid growth in volume of image data in these and other applications. Digital image processing has become economical in many fields of research and in industrial and military applications. While each application has requirements unique from the others, all are concerned with faster, cheaper, more accurate, and more extensive computation. The trend is toward real-time and interactive operations, where the user of the system obtains preliminary results within a short enough time that the next decision can be made by the human processor without loss of concentration on the task at hand. An example of this is the obtaining of two-dimensional (2-D) computer-aided tomography (CAT) images. A medical decision might be made while the patient is still under observation rather than days later.

Twogood, R.E.



Plasma-Therm Workshop: Fundamentals of Plasma Processing (Etching & Deposition)  

E-print Network

Plasma-Therm Workshop: Fundamentals of Plasma Processing (Etching & Deposition) Nanofabrication of lithography, photochemistry, x-ray mask fabrication, PVD, and plasma processing. During his 15+ years of plasma processing for R&D, MEMS, photonics, data storage, power, and compound semiconductor applications

Martin, Jan M.L.


The Moon: Keystone to Understanding Planetary Geological Processes and History  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Extensive and intensive exploration of the Earth's Moon by astronauts and an international array of automated spacecraft has provided an unequaled data set that has provided deep insight into geology, geochemistry, mineralogy, petrology, chronology, geophysics and internal structure. This level of insight is unequaled except for Earth. Analysis of these data sets over the last 35 years has proven fundamental to understanding planetary surface processes and evolution, and is essential to linking surface processes with internal and thermal evolution. Much of the understanding that we presently have of other terrestrial planets and outer planet satellites derives from the foundation of these data. On the basis of these data, the Moon is a laboratory for understanding of planetary processes and a keystone for providing evolutionary perspective. Important comparative planetology issues being addressed by lunar studies include impact cratering, magmatic activity and tectonism. Future planetary exploration plans should keep in mind the importance of further lunar exploration in continuing to build solid underpinnings in this keystone to planetary evolution. Examples of these insights and applications to other planets are cited.



Fundamental Atomic Plasma Chemistry for Semiconductor Manufacturing Process Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An absence of fundamental atomic plasma chemistry data (e.g. electron impact cross-sections) hinders the application of plasma process models in semiconductor manufacturing. Of particular importance is excited state plasma chemistry data for metallization applications. This paper describes important plasma chemistry processes in the context of high density plasmas for metallization application and methods for the calculation of data for the

P. L. G. Ventzek; V. Kudrya; V. Astapenko; A. Eletskii; D. Zhang; P. J. Stout; S. Rauf; M. Orlowski



Geologic process studies using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of SAR data to study geologic processes for better understanding of recent tectonic activity and climate change as well as the mitigation of geologic hazards and exploration for nonrenewable resources is discussed. The geologic processes that are particularly amenable to SAR-based data include volcanism; soil erosion, degradation, and redistribution; coastal erosion and inundation; glacier fluctuations; permafrost; and crustal motions. When SAR data are combined with data from other planned spaceborne sensors including ESA ERS, the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite, and the Canadian Radarsat, it will be possible to build a time-series view of temporal changes over many regions of earth.

Evans, Diane L.



Investigating the Fundamental Scientific Issues Affecting the Long-term Geologic Storage of Carbon Dioxide  

SciTech Connect

The Zero Emissions Research and Technology (ZERT) collaborative was formed to address basic science and engineering knowledge gaps relevant to geologic carbon sequestration. The original funding round of ZERT (ZERT I) identified and addressed many of these gaps. ZERT II has focused on specific science and technology areas identified in ZERT I that showed strong promise and needed greater effort to fully develop. Specific focal areas of ZERT II included: ? Continued use of the unique ZERT field site to test and prove detection technologies and methods developed by Montana State University, Stanford, University of Texas, several private sector companies, and others. Additionally, transport in the near surface was modelled. ? Further development of near-surface detection technologies that cover moderate area at relatively low cost (fiber sensors and compact infrared imagers). ? Investigation of analogs for escape mechanisms including characterization of impact of CO2 and deeper brine on groundwater quality at a natural analog site in Chimayo, NM and characterization of fracture systems exposed in outcrops in the northern Rockies. ? Further investigation of biofilms and biomineralization for mitigation of small aperture leaks focusing on fundamental studies of rates that would allow engineered control of deposition in the subsurface. ? Development of magnetic resonance techniques to perform muti-phase fluid measurements in rock cores. ? Laboratory investigation of hysteretic relative permeability and its effect on residual gas trapping in large-scale reservoir simulations. ? Further development of computational tools including a new version (V2) of the LBNL reactive geochemical transport simulator, TOUGHREACT, extension of the coupled flow and stress simulation capabilities in LANL’s FEHM simulator and an online gas-mixtureproperty estimation tool, WebGasEOS Many of these efforts have resulted in technologies that are being utilized in other field tests or demonstration projects.

Spangler, Lee; Cunningham, Alfred; Barnhart, Elliot; Lageson, David; Nall, Anita; Dobeck, Laura; Repasky, Kevin; Shaw, Joseph; Nugent, Paul; Johnson, Jennifer; Hogan, Justin; Codd, Sarah; Bray, Joshua; Prather, Cody; McGrail, B.; Oldenburg, Curtis; Wagoner, Jeff; Pawar, Rajesh



Abstracts for the Planetary Geology Field Conference on Aeolian Processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Planetary Geology Field Conference on Aeolian Processes was organized at the request of the Planetary Geology Program office of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration to bring together geologists working on aeolian problems on earth and planetologists concerned with similar problems on the planets. Abstracts of papers presented at the conference are arranged herein by alphabetical order of the senior author. Papers fall into three broad categories: (1) Viking Orbiter and Viking Lander results on aeolian processes and/or landforms on Mars, (2) laboratory results on studies of aeolian processes, and (3) photogeology and field studies of aeolian processes on Earth.

Greeley, R. (editor); Black, D. (editor)



Scaling filtering and multiplicative cascade information integration techniques for geological, geophysical and geochemical data processing and geological feature recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces several techniques recently developed based on the concepts of multiplicative cascade processes and multifractals for processing exploration geochemical and geophysical data for recognition of geological features and delineation of target areas for undiscovered mineral deposits. From a nonlinear point of view extreme geo-processes such as cloud formation, rainfall, hurricanes, flooding, landslides, earthquakes, igneous activities, tectonics and mineralization often show singular property that they may result in anomalous amounts of energy release or mass accumulation that generally are confined to narrow intervals in space or time. The end products of these non-linear processes have in common that they can be modeled as fractals or multifractals. Here we show that the three fundamental concepts of scaling in the context of multifractals: singularity, self-similarity and fractal dimension spectrum, make multifractal theory and methods useful for geochemical and geophysical data processing for general purposes of geological features recognition. These methods include: a local singularity analysis based on a area-density (C-A) multifractal model used as a scaling high-pass filtering technique capable of extracting weak signals caused by buried geological features; a suite of multifractal filtering techniques based on spectrum density - area (S-A) multifractal models implemented in various domain including frequency domain can be used for unmixing geochemical or geophysical fields according to distinct generalized self-similarities characterized in certain domain; and multiplicative cascade processes for integration of diverse evidential layers of information for prediction of point events such as location of mineral deposits. It is demonstrated by several case studies involving Fe, Sn, Mo-Ag and Mo-W mineral deposits that singularity method can be utilized to process stream sediment/soil geochemical data and gravity/aeromagnetic data as high-pass filtering technique for delineating anomalies caused by mineralization or boundaries of mineralization-associated geological bodies; S-A method can be applied as high-pass, low-pass or band -pass filtering techniques for extracting patterns of interest from mixing data; and cascade processes can be implemented to integrate diverse layers of information for mineral resources predictive mapping.

Cheng, Q.




SciTech Connect

This chapter summarizes the geology of the single-shell tank (SST) farms in the context of the region’s geologic history. This chapter is based on the information in the geology data package for the SST waste management areas and SST RFI Appendix E, which builds upon previous reports on the tank farm geology and Integrated Disposal Facility geology with information available after those reports were published.

Reidel, Stephen P.



Teaching Introductory Geology by a Paradigm, Process and Product Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Students in introductory geology courses can easily become lost in the minutiae of terms and seemingly random ideas and theories. One way to avoid this and provide a holistic picture of each major subject area in a beginning course is to introduce, at the start of each section, the ruling paradigm, the processes, and resultant products. By use of these

M. Reams



Geological Evolution of the Moon: Recent Findings, New Perspectives and Fundamental Questions from 50 Years of Solar System Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth's Moon provides a fundamental frame of reference for understanding the formation, early history, and evolution of terrestrial planetary bodies. More than 50 years of exploration of the Moon and the Solar System has placed the Moon in the context of the other planetary bodies, including Earth. We look to the well-explored and characterized Moon for an understanding of the nature of its chemical layering (crust, mantle and core), its mechanical layering (lithosphere, asthenosphere), and the nature of its key geological processes (accretion, differentiation, thermal evolution, impact cratering, volcanism and tectonism). What has the Golden Age of Solar System Exploration taught us about the utility and applicability of the lunar historical paradigm? What new questions has it raised? What is thematic in terms of planetary evolution and what is unique to the Moon? How do answers to these three questions inform us about the major outstanding questions concerning the history of the Earth? How do they frame a new paradigm for future lunar exploration? Key questions and focal points include: 1) Does the accretionary history forming the Moon following the Earth impact set the Moon on a different course than bodies accreted by conventional means? 2) How can the impact cratering record of the Moon provide keys to the early bombardment history of the inner solar system, including the "lunar cataclysm"? 3) What is the nature of the lunar magma ocean-derived primary crust and its segregation from the mantle? 4) Are lunar differentiation and primary crustal formation processes and products thematic, unique, or both? 5) What is the nature and significance of the aftermath of primary crustal formation, density stratification and inversion? 6) What are the causes of the lunar magnetic field and its initiation and cessation? 7) What is the process of impact basin formation and how does it change the thickness, physical state, thermal structure, geochemistry and petrology of the primary crust? 8) What was the cause, onset and cessation of secondary crustal formation and what accounts for the mode of emplacement and mineralogical diversity? 9) What factors controlled the tectonic structure and evolution of the Moon? 10) What are the major stages in the thermal evolution of the Moon? An integrated assessment of these questions provides key insights into the history of the Earth and the strategy for future exploration of the Moon.

Head, J. W.



Fundamental Processes of Atomization in Fluid-Fluid Flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses our proposed experimental and theoretical study of atomization in gas-liquid and liquid-liquid flows. While atomization is a very important process in these flows, the fundamental mechanism is not understood and there is no predictive theory. Previous photographic studies in (turbulent) gas-liquid flows have shown that liquid is atomized when it is removed by the gas flow from the crest of large solitary or roll waves. Our preliminary studies in liquid-liquid laminar flows exhibit the same mechanism. The two-liquid system is easier to study than gas-liquid systems because the time scales are much slower, the length scales much larger, and there is no turbulence. The proposed work is intended to obtain information about the mechanism of formation, rate of occurrence and the evolving shape of solitary waves; and quantitative aspects of the detailed events of the liquid removal process that can be used to verify a general predictive theory.

Gallagher, Christopher; Leighton, David T.; Chang, Hsueh-Chia; McCready, Mark J.



Digitizing rocks: Standardizing the process of geologic description with workstations  

SciTech Connect

In the drive to squeeze the most value from every dollar spent on exploration and development, increasing use is being made of stored data through methods that rely on the completeness and accuracy of the database for their usefulness. Although many types of engineering data are available to the process, geologic data, especially those collected at a sufficiently detailed level to show reservoir heterogeneity, are often unavailable to later workers in any useful form. Traditionally, most wellsite geologic data are recorded on worksheets or notebooks, from which summary data are often transferred to computers. The only changes in recent years have been related to the process by which computer-drafted lithology logs have superseded hand-drawn logs; in some exceptions, some of the plotting data may be held in a simple database. These descriptions and analyses, gathered at considerable cost and capable of showing significant petrological detail, are not available to the whole field-development process. The authors set out to tackle these problems of limited usefulness and development a system that would deliver quality geologic data deep into the field of play in a form that was easy to select and integrated with existing models.

Saunders, M.R.; Shields, J.A.; Taylor, M.R. [Baker Hughes INTEQ, Houston, TX (United States)



Will Somebody do the Dishes? Weathering Analogies, Geologic Processes and Geologic Time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A good analogy is one of the most powerful tools in any instructors' arsenal, and encouraging students to explore the links between an analogy and a scientific concept can cement both ideas in a student's mind. A common analogy for weathering and erosion processes is doing the dishes. Oxidation, hydration, and solution reactions can be intimidating on the chalkboard but easily understood in the context of cleaning up after dinner. Rather than present this analogy as a lecture demonstration, students are encouraged to experimentally determine which type of weathering works best on their dirty dishes. The experiment must use at least four identically dirty dishes: three experimental dishes and one control dish. The experimental dishes are subjected to simulated weathering and erosion processes of the student's design. Common techniques developed by students are cold or warm water baths, baths with and without acid (lemon juice or soda), and freeze-thaw cycles. Occasionally creative experiments result in unexpected discoveries, such the inefficiency of abrasion from wind-blown sand, especially when compared to soaking dishes in Canadian Whiskey. The effectiveness of each experimental run is determined by comparison to the control plate after loose debris is removed from each. The dish with the smallest aerial extent of remaining food is the declared the most effective. Discussion sections of the experimental write-up includes a description of which geologic processes were being simulated in each experiment, comparisons of the effectiveness of each techniques, and statements of how these experiments differ from reality. In order to advance this project, a second stage of the assignment, a direct comparison of weathering and erosion techniques on food and on geologic materials, will be added this fall. Ideally, students will empirically derive erosion rates and calculate the time required to remove the volume of material represented by a geologically important feature, such as Mt. Rainier or the Grand Canyon. In the end, students completing this project gain an understanding of how geologic processes work, the time scales required, the differences between analogies and the real thing, and arguably the most important aspect, a best-practices approach to doing the dishes.

Stelling, P.; Wuotila, S.; Giuliani, M.



Online Courses: Mississippi State University: Geology I: Processes and Products  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Does your curriculum include concepts in geology? Do you need to continue your education in earth science? Geology I from the Teachers in Geosciences covers the foundational material in physical geology that you need to understand to successfully teach




SciTech Connect

A Penrose Conference entitled, "The Role of Pore Pressure in Deformation in Geologic Processes" was convened by the authors at San Diego, California between November 9 and 13, 1979. The conference was sponsored by the Geological Society of America. This report is a summary of the highlights of the issues discussed during the conference. In addition, this report also includes a topical reference list relating to the different subject areas relevant to pore pressure and deformation. The references were compiled from a list suggested by the participants and were available for consultation during the conference. Although the list is far from complete, it should prove to be a good starting point for one who is looking for key papers in the field.

Narasimhan, T. N.; Houston, W. N.; Nur, A. M.



Modeling the fundamental characteristics and processes of the spacecraft functioning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fundamental aspects of modeling of spacecraft characteristics by using computing means are considered. Particular attention is devoted to the design studies, the description of physical appearance of the spacecraft, and simulated modeling of spacecraft systems. The fundamental questions of organizing the on-the-ground spacecraft testing and the methods of mathematical modeling were presented.

Bazhenov, V. I.; Osin, M. I.; Zakharov, Y. V.




EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this research is to determine experimentally the fundamental thermodynamic and phase-equilibrium properties which control inorganic chemical reactions in high-temperature aqueous solutions as directly related to the assessment of technology and avoidance of problem...


Using Springs to Study Groundwater Flow and Active Geologic Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spring water provides a unique opportunity to study a range of subsurface processes in regions with few boreholes or wells. However, because springs integrate the signal of geological and hydrological processes over large spatial areas and long periods of time, they are an indirect source of information. This review illustrates a variety of techniques and approaches that are used to interpret measurements of isotopic tracers, water chemistry, discharge, and temperature. As an example, a set of springs in the Oregon Cascades is considered. By using tracers, temperature, and discharge measurements, it is possible to determine the mean-residence time of water, infer the spatial pattern and extent of groundwater flow, estimate basin-scale hydraulic properties, calculate the regional heat flow, and quantify the rate of magmatic intrusion beneath the volcanic arc.

Manga, Michael


From Fundamental Physical Fluvial Processes To River Patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rivers are ubiquitous on planetary surfaces and their patterns show great variation. The fundamental fluvial processes of flow and sediment transport are relatively well understood, solvable in linearized form and implemented in sophisticated nonlinear numerical models. We successfully modeled formation and evolution of large-scale and long-term patterns that look like braided and meandering river. But what characterizes and discriminates the patterns, and how do the modeled patterns quantitatively compare to natural patterns? Here we focus on characteristics of fluvial bars as building blocks of river patterns. Bars are much larger than grid cells and emerge at length scales predictable by analytical solutions. We used the morphodynamic numerical model Delft3D, which solves the 3D flow and computes sediment transport and bed level change, incorporating the effect of transverse bed slope. We identify bars as connected sand bodies above the average bed level and characterize their shape quantitatively. To reduce computational time and allow high resolution long-term calculations, bed level changes are multiplied by a morphological factor O(100) for each flow time step. This assumes that no significant morphodynamics occur at the time scale in which significant flow takes place. At the moment, desktop computers allow high-resolution century-scale calculations for the largest rivers on Earth. The results show that both meandering and braiding rivers can be modeled by solving the flow and sediment dynamics, and can be characterized by bars. In meandering rivers streamline curvature and bank erosion leads to formation of scroll bars. In braided rivers, large compound bars are formed by merging of unit bars, forming scroll-bars, and smaller compound bars. The results show that nonlinear numerical solution of small-scale flow and sediment transport results in realistic large scale river patterns depending on boundary conditions. As attested by verification in many engineering applications of this model, a second-order (nonlinear) numerical scheme and the transverse bed slope effect are essential for accurate bar dimensions which have not been reproduced in cellular automata. We conclude that a reductionist approach at realistic fluvial landscape modeling is feasible given growing computing power, and successful when evaluated on quantitative characteristics of emergent landforms that compose the landscape.

Schuurman, F.; Kleinhans, M. G.; Geurts, A. H.



Continuum Scale Simulation of Engineering Materials: Fundamentals - Microstructures - Process Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Everything the reader needs to know about this hot topic in materials research -- from the fundamentals to recent applications. This book addresses graduate students and professionals in materials science and engineering as well as materials-oriented physicists and mechanical engineers, providing them with information needed to judge which simulation method to use for which kind of modeling\\/simulation problem.

Dierk Raabe; Franz Roters; Frédéric Barlat; Long-Qing Chen




NSDL National Science Digital Library

With three levels to choose from on each page - beginner, intermediate or advanced - this site provides information on the many different kinds of geological exploration. The elements that make up minerals and the different ways minerals are developed, The special characteristics of minerals, like physical properties, is explained. Earths tectonic plates, the reasons they move, and the effects of the shifting are also given. Also featured is fossils and how they are developed and are found, as well as why fossils are useful tools for scientists.

Jennifer Bergman



Teaching Introductory Geology by a Paradigm, Process and Product Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students in introductory geology courses can easily become lost in the minutiae of terms and seemingly random ideas and theories. One way to avoid this and provide a holistic picture of each major subject area in a beginning course is to introduce, at the start of each section, the ruling paradigm, the processes, and resultant products. By use of these three Ps: paradigm, processes, and products, students have a reasonably complete picture of the subject area. If they knew nothing more than this simple construct, they would have an excellent perspective of the subject area. This provides a jumping off point for the instructor to develop the details. The three Ps can make course construction much more straightforward and complete. Students benefit since they have a clearer idea of what the subject is about and its importance. Retention may be improved and carryover to advanced courses may be aided. For faculty, the use of these three P's makes organizing a course more straightforward. Additionally, the instructor benefits include: 1. The main points are clearly stated, thus avoiding the problem of not covering the essential concepts. 2. The course topics hold together, pedagogically. There is significant opportunity for continuity of thought. 3. An outline is developed that is easily analyzed for holes or omissions. 4. A course emerges with a balance of topics, permitting appropriate time to be devoted to significant subject matter. 5. If a course is shared between faculty or passes from one faculty to another by semester or quarter, there is greater assurance that topics and concepts everyone agrees on can be adequately covered. 6. There is less guesswork involved in planning a course. New faculty have an approach that will make sense and allow them to feel less awash and more focused. In summary, taking time to construct a course utilizing the important paradigms, processes, and products can provide significant benefits to the instructor and the student. Material can be presented in a more coherent manner and allow students the opportunity to grasp essential concepts from the very beginning. There are fewer potential surprises and greater likelihood that key ideas can be retained, as opposed to retaining isolated fragments of information. Illustrations from over a decade of use in an introductory Physical and Historical Geology course will be presented.

Reams, M.



Fundamentals of Alloy Solidification Applied to Industrial Processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solidification processes and phenomena, segregation, porosity, gravity effects, fluid flow, undercooling, as well as processing of materials in the microgravity environment of space, now available on space shuttle flights were discussed.



Tracking the Neuro-Cognitive Processes Fundamental to Reading Guest Lecture by Phillip Holcomb  

E-print Network

Tracking the Neuro-Cognitive Processes Fundamental to Reading Guest processes underlying a host of cognitive skills important to educators Lecture by Phillip Holcomb Professor, Co-Director of NeuroCognition Laboratory

Stanford, Kyle


Process for structural geologic analysis of topography and point data  


A quantitative method of geologic structural analysis of digital terrain data is described for implementation on a computer. Assuming selected valley segments are controlled by the underlying geologic structure, topographic lows in the terrain data, defining valley bottoms, are detected, filtered and accumulated into a series line segments defining contiguous valleys. The line segments are then vectorized to produce vector segments, defining valley segments, which may be indicative of the underlying geologic structure. Coplanar analysis is performed on vector segment pairs to determine which vectors produce planes which represent underlying geologic structure. Point data such as fracture phenomena which can be related to fracture planes in 3-dimensional space can be analyzed to define common plane orientation and locations. The vectors, points, and planes are displayed in various formats for interpretation.

Eliason, Jay R. (Richland, WA); Eliason, Valerie L. C. (Richland, WA)



Fundamental kinetic modeling of the catalytic reforming process  

E-print Network

industrial conditions for both axial and radial flow fixed bed reactors. The influence of the main process variables on the octane number and reformate volume was investigated and optimal conditions were obtained. Additional aspects studied with the kinetic...

Sotelo-Boyas, Rogelio



Exclusive processes and the fundamental structure of hadrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I review the historical development of QCD predictions for exclusive hadronic processes, beginning with constituent counting rules and the quark interchange mechanism, phenomena which gave early validation for the quark structure of hadrons. The subsequent development of pQCD factorization theorems for hard exclusive amplitudes and the development of evolution equations for the hadron distribution amplitudes provided a rigorous framework for calculating hadronic form factors and hard scattering exclusive scattering processes at high momentum transfer. I also give a brief introduction to the field of "light-front holography" and the insights it brings to quark confinement, the behavior of the QCD coupling in the nonperturbative domain, as well as hadron spectroscopy and the dynamics of exclusive processes.

Brodsky, Stanley J.



Processes of lunar crater degradation - Changes in style with geologic time  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Relative age schemes of crater degradation are calibrated to radiometric dates obtained from lunar samples, changes in morphologic features are analyzed, and the style and rate of lunar surface degradation processes are modeled in relation to lunar geologic time. A comparison of radiometric age scales and the relative degradation of morphologic features for craters larger than about 5 km in diameter shows that crater degradation can be divided into two periods: Period I, prior to about 3.9 billion years ago and characterized by a high meteoritic influx rate and the formation of large multiringed basins, and Period II, from about 3.9 billion years ago to the present and characterized by a much lower influx rate and a lack of large multiringed basins. Diagnostic features for determining the relative ages of craters are described, and crater modification processes are considered, including primary impacts, lateral sedimentation, proximity weathering, landslides, and tectonism. It is suggested that the fundamental degradation of early Martian craters may be associated with erosional and depositional processes related to the intense bombardment characteristics of Period I.

Head, J. W.



Geologic mapping of the Ladakh Himalaya by computer processing of Landsat data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer processed Landsat digital data and field studies have been integrated to make a geologic map of the Indus Suture in the Ladakh Himalaya. This coordinated approach has been successful at locating and identifying the areal extent of the major rock bodies in a 2500 square kilometer area, much of which is inaccessable for conventional field geologic studies.

Francica, J. R.; Birnie, R. W.; Johnson, G. D.



Fundamental process and system design issues in CO2 vapor compression systems  

E-print Network

; CO2 (R-744); Transcritical cycle; Vapor compression system; COP; Air-conditioning; Heat pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 3. Transcritical vapor compression cycleFundamental process and system design issues in CO2 vapor compression systems Man-Hoe Kima

Bahrami, Majid


Geological processes and the earth's rotation in the past  

Microsoft Academic Search

The only factor which affects past rates of the earth's rotation and also the moon's rate of recession is the lunar tidal torque. Most geological considerations indicate that this torque would probably be greater and at least comparable to the present, in contrast to the slower rates indicated by the palaeontological and past tidal evidence. It seems that this conflict

D. H. Tarling



Fundamental concepts of product/technology/process informational integration for process modelling and process planning  

E-print Network

(logistics, recycling, etc...). It remains, in a global vision of the enterprise, many prospective fields dramatically decreased mainly due to product versatility and diversity. The main reason is an increasing demand and processes (from the concepts to the physical industrial objects and environments). The base of knowledge

Boyer, Edmond


Digitizing rocks standardizing the geological description process using workstations  

SciTech Connect

The preservation of geological knowledge in a standardized digital form presents a challenge. Data sources, inherently fuzzy, range in scale from the macroscopic (e.g., outcrop) through the mesoscopic (e.g., hand-specimen) core and sidewall core, to the microscopic (e.g., drill cuttings, thin sections, and microfossils). Each scale change results in increased heterogeneity and potentially contradictory data and the providers of such data may vary in experience level. To address these issues with respect to cores and drill cuttings, a geological description workstation has been developed and is undergoing field trials. Over 1000 carefully defined geological attributes are currently available within a depth-indexed, relational database. Attributes are stored in digital form, allowing multiple users to select familiar usage (e.g., diabase vs. dolerite). Data can be entered in one language and retrieved in other languages. The database structure allow groupings of similar elements (e.g., rhyolites in acidic, igneous or volcanics subgroups or the igneous rock group) permitting different uses to analyze details appropriate to the scale of the usage. Data entry uses a graphical user interface, allowing the geologist to make quick, logical selections in a standardized or custom-built format with extensive menus, on-screen graphics and help screens available. Description ranges are permissible. Entries for lithology, petrology, structures (sedimentary, organic and deformational), reservoir characteristics (porosity and hydrocarbon shows), and macrofossils are available. Sampling points for thin sections, core analysis, geochemistry, or micropaleontology studies are also recorded. Using digital data storage, geological logs using graphical, alphanumeric and symbolic depictions are possible. Data can be integrated with drilling and mud gas data, MWD and wireline data and off well-site analyses to produced composite formation evaluation logs and interpretational crossplots.

Saunders, M.R. (EXLOG (Services), Windsor, Berkshire (United Kingdom)); Shields, J.A. (EXLOG North Sea, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)); Taylor, M.R. (EXLOG, Inc., Houston, TX (United States))



Fundamental process and system design issues in CO 2 vapor compression systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents recent developments and state of the art for transcritical CO2 cycle technology in various refrigeration, air-conditioning and heat pump applications. The focus will be on fundamental process and system design issues, including discussions of properties and characteristics of CO2, cycle fundamentals, methods of high-side pressure control, thermodynamic losses, cycle modifications, component\\/system design, safety factors, and promising application

Man-Hoe Kim; Jostein Pettersen; Clark W. Bullard



The lively Aysén fjord, Chile: Records of multiple geological processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Aysén fjord is a 65 km long, east-west oriented fjord in Chilean Patagonia, located approximately at 45.4ºS and 73.2ºW, with a maximum water depth of 345 m. The fjord receives at present the riverine input of Aysén, Pescado, Condor and Cuervo rivers, which drain the surrounding up to 2000 m high Patagonian Andes. The fjord is crossed by a number of faults associated to the seismically active Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault Zone, a major trench parallel intra-arc fault system. After a four-month period of moderate seismicity, an Mw 6.2 earthquake on 21 April 2007 triggered dozens of subaerial landslides along the fjord flanks. Some of the landslides reached the fjord water mass, generating a series of tsunami-like displacement waves that impacted the adjacent coastlines with 3-12 m, locally over 50 m high run-ups, causing ten fatalities and severe damage to salmon farms. The research cruise DETSUFA on board BIO Hespérides in March 2013 mapped the submerged morphology of the fjord and gathered air-gun seismic profiles and sediment gravity cores in order to characterise the footprint of the landslides in the fjord floor. Very-high resolution multibeam bathymetry (4 m cell size) clearly shows the deformation structures created by the landslides in the inner fjord. The landslides descended and accelerated down the submerged fjord flanks, and reached the fjord floor at approx. 200 m water depth generating large, 1 to 10 m deep impact depressions. Sediment removed from these depressions moved radially and piled up in deformation rings formed by compressional ridges 10-15 m in height, block fields and a narrow frontal depression. Up to six >1.5 square km of these structures can be identified in the fjord. In addition, the DETSUFA survey extended beyond the SE-NW-oriented inner fjord past the Cuervo Ridge, located in front of the Cuervo river delta. The ridge, previously interpreted as a volcanic transverse structure, has most probably acted as a limit for grounding ice in the past, as suggested by the presence of melt-water channels lateral to the ridge. Beyond the ridge, the fjord smoothens and deepens to more than 330 m forming an enclosed basin before turning SW. There, it shallows back across a field of streamlined submerged hills of glacial origin. The external Aysén fjord, before joining to Canal Costa and Canal Moraleda, is characterized by three volcanic cones, one of them forming Isla Colorada - which also acted as a glacial limit - and the other two totally submerged and previously unknown. The largest one is 160 m high, 1.3 km in diameter and tops at 67 m water depth. This data set illustrates the complex interaction between fluvial, glacial, tectonic, volcanic and gravity processes and evidences the recent lively geological history of Aysén fjord.

Lastras, Galderic; Amblas, David; Calafat, Antoni; Canals, Miquel; Frigola, Jaime; Hermanns, Reginald L.; Lafuerza, Sara; Longva, Oddvar; Micallef, Aaron; Sepúlveda, Sergio A.; Vargas, Gabriel; Azpiroz, María; Bascuñán, Ignacio; Duhart, Paul; Iglesias, Olaia; Kempf, Philipp; Rayo, Xavier



Groundwater as a geologic agent: An overview of the causes, processes, and manifestations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present paper is to show that groundwater is a general geologic agent. This perception could not, and\\u000a did not, evolve until the system nature of basinal groundwater flow and its properties, geometries, and controlling factors\\u000a became recognized and understood through the 1960s and 1970s.\\u000a \\u000a The two fundamental causes for groundwater's active role in nature are its

József Tóth



Welding Process Fundamentals* Thomas W. Eagar and Aaron D. Mazzeo, Massachusetts Institute of Technology  

E-print Network

(such as fastening, adhesive bonding, soldering, brazing, arc welding, diffusion bonding, and resistanceWelding Process Fundamentals* Thomas W. Eagar and Aaron D. Mazzeo, Massachusetts Institute of Technology WELDING AND JOINING processes are essential for the development of virtually every manufactured

Eagar, Thomas W.


Insight into fundamental aspects of the EDM process using multidischarge numerical simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrical discharge machining (EDM) process is a popular non-traditional machining process, but, although it is widely\\u000a used in industry, there is still a lack of scientific knowledge about its fundamentals. This paper discusses some aspects\\u000a of the discharge process at the sight of the results obtained with a previously developed thermal model, which is capable\\u000a of simulating the superposition

Borja Izquierdo; José Antonio Sánchez; Naiara Ortega; Soraya Plaza; Iñigo Pombo



Combining geologic-process models and geostatistics for conditional simulation of 3-D subsurface heterogeneity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of simulation of aquifer heterogeneity is to produce a spatial model of the subsurface that represents a system such that it can be used to understand or predict flow and transport processes. Spatial simulation requires incorporation of data and geologic knowledge, as well as representation of uncertainty. Classical geostatistical techniques allow for the conditioning of data and uncertainty assessment, but models often lack geologic realism. Simulation of physical geologic processes of sedimentary deposition and erosion (process-based modeling) produces detailed, geologically realistic models, but conditioning to local data is limited at best. We present an aquifer modeling methodology that combines geologic-process models with object-based, multiple-point, and variogram-based geostatistics to produce geologically realistic realizations that incorporate geostatistical uncertainty and can be conditioned to data. First, the geologic features of grain size, or facies, distributions simulated by a process-based model are analyzed, and the statistics of feature geometry are extracted. Second, the statistics are used to generate multiple realizations of reduced-dimensional features using an object-based technique. Third, these realizations are used as multiple alternative training images in multiple-point geostatistical simulation, a step that can incorporate local data. Last, a variogram-based geostatistical technique is used to produce conditioned maps of depositional thickness and erosion. Successive realizations of individual strata are generated in depositional order, each dependent on previously simulated geometry, and stacked to produce a fully conditioned three-dimensional facies model that mimics the architecture of the process-based model. We demonstrate the approach for a typical subsea depositional complex.

Michael, H. A.; Li, H.; Boucher, A.; Sun, T.; Caers, J.; Gorelick, S. M.



The importance of being cratered: The new role of meteorite impact as a normal geological process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is a personal (and, in many ways, incomplete) view of the past development of impact geology and of the newly recognized importance of impact events in terrestrial geological history. It also identifies some exciting scientific challenges for future investigators: to determine the full range of impact effects preserved on the Earth, to apply the knowledge obtained from impact phenomena to more general geological problems, and to continue the merger of the once exotic field of impact geology with mainstream geosciences. Since the recognition of an impact event at the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary, much current activity in impact geology has been promoted by traditionally trained geoscientists who have unexpectedly encountered impact effects in the course of their work. Their studies have involved: 1) the recognition of additional major impact effects in the geological record (the Chesapeake Bay crater, the Alamo breccia, and multiple layers of impact spherules in Precambrian rocks); and 2) the use of impact structures as laboratories to study general geological processes (e.g., igneous petrogenesis at Sudbury, Canada and Archean crustal evolution at Vredefort, South Africa). Other research areas, in which impact studies could contribute to major geoscience problems in the future, include: 1) comparative studies between low-level (£7 GPa) shock deformation of quartz, and the production of quartz cleavage, in both impact and tectonic environments; and 2) the nature, origin, and significance of bulk organic carbon ("kerogen") and other carbon species in some impact structures (Gardnos, Norway, and Sudbury, Canada).

French, Bevan M.



The fundamental units, processes and patterns of evolution, and the Tree of Life conundrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The elucidation of the dominant role of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in the evolution of prokaryotes led to a severe crisis of the Tree of Life (TOL) concept and intense debates on this subject. CONCEPT: Prompted by the crisis of the TOL, we attempt to define the primary units and the fundamental patterns and processes of evolution. We posit

Eugene V Koonin; Yuri I Wolf




EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the fundamental processes in sulfur dioxide (SO2) capture by calcium-based adsorbents for upper furnace, duct, and electrostatic precipitator (ESP) reaction sites. It examines the reactions in light of controlling mechanisms, effect of sorbent physical propert...


Radiogenic strontium-87 as an index of geologic processes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The abundance of radiogenic Sr87 relative to Sr86 at the time of crystallization has been determined for 45 rocks. The total range in the ratio Sr87/Sr86 is less than 2 percent. Ratios for recent lavas range from 0.702 to 0.711. Oceanic basalts are closely grouped at 0.703, whereas ratios for continental volcanic rocks spread from 0.702 to 0.711. Among the volcanic rocks, ranging from basalt to rhyolite, no correlation was found between original ratio and rock type. Older mafic and felsic rocks that include both plutonic and extrusive types also cover this same range in original Sr87/Sr86 ratios; however, there is a definite trend with geologic time. Pre-cambrian rocks give values as low as 0.700. The data indicate that Sr87/Sr86 of the weathering crust has changed 1.1 percent in 3000 million years, while the ratio in the mantle has changed no more than 0.5 percent.

Hedge, C.E.; Walthall, F.G.



Refining Martian Ages and Understanding Geological Processes From Cratering Statistics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Senior Scientist William K. Hartman presents his final report on Mars Data Analysis Program grant number NAG5-12217: The third year of the three-year program was recently completed in mid-2005. The program has been extremely productive in research and data analysis regarding Mars, especially using Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey imagery. In the 2005 alone, three papers have already been published, to which this work contributed.1) Hartmann, W. K. 200.5. Martian cratering 8. Isochron refinement and the history of Martian geologic activity Icarus 174, 294-320. This paper is a summary of my entire program of establishing Martian chronology through counts of Martian impact craters. 2) Arfstrom, John, and W. K. Hartmann 2005. Martian flow features, moraine-like rieges, and gullies: Terrestrial analogs and interrelationships. Icarus 174,32 1-335. This paper makes pioneering connections between Martian glacier-like features and terrestrial glacial features. 3) Hartmann, W.K., D. Winterhalter, and J. Geiss. 2005 Chronology and Physical Evolution of Planet Mars. In The Solar System and Beyond: Ten Years of ISSI (Bern: International Space Science Institute). This is a summary of work conducted at the International Space Science Institute with an international team, emphasizing our publication of a conference volume about Mars, edited by Hartmann and published in 2001.

Hartmann, William K.



Radiogenic Strontium-87 as an Index of Geologic Processes.  


The abundance of radiogenic Sr(87) relative to Sr(86) at the time of crystallization has been determined for 45 rocks. The total range in the ratio Sr(87)/Sr(86) is less than 2 percent. Ratios for recent lavas range from 0.702 to 0.711. Oceanic basalts are closely grouped at 0.703, whereas ratios for continental volcanic rocks spread from 0.702 to 0.711. Among the volcanic rocks, ranging from basalt to rhyolite, no correlation was found between original ratio and rock type. Older mafic and felsic rocks that include both plutonic and extrusive types also cover this same range in original Sr(87)/Sr(86) ratios; however, there is a definite trend with geologic time. Precambrian rocks give values as low as 0.700. The data indicate that Sr(87)/Sr(86) of the weathering crust has changed 1.1 percent in 3000 million years, while the ratio in the mantle has changed no more than 0.5 percent. PMID:17837503

Hedge, C E; Walthall, F G



Peak Intensity Stabilization of Fundamental Laser through Second-Harmonic Generation Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we report on numerical and experimental results for the peak intensity stabilization of a fundamental laser through the second-harmonic generation process by introducing a phase-mismatching factor. The peak intensity fluctuation of a nanosecond-order fundamental laser at 1064 nm is reduced from 7.0 to 1.1% with a type-I noncritical phase-mismatching lithium triborate crystal heated at a phase-mismatching temperature of 146.7 °C. The method is applicable to the power stabilization of the laser with a flat-top beam profile.

Harimoto, Tetsuo; Tsugane, Hidetomo



Geological images  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from Marli Bryant Miller, a professor at the University of Oregon, presents images of geological features from around the world. Photographs of glacial features, igneous and metamorphic rocks and processes, and structural geology are featured.

Miller, Marli B.; Oregon, University O.


Towards understanding how surface life can affect interior geological processes: a non-equilibrium thermodynamics approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Life has significantly altered the Earth's atmosphere, oceans and crust. To what extent has it also affected interior geological processes? To address this question, three models of geological processes are formulated: mantle convection, continental crust uplift and erosion and oceanic crust recycling. These processes are characterised as non-equilibrium thermodynamic systems. Their states of disequilibrium are maintained by the power generated from the dissipation of energy from the interior of the Earth. Altering the thickness of continental crust via weathering and erosion affects the upper mantle temperature which leads to changes in rates of oceanic crust recycling and consequently rates of outgassing of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Estimates for the power generated by various elements in the Earth system are shown. This includes, inter alia, surface life generation of 264 TW of power, much greater than those of geological processes such as mantle convection at 12 TW. This high power results from life's ability to harvest energy directly from the sun. Life need only utilise a small fraction of the generated free chemical energy for geochemical transformations at the surface, such as affecting rates of weathering and erosion of continental rocks, in order to affect interior, geological processes. Consequently when assessing the effects of life on Earth, and potentially any planet with a significant biosphere, dynamical models may be required that better capture the coupled nature of biologically-mediated surface and interior processes.

Dyke, J. G.; Gans, F.; Kleidon, A.



Processing of Neutron Diffraction Data for Strain Measurement in Geological Materials  

SciTech Connect

: Conventional rock mechanics testing techniques typically involve the loading of samples and measurement of displacements or strains on the outer boundary of the specimen surface. Neutron diffraction based strain measurement techniques represent a unique and powerful tool for measuring the strain within geological materials under load. The structural variability and non-uniform crystallinity of geological materials, however, create many complexities in the intensity patterns that must be analyzed to quantify strains within the material. The attenuating and scattering properties of the pressure cell housing the sample further add difficulties to the data analysis. This paper describes the methods and processes used to process neutron scattering data for strain measurement in geological materials. It is intended to provide a primer for those in the rock mechanics community that are interested in utilizing this technique along with additional discussion of neutron diffraction experimental factors that may affect data quality.

Polsky, Yarom [ORNL] [ORNL; An, Ke [ORNL] [ORNL; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M [ORNL; Bingham, Philip R [ORNL] [ORNL; Carmichael, Justin R [ORNL] [ORNL; Dessieux Jr, Luc Lucius [ORNL] [ORNL



Techniques for determining probabilities of events and processes affecting the performance of geologic repositories: Literature review  

SciTech Connect

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has set a probabilistic standard for the performance of geologic repositories for the disposal of radioactive waste. This report treats not only geologic events and processes like fault movement, but also events and processes that arise from the relationship between human actions and geology, like drilling for resources, and some that arise from nongeologic processes that in turn affect a geologic process, like climatic change. It reviews the literature in several fields to determine whether existing probabilistic methods for predicting events and processes are adequate for implementation of the standard. Techniques exist for qualitatively estimating the potential for endowment of portions of earth's crust with mineral resources, but such techniques cannot easily predict whether or not human intrusion will occur. The EPA standard offers explicit guidance for the treatment of human intrusion, however. A complete method for climatic prediction could be assembled from existing techniques, although such a combination has not been tested. Existing techniques to support a probabilistic assessment of tectonic activity and seismic hazard at a repository site should be combined with expert judgment in performance assessments. Depending on the regional setting, either analytic techniques or expert judgment may be appropriate in assigning probabilities to volcanic activity. The individual chapters of this report have been cataloged separately.

Hunter, R.L.; Mann, C.J. (eds.)



Fundamental Physical Processes in Coronae: Waves, Turbulence, Reconnection, and Particle Acceleration  

E-print Network

Our understanding of fundamental processes in the solar corona has been greatly progressed based on the space observations of SMM, Yohkoh, Compton GRO, SOHO, TRACE, RHESSI, and STEREO. We observe now acoustic waves, MHD oscillations, turbulence-related line broadening, magnetic configurations related to reconnection processes, and radiation from high-energy particles on a routine basis. We review a number of key observations in EUV, soft X-rays, and hard X-rays that innovated our physical understanding of the solar corona, in terms of hydrodynamics, MHD, plasma heating, and particle acceleration processes.

Markus J. Aschwanden



Feasibility Study for a Plasma Dynamo Facility to Investigate Fundamental Processes in Plasma Astrophysics. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The scientific equipment purchased on this grant was used on the Plasma Dynamo Prototype Experiment as part of Professor Forest's feasibility study for determining if it would be worthwhile to propose building a larger plasma physics experiment to investigate various fundamental processes in plasma astrophysics. The initial research on the Plasma Dynamo Prototype Experiment was successful so Professor Forest and Professor Ellen Zweibel at UW-Madison submitted an NSF Major Research Instrumentation proposal titled "ARRA MRI: Development of a Plasma Dynamo Facility for Experimental Investigations of Fundamental Processes in Plasma Astrophysics." They received funding for this project and the Plasma Dynamo Facility also known as the "Madison Plasma Dynamo Experiment" was constructed. This experiment achieved its first plasma in the fall of 2012 and U.S. Dept. of Energy Grant No. DE-SC0008709 "Experimental Studies of Plasma Dynamos," now supports the research.

Forest, Cary B.



Use of clay minerals in reconstructing geological processes: recent advances and some perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews that clay literature from the last ten years, which is devoted to the applications of clay minerals in the interpretation of geological processes in sedimentary basins. The results, selected by the author as being of particular interest, are presented, arranged according to the successive phases of the rock cycle. The research field defined in the title has

J. Srodon



Applying Seismic Methods to National Security Problems: Matched Field Processing With Geological Heterogeneity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seismic imaging and tracking methods have intelligence and monitoring applications. Current systems, however, do not adequately calibrate or model the unknown geological heterogeneity. Current systems are also not designed for rapid data acquisition and analysis in the field. This project seeks to build the core technological capabilities coupled with innovative deployment, processing, and analysis methodologies to allow seismic methods to

S Myers; S Larsen; J Wagoner; B Henderer; D McCallen; J Trebes; P Harben; D Harris



Frictional Sliding of Cold Ice: A Fundamental Process Underlying Tectonic Activity Within Icy Satellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Frictional sliding is a fundamental process underlying tectonic activity within the crusts of Enceladus, Europa and other icy satellites. Provided that the coefficient of friction is not too high, sliding can account for the generation of active plumes within Enceladus "tiger stripes" and for the development of certain fracture features on Europa. This paper reviews current knowledge of frictional sliding in water ice Ih, and then raises a number of questions relevant to tectonic modeling.

Schulson, Erland M.


Active geologic processes in Barrow Canyon, northeast Chukchi Sea  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Circulation patterns on the shelf and at the shelf break appear to dominate the Barrow Canyon system. The canyon's shelf portion underlies and is maintained by the Alaska Coastal Current (A.C.C.), which flows northeastward along the coast toward the northeast corner of the broad Chukchi Sea. Offshelf and onshelf advective processes are indicated by oceanographic measurements of other workers. These advective processes may play an important role in the production of bedforms that are found near the canyon head as well as in processes of erosion or non-deposition in the deeper canyon itself. Coarse sediments recovered from the canyon axis at 400 to 570 m indicate that there is presently significant flow along the canyon. The canyon hooks left at a point north of Point Barrow where the A.C.C. loses its coastal constriction. The left hook, as well as preferential west-wall erosion, continues down to the abyssal plain of the Canada Basin at 3800 m. A possible explanation for the preferential west-wall erosion along the canyon, at least for the upper few hundred meters, is that the occasional upwelling events, which cause nutrient-rich water to flow along the west wall would in turn cause larger populations of burrowing organisms to live there than on the east wall, and that these organisms cause high rates of bioerosion. This hypothesis assumes that the dominant factor in the canyon's erosion is biological activity, not current velocity. Sedimentary bedforms consisting of waves and furrows are formed in soft mud in a region on the shelf west of the canyon head; their presence there perhaps reflects: (a) the supply of fine suspended sediments delivered by the A.C.C. from sources to the south, probably the Yukon and other rivers draining northwestern Alaska; and (b) the westward transport of these suspended sediments by the prevailing Beaufort Gyre which flows along the outer shelf. ?? 1982.

Eittreim, S.; Grantz, A.; Greenberg, J.



Disribution and interplay of geologic processes on Titan from Cassini radar data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Cassini Titan Radar Mapper is providing an unprecedented view of Titan's surface geology. Here we use Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image swaths (Ta-T30) obtained from October 2004 to December 2007 to infer the geologic processes that have shaped Titan's surface. These SAR swaths cover about 20% of the surface, at a spatial resolution ranging from ~350 m to ~2 km. The SAR data are distributed over a wide latitudinal and longitudinal range, enabling some conclusions to be drawn about the global distribution of processes. They reveal a geologically complex surface that has been modified by all the major geologic processes seen on Earth - volcanism, tectonism, impact cratering, and erosion and deposition by fluvial and aeolian activity. In this paper, we map geomorphological units from SAR data and analyze their areal distribution and relative ages of modification in order to infer the geologic evolution of Titan's surface. We find that dunes and hummocky and mountainous terrains are more widespread than lakes, putative cryovolcanic features, mottled plains, and craters and crateriform structures that may be due to impact. Undifferentiated plains are the largest areal unit; their origin is uncertain. In terms of latitudinal distribution, dunes and hummocky and mountainous terrains are located mostly at low latitudes (less than 30 degrees), with no dunes being present above 60 degrees. Channels formed by fluvial activity are present at all latitudes, but lakes are at high latitudes only. Crateriform structures that may have been formed by impact appear to be uniformly distributed with latitude, but the well-preserved impact craters are all located at low latitudes, possibly indicating that more resurfacing has occurred at higher latitudes. Cryovolcanic features are not ubiquitous, and are mostly located between 30 degrees and 60 degrees north. We examine temporal relationships between units wherever possible, and conclude that aeolian and fluvial/pluvial/lacustrine processes are the most recent, while tectonic processes that led to the formation of mountains and Xanadu are likely the most ancient.

Lopes, R.M.C.; Stofan, E.R.; Peckyno, R.; Radebaugh, J.; Mitchell, K.L.; Mitri, G.; Wood, C.A.; Kirk, R.L.; Wall, S.D.; Lunine, J.I.; Hayes, A.; Lorenz, R.; Farr, T.; Wye, L.; Craig, J.; Ollerenshaw, R.J.; Janssen, M.; LeGall, A.; Paganelli, F.; West, R.; Stiles, B.; Callahan, P.; Anderson, Y.; Valora, P.; Soderblom, L.



Distribution and interplay of geologic processes on Titan from Cassini radar data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Cassini Titan Radar Mapper is providing an unprecedented view of Titan's surface geology. Here we use Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image swaths (Ta-T30) obtained from October 2004 to December 2007 to infer the geologic processes that have shaped Titan's surface. These SAR swaths cover about 20% of the surface, at a spatial resolution ranging from ???350 m to ???2 km. The SAR data are distributed over a wide latitudinal and longitudinal range, enabling some conclusions to be drawn about the global distribution of processes. They reveal a geologically complex surface that has been modified by all the major geologic processes seen on Earth - volcanism, tectonism, impact cratering, and erosion and deposition by fluvial and aeolian activity. In this paper, we map geomorphological units from SAR data and analyze their areal distribution and relative ages of modification in order to infer the geologic evolution of Titan's surface. We find that dunes and hummocky and mountainous terrains are more widespread than lakes, putative cryovolcanic features, mottled plains, and craters and crateriform structures that may be due to impact. Undifferentiated plains are the largest areal unit; their origin is uncertain. In terms of latitudinal distribution, dunes and hummocky and mountainous terrains are located mostly at low latitudes (less than 30??), with no dunes being present above 60??. Channels formed by fluvial activity are present at all latitudes, but lakes are at high latitudes only. Crateriform structures that may have been formed by impact appear to be uniformly distributed with latitude, but the well-preserved impact craters are all located at low latitudes, possibly indicating that more resurfacing has occurred at higher latitudes. Cryovolcanic features are not ubiquitous, and are mostly located between 30?? and 60?? north. We examine temporal relationships between units wherever possible, and conclude that aeolian and fluvial/pluvial/lacustrine processes are the most recent, while tectonic processes that led to the formation of mountains and Xanadu are likely the most ancient. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc.

Lopes, R.M.C.; Stofan, E.R.; Peckyno, R.; Radebaugh, J.; Mitchell, K.L.; Mitri, G.; Wood, C.A.; Kirk, R.L.; Wall, S.D.; Lunine, J.I.; Hayes, A.; Lorenz, R.; Farr, T.; Wye, L.; Craig, J.; Ollerenshaw, R.J.; Janssen, M.; LeGall, A.; Paganelli, F.; West, R.; Stiles, B.; Callahan, P.; Anderson, Y.; Valora, P.; Soderblom, L.



Process maps for thermal spray: A fundamental approach to process-property relationships  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the various techniques used to manufacture coatings, thermal spray processes form an important class. These are overlay coatings applied via the route of melt deposition (and in some cases, solid state or semi-solid state). The wide varieties of sub-processes within this group, coupled with a very large choice of materials that can be processed through these methods lend tremendous versatility to the technology. Physical phenomena that occur during thermal spray processing are inherently complex, involving a large number of interrelated variables from among the hot zone, feedstock characteristics and substrate condition. As a consequence of this, the nature of coatings thus formed is also quite complex. The traditional approach to study and design coatings involves controlling the hardware-related variables to effect changes in deposits. This method is limited in its utility and does not provide any insight into the mechanisms involved in the development of deposit microstructures. The methodology and procedure outlined in this dissertation are aimed at exploring the intricacies of this process with respect to the variation of particle state, dependence of coating properties on particle state, level of stresses induced in the coating and the systematic variation of properties & microstructures. The concept of a 'process map' has been utilized to represent the various links in this technique. Tools and techniques have been developed to monitor key aspects of the process---in real time and post processing. Key aspects such as the in flight particle state have been defined, modeled and validated. The efficacy of this method of investigation has been demonstrated through the application to a few model systems---a nickel-aluminum alloy, molybdenum, partially stabilized zirconia and alumina.

Vaidya, Anirudha


Fundamental change of granular flows dynamics, deposition and erosion processes at sufficiently high slope angles: insights from laboratory experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geophysical granular flows commonly interact with their substrate in various ways depending on the mechanical properties of the underlying material. Granular substrates, resulting from deposition of earlier flows or various geological events, are often eroded by avalanches [see Hungr and Evans, 2004 for review]. The entrainment of underlying debris by the flow is suspected to affect flow dynamics because qualitative and quantitative field observations suggest that it can increase the flow velocity and deposit extent, depending on the geological setting and flow type [Sovilla et al., 2006; Iverson et al., 2011]. Direct measurement of material entrainment in nature, however, is very difficult. We conducted laboratory experiments on granular column collapse over an inclined channel with and without an erodible bed of granular material. The controlling parameters were the channel slope angle, the granular column volume and its aspect ratio (i.e. height over length), the inclination of the column with respect to the channel base, the channel width, and the thickness and compaction of the erodible bed. For slope angles below a critical value ?c, between 10° and 16°, the runout distance rf is proportional to the initial column height h0 and is unaffected by the presence of an erodible bed. On slopes greater than ?c, the flow dynamics change fundamentally since a last phase of slow propagation develops at the end of the flow front deceleration, and prolongates significantly the flow duration. This phase has similar characteristics that steady, uniform flows. The slow propagation phase lasts longer for increasing column volume, column inclination with respect to the slope, and channel width, and for decreasing column aspect ratio. It is however independent of the maximum front velocity and, on an erodible bed, of the maximum depth of excavation within the bed. Both on rigid and erodible beds, the increase of the slow propagation phase duration has a crucial effect on the granular flows dynamics and deposition. (i) On a rigid bed, as the slow propagation phase lasts longer, the normalized runout distance rf/h0 is greater for a given slope angle and the front of the flow deposit becomes more round. (ii) On an erodible bed, increasing the duration of the slow phase causes the bed excavation to lasts longer and the increase of the runout distance compared with the case on the rigid bed to be greater; this is even more significant as the bed is less compact. For flows on an erodible bed and if the slope angle is high enough, waves of grains appear in the flow head, at the interface between the flow (white) and the bed (black). These waves are related to the erosion/deposition processes at the base of the flow.

Farin, M.; Mangeney, A.; Roche, O.



The fundamental units, processes and patterns of evolution, and the Tree of Life conundrum  

PubMed Central

Background The elucidation of the dominant role of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in the evolution of prokaryotes led to a severe crisis of the Tree of Life (TOL) concept and intense debates on this subject. Concept Prompted by the crisis of the TOL, we attempt to define the primary units and the fundamental patterns and processes of evolution. We posit that replication of the genetic material is the singular fundamental biological process and that replication with an error rate below a certain threshold both enables and necessitates evolution by drift and selection. Starting from this proposition, we outline a general concept of evolution that consists of three major precepts. 1. The primary agency of evolution consists of Fundamental Units of Evolution (FUEs), that is, units of genetic material that possess a substantial degree of evolutionary independence. The FUEs include both bona fide selfish elements such as viruses, viroids, transposons, and plasmids, which encode some of the information required for their own replication, and regular genes that possess quasi-independence owing to their distinct selective value that provides for their transfer between ensembles of FUEs (genomes) and preferential replication along with the rest of the recipient genome. 2. The history of replication of a genetic element without recombination is isomorphously represented by a directed tree graph (an arborescence, in the graph theory language). Recombination within a FUE is common between very closely related sequences where homologous recombination is feasible but becomes negligible for longer evolutionary distances. In contrast, shuffling of FUEs occurs at all evolutionary distances. Thus, a tree is a natural representation of the evolution of an individual FUE on the macro scale, but not of an ensemble of FUEs such as a genome. 3. The history of life is properly represented by the "forest" of evolutionary trees for individual FUEs (Forest of Life, or FOL). Search for trends and patterns in the FOL is a productive direction of study that leads to the delineation of ensembles of FUEs that evolve coherently for a certain time span owing to a shared history of vertical inheritance or horizontal gene transfer; these ensembles are commonly known as genomes, taxa, or clades, depending on the level of analysis. A small set of genes (the universal genetic core of life) might show a (mostly) coherent evolutionary trend that transcends the entire history of cellular life forms. However, it might not be useful to denote this trend "the tree of life", or organismal, or species tree because neither organisms nor species are fundamental units of life. Conclusion A logical analysis of the units and processes of biological evolution suggests that the natural fundamental unit of evolution is a FUE, that is, a genetic element with an independent evolutionary history. Evolution of a FUE on the macro scale is naturally represented by a tree. Only the full compendium of trees for individual FUEs (the FOL) is an adequate depiction of the evolution of life. Coherent evolution of FUEs over extended evolutionary intervals is a crucial aspect of the history of life but a "species" or "organismal" tree is not a fundamental concept. Reviewers This articles was reviewed by Valerian Dolja, W. Ford Doolittle, Nicholas Galtier, and William Martin PMID:19788730

Koonin, Eugene V; Wolf, Yuri I



Martian planetwide crater distributions - Implications for geologic history and surface processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three different diameter size ranges are considered in connection with the Martian crater distribution, taking into account small craters from 0.6 to 1.2 km, intermediate-sized craters from 4 to 10 km, and large craters with diameters exceeding 20 km. One of the objectives of the investigation reported is to establish the effects of eolian processes in the modification of craters in the different size ranges. Another objective is concerned with a description of the genetic relationships among the three size ranges of craters. Observables related to the relative age of geologic provinces are to be separated from observables related to geographic variations in eolian transport and deposition. Lunar and Martian cratering histories are compared as a basis for establishing relative and absolute time scales for the geological evolution of Mars.

Soderblom, L. A.; Condit, C. D.; West, R. A.; Herman, B. M.; Kreidler, T. J.



Geologic Maps Geology 200  

E-print Network

Geologic Maps Geology 200 Geology for Environmental Scientists #12;Geologic Map of the US #12;Symbols found on geologic maps #12;Horizontal Strata #12;Geologic map of part of the Grand Canyon. Each color represents a different formation. #12;Inclined Strata #12;Dome #12;Geologic map of the Black Hills

Kammer, Thomas


BS in GEOLOGY: Environmental Geology Emphasis (694029) MAP Sheet Department of Geological Sciences  

E-print Network

BS in GEOLOGY: Environmental Geology Emphasis (694029) MAP Sheet Department of Geological Sciences with environmental degradation and natural geologic hazards has led to a demand for geologists who are both well grounded in the fundamentals of the science of geology and specifically prepared to address environmental

Seamons, Kent E.


Geodynamics applications of continuum physics to geological problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This textbook deals with the fundamental physical processes necessary for an understanding of plate tectonics and a variety of geologic phenomena. The first chapter reviews plate tectonics; its main purpose is to provide physics, chemistry, and engineering students with the geologic background necessary to understand the applications throughout the rest of the book. It goes on to discuss in following

D. L. Turcotte; G. Schubert



No evidence for a fundamental visual motion processing deficit in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders.  


It has been suggested that atypicalities in low-level visual processing contribute to the expression and development of the unusual cognitive and behavioral profile seen in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, previous investigations have yielded mixed results. In the largest study of its kind (ASD n = 89; non-ASD = 52; mean age 15 years 6 months) and testing across the spectrum of IQ (range 52-133), we investigated performance on three measures of basic visual processing: motion coherence, form-from-motion and biological motion (BM). At the group level, we found no evidence of differences between the two groups on any of the tasks, suggesting that there is no fundamental visual motion processing deficit in individuals with an ASD, at least by adolescence. However, we identified a tail of individuals with ASD (18% of the sample) who had exceptionally poor BM processing abilities compared to the non-ASD group, and who were characterized by low IQ. For the entire sample of those both with and without ASD, performance on the BM task uniquely correlated with performance on the Frith-Happé animations, a higher-level task that demands the interpretation of moving, interacting agents in order to understand mental states. We hypothesize that this association reflects the shared social-cognitive characteristics of the two tasks, which have a common neural underpinning in the superior temporal sulcus. PMID:21850664

Jones, Catherine R G; Swettenham, John; Charman, Tony; Marsden, Anita J S; Tregay, Jenifer; Baird, Gillian; Simonoff, Emily; Happé, Francesca



Understanding Fundamental Material Degradation Processes in High Temperature Aggressive Chemomechanical Environments  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that limit materials durability for very high-temperature applications. Current design limitations are based on material strength and corrosion resistance. This project will characterize the interactions of high-temperature creep, fatigue, and environmental attack in structural metallic alloys of interest for the very high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) or Next–Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) and for the associated thermo-chemical processing systems for hydrogen generation. Each of these degradation processes presents a major materials design challenge on its own, but in combination, they can act synergistically to rapidly degrade materials and limit component lives. This research and development effort will provide experimental results to characterize creep-fatigue-environment interactions and develop predictive models to define operation limits for high-temperature structural material applications. Researchers will study individually and in combination creep-fatigue-environmental attack processes in Alloys 617, 230, and 800H, as well as in an advanced Ni-Cr oxide dispersion strengthened steel (ODS) system. For comparison, the study will also examine basic degradation processes in nichrome (Ni-20Cr), which is a basis for most high-temperature structural materials, as well as many of the superalloys. These materials are selected to represent primary candidate alloys, one advanced developmental alloy that may have superior high-temperature durability, and one model system on which basic performance and modeling efforts can be based. The research program is presented in four parts, which all complement each other. The first three are primarily experimental in nature, and the last will tie the work together in a coordinated modeling effort. The sections are 1) dynamic creep-fatigue-environment process, 2) subcritical crack processes, 3) dynamic corrosion – crack initiation processes, and 4) modeling.

Stubbins, James; Gewirth, Andrew; Sehitoglu, Huseyin; Sofronis, Petros; Robertson, Ian



Canada's Deep Geological Repository for Used Nuclear Fuel - Geo-scientific Site Evaluation Process - 13117  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) is responsible for implementing Adaptive Phased Management (APM), the approach selected by the Government of Canada for long-term management of used nuclear fuel generated by Canadian nuclear reactors. The ultimate objective of APM is the centralized containment and isolation of Canada's used nuclear fuel in a Deep Geological Repository in a suitable rock formation at a depth of approximately 500 meters (m) (1,640 feet [ft]). In May 2010, the NWMO published a nine-step site selection process that serves as the road map to decision-making on the location for the deep geological repository. The safety and appropriateness of any potential site will be assessed against a number of factors, both technical and social in nature. The selected site will be one that can be demonstrated to be able to safely contain and isolate used nuclear fuel, protecting humans and the environment over the very long term. The geo-scientific suitability of potential candidate sites will be assessed in a stepwise manner following a progressive and thorough site evaluation process that addresses a series of geo-scientific factors revolving around five safety functions. The geo-scientific site evaluation process includes: Initial Screenings; Preliminary Assessments; and Detailed Site Evaluations. As of November 2012, 22 communities have entered the site selection process (three in northern Saskatchewan and 18 in northwestern and southwestern Ontario). (authors)

Blyth, Alec; Ben Belfadhel, Mahrez; Hirschorn, Sarah; Hamilton, Duncan; McKelvie, Jennifer [Nuclear Waste Management Organization, 22 St. Clair Avenue East, Toronto, Ontario M4T 2S3 (Canada)] [Nuclear Waste Management Organization, 22 St. Clair Avenue East, Toronto, Ontario M4T 2S3 (Canada)



Using the Fundamental Plane of black hole activity to distinguish X-ray processes from weakly accreting black holes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Fundamental Plane of black hole activity is a relation between X-ray luminosity, radio luminosity and black hole mass for hard-state Galactic black holes and their supermassive analogues. The Fundamental Plane suggests that, at low-accretion rates, the physical processes regulating the conversion of an accretion flow into radiative energy could be universal across the entire black hole mass scale. However,

Richard M. Plotkin; Sera Markoff; Brandon C. Kelly; Elmar Körding; Scott F. Anderson



Chemical Sensing for Buried Landmines - Fundamental Processes Influencing Trace Chemical Detection  

SciTech Connect

Mine detection dogs have a demonstrated capability to locate hidden objects by trace chemical detection. Because of this capability, demining activities frequently employ mine detection dogs to locate individual buried landmines or for area reduction. The conditions appropriate for use of mine detection dogs are only beginning to emerge through diligent research that combines dog selection/training, the environmental conditions that impact landmine signature chemical vapors, and vapor sensing performance capability and reliability. This report seeks to address the fundamental soil-chemical interactions, driven by local weather history, that influence the availability of chemical for trace chemical detection. The processes evaluated include: landmine chemical emissions to the soil, chemical distribution in soils, chemical degradation in soils, and weather and chemical transport in soils. Simulation modeling is presented as a method to evaluate the complex interdependencies among these various processes and to establish conditions appropriate for trace chemical detection. Results from chemical analyses on soil samples obtained adjacent to landmines are presented and demonstrate the ultra-trace nature of these residues. Lastly, initial measurements of the vapor sensing performance of mine detection dogs demonstrates the extreme sensitivity of dogs in sensing landmine signature chemicals; however, reliability at these ultra-trace vapor concentrations still needs to be determined. Through this compilation, additional work is suggested that will fill in data gaps to improve the utility of trace chemical detection.




Fundamental Study on the Dynamics of Heterogeneity-Enhanced CO2 Gas Evolution in the Shallow Subsurface During Possible Leakage from Deep Geologic Storage Sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A concern for geologic carbon sequestration is the potential for CO2 stored in deep geologic formations to leak upward into shallow freshwater aquifers where it can have potentially detrimental impacts to the environment and human health. Understanding the mechanisms of CO2 exsolution, migration and accumulation (collectively referred to as 'gas evolution') in the shallow subsurface is critical to predict and mitigate the environmental impacts. During leakage, CO2 can move either as free-phase or as a dissolved component of formation brine. CO2 dissolved in brine may travel upward into shallow freshwater systems, and the gas may be released from solution. In the shallow aquifer, the exsolved gas may accumulate near interfaces between soil types, and/or create flow paths that allow the gas to escape through the vadose zone to the atmosphere. The process of gas evolution in the shallow subsurface is controlled by various factors, including temperature, dissolved CO2 concentration, water pressure, background water flow rate, and geologic heterogeneity. However, the conditions under which heterogeneity controls gas phase evolution have not yet been precisely defined and can therefore not yet be incorporated into models used for environmental risk assessment. The primary goal of this study is to conduct controlled laboratory experiments to help fill this knowledge gap. With this as a goal, a series of intermediate-scale laboratory experiments were conducted to observe CO2 gas evolution in porous media at multiple scales. Deionized water was saturated with dissolved CO2 gas under a specified pressure (the saturation pressure) before being injected at a constant volumetric flow rate into the bottom of a 1.7 meter-tall by 5.7 centimeter-diameter column or a 2.4 meter-tall by 40 centimeter-wide column that were both filled with sand in various heterogeneous packing configurations. Both test systems were initially saturated with fresh water and instrumented with soil moisture sensors to monitor the evolution of gas phase through time by measuring the average water content in small sampling volumes of soil. Tensiometers allowed for observation of water pressure through space and time in the test systems, and a computer-interfaced electronic scale continuously monitored the outflow of water from the top of the two test columns. Several packing configurations with five different types of sands were used in order to test the effects of various pore size contrasts and interface shapes on the evolution of the gas phase near soil texture transitions in the heterogeneous packings. Results indicate that: (1) heterogeneity affects gas phase evolution patterns within a predictable range of conditions quantified by the newly introduced term 'oversaturation,' (2) soil transition interfaces where less permeable material overlies more permeable material have a much more pronounced effect on gas evolution than interfaces with opposite orientations, and (3) anticlines (or stratigraphic traps) cause significantly greater gas accumulation than horizontal interfaces. Further work is underway to apply these findings to more realistic, two-dimensional scenarios, and to assess how well existing numerical models can capture these processes.

Plampin, M. R.; Lassen, R. N.; Sakaki, T.; Pawar, R.; Jensen, K.; Illangasekare, T. H.



Fundamental chemistry and thermodynamics of hydrothermal oxidation processes. 1997 annual progress report  

SciTech Connect

'The objective of this research program is to provide fundamental scientific information on the physical and chemical properties of solutes in aqueous solutions at high temperatures needed to assess and improve the applicability of hydrothermal oxidation (HTO) to the remediation of US Department of Energy (DOE) hazardous and mixed wastes. Investigators in two divisions at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Chemical and Analytical Sciences, and Chemical Technology) and at the University of Tennessee are focused on the solubility and speciation of actinides and surrogates in model HTO process streams at high temperatures, on the experimental and theoretical development of equations of state for aqueous mixtures containing noncondensible gases under HTO process conditions ranging above the critical temperature of water, and on achieving a predictive level of understanding of the chemical and physical properties of HTO process streams through molecular-level simulations of aqueous solutions at high temperatures. Specific tasks in these three efforts over the past year include measurements of solubility and identification of stable solid phases for UO{sub 3} in aqueous carbonate solutions at temperatures above 100 C, measurements of fluid-phase coexistence boundaries and densities of mixtures in (H{sub 2}O + N{sub 2} + CO{sub 2}) mixtures at high temperatures and pressures, and molecular dynamics simulations of water and aqueous solutions addressing the speciation of simple ionic solutes and the structure of water and aqueous solutions as functions of temperature and density. Research in this project has been divided into individual tasks, each addressing a particular scientific question and each contributing to a unified understanding of HTO processing problems related to the treatment of DOE hazardous and mixed wastes. The three primary tasks are (1) the determination of solubilities of inorganic compounds including actinides and surrogates to determine their likely fate during HTO processing, (2) experimental and modeling studies of the density and phase behavior of (water + gas) mixtures at high temperatures to determine the physical state of the process fluid, and (3) simulations of water and aqueous solutions at high temperatures and comparison with experimental results as a method for the development of accurate, comprehensive descriptions of the properties of aqueous fluids.'

Simonson, J.M.; Mesmer, R.E.; Blencoe, J.G.; Cummings, P.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (US); Chialvo, A.A. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (US)



No geology without marine geology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief review is offered of the many problems where knowledge of the ocean floors and of marine processes in shallow water is indispensable for the further advancement of geology. The subject of turbidity currents is treated in greater detail, to demonstrate the interrelation of several aspects of marine geology with sedimentologic and paleogeographic investigations. It is obvious that the

P. H Kuenen



Laser ablation ICP-MS applications using the timescales of geologic and biologic processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geochemists commonly examine geologic processes on timescales of 10^4--10^9 years, and accept that often age relations, e.g., chemical zoning in minerals, can only be measured in a relative sense. The progression of a geologic process that involves geochemical changes may be assessed using trace element microbeam techniques, because the textural, and therefore spatial context, of the analytical scheme can be preserved. However, quantification requires appropriate calibration standards. Laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) is proving particularly useful now that appropriate standards are becoming available. For instance, trace element zoning patterns in primary sulfides (e.g., pyrite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, galena) and secondary phases can be inverted to examine relative changes in fluid composition during cycles of hydrothermal mineralization. In turn such information provides insights into fluid sources, migration pathways and depositional processes. These studies have only become possible with the development of appropriate sulfide calibration standards. Another example, made possible with the development of appropriate silicate calibration standards, is the quantitative spatial mapping of REE variations in amphibolite-grade garnets. The recognition that the trace and major elements are decoupled provides a better understanding of the various sources of elements during metamorphic re-equilibration. There is also a growing realization that LA-ICP-MS has potential in biochemical studies, and geochemists have begun to turn their attention in this direction, working closely with biologists. Unlike many geologic processes, the timescales of biologic processes are measured in years to centuries and are frequently amenable to absolute dating. Examples that can be cited where LA-ICP-MS has been applied include annual trace metal variations in tree rings, corals, teeth, bones, bird feathers and various animal vibrissae (sea lion, walrus, wolf). The aim of such studies is to correlate trace element variations with changes in environmental variables. Such studies are proving informative in climate change and habitat management. Again, such variations have been quantified with the availability of appropriate organic, carbonate and phosphate calibration standards.

Ridley, W. I.



Quantitative Geological Surface Processes Extracted From Infrared Spectroscopy and Remote Sensing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 17-page PDF document from Michael Ramsey at the University of Pittsburg explores some of the practical applications of Thermal Infrared (TIR) data in both the laboratory and remotely acquired environments. It focuses on the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) in particular, but also mentions other systems and the caveats of moving from laboratory-based hypotheses to real world data. The document discusses the principles of TIR, highlighting the common analytical technique of spectral deconvolution as it is applied to two very different geologic processes. Case studies at the Kelso Dunes, CA and Bezimmiany Volcano, Russia, are used as primary examples that highlight TIR applications to eolian and volcanological processes. Graphs and photos help illustrate the concepts.

Ramsey, Michael S.; Pittsburgh, University O.


Geoelectrical signals of geologic and hydrologic processes in a fringing reef lagoon setting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal groundwater may discharge into nearshore and offshore waters forced by terrestrial fluxes, controlled by local geology, and modulated by the hydrodynamics of littoral water. We investigated the electrical signature of these features with a dense, multiscale network of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys in the Muri Lagoon of Rarotonga, Cook Islands. The ERT surveys spanned from onshore to 400 m into the lagoon and used standard electrodes on land and across the foreshore, submerged electrodes in the shallow subtidal zone, and floating electrodes towed throughout the reef lagoon by a boat. ERT surveys on land mapped a typical freshwater lens underlain by a saltwater wedge, but with possible deviations from the classical model due to an adjacent tidal creek. Further inland, ERT surveys imaged a layer of lava flow deposits that is potentially a confining hydrogeologic unit; this unit was used to constrain the expected electrical resistivity of these deposits below the lagoon. ERT surveys across the intertidal zone and into the lagoon indicated fresh groundwater and porewater salinity patterns consistent with previous small-scale studies including the seaward extension of fresh groundwater pathways to the lagoon. Electrical resistivity (ER) variations in the lagoon subsurface highlighted heterogeneities in the lagoon structure that may focus submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) through previously unknown buried lava flow deposits in the lagoon. A transition to higher ER values near the reef crest is consistent with the ER signature of porosity reduction due to ongoing differential cementation of reef deposits across the lagoon. The imaged coastal hydrostratigraphic heterogeneity may thus control terrestrial and marine porewater mixing, support SGD, and provide the pathways for groundwater and the materials it transports into the lagoon. This hydrogeophysical investigation highlighted the spatial heterogeneity of submarine coastal geology and its hydrogeologic control in a reef lagoon setting, but is likely to occur in many similar coastal settings. Ignoring geologic complexity can result in mischaracterization of SGD and other coastal groundwater processes at many spatial scales.

Befus, Kevin M.; Cardenas, M. Bayani; Tait, Douglas R.; Erler, Dirk V.



Fundamental aspects on ion-beam surface modification: defect production and migration processes  

SciTech Connect

Ion-beam modification of metals is generating increasing scientific interest not only because it has exciting technological potential, but also because it has raised fundamental questions concerning radiation-induced diffusion processes. In addition to the implanted species, several defect production and migration mechanisms contribute to changes in the near-surface composition of an alloy during ion bombardment, e.g., atoms exchange positions via displacements and replacement sequences; preferential sputtering effects arise; radiation-enhanced diffusion and radiation-induced segregation occur. The latter two defect migration mechanisms are of particular significance since they can alter the composition to depths which are much greater than the implanted ion range. By altering various parameters such as irradiation temperature, ion mass, energy, and current density, and initial alloying distributions, a rich variety of near-surface composition profiles can be created. We have utilized changes in ion mass and energy, and irradiation temperature to distinguish defect production from defect migration effects. Experimental results are presented which provide a guide to the relative efficiencies of different mechanisms under various irradiation conditions. 46 references.

Rehn, L.E.; Averback, R.S.; Okamoto, P.R.



The Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission...Resolving Fundamental Processes in Space Plasmas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission is a multiple-spacecraft Solar-Terrestrial Probe designed to study the microphysics of magnetic reconnection, charged particle acceleration, and turbulence in key boundary regions of Earth's magnetosphere. These three processes, which control the flow of energy, mass, and momentum within and across plasma boundaries, occur throughout the universe and are fundamental to our understanding of astrophysical and solar system plasmas. Only in Earth's magnetosphere, however, are they readily accessible for sustained study through in-situ measurement. MMS will employ five co-orbiting spacecraft identically instrumented to measure electric and magnetic fields, plasmas, and energetic particles. The initial parameters of the individual spacecraft orbits will be designed so that the spacecraft formation will evolve into a three-dimensional configuration near apogee, allowing MMS to differentiate between spatial and temporal effects and to determine the three dimensional geometry of plasma, field, and current structures. In order to sample all of the magnetospheric boundary regions, MMS will employ a unique four-phase orbital strategy involving carefully sequenced changes in the local time and radial distance of apogee and, in the third phase, a change in orbit inclination from 10 degrees to 90 degrees. The nominal mission operational lifetime is two years. Launch is currently scheduled for 2006.

Curtis, S.



Femtosecond pulsed laser processing of electronic materials: Fundamentals and micro/nano-scale applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultra-short pulsed laser radiation has been shown to be effective for precision materials processing and surface micro-modification. One of advantages is the substantial reduction of the heat penetration depth, which leads to minimal lateral damage. Other advantages include non-thermal nature of ablation process, controlled ablation and ideal characteristics for precision micro-structuring. Yet, fundamental questions remain unsolved regarding the nature of melting and ablation mechanisms in femtosecond laser processing of materials. In addition to micro engineering problems, nano-structuring and nano-fabrication are emerging fields that are of particular interest in conjunction with femtosecond laser processing. A comprehensive experimental study as well as theoretical development is presented to address these issues. Ultra-short pulsed laser irradiation was used to crystallize 100 nm amorphous silicon (a-Si) films. The crystallization process was observed by time-resolved pump-and-probe reflection imaging in the range of 0.2 ps to 100 ns. The in-situ images in conjunction with post-processed SEM and AFM mapping of the crystallized structure provide evidence for non-thermal ultra-fast phase transition and subsequent surface-initiated crystallization. Mechanisms of ultra-fast laser-induced ablation on crystalline silicon and copper are investigated by time-resolved pump-and-probe microscopy in normal imaging and shadowgraph arrangements. A one-dimensional model of the energy transport is utilized to predict the carrier temperature and lattice temperature as well as the electron and vapor flux emitted from the surface. The temporal delay between the pump and probe pulses was set by a precision translation stage up to about 500 ps and then extended to the nanosecond regime by an optical fiber assembly. The ejection of material was observed at several picoseconds to tens of nanoseconds after the main (pump) pulse by high-resolution, ultra-fast shadowgraphs. The ultrashort laser pulse accompanied by the pre-pulse induces air breakdown that can be detrimental to materials processing. A time-resolved pump-and-probe experiment provides distinct evidence for the occurrence of an air plasma and air breakdown. This highly nonlinear phenomenon takes place before the commencement of the ablation process, which is traced beyond elapsed time of the order of 10 ps with respect to the ablating pulse. The nonlinear refractive index of the generated air plasma is calculated as a function of electron density. The self-focusing of the main pulse is identified by the third order nonlinear susceptibility. A crystalline silicon sample is subjected to two optically separated ultra-fast laser pulses of full-width-half-maximum (FWHM) duration of about 80 femtoseconds. These pulses are delivered at wavelength, lambda = 800 nm. Femtosecond-resolved imaging pump-and-probe experiments in reflective and Schlieren configurations have been performed to investigate plasma dynamics and shock wave propagation during the sample ablation process. By using a diffractive optical element (DOE) for beam shaping, microchannels were fabricated. A super-long working distance objective lens was used to machine silicon materials in the sub-micrometer scale. As an extension of micro-machining, the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method is used to assess the feasibility of using near-field distribution of laser light. Gold coated films were machined with nano-scale dimensions and characterized with atomic force microscopy (AFM).

Choi, Tae-Youl


Fundamental Properties of Electromagnetic RadiationFundamental Properties of Electromagnetic Radiation Energy is the ability to do work. In the process of doing work, energy is often transferred  

E-print Network

;Electromagnetic Spectrum Electromagnetic Spectrum The Sun produces a continuous spectrum of energy from gamma rays-ray Ultraviolet Infrared Microwave and radio waves Wavelength in meters (m) Electromagnetic SpectrumFundamental Properties of Electromagnetic RadiationFundamental Properties of Electromagnetic


Quantifying the rainfall-water level fluctuation process in a geologically complex lake catchment.  


Simulating hydrologic processes in geologically complex environments is a difficult scientific task since it incorporates high level of uncertainty. Many studies have attempted to accurately quantify the rainfall-water level elevation relationship in freshwater bodies so as to predict flooding and drought events. For this purpose several types of models have been implemented including distributed, black box and conceptual models that often provide efficient results, depending on the availability of reliable data as well as on the level of understanding of the system. Nevertheless, in the particular effort, three different models have been used to describe the relationship between rainfall and water level elevation in Trichonis Lake during the period 1951-1997. A Transfer Function model, a Dynamic Linear Regression and a physically based model, consisting of the lake's water budget equation, its Digital Bathymetric Model and GIS algorithms. These models have been tested to assess their efficiency and applicability in a karstic environment and the aim of the study was to find the best modeling option for developing sustainable water management plans and establishing a flooding/drought warning system in the particular lake catchment. The results indicated that in areas with geologically complex conditions, simple, physically-based models operate better than mechanistic models which usually cannot describe adequately the complexity of the system. PMID:16741814

Elias, Dimitriou; Ierotheos, Zacharias



Improved understanding of geologic CO{sub 2} storage processes requires risk-driven field experiments  

SciTech Connect

The need for risk-driven field experiments for CO{sub 2} geologic storage processes to complement ongoing pilot-scale demonstrations is discussed. These risk-driven field experiments would be aimed at understanding the circumstances under which things can go wrong with a CO{sub 2} capture and storage (CCS) project and cause it to fail, as distinguished from accomplishing this end using demonstration and industrial scale sites. Such risk-driven tests would complement risk-assessment efforts that have already been carried out by providing opportunities to validate risk models. In addition to experimenting with high-risk scenarios, these controlled field experiments could help validate monitoring approaches to improve performance assessment and guide development of mitigation strategies.

Oldenburg, C.M.



A Temperature-Profile Method for Estimating Flow Processes in Geologic Heat Pipes  

SciTech Connect

Above-boiling temperature conditions, as encountered, for example, in geothermal reservoirs and in geologic repositories for the storage of heat-producing nuclear wastes, may give rise to strongly altered liquid and gas flow processes in porous subsurface environments. The magnitude of such flow perturbation is extremely hard to measure in the field. We therefore propose a simple temperature-profile method that uses high-resolution temperature data for deriving such information. The energy that is transmitted with the vapor and water flow creates a nearly isothermal zone maintained at about the boiling temperature, referred to as a heat pipe. Characteristic features of measured temperature profiles, such as the differences in the gradients inside and outside of the heat pipe regions, are used to derive the approximate magnitude of the liquid and gas fluxes in the subsurface, for both steady-state and transient conditions.

J.T. Birkholzer



New processing of Cassini/VIMS data on potentially geologically varying regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a study of Titan's geology with a view to enhance our current understanding of the satellite's potentially geologically varying regions. We apply here a statistical method, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) [1, 2] and a radiative transfer method [3, 1] on three potentially "active" regions on Titan, i.e. regions possibly subject to change over time (in brightness and/or in color etc) [4] namely Tui Regio, Hotei Regio, and Sotra Facula. With our method of PCA we have managed to isolate specific regions of distinct and diverse chemical composition. Then, with our follow-up RT method, we retrieved the surface albedo of the three isolated regions and of the surrounding terrains with different spectral response. These methods enabled us to evaluate the atmospheric contribution and allowed us to better constrain the real surface alterations, by comparing the spectra of these regions. Finally, the temporal surface variation of Hotei Regio as suggested by Nelson et al. 2009 [5], has been tested through the use of the RT method while we have superimposed this area's Cassini Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) and RADAR data in order to 'view' the morphological potential. Even though we have used exactly the same dataset as Nelson and coauthors in 2009, we did not detect any significant surface albedo variations over time; this led us to revise the definition of "active" regions: even if these regions have not visually changed over the course of the Cassini mission, the determination of the chemical composition and the correlation with the morphological structures [6] observed in these areas do not rule out that past and/or ongoing cryovolcanic processes are still a possible interpretation.

Solomonidou, A.; Hirtzig, M.; Bratsolis, E.; Bampasidis, G.; Coustenis, A.; Kyriakopoulos, K.; Le Mouélic, S.; Rodriguez, S.; Jaumann, R.; Stephan, K.; Drossart, P.; Sotin, C.; Brown, R. H.; Seymour, K.; Moussas, X.



Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems. Geologic factors in the isolation of nuclear waste: evaluation of long-term geomorphic processes and catastrophic events  

SciTech Connect

SRI International has projected the rate, duration, and magnitude of geomorphic processes and events in the Southwest and Gulf Coast over the next million years. This information will be used by the Department of Energy`s Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as input to a computer model, which will be used to simulate possible release scenarios and the consequences of the release of nuclear waste from geologic containment. The estimates in this report, although based on best scientific judgment, are subject to considerable uncertainty. An evaluation of the Quaternary history of the two study areas revealed that each had undergone geomorphic change in the last one million years. Catastrophic events were evaluated in order to determine their significance to the simulation model. Given available data, catastrophic floods are not expected to occur in the two study areas. Catastrophic landslides may occur in the Southwest, but because the duration of the event is brief and the amount of material moved is small in comparison to regional denudation, such events need not be included in the simulation model. Ashfalls, however, could result in removal of vegetation from the landscape, thereby causing significant increases in erosion rates. Because the estimates developed during this study may not be applicable to specific sites, general equations were presented as a first step in refining the analysis. These equations identify the general relationships among the important variables and suggest those areas of concern for which further data are required. If the current model indicates that geomorphic processes (taken together with other geologic changes) may ultimately affect the geologic containment of nuclear waste, further research may be necessary to refine this analysis for application to specific sites.

Mara, S.J.



Geology, summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Trends in geologic application of remote sensing are identified. These trends are as follows: (1) increased applications of orbital imagery in fields such as engineering and environmental geology - some specific applications include recognition of active earthquake faults, site location for nuclear powerplants, and recognition of landslide hazards; (2) utilization of remote sensing by industry, especially oil and gas companies, and (3) application of digital image processing to mineral exploration.

Sabins, F. F., Jr.



DIPLOMA!WORK!(201412015)! Membrane! protein! transporters! catalyze! fundamental! cellular! processes! and! are!  

E-print Network

! ! DIPLOMA!WORK!(201412015)! ! Membrane! protein! transporters! catalyze! fundamental! cellular'Structural'&'Molecular'Biology,!2013)!and!Znta!(Wang!et!al.!Nature,!2014),!and! follow1up!work!is!already!in!progress.!As!part!of!our!research!team!the!diploma!is!long1term,!a!dedicated!diploma!worker!naturally!becomes!a!possible!candidate! for

Uppsala Universitet


Investigating geologic features and processes: A field investigation for earth science students at Leif Erickson Park, Duluth, Minnesota.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is a field investigation where students observe and interpret the rocks types, geologic features, and processes typical to the north shore of Lake Superior. Students use their data to develop questions that could be further investigated and to predict the sequence of events leading to the formation of these rocks and features.

Severson, Laurie


Report of the second meeting of the consultants on coupled processes associated with geological disposal of nuclear waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The second meeting of the Consultants on Coupled Processes Associated with Geological Disposal of Nuclear Waste occurred on January 15-16, 1985 at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). All the consultants were present except Dr. K. Kovari, who presented comments in writing afterward. This report contains a brief summary of the presentations and discussions from the meeting. The main points of the

Chin-Fu Tsang; D. C. Mangold



Antarctic Dry Valley analogs for Mars gullies: Geological setting and processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Malin and Edgett [1,2] initially described a class of young features on Mars that they termed gullies, consisting of an alcove, a channel and a fan. Restricted to middle and high latitude locations, these features were interpreted to have originated through processes related to the presence of liquid water (through groundwater discharge); the potential presence of liquid water on the surface of Mars currently or in the very recent geological past, when liquid water is metastable [3], generated a host of alternative explanations for the gullies [see summary in 4]. Detailed analysis of the conditions under which H2O could flow as a liquid in the current Mars environment shows a range of conditions under which gully-forming activity is possible [3,5]. Recent observations of changes in gullies, interpreted to mean that a few gullies are currently active [6], have intensified this discussion. Terrestrial analogs to martian environments may provide insight into the processes operating on Mars. For example, the nature of perennial saline springs forming channels on Axel Heiberg Island in the Canadian High Arctic has been used to support the argument that martian gullies formed from subsurface groundwater springs [7]. In this analysis we report on the results of ongoing [8-11] field studies in the Antarctic Dry Valleys (ADV), a hyperarid polar desert analog for Mars [11].

Head, J. W.; Marchant, D. R.; Dickson, J. L.; Levy, J. S.; Morgan, G. A.



Modeling coupled Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical processes including plastic deformation in geological porous media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There has been an increasing interest in the recent years in developing computational tools for analyzing coupled thermal, hydrological and mechanical (THM) processes that occur in geological porous media. This is mainly due to their importance in applications including carbon sequestration, enhanced geothermal systems, oil and gas production from unconventional sources, degradation of Arctic permafrost, and nuclear waste isolation. Large changes in pressures, temperatures and saturation can result due to injection/withdrawal of fluids or emplaced heat sources. These can potentially lead to large changes in the fluid flow and mechanical behavior of the formation, including shear and tensile failure on pre-existing or induced fractures and the associated permeability changes. Due to this, plastic deformation and large changes in material properties such as permeability and porosity can be expected to play an important role in these processes. We describe a general purpose computational code FEHM that has been developed for the purpose of modeling coupled THM processes during multi-phase fluid flow and transport in fractured porous media. The code uses a continuum mechanics approach, based on control volume - finite element method. It is designed to address spatial scales on the order of tens of centimeters to tens of kilometers. While large deformations are important in many situations, we have adapted the small strain formulation as useful insight can be obtained in many problems of practical interest with this approach while remaining computationally manageable. Nonlinearities in the equations and the material properties are handled using a full Jacobian Newton-Raphson technique. Stress-strain relationships are assumed to follow linear elastic/plastic behavior. The code incorporates several plasticity models such as von Mises, Drucker-Prager, and also a large suite of models for coupling flow and mechanical deformation via permeability and stresses/deformations. In this work we present several example applications of such models.

Kelkar, S.; Karra, S.; Pawar, R. J.; Zyvoloski, G.



Rheology of petrolatum-paraffin oil mixtures: Applications to analogue modelling of geological processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paraffins have been widely used in analogue modelling of geological processes. Petrolatum and paraffin oil are commonly used to lubricate model boundaries and to simulate weak layers. In this paper, we present rheological tests of petrolatum, paraffin oil and several homogeneous mixtures of the two. The results show that petrolatum and all petrolatum-paraffin oil mixtures are strain, strain rate and temperature dependent under typical experimental strain rates (10-3-10-1 s-1). For the same conditions, pure paraffin oil is a slightly temperature-dependent, linear, Newtonian fluid. All mixtures have yield stress and flow stress (strain softening) values that decrease with decreasing shear rate, and with increasing relative amounts of paraffin oil. The degree of strain rate dependence (shear thinning) also decreases with increasing paraffin oil content. Because these materials have rheologies that can be characterized and controlled, they are suitable for use in a large number of analogue model settings, either as a lubricant or to simulate weak layers. When used as a lubricant, mixtures with higher paraffin oil content should perform better than pure petrolatum.

Duarte, João C.; Schellart, Wouter P.; Cruden, Alexander R.



Rheology of petrolatum - paraffin oil mixtures: applications to analogue modelling of geological processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paraffins have been widely used in analogue modelling of geological processes. Petrolatum and paraffin oil are commonly used to lubricate model boundaries and to simulate weak layers. We present rheological tests of petrolatum, paraffin oil and several homogeneous mixtures of the two. The results show that petrolatum and all petrolatum-paraffin oil mixtures are strain, strain rate and temperature dependent under typical experimental strain rates (10-3 - 10-1 s-1). For the same conditions, pure paraffin oil is a slightly temperature-dependent, linear, Newtonian fluid. All mixtures have yield stress and flow stress (strain softening) values that decrease with decreasing shear rate, and with increasing relative amounts of paraffin oil. The degree of strain rate dependence (shear thinning) also decreases with increasing paraffin oil content. Because these materials have rheologies that can be characterized and controlled, they are suitable for use in a large number of analogue model settings, either as a lubricant or to simulate weak layers. When used as a lubricant, mixtures with higher paraffin oil content should perform better than pure petrolatum. In addition, we present results of 3D dynamical models of subduction in which these materials were used to lubricate the plate's interface and test different degrees of mechanical coupling.

Duarte, Joao; Schellart, Wouter; Cruden, Alexander



The MESSENGER mission to Mercury: new insights into geological processes and evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission, a part of NASA's Discovery Program, was designed to answer six questions [1]: (1) What planetary formational processes led to Mercury's high ratio of metal to silicate? (2) What is the geological history of Mercury? (3) What are the nature and origin of Mercury's magnetic field? (4) What are the structure and state of Mercury's core? (5) What are the radar-reflective materials at Mercury's poles? (6) What are the important volatile species and their sources and sinks near Mercury? MESSENGER is currently midway through a complex interplanetary cruise phase that involves three flybys of Mercury. The first of these, on 14 January 2008, provided important new information relating to several of the questions above [2-13]. Here we summarize observations made during the flyby that are most relevant to new insights about geological processes that have operated on Mercury and implications for the planet's history [3, 8-13]. The instruments that provided the most direct information on the geological history of Mercury during this first encounter were the Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) [14], the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) [15], and the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) [16]. Among the many specific questions remaining following the Mariner 10 mission to Mercury (1974- 1975) were (1) the level of mineralogical and compositional diversity of the crust, which appeared relatively bland in Mariner 10 data, (2) the nature of the rest of the huge Caloris impact basin seen only partially in Mariner 10 images, (3) the origin of the extensive plains observed on the surface (ponded impact ejecta or extrusive lava flows?), (4) the diversity and global distribution of tectonic features that have deformed the crust and their implications for strain as a function of time, and (5) the bombardment chronology and geological history of Mercury [1, 17-19]. The viewing geometry for the first MESSENGER encounter of Mercury [1] provided important information on these questions from image and remote sensing data on an additional 20% of the surface of Mercury not seen by Mariner 10, as well as comprehensive views of the Caloris basin and its surroundings. MESSENGER MDIS multi-spectral images [8-10] revealed a relatively low-reflectance surface with three broad units identified from reflectance and spectral slope in the wavelength range 0.4-1.0 ?m. These new data helped to confirm the diversity of color units detected in re-processed Mariner 10 color-ratio images [20] and to extend the analysis to larger areas of Mercury. One of these new units is higher in reflectance and forms relatively red plains material that corresponds to a distinct class of smooth plains; these plains, on the basis of their sharp contacts with other units, are interpreted to have been emplaced volcanically. A second unit is represented by lowerreflectance material with a lesser spectral slope and is interpreted to form a distinct crustal component enriched in opaque minerals and possibly more common at depth. A spectrally intermediate terrain appears to form the majority of the upper crust in the newly observed area. Several other spectrally distinct units are found in local regions: (1) moderately high-reflectance, relatively reddish material associated with rimless depressions and located at several places along the interior margin of the Caloris basin rim; (2) highreflectance deposits observed in some impact crater floors; and (3) fresh crater ejecta that is less modified by space weathering than older surface materials. MASCS spectrometer data [9,15] show absorption and spectral slope properties of resolved spectra that are indicative of differences in composition and regolith maturation processes among color units defined by MDIS. Mid-ultraviolet to near-infrared reflectance observations of the surface revealed the presence of a previously unobserved ultraviolet absorption feature that suggests a low FeO content (<2-3 weight %) in silicates in averag

Head, James W., III; Solomon, Sean C.; McNutt, Ralph L., Jr.; Blewett, David T.; Chapman, Clark R.; Domingue, Deborah L.; Evans, Larry G.; Gillis-Davis, Jeffrey J.; Hawkins, S. Edward, III; Helbert, Jörn; Holsclaw, Gregory M.; Izenberg, Noam R.; McClintock, William E.; McCoy, Timothy J.; Merline, William J.; Murchie, Scott L.; Nittler, Larrz R.; Phillips, Roger J.; Prockter, Louise M.; Robinson, Mark S.; Sprague, Ann L.; Strom, Robert G.; Vilas, Faith; Watters, Thomas R.; Zuber, Maria T.



Application of ERTS images and image processing to regional geologic problems and geologic mapping in northern Arizona  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Computer image processing was shown to be both valuable and necessary in the extraction of the proper subset of the 200 million bits of information in an ERTS image to be applied to a specific problem. Spectral reflectivity information obtained from the four MSS bands can be correlated with in situ spectral reflectance measurements after path radiance effects have been removed and a proper normalization has been made. A detailed map of the major fault systems in a 90,000 sq km area in northern Arizona was compiled from high altitude photographs and pre-existing published and unpublished map data. With the use of ERTS images, three major fault systems, the Sinyala, Bright Angel, and Mesa Butte, were identified and their full extent measured. A byproduct of the regional studies was the identification of possible sources of shallow ground water, a scarce commodity in these regions.

Goetz, A. F. H. (principal investigator); Billingsley, F. C.; Gillespie, A. R.; Abrams, M. J.; Squires, R. L.; Shoemaker, E. M.; Lucchitta, I.; Elston, D. P.



Interface Induced Carbonate Mineralization: A Fundamental Geochemical Process Relevant to Carbon Sequestration  

SciTech Connect

We have approached the long-standing geochemical question why anhydrous high-Mg carbonate minerals (i.e., magnesite and dolomite) cannot be formed at ambient conditions from a new perspective by exploring the formation of MgCO{sub 3} and Mg{sub x}Ca{sub (1-x)}CO{sub 3} in non-aqueous solutions. Data collected from our experiments in this funding period suggest that a fundamental barrier, other than cation hydration, exists that prevents Mg{sup 2+} and CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} ions from forming long-range ordered structures. We propose that this barrier mainly stems from the lattice limitation on the spatial configuration of CO{sub 3} groups in magnesite crystals. On the other hand, the measured higher distribution coefficients of Mg between magnesian calcites formed in the absence and presence of water give us a first direct proof to support and quantify the cation hydration effect.

Teng, H. Henry [PI, The George Washington University] [PI, The George Washington University; Xu, Huifang [Co-PI, University of Wisconsin-Madison] [Co-PI, University of Wisconsin-Madison



Processing and geologic analysis of conventional cores from well ER-20-6 No. 1, Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect

In 1996, Well Cluster ER-20-6 was drilled on Pahute Mesa in Area 20, in the northwestern corner of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The three wells of the cluster are located from 166 to 296 meters (m) (544 to 971 feet [ft]) southwest of the site of the underground nuclear test code-named BULLION, conducted in 1990 in Emplacement Hole U-20bd. The well cluster was planned to be the site of a forced-gradient experiment designed to investigate radionuclide transport in groundwater. To obtain additional information on the occurrence of radionuclides, nature of fractures, and lithology, a portion of Well ER-20-6 No. 1, the hole closest to the explosion cavity, was cored for later analysis. Bechtel Nevada (BN) geologists originally prepared the geologic interpretation of the Well Cluster ER-20-6 site and documented the geology of each well in the cluster. However, the cores from Well ER-20-6 No. 1 were not accessible at the time of that work. As the forced-gradient experiment and other radio nuclide migration studies associated with the well cluster progressed, it was deemed appropriate to open the cores, describe the geology, and re-package the core for long-term air-tight storage. This report documents and describes the processing, geologic analysis, and preservation of the conventional cores from Well ER20-6 No. 1.

Prothro, L.B., Townsend, M.J.; Drellack, S.L. Jr. [and others



Object-aware Business Processes: Fundamental Requirements and their Support in Existing Approaches  

E-print Network

(van der Aalst & ter Hofstede & Weske, 2003). When using existing process management systems (PrMS a specific ordering. What is done during activity execution is out of the control of the PrMS. Most PrMS in order to terminate successfully. For end-users, PrMS provide process-oriented views (e.g., work- lists

Ulm, Universität



E-print Network

September 2012 BASIN RESEARCH AND ENERGY GEOLOGY STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK at BINGHAMTON research programs in geochemistry, sedimentary geology, or Earth surface processes with the potential the position, visit the Geological Sciences and Environmental Studies website (www.geology

Suzuki, Masatsugu


Fundamental changes of granular flows dynamics, deposition and erosion processes at high slope angles: insights from laboratory experiments.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geophysical granular flows commonly interact with their substrate in various ways depending on the mechanical properties of the underlying material. Granular substrates, resulting from deposition of earlier flows or various geological events, are often eroded by avalanches [see Hungr and Evans, 2004 for review]. The entrainment of underlying debris by the flow is suspected to affect flow dynamics because qualitative and quantitative field observations suggest that it can increase the flow velocity and deposit extent, depending on the geological setting and flow type [Sovilla et al., 2006; Iverson et al., 2011]. Direct measurement of material entrainment in nature, however, is very difficult. We conducted laboratory experiments on granular column collapse over an inclined channel with and without an erodible bed of granular material. The controlling parameters were the channel slope angle, the granular column volume and its aspect ratio (i.e. height over length), the inclination of the column with respect to the channel base, the channel width, and the thickness and compaction of the erodible bed. For slope angles below a critical value ?c, between 10° and 16°, the runout distance rf is proportional to the initial column height h0 and is unaffected by the presence of an erodible bed. On steeper slopes, the flow dynamics change fundamentally since a last phase of slow propagation develops at the end of the flow front deceleration, and prolongates significantly the flow duration. This phase has similar characteristics that steady, uniform flows. The slow propagation phase lasts longer for increasing slope angle, column volume, column inclination with respect to the slope, and channel width, and for decreasing column aspect ratio. It is however independent of the maximum front velocity and, on an erodible bed, of the maximum depth of excavation within the bed. Both on rigid and erodible beds, the increase of the slow propagation phase duration has a crucial effect on the granular flows dynamics and deposition. (i) Over a rigid bed, as the slow propagation phase lasts longer, the normalized runout distance rf/h0 is greater for a given slope angle and the front of the flow deposit becomes steeper. (ii) Over an erodible bed, increasing the duration of the slow phase causes the bed excavation to lasts longer and leads to the increase of the runout distance compared with the case on the rigid bed being greater; this is even more significant as the bed is less compact.

Farin, Maxime; Mangeney, Anne; Roche, Olivier



INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS AND GROUP PROCESSES Functional Projection: How Fundamental Social Motives Can Bias  

E-print Network

a century ago, Sigmund Freud proposed that people sometimes engage in a process he called projection: attributing their own unacceptable emotions and desires to someone other than themselves (Freud, 1915/1957; cf

Cosmides, Leda


Fundamental investigation of refractory reactions occurring at high temperatures in continuous steel casting process.  

E-print Network

??An in-depth study has been carried out to investigate refractory degradation during continuous steel casting processes. Slag/refractory interactions have been investigated through a study of… (more)

Liu, Fuhai



Linking Geologic Framework to Nearshore Processes and Shoreline Change: Results from the Outer Banks of North Carolina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the coastal geology community, a consensus appears to have developed that the geologic framework of the inner-shelf plays an important role in shoreline change. It has yet to be determined, however, whether geology exerts a first-order control on shoreline dynamics and, if so, across what time and spatial scales. Furthermore, principal mechanisms that may link underlying geology and shoreline behavior remain poorly understood and untested. To this end, an extensive survey of the seafloor surface and shallow sub-bottom utilizing an interferometric swath bathymetry sonar system and a chirp sub-bottom profiler mounted on an amphibious vessel was conducted across the surf zone of the Outer Banks of North Carolina. Recent findings from a small region near Duck, North Carolina suggest a connection between partial exposure of pre-modern, non-sandy substrates in the surf zone and bar morphodynamics leading to the repeated occurrence of shoreline hotspots. Support from the US Geological Survey, US Army Corps of Engineers, and the Army Research Office has expanded this work to include a 40 km length of surf zone extending from Duck to Nags Head, North Carolina. Preliminary results from the larger survey are consistent with earlier findings at Duck which show: 1) an underlying ravinement surface with very irregular relief across the surf zone; 2) a thin cover of modern sand, ranging from 0 to a maximum of 2.5 m thick, with a surface morphology that does not necessarily mirror the underlying topography; 3) the presence of large transverse bars located beside exposures of non-sandy substrate; and 4) a spatial correlation between hotspots and regions with exposed non-sandy substrates and transverse bars in the surf zone. Future work will examine shoreline behavior and bar morphodynamics associated with the geologic framework of the nearshore over event and seasonal time scales. These observations will be designed to provide insight into the processes responsible for hotspot formation and to identify key geologic variables that could be incorporated into, and ultimately, improve shoreline evolution models.

McNinch, J. E.; Miselis, J. L.; Schupp, C. A.




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A growing number of processes throughout biology are regulated by redox via thiol-disulfide exchange. This mechanism is particularly widespread in plants where almost 200 proteins have been linked to thioredoxin (Trx), a widely distributed small regulatory disulfide protein. The current study extend...


Concepts of fundamental processes related to gasification of coal. Quarterly progress report, July-September 1981  

SciTech Connect

The research projects are described: (1) single stage catalytic coal gasification is an attractive concept as a direct method of producing high BTU gas from coal. This process involves the introduction of a coal-solvent slurry and hydrogen gas into a fixed bed catalytic reactor, which employs a catalyst high in hydrogenation and cracking activity. Steam may also be added to the system. The gas produced will be principally methane. Thermodynamic calculations indicate that this process is essentially autothermal. Since this process utilizes the heat of methanation to a maximum extent, significant overall energy savings can be achieved over the more conventional multi-stage gasification systems. The primary objective of this research is to optimize the process variables to maximize methane yields. Initially, a sulfided Ni-W/SiO/sub 2/-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst will be used; (2) the demand for molecular hydrogen and for synthesis gas is rapidly increasing. Therefore, an extensive program on steam reforming of aromatic compounds such as benzene, substituted benzenes, naphthalene and other aromatics found in coal and coal-derived liquids (CDL) is being carried out. The combination of coal liquefaction-steam reforming of CDL could prove to be an important alternative to coal gasification for the production of SNG and hydrogen. An objective of this project is to assess the feasibility of this alternative. Potentially, coal liquids could be reformed directly in a single step to high BTU gas.

Wiser, W.H.



Influence in the Policy Making Process: the Rise of Economics at the Expense of Geology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientific influence in resource policy making reached a zenith in the early 1970s during the legislative monopoly in the United States Congress that produced command and control regulatory protection policies. This congressional consensus began in 1879 with legislation producing the U.S. Geological Survey. Other scientific agencies followed. The Congresses of the first half of the 20th century merely strengthened the influence of science in policy outcomes that was present in the earliest congressional debates. What then happened at the turn of the 21st century when representatives in the administration frequently dismissed sound science in their policy deliberations? Policy monopolies arise from agreement in principle, and alternately decline as rival ideas gain hold in policy space. The science policy monopoly began to face competition from economics when cost benefit analysis was introduced into political parlance in 1936, again in the 1950s as a successful blocking tactic by the minority in opposition to western dams, and in 1961 when systems analysis was introduced to the Department of Defense under Robert McNamara. As businessmen replaced farmers as the modal profession of legislators, the language of politics increasingly contained economic terms and concepts. A ternary diagram and a budget simplex have the same shape, but have different theoretical meanings and imply different processes. Policy consensus is not dissimilar to a mineral phase diagram, with boundary conditions marked by election magnitudes and majority parties. The 1980 elections brought economic principles into all aspects of government decision-making, with a particular long-term interest in reducing the size and scope of government. Since then the shift in policy jargon from science to economics has been incremental. With the 1994 Republican legislative majority, scientists, their programs, and the funds required to maintain data collection projects became targets. The Conservative Consensus resulting from the 2000 elections has disregarded and even ridiculed scientific experts, their analyses, and their data. The first step in rebuilding an effective policy consensus based on sound science is recognizing the phase transition that privileges conservative policy solutions which minimize science and elevate economic principles.

McCurdy, K. M.



The geological processes time scale of the Ingozersky block TTG complex (Kola Peninsula)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ingozersky block located in the Tersky Terrane of the Kola Peninsula is composed of Archean gneisses and granitoids [1; 5; 8]. The Archaean basement complexes on the regional geological maps have called tonalite-trondemit-gneisses (TTG) complexes [6]. In the previous studies [1; 3; 4; 5; 7] within Ingozersky block the following types of rocks were established: biotite, biotite-amphibole, amphibole-biotite gneisses, granites, granodiorites and pegmatites [2]. In the rocks of the complex following corresponding sequence of endogenous processes observed (based on [5]): stage 1 - the biotitic gneisses formation; 2 - the introduction of dikes of basic rocks; 3 phase - deformation and foliation; 4 stage - implementation bodies of granite and migmatization; 5 stage - implementation of large pegmatite bodies; stage 6 - the formation of differently pegmatite and granite veins of low power, with and without garnet; stage 7 - quartz veins. Previous U-Pb isotopic dating of the samples was done for biotite gneisses, amphibole-biotite gneisses and biotite-amphibole gneisses. Thus, some Sm-Nd TDM ages are 3613 Ma - biotite gnesses, 2596 Ma - amphibole-biotite gnesses and 3493 Ma biotite-amphibole gneisses.. U-Pb ages of the metamorphism processes in the TTG complex are obtained: 2697±9 Ma - for the biotite gneiss, 2725±2 and 2667±7 Ma - for the amphibole-biotite gneisses, and 2727±5 Ma for the biotite-amphibole gneisses. The age defined for the biotite gneisses by using single zircon dating to be about 3149±46 Ma corresponds to the time of the gneisses protolith formation. The purpose of these studies is the age establishing of granite and pegmatite bodies emplacement and finding a geological processes time scale of the Ingozerskom block. Preliminary U-Pb isotopic dating of zircon and other accessory minerals were held for granites - 2615±8 Ma, migmatites - 2549±30 Ma and veined granites - 1644±7 Ma. As a result of the isotope U-Pb dating of the different Ingozerskogo TTG complex rocks, the following age-formation stages are determined: protolith of the biotite gneisses - 3149±46 Ma; metamorphism, deformation of rocks, foliation - 2727±5 - 2725±2 - 2697±9 - 2667±7 Ma, granite bodies formation - 2615±8 Ma and biotite gneisses migmatization - 2549±30 Ma, formation of different pegmatite and granite veins -1644±7 Ma. Author are grateful to Akad. Mitrofanov F.P. and Bayanova T.B. for the consultations. The work is supported by RFBR 12-05-31063, 11-05-00570. 1.Batieva I.D., Belkov I.V. Granitoidnie formacii Kolskogo poluostrova. // Ocgerki po petrologiy, mineralogiy i metallogeniy Kolskogo poluostrova. L.: Nauka. 1968. p. 5-143. (in russian) 2. Belkov I.V., Zagorodny V.G., Predovsky A.A. et al. Stratigraficheskoe raschlenenie i korrelyacia dokembria severo-vostochoi chasty Baltiyskogo shita. L.: Nauka. 1971. p. 141-150. (in russian) 3. Docembriskaya tektonica severo-vostochoi chasty Baltiyskogo shita (Ob'asnitelnaya zapiska k tektonicheskoi karte severo-vostochoi chasty Baltiyskogo shita 1:500000) / ed.: F.P.Mitrofanov. Apatity: KFAN SSSR. 1992. 112 P. (in russian) 4. Zagorodny V.G., Radchenko A.T. Tectonika i glubinnoe stroenie severo-vostochoi chasty Baltiyskogo shita. Apatity: KFA SSSR. 1978. p. 3-12. (in russian) 5. Kozlov N.E., Sorohtin N.O., Glaznev V.N. et al. Geologia Arhea Baltiskogo shita. S.Pb.: Nauka. 2006. 329 p. (in russian) 6. Mitrofanov F.P. Sovremennie problemy i nekotorie resheniya dokembriskoy geologii kratonov. (2001) Litosphera.2001. V 1. P. 5-14. (in russian) 7. Ob'asnitelnaya zapiska k geologicheskoy karte severo-vostochoi chasty Baltiyskogo shita 1:500000 / ed.: F.P.Mitrofanov. Apatity: KFAN SSSR. 1994. 95 P. (in russian) 8. Haritonov L.Y. Structura i stratigraphia karelid vostoka Baltiskogo shita. M.: Nedra. 1966. 354 P. (in russian)

Nitkina, Elena



Lubrication-related residue as a fundamental process scaling limit to gravure printed electronics.  


In gravure printing, excess ink is removed from a patterned plate or roll by wiping with a doctor blade, leaving a thin lubrication film in the nonpatterned area. Reduction of this lubrication film is critical for gravure printing of electronics, since the resulting residue can lower device performance or even catastrophically impact circuit yield. We report on experiments and quantitative analysis of lubrication films in a highly scaled gravure printing process. We investigate the effects of ink viscosity, wiping speed, loading force, blade stiffness and blade angle on the lubrication film, and further, use the resulting data to investigate the relevant lubrication regimes associated with wiping during gravure printing. Based on this analysis, we are able to posit the lubrication regime associated with wiping during gravure printing, provide insight into the ultimate limits of residue reduction, and, furthermore, are able to provide process guidelines and design rules to achieve these limits. PMID:24625096

Kitsomboonloha, Rungrot; Subramanian, Vivek



Application of the "Full Cavitation Model" to the fundamental study of cavitation in liquid metal processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrasonic cavitation treatment of melt significantly improves the downstream properties and quality of conventional and advanced metallic materials. However, the transfer of this technology has been hindered by difficulties in treating large volumes of liquid metal. To improve the understanding of cavitation processing efficiency, the Full Cavitation Model, which is derived from a reduced form of the Rayleigh-Plesset equation, is modified and applied to the two-phase problem of bubble propagation in liquid melt. Numerical simulations of the sound propagation are performed in the microsecond time scale to predict the maximum and minimum acoustic pressure amplitude fields in the domain. This field is applied to the source term of the bubble transport equation to predict the generation and destruction of cavitation bubbles in a time scale relevant to the fluid flow. The use of baffles to limit flow speed in a launder conduit is studied numerically, to determine the optimum configuration that maximizes the residence time of the liquid in high cavitation activity regions. With this configuration, it is then possible to convert the batch processing of liquid metal into a continuous process. The numerical simulations will be validated against water and aluminium alloy experiments, carried out at Brunel University.

Lebon, G. S. B.; Pericleous, K.; Tzanakis, I.; Eskin, D.



Separation and purification of lactic acid: Fundamental studies on the reverse osmosis down-stream process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physico-chemical properties and effects of lactic acid and lactates in the reverse osmosis process were investigated using a polyamide composite membrane. The membrane was found to swell at pH 2.2, yet has no detectable solute-membrane affinity. The decrease in flux and increase in the solute reduction factor of lactic acid (0.66 m3.m?2.d?1; 5.8), ammonium lactate (0.30 m3.m?2.d?2.d?1; 18.3) and

M. K. H. Liew; S. Tanaka; M. Morita



Explorational Rock Physics – The Link Between Geological Processes and Geophysical Observables  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The field of rock physics represents the link between qualitative geological parameters and quantitative geophysical measurements.\\u000a Increasingly over the last decade, rock physics has become an integral part of quantitative seismic interpretation and stands\\u000a out as a key technology in petroleum geophysics. Ultimately, the application of rock physics tools can reduce exploration\\u000a risk and improve reservoir forecasting in the petroleum

Per Avseth


Thioredoxin targets fundamental processes in a methane-producing archaeon, Methanocaldococcus jannaschii.  


Thioredoxin (Trx), a small redox protein, controls multiple processes in eukaryotes and bacteria by changing the thiol redox status of selected proteins. The function of Trx in archaea is, however, unexplored. To help fill this gap, we have investigated this aspect in methanarchaea--strict anaerobes that produce methane, a fuel and greenhouse gas. Bioinformatic analyses suggested that Trx is nearly universal in methanogens. Ancient methanogens that produce methane almost exclusively from H2 plus CO2 carried approximately two Trx homologs, whereas nutritionally versatile members possessed four to eight. Due to its simplicity, we studied the Trx system of Methanocaldococcus jannaschii--a deeply rooted hyperthermophilic methanogen growing only on H2 plus CO2. The organism carried two Trx homologs, canonical Trx1 that reduced insulin and accepted electrons from Escherichia coli thioredoxin reductase and atypical Trx2. Proteomic analyses with air-oxidized extracts treated with reduced Trx1 revealed 152 potential targets representing a range of processes--including methanogenesis, biosynthesis, transcription, translation, and oxidative response. In enzyme assays, Trx1 activated two selected targets following partial deactivation by O2, validating proteomics observations: methylenetetrahydromethanopterin dehydrogenase, a methanogenesis enzyme, and sulfite reductase, a detoxification enzyme. The results suggest that Trx assists methanogens in combating oxidative stress and synchronizing metabolic activities with availability of reductant, making it a critical factor in the global carbon cycle and methane emission. Because methanogenesis developed before the oxygenation of Earth, it seems possible that Trx functioned originally in metabolic regulation independently of O2, thus raising the question whether a complex biological system of this type evolved at least 2.5 billion years ago. PMID:24505058

Susanti, Dwi; Wong, Joshua H; Vensel, William H; Loganathan, Usha; DeSantis, Rebecca; Schmitz, Ruth A; Balsera, Monica; Buchanan, Bob B; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup



Combustion Fundamentals Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Increased emphasis is placed on fundamental and generic research at Lewis Research Center with less systems development efforts. This is especially true in combustion research, where the study of combustion fundamentals has grown significantly in order to better address the perceived long term technical needs of the aerospace industry. The main thrusts for this combustion fundamentals program area are as follows: analytical models of combustion processes, model verification experiments, fundamental combustion experiments, and advanced numeric techniques.



The Fundamental Physical Processes Producing and Controlling Stellar Coronal/ Transition-Region/Chromospheric Activity and Structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Our LTSA grant supports a long-term collaborative investigation of stellar activity. The project involves current NASA spacecraft and supporting ground-based telescopes, will make use of future missions, and utilizes the extensive archives of IUE, ROSAT, HST, and EUVE. Our interests include observational work (with a nonnegligible groundbased component); specialized processing techniques for imaging and spectral data; and semiempirical modeling, ranging from optically-thin emission measure studies to simulations of optically-thick resonance lines. Collaborations with our cool-star colleagues here in Boulder (at JILA and the High Altitude Observatory) provide access to even broader expertise, particularly on the solar corona, convection, and magnetohydrodynamic phenomena (including "dynamo" theories). The broad-brush of our investigation include the following: (1) where do coronae occur in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram? (2) the winds of coronal stars: hot, cool, or both? (3) age, activity, rotation relations; (4) atmospheric inhomogeneities; and (5) heating mechanisms, subcoronal flows and flares. Our observation task has been to map the global properties of chromospheres and coronae in the H-R diagram and conduct detailed studies of key objects.

Ayres, Thomas R.; Brown, Alexander



Femtosecond dynamics of fundamental reaction processes in liquids: Proton transfer, geminate recombination, isomerization and vibrational relaxation  

SciTech Connect

The fast excited state intramolecular proton transfer of 3-hydroxyflavone is measured and effects of external hydrogen-bonding interactions on the proton transfer are studied. The proton transfer takes place in {approximately}240 fsec in nonpolar environments, but becomes faster than instrumental resolution of 110 fsec in methanol solution. The dynamics following photodissociation of CH{sub 2}I{sub 2} and other small molecules provide the first direct observations of geminate recombination. The recombination of many different photodissociating species occurs on a {approximately}350 fsec time scale. Results show that recombination yields but not rates depend on the solvent environment and suggest that recombination kinetics are dominated by a single collision with surrounding solvent cage. Studies of sterically locked phenyl-substituted butadienes offer new insights into the electronic structure and isomerization behavior of conjugated polyenes. Data show no simple correlation between hinderance of specific large amplitude motions and signatures of isomerizative behavior such as viscosity dependent excited state lifetimes, implying that the isomerization does not provide a suitable for simple condensed phase reaction rate theories. The spectral dynamics of a photochromic spiropyran indicate that recombination, isomerization and vibrational relaxation all play important roles in photoreactivity of complex molecules. The interplay of these microscopic phenomena and their effect on macroscopic properties such as photochromism are discussed. All the results indicate that the initial steps of the photochromic reaction process occur extremely rapidly. Laser system and computer codes for data analysis are discussed.

Schwartz, B.J.



Advanced Small Rocket Chambers. Basic Program and Option 2: Fundamental Processes and Material Evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Propellants, chamber materials, and processes for fabrication of small high performance radiation cooled liquid rocket engines were evaluated to determine candidates for eventual demonstration in flight-type thrusters. Both storable and cryogenic propellant systems were considered. The storable propellant systems chosen for further study were nitrogen tetroxide oxidizer with either hydrazine or monomethylhydrazine as fuel. The cryogenic propellants chosen were oxygen with either hydrogen or methane as fuel. Chamber material candidates were chemical vapor deposition (CVD) rhenium protected from oxidation by CVD iridium for the chamber hot section, and film cooled wrought platinum-rhodium or regeneratively cooled stainless steel for the front end section exposed to partially reacted propellants. Laser diagnostics of the combustion products near the hot chamber surface and measurements at the surface layer were performed in a collaborative program at Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA. The Material Sample Test Apparatus, a laboratory system to simulate the combustion environment in terms of gas and material temperature, composition, and pressure up to 6 Atm, was developed for these studies. Rocket engine simulator studies were conducted to evaluate the materials under simulated combustor flow conditions, in the diagnostic test chamber. These tests used the exhaust species measurement system, a device developed to monitor optically species composition and concentration in the chamber and exhaust by emission and absorption measurements.

Jassowski, Donald M.



Fundamental studies on ultrasonic cavitation-assisted molten metal processing of A356-nanocomposites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The usage of lightweight high-performance components is expected to increase significantly as automotive, military and aerospace industries are required to improve the energy efficiency and the performance of their products. A356, which is much lighter than steel, is an attractive replacement material. Therefore, it is of great interest to enhance its properties. There is strong evidence that the microstructure and mechanical properties can be considerably improved if nanoparticles are used as reinforcement to form metal-matrix-nano-composite (MMNC). Several recent studies revealed that ultrasonic vibration is highly efficient in dispersing nanoparticles into the melt and producing MMNC. In this thesis, a detailed analysis of the microstructure and mechanical properties is provided for an A356 alloy enhanced with Al2O 3 and SiC nanoparticles via ultrasonic processing. Each type of the nanoparticles was inserted into the A356 molten metal and dispersed by ultrasonic cavitation and acoustic streaming technology (UST) to avoid agglomeration or coalescence. The results showed that microstructures were greatly refined and with the addition of nanoparticles, tensile strength, yield strength and elongation increased significantly. SEM and EDS analyses were also performed to analyze the dispersion of nanoparticles in the A356 matrix. Since the ultrasonic energy is concentrated in a small region under the ultrasonic probe, it is difficult to ensure proper cavitation and acoustic streaming for efficient dispersion of the nanoparticles (especially in larger UST systems) without to determine the suitable ultrasonic parameters via modeling and simulation. Accordingly, another goal of this thesis was to develop well-controlled UST experiments that can be used in the development and validation of a recently developed UST modeling and simulation tool.

Liu, Xiaoda


Do geological or climatic processes drive speciation in dynamic archipelagos? The tempo and mode of diversification in Southeast Asian shrews  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE doi:10.1111/j.1558-5646.2009.00743.x DO GEOLOGICAL OR CLIMATIC PROCESSES DRIVE SPECIATION IN DYNAMIC ARCHIPELAGOS? THE TEMPO AND MODE OF DIVERSIFICATION IN SOUTHEAST ASIAN SHREWS Jacob A. Esselstyn, 1,2 Robert M. Timm, 1,3 and Rafe... M. Brown 1,4 1 Biodiversity Research Center and Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, University of Kansas, 1345 Jayhawk Boulevard, Lawrence, Kansas 66045 2 E-mail: 3 E-mail: 4 E-mail: Received August...

Esselstyn, Jacob Aaron; Timm, Robert M.; Brown, Rafe M.



Digital processing of orbital radar data to enhance geologic structure - Examples from the Canadian Shield  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various digital enhancement techniques for SAR are compared using SIR-B and Seasat images of the Canadian Shield. The three best methods for enhancing geological structure were found to be: (1) a simple linear contrast stretch; (2) a mean or median low-pass filter to reduce speckle prior to edge enhancement or a K nearest-neighbor average to cosmetically reduce speckle; and (3) a modification of the Moore-Waltz (1983) technique. Three look directions were coregistered and several means of data display were investigated as means of compensating for radar azimuth biasing.

Masuoka, Penny M.; Harris, Jeff; Lowman, Paul D., Jr.; Blodget, Herbert W.



Using Snow to Teach Geology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A lesson plan, directed at middle school students and older, describes using snow to study the geological processes of solidification of molten material, sedimentation, and metamorphosis. Provides background information on these geological processes. (MCO)

Roth, Charles



Geology of Kentucky  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains geologic maps of Kentucky, with a discussion of geologic time in regards to the rocks, minerals, fossils, and economic deposits found there. There are also sections that describe strata and geologic structures beneath the surface (faults, basins, and arches), the structural processes (folding and faulting) that create stratigraphic units, the geomorphology of the state, geologic information by county, a general description of geologic time, fossil, rocks, and minerals of Kentucky, and a virtual field trip through Natural Bridges State Park. Links are provided for further information.


Geological Survey research 1978  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This U.S. Geological Survey activities report includes a summary of 1978 fiscal year scientific and economic results accompanied by a list of geologic and hydrologic investigations in progress and a report on the status of topographic mapping. The summary of results includes: (1) Mineral and water resources, (2) Engineering geology and hydrology, (3) Regional geology, (4) Principles and processes, (5) Laboratory and field methods, (6) Topographic surveys and mapping, (7) Management of resources on public lands, (8) Land information and analysis, and (9) Investigations in other countries. Also included are lists of cooperating agencies and Geological Survey offices. (Woodard-USGS)

U.S. Geological Survey



Geological Survey research 1976  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This U.S. Geological Survey activities report includes a summary of recent (1976 fiscal year) scientific and economic results accompanied by a list of geologic and hydrologic investigations in progress and a report on the status of topographic mapping. The summary of results includes: (1) Mineral resources, Water resources, (2) Engineering geology and hydrology, (3) Regional geology, (4) Principles and processes, (5) Laboratory and field methods, (6) Topographic surveys and mapping, (7) Management of resources on public lands, (8) Land information and analysis, and (9) Investigations in other countries. Also included are lists of cooperating agencies and Geological Survey offices. (Woodard-USGS)

U.S. Geological Survey



Ion-enhanced oxidation of aluminum as a fundamental surface process during target poisoning in reactive magnetron sputtering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasma deposition of aluminum oxide by reactive magnetron sputtering (RMS) using an aluminum target and argon and oxygen as working gases is an important technological process. The undesired oxidation of the target itself, however, causes the so-called target poisoning, which leads to strong hysteresis effects during RMS operation. The oxidation occurs by chemisorption of oxygen atoms and molecules with a simultaneous ion bombardment being present. This heterogenous surface reaction is studied in a quantified particle beam experiment employing beams of oxygen molecules and argon ions impinging onto an aluminum-coated quartz microbalance. The oxidation and/or sputtering rates are measured with this microbalance and the resulting oxide layers are analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The sticking coefficient of oxygen molecules is determined to 0.015 in the zero coverage limit. The sputtering yields of pure aluminum by argon ions are determined to 0.4, 0.62, and 0.8 at 200, 300, and 400 eV. The variation in the effective sticking coefficient and sputtering yield during the combined impact of argon ions and oxygen molecules is modeled with a set of rate equations. A good agreement is achieved if one postulates an ion-induced surface activation process, which facilitates oxygen chemisorption. This process may be identified with knock-on implantation of surface-bonded oxygen, with an electric-field-driven in-diffusion of oxygen or with an ion-enhanced surface activation process. Based on these fundamental processes, a robust set of balance equations is proposed to describe target poisoning effects in RMS.

Kuschel, Thomas; von Keudell, Achim



Polypyrimidine tract binding protein homologs from Arabidopsis are key regulators of alternative splicing with implications in fundamental developmental processes.  


Alternative splicing (AS) generates transcript variants by variable exon/intron definition and massively expands transcriptome diversity. Changes in AS patterns have been found to be linked to manifold biological processes, yet fundamental aspects, such as the regulation of AS and its functional implications, largely remain to be addressed. In this work, widespread AS regulation by Arabidopsis thaliana Polypyrimidine tract binding protein homologs (PTBs) was revealed. In total, 452 AS events derived from 307 distinct genes were found to be responsive to the levels of the splicing factors PTB1 and PTB2, which predominantly triggered splicing of regulated introns, inclusion of cassette exons, and usage of upstream 5' splice sites. By contrast, no major AS regulatory function of the distantly related PTB3 was found. Dependent on their position within the mRNA, PTB-regulated events can both modify the untranslated regions and give rise to alternative protein products. We find that PTB-mediated AS events are connected to diverse biological processes, and the functional implications of selected instances were further elucidated. Specifically, PTB misexpression changes AS of PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR6, coinciding with altered rates of abscisic acid-dependent seed germination. Furthermore, AS patterns as well as the expression of key flowering regulators were massively changed in a PTB1/2 level-dependent manner. PMID:23192226

Rühl, Christina; Stauffer, Eva; Kahles, André; Wagner, Gabriele; Drechsel, Gabriele; Rätsch, Gunnar; Wachter, Andreas



Constructing a Geology Ontology Using a Relational Database  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In geology community, the creation of a common geology ontology has become a useful means to solve problems of data integration, knowledge transformation and the interoperation of multi-source, heterogeneous and multiple scale geological data. Currently, human-computer interaction methods and relational database-based methods are the primary ontology construction methods. Some human-computer interaction methods such as the Geo-rule based method, the ontology life cycle method and the module design method have been proposed for applied geological ontologies. Essentially, the relational database-based method is a reverse engineering of abstracted semantic information from an existing database. The key is to construct rules for the transformation of database entities into the ontology. Relative to the human-computer interaction method, relational database-based methods can use existing resources and the stated semantic relationships among geological entities. However, two problems challenge the development and application. One is the transformation of multiple inheritances and nested relationships and their representation in an ontology. The other is that most of these methods do not measure the semantic retention of the transformation process. In this study, we focused on constructing a rule set to convert the semantics in a geological database into a geological ontology. According to the relational schema of a geological database, a conversion approach is presented to convert a geological spatial database to an OWL-based geological ontology, which is based on identifying semantics such as entities, relationships, inheritance relationships, nested relationships and cluster relationships. The semantic integrity of the transformation was verified using an inverse mapping process. In a geological ontology, an inheritance and union operations between superclass and subclass were used to present the nested relationship in a geochronology and the multiple inheritances relationship. Based on a Quaternary database of downtown of Foshan city, Guangdong Province, in Southern China, a geological ontology was constructed using the proposed method. To measure the maintenance of semantics in the conversation process and the results, an inverse mapping from the ontology to a relational database was tested based on a proposed conversation rule. The comparison of schema and entities and the reduction of tables between the inverse database and the original database illustrated that the proposed method retains the semantic information well during the conversation process. An application for abstracting sandstone information showed that semantic relationships among concepts in the geological database were successfully reorganized in the constructed ontology. Key words: geological ontology; geological spatial database; multiple inheritance; OWL Acknowledgement: This research is jointly funded by the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (RFDP) (20100171120001), NSFC (41102207) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (12lgpy19).

Hou, W.; Yang, L.; Yin, S.; Ye, J.; Clarke, K.



Geological structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here is an account of recent thinking in structural geology and tectonics. The book begins with a discussion of the history of geological structures, their division, and research techniques. It then introduces a broad range of viewpoints. Using examples, the book examines geological structures in the context of their geographical location. It considers the tectonic mechanisms which produce geologic structures.

T. Uemura; S. Mizutani



Geologic Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Geologic Maps are unique in that they show the distribution of geologic features on a landscape through specific symbols and colors. The United States Geological Survey's (USGS) site Geologic Maps provides visitors with a good introduction to these concepts, which include the unique features of a geologic map; the meaning of their lines, colors, and symbols; the location of faults; and more. Anyone working with geologic maps or just interested in learning a little about cartography or geology will find this site easy to explore and full of good information.



Geological Survey research 1981  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This U.S. Geological Survey activities report includes a summary of 1981 fiscal year scientific and economic results accompanied by a list of geologic, hydrologic, and cartographic investigations in progress. The summary of results includes: (1) Mineral, (2) Water resources, (3) Engineering geology and hydrology, (4) Regional geology, (5) Principles and processes, (6) Laboratory and field methods, (7) Topographic surveys and mapping, (8) Management of resources on public lands, (9) Land information and analysis, and (10) Investigations in other countries. Also included are lists of investigations in progress. (USGS)

U.S. Geological Survey



Development of multiple source data processing for structural analysis at a regional scale. [digital remote sensing in geology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various image processing techniques developed for enhancement and extraction of linear features, of interest to the structural geologist, from digital remote sensing, geologic, and gravity data, are presented. These techniques include: (1) automatic detection of linear features and construction of rose diagrams from Landsat MSS data; (2) enhancement of principal structural directions using selective filters on Landsat MSS, Spacelab panchromatic, and HCMM NIR data; (3) directional filtering of Spacelab panchromatic data using Fast Fourier Transform; (4) detection of linear/elongated zones of high thermal gradient from thermal infrared data; and (5) extraction of strong gravimetric gradients from digitized Bouguer anomaly maps. Processing results can be compared to each other through the use of a geocoded database to evaluate the structural importance of each lineament according to its depth: superficial structures in the sedimentary cover, or deeper ones affecting the basement. These image processing techniques were successfully applied to achieve a better understanding of the transition between Provence and the Pyrenees structural blocks, in southeastern France, for an improved structural interpretation of the Mediterranean region.

Carrere, Veronique



Limitations on squeezing and formation of the superposition of two macroscopically distinguishable states at fundamental frequency in the process of second harmonic generation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of numerical simulations of quantum state evolution in the process of second harmonic generation (SHG) are discussed. It is shown that at a particular moment of time in the fundamental mode initially coherent state turns into a superposition of two macroscopically distinguished states. The question of whether this superposition exhibits quantum interference is analyzed.

Nikitin, S. P.; Masalov, A. V.



Fundamental studies of the plasma extraction and ion beam formation processes in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

The fundamental and practical aspects are described for extracting ions from atmospheric pressure plasma sources into an analytical mass spectrometer. Methodologies and basic concepts of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) are emphasized in the discussion, including ion source, sampling interface, supersonic expansion, slumming process, ion optics and beam focusing, and vacuum considerations. Some new developments and innovative designs are introduced. The plasma extraction process in ICP-MS was investigated by Langmuir measurements in the region between the skimmer and first ion lens. Electron temperature (T{sub e}) is in the range 2000--11000 K and changes with probe position inside an aerosol gas flow. Electron density (n{sub e}) is in the range 10{sup 8}--10{sup 10} {sup {minus}cm }at the skimmer tip and drops abruptly to 10{sup 6}--10{sup 8} cm{sup {minus}3} near the skimmer tip and drops abruptly to 10{sup 6}--10{sup 8} cm{sup {minus}3} downstream further behind the skimmer. Electron density in the beam leaving the skimmer also depends on water loading and on the presence and mass of matrix elements. Axially resolved distributions of electron number-density and electron temperature were obtained to characterize the ion beam at a variety of plasma operating conditions. The electron density dropped by a factor of 101 along the centerline between the sampler and skimmer cones in the first stage and continued to drop by factors of 10{sup 4}--10{sup 5} downstream of skimmer to the entrance of ion lens. The electron density in the beam expansion behind sampler cone exhibited a 1/z{sup 2} intensity fall-off (z is the axial position). An second beam expansion originated from the skimmer entrance, and the beam flow underwent with another 1/z{sup 2} fall-off behind the skimmer. Skimmer interactions play an important role in plasma extraction in the ICP-MS instrument.

Niu, Hongsen



Radiometric Dating in Geology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are several aspects and methods of quantitatively measuring geologic time using a constant-rate natural process of radioactive decay. Topics include half lives and decay constants, radiogenic growth, potassium-argon dating, rubidium-strontium dating, and the role of geochronology in support of geological exploration. (DS)

Pankhurst, R. J.



Layer Cake Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This classroom activity uses a cake to demonstrate geologic processes and introduce geologic terms. Students will learn how folds and faults occur, recognize the difference in behavior between brittle and ductile rocks, and attempt to predict structures likely to result from application of various forces to layered rocks. They will also attempt to interpret 'core samples' to determine subsurface rock structure.

Wagner, John


Collaborative web-based annotation of video footage of deep-sea life, ecosystems and geological processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More and more seagoing scientific expeditions use video-controlled research platforms such as Remote Operating Vehicles (ROV), Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV), and towed camera systems. These produce many hours of video material which contains detailed and scientifically highly valuable footage of the biological, chemical, geological, and physical aspects of the oceans. Many of the videos contain unique observations of unknown life-forms which are rare, and which cannot be sampled and studied otherwise. To make such video material online accessible and to create a collaborative annotation environment the "Video Annotation and processing platform" (V-App) was developed. A first solely web-based installation for ROV videos is setup at the German Center for Marine Environmental Sciences (available at It allows users to search and watch videos with a standard web browser based on the HTML5 standard. Moreover, V-App implements social web technologies allowing a distributed world-wide scientific community to collaboratively annotate videos anywhere at any time. It has several features fully implemented among which are: • User login system for fine grained permission and access control • Video watching • Video search using keywords, geographic position, depth and time range and any combination thereof • Video annotation organised in themes (tracks) such as biology and geology among others in standard or full screen mode • Annotation keyword management: Administrative users can add, delete, and update single keywords for annotation or upload sets of keywords from Excel-sheets • Download of products for scientific use This unique web application system helps making costly ROV videos online available (estimated cost range between 5.000 - 10.000 Euros per hour depending on the combination of ship and ROV). Moreover, with this system each expert annotation adds instantaneous available and valuable knowledge to otherwise uncharted material.

Kottmann, R.; Ratmeyer, V.; Pop Ristov, A.; Boetius, A.



Geologic characterization of shelf areas using usSEABED for GIS mapping, modeling processes and assessing marine sand and gravel resources  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geologic maps depicting offshore sedimentary features serve many scientific and applied purposes. Such maps have been lacking, but recent computer technology and software offer promise in the capture and display of diverse marine data. Continental margins contain landforms which provide a variety of important functions and contain important sedimentary records. Some shelf areas also contain deposits regarded as potential aggregate resources. Because proper management of coastal and offshore areas is increasingly important, knowledge of the framework geology and marine processes is critical. Especially valuable are comprehensive and integrated digital databases based on high-quality information from original sources. Products of interest are GIS maps containing thematic information, such as sediment character and texture. These products are useful to scientists modeling nearshore and shelf processes as well as planners and managers. The U.S. Geological Survey is leading a national program to gather a variety of extant marine geologic data into the usSEABED database system. This provides centralized, integrated marine geologic data collected over the past 50 years. To date, over 340,000 sediment data points from the U.S. reside in usSEABED, which combines an array of physical data and analytical and descriptive information about the sea floor and are available to the marine community through three USGS data reports for the Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, and Pacific published in 2006, and the project web sites: ( and

Williams, S.J.; Bliss, J.D.; Arsenault, M.A.; Jenkins, C.J.; Goff, J.A.



Quaternary geology and sedimentary processes in the vicinity of Six Mile Reef, eastern Long Island Sound  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Six Mile Reef, a sandy, 22-m-high shoal trending east-west and located about 7.8 km off the Connecticut coast, has a core of postglacial marine deltaic deposits mantled by tidally reworked modern sediments. Sedimentary environments off the eastern end of the shoal are characterized by processes associated with long-term erosion or nondeposition, a mobile-sediment-limited seafloor armored by gravelly sand, and scattered elongate fields of barchanoid sand waves. The barchanoid waves reach amplitudes of 20 m, are concave westward, and occur in individual and coalesced forms that become progressively more complex westward. The seafloor on and adjacent to the shoal is characterized by processes associated with coarse bedload transport and covered primarily with asymmetrical transverse sand waves. The transverse waves exceed 8 m in amplitude, have slip faces predominantly oriented to the west and southwest, and have straight, slightly sinuous, and curved crests. Megaripples, which mimic the asymmetry of the sand waves, are commonly present on stoss slopes and in troughs; current ripples are ubiquitous. The amplitude and abundance of large bedforms decrease markedly westward of Six Mile Reef. The seabed there is covered with small, degraded ripples, reflecting lower-energy environments and processes associated with sorting and reworking of seafloor sediments. Megaripples and current ripples on the sand waves suggest that transport is active and that the bedforms are propagating under the present hydraulic regime. Net bedload sediment transport is primarily to the west, as evidenced by textural trends of surficial sediments, orientation of the barchanoid waves, and asymmetry of the transverse waves and of the scour marks around bedrock outcrops, boulders, and shipwrecks. One exception occurs at the western tip of the shoal, where sand-wave morphology indicates long-term eastward transport, suggesting that countercurrents in this area shape the shoal and are important to its maintenance.

Poppe, L.J.; Williams, S.J.; Moser, M.S.; Forfinski, N.A.; Stewart, H.F.; Doran, E.F.



Insights into Titan's geology and hydrology based on enhanced image processing of Cassini RADAR data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cassini Synthetic Aperture Radar has been acquiring images of Titan's surface since October 2004. To date, 59% of Titan's surface has been imaged by radar, with significant regions imaged more than once. Radar data suffer from speckle noise hindering interpretation of small-scale features and comparison of reimaged regions for change detection. We present here a new image analysis technique that combines a denoising algorithm with mapping and quantitative measurements that greatly enhance the utility of the data and offers previously unattainable insights. After validating the technique, we demonstrate the potential improvement in understanding of surface processes on Titan and defining global mapping units, focusing on specific landforms including lakes, dunes, mountains, and fluvial features. Lake shorelines are delineated with greater accuracy. Previously unrecognized dissection by fluvial channels emerges beneath shallow methane cover. Dune wavelengths and interdune extents are more precisely measured. A significant refinement in producing digital elevation models is shown. Interactions of fluvial and aeolian processes with topographic relief is more precisely observed and understood than previously. Benches in bathymetry are observed in northern sea Ligeia Mare. Submerged valleys show similar depth suggesting that they are equilibrated with marine benches. These new observations suggest a liquid level increase in the northern sea, which may be due to changes on seasonal or longer timescales.

Lucas, Antoine; Aharonson, Oded; Deledalle, Charles; Hayes, Alexander G.; Kirk, Randolph; Howington-Kraus, Elpitha



Geologic processes on the Galilean satellite Callisto: Galileo SSI results, open questions, and requirements for camera data in a future mission to Jupiter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The second-largest satellite of Jupiter, Callisto, is characterized by a unique surface geology dominated by impact and erosional processes [1][2]. Tectonic features occur but are much less pervasive than on Callisto's inner neighbour Ganymede [1][2][3]. It remains still an unsolved question if cryovolcanism was ever active in Callisto's early history [2][3][4][5]. One common feature of the two largest Galilean satellites Callisto and Ganymede is the strong similarity in impact crater forms which implies a similar sub-surface structure [1][6][7]. Since Callisto's surface was the least imaged one by the Galileo SSI camera, the record of geologic units and landforms of this enigmatic satellite remains incomplete. In this paper, we (1) present characteristics of landforms and geologic units, (2) relative and absolute ages of these units, (3) discuss open issues, and (4) suggest requirements for camera data in a future mission to Jupiter and to its satellites.

Wagner, R. J.; Neukum, G.



Assessment Report, Department of Geology August, 2012  

E-print Network

Assessment Report, Department of Geology August, 2012 1. Learning Goals ALL students in geology, classification schemes, geologic history and processes, and the structure of the Earth. 3. demonstrate an understanding of the variability, complexity, and interdependency of processes within geologic systems. 4. use

Bogaerts, Steven


Geological Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Why do engineers need to know about geologic time?" That question is answered in this resource from the University of Saskatchewan's Department of Civil and Geological Engineering. Provided here is a discussion of the concepts of geological time; relative dating methods, such as correlation; and absolute dating methods, such as radiometric methods. Diagrams and charts are included to demonstrate these complex concepts.




USGS Publications Warehouse

The number or types of origins of the components of a coal bed cannot be determined from its bulk composition. Minerals such as quartz, calcite, and pyrite as well as macerals such as vitrinite can originate from a variety of processes that result from different depositional conditions. The Upper Freeport coal bed was studied and characterized by sampling and analyzing its mappable subunits (facies) over a 120-sq mi area in west-central Pennsylvania. The study was based on field description of mine faces and description of X-ray radiographs of core. A geochemical model proposed for the origin of facies of the Upper Freeport coal bed is consistent with interpretations of modern peat formation resulting from the interaction of climate, plant types, rainfall, ground water geochemistry, nutrient supply, and sedimentation. This model provides a means to evaluate and predict more precisely the variability of a coal resource's quality.

Stanton, R.W.; Cecil, C.B.; Pierce, B.S.; Ruppert, L.F.; Dulong, F.T.



Geologic nozzles  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The importance of the low characteristic velocities of geologic fluids has not been widely recognized, and as a result, the importance of supercritical and supersonic flow in geological processes has generally been underestimated. The lateral blast at Mount St. Helens, Washington, propelled a gas heavily laden with dust into the atmosphere. Because of the low sound speed in this gas (about 100 m/s), the flow was internally supersonic. Old Faithful Geyser, Wyoming, is a converging-diverging nozzle in which liquid water refilling the conduit during the recharge cycle changes during eruption into a two-phase liquid-vapor mixture with a very low sound velocity. The high sound speed of liquid water determines the characteristics of harmonic tremor observed at the geyser during the recharge interval, whereas the low sound speed of the liquid-vapor mixture influences the fluid flow characteristics of the eruption. At the rapids of the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon, Arizona, the channel is constricted into the shape of a converging-diverging nozzle by the debris flows that enter from tributary canyons. Both subcritical and supercritical flow occur within the rapids. -from Author

Werner, Kieffer S.



Influence of fluvial processes on the quaternary geologic framework of the continental shelf, North Carolina, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Digital, single-channel, high-resolution seismic reflection profiles were acquired from the insular continental shelf of North Carolina, USA along a data grid extending from Oregon Inlet northward 48 km to Duck, North Carolina and from the nearshore zone seaward approximately 28 km (total surveyed area= 1334 km2). These data were processed and interpreted to delineate principal reflecting horizons and develop a three-dimensional seismic stratigraphic framework for the continental shelf that was compared to stratigraphic data from the shoreward back-barrier (estuarine) and barrier island system. Six principal reflecting horizons (designated R0 through R5) were present within the upper 60 m of the shelf stratigraphic succession. Three-dimensional mapping of reflector R1 demonstrated its origin from fluvial incision of the continental shelf during an episode (or episodes) of lowered sea-level. Fluvial processes during development of reflector R1 were responsible for extensive reworking and re-deposition of sediment throughout most of the northern half of the study area. Five seismic stratigraphic units (designated S1 through S5) were tentatively correlated with depositional sequences previously identified from the North Carolina back-barrier (estuarine) and barrier island system. These five stratigraphic units span the Quaternary Period (S1 = early Holocene; S2 = 51-78 ka; S3 = 330-530 ka; S4 = 1.1-1.8 Ma; S5 = earliest Pleistocene). Unit S1 is composed of fine-grained fluvial/estuarine sediment that back-filled incised streams during early Holocene sea-level rise. The four other stratigraphic units (S2-S5) display tabular depositional geometries, low total relief, and thicken toward the east-southeast as their basal reflectors dip gently between 0.41 m km-1 (0.02??) and 0.54 m km-1 (0.03??). Knowledge of the three-dimensional subsurface stratigraphic architecture of the continental shelf enhances understanding of the development of shelf depositional successions and provides a framework for development of better Quaternary sea-level data, especially offshore North Carolina where such data are sparse. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Boss, S.K.; Hoffman, C.W.; Cooper, B.



A Domain Decomposition Approach for Large-Scale Simulations of Flow Processes in Hydrate-Bearing Geologic Media  

SciTech Connect

Simulation of the system behavior of hydrate-bearing geologic media involves solving fully coupled mass- and heat-balance equations. In this study, we develop a domain decomposition approach for large-scale gas hydrate simulations with coarse-granularity parallel computation. This approach partitions a simulation domain into small subdomains. The full model domain, consisting of discrete subdomains, is still simulated simultaneously by using multiple processes/processors. Each processor is dedicated to following tasks of the partitioned subdomain: updating thermophysical properties, assembling mass- and energy-balance equations, solving linear equation systems, and performing various other local computations. The linearized equation systems are solved in parallel with a parallel linear solver, using an efficient interprocess communication scheme. This new domain decomposition approach has been implemented into the TOUGH+HYDRATE code and has demonstrated excellent speedup and good scalability. In this paper, we will demonstrate applications for the new approach in simulating field-scale models for gas production from gas-hydrate deposits.

Zhang, Keni; Moridis, G.J.; Wu, Y.-S.; Pruess, K.



Capacitor fundamentals  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review of capacitor fundamentals, the author attempts to clarify the modes of operation of the broad spectrum of capacitors, including paper\\/polymeric films, electrolytics, and ceramics. How each class of capacitor performs in both low- and high-power electronics is discussed in detail, with emphasis upon delineating those factors affecting life, reliability, maintainability, and environmental compatibility of systems in which

W. J. Sarjeant; James Clerk Maxwell



Research Fundamentals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is used in a Sociology class for undergraduate students. This activity helps students learn about research/data maniputlation volcabulary and teaches students about research fundamentals. This activity includes a glossary of terms, but there is no answer key. The best time to use this activity is before students begin research methods, or near the beginning of the course.

Charles Combs


Arguments for fundamental emission by the parametric process L yields T + S in interplanetary type III bursts. [langmuir, electromagnetic, ion acoustic waves (L, T, S)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations of low frequency ion acoustic-like waves associated with Langmuir waves present during interplanetary Type 3 bursts are used to study plasma emission mechanisms and wave processes involving ion acoustic waves. It is shown that the observed wave frequency characteristics are consistent with the processes L yields T + S (where L = Langmuir waves, T = electromagnetic waves, S = ion acoustic waves) and L yields L' + S proceeding. The usual incoherent (random phase) version of the process L yields T + S cannot explain the observed wave production time scale. The clumpy nature of the observed Langmuir waves is vital to the theory of IP Type 3 bursts. The incoherent process L yields T + S may encounter difficulties explaining the observed Type 3 brightness temperatures when Langmuir wave clumps are incorporated into the theory. The parametric process L yields T + S may be the important emission process for the fundamental radiation of interplanetary Type 3 bursts.

Cairns, I. H.



Isotope Tracer Studies of Diffusion in Sillicates and of Geological Transport Processes Using Actinide Elements  

SciTech Connect

The objectives were directed toward understanding the transport of chemical species in nature, with particular emphasis on aqueous transport in solution, in colloids, and on particles. Major improvements in measuring ultra-low concentrations of rare elements were achieved. We focused on two areas of studies: (1) Field, laboratory, and theoretical studies of the transport and deposition of U, Th isotopes and their daughter products in natural systems; and (2) Study of calcium isotope fractionation effects in marine carbonates and in carbonates precipitated in the laboratory, under controlled temperature, pH, and rates of precipitation. A major study of isotopic fractionation of Ca during calcite growth from solution has been completed and published. It was found that the isotopic shifts widely reported in the literature and attributed to biological processes are in fact due to a small equilibrium fractionation factor that is suppressed by supersaturation of the solution. These effects were demonstrated in the laboratory and with consideration of the solution conditions in natural systems, where [Ca{sup 2+}] >> [CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}] + [HCO{sub 3}{sup -}]. The controlling rate is not the diffusion of Ca, as was earlier proposed, but rather the rate of supply of [CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}] ions to the interface. This now opens the issues of isotopic fractionation of many elements to a more physical-chemical approach. The isotopic composition of Ca {Delta}({sup 44}Ca/{sup 40}Ca) in calcite crystals has been determined relative to that in the parent solutions by TIMS using a double spike. Solutions were exposed to an atmosphere of NH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2}, provided by the decomposition of (NH4)2CO3. Alkalinity, pH, and concentrations of CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, HCO{sub 3}{sup -}, and CO{sub 2} in solution were determined. The procedures permitted us to determine {Delta}({sup 44}Ca/{sup 40}Ca) over a range of pH conditions, with the associated ranges of alkalinity. Two solutions with greatly different Ca concentrations were used, but, in all cases, the condition [Ca] >> [CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}] was met. A wide range in {Delta}({sup 44}Ca/{sup 40}Ca) was found for the calcite crystals, extending from 0.04 {+-} 0.13 to -1.34 {+-} 0.15 {per_thousand}, generally anticorrelating with the amount of Ca removed from the solution. The results show that {Delta}({sup 44}Ca/{sup 40}Ca) is a linear function of the saturation state of the solution with respect to calcite ({Omega}). The two parameters are very well correlated over a wide range in {Omega} for each solution with a given [Ca]. Solutions, which were vigorously stirred, showed a much smaller range in {Delta}({sup 44}Ca/{sup 40}Ca) and gave values of -0.42 {+-} 0.14 {per_thousand}, with the largest effect at low {Omega}. It is concluded that the diffusive flow of CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} into the immediate neighborhood of the crystal-solution interface is the rate-controlling mechanism and that diffusive transport of Ca{sup 2+} is not a significant factor. The data are simply explained by the assumptions that: (a) the immediate interface of the crystal and the solution is at equilibrium with {Delta}({sup 44}Ca/{sup 40}Ca) {approx} -1.5 {+-} 0.25 {per_thousand}, and (b) diffusive inflow of CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} causes supersaturation, thus precipitating Ca from the regions, exterior to the narrow zone of equilibrium. We consider this model to be a plausible explanation of the available data reported in the literature. The well-resolved but small and regular isotope fractionation shifts in Ca are thus not related to the diffusion of very large hydrated Ca complexes, but rather due to the ready availability of Ca in the general neighborhood of the crystal solution interface. The largest isotopic shift which occurs is a small equilibrium effect which is then subdued by supersaturation precipitation for solutions where [Ca{sup 2+}] >> [CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}] + [HCO{sub 3}{sup -}]. It is shown that there is a clear temperature dependence of the net isotopic shifts, which is simply due to changes in {Omega}

Wasserburg, Gerald J



Terrestrial and Lunar Geological Terminology for Non-Geoscientists  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews several geologic concepts applicable to lunar geology with particular interest in creating lunar regolith simulant. Fundamental ways in which the Moon differs from the Earth. Concepts that are described in detail are: minerals, glass, and rocks.

Schrader, Christian M.



Page 204 Geology Sonoma State University 2006-2008 Catalog Department Office  

E-print Network

of geologic time. Practi- cally, it leads to understanding of earth processes, the formation of rocks studies. Students take a fundamental curriculum that concen- trates on the analysis of rocks and minerals Writing 1 GEOL 305 Optical Mineralogy 3 GEOL 307 Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology 4 GEOL 308 Igneous

Ravikumar, B.


Measuring Geologic Time on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent images from Mars show compelling evidence of near-surface flowing water, aeolian activity slope processes, and ice cap evolution that underscores the dynamic geologic history of the planet. Establishing an accurate chronology for Martian planetary features is critical for addressing fundamental questions about the evolution of the planet's surface and atmosphere and the differentiation of its interior. For example, how long was standing water on the surface? If life did evolve on Mars, did it occur before or after the evolution of life on Earth? These are arguably some of the most profound questions currently being asked by the planetary science community. Yet answers will not be forthcoming without an absolute chronology of Mars history, enabling the construction of a timescale comparable to Earth's. Discussion of methods for establishing such a chronology is particularly timely in light of new missions to Mars that are being planned to return in situ measurements or samples to Earth.



Testing the Late Noachian Icy Highlands Model: Geological Observations, Processes and Origin of Fluvial and Lacustrine Features.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new reconstruction of the Late Noachian Mars atmosphere and climate shows atmosphere-surface thermal coupling and an adiabatic cooling effect producing preferential distribution of snow and ice in the highlands. In this Late Noachian Icy Highlands (LNIH) scenario, snow and ice accumulate in the south circumpolar region and in the higher altitudes of the southern uplands, but the mean annual temperature is everywhere below freezing. How can the abundant evidence for water-related fluvial and lacustrine activity (valley networks, VN; open-basin lakes, OBL; closed-basin lakes; CBL) be reconciled with the icy highlands model? We investigate the nature of geologic processes operating in the icy highlands and use the Antarctic McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV) as guidance in understanding and assessing how melting might be taking place. In the MDV, mean annual temperatures (MAT) are well below freezing. This results in a thick regional permafrost layer, the presence of an ice-table at shallow depths, and an overlying dry active layer. This configuration produces a perched aquifer and a horizontally stratified hydrologic system, where any melting results in local saturation of the dry active layer and channelized flow on top of the ice table. Top-down melting results in the dominance of lateral water transport, in contrast to temperate climates with vertical infiltration and transport to the groundwater table. Despite subzero MAT, MDV peak seasonal and peak daytime temperatures can exceed 273K and have a strong influence on the melting of available water ice. We present maps of the predicted distribution of LNIH snow and ice, compare these to the distribution of VN, OBL and CBL, and assess how top-down and bottom-up melting processes might explain the formation of these features in an otherwise cold and icy LN Mars. We assess the global near-surface water budget, analyze thickness estimates to distinguish areas of cold-based and wet-based glaciation, analyze the state of the ice cover and its susceptibility to melting and runoff, and describe top-down melting and fluvial channel formation processes in a LNIH environment. We find that: 1) episodic top-down melting of the LNIH is a robust mechanism to produce the observed fluvial and lacustrine features; 2) the characteristics and distribution of features in the Dorsa Argentea Formation are consistent with an extensive circum-polar ice cap during LNIH time; and 3) the nature of preserved LN impact craters is consistent with impact cratering processes in the LNIH environment. 393 words.

Head, James; Wordsworth, Robin; Forget, Francis; Madeleine, Jean-Baptiste; Halvey, Italy



The Mari Rosa late Hercynian Sb-Au deposit, western Spain Geology and geochemistry of the mineralizing processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The central Iberian zone of the Hesperian Massif hosts a series of late Hercynian vein-type Sb deposits. One of them is the Mari Rosa mineralization, hosted by metagreywackes and slates of the Schist-Greywacke Complex (Upper Precambrian). The mineralization is characterized by a complex paragenesis comprising three hydrothermal stages: stage H1?arsenopyrite-(pyrite); stage H2?stibnite-gold; and stage H3?pyrite-pyrrhotite-galena-sphalerite-chalcopyrite-tetrahedrite-boulangerite-stibnite. Of these only the second episode was of importance and gave rise to the main mineralized bodies of the deposit. Hydrothermal alteration consists of a mild sericitization, chloritization and carbonatization of the metasedimentary rocks around the veins. Chemical changes in the hydrothermal halos include a remarkable increase in the ratio K2O/Na2O, and a decrease in the ratio SiO2/volatiles, together with a sharp increase in Sb, Mo, Au and N. Fluids associated with ore deposition lie in the H2O-NaCl-CO2-CH4-N2 compositional system. These fluids evolved, progressively cooling, from initial circulaion temperatures close to 400°C in the early stage (H1) to temperatures of approximately 150 °C in the late one (H3). Fluid composition evolution was characterized by a progressive increase in the bulk water content of the fluids and with an increase in the relative proportion of N2 with respect to CH4 and CO2 in the volatile fraction. Massive stibnite deposition resulted from a boiling process developed at 300 °C and 0.9 1 Kb at a depth of 4 5 km. Geological, geochemical and fluid inclusion evidence suggest that the intrusion of the Alburquerque batholith (late Hercynian S-type granitoids) triggered hydrothermal activity leading to the transport and deposition of Sb and Au in Mari Rosa.

Ortega, L.; Oyarúun, R.; Gallego, M.



California Geological Survey: Geologic Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This index provides access to a selection of geologic maps of California, as well as an overview of geologic and other mapping activities in the state. The index, which can be accessed by clicking on an interactive map of the state, contains lists of selected geologic maps in California prepared by the Regional Geologic Mapping Project (RGMP). The RGMP staff monitors the literature and collects references that contain geologic mapping that may be useful for future compilations. In addition, the site has information about Caltrans Highway Corridor Mapping, The Mineral Resources and Mineral Hazards Mapping Program, North Coast Watersheds Assessment Program, The Timber Harvesting Plan Enforcement Program, and The Seismic Hazards Mapping Program. A set of links is provided to other sources of geologic maps and map information.


Geologic analyses of LANDSAT-1 multispectral imagery of a possible power plant site employing digital and analog image processing. [in Pennsylvania  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A site in the Great Valley subsection of the Valley and Ridge physiographic province in eastern Pennsylvania was studied to evaluate the use of digital and analog image processing for geologic investigations. Ground truth at the site was obtained by a field mapping program, a subsurface exploration investigation and a review of available published and unpublished literature. Remote sensing data were analyzed using standard manual techniques. LANDSAT-1 imagery was analyzed using digital image processing employing the multispectral Image 100 system and using analog color processing employing the VP-8 image analyzer. This study deals primarily with linears identified employing image processing and correlation of these linears with known structural features and with linears identified manual interpretation; and the identification of rock outcrops in areas of extensive vegetative cover employing image processing. The results of this study indicate that image processing can be a cost-effective tool for evaluating geologic and linear features for regional studies encompassing large areas such as for power plant siting. Digital image processing can be an effective tool for identifying rock outcrops in areas of heavy vegetative cover.

Lovegreen, J. R.; Prosser, W. J.; Millet, R. A.



Yosemite Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Park Service maintains the Yosemite National Park Web site and the corresponding Geology page. This Web site gives an overview of the geologic history of the site, tells how the Sierra Nevada range formed, explains the basics of granitic rock, shows how glaciers carved out the canyons, and much more.[JAB


Geologic Time.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in geologic time with an introduction to the subject. Separate sections discuss the relative time scale, major divisions in geologic time, index fossils used as guides for telling the age of rocks, the atomic scale, and the age of the earth.…

Newman, William L.


Geological Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN his Presidential Address to Section C at Dover, Sir A. Geikie has offered a bold challenge to Lord Kelvin and those who agree with him by calling upon them to give due weight to geological phenomena in forming an estimate of geological time. Permit me to say what I think about it.

O. Fisher



Yellowstone Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Yellowstone National Park website provides geological information about the Park. Links include geologic highlights, hydrothermal features, reports by park geologists, and scientists' talks (videos). A wide array of information can be found on these links and the webpage is expanding as more topics are added.

Park, Yellowstone N.


Engineering Geology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Engineering geology remains a potpourri of applied classical geology, and 1977 witnessed an upswing in demand for these services. Traditional foundation-related work was slight, but construction related to national needs increased briskly. Major cities turned to concerns of transit waste-water treatment and solid-waste disposal. (Author/MA)

Hatheway, Allen W.



Geology Major  

E-print Network

Geology Major Revised: 03/2013 Geology is a scientific discipline that aims to understand every aspect of modern and ancient Earth. A degree in geology the field of geology, environmental and geotechnical jobs exist for people with BS degrees. A master

Jiang, Huiqiang


Environmental Studies, Section III: Processes Through Time. Learning Carrel Lesson 6.7: Geologic Time. Study Guide and Script.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is one of a series of 14 instructional components of a semester-long, environmental earth science course developed for undergraduate students. The course includes lectures, discussion sessions, and individualized learning carrel lessons. Presented are the study guide and script for a learning carrel lesson on geologic time. The slides,…

Boyer, Robert; And Others


The spatial distribution of heavy metals across the Arctic is related to local geology, natural processes, and anthro-  

E-print Network

The spatial distribution of heavy metals across the Arctic is related to local geology, natural, and the characteristics of the receptor compartments. The spatial distribution of heavy metals leading to biotic exposure concentration is a key step toward linking the sources of anthropogenic release of heavy metals, distribution

Ford, Jesse


Fundamental changes of granular flow dynamics, deposition, and erosion processes at high slope angles: Insights from laboratory experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Entrainment of underlying debris by geophysical flows can significantly increase the flow deposit extent. To study this phenomenon, analog laboratory experiments have been conducted on granular column collapse over an inclined channel with and without an erodible bed made of similar granular material. Results show that for slope angles below a critical value ?c, between 10° and 16°, the run out distance rf depends only on the initial column height h0 and is unaffected by the presence of an erodible bed. On steeper slopes, the flow dynamics change fundamentally, with a slow propagation phase developing after flow front deceleration, significantly extending the flow duration. This phase has characteristics similar to those of steady uniform flows. Its duration increases with increasing slope angle, column volume, column inclination with respect to the slope and channel width, decreasing column aspect ratio (height over length), and in the presence of an erodible bed. It is independent, however, of the maximum front velocity. The increase in the duration of the slow propagation phase has a crucial effect on flow dynamics and deposition. Over a rigid bed, the development of this phase leads to run out distances rf that depend on both the initial column height h0 and length r0. Over an erodible bed, as the duration of the slow propagation phase increases, the duration of bed excavation increases, leading to a greater increase in the run out distance compared with that over a rigid bed (up to 50%). This effect is even more pronounced as bed compaction decreases.

Farin, Maxime; Mangeney, Anne; Roche, Olivier



Fundamental Processes of Coupled Radiation Damage and Mechanical Behavior in Nuclear Fuel Materials for High Temperature Reactors  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this work has been to elucidate the relationship among microstructure, radiation damage and mechanical properties for nuclear fuel materials. As representative nuclear materials, we have taken an hcp metal (Mg as a generic metal, and Ti alloys for fast reactors) and UO2 (representing fuel). The degradation of the thermo-mechanical behavior of nuclear fuels under irradiation, both the fissionable material itself and its cladding, is a longstanding issue of critical importance to the nuclear industry. There are experimental indications that nanocrystalline metals and ceramics may be more resistant to radiation damage than their coarse-grained counterparts. The objective of this project look at the effect of microstructure on radiation damage and mechanical behavior in these materials. The approach to be taken was state-of-the-art, large-scale atomic-level simulation. This systematic simulation program of the effects of irradiation on the structure and mechanical properties of polycrystalline Ti and UO2 identified radiation damage mechanisms. Moreover, it will provided important insights into behavior that can be expected in nanocrystalline microstructures and, by extension, nanocomposites. The fundamental insights from this work can be expected to help in the design microstructures that are less susceptible to radiation damage and thermomechanical degradation.

Simon Phillpot; James Tulenko



Some Fundamental Experiments on Apparent Dissolution Rate of Gas Phase in the Groundwater Recovery Processes of the Geological Disposal System - 12146  

SciTech Connect

The apparent dissolution rates of gas phase in the co-presence of solid phase were examined by in-room experiments in this study. The apparent dissolution rate of gas phase q (mol/m{sup 3}.s) was generally defined by q=aK{sub L}(?P{sub g}-c), where a (1/m) is specific surface area of the interface between gas and liquid phases, K{sub L} (m/s) is overall mass transfer coefficient, ? (mol/(Pa.m{sup 3})) is reciprocal number of Henry constant, P{sub g} (Pa) is partial pressure of gas phase, and c (mol/m{sup 3}) is the concentration of gas component in liquid phase. As a model gas, CO{sub 2} gas was used. For evaluating the values of K{sub L}, this study monitored pH or the migration rate of the interface between water/gas phases, using some experiments such as the packed beds and the micro channel consisting of granite chip and rubber sheet including a slit. In the results, the values of K{sub L} were distributed in the range from 5.0x10{sup -6} m/s to 5.0x10{sup -7} m/s. These values were small, in comparison with that (7.8x10{sup -4} m/s) obtained from the bubbling test where gas phase was continually injected into deionized water without solid phase. This means that the solid phase limits the local mixing of water phase near gas-liquid interfaces. (authors)

Yoshii, Taiki; Niibori, Yuichi; Mimura, Hitoshi [Dept. of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-01-2, Aramaki, Aza-Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)



How fundamental are fundamental constants?  

E-print Network

I argue that the laws of physics should be independent of one's choice of units or measuring apparatus. This is the case if they are framed in terms of dimensionless numbers such as the fine structure constant, alpha. For example, the Standard Model of particle physics has 19 such dimensionless parameters whose values all observers can agree on, irrespective of what clock, rulers, scales... they use to measure them. Dimensional constants, on the other hand, such as h, c, G, e, k..., are merely human constructs whose number and values differ from one choice of units to the next. In this sense only dimensionless constants are "fundamental". Similarly, the possible time variation of dimensionless fundamental "constants" of nature is operationally well-defined and a legitimate subject of physical enquiry. By contrast, the time variation of dimensional constants such as c or G on which a good many (in my opinion, confusing) papers have been written, is a unit-dependent phenomenon on which different observers might disagree depending on their apparatus. All these confusions disappear if one asks only unit-independent questions. We provide a selection of opposing opinions in the literature and respond accordingly.

M. J. Duff



Geologic evolution of Arizona  

SciTech Connect

Seven years in the making, the 35 papers in this volume summarize the stratigraphic, structural, and tectonic evolution of Arizona from Precambrian through Quaternary time. Intended as a compendium of current knowledge of Arizona geology, the papers synthesize previous work with new data, ideas, and concepts as well as identifying unresolved problems for future research. Emphasis is placed on the geologic evolution of the state as a whole rather than specific local areas. The papers are organized in terms of geologic eras: Proterozoic, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic. The concluding section offers topical studies in the areas of geophysics, industrial minerals, uranium, oil and gas, geothermal resources, hydrogeology, and environmental geology. California readers will find much of interest in this research volume because many of the tectonic processes that formed Arizona also affected the development of this state.

Penny, J.P.; Reynolds, S.J. (eds.)



Geologic History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit introduces younger students to the concept of relative versus absolute time and how geologists determine the age of geologic events and features. Topics include the laws that determine relative age (superposition, cross-cutting relationships, included fragments, and others), and how to re-construct the geologic history of an area using these relationships. There is also information on geologic correlation and the use of index fossils to determine relative age. The section on absolute time discusses some ways of measurement (tree rings, radioactive dating) and introduces the concepts of natural selection and mass extinctions. A vocabulary and downloadable, printable student worksheets are provided.

Medina, Philip



Geologic Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Earth is very old -- 4.5 billion years or more -- according to recent estimates. This vast span of time, called geologic time by earth scientists, is difficult to comprehend in the familiar time units of months and years, or even centuries. How then do scientists reckon geologic time, and why do they believe the Earth is so old? A great part of the secret of the Earth's age is locked up in its rocks, and our centuries-old search for the key led to the beginning and nourished the growth of geologic science.

Newman, William L.



Geologic time  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Earth is very old 4 1/2 billion years or more according to recent estimates. This vast span of time, called geologic time by earth scientists, is difficult to comprehend in the familiar time units of months and years, or even centuries. How then do scientists reckon geologic time, and why do they believe the Earth is so old? A great part of the secret of the Earth's age is locked up in its rocks, and our centuries-old search for the key led to the beginning and nourished the growth of geologic science.

Newman, William L.



RSNA 2003 LIDC Educational Exhibit: Fundamental Issues for the Creation of a Resource for the Image Processing Research Community

The LIDCThis consortium - called the Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) - seeks to establish standard formats and processes by which to manage lung images and the related technical and clinical data that will be used by researchers to develop, train and evaluate CAD algorithms for lung cancer detection and diagnosis.


Mesophase behavior fundamental to processing of carbon-carbon composites. Interim technical report, October 1, 1982September 30, 1983  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behavior of the carbonaceous mesophase under composite-fabrication conditions is being investigated to ascertain 1) how microstructure forms within the fiber matrix, 2) which mechanisms determine process efficiency, and 3) the ways in which carbonizing and graphitizing heat treatments affect matrix properties. This second annual report summarizes microstructural findings on impregnated fiber bundles quenched from various states of pyrolysis and

J. L. White; P. M. Sheaffer



Fundamental processes in the expansion, energization, and coupling of single- and multi-Ion plasmas in space: Laboratory simulation experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have conducted a laboratory investigation into the physics of plasma expansions and their associated energization processes. We studied single- and multi-ion plasma processes in self-expansions, and included light and heavy ions and heavy/light mixtures to encompass the phenomenological regimes of the solar and polar winds and the AMPTE and CRRES chemical release programs. The laboratory experiments provided spatially-distributed time-dependent measurements of total plasma density, temperature, and density fluctuation power spectra with the data confirming the long-theorized electron energization process in an expanding cloud - a result that was impossible to determine in spaceborne experiments (as e.g., in the CRRES program). These results provided the missing link in previous laboratory and spaceborne programs. confirming important elements in our understanding of such solar-terrestrial processes as manifested in expanding plasmas in the solar wind (e.g., CMES) and in ionospheric outflow in plasmaspheric fluctuate refilling after a storm. The energization signatures were seen in an entire series of runs that varied the ion species (Ar', Xe', Kr' and Ne'), and correlative studies included spectral analyses of electrostatic waves collocated with the energized electron distributions. In all cases wave energies were most intense during the times in which the suprathermal populations were present, with wave intensity increasing with the intensity of the suprathermal electron population. This is consistent with theoretical expectations wherein the energization process is directly attributable to wave particle interactions. No resonance conditions were observed, in an overall framework in which the general wave characteristics were broadband with power decreasing with increasing frequency.

Szuszczewicz, E. P.; Bateman, T. T.



Geologic Timeline  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dive into the depths of time with this Geologic Timeline. The farther you scroll down, the farther back in time you'll travel. Also, the longer a period is on this page, the longer it lasted in history!



Healthcare fundamentals.  


In order for a trauma surgeon to have an intelligent discussion with hospital administrators, healthcare plans, policymakers, or any other physicians, a basic understanding of the fundamentals of healthcare is paramount. It is truly shocking how many surgeons are unable to describe the difference between Medicare and Medicaid or describe how hospitals and physicians get paid. These topics may seem burdensome but they are vital to all business decision making in the healthcare field. The following chapter provides further insight about what we call "the basics" of providing medical care today. Most of the topics presented can be applied to all specialties of medicine. It is broken down into 5 sections. The first section is a brief overview of government programs, their influence on care delivery and reimbursement, and past and future legislation. Section 2 focuses on the compliance, care provision, and privacy statutes that regulate physicians who care for Medicare/Medicaid patient populations. With a better understanding of these obligations, section 3 discusses avenues by which physicians can stay informed of current and pending health policy and provides ways that they can become involved in shaping future legislation. The fourth section changes gears slightly by explaining how the concepts of trade restraint, libel, antitrust legislation, and indemnity relate to physician practice. The fifth, and final, section ties all of components together by describing how physician-hospital alignment can be mutually beneficial in providing patient care under current healthcare policy legislation. PMID:24918828

Kauk, Justin; Hill, Austin D; Althausen, Peter L



Epithelial-mesenchymal transition as a fundamental underlying pathogenic process in COPD airways: fibrosis, remodeling and cancer.  


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex condition, frequently with a mix of airway and lung parenchymal damage. However, the earliest changes are in the small airways, where most of the airflow limitation occurs. The pathology of small airway damage seems to be wall fibrosis and obliteration, but the whole airway is involved in a 'field effect'. Our novel observations on active epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in the airways of smokers, particularly in those with COPD, are changing the understanding of this airway pathology and the aetiology of COPD. EMT involves a cascade of regulatory changes that destabilise the epithelium with a motile and mesenchymal epithelial cell phenotype emerging. One important manifestation of EMT activity involves up-regulation of specific key transcription factors (TFs), such as Smads, Twist, and ?-catenin. Such TFs can be used as EMT biomarkers, in recognisable patterns reflecting the potential major drivers of the process; for example, TGF?, Wnt, and integrin-linked kinase systems. Thus, understanding the relative changes in TF activity during EMT may provide rich information on the mechanisms driving this whole process, and how they may change over time and with therapy. We have sought to review the current literature on EMT and the relative expression of specific TF activity, to define the networks likely to be involved in a similar process in the airways of patients with smoking-related COPD. PMID:25113142

Nowrin, Kaosia; Sohal, Sukhwinder Singh; Peterson, Gregory; Patel, Rahul; Walters, Eugene Haydn



Water in a Crowd In many situations, form biology to geology, water occurs not as the pure bulk  

E-print Network

Water in a Crowd In many situations, form biology to geology, water occurs not as the pure bulk species, and interacting with large organic molecules. In such situations, water does not behave in the same manner as it does in the pure bulk liquid. Water dynamics are fundamental to many processes

Fayer, Michael D.


Measurement fundamentals  

SciTech Connect

The need to have accurate petroleum measurement is obvious. Petroleum measurement is the basis of commerce between oil producers, royalty owners, oil transporters, refiners, marketers, the Department of Revenue, and the motoring public. Furthermore, petroleum measurements are often used to detect operational problems or unwanted releases in pipelines, tanks, marine vessels, underground storage tanks, etc. Therefore, consistent, accurate petroleum measurement is an essential part of any operation. While there are several methods and different types of equipment used to perform petroleum measurement, the basic process stays the same. The basic measurement process is the act of comparing an unknown quantity, to a known quantity, in order to establish its magnitude. The process can be seen in a variety of forms; such as measuring for a first-down in a football game, weighing meat and produce at the grocery, or the use of an automobile odometer.

Webb, R.A. [Marathon Pipe Line Co., Findlay, OH (United States)



Definition of the fundamentals for the automatic generation of digitalization processes with a 3D laser sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces the first results of a research work carried out on the automation of digitizing process of complex part using a precision 3D laser senor. Indeed, most of the operations are generally still manual to perform digitization. In fact, redundancies, lacks or forgettings in point acquisition are possible. Moreover, digitalization time of a part, i.e. immobilization of the machine, is thus not optimized overall. After introducing the context in which evolves the reverse engineering, we quickly present non-contact sensors and machines usable to digitalize a part. Considered environment of digitization is also modeled, but in a general way in order to preserve an upgrading capability to the system. Machine and sensor actually used are then presented and their integration exposed. Current process of digitization is then detailed, after what a critical analysis from the considered point of view is carried out and some solutions are suggested. The paper concludes on the laid down prospects and the next projected developments.

Davillerd, Stephane; Sidot, Benoit; Bernard, Alain; Ris, Gabriel



Femtosecond dynamics of fundamental reaction processes in liquids: Proton transfer, geminate recombination, isomerization and vibrational relaxation. [Spiropyrans  

SciTech Connect

The fast excited state intramolecular proton transfer of 3-hydroxyflavone is measured and effects of external hydrogen-bonding interactions on the proton transfer are studied. The proton transfer takes place in [approximately]240 fsec in nonpolar environments, but becomes faster than instrumental resolution of 110 fsec in methanol solution. The dynamics following photodissociation of CH[sub 2]I[sub 2] and other small molecules provide the first direct observations of geminate recombination. The recombination of many different photodissociating species occurs on a [approximately]350 fsec time scale. Results show that recombination yields but not rates depend on the solvent environment and suggest that recombination kinetics are dominated by a single collision with surrounding solvent cage. Studies of sterically locked phenyl-substituted butadienes offer new insights into the electronic structure and isomerization behavior of conjugated polyenes. Data show no simple correlation between hinderance of specific large amplitude motions and signatures of isomerizative behavior such as viscosity dependent excited state lifetimes, implying that the isomerization does not provide a suitable for simple condensed phase reaction rate theories. The spectral dynamics of a photochromic spiropyran indicate that recombination, isomerization and vibrational relaxation all play important roles in photoreactivity of complex molecules. The interplay of these microscopic phenomena and their effect on macroscopic properties such as photochromism are discussed. All the results indicate that the initial steps of the photochromic reaction process occur extremely rapidly. Laser system and computer codes for data analysis are discussed.

Schwartz, B.J.



The Fundamental Physical Processes Producing and Controlling Stellar Coronal/Transition Region/Chromospheric Activity and Structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Our LTSA (Long Term Space Astrophysics) research has utilized current NASA and ESA spacecraft, supporting ground-based IR, radio, and sub-mm telescopes, and the extensive archives of HST (Hubble Space Telescope), IUE (International Ultraviolet Explorer), ROSAT, EUVE (Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer), and other missions. Our research effort has included observational work (with a nonnegligible groundbased component), specialized processing techniques for imaging and spectral data, and semiempirical modelling, ranging from optically thin emission measure studies to simulations of optically thick resonance lines. In our previous LTSA efforts, we have had a number of major successes, including most recently: organizing and carrying out an extensive cool star UV survey in HST cycle eight; obtaining observing time with new instruments, such as Chandra and XMM (X-ray Multi-Mirror) in their first cycles; collaborating with the Chandra GTO program and participating with the Chandra Emission Line Project on multi-wavelength observations of HR 1099 and Capella. These are the main broad-brush themes of our previous investigation: a) Where do Coronae Occur in the Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram? b) Winds of Coronal and Noncoronal Stars; c) Activity, Age, Rotation Relations; d) Atmospheric Inhomogeneities; e) Heating Mechanisms, Subcoronal Flows, and Flares; f) Development of Analysis and Modelling Tools.

Ayres, T. R.; Brown, A.



Pennsylvania Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Three decades after it was published, the Second Geological Survey of Pennsylvania was described as "the most remarkable series of reports ever issued by any survey." Considering the diversity of other geological reports, this was no small compliment. Drawing on support from the Marion and Kenneth Pollock Libraries Program Fund, the Pennsylvania State University Libraries' Digital Preservation Unit was able to digitize not only this fabled Survey, but also the Third and Fourth Surveys as well. Visitors can use the search engine on the homepage to look for items of interest, or they can just browse through the collection at their leisure. The surveys include various maps and illustrations that track mineral deposits and the disposition and location of other natural resources. Additionally, users can look through a miscellaneous set of publications from the early 20th century related to survey work performed by the U.S. Geological Survey.


Teaching Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This rather remarkable website contains a great collection of resources for web-based instruction and demonstrations of geology concepts. The collection includes, under Classroom demonstration, the very useful SeisMac 3.0, which is an application for Mac OS X that turns a laptop computer into a " low-resolution strong-motion accelerometer," or a basic seismograph. It works by accessing the computer's Sudden Motion Sensor in order to display real-time, three axis accelerations graphs. Visitors can use the application to watch the seismic waves go up and down just by tapping their feet on the floor nearby. Other resources include Virtual Earth (an "interactive minicourse on thermal convection") and a link to Geology in the news, which collates important news stories with a geological theme.


Reports of planetary geology program, 1983  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several areas of the Planetary Geology Program were addressed including outer solar system satellites, asteroids, comets, Venus, cratering processes and landform development, volcanic processes, aeolian processes, fluvial processes, periglacial and permafrost processes, geomorphology, remote sensing, tectonics and stratigraphy, and mapping.

Holt, H. E. (compiler)



Reports of Planetary Geology Program, 1982  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Work conducted in the Planetary Geology program is summarized. The following categories are presented: outer solar system satellites; asteroids and comets; Venus; cratering processes and landform development; volcanic processes and landforms; aolian processes and landforms; fluvial processes and landform development; periglacial and permafrost processes; structure, tectonics and stratigraphy; remote sensing and regolith studies; geologic mapping, cartography and geodesy.

Holt, H. E. (compiler)



Geological flows  

E-print Network

In this paper geology and planetology are considered using new conceptual basis of high-speed flow dynamics. Recent photo technics allow to see all details of a flow, 'cause the flow is static during very short time interval. On the other hand, maps and images of many planets are accessible. Identity of geological flows and high-speed gas dynamics is demonstrated. There is another time scale, and no more. All results, as far as the concept, are new and belong to the author. No formulae, pictures only.

Yu. N. Bratkov



Sediment Studies Refute EIS Hypothesis, While Most Fundamental Process Questions Remain Unanswered: An Update on Experiments in Grand Canyon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For three decades, sediment researchers have pondered the question of whether or not operations at Glen Canyon Dam could be adjusted to maintain downstream sand resources in Grand Canyon. Prior to the era when managed floods were proposed as a strategy to conserve sand inputs below the dam, Laursen et al. (1976) concluded that erosion of sandbars below the dam would be an inevitable, yet protracted post-dam process. Despite this earliest conclusion, the operational strategy for sandbar maintenance since 1996, has been based on two hypotheses: first, much of the sand introduced by tributaries downstream from the dam can accumulate in the channel over multiple years under operations associated with average-to-below average hydrology; and second, controlled floods can move that accumulated sand from the channel bed to shorelines, thereby rebuilding bars in a sustainable manner. Recent work has shown that the first hypothesis is false (Rubin et al., 2002). High resolution data for the ecosystem sand mass balance between 1999 and 2004, indicate no accumulation of tributary sand inputs in the main channel, despite a drought resulting in minimum annual release volumes from 2000 through 2004. Sandbar data also indicate that erosion has not been mitigated by re-operation strategies since 1991. On the basis of these data, researchers have again identified uncertainty regarding a flow strategy that will result in sustainable sandbars. If a successful flow strategy can not be devised, then managers may have to choose between abandoning sandbar restoration objectives, or pursuing sediment augmentation. Experimental fluctuating-flow treatments are also being evaluated for their potential to limit populations of introduced rainbow trout, yet these options are already known to increase sand export. While many institutional barriers to large-scale sediment experiments in Grand Canyon have recently been bridged through a science-based, adaptive management approach, protracted drought throughout the Upper Colorado River Basin now poses a natural barrier to testing the key sediment hypothesis. Downstream sand production from the Paria River remains at its lowest level in 80 years, while water storage in Lake Powell approaches 40 percent of capacity. As scientists wait out delays in sediment experimentation forced by the current drought, managers have already approved limited sediment augmentation feasibility studies aimed at identifying options for managing physical habitats. With regard to conventional thinking about regulation and management of natural hydrologic systems, some important lessons may be learned from the current situation. Rubin, D.M., Topping, D.J., Schmidt, J.C., Hazel, J., Kaplinski, M. and Melis, T.S., 2002, Recent Sediment Studies Refute Glen Canyon Dam EIS Hypothesis: Eos, vol. 83, no. 25, p. 273-278. Laursen, E.M., Ince, S. and Pollack, J., 1976, On Sediment Transport Through the Grand Canyon, Proceedings of the 3rd Federal Interagency Sedimentation Conference, Denver, CO, vol. 1, p. 4-76 - 4-87.

Melis, T. S.; Topping, D. J.; Wright, S. A.; Rubin, D. M.; Schmidt, J. C.; Hazel, J. E.; Kaplinski, M. A.; Parnell, R. A.



IEEE SIGNAL PROCESSING MAGAZINE [112] juLy 2013 1053-5888/13/$31.002013IEEE ignal processing tasks as fundamental as sampling,  

E-print Network

spatial LMMSE estimation referred to as kriging, is tantamount to two-dimensional RKHS interpolation [10 is the purpose and core of this article. Building blocks of sparse signal processing include the (group) least

Giannakis, Georgios


Hospital fundamentals.  


Under the current system, orthopaedic trauma surgeons must work in some form of hospital setting as our primary service involves treatment of the trauma patient. We must not forget that just as a trauma center cannot exist without our services, we cannot function without their support. As a result, a clear understanding of the balance between physicians and hospitals is paramount. Historical perspective enables physicians and hospital personnel alike to understand the evolution of hospital-physician relationship. This process should be understood upon completion of this chapter. The relationship between physicians and hospitals is becoming increasingly complex and multiple forms of integration exist such as joint ventures, gain sharing, and co-management agreements. For the surgeon to negotiate well, an understanding of hospital governance and the role of the orthopaedic traumatologist is vital to success. An understanding of the value provided by the traumatologist includes all aspects of care including efficiency, availability, cost effectiveness, and research activities. To create effective and sustainable healthcare institutions, physicians and hospitals must be aligned over a sustained period of time. Unfortunately, external forces have eroded the historical basis for the working relationship between physicians and hospitals. Increased competition and reimbursement cuts, coupled with the increasing demands for quality, efficiency, and coordination and the payment changes outlined in healthcare reform, have left many organizations wondering how to best rebuild the relationship. The principal goal for the physician when partnering with a hospital or healthcare entity is to establish a sustainable model of service line management that protects or advances the physician's ability to make impactful improvements in quality of patient care, decreases in healthcare costs, and improvements in process efficiency through evidence-based practices and protocols. PMID:24918827

Althausen, Peter L; Hill, Austin D; Mead, Lisa



Structural and stratigraphic evolution of the central Mississippi Canyon area: Interaction of salt tectonics and slope processes in the formation of engineering and geologic hazards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Approximately 720 square miles of digital 3-dimensional seismic data covering the eastern Mississippi Canyon area, Gulf of Mexico, continental shelf was used to examine the structural and stratigraphic evolution of the geology in the study area. The analysis focused on salt tectonics and sequence stratigraphy to develop a geologic model for the study area and its potential impact on engineering and geologic hazards. Salt in the study area was found to be established structural end-members derived from shallow-emplaced salt sheets. The transition from regional to local salt tectonics was identified through structural deformation of the stratigraphic section on the seismic data and occurred no later than ˜450,000 years ago. From ˜450,000 years to present, slope depositional processes have become the dominant geologic process in the study area. Six stratigraphic sequences (I-VI) were identified in the study area and found to correlate with sequences previously defined for the Eastern Mississippi Fan. Condensed sections were the key to the correlation. The sequence stratigraphy for the Eastern Mississippi Fan can be extended ˜28 miles west, adding another ˜720 square miles to the interpreted Fan. A previously defined channel within the Eastern Fan was identified in the study area and extended the channel ˜28 miles west. Previous work on the Eastern Fan identified the source of the Fan to be the Mobile River; however, extending the channel west suggests the sediment source to be from the Mississippi River, not the Mobile River. Further evidence for this was found in ponded turbidites whose source has been previously established as the Mississippi River. Ages of the stratigraphic sequences were compared to changes in eustatic sea level. The formation stratigraphic sequences appear decoupled from sea level change with "pseudo-highstands" forming condensed sections during pronounced Pleistocene sea level lowstands. Miocene and Pleistocene depositional analogues suggest the location of the shifting Mississippi River Pleistocene depocenter is a more dominant influence on sequence formation. Thus, the application of traditional sequence interpretation with respect to sea level change should be reconsidered to also account for the shifting depocenter for both the study area as well as the broader Eastern Mississippi Fan.

Brand, John Richard


Antarctica Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains information about the continent of Antarctica. There is a classroom practice and instructional module. The students will be able to describe the general geology of the land under the Antarctic ice and to explain from where the rocks may have come.


Geologic Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains 24 questions on the topic of geologic time, which covers dating techniques and unconformities. This is part of the Principles of Earth Science course at the University of South Dakota. Users submit their answers and are provided immediate feedback.

Heaton, Timothy


Geology Fieldnotes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service (NPS) site delivers a brief description of the geology of the Black Hills National Park. Links to park maps, a photo album, books, videos, CDs, and a searchable data base of research needs that have been identified by the National Park Service are included. General information about the park's education and interpretive programs are also abailable.

National Park Services (NPS)


Sedimentary RocksSedimentary Rocks Geology 200  

E-print Network

Sedimentary RocksSedimentary Rocks Geology 200 Geology for Environmental ScientistsGeology for Environmental Scientists #12;Major Concepts · Sedimentary rocks form by the processes of weathering, erosion · Sedimentary structures are critical to interpreting sedimentary rocks. #12;The Rock CycleThe Rock Cycle #12

Kammer, Thomas


Polypyrimidine Tract Binding Protein Homologs from Arabidopsis Are Key Regulators of Alternative Splicing with Implications in Fundamental Developmental Processes[W  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing (AS) generates transcript variants by variable exon/intron definition and massively expands transcriptome diversity. Changes in AS patterns have been found to be linked to manifold biological processes, yet fundamental aspects, such as the regulation of AS and its functional implications, largely remain to be addressed. In this work, widespread AS regulation by Arabidopsis thaliana Polypyrimidine tract binding protein homologs (PTBs) was revealed. In total, 452 AS events derived from 307 distinct genes were found to be responsive to the levels of the splicing factors PTB1 and PTB2, which predominantly triggered splicing of regulated introns, inclusion of cassette exons, and usage of upstream 5? splice sites. By contrast, no major AS regulatory function of the distantly related PTB3 was found. Dependent on their position within the mRNA, PTB-regulated events can both modify the untranslated regions and give rise to alternative protein products. We find that PTB-mediated AS events are connected to diverse biological processes, and the functional implications of selected instances were further elucidated. Specifically, PTB misexpression changes AS of PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR6, coinciding with altered rates of abscisic acid–dependent seed germination. Furthermore, AS patterns as well as the expression of key flowering regulators were massively changed in a PTB1/2 level-dependent manner. PMID:23192226

Rühl, Christina; Stauffer, Eva; Kahles, André; Wagner, Gabriele; Drechsel, Gabriele; Rätsch, Gunnar; Wachter, Andreas




E-print Network

FUNDAMENTALS OF PLATE TECTONICS Fall Semester 2012-13 Geological Sciences G454/G554 Section 32565, paleomagnetism, petrology, and structural geology that led to the development of plate tectonic theory student will prepare a paper on some aspect or applica- tion of plate tectonic theory. The paper should

Polly, David


Physical Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Tulane University course covers the nature of the Earth, the development of its surficial features, and the results of the interaction of chemical, physical, and biological factors on the planet. Lecture notes are about energy and minerals; igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks; weathering and soils; geologic time; mass wasting; streams; groundwater; wind action and deserts; oceans; deformation of rock; earthquakes and the interior of the Earth; global tectonics; planetary changes; and glaciers.

Stephen Nelson


Influence of Introgression and Geological Processes on Phylogenetic Relationships of Western North American Mountain Suckers (Pantosteus, Catostomidae)  

PubMed Central

Intense geological activity caused major topographic changes in Western North America over the past 15 million years. Major rivers here are composites of different ancient rivers, resulting in isolation and mixing episodes between river basins over time. This history influenced the diversification of most of the aquatic fauna. The genus Pantosteus is one of several clades centered in this tectonically active region. The eight recognized Pantosteus species are widespread and common across southwestern Canada, western USA and into northern Mexico. They are typically found in medium gradient, middle-elevation reaches of rivers over rocky substrates. This study (1) compares molecular data with morphological and paleontological data for proposed species of Pantosteus, (2) tests hypotheses of their monophyly, (3) uses these data for phylogenetic inferences of sister-group relationships, and (4) estimates timing of divergence events of identified lineages. Using 8055 base pairs from mitochondrial DNA protein coding genes, Pantosteus and Catostomus are reciprocally monophyletic, in contrast with morphological data. The only exception to a monophyletic Pantosteus is P. columbianus whose mtDNA is closely aligned with C. tahoensis because of introgression. Within Pantosteus, several species have deep genetic divergences among allopatric sister lineages, several of which are diagnosed and elevated to species, bringing the total diversity in the group to 11 species. Conflicting molecular and morphological data may be resolved when patterns of divergence are shown to be correlated with sympatry and evidence of introgression. PMID:24619087

Unmack, Peter J.; Dowling, Thomas E.; Laitinen, Nina J.; Secor, Carol L.; Mayden, Richard L.; Shiozawa, Dennis K.; Smith, Gerald R.



Cognition is … Fundamentally Cultural  

PubMed Central

A prevailing concept of cognition in psychology is inspired by the computer metaphor. Its focus on mental states that are generated and altered by information input, processing, storage and transmission invites a disregard for the cultural dimension of cognition, based on three (implicit) assumptions: cognition is internal, processing can be distinguished from content, and processing is independent of cultural background. Arguing against each of these assumptions, we point out how culture may affect cognitive processes in various ways, drawing on instances from numerical cognition, ethnobiological reasoning, and theory of mind. Given the pervasive cultural modulation of cognition—on all of Marr’s levels of description—we conclude that cognition is indeed fundamentally cultural, and that consideration of its cultural dimension is essential for a comprehensive understanding. PMID:25379225

Bender, Andrea; Beller, Sieghard



Model Fundamentals - version 2  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Model Fundamentals, part of the Numerical Weather Prediction Professional Development Series and the "NWP Training Series: Effective Use of NWP in the Forecast Process", describes the components of an NWP model and how they fit into the forecast development process. It also explores why parameterization of many physical processes is necessary in NWP models. The module covers background concepts and terminology necessary for learning from the other modules in this series on NWP. Back in 2000, the subject matter expert for this module was Dr. Ralph Petersen of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction, Environmental Modeling Center (NCEP/EMC). Revisions to the module were made in 2009 by Drs. Bill Bua and Stephen Jascourt, from the NWP team at UCAR/COMET.




Significant achievements in the Planetary Geology Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developments reported at a meeting of principal investigators for NASA's planetology geology program are summarized. Topics covered include: constraints on solar system formation; asteriods, comets, and satellites; constraints on planetary interiors; volatiles and regoliths; instrument development techniques; planetary cartography; geological and geochemical constraints on planetary evolution; fluvial processes and channel formation; volcanic processes; Eolian processes; radar studies of planetary surfaces;

J. W. Head



MER Field Geologic Traverse in Gusev Crater, Mars: Initial Results From the Perspective of Spirit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report casts the initial results of the traverse and science investigations by the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit at Gusev crater [1] in terms of data sets commonly used in field geologic investigations: Local mapping of geologic features, analyses of selected samples, and their location within the local map, and the regional context of the field traverse in terms of the larger geologic and physiographic region. These elements of the field method are represented in the MER characterization of the Gusev traverse by perspective-based geologic/morphologic maps, the placement of the results from Mossbauer, APXS, Microscopic Imager, Mini-TES and Pancam multispectral studies in context within this geologic/ morphologic map, and the placement of the overall traverse in the context of narrow-angle MOC (Mars Orbiter Camera) and descent images. A major campaign over a significance fraction of the mission will be the first robotic traverse of the ejecta from a Martian impact crater along an approximate radial from the crater center. The Mars Exploration Rovers have been conceptually described as 'robotic field geologists', that is, a suite of instruments with mobility that enables far-field traverses to multiple sites located within a regional map/image base at which in situ analyses may be done. Initial results from MER, where the field geologic method has been used throughout the initial course of the investigation, confirm that this field geologic model is applicable for remote planetary surface exploration. The field geologic method makes use of near-field geologic characteristics ('outcrops') to develop an understanding of the larger geologic context through continuous loop of rational steps focused on real-time hypothesis identification and testing. This poster equates 'outcrops' with the locations of in situ investigations and 'regional context' with the geology over distance of several kilometers. Using this fundamental field geologic method, we have identified the basic local geologic materials on the floor of Gusev at this site, their compositions and likely lithologies, origins, processes that have modified these materials, and their potential significance in the interpretation of the regional geology both spatially and temporally.

Crumpler, L.; Cabrol, N.; desMarais, D.; Farmer, J.; Golmbek, M.; Grant, J.; Greely, R.; Grotzinger, J.; Haskin, L.; Arvidson, R.



The Martian geomorphology as mapped by the Mars Express High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC): Implications for Geological Processes and Climate Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the strong evidence for aqueous processes at or near the surface, Mars is the most Earth-like body in the Solar System. After 10 years of ESA's Mars Express orbiting the planet its High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) covered about 90 % of the surface in stereo and color with resolutions up to 10 m/pixel [1]. Digital elevation models of up to 50 m grid spacing, generated from all suitable datasets of the stereo coverage, currently cover about 40 % of the surface [2]. The geomorphological analysis of surface features, observed by the HRSC indicate major surface modifications by endogenic and exogenic processes on all scales. Endogenic landforms (e.g., tectonic rifts, small basaltic shield volcanoes) were found to be very similar to their equivalents on Earth [1,3,4,5,6,7], suggesting that no unique processes are required to explain their formation. Volcanism may have been active up to the very recent past or even to the present, putting important constraints on thermal evolution models [6,7]. The analysis of diverse landforms produced by aqueous processes revealed that surface water activity was likely episodic, but ranged in age from very ancient to very recent [1,8-16]. Particularly important is prominent glaciation and periglacial features at several latitudes, including mountain glaciers [17-21]. The identification of aqueous alteration minerals and their geological context has enabled a better understanding of paleoenvironmental conditions and pedogenetic processes [23-25]. Dark dunes contain volcanic material and are evidence for the significantly dynamic surface environment, characterized by widespread erosion, transport, and redeposition [26]. Since basically all geologic interpretations of extraterrestrial features require profound knowledge of the Earth as key reference, studies of terrestrial analogues are mandatory in planetary geology. Field work in Antarctica, Svalbard and Iceland [5,6,21,22,27] provided a basis for the analysis of periglacial and volcanic processes, respectively. References: [1]Jaumann et al., 2007, PSS 55; [2]Gwinner et al., 2010, EPSL 294; [3]Neukum et al., 2004, Nature 432; [4]Neukum et al., EPSL 294;[5] Hauber et al., 2005, Nature 434; [6]Hauber et al., 2009 PSS 57; [7]Platz and Michael, 2011, EPSL 312, [8]Jaumann et al., 2005, GRL 32; [9]Jaumann et al., 2010, EPSL 294; [10]Erkeling et al., 2010, EPSL 294; [11]Erkeling et al., 2012, Icarus, 219; [12]Kleinhans et al., 2010, EPSL 294; [13]Reiss et al., 2009, PSS 57; [14]Kneissl et al., 2010, EPSL 294; [15]Di Achille et al., 2006, JGR 111; [16]Di Achille et al., 2006, GRL 33; [17]Head et al., 2005 Nature 434; [18]Murray et al., 2005 Nature 434; [19]Pacifici et al., 2009, Icarus 202; [20]Rossi et al., 2011, Geol. Soc. Am.356; [21]Marchant and Head, 2007, Icarus; [22]Ulrich et al., 2011 Geomorphology 134;[23] Le Deit et al., 2010, Icarus 208; [24]Le Deit et al., 2012, JGR 117; [25]Bishop et al., 2013, JGR 118; [26]Tirsch et al., 2011, JGR 116; [27]Hauber et al., 2011, Geol. Soc. Am. 483.

Jaumann, R.; Neukum, G.; Hauber, E.; Hoffmann, H.; Roatsch, T.; Gwinner, K.; Scholten, F.; Di Achille, G.; Duxbury, T.; Erkeling, G.; van Gasselt, S.; Gupta, S.; Head, J. W.; Hiesinger, H.; Ip, W.; Keller, H.; Kleinhans, M. G.; Kneissl, T.; Le Deit, L.; McCord, T. B.; Muller, J.; Murray, J. J.; Pacifici, A.; Platz, T.; Pinet, P. C.; Reiss, D.; Rossi, A.; Spohn, T.; Tirsch, D.; Williams, D. A.



Precise determination of ?88Sr in rocks, minerals, and waters by double-spike TIMS: A powerful tool in the study of chemical, geologic, hydrologic and biologic processes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We present strontium isotopic (88Sr/86Sr and 87Sr/86Sr) results obtained by 87Sr–84Sr double spike thermal ionization mass-spectrometry (DS-TIMS) for several standards as well as natural water samples and mineral samples of abiogenic and biogenic origin. The detailed data reduction algorithm and a user-friendly Sr-specific stand-alone computer program used for the spike calibration and the data reduction are also presented. Accuracy and precision of our ?88Sr measurements, calculated as permil (‰) deviations from the NIST SRM-987 standard, were evaluated by analyzing the NASS-6 seawater standard, which yielded ?88Sr = 0.378 ± 0.009‰. The first DS-TIMS data for the NIST SRM-607 potassium feldspar standard and for several US Geological Survey carbonate, phosphate, and silicate standards (EN-1, MAPS-4, MAPS-5, G-3, BCR-2, and BHVO-2) are also reported. Data obtained during this work for Sr-bearing solids and natural waters show a range of ?88Sr values of about 2.4‰, the widest observed so far in terrestrial materials. This range is easily resolvable analytically because the demonstrated external error (±SD, standard deviation) for measured ?88Sr values is typically ?0.02‰. It is shown that the “true” 87Sr/86Sr value obtained by the DS-TIMS or any other external normalization method combines radiogenic and mass-dependent mass-fractionation effects, which cannot be separated. Therefore, the “true” 87Sr/86Sr and the ?87Sr parameter derived from it are not useful isotope tracers. Data presented in this paper for a wide range of naturally occurring sample types demonstrate the potential of the ?88Sr isotope tracer in combination with the traditional radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr tracer for studying a variety of biological, hydrological, and geological processes.

Neymark, Leonid A.; Premo, Wayne R.; Mel'nikov, Nikolay N.; Emsbo, Poul



Marine Geology: Research Beneath the Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Another informative offering from the US Geological Survey is the Marine Geology: Research Beneath the Sea Web site. Visitors can read about the agency's Marine Geology program which "strives to increase our understanding of the geology of the lands covered by water." Topics include methods and equipment used for the research, plate tectonics, resources in the marine realm, predicting effects of marine processes, new frontiers, and even images of marine geology. This interesting and unique site does a good job of explaining and educating the public on this important segment of the agency's research.


Europa: Geological activity and surface - subsurface exchange  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jupiter's moon Europa has a geologically young surface, allowing the possibility of current, ongoing geological activity. We are searching the Galileo database for overlapping images taken during the 5-year mission, and are comparing images using an iterative coregistration technique to look for changes due to geological activity. We will also discuss methods by which such activity could occur on Europa. We are particularly interested in the ability of geological processes to bring surface material down into the subsurface, and to bring subsurface material up to the surface. We are continuing a survey of such processes, including endogenic tectonic and cryovolcanic activity, and exogenic processes such as gardening and impact cratering.

Phillips, C. B.; Cowell, W.



Fundamental Plasma Processes in Saturn's Magnetosphere B.H. Mauk, D.C. Hamilton, T.W. Hill, G.B. Hospodarsky, R.E. Johnson, C. Paranicas, E. Roussos,  

E-print Network

Chapter 11 Fundamental Plasma Processes in Saturn's Magnetosphere B.H. Mauk, D.C. Hamilton, T that control the extensive space environ- ment, or magnetosphere, of Saturn (see Chapter 9, for the global under- standing of the operations of Saturn's magnetosphere and its relationship to those of Earth

Johnson, Robert E.


Spatial and statistical GIS Applications for geological and environmental courses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Building student's career through undergraduate and graduate courses integrated with modern statistical and GIS software foster a competitive curriculum for their future employment. We present examples that may be introduced in geological courses (e.g. mineralogy, geomorphology, geochronology, structural geology, tectonics, stratigraphy) and environmental courses (natural hazards, hydrology, atmospheric science). Univariate and multivariate statistical models can be used for the interpretation and mapping of the geological and environmental problems. Some of the main statistical univariate models such as the normal distribution as well as the multivariate methods such as the principal component analysis, cluster analysis and factor analysis are the basic methods for understanding the variables of the environmental and geological problems. Examples are presented describing the basic steps for the solution of the problems. Some of the geological problems in different scales are the interpretation of 3D structural data, identification of suitable outcrops for mapping shear sense kinematic indicators. categorical or cluster analysis on lineations depending on their origin, topology of mineral assemblages and spatial distribution of their c-axis, distinguishing paleo-elevations using cluster analysis in geomorphological structures using LiDAR intensity and elevation data for determination of meander evolution patterns and prediction of vulnerable sites for flooding or landsliding. Other applications in atmospheric and hydrology science are the prediction of ground level ozone and the decomposition of water use time series. Those fundamental statistical and spatial concepts may be used in the field or in the lab. In the lab, modern computers and friendly interface user software allow students to process data using advanced statistical methods and GIS techniques. Modern applications in tablets or smart phones may complement field work. Teaching those methods can facilitate advanced mapping, optimize sample collection distribution, field decisions, and later lab data processing.

Marsellos, A.; Tsakiri, K.



Geologic Technician New Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a developing two-year geologic technician program at Bakersfield College in which a student may major in five areas - geologic drafting, land and legal, geologic assistant, engineering or paleontology. (RR)

Karp, Stanley E.



Vesta: A Geological Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations from the Dawn spacecraft [1] enable the derivation of the asteroid 4Vesta's shape, facilitate mapping of the surface geology, and provide the first evidence for interpreting Vesta's geological evolution. Science data were acquired during the approach to Vesta, a circular polar (Survey) orbit at an altitude of 2700 km providing ~ 230 m/pix camera scale, and during a circular high-altitude mapping orbit (HAMO) at 700 km altitude with a camera scale of ~ 65 m/pixel. Currently Dawn is orbiting Vesta in a low-altitude mapping orbit (LAMO) at 210 km altitude, yielding a global image coverage of ~20 m/pixel at the time of EGU [2,3,4,5]. Geomorphology and distribution of surface features provide evidence for impact cratering, tectonic activity, and regolith and probable volcanic processes. Craters with dark rays, bright rays, and dark rim streaks have been observed, suggesting buried stratigraphy. The largest fresh craters retain a simple bowl-shaped morphology, with depth/diameter ratios roughly comparable to lunar values. The largest crater Rheasilvia, an ~500 km diameter depression at the south pole, includes an incomplete inward facing cuspate scarp and a large central mound surrounded by unusual complex arcuate ridge and groove patterns, and overlies an older ~400 km wide basin. A set of large equatorial troughs is related to these south polar structures. Vesta exhibits rugged topography ranging from -22 km to +19 km relative to a best fit ellipsoidal shape. Vesta's topography has a much greater range in elevation relative to its radius (15%) than do the Moon and Mars (1%) or the Earth (0.3%), but less than highly battered smaller asteroids like Lutetia (40%). This also identifies Vesta as a transitional body between asteroids and planets. The surface of Vesta exhibits very steep topographic slopes that are near the angle of repose. Impacts onto these steep surfaces, followed by slope failure, make resurfacing - due to impacts and their associated gravitational forces and seismic activity - an important geologic process on Vesta that significantly alters the morphology of geologic features and adds to the complexity of its geologic history. In general, Vesta's geology is more like the Moon and rocky planets than other asteroids.

Jaumann, R.



Geology of the Caribbean  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Venezuelan and Colombian basins are located on the Caribbean Plate whilst the Yucatan basin is on the North American Plate. The processes occurring at the boundaries between the Caribbean Plate and the adjacent North American, South American and Cocos Plates, and the resulting surface features and patterns of volcanic and earthquake activity are described. Most of the Caribbean area is floored by atypical oceanic crust and its most valuable main geologic resources identified so far are petroleum, together with sand and gravel. Geological research is being carried out with techniques for broad-range swath imaging of the seafloor, such as GLORIA, and for directly measuring the movement between plates. -J.G.Harvey

Dillon, William P.; Edgar, N.T.; Scanlon, K.M.; Klitgord, Kim D.



Geology of Wisconsin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains geologic maps of Wisconsin including relief and topography maps; maps of the bedrock geology and elevation, Pleistocene geology, thickness of unconsolidated deposits, and soils; and atlases of geologic history. There is information on: rock types, Paleozoic formations, and the Pleistocene and Precambrian history of Wisconsin; how to obtain a geologic map of personal property; the Niagara Escarpment; castellated mounds; geologic field localities; and unusual weather events in Wisconsin. There is also a data table on earthquakes in Wisconsin.

Steven Dutch



Biologic and geologic responses to physical processes: examples from modern reef systems of the Caribbean-Atlantic region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coral reefs and associated depositional environments of the Caribbean-Atlantic region have characteristics that reflect control by physical processes, both oceanic and atmospheric. Wave direction and wave power help determine sites for productive reef development and shape reef morphology as well as community structure. Spur and groove orientations reflect changes in direction of waves as they refract across a reef-dominated shelf. Abrupt topography of reef-dominated shelf margins interacts with tidally modulated flows to create an energetic and productive deep reef environment which is buffered from the modifying effects of forceful wave action. Shallow wave-reef interactions involve dissipative effects of wave breaking, turbulence, and friction, resulting in measured wave energy transformations ranging from 72 to 97% depending on reef configuration and water depth. Dissipative processes produce strong reef-normal surge currents that transport sediment lagoonward, drive backreef lagoon circulation, and influence fluid flow and diagenesis within the reef. The intensity of these processes is modulated at the tidal frequency. Other long period waves (infragravity) are important agents of mass transport of water and fine sediment. Low speed, long duration currents forced by long waves are potentially important for transporting larvae as well as fine sediment out of a given reef-lagoon system. Ocean-scale currents impinging on steep island and continental margin topography may cause reef-limiting upwelling and nutrient loading. The Caribbean Current upwells on the Nicaragua shelf and carbonate platforms of the Nicaraguan Rise. High trophic resources favor algal rather than coral communities and large (20-30 m relief) Halimeda biotherms occupy niches normally reserved for coral reefs. Thermodynamic air-sea interactions (heat, moisture and momentum flux) regulate the physical properties of reef lagoon and bank top waters. In extra-tropical reef settings (e.g. Bermuda, Florida, Bahamas and Arabian Gulf) cold air outbreaks cause precipitous drops in bank water temperatures and significant increases in bank water salinity and suspended sediment load. Water temperatures are routinely forced below the limit for survival of reef corals and many species of calcareous green algae. Associated increases in the density of shallow waters produce a disequilibrium with surface waters of the adjacent ocean favoring shelf transport to deep water sites of reef development and beyond.

Roberts, Harry H.; Wilson, Paul A.; Lugo-Fernández, Alexis



Physical Characteristics, Geologic Setting, and Possible Formation Processes of Spring Deposits on Mars Based on Terrestrial Analogs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spring formation is a predicted consequence of the interaction of former Martian aquifers with structures common to Mars, including basin margins, Tharsis structures, and other structural deformation characteristics. The arid environment and high abundance of water soluble compounds in the crust will have likewise encouraged spring deposit formation at spring sites. Such spring deposits may be recognized from morphological criteria if the characteristics of formation and preservation are understood. An important first step in the current Mars exploration strategy [10] is the detection of sites where there is evidence for past or present near-surface water on Mars. This study evaluates the large-scale morphology of spring deposits and the physical processes of their formation, growth, and evolution in terms that relate to (1) their identification in image data, (2) their formation, evolution, and preservation in the environment of Mars, and (3) their potential as sites of long-term or late stage shallow groundwater emergence at the surface of Mars.

Crumpler, L. S.



Mass Wasting and Ground Collapse in Terrains of Volatile-Rich Deposits as a Solar System-Wide Geological Process: The Pre-Galileo View  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The polar terrains of Mars are covered in many places with irregular pits and retreating scarps, as are some of the surfaces of the outer-planet satellites. These features are interpreted by us as diagnostic of exogenic degradation due to the loss of a volatile rock-forming matrix or cement. In this study we propose that sublimation degradation is a plausible Solar Systemwide geological process. Candidate examples have been identified on Mars, Io, and Triton, and possibly Europa and Ganymede. We envision this process as having two end-member expressions (pits and scarps), for which we hypothesize two end-member mechanisms (massive localized lenses and areally extensive basal layers). In this study we focus on the role this process may play on the surfaces of the galilean satellites. Our principle modeling results are that for these satellites, H2S, CO2, and NH3 are the only viable candidate volatiles for sublimation degradation of landforms, in light of galilean satellite cosmochemistry. For Io's polar regions only H2S, and then only from slopes that face the Sun and have thin lags, is volatile enough to cause the observed sublimation-induced erosion at those latitudes. SO2 is not a viable candidate as an agent of erosion, especially for these polar landforms. In the case of Europa, only CO2 and H2S are viable candidates (given surface age constraints). Both species could be efficient eroders in nonpolar regions. H2S could generate erosion within the polar regions if the deposition and erosion conditions were essentially identical as those we invoked for Io's polar regions. For Ganymede (and Callisto) NH3 might be an agent of erosion in equatorial terrains of great age. The sublimation of CO2 and H2S is much more robust than NH3. The much slower rate of sublimation degradation from NH3 might be detectable by Galileo and used as a compositional indicator.

Moore, Jeffrey M.; Mellon, Michael T.; Zent, Aaron P.



On the potential vegetation feedbacks that enhance phosphorus availability - insights from a process-based model linking geological and ecological timescales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In old and heavily weathered soils, the availability of P might be so small that the primary production of plants is limited. However, plants have evolved several mechanisms to actively take up P from the soil or mine it to overcome this limitation. These mechanisms involve the active uptake of P mediated by mycorrhiza, biotic de-occlusion through root clusters, and the biotic enhancement of weathering through root exudation. The objective of this paper is to investigate how and where these processes contribute to alleviate P limitation on primary productivity. To do so, we propose a process-based model accounting for the major processes of the carbon, water, and P cycles including chemical weathering at the global scale. Implementing P limitation on biomass synthesis allows the assessment of the efficiencies of biomass production across different ecosystems. We use simulation experiments to assess the relative importance of the different uptake mechanisms to alleviate P limitation on biomass production. We find that active P uptake is an essential mechanism for sustaining P availability on long timescales, whereas biotic de-occlusion might serve as a buffer on timescales shorter than 10 000 yr. Although active P uptake is essential for reducing P losses by leaching, humid lowland soils reach P limitation after around 100 000 yr of soil evolution. Given the generalized modelling framework, our model results compare reasonably with observed or independently estimated patterns and ranges of P concentrations in soils and vegetation. Furthermore, our simulations suggest that P limitation might be an important driver of biomass production efficiency (the fraction of the gross primary productivity used for biomass growth), and that vegetation on old soils has a smaller biomass production rate when P becomes limiting. With this study, we provide a theoretical basis for investigating the responses of terrestrial ecosystems to P availability linking geological and ecological timescales under different environmental settings.

Buendía, C.; Arens, S.; Hickler, T.; Higgins, S. I.; Porada, P.; Kleidon, A.



MODFLOW-2000, the U.S. Geological Survey Modular Ground-Water Model--Documentation of the SEAWAT-2000 Version with the Variable-Density Flow Process (VDF) and the Integrated MT3DMS Transport Process (IMT)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

SEAWAT-2000 is the latest release of the SEAWAT computer program for simulation of three-dimensional, variable-density, transient ground-water flow in porous media. SEAWAT-2000 was designed by combining a modified version of MODFLOW-2000 and MT3DMS into a single computer program. The code was developed using the MODFLOW-2000 concept of a process, which is defined as ?part of the code that solves a fundamental equation by a specified numerical method.? SEAWAT-2000 contains all of the processes distributed with MODFLOW-2000 and also includes the Variable-Density Flow Process (as an alternative to the constant-density Ground-Water Flow Process) and the Integrated MT3DMS Transport Process. Processes may be active or inactive, depending on simulation objectives; however, not all processes are compatible. For example, the Sensitivity and Parameter Estimation Processes are not compatible with the Variable-Density Flow and Integrated MT3DMS Transport Processes. The SEAWAT-2000 computer code was tested with the common variable-density benchmark problems and also with problems representing evaporation from a salt lake and rotation of immiscible fluids.

Langevin, Christian D.; Shoemaker, W. Barclay; Guo, Weixing



Geologic exploration of solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The processes that must have operated on the early Earth have been deduced from evidence from ancient surfaces of the Moon and planets. In particular, such comparative studies have demonstrated that only two geologic processes have been widespread throughout the history of the solar system: impact cratering and volcanism. Impact craters have formed throughout solar system history, indeed the planets




Visible Geology - Interactive online geologic block modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geology is a highly visual science, and many disciplines require spatial awareness and manipulation. For example, interpreting cross-sections, geologic maps, or plotting data on a stereonet all require various levels of spatial abilities. These skills are often not focused on in undergraduate geoscience curricula and many students struggle with spatial relations, manipulations, and penetrative abilities (e.g. Titus & Horsman, 2009). A newly developed program, Visible Geology, allows for students to be introduced to many geologic concepts and spatial skills in a virtual environment. Visible Geology is a web-based, three-dimensional environment where students can create and interrogate their own geologic block models. The program begins with a blank model, users then add geologic beds (with custom thickness and color) and can add geologic deformation events like tilting, folding, and faulting. Additionally, simple intrusive dikes can be modelled, as well as unconformities. Students can also explore the interaction of geology with topography by drawing elevation contours to produce their own topographic models. Students can not only spatially manipulate their model, but can create cross-sections and boreholes to practice their visual penetrative abilities. Visible Geology is easy to access and use, with no downloads required, so it can be incorporated into current, paper-based, lab activities. Sample learning activities are being developed that target introductory and structural geology curricula with learning objectives such as relative geologic history, fault characterization, apparent dip and thickness, interference folding, and stereonet interpretation. Visible Geology provides a richly interactive, and immersive environment for students to explore geologic concepts and practice their spatial skills.; Screenshot of Visible Geology showing folding and faulting interactions on a ridge topography.

Cockett, R.



Digital Geology of Idaho  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online course systematically divides Idaho geology into 15 individual teaching modules which correspond with a two-credit, 15-week classroom course. Each module covers a specific area or type of geology in the state of Idaho. Topics include geology of basement rocks, rocks and geology of the Belt Supergroup, tectonic regimes, and geologic history. There are also modules on rocks and geology of the Idaho Batholith, volcanic history and deposits of the Snake River Plain and Columbia Plateau, and Pleistocene glaciation and floods from Lakes Missoula and Bonneville. Each of the modules provides geologic maps from a recently developed Geologic Map of Idaho, produced by the Idaho Geological Survey, and most also feature fly-throughs in which geologic information is draped over topography to provide visualizations of the geology along Idaho rivers.


GeoTemp™ 1.0: A MATLAB-based program for the processing, interpretation and modelling of geological formation temperature measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evaluation of potential and resources during geothermal exploration requires accurate and consistent temperature characterization and modelling of the sub-surface. Existing interpretation and modelling approaches of 1D temperature measurements are mainly focusing on vertical heat conduction with only few approaches that deals with advective heat transport. Thermal regimes are strongly correlated to rock and fluid properties. Currently, no consensus exists for the identification of the thermal regime and the analysis of such dataset. We developed a new framework allowing the identification of thermal regimes by rock formations, the analysis and modelling of wireline logging and discrete temperature measurements by taking into account the geological, geophysical and petrophysics data. This framework has been implemented in the GeoTemp software package that allows the complete thermal characterization and modelling at the formation scale and that provides a set of standard tools for the processing wireline and discrete temperature data. GeoTempTM operates via a user friendly graphical interface written in Matlab that allows semi-automatic calculation, display and export of the results. Output results can be exported as Microsoft Excel spreadsheets or vector graphics of publication quality. GeoTemp™ is illustrated here with an example geothermal application from Western Australia and can be used for academic, teaching and professional purposes.

Ricard, Ludovic P.; Chanu, Jean-Baptiste




E-print Network

CAPSULE DESCRIPTION: Ilmenite, hemo-ilmenite or titaniferous magnetite accumulations as cross-cutting lenses or dike-like bodies, Ia> ers or disseminations within anorthositiclgabbroicinoritic rocks. These deposits can be subdivided into an ilmenite subtype (anorthosite-hosted titanium-iron) and a titaniferous magnetite subtype (gabbro-anorthosite-hosted iron-titanium). TECTONIC SETTING: Commonly associated with anorthosite-gabbro-norite-monzonite (mangerite)charnockite granite (AMCG) suites that are conventionally interpreted to be anorogenic and/or extensional. Some of the iron-titanium deposits occur at continental margins related to island arc magmatism followed by an episode of erogenic compression. DEPOSITIONAL ENVIRONMENT i GEOLOGICAL SETTING: Deposits occur in intrusive complexes which typically are emplaced at deeper levels in the crust. Progressive differentiation of liquids residual from anorthosite-norite magmas leads to late stage intrusions enriched in Fe and Ti oxides and apatite. AGE OF MINERALIZATION: Mainly Mesoproterozoic (1.65 to 0.90 Ga) for the ihnenite deposits, but this may be a consequence of a particular combination of tectonic circumstances, rather than any a priori temporal control. The Fe-Ti deposits with titaniferous magnetite do not appear to be restricted in time. HOST/ASSOCIATED ROCKS: Hosted by massive, layered or zoned intrusive complexes- anorthosite, norite,

G. A. Gross; C. F. Gower; D. V. Lefebure; Commodities (byproducts) Ti


Computer Vision for Fundamental Studies in Porous Media: Part I -- 2-D Image Acquisition and Processing for Microscopic Distribution of Oil, Water, and Pore Space Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microscopic studies of the distributions of oil and water and of their networks in the pore space, at various relative saturations, are of fundamental importance in understanding migration, distribution, entrainment and mobilization of oil in the context of a particular (enhanced) oil recovery method. There has been an upsurge of interest in quantitative image analysis of pore morphology from two-dimensional

G. D. Yadav; I. F. Macdonald; I. Chatzis; F. A. L. Dullien



Periods of active permafrost layer formation during the geological history of Mars: Implications for circum-polar and mid-latitude surface processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Permafrost is ground remaining frozen (temperatures are below the freezing point of water) for more than two consecutive years. An active layer in permafrost regions is defined as a near-surface layer that undergoes freeze-thaw cycles due to day-average surface and soil temperatures oscillating about the freezing point of water. A "dry" active layer may occur in parched soils without free water or ice but significant geomorphic change through cryoturbation is not produced in these environments. A wet active layer is currently absent on Mars. We use recent calculations on the astronomical forcing of climate change to assess the conditions under which an extensive active layer could form on Mars during past climate history. Our examination of insolation patterns and surface topography predicts that an active layer should form on Mars in the geological past at high latitudes as well as on pole-facing slopes at mid-latitudes during repetitive periods of high obliquity. We examine global high-resolution MOLA topography and geological features on Mars and find that a distinctive latitudinal zonality of the occurrence of steep slopes and an asymmetry of steep slopes at mid-latitudes can be attributed to the effect of active layer processes. We conclude that the formation of an active layer during periods of enhanced obliquity throughout the most recent period of the history of Mars (the Amazonian) has led to significant degradation of impact craters, rapidly decreasing the steep slopes characterizing pristine landforms. Our analysis suggests that an active layer has not been present on Mars in the last ˜5 Ma, and that conditions favoring the formation of an active layer were reached in only about 20% of the obliquity excursions between 5 and 10 Ma ago. Conditions favoring an active layer are not predicted to be common in the next 10 Ma. The much higher obliquity excursions predicted for the earlier Amazonian appear to be responsible for the significant reduction in magnitude of crater interior slopes observed at higher latitudes on Mars. The observed slope asymmetry at mid-latitudes suggests direct insolation control, and hence low atmospheric pressure, during the high obliquity periods throughout the Amazonian. We formulate predictions on the nature and distribution of candidate active layer features that could be revealed by higher resolution imaging data.

Kreslavsky, Mikhail A.; Head, James W.; Marchant, David R.



Exchange Rates and Fundamentals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We show analytically that in a rational expectations present-value model, an asset price manifests near-random walk behavior if fundamentals are I (1) and the factor for discounting future fundamentals is near one. We argue that this result helps explain the well-known puzzle that fundamental variables such as relative money supplies, outputs,…

Engel, Charles; West, Kenneth D.



Arsenic in New Jersey Coastal Plain streams, sediments, and shallow groundwater: effects from different geologic sources and anthropogenic inputs on biogeochemical and physical mobilization processes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Arsenic (As) concentrations in New Jersey Coastal Plain streams generally exceed the State Surface Water Quality Standard (0.017 micrograms per liter (µg/L)), but concentrations seldom exceed 1 µg/L in filtered stream-water samples, regardless of geologic contributions or anthropogenic inputs. Nevertheless, As concentrations in unfiltered stream water indicate substantial variation because of particle inputs from soils and sediments with differing As contents, and because of discharges from groundwater of widely varying chemistry. In the Inner Coastal Plain, streams draining to lower reaches of the Delaware River traverse As-rich glauconitic sediments of marine origin in which As contents typically are about 20 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) or greater. In some of these sedimentary units, As concentrations exceed the New Jersey drinking-water maximum contaminant level (5 µg/L) in shallow groundwater that discharges to streams. Microbes, fueled by organic carbon beneath the streambed, reduce iron (Fe) and As, releasing As and Fe into solution in the shallow groundwater from geologic materials that likely include (in addition to glauconite) other phyllosilicates, apatite, and siderite. When the groundwater discharges to the stream, the dissolved Fe and As are oxidized, the Fe precipitates as a hydroxide, and the As sorbs or co-precipitates with the Fe. Because of the oxidation/precipitation process, dissolved As concentrations measured in filtered stream waters of the Inner Coastal Plain are about 1 µg/L, but the total As concentrations (and loads) are greater, substantially amplified by As-bearing suspended sediment in stormflows. In the Outer Coastal Plain, streams draining to the Atlantic Ocean traverse quartz-rich sediments of mainly deltaic origin where the As content generally is low ( With a history of agriculture in the New Jersey Coastal Plain, anthropogenic inputs of As, such as residues from former pesticide applications in soils, can amplify any geogenic As in runoff. Such inputs contribute to an increased total As load to a stream at high stages of flow. As a result of yet another anthropogenic influence, microbes that reduce and mobilize As beneath the streambeds are stimulated by inputs of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Although DOC is naturally occurring, anthropogenic contributions from wastewater inputs may deliver increased levels of DOC to subsurface soils and ultimately groundwater. Arsenic concentrations may increase with the increases in pH of groundwater and stream water in developed areas receiving wastewater inputs, as As mobilization caused by pH-controlled sorption and desorption reactions are likely to occur in waters of neutral or alkaline pH (for example, Nimick and others, 1998; Barringer and others, 2007b). Because of the difference in As content of the geologic materials in the two sub-provinces of the Coastal Plain, the amount of As that is mobile in groundwater and stream water is, potentially, substantially greater in the Inner Coastal Plain than in the Outer Coastal Plain. In turn, streams within the Inner and Outer Coastal Plain can receive substantially more As in groundwater discharge from developed areas than from environments where DOC appears to be of natural origin.

Barringer, Julia L.; Reilly, Pamela A.; Eberl, Dennis D.; Mumford, Adam C.; Benzel, William M.; Szabo, Zoltan; Shourds, Jennifer L.; Young, Lily Y.



The Martian Geomorphology as mapped by the Mars Express High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC): Implications for Geological Processes and Climate Conditions.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One major reason for exploring Mars is the similarity of surface features to those present on Earth. Among the most important are morphological and mineralogical indicators that liquid water has existed on Mars at various locations over the entire history of the planet, albeit in decreasing abundance with time. Due to the strong evidence for aqueous processes at or near the surface, Mars is the most Earth-like body in the Solar System. The HRSC instrument is designed to simultaneously map the morphology, topography, structure and geologic context of the surface as well as atmospheric phenomena [1]. After 10 years of ESA's Mars Express orbiting the planet its High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) has covered about 90 % of the surface in stereo and color with resolutions up to 10 m/pixel. Digital elevation models of up to 30-50 m grid spacing [1], generated from all suitable datasets of the stereo coverage, currently cover about 40% of the surface [1,2]. The geomorphological analyses of surface features, observed by the HRSC indicate major surface modifications by endogenic and exogenic processes at all scales. Endogenic landforms (e.g., tectonic rifts, small basaltic shield volcanoes) were found to be very similar to their equivalents on Earth [1,3,4,5,6,7]. Volcanism may have been active up to the very recent past or even to the present, putting important constraints on thermal evolution models [6,7]. The analysis of diverse landforms produced by aqueous processes revealed that surface water activity was likely episodic, but ranged in age from very ancient to very recent [1,8-16]. Particularly important are prominent glacial and periglacial features at several latitudes, including mountain glaciers and a frozen sea [17-21]. The identification of aqueous alteration minerals and their geological context has enabled a better understanding of paleoenvironmental conditions and pedogenetic processes [23-25]. Dark dunes contain volcanic material and are evidence for the very dynamic surface environment, characterized by widespread erosion, transport, and redeposition [26]. References: [1]Jaumann et al., 2007, PSS 55; [2]Gwinner et al., 2010, EPSL 294; [3]Neukum et al., 2004, Nature 432; [4]Neukum et al., EPSL 294;[5] Hauber et al., 2005, Nature 434; [6]Hauber et al., 2009 PSS 57; [7]Platz and Michael, 2011, EPSL 312, [8]Jaumann et al., 2005, GRL 32; [9]Jaumann et al., 2010, EPSL 294; [10]Erkeling et al., 2010, EPSL 294; [11]Erkeling et al., 2012, Icarus, 219; [12]Kleinhans et al., 2010, EPSL 294; [13]Reiss et al., 2009, PSS 57; [14]Kneissl et al., 2010, EPSL 294; [15]Di Achille et al., 2006, JGR 111; [16]Di Achille et al., 2006, GRL 33; [17]Head et al., 2005 Nature 434; [18]Murray et al., 2005 Nature 434; [19]Pacifici et al., 2009, Icarus 202; [20]Rossi et al., 2011, Geol. Soc. Am.356; [21]Marchant and Head, 2007, Icarus; [22]Ulrich et al., 2011 Geomorphology 134;[23] Le Deit et al., 2010, Icarus 208; [24]Le Deit et al., 2012, JGR 117; [25]Bishop et al., 2013, JGR 118; [26]Tirsch et al., 2011, JGR 116;

Jaumann, Ralf



Geological Society of America Special Paper 303  

E-print Network

implications of the growth of normal faults and extensional basins Roy W. Schlische Department of Geological Recent research on normal faults has established that (1) cumulative displacement is highest near. Half-graben-type basins are a fundamental manifes- tation of displacement on large normal fault systems


Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory: Processing, taxonomy, and quality control of benthic macroinvertebrate samples  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This US Geological Survey Open-File Report (00-212) describes analytical techniques for benthic macroinvertebrates. Available in .pdf format, the 49-page report includes information on such analytical techniques as chemical equipment supplies, taxonomic identification, and more.




E-print Network

REMOTE SENSING IN GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF BRAZIL August/2010 Mônica Mazzini Perrotta Remote Sensing Division Head #12;SUMMARY The Geological Survey of Brazil mission The Remote Sensing Division Main remote sensing data used in CPRM geologic projects Future perspective: the Spectral Library of Geological Survey


History of Geology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses: (1) geologists and the history of geology; (2) American historians and the history of geology; (3) history of geology in the 1980s; (4) sources for the history of geology (bibliographies, dictionaries, encyclopedias, handbooks, periodicals, public/official histories, compilations, and books); (5) research opportunities; and (6) other…

Greene, Mott T.



GEOLOGY (GEOL) Robinson Foundation  

E-print Network

177Geology GEOLOGY (GEOL) Robinson Foundation PROFESSOR HARBOR ASSOCIATE PROFESSORS KNAPP, CONNORS ASSISTANT PROFESSORS GREER, RAHL MAJORS BACHELOR OF SCIENCE A major in geology leading to a Bachelor of Science degree consists of 50 credits as follows: 1. Geology 160, 185, 211, 311, 330, 350

Dresden, Gregory


Tennessee Division of Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the Geology Division of the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation. It provides information on the division's programs, including geologic hazards research, public service, education programs, basic and applied research on geology and mineral resources, publication of geologic information, permitting of oil and gas wells, and regulation of Tennessee's oil and gas industry. Materials include a catalog of publications, maps, geologic bulletins, and the Public Information series of pamphlets; the Geology Division Newsletter; and information on the state's mineral industry. There is also a section on the Gray Fossil Site, an unusual assemblage of fossils and sedimentary geology encountered during road construction near the town of Gray, Tenessee.


Fractals in geology and geophysics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The definition of a fractal distribution is that the number of objects N with a characteristic size greater than r scales with the relation N of about r exp -D. The frequency-size distributions for islands, earthquakes, fragments, ore deposits, and oil fields often satisfy this relation. This application illustrates a fundamental aspect of fractal distributions, scale invariance. The requirement of an object to define a scale in photograhs of many geological features is one indication of the wide applicability of scale invariance to geological problems; scale invariance can lead to fractal clustering. Geophysical spectra can also be related to fractals; these are self-affine fractals rather than self-similar fractals. Examples include the earth's topography and geoid.

Turcotte, Donald L.



10 CFR 63.112 - Requirements for preclosure safety analysis of the geologic repository operations area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and process activities at the geologic repository operations area...human-induced hazards at the geologic repository operations area...human-induced hazards at the geologic repository operations area... (2) Means to limit the time required to perform work...



Vermont Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Vermont Geological Survey, also known as the Division of Geology and Mineral Resources in the Department of Environmental Conservation, conducts surveys and research relating to the geology, mineral resources and topography of the State. This site provides details about the states geology with a downloadable state geologic map and key, state rock information, gold in Vermont, fossils found in the state, bedrock mapping details, stream geomorphology, the Champlain thrust fault, earthquakes, radioactive waste and links for additional information.


Oklahoma Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Oklahoma Geological Survey is a state agency dedicated to geological research and public service. This site contains information on earthquakes, geographic names, general Oklahoma geology, and the mountains and water resources of the state. There are educational materials available to order, many of which are free. Geologic maps indicate rock types and ages, as well as the geologic provinces of the state. Links are provided for more resources.


Geological SciencesGeological Sciences Geological EngineeringGeological Engineering  

E-print Network

of environmental science and geo-hazards (e.g. earthquakes). Queen's University has one of the largest dedicated scientists study the Earth, its rock record, and the processes (e.g. volcanism, sedimentation, glaciation

Ellis, Randy


OneGeology-Europe - The Challenges and progress of implementing a basic geological infrastructure for Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

OneGeology-Europe is making geological spatial data held by the geological surveys of Europe more easily discoverable and accessible via the internet. This will provide a fundamental scientific layer to the European Plate Observation System Rich geological data assets exist in the geological survey of each individual EC Member State, but they are difficult to discover and are not interoperable. For those outside the geological surveys they are not easy to obtain, to understand or to use. Geological spatial data is essential to the prediction and mitigation of landslides, subsidence, earthquakes, flooding and pollution. These issues are global in nature and their profile has also been raised by the OneGeology global initiative for the International Year of Planet Earth 2008. Geology is also a key dataset in the EC INSPIRE Directive, where it is also fundamental to the themes of natural risk zones, energy and mineral resources. The OneGeology-Europe project is delivering a web-accessible, interoperable geological spatial dataset for the whole of Europe at the 1:1 million scale based on existing data held by the European geological surveys. Proof of concept will be applied to key areas at a higher resolution and some geological surveys will deliver their data at high resolution. An important role is developing a European specification for basic geological map data and making significant progress towards harmonising the dataset (an essential first step to addressing harmonisation at higher data resolutions). It is accelerating the development and deployment of a nascent international interchange standard for geological data - GeoSciML, which will enable the sharing and exchange of the data within and beyond the geological community within Europe and globally. The geological dataset for the whole of Europe is not a centralized database but a distributed system. Each geological survey implements and hosts an interoperable web service, delivering their national harmonized geological data. These datasets are registered in a multilingual catalogue, who is one the main part of this system. This catalogue and a common metadata profile allows the discovery of national geological and applied geological maps at all scapes, Such an architecture is facilitating re-use and addition of value by a wide spectrum of users in the public and private sector and identifying, documenting and disseminating strategies for the reduction of technical and business barriers to re-use. In identifying and raising awareness in the user and provider communities, it is moving geological knowledge closer to the end-user where it will have greater societal impact and ensure fuller exploitation of a key data resource gathered at huge public expense. The project is providing examples of best practice in the delivery of digital geological spatial data to users, e.g. in the insurance, property, engineering, planning, mineral resource and environmental sectors. The scientifically attributed map data of the project will provide a pan-European base for science research and, importantly, a prime geoscience dataset capable of integration with other data sets within and beyond the geoscience domain. This presentation will demonstrate the first results of this project and will indicate how OneGeology-Europe is ensuring that Europe may play a leading role in the development of a geoscience spatial data infrastructure (SDI) globally.

Asch, Kristine; Tellez-Arenas, Agnes



GWM-a ground-water management process for the U.S. Geological Survey modular ground-water model (MODFLOW-2000)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

GWM is a Ground?Water Management Process for the U.S. Geological Survey modular three?dimensional ground?water model, MODFLOW?2000. GWM uses a response?matrix approach to solve several types of linear, nonlinear, and mixed?binary linear ground?water management formulations. Each management formulation consists of a set of decision variables, an objective function, and a set of constraints. Three types of decision variables are supported by GWM: flow?rate decision variables, which are withdrawal or injection rates at well sites; external decision variables, which are sources or sinks of water that are external to the flow model and do not directly affect the state variables of the simulated ground?water system (heads, streamflows, and so forth); and binary variables, which have values of 0 or 1 and are used to define the status of flow?rate or external decision variables. Flow?rate decision variables can represent wells that extend over one or more model cells and be active during one or more model stress periods; external variables also can be active during one or more stress periods. A single objective function is supported by GWM, which can be specified to either minimize or maximize the weighted sum of the three types of decision variables. Four types of constraints can be specified in a GWM formulation: upper and lower bounds on the flow?rate and external decision variables; linear summations of the three types of decision variables; hydraulic?head based constraints, including drawdowns, head differences, and head gradients; and streamflow and streamflow?depletion constraints. The Response Matrix Solution (RMS) Package of GWM uses the Ground?Water Flow Process of MODFLOW to calculate the change in head at each constraint location that results from a perturbation of a flow?rate variable; these changes are used to calculate the response coefficients. For linear management formulations, the resulting matrix of response coefficients is then combined with other components of the linear management formulation to form a complete linear formulation; the formulation is then solved by use of the simplex algorithm, which is incorporated into the RMS Package. Nonlinear formulations arise for simulated conditions that include water?table (unconfined) aquifers or head?dependent boundary conditions (such as streams, drains, or evapotranspiration from the water table). Nonlinear formulations are solved by sequential linear programming; that is, repeated linearization of the nonlinear features of the management problem. In this approach, response coefficients are recalculated for each iteration of the solution process. Mixed?binary linear (or mildly nonlinear) formulations are solved by use of the branch and bound algorithm, which is also incorporated into the RMS Package. Three sample problems are provided to demonstrate the use of GWM for typical ground?water flow management problems. These sample problems provide examples of how GWM input files are constructed to specify the decision variables, objective function, constraints, and solution process for a GWM run. The GWM Process runs with the MODFLOW?2000 Global and Ground?Water Flow Processes, but in its current form GWM cannot be used with the Observation, Sensitivity, Parameter?Estimation, or Ground?Water Transport Processes. The GWM Process is written with a modular structure so that new objective functions, constraint types, and solution algorithms can be added.

Ahlfeld, David P.; Barlow, Paul M.; Mulligan, Anne E.



Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; processing, taxonomy, and quality control of benthic macroinvertebrate samples  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Qualitative and quantitative methods to process benthic macroinvertebrate (BMI) samples have been developed and tested by the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water Quality Laboratory Biological Group. The qualitative processing method is based on visually sorting a sample for up to 2 hours. Sorting focuses on attaining organisms that are likely to result in taxonomic identifications to lower taxonomic levels (for example, Genus or Species). Immature and damaged organisms are also sorted when they are likely to result in unique determinations. The sorted sample remnant is scanned briefly by a second person to determine if obvious taxa were missed. The quantitative processing method is based on a fixed-count approach that targets some minimum count, such as 100 or 300 organisms. Organisms are sorted from randomly selected 5.1- by 5.1-centimeter parts of a gridded subsampling frame. The sorted remnant from each sample is resorted by a second individual for at least 10 percent of the original sort time. A large-rare organism search is performed on the unsorted remnant to sort BMI taxa that were not likely represented in the sorted grids. After either qualitatively or quantitatively sorting the sample, BMIs are identified by using one of three different types of taxonomic assessment. The Standard Taxonomic Assessment is comparable to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Rapid Bioassessment Protocol III and typically provides Genus- or Species-level taxonomic resolution. The Rapid Taxonomic Assessment is comparable to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Rapid Bioassessment Protocol II and provides Familylevel and higher taxonomic resolution. The Custom Taxonomic Assessment provides Species-level resolution whenever possible for groups identified to higher taxonomic levels by using the Standard Taxonomic Assessment. The consistent use of standardized designations and notes facilitates the interpretation of BMI data within and among water-quality studies. Taxonomic identifications are quality assured by verifying all referenced taxa and randomly reviewing 10 percent of the taxonomic identifications performed weekly by Biological Group taxonomists. Taxonomic errors discovered during this review are corrected. BMI data are reviewed for accuracy and completeness prior to release. BMI data are released phylogenetically in spreadsheet format and unprocessed abundances are corrected for laboratory and field subsampling when necessary.

Moulton, Stephen R., II; Carter, James L.; Grotheer, Scott A.; Cuffney, Thomas F.; Short, Terry M.



Fundamentals of preparative and nonlinear chromatography  

SciTech Connect

The second edition of Fundamentals of Preparative and Nonlinear Chromatography is devoted to the fundamentals of a new process of purification or extraction of chemicals or proteins widely used in the pharmaceutical industry and in preparative chromatography. This process permits the preparation of extremely pure compounds satisfying the requests of the US Food and Drug Administration. The book describes the fundamentals of thermodynamics, mass transfer kinetics, and flow through porous media that are relevant to chromatography. It presents the models used in chromatography and their solutions, discusses the applications made, describes the different processes used, their numerous applications, and the methods of optimization of the experimental conditions of this process.

Guiochon, Georges A [ORNL; Felinger, Attila [ORNL; Katti, Anita [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Shirazi, Dean G [unknown



Geologic mapping of Vesta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a preliminary global geologic map of Vesta, based on data from the Dawn spacecraft's High-Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO) and informed by Low-Altitude Mapping Orbit (LAMO) data. This map is part of an iterative mapping effort; the geologic map has been refined with each improvement in resolution. Vesta has a heavily-cratered surface, with large craters evident in numerous locations. The south pole is dominated by an impact structure identified before Dawn's arrival. Two large impact structures have been resolved: the younger, larger Rheasilvia structure, and the older, more degraded Veneneia structure. The surface is also characterized by a system of deep, globe-girdling equatorial troughs and ridges, as well as an older system of troughs and ridges to the north. Troughs and ridges are also evident cutting across, and spiraling arcuately from, the Rheasilvia central mound. However, no volcanic features have been unequivocally identified. Vesta can be divided very broadly into three terrains: heavily-cratered terrain; ridge-and-trough terrain (equatorial and northern); and terrain associated with the Rheasilvia crater. Localized features include bright and dark material and ejecta (some defined specifically by color); lobate deposits; and mass-wasting materials. No obvious volcanic features are evident. Stratigraphy of Vesta's geologic units suggests a history in which formation of a primary crust was followed by the formation of impact craters, including Veneneia and the associated Saturnalia Fossae unit. Formation of Rheasilvia followed, along with associated structural deformation that shaped the Divalia Fossae ridge-and-trough unit at the equator. Subsequent impacts and mass wasting events subdued impact craters, rims and portions of ridge-and-trough sets, and formed slumps and landslides, especially within crater floors and along crater rims and scarps. Subsequent to the formation of Rheasilvia, discontinuous low-albedo deposits formed or were emplaced; these lie stratigraphically above the equatorial ridges that likely were formed by Rheasilvia. The last features to be formed were craters with bright rays and other surface mantling deposits. Executed progressively throughout data acquisition, the iterative mapping process provided the team with geologic proto-units in a timely manner. However, interpretation of the resulting map was hampered by the necessity to provide the team with a standard nomenclature and symbology early in the process. With regard to mapping and interpreting units, the mapping process was hindered by the lack of calibrated mineralogic information. Topography and shadow played an important role in discriminating features and terrains, especially in the early stages of data acquisition.

Yingst, R. A.; Mest, S. C.; Berman, D. C.; Garry, W. B.; Williams, D. A.; Buczkowski, D.; Jaumann, R.; Pieters, C. M.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Frigeri, A.; Le Corre, L.; Preusker, F.; Raymond, C. A.; Reddy, V.; Russell, C. T.; Roatsch, T.; Schenk, P. M.



National Park Service: Tour of Park Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The tour of Park geologic resources includes pages specific to individual National Parks, Monuments, Recreation Areas, Preserves, Seacoasts, Reserves, and Recreation Areas. These pages are indexed by park name, state, or by one of the following topics: basin and range, caves, Colorado Plateau, fossils, glaciers, hot springs, human use, mountain building, oldest rocks, plate tectonics, river systems, sand dunes, shoreline geology, or volcanoes. Organization of each of the pages typically follows a NPS template with categories for park geology, maps, photographs, geologic research, related links, visitor information, multimedia, and "teacher features" (educational resources and links for teaching geology with National Park examples.) Common subjects that are addressed at various park sites include: minerals, rocks, fossils, cave and karst systems, coastlines, glaciers, volcanoes, faults, landforms, landslides, structures, fluvial systems, sediments, soils, stratigraphic relations, processes that form or act on geologic features and their chemical compositions, and the history of the planet and its life forms.


Defining the fundamentals of care.  


A three-stage process is being undertaken to investigate the fundamentals of care. Stage One (reported here) involves the use of a met a-narrative review methodology to undertake a thematic analysis, categorization and synthesis of selected contents extracted from seminal texts relating to nursing practice. Stage Two will involve a search for evidence to inform the fundamentals of care and a refinement of the review method. Stage Three will extend the reviews of the elements defined as fundamentals of care. This introductory paper covers the following aspects: the conceptual basis upon which nursing care is delivered; how the fundamentals of care have been defined in the literature and in practice; an argument that physiological aspects of care, self-care elements and aspects of the environment of care are central to the conceptual refinement of the term fundamentals of care; and that efforts to systematize such information will enhance overall care delivery through improvements in patient safety and quality initiatives in health systems. PMID:20649678

Kitson, Alison; Conroy, Tiffany; Wengstrom, Yvonne; Profetto-McGrath, Joanne; Robertson-Malt, Suzi



Kentucky Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Kentucky maintains the Kentucky Geological Survey Web site. Visitors will find a number of educational general information pages on rocks and minerals, fossils, coal, geologic hazards, industrial minerals, maps and GIS, oil and natural gas, and water, as well as the general geology of Kentucky. Each page contains specific information, data, and research summaries from the university. The geology of Kentucky page, for example, shows a map of geologic periods and gives descriptions of the rock strata in the state, a description of its landforms, and a geological photo album of physiographic regions and points of interest.


Glossary of Geologic Terms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page from Iowa State University presents a general glossary of geologic terms. The site would be a good reference for geology coursework. This glossary of geologic terms is based on the glossary in Earth: An Introduction to Geologic Change, by S. Judson and S.M. Richardson (Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice Hall, 1995). Where possible, definitions conform generally, and in some cases specifically, to definitions given in Robert L Bates and Julia A Jackson (editors), Glossary of Geology, 3rd ed., American Geological Institute, Alexandria, Virginia, 1987.


Geological rhythms and cometary impacts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Time series analysis reveals two dominant, long-term periodicities approximately equal to 32 and 260 million years in the known series of geological and biological upheavals during the Phanerozoic Eon. The cycles of these episodes agree in period and phase with the cycles of impact cratering on Earth, suggesting that periodic comet impacts strongly influence Earth processes.

Rampino, M. R.; Strothers, R. B.



Weird Geology: The Devil's Tower  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page features a brief introduction to the several theories about the geological processes that formed Devil's Tower, which rises 1,267 feet above the nearby Belle Fourche River and is still considered a sacred place by some Native American Tribes. Information on climbing the tower as well as images and a cross section are provided.

Krystek, Lee; Mystery, The M.


Entrevista: " uma disciplina fundamental.  

E-print Network

· Entrevista: "� uma disciplina fundamental. Como a filosofia" #12;"A matemática é uma disciplina fundamental. Como a filosofia' 9 Helder Coelho tirou um curso de engenharia em que os três primeiros anos eram- critas - a bases de dados de bibliote- cas, permitindo saber, por exemplo, se um livro estava disponível

Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica



E-print Network

SURVEY GUIDE 1 SURVEY FUNDAMENTALS A GUIDE TO DESIGNING AND IMPLEMENTING SURVEYS #12;S U R V E Y GU I D E OFFICE OF QUALITY IMPROVEMENT SURVEY FUNDAMENTALS This guide describes in non-technical terms the underlying principles of good survey design and implementation. Clear, simple explanations lead the reader

Shapiro, Vadim


Fundamentals of Plasma Physics  

E-print Network

Fundamentals of Plasma Physics James D. Callen University of Wisconsin, Madison June 28, 2006 #12;PREFACE Plasma physics is a relatively new branch of physics that became a mature science over the last half of the 20th century. It builds on the fundamental areas of classical physics: mechanics

Callen, James D.


Fundamental Physical Constants  

National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

SRD 121 CODATA Fundamental Physical Constants (Web, free access)   This site, developed in the Physics Laboratory at NIST, addresses three topics: fundamental physical constants, the International System of Units (SI), which is the modern metric system, and expressing the uncertainty of measurement results.


Fundamentals of Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

No other book on the market today can match the success of Halliday, Resnick and Walker's Fundamentals of Physics! In a breezy, easy-to-understand style the book offers a solid understanding of fundamental physics concepts, and helps readers apply this conceptual understanding to quantitative problem solving.

Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; Walker, Jearl



Introduction Systems Engineering Fundamentals ENGINEERING  

E-print Network

Introduction Systems Engineering Fundamentals i SYSTEMS ENGINEERING FUNDAMENTALS January 2001;Systems Engineering Fundamentals Introduction ii #12;Introduction Systems Engineering Fundamentals iii ............................................................................................................................................. iv PART 1. INTRODUCTION Chapter 1. Introduction to Systems Engineering Management

Rhoads, James


Utah Geological Survey: Teaching Geology Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From Arches National Park to the towering cliffs at Castle Rock Campground, Utah has some remarkable geology on display. The Utah Geological Survey decided to draw on these fantastic "outdoor laboratories" and create a set of resources designed for science educators. While some of the resources are geared towards users in Utah, many of the sections contain helpful overviews that will help all educators remain on a steady foundation of geologic knowledge. One key area on the site is the "Earthquakes & Geologic Hazards" section. Here, visitors can find well-composed and straight forward summaries on topics like liquefaction, ground cracks, and fault lines. Moving on to the "Teacher Resources" area, visitors will find the delightful "Glad You Asked" articles and the very useful "Teacher's Corner" column which provides information on reading a stone wall and geologic stretching.


The contribution of structural geology, experimental rock deformation and numerical modelling to an improved understanding of the seismic cycle. Preface to the Special Volume "Physico-chemical processes in seismic faults"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquakes are a fundamental manifestation of brittle faulting in the Earth's crust. Field, experimental and theoretical investigations complement seismological-geophysical studies of the seismic cycle. This preface of the Special Volume introduces nineteen contributions on physico-chemical processes in seismic faults. The Special Volume celebrates the contribution made by Prof. Shimamoto in earthquake-related faulting phenomena.

Di Toro, Giulio; Mittempergher, Silvia; Ferri, Fabio; Mitchell, Thomas M.; Pennacchioni, Giorgio



GSA Geologic Time Scale  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Geological Society of America (GSA) site contains a detailed geologic time scale as an educational resource. It may be downloaded to a larger size, and includes all Eras, Eons, Periods, Epochs and ages as well as magnetic polarity information.



Geologic Hazards: Geomagnetism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Anyone researching or interested in geomagnetism will appreciate the US Geological Survey's Geologic Hazards: Geomagnetism Web site. Visitors will find research publications, various downloadable magnetic charts, models, data plots, an online calculator for magnetic fields, and more.



Geophysics & Geology Inspected.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes findings of a recently published report of the Canadian Geoscience Council, which includes the following topics regarding college geology: facilities; teaching; undergraduate enrollments; postgraduate enrollments; geologic research; and integration of Canadian geoscience with other countries. (CS)

Neale, E. R. W.



Physiography, geology, and land cover of four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico: Chapter A in Water quality and landscape processes of four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Four watersheds with differing geology and land cover in eastern Puerto Rico have been studied on a long-term basis by the U.S. Geological Survey to evaluate water, energy, and biogeochemical budgets. These watersheds are typical of tropical, island-arc settings found in many parts of the world. Two watersheds are located on coarse-grained granitic rocks that weather to quartz- and clay-rich, sandy soils, and two are located on fine-grained volcanic rocks and volcaniclastic sedimentary rocks that weather to quartz-poor, fine-grained soils. For each bedrock type, one watershed is covered with mature forest, and the other watershed, like most of Puerto Rico, has transformed from relatively undisturbed pre-European forest to intensive agriculture in the 19th and early 20th centuries, and further to ongoing reforestation that began in the middle of the 20th century. The comparison of water chemistry and hydrology in these watersheds allows an evaluation of the effects of land-use history and geology on hydrologic regimes and erosion rates. This chapter describes the physiography, geology, and land cover of the four watersheds and provides background information for the remaining chapters in this volume.

Murphy, Sheila F.; Stallard, Robert F.; Larsen, Matthew C.; Gould, William A.



Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide has emerged as one of the most promising options for making deep cuts in carbon dioxide emissions. Geologic sequestration involves the two-step process of first capturing carbon dioxide by separating it from stack emissions, followed by injection and long term storage in deep geologic formations. Sedimentary basins, including depleted oil and gas reservoirs, deep unminable coal seams, and brine-filled formations, provide the most attractive storage reservoirs. Over the past few years significant advances have been made in this technology, including development of simulation models and monitoring systems, implementation of commercial scale demonstration projects, and investigation of natural and industrial analogues for geologic storage of carbon dioxide. While much has been accomplished in a short time, there are many questions that must be answered before this technology can be employed on the scale needed to make significant reductions in carbon dioxide emissions. Questions such as how long must the carbon dioxide remain underground, to what extent will geochemical reactions completely immobilize the carbon dioxide, what can be done in the event that a storage site begins to leak at an unacceptable rate, what is the appropriate risk assessment, regulatory and legal framework, and will the public view this option favorably? This paper will present recent advances in the scientific and technological underpinnings of geologic sequestration and identify areas where additional information is needed.

Benson, S. M.



Planetary geology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar system is considered along with the significance of meteorites as samples of the universe, the origin of planets, and earth's-eye view of the moon, previews of the lunar surface, aspects of impact cratering, lunar igneous processes, the mapping of the moon, the exploration of the moon in connection with the Apollo lunar landings, and the scientific payoff from the lunar samples. Studies of Mars, Venus, and the planets beyond are discussed, taking into account the Mariner Mars program, the Mariner orbiting mission, missions to Venus, the Mariner flight to Mercury, and the Pioneer missions. Attention is also given to the origin of the moon, implications of the moon's thermal history, similarities and differences in planetary evolution, and the role of internal energy in planetary development.

Short, N. M.



Venus geology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Magellan mission to Venus is reviewed. The scientific investigations conducted by 243-day cycles encompass mapping with a constant incidence angle for the radar, observing surface changes from one cycle to the next, and targeting young-looking volcanos. The topography of Venus is defined by the upper boundary of the crust and upwelling from lower domains. Tectonic features such as rift zones, linear mountain belts, ridge belts, and tesserae are described. The zones of tesserae are unique to the planet. Volcanism accounts for about 80 percent of the observed surface, the remainder being volcanic deposits which have been reworked by tectonism or impacts. Magellan data reveal about 900 impact craters with flow-like ejecta resulting from the fall of meteoroids. It is concluded that the age of the Venusian surface varies between 0 and 800 million years. Tectonic and volcanic activities dominate the formation of the Venus topography; such processes as weathering and erosion are relatively unimportant on Venus.

McLaughlin, W. I.



South Carolina Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The South Carolina Geological Survey (SCGS) homepage contains information about state mapping, education and outreach programs, and recent news. For educators, there is the Earth Science education series of publications which includes presentations and page-size graphics on such topics as earthquakes, plate tectonics, geologic time, fossils, and others. Other materials include information on mineral resources, links to organizations in and about South Carolina geology, the South Carolina core repository, the Geologic Map of South Carolina, and others.


Geological Survey Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If your research or interests lie in the geology of South Dakota, then the state's Geological Survey Program Web site is for you. Offered are online publications and maps, a geologic reference database, a lithologic logs database, digital base maps, a water quality database, and several other quality information sources worth checking out.


Geology. Grade 6. Anchorage School District Elementary Science Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This resource book introduces sixth-grade children to the environment by studying rocks and other geological features. Nine lessons are provided on a variety of topics including: (1) geologic processes; (2) mountain building; (3) weathering; (4) geologic history and time; (5) plate tectonics; (6) rocks and minerals; (7) mineral properties; (8)…

Anchorage School District, AK.


Unraveling Geological History: Glaciers and Faults at Discovery Park, Seattle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This introductory geology field exercise asks students to make individual observations about parts of an outcrop, then combine their observations in larger teams to interpret the overall geological history of the exposure. Content learning includes stratigraphy, faulting, and local geologic history; process learning includes data gathering and recording, hypothesis formation, and outlining helpful evidence that could be gathered in the future.

Trileigh Tucker


Inverse Modelling in Geology by Interactive Evolutionary Computation  

E-print Network

Inverse Modelling in Geology by Interactive Evolutionary Computation Chris Wijns a,b,, Fabio of geological processes, in the absence of established numerical criteria to act as inversion targets, requires evolutionary computation provides for the inclusion of qualitative geological expertise within a rigorous

Boschetti, Fabio



E-print Network

MAJOR TO CAREER GUIDE B.S. Geology College of Sciences Mission of the College: MPE-A 130 About the Geology Career Geoscientists are stewards understanding of Earth processes and history. Value of the Geology Degree Opportunities for interesting

Walker, Lawrence R.


Geologic Maps and Structures Name ______________________________ Geology 100 Harbor section  

E-print Network

Geologic Maps and Structures Name ______________________________ Geology 100 ­ Harbor section The objectives of this lab are for you to learn the basic geologic structures in 3-D and to develop some facility in interpreting the nature of geologic structures from geologic maps and geologic cross sections. A big part

Harbor, David


Fundamentals of Petroleum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Basic information on petroleum is presented in this book prepared for naval logistics officers. Petroleum in national defense is discussed in connection with consumption statistics, productive capacity, world's resources, and steps in logistics. Chemical and geological analyses are made in efforts to familiarize methods of refining, measuring,…

Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.


Phylogeographic patterns of genetic diversity in eastern Mediterranean water frogs have been determined by geological processes and climate change in the Late Cenozoic  

PubMed Central

Aim Our aims were to assess the phylogeographic patterns of genetic diversity in eastern Mediterranean water frogs and to estimate divergence times using different geological scenarios. We related divergence times to past geological events and discuss the relevance of our data for the systematics of eastern Mediterranean water frogs. Location The eastern Mediterranean region. Methods Genetic diversity and divergence were calculated using sequences of two protein-coding mitochondrial (mt) genes: ND2 (1038 bp, 119 sequences) and ND3 (340 bp, 612 sequences). Divergence times were estimated in a Bayesian framework under four geological scenarios representing alternative possible geological histories for the eastern Mediterranean. We then compared the different scenarios using Bayes factors and additional geological data. Results Extensive genetic diversity in mtDNA divides eastern Mediterranean water frogs into six main haplogroups (MHG). Three MHGs were identified on the Anatolian mainland; the most widespread MHG with the highest diversity is distributed from western Anatolia to the northern shore of the Caspian Sea, including the type locality of Pelophylax ridibundus. The other two Anatolian MHGs are restricted to south-eastern Turkey, occupying localities west and east of the Amanos mountain range. One of the remaining three MHGs is restricted to Cyprus; a second to the Levant; the third was found in the distribution area of European lake frogs (P. ridibundus group), including the Balkans. Main conclusions Based on geological evidence and estimates of genetic divergence we hypothesize that the water frogs of Cyprus have been isolated from the Anatolian mainland populations since the end of the Messinian salinity crisis (MSC), i.e. since c. 5.5-5.3 Ma, while our divergence time estimates indicate that the isolation of Crete from the mainland populations (Peloponnese, Anatolia) most likely pre-dates the MSC. The observed rates of divergence imply a time window of c. 1.6-1.1 million years for diversification of the largest Anatolian MHG; divergence between the two other Anatolian MHGs may have begun about 3.0 Ma, apparently as a result of uplift of the Amanos Mountains. Our mtDNA data suggest that the Anatolian water frogs and frogs from Cyprus represent several undescribed species. PMID:22473251

Ak?n, Çi?dem; Bilgin, C. Can; Beerli, Peter; Westaway, Rob; Ohst, Torsten; Litvinchuk, Spartak N.; Uzzell, Thomas; Bilgin, Metin; Hotz, Hansjürg; Guex, Gaston-Denis; Plötner, Jörg



Utah Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the Utah Geological Survey. Materials available here include news articles and information on geologic hazards; information on places of geological interest; and popular geology topics such as earthquakes, rocks and minerals, fossils, economic resources, groundwater resources, and others. Educational resources include teaching kits, the 'Teacher's Corner' column in the survey's newsletter, and a series of 'Glad You Asked' articles on state geological topics. There is also an extensive list of free K-12 educational materials, as well as a set of curriculum materials such as activity packets, slide shows, and teachers' handbooks, which are available to order.



NSDL National Science Digital Library

At, Roger Suthren, a professor at Oxford Brookes University, offers educational materials on geologic phenomena throughout the world. Users can take virtual field trips to study the geology of Scotland, Alaska, and France. In the Regional Geology link, visitors can view wonderful pictures of the volcanoes of Germany, Italy, France, and Greece. Educators can find images of sediments and sedimentary rocks which can be used in a variety of classroom exercises. The website supplies descriptions and additional educational links about sedimentology and environmental geology.


Arkansas Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Arkansas Geological Survey (AGS) homepage aims to develop and provide knowledge of the geology and hydrogeology of the State, and to stimulate development and effective management and utilization of the mineral, fossil-fuel, and water resources of Arkansas while protecting the environment. The AGC collects and disperses geologic data consisting of geologic maps, historical data concerning resources, and various datasets concerning water, fossil-fuel, and mineral resources of Arkansas. The site contains publications that can be ordered, sections about Arkansas geology, a list of mineral producers of Arkansas, and reports on mineral resources.


Fundamental strings in SFT  

E-print Network

In this letter we show that vacuum string field theory contains exact solutions that can be interpreted as macroscopic fundamental strings. They are formed by a condensate of infinitely many completely space-localized solutions (D0-branes).

L. Bonora; C. Maccaferri; R. J. Scherer Santos; D. D. Tolla



Fundamental strings in SFT  

E-print Network

In this letter we show that vacuum string field theory contains exact solutions that can be interpreted as macroscopic fundamental strings. They are formed by a condensate of infinitely many completely space-localized solutions (D0-branes).

Bonora, L; Santos, R J S; Tolla, D D



Fundamental strings in SFT  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this Letter we show that vacuum string field theory contains exact solutions that we propose to interpret as macroscopic fundamental strings. They are formed by a condensate of infinitely many completely space-localized solutions (D0-branes).

L. Bonora; C. Maccaferri; R. J. Scherer Santos; D. D. Tolla



Fundamental Laws of Algebra  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning object from Wisc-Online covers the fundamental laws of algebra. The interactive activity includes slides which cover the following topics: the commutative, associative and distributive laws as applied to addition and multiplication.

Blohowiak, Chad; Jensen, Douglas; Reed, Allen



Fundamentals of NMR  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This e-text presents an introduction to the fundamentals of NMR covering magnetic resonance, pulsed NMR, relaxation, chemical shift, spin-spin coupling, the nuclear Overhauser effect and chemical exchange. The document may be downloaded in PDF format.

James, Thomas L.



Fundamentals of Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides information about the textbook "Fundamentals of Physics" by Halliday, Resnick, and Walker. It contains links to both student and teacher resources that are intended to be used along with the book and information about adopting the text.

Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; Walker, Jearl



Fundamentals of Electricity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Tutorial Guide is designed to familiarize you with the Fundamentals of Electricity and its elements. As you go through the guide, you will be presented with a series of topics. To help your retention, you will then be given a Quiz on the information. You will NOT be graded. This is designed only to help you retain information on the fundamentals of electricity systems.



Ohio Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the Ohio Geological Survey. Materials available through the site include a variety of publications, particularly the Survey's reports, bulletins, information circulars, guidebooks, and many others. There is an extensive selection of maps, including topographic maps in several scales, and downloadable geologic maps of several themes (drift thickness, bedrock geology, karst areas, glacial geology, and many others), as well as digital maps and data. The interactive maps section features online map viewers of abandoned mines, earthquake epicenters, surficial geology, geology of Lake Erie, and others. The educational resources page has links to the 'Hands On Earth' series of activities, GeoFacts (short bulletins on Ohio geological topics), nontechnical educational leaflets, field guides, and links to other publications, rock and mineral clubs, educational associations, and related websites. There is also a link to the Ohio Seismic Network, a network of seismograph stations located at colleges, universities, and other institutions that collects and disseminates information about earthquakes in Ohio.


Kansas Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mission of the Kansas Geological Survey, operated by the University of Kansas in connection with its research and service program, is to conduct geological studies and research and to collect, correlate, preserve, and disseminate information leading to a better understanding of the geology of Kansas, with special emphasis on natural resources of economic value, water quality and quantity, and geologic hazards. The website includes information about the High Plains and Ogallala aquifers, the Upper Arkansas corridor, the Dakota aquifer, county and state geologic maps, an online bibliography of Kansas geology, publications, a photo archive, a digital petroleum atlas, a petroleum primer for the state, gravity and magnetic maps, Hugoton project information, and details about the Hutchinson Kansas natural gas fires. The educational resources section contains a mineral information page for the state, and GeoKansas, which provides information on state geology for schools.


Streamflow and water-quality conditions including geologic sources and processes affecting selenium loading in the Toll Gate Creek watershed, Aurora, Arapahoe County, Colorado, 2007  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Toll Gate Creek is a perennial stream draining a suburban area in Aurora, Colorado, where selenium concentrations have consistently exceeded the State of Colorado aquatic-life standard for selenium of 4.6 micrograms per liter since the early 2000s. In cooperation with the City of Aurora, Colorado, Utilities Department, a synoptic water-quality study was performed along an 18-kilometer reach of Toll Gate Creek extending from downstream from Quincy Reservoir to the confluence with Sand Creek to develop a detailed understanding of streamflow and concentrations and loads of selenium in Toll Gate Creek. Streamflow and surface-water quality were characterized for summer low-flow conditions (July–August 2007) using four spatially overlapping synoptic-sampling subreaches. Mass-balance methods were applied to the synoptic-sampling and tracer-injection results to estimate streamflow and develop spatial profiles of concentration and load for selenium and other chemical constituents in Toll Gate Creek surface water. Concurrent groundwater sampling determined concentrations of selenium and other chemical constituents in groundwater in areas surrounding the Toll Gate Creek study reaches. Multivariate principal-component analysis was used to group samples and to suggest common sources for dissolved selenium and major ions. Hydrogen and oxygen stable-isotope ratios, groundwater-age interpretations, and chemical analysis of water-soluble paste extractions from core samples are presented, and interpretation of the hydrologic and geochemical data support conclusions regarding geologic sources of selenium and the processes affecting selenium loading in the Toll Gate Creek watershed. Streamflow conditions observed and measured during the synoptic water-quality study represent summer base-flow conditions and rainfall conditions for July 2007. The lack of large tributary inflows and the spatial distribution of small tributary inflows, seeps, and springs indicate that diffuse and discrete groundwater inflow supports streamflow during low-flow conditions along the entire 18-kilometer stream reach. Concentrations of dissolved selenium within all subreaches of Toll Gate Creek exceeded the Colorado aquatic-life standard of 4.6 micrograms per liter in 2007. Concentrations of selenium in the upper portion of the Toll Gate Headwaters subreach (TGH) remained close to the aquatic-life standard at about 5 micrograms per liter. Downstream from a concrete-lined channel section, inflows with selenium concentrations greater than the stream contribute selenium load to surface water. However, stream selenium concentrations were less than 20 micrograms per liter all along Toll Gate Creek. Concentrations of selenium in groundwater were in general substantially greater than the Colorado aquatic-life standard of 4.6 micrograms per liter and at some locations were greater than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency primary drinking-water standard for selenium of 50 micrograms per liter. The distribution of selenium concentrations in groundwater, springs, and the 11 inflows with the greatest selenium concentrations indicates that shallow groundwater in surficial materials and the Denver Formation bedrock is a source of selenium loading to Toll Gate Creek and that selenium loading is distributed along the entire length of the study reach downstream from the concrete-lined channel. Water-quality and solids-sampling results from this study indicate weathering processes release water-soluble selenium from the underlying Denver Formation claystone bedrock with subsequent cycling of selenium in the aquatic environment of Toll Gate Creek. Exposure of the Denver Formation selenium-bearing bedrock to oxidizing atmospheric conditions, surface water, and groundwater, oxidizes selenide, held as a trace element in pyrite or in complexes with organic matter, to selenite and selenate. Secondary weathering products including iron oxides and selenium-bearing salts have accumulated in the weathered zone in the semiarid climate and also can serve as sources or sinks of selenium. P

Paschke, Suzanne S.; Runkel, Robert L.; Walton-Day, Katherine; Kimball, Briant A.; Schaffrath, Keelin R.



Airborne electromagnetic data and processing within Leach Lake Basin, Fort Irwin, California: Chapter G in Geology and geophysics applied to groundwater hydrology at Fort Irwin, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From December 2010 to January 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted airborne electromagnetic and magnetic surveys of Leach Lake Basin within the National Training Center, Fort Irwin, California. These data were collected to characterize the subsurface and provide information needed to understand and manage groundwater resources within Fort Irwin. A resistivity stratigraphy was developed using ground-based time-domain electromagnetic soundings together with laboratory resistivity measurements on hand samples and borehole geophysical logs from nearby basins. This report releases data associated with the airborne surveys, as well as resistivity cross-sections and depth slices derived from inversion of the airborne electromagnetic data. The resulting resistivity models confirm and add to the geologic framework, constrain the hydrostratigraphy and the depth to basement, and reveal the distribution of faults and folds within the basin.

Bedrosian, Paul A.; Ball, Lyndsay B.; Bloss, Benjamin R.



New Quasar Studies Keep Fundamental Physical Constant Constant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Very Large Telescope sets stringent limit on possible variation of the fine-structure constant over cosmological time Summary Detecting or constraining the possible time variations of fundamental physical constants is an important step toward a complete understanding of basic physics and hence the world in which we live. A step in which astrophysics proves most useful. Previous astronomical measurements of the fine structure constant - the dimensionless number that determines the strength of interactions between charged particles and electromagnetic fields - suggested that this particular constant is increasing very slightly with time. If confirmed, this would have very profound implications for our understanding of fundamental physics. New studies, conducted using the UVES spectrograph on Kueyen, one of the 8.2-m telescopes of ESO's Very Large Telescope array at Paranal (Chile), secured new data with unprecedented quality. These data, combined with a very careful analysis, have provided the strongest astronomical constraints to date on the possible variation of the fine structure constant. They show that, contrary to previous claims, no evidence exist for assuming a time variation of this fundamental constant. PR Photo 07/04: Relative Changes with Redshift of the Fine Structure Constant (VLT/UVES) A fine constant To explain the Universe and to represent it mathematically, scientists rely on so-called fundamental constants or fixed numbers. The fundamental laws of physics, as we presently understand them, depend on about 25 such constants. Well-known examples are the gravitational constant, which defines the strength of the force acting between two bodies, such as the Earth and the Moon, and the speed of light. One of these constants is the so-called "fine structure constant", alpha = 1/137.03599958, a combination of electrical charge of the electron, the Planck constant and the speed of light. The fine structure constant describes how electromagnetic forces hold atoms together and the way light interacts with atoms. But are these fundamental physical constants really constant? Are those numbers always the same, everywhere in the Universe and at all times? This is not as naive a question as it may seem. Contemporary theories of fundamental interactions, such as the Grand Unification Theory or super-string theories that treat gravity and quantum mechanics in a consistent way, not only predict a dependence of fundamental physical constants with energy - particle physics experiments have shown the fine structure constant to grow to a value of about 1/128 at high collision energies - but allow for their cosmological time and space variations. A time dependence of the fundamental constants could also easily arise if, besides the three space dimensions, there exist more hidden dimensions. Already in 1955, the Russian physicist Lev Landau considered the possibility of a time dependence of alpha. In the late 1960s, George Gamow in the United States suggested that the charge of the electron, and therefore also alpha, may vary. It is clear however that such changes, if any, cannot be large or they would already have been detected in comparatively simple experiments. Tracking these possible changes thus requires the most sophisticated and precise techniques. Looking back in time In fact, quite strong constraints are already known to exist for the possible variation of the fine structure constant alpha. One such constraint is of geological nature. It is based on measures taken in the ancient natural fission reactor located near Oklo (Gabon, West Africa) and which was active roughly 2,000 million years ago. By studying the distribution of a given set of elements - isotopes of the rare earths, for example of samarium - which were produced by the fission of uranium, one can estimate whether the physical process happened at a faster or slower pace than we would expect it nowadays. Thus we can measure a possible change of the value of the fundamental constant at play here, alpha. However, the observed distribution of the elemen



Geological consequences of superplumes  

SciTech Connect

Superplumes are suggested to have caused the period of constant normal magnetic polarity in mid-Cretaceous time (124-83 Ma) and, possibly, the period of constant reversed polarity in Pennsylvania-Permian time (323-248 Ma). These times coincide with increases in world temperature, deposition of black shales, oil generation, and eustatic sea level in the mid-Cretaceous, and increased coal generation and gas accumulation in the Pennsylvanian-Permian, accompanied by an intracratonic Pennsylvanian transgression of epicontinental seas. These geologic anomalies are associated with episodes of increased world-wide ocean-crust production and mantle outgassing, especially of carbon and nutrients. These superplumes originated just above the core-mantle boundary, significantly increased convection in the outer core, and stopped the magnetic field reversal process for 41 m.y. in the Cretaceous and 75 m.y. in Pennsylvanian-Permian time.

Larson, R.L. (Univ. of Rhode Island, Narragansett (United States))



Current status and future perspectives of electron interactions with molecules, clusters, surfaces, and interfaces [Workshop on Fundamental challenges in electron-driven chemistry; Workshop on Electron-driven processes: Scientific challenges and technological opportunities  

SciTech Connect

This report is based largely on presentations and discussions at two workshops and contributions from workshop participants. The workshop on Fundamental Challenges in Electron-Driven Chemistry was held in Berkeley, October 9-10, 1998, and addressed questions regarding theory, computation, and simulation. The workshop on Electron-Driven Processes: Scientific Challenges and Technological Opportunities was held at Stevens Institute of Technology, March 16-17, 2000, and focused largely on experiments. Electron-molecule and electron-atom collisions initiate and drive almost all the relevant chemical processes associated with radiation chemistry, environmental chemistry, stability of waste repositories, plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, plasma processing of materials for microelectronic devices and other applications, and novel light sources for research purposes (e.g. excimer lamps in the extreme ultraviolet) and in everyday lighting applications. The life sciences are a rapidly advancing field where the important role of electron-driven processes is only now beginning to be recognized. Many of the applications of electron-initiated chemical processes require results in the near term. A large-scale, multidisciplinary and collaborative effort should be mounted to solve these problems in a timely way so that their solution will have the needed impact on the urgent questions of understanding the physico-chemical processes initiated and driven by electron interactions.

Becker, Kurt H.; McCurdy, C. William; Orlando, Thomas M.; Rescigno, Thomas N.



Significant achievements in the planetary geology program. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developments reported at a meeting of principal investigators for NASA's planetology geology program are summarized. Topics covered include the following: constraints on solar system formation; asteriods, comets, and satellites; constraints on planetary interiors; volatiles and regoliths; instrument development techniques; planetary cartography; geological and geochemical constraints on planetary evolution; fluvial processes and channel formation; volcanic processes; Eolian processes; radar studies of



Significant achievements in the planetary geology program, 1981  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent developments in planetology research as reported at the 1981 NASA Planetary Geology Principal Investigators meeting are summarized. The evolution of the solar system, comparative planetology, and geologic processes active on other planets are considered. Galilean satellites and small bodies, Venus, geochemistry and regoliths, volcanic and aeolian processes and landforms, fluvial and periglacial processes, and planetary impact cratering, remote sensing, and cartography are discussed.

Holt, H. E. (editor)



Significant achievements in the Planetary Geology Program, 1981  

SciTech Connect

Recent developments in planetology research as reported at the 1981 NASA Planetary Geology Principal Investigators meeting are summarized. The evolution of the solar system, comparative planetology, and geologic processes active on other planets are considered. Galilean satellites and small bodies, Venus, geochemistry and regoliths, volcanic and aeolian processes and landforms, fluvial and periglacial processes, and planetary impact cratering, remote sensing, and cartography are discussed.

Holt, H.E.



The Geological Society of London  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Geological Society of London promotes "the geosciences and the professional interests of UK geoscientists." The website offers media, geological, and society news. Researchers can find out about upcoming conferences covering a variety of geological topics as well as information on a series of journals. Everyone interested in geology can find materials on geological careers, including required education, qualifications, and funding. The website provides teaching resources on volcanoes, geologic hazards, and other geological phenomena.


Monte Carlo fundamentals  

SciTech Connect

This report is composed of the lecture notes from the first half of a 32-hour graduate-level course on Monte Carlo methods offered at KAPL. These notes, prepared by two of the principle developers of KAPL`s RACER Monte Carlo code, cover the fundamental theory, concepts, and practices for Monte Carlo analysis. In particular, a thorough grounding in the basic fundamentals of Monte Carlo methods is presented, including random number generation, random sampling, the Monte Carlo approach to solving transport problems, computational geometry, collision physics, tallies, and eigenvalue calculations. Furthermore, modern computational algorithms for vector and parallel approaches to Monte Carlo calculations are covered in detail, including fundamental parallel and vector concepts, the event-based algorithm, master/slave schemes, parallel scaling laws, and portability issues.

Brown, F.B.; Sutton, T.M.



Geology Before Pluto: Pre-encounter Considerations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pluto, its large satellite Charon, and its four known satellites represent the first trans-Neptunian Kuiper Belt objects populating the outer-most solar system beyond the gas giant planets to be studied in detail from a spacecraft (New Horizons). A complete picture of the solar nebula, and solar system formation cannot be confidently formulated until representatives of this group of bodies at the edge of solar space have been examined. The Pluto system is composed of unique lunar- and intermediate-sized objects that can tell us much about how objects with volatile icy compositions evolve. Modeling of the interior suggests that geologic activity may have been to some degree, and observations of frost on the surface could imply the need for a geologic reservoir for the replenishment of these phases. However, the putative indicators of Pluto's geologic history are inconclusive and unspecific. Detailed examination of Pluto's geologic record is the only plausible means of bridging the gap between theory and observations. In this talk I will examine the potential importance of these tentative indications of geologic activity and how specific spacecraft observations have been designed and used to constrain the Pluto system's geologic history. The cameras of New Horizons will provide robust data sets that should be immanently amenable to geological analysis of the Pluto System's landscapes. In this talk, we begin with a brief discussion of the planned observations by New Horizons' cameras that will bear most directly on geological interpretability. Then I will broadly review major geological processes that could potentially operate of the surfaces of Pluto and its moons. I will first survey exogenic processes (i.e., those for which energy for surface modification is supplied externally to the planetary surface): impact cratering, sedimentary processes (including volatile migration) and the work of wind. I will conclude with an assessment of prospects for endogenic activity in the form of tectonics and cryo-volcanism.

Moore, Jeffrey M.



CO{sub 2} Geologic Storage: Coupled Hydro-Chemo-Thermo-Mechanical Phenomena - From Pore-scale Processes to Macroscale Implications -  

SciTech Connect

Global energy consumption will increase in the next decades and it is expected to largely rely on fossil fuels. The use of fossil fuels is intimately related to CO{sub 2} emissions and the potential for global warming. Geological CO{sub 2} storage aims to mitigate the global warming problem by sequestering CO{sub 2} underground. Coupled hydro-chemo-mechanical phenomena determine the successful operation and long term stability of CO{sub 2} geological storage. This research explores coupled phenomena, identifies different zones in the storage reservoir, and investigates their implications in CO{sub 2} geological storage. In particular, the research: Explores spatial patterns in mineral dissolution and precipitation (comprehensive mass balance formulation); experimentally determines the interfacial properties of water, mineral, and CO{sub 2} systems (including CO{sub 2}-water-surfactant mixtures to reduce the CO{sub 2}- water interfacial tension in view of enhanced sweep efficiency); analyzes the interaction between clay particles and CO{sub 2}, and the response of sediment layers to the presence of CO{sub 2} using specially designed experimental setups and complementary analyses; couples advective and diffusive mass transport of species, together with mineral dissolution to explore pore changes during advection of CO{sub 2}-dissolved water along a rock fracture; upscales results to a porous medium using pore network simulations; measures CO{sub 2} breakthrough in highly compacted fine-grained sediments, shale and cement specimens; explores sealing strategies; and experimentally measures CO{sub 2}-CH{sub 4} replacement in hydrate-bearing sediments during. Analytical, experimental and numerical results obtained in this study can be used to identify optimal CO{sub 2} injection and reservoir-healing strategies to maximize the efficiency of CO{sub 2} injection and to attain long-term storage.

Santamarina, J. Carlos



Fundamentals of fluid sealing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fundamentals of fluid sealing, including seal operating regimes, are discussed and the general fluid-flow equations for fluid sealing are developed. Seal performance parameters such as leakage and power loss are presented. Included in the discussion are the effects of geometry, surface deformations, rotation, and both laminar and turbulent flows. The concept of pressure balancing is presented, as are differences between liquid and gas sealing. Mechanisms of seal surface separation, fundamental friction and wear concepts applicable to seals, seal materials, and pressure-velocity (PV) criteria are discussed.

Zuk, J.



Fundamentals of fluid lubrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aim is to coordinate the topics of design, engineering dynamics, and fluid dynamics in order to aid researchers in the area of fluid film lubrication. The lubrication principles that are covered can serve as a basis for the engineering design of machine elements. The fundamentals of fluid film lubrication are presented clearly so that students that use the book will have confidence in their ability to apply these principles to a wide range of lubrication situations. Some guidance on applying these fundamentals to the solution of engineering problems is also provided.

Hamrock, Bernard J.



Geologic Time: Online Edition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Offered by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) as a general interest publication, this site is an online edition of a text by the same name, offering a concise overview of the concepts associated with the age of the Earth. The online edition was revised in October of 1997 to reflect current thinking on this topic. Section headers are Geologic Time, Relative Time Scale, Major Divisions of Geologic Time, Index Fossils, Radiometric Time Scale, and Age of the Earth.



Pennsylvania Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the Pennsylvania Geological Survey. Users can access digital maps, data, and Geographic Information Systems (GIS), information on economic resources, and information on field mapping in the state. Classroom resources include a set of lesson plans on Pennsylvania geology; 'Rock Boxes', a set of rock samples which can be ordered; information on mineral collecting; and a series of educational publications, page-sized maps, and the 'Trail of Geology' park guide.


Icelandic Geology Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The main feature of this site from Hamrahlio College of Reykjavik, Iceland is an interactive geological map of Iceland showing lava flows and glaciers. Other highlights include links to related Icelandic geology pages (e.g., The Effect of Diatom Mining, Iceland's Ministry of the Environment), news sources and journals, and Icelandic geological societies (not all are in English). A recommended resource for glaciologists, volcanologists, and educators in earth science.

Douglas, Georg R.


Sedimentology and petroleum geology  

SciTech Connect

This book presents an introduction to sedimentology as well as petroleum geology. It integrates both subjects, which are closely related but mostly treated separately. The author covers the basic aspects of sedimentology, sedimentary geochemistry and diagenesis. Principles of stratigraphy, seismic stratigraphy and basin modelling forms the base for the part on petroleum geology. Subjects discussed include the composition of kerogen and hydrocarbons, theories of migration and trapping of hydrocarbons and properties of reservoir rocks. Introductions to well logging and production geology are given.

Bjorlykke, K.O. (Oslo Univ. (Norway))



Geologic and hydrologic investigations of a potential nuclear waste disposal site at Yucca Mountain, southern Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Yucca Mountain in southern Nye County, Nevada, has been selected by the United States Department of Energy as one of three potential sites for the nation`s first high-level nuclear waste repository. Its deep water table, closed-basin ground-water flow, potentially favorable host rock, and sparse population have made the Yucca Mountain area a viable candidate during the search for a nuclear waste disposal site. Yucca Mountain, however, lies within the southern Great Basin, a region of known contemporary tectonism and young volcanic activity, and the characterization of tectonism and volcanism remains as a fundamental problem for the Yucca Mountain site. The United States Geological Survey has been conducting extensive studies to evaluate the geologic setting of Yucca Mountain, as well as the timing and rates of tectonic and volcanic activity in the region. A workshop was convened by the Geologic Survey in Denver, Colorado, on August 19, 20, and 21, 1985, to review the scientific progress and direction of these studies. Considerable debate resulted. This collection of papers represents the results of some of the studies presented at the workshop, but by no means covers all of the scientific results and viewpoints presented. Rather, the volume is meant to serve as a progress report on some of the studies within the Geological Survey`s continuing research program toward characterizing the tectonic framework of Yucca Mountain. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base.

Carr, M.D.; Yount, J.C. (eds.)



Geologic Maps and Structures Name ______________________________ Geology 100 Harbor section  

E-print Network

Geologic Maps and Structures Name ______________________________ Geology 100 ­ Harbor section Read Ch. 7 before you begin. The objectives of this lab are for you to learn the basic geologic structures in 3-D and to develop some facility in interpreting the nature of geologic structures from geologic

Harbor, David


Environmental Geology Major  

E-print Network

Environmental Geology Major Revised: 04/2004 Environmental geology in environmental geology provides the diverse skills required to work in many different employment settings issues. Within the field of geology, environmental and geotechnical jobs exist for people with BS degrees

Jiang, Huiqiang


Department of Geology and Geological Engineering University of Mississippi Announces  

E-print Network

Department of Geology and Geological Engineering University of Mississippi Announces Krista Pursuing a degree within the Geology & Geological Engineering department Record of financial need the University of Mississippi with a Bachelor of Science degree in geological engineering in 1982. After earning

Elsherbeni, Atef Z.


Geologic Mapping Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise is designed to simulate how a basic geological investigation of a site takes place. A basic geological investigation includes familiarizing yourself with the unconsolidated sediments, rocks, structural geology, and groundwater present at your site. As part of this exercise you will have to properly identify a variety of rock types and sediments, create maps that represent data you collected at each location, and complete a basic report of your findings (optional). Once completed, this exercise should give students a basic understanding of how the various concepts used throughout the semester are applied in the real world in the form of a geological investigation.

Andrew Smith


Modeling Geologic Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students convert major events in Earth history from years before present into scale distances. After a list of events and their scale distances have been formulated, students construct a geologic time scale on 5 meters of adding machine paper, beginning with the formation of the Earth. Students will investigate change through geologic time; design, construct and interpret a model of geologic time; relate major events in Earth history to the geologic time scale; and compare and relate the span of Earth history to events of historical time and of the human lifetime. Some sample events and their approximate relative ages are included.

Firebaugh, James


Arizona Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the Arizona Geological Survey. Information accessible here includes maps, information on oil, gas, and minerals in the state, back issues of the survey's newsletter, and a list of resources for public education in the state. These resources include information centers for Arizona geology and Earth Science, the survey's geology library and bibliographic database, a repository of rock cuttings and cores, and a contact for earth science education who will assist teacher groups in introducing local geology to their classes.


Dione's spectral and geological properties  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We present a detailed analysis of the variations in spectral properties across the surface of Saturn's satellite Dione using Cassini/VIMS data and their relationships to geological and/or morphological characteristics as seen in the Cassini/ISS images. This analysis focuses on a local region on Dione's anti-saturnian hemisphere that was observed by VIMS with high spatial resolution during orbit 16 in October 2005. The results are incorporated into a global context provided by VIMS data acquired within Cassini's first 50 orbits. Our results show that Dione's surface is dominated by at least one global process. Bombardment by magnetospheric particles is consistent with the concentration of dark material and enhanced CO2 absorption on the trailing hemisphere of Dione independent of the geology. Local regions within this terrain indicate a special kind of resurfacing that probably is related to large-scale impact process. In contrast, the enhanced ice signature on the leading side is associated with the extended ejecta of the fresh impact crater Creusa (???49??N/76??W). Although no geologically active regions could be identified, Dione's tectonized regions observed with high spatial resolution partly show some clean H2O ice implying that tectonic processes could have continued into more recent times. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Stephan, K.; Jaumann, R.; Wagner, R.; Clark, R.N.; Cruikshank, D.P.; Hibbitts, C.A.; Roatsch, T.; Hoffmann, H.; Brown, R.H.; Filiacchione, G.; Buratti, B.J.; Hansen, G.B.; McCord, T.B.; Nicholson, P.D.; Baines, K.H.



Reports of Planetary Geology Program, 1981  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Abstracts of 205 reports from Principal investigators of NASA's Planetary Geology Program succinctly summarize work conducted and reflect the significant accomplishments. The entries are arranged under the following topics: (1) Saturnian satellites; (2) asteroids, comets and Galilean satellites; (3) cratering processes and landform development; (4) volcanic processes and landforms; (5) Aerolian processes and landforms; (6) fluvial, preglacial, and other processes of landform development; (7) Mars polar deposits, volatiles, and climate; (8) structure, tectonics, and stratigraphy; (9) remote sensing and regolith chemistry; (10) cartography and geologic mapping; and (11) special programs.

Holt, H. E. (compiler)



Fundamentals of Carrier Transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fundamentals of Carrier Transport explores the behavior of charged carriers in semiconductors and semiconductor devices for readers without an extensive background in quantum mechanics and solid-state physics. This second edition contains many new and updated sections, including a completely new chapter on transport in ultrasmall devices and coverage of \\

Mark Lundstrom



DNA Topology: Fundamentals  

E-print Network

DNA Topology: Fundamentals Sergei M Mirkin, University of Illinois at Chicago, Illinois, USA Topological characteristics of DNA and specifically DNA supercoiling influence all major DNA transactions in living cells. DNA supercoiling induces the formation of unusual secondary structure by specific DNA

Mirkin, Sergei


Fundamental Radiation Concepts  

E-print Network

Fundamental Radiation Concepts Alyson Cieply University of Florida Environmental Health and Safety Radiation Control #12;What is radiation? Radiation is energy that travels through space or matter in the form of a particle or wave The effect radiation has on matter depends on the type of radiation and how

Slatton, Clint


Fundamentals of solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

This text is addressed to upper level graduate students with background in solid state physics and to scientists and engineers involved in solar cell research. The author aims to present fundamental physical principles rather than the state-of-the-art. Specific devices are used to illustrate basic phenomena and to indicate possibilities for innovative design. Contents, abridged: Solar insolation. The calculation of solar

A. L. Farhenbruch; R. H. Bube




Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Of course, spontaneous symmetry breaking may give riseto some parameters and even to a choice of solutions, withprobabilities for the various alternatives. I shall deal with thatpossibility further on.)This second assumption is equivalent to stating that there is nonecessary fundamental unpredictability stemming from ignorance of theuniversal dynamical law.3) The density matrix (in the Schrsdinger picture) of the universenear the

Murray Gell-Mann



Laser Fundamentals and Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a result of work performed at the Southwestern Radiological Health Laboratory with respect to lasers, this manual was prepared in response to the increasing use of lasers in high schools and colleges. It is directed primarily toward the high school instructor who may use the text for a short course in laser fundamentals. The definition of the…

Van Pelt, W. F.; And Others


Plate motions: fundamentals  

E-print Network

lithospheric plates" · Plate tectonics = a kinematic theory ­ Rigid plates (no intraplate deformation") · Convergent = subductions ("trenches") · Strike-slip = transform faults · Plate tectonics describesPlate motions: fundamentals · Assume a pie-shaped wedge plate B, rotating around E (=rotation pole

Déverchère, Jacques


Fundamentals of Diesel Engines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the fundamentals of diesel engine mechanics. Addressed in the three individual units of the course are the following topics: basic principles of diesel mechanics; principles, mechanics, and…

Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.


Geology explorer: virtual geologic mapping and interpretation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing internet-based freeware for virtual mapping and geologic interpretation. This takes the form of a synthetic, virtual world, Planet Oit, where students are given the means and the equipment to carry out geologic investigation and interpretation as a geologist would in the field. The environment is designed to give students an authentic experience that includes elements of: (1) exploration of a spatially oriented, virtual, world; (2) practical, field oriented, expedition planning and decision-making; and (3) scientific problem solving (i.e. a "hands on" approach to mapping, geologic investigation, data acquisition, and interpretation). The game-like environment is networked, multi-player, and simulation-based. Planet Oit can be visited on the Internet at

Saini-Eidukat, Bernhardt; Schwert, Donald P.; Slator, Brian M.



Geologic drivers of late ordovician faunal change in laurentia: investigating links between tectonics, speciation, and biotic invasions.  


Geologic process, including tectonics and global climate change, profoundly impact the evolution of life because they have the propensity to facilitate episodes of biogeographic differentiation and influence patterns of speciation. We investigate causal links between a dramatic faunal turnover and two dominant geologic processes operating within Laurentia during the Late Ordovician: the Taconian Orogeny and GICE related global cooling. We utilize a novel approach for elucidating the relationship between biotic and geologic changes using a time-stratigraphic, species-level evolutionary framework for articulated brachiopods from North America. Phylogenetic biogeographic analyses indicate a fundamental shift in speciation mode-from a vicariance to dispersal dominated macroevolutionary regime-across the boundary between the Sandbian to Katian Stages. This boundary also corresponds to the onset of renewed intensification of tectonic activity and mountain building, the development of an upwelling zone that introduced cool, nutrient-rich waters into the epieric seas of eastern Laurentia, and the GICE isotopic excursion. The synchronicity of these dramatic geologic, oceanographic, and macroevolutionary changes supports the influence of geologic events on biological evolution. Together, the renewed tectonic activity and oceanographic changes facilitated fundamental changes in habitat structure in eastern North America that reduced opportunities for isolation and vicariance. They also facilitated regional biotic dispersal of taxa that led to the subsequent establishment of extrabasinal (=invasive) species and may have led to a suppression of speciation within Laurentian faunas. Phylogenetic biogeographic analysis further indicates that the Richmondian Invasion was a multidirectional regional invasion event that involved taxa immigrating into the Cincinnati region from basins located near the continental margins and within the continental interior. PMID:23869215

Wright, David F; Stigall, Alycia L



Geologic Drivers of Late Ordovician Faunal Change in Laurentia: Investigating Links between Tectonics, Speciation, and Biotic Invasions  

PubMed Central

Geologic process, including tectonics and global climate change, profoundly impact the evolution of life because they have the propensity to facilitate episodes of biogeographic differentiation and influence patterns of speciation. We investigate causal links between a dramatic faunal turnover and two dominant geologic processes operating within Laurentia during the Late Ordovician: the Taconian Orogeny and GICE related global cooling. We utilize a novel approach for elucidating the relationship between biotic and geologic changes using a time-stratigraphic, species-level evolutionary framework for articulated brachiopods from North America. Phylogenetic biogeographic analyses indicate a fundamental shift in speciation mode—from a vicariance to dispersal dominated macroevolutionary regime—across the boundary between the Sandbian to Katian Stages. This boundary also corresponds to the onset of renewed intensification of tectonic activity and mountain building, the development of an upwelling zone that introduced cool, nutrient-rich waters into the epieric seas of eastern Laurentia, and the GICE isotopic excursion. The synchronicity of these dramatic geologic, oceanographic, and macroevolutionary changes supports the influence of geologic events on biological evolution. Together, the renewed tectonic activity and oceanographic changes facilitated fundamental changes in habitat structure in eastern North America that reduced opportunities for isolation and vicariance. They also facilitated regional biotic dispersal of taxa that led to the subsequent establishment of extrabasinal (=invasive) species and may have led to a suppression of speciation within Laurentian faunas. Phylogenetic biogeographic analysis further indicates that the Richmondian Invasion was a multidirectional regional invasion event that involved taxa immigrating into the Cincinnati region from basins located near the continental margins and within the continental interior. PMID:23869215

Wright, David F.; Stigall, Alycia L.



Geologic investigations of outer planets satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four tests are examined: (1) investigation of volcanism on Io; Interim results of thermal and structural modeling of volcanism on Io are presented, (2) a study of the ancient heavily cratered regions on Ganymede, (3) a geologic comparison of the cratering record on Ganymede and Callisto, and (4) a geological and chemical investigation of internal resurfacing processes on the Saturnian satellites. Tasks 2, 3, and 4 utilize Voyager imaging data.

Strom, R. G.



Petroleum geology of Tunisia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent discoveries and important oil shows have proven the existence of hydrocarbons in newly identified depocenters and reservoirs. In general, except for some areas around the producing fields, Tunisia is largely underdrilled. The national company ETAP has decided to release data and to publish a synthesis on the petroleum geology of Tunisia. The geology of Tunisia provides a fine example

P. F. Burollet; A. B. Ferjami; F. Mejri



Geologic Time Online Edition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial will help students learn and understand the concepts of geologic time and the age of the Earth. They will investigate the geologic time scale and learn about the use of index fossils and radiometric dating to determine the age of rock formations and fossils.


Geologic time scale bookmark  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This bookmark, designed for use with U.S. Geological Survey activities at the 2nd USA Science and Engineering Festival (April 26–29, 2012), is adapted from the more detailed Fact Sheet 2010–3059 "Divisions of Geologic Time." The information that it presents is widely sought by educators and students.

U.S. Geological Survey



Paleogeography Through Geologic Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains paleogeographic and plate tectonic reconstructions organized by geologic period. Users select a geologic period, and receive a summary of the major events that occurred during that period, a paleogeographic map, tectonics and sedimentation of the North Atlantic region, and global tectonic features from that time.

Blakey, Ronald


Geological Map Problem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lab activity that is designed to help introductory, non-science majors integrate their geological knowledge near the end of the course. In this activity, students work in self-selected groups of up to four per group on the history of a sketch geological map.

Robert Filson


People and Geology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides background information on the many natural resources we extract from the earth's crust, including metals, graphite, and other minerals, as well as fossil fuels. Contains teaching activities such as a geologic scavenger hunt, a geology chronology, and the recycling of aluminum. Includes a reproducible handout for the activity on aluminum.…

Naturescope, 1987



Glossary of geology  

SciTech Connect

This third edition of the Glossary of Geology contains approximately 37,000 terms, or 1,000 more than the second edition. New entries are especially numerous in the fields of carbonate sedimentology, hydrogeology, marine geology, mineralogy, ore deposits, plate tectonics, snow and ice, and stratigraphic nomenclature. Many of the definitions provide background information.

Bates, R.L.; Jackson, J.A.



Advances in Planetary Geology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advances in Planetary Geology is a new series intended to serve the planetary geology community with a form for quick and thorough communications. There are no set lists of acceptable topics or formats, and submitted manuscripts will not undergo a formal review. All submissions should be in a camera ready form, preferably spaced, and submitted to the editor.

Woronow, A. (editor)



California Geological Survey - Landslides  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page from the CA Geological Survey (CGS) presents information on landslides as well as maps and products of various past and present CGS programs to map and respond to landslides in the state of California, including the Forest and Watershed Geology Program, the Seismic Hazards Zonation Program, the Caltrans Highway Corridor Mapping project, and the Landslide Map Index.

Survey, California G.


British Geological Survey: Learning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The British Geological Survey (BGS) has a wealth of information about the earth sciences, and they are quite willing to share it with others. This page contains information and resources for anyone interested in geology for educational or leisure purposes, and it is contained with four sections. First up is "Popular geology", which includes "Britain beneath our feet", an interactive atlas of geology, resources, and land quality. This section also contains graphics about climate change and earthquakes. The second section is titled "Educational resources". Here visitors can ask scientists at the BGS specific questions and they can also download several free posters. The third section is called "Educational news and events" and it features upcoming events at the BGS and links to their free magazine, "Earthwise". The site is rounded out by the fourth section titled "From the BGS Archives". Here visitors can view historic geological photographs and also view field sketches and watercolors by Alexander Henry Green, the celebrated Victorian geologist.


Wyoming State Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This agency's mission is to study, examine, and seek an understanding of the geology, mineral resources, and physical features of the State; to prepare, publish, and distribute reports and maps of Wyoming's geology, mineral resources, and physical features; and to provide information, advice, and services related to the geology, mineral resources, and physical features of the State. This site contains details and reports about metals in Wyoming, earthquakes and other hazards, coal, industrial minerals, uranium, oil and gas. The field trip section contains details about various areas to visit with students and gives a general geologic description. There is also a searchable bibliography with publications about Wyoming geology. Links are provided for additional resources.


77 FR 19032 - Geological Survey  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Geological Survey Announcement of National Geospatial...Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey, Interior. ACTION: Notice...contacting Arista Maher at the U.S. Geological Survey (703-648-6283,...



Essential Elements of Geologic Reports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is a report outline for geologic reports. Essential elements include title; abstract; introduction; stratigraphy; petrography; geochemistry; petrology; geophysics; structural geology; geologic history; modeling; economics; conclusions; and recommendations. (Author/CW)

Webb, Elmer James



Principles of Historical Geology Geology 331  

E-print Network

in Biostratigraphy Section #12;Principle of Superposition In any undeformed sequence of sedimentary rocks, each bed of a valley can be correlated. · This principle is used to trace coal seams from one mountain to the next;Igneous dikes in black, granite in pink #12;#12;Can you interpret the sequence of geologic events using

Kammer, Thomas


CNC Router Fundamentals Orientation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These zipped documents from MatEd provide information on designing a course on CNC Router Fundamentals Orientation. At the end of the course, students will be able to identify manufactured projects or products that are compatible for production on CNC routers, operate a Techno brand CNC router, and have proposed a project to reinforce these concepts. The documents include a draft syllabus, contact information for the author of the course, a sample new course proposal form, and a course outline.

Kraft, Patrick



Weather Radar Fundamentals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 2-hour module presents the fundamental principles of Doppler weather radar operation and how to interpret common weather phenomena using radar imagery. This is accomplished via conceptual animations and many interactive radar examples in which the user can practice interpreting both radar reflectivity and radar velocity imagery. Although intended as an accelerated introduction to understanding and using basic Doppler weather radar products, the module can also serve as an excellent refresher for more experienced users.




Fundamental studies in geodynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research in fundamental studies in geodynamics continued in a number of fields including seismic observations and analysis, synthesis of geochemical data, theoretical investigation of geoid anomalies, extensive numerical experiments in a number of geodynamical contexts, and a new field seismic volcanology. Summaries of work in progress or completed during this report period are given. Abstracts of publications submitted from work in progress during this report period are attached as an appendix.

Anderson, D. L.; Hager, B. H.; Kanamori, H.



Testing Fundamental Loads  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students conduct several simple lab activities to learn about the five fundamental load types that can act on structures: tension, compression, shear, bending, and torsion. To learn the telltale marks of failure caused by these load types, they break foam insulation blocks by applying these five load types, carefully examine each type of fracture pattern (break in the material) and make drawings of the fracture patterns.



Micro-XRF: Elemental Analysis for In Situ Geology and Astrobiology Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Close-up measurements of rock chemistry are fundamental for exploration of Mars and other rocky bodies. Micro-XRF will vastly improve the speed and spatial resolution of such measurements in order to enable detailed geological and astrobiological interpretations.

Allwood, A. C.; Hodyss, R.; Wade, L.



Sensors, Volume 1, Fundamentals and General Aspects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

'Sensors' is the first self-contained series to deal with the whole area of sensors. It describes general aspects, technical and physical fundamentals, construction, function, applications and developments of the various types of sensors. This volume deals with the fundamentals and common principles of sensors and covers the wide areas of principles, technologies, signal processing, and applications. Contents include: Sensor Fundamentals, e.g. Sensor Parameters, Modeling, Design and Packaging; Basic Sensor Technologies, e.g. Thin and Thick Films, Integrated Magnetic Sensors, Optical Fibres and Intergrated Optics, Ceramics and Oxides; Sensor Interfaces, e.g. Signal Processing, Multisensor Signal Processing, Smart Sensors, Interface Systems; Sensor Applications, e.g. Automotive: On-board Sensors, Traffic Surveillance and Control, Home Appliances, Environmental Monitoring, etc. This volume is an indispensable reference work and text book for both specialits and newcomers, researchers and developers.

Grandke, Thomas; Ko, Wen H.



Kentucky Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1996 the Education Committee of the Kentucky Geological Survey, in conjunction with the Kentucky Society of Professional Geologists, established the Earth Science Education Network (ESEN). The network provided a group of geologists who served as resource persons for teachers, but has now been expanded to provide resources from around the globe. While primarily focusing on the geology of Kentucky, many of the online resources are applicable for educators throughout the U.S. There are links to Earth science topics and important websites, handouts and instructions for classroom demonstrations and activities, and also interesting information about Kentucky geology and publications.


What is Geologic Time?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage of the National Park Service (NPS) and United States Geological Survey (USGS) discusses geologic time and what it represents. Beginning about 4.6 billion years ago and ending in the present day, this site exhibits (to scale) the various eras, periods, eons, and epochs of Earth's history with a downloadable geologic time scale available. Links provide maps of what the Earth looked like at various times in its history, as well as a description of how scientists developed the time scale and how they know the age of the Earth.


Formation evaluation: Geological procedures  

SciTech Connect

This volume goes beyond a discussion of petroleum geology and the techniques of hydrocarbon (oil and gas) logging as a reservoir evaluation tool. It provides the logging geologist with a review of geological techniques and classification systems that will ensure the maximum development of communicable geological information. Contents include: 1. Introduction--cuttings recovery, cutting sampling, core sampling, rock classification; 2. Detrital rocks--classification, description; 3. Carbonate rocks--classification, description; 4. Chemical rocks-introduction, siliceous rocks, ferruginous rocks, aluminous rocks, phosphatic rocks, aluminous rocks, carbonaceous rocks; 5. Igneous and metamorpbic rocks; Appendix; References and Index.

Whittaker, A.



Journal of Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the University of Chicago Press's Journals Division, the Journal of Geology is currently available online free of charge (note: subscription fees may soon apply, but no initiation date is provided). This first-rate technical journal, which publishes "research and theory in geophysics, geochemistry, sedimentology, geomorphology, petrology, plate tectonics, volcanology, structural geology, mineralogy, and planetary sciences" has been in print form since 1893. All of the 1999 issues of the Journal of Geology electronic edition are available here. Internet users can access full-text articles with internal links to references and figures (html, .pdf. .ps).


Weather Observing Fundamentals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Weather Observing Fundamentals" provides guidance for U.S. Navy Aerographer's Mates, Quartermasters, and civilian observers tasked with taking and reporting routine, special, and synoptic observations. Although the focus of this lesson is on shipboard observations, much of the content applies to land-based observing and reporting as well. The lesson details standard procedures for taking accurate weather observations and for encoding those observations on COMNAVMETOCCOM Report 3141/3. Exercises throughout the lesson and four weather identification drills at the end provide learners with opportunities to practice and build their skills. The lesson covers a large amount of content. You may wish to work through the material in multiple sessions.



Mastercam Fundamentals Orientation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These zipped documents from MatEd provide information on designing a course titled Mastercam Fundamentals Orientation. At the end of the course, students will be able to apply understanding in the use of Mastercam CAD/CAM software to complete wire frame designs, create design of solid models using basic solid model functions, output CNC â??Gâ? code, STL formatted files, and DXF formatted files, and apply knowledge of Mastercam on future projects. The documents include a draft syllabus, contact information for the author of the course, a sample new course proposal form, and a course outline.

Kraft, Patrick


Ti:Sapphire fundamental  

E-print Network

7193-111 1 2 4 NC PD 5 6 3 Ti:Sapphire crystal Dye jet L BFE P3 P1-2 stepper motor el-mech drive1-2 stepper motor el-mech drive1 el-mech drive2 pump beam second harmonic fundamental radiation Ti:SapphireB-Glines 457.9 nm 514.5 nm Ar laser allB-Glines 457.9 nm CW Ti:Sapphire Laser with frequency doubling Combined

Kobtsev, Sergei M.


Instrument Control Fundamentals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Instruments Instrument Control Fundamentals Series, your FREE resource for instrument control knowledge on the Web, presents technical content through theory, real-world examples, and interactive audiovisual tutorials. This series, organized into four general categories, is designed for a broad range of audiences, from experts who want to review a specific topic to new users who need easy-to-understand documentation for their projects. Subtopics include "What is instrument control?" "Instrument Control Hardware and Bus Technologies" "Instrument Control Software" and "Instrument Control System Architectures."



Fundamental processes in partially ionized plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research during this past year has emphasized studies of plasmas properties and associated diagnostics, including nonequilibrium effects in so-called thermal plasmas. The present report discusses first measurements of the radiative source strength of air for temperatures in the range between 5000 and 7500 K. To our knowledge these are the first measurements of this important property in this temperature range. The results are compared with a NASA computer code. Also described is a study of quenching effects on excited states of a nonequilibrium thermal plasma. These and companion measurements show that the common assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium in plasmas at or about atmospheric pressure can be seriously in error and that as a result the reliability of many temperature measurements in such plasmas should be questioned.

Kruger, C. H.; Gordon, Matt; Laux, Christophe



Fundamental research needs in electrohydrodynamic processing  

SciTech Connect

The panel focused on research needs in the following areas: (1) Field-enhanced solvent extraction. (2) Field-enhanced distillation. (3) Electrophoresis. (4) Magnetic separations. (5) Electrodeposition, dissolution, crystallization. The first two items on the list took up most of the discussion time and the last item took the least amount of time.

Basaran, O.A. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)



Geology before Pluto: Pre-encounter considerations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cameras of New Horizons will provide robust data sets that should be imminently amenable to geological analysis of the Pluto system's landscapes. In this paper, we begin with a brief discussion of the planned observations by the New Horizons cameras that will bear most directly on geological interpretability. Then we broadly review the major geological processes that could potentially operate on the surfaces of Pluto and its major moon Charon. We first survey exogenic processes (i.e. those for which energy for surface modification is supplied externally to the planetary surface): impact cratering, sedimentary processes (including volatile migration), and the work of wind. We conclude with an assessment of the prospects for endogenic activity in the form of tectonics and cryovolcanism.

Moore, Jeffrey M.; Howard, Alan D.; Schenk, Paul M.; McKinnon, William B.; Pappalardo, Robert T.; Ewing, Ryan C.; Bierhaus, Edward B.; Bray, Veronica J.; Spencer, John R.; Binzel, Richard P.; Buratti, Bonnie; Grundy, William M.; Olkin, Catherine B.; Reitsema, Harold J.; Reuter, Dennis C.; Stern, S. Alan; Weaver, Harold; Young, Leslie A.; Beyer, Ross A.



Geological research for public outreach and education in Lithuania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Successful IYPE activities and implementation of Geoheritage day in Lithuania increased public awareness in geology. A series of projects introducing geology to the general public and youth, supported by EU funds and local communities, were initiated. Researchers from the scientific and applied geology institutions of Lithuania participated in these projects and provided with the geological data. In one case, the Lithuanian Survey of Protected Areas supported the installation of a series of geological exhibitions in several regional and national parks. An animation demonstrating glacial processes was chosen for most of these because the Lithuanian surface is largely covered with sedimentary deposits of the Nemunas (Weichselian) glaciation. Researchers from the Lithuanian Geological Survey used the mapping results to demonstrate real glacial processes for every chosen area. In another case, 3D models showing underground structures of different localities were based on detailed geological maps and profiles obtained for that area. In case of the Sartai regional park, the results of previous geological research projects provided the possibility to create a movie depicting the ca. 2 Ga geological evolution of the region. The movie starts with the accretion of volcanic island arcs on the earlier continental margin at ca. 2 Ga and deciphers later Precambrian tectonic and magmatic events. The reconstruction is based on numerous scientific articles and interpretation of geophysical data. Later Paleozoic activities and following erosion sculptured the surface which was covered with several ice sheets in Quaternary. For educational purpose, a collection of minerals and rocks at the Forestry Institute was used to create an exhibition called "Cycle of geological processes". Forestry scientists and their students are able to study the interactions of geodiversity and biodiversity and to understand ancient and modern geological processes leading to a soil formation. An aging exposition at the Museum of Erratic Boulders in NW Lithuania is being rearranged for educational purposes, to show the major rock types and their origins more clearly. A new exhibition is supplemented with computer portals presenting geological processes, geological quizzes, animations etc. Magmatism, metamorphism, sedimentation and other geological processes are demonstrated using erratic boulders brought by glaciers from Scandinavia and northern Russia. A part of the exhibition is devoted to glaciation processes and arrival of ice sheets to Lithuania. Visitors are able to examine large erratic boulder groups in a surrounding park and to enjoy beautiful environment. The exhibition also demonstrates mineral resources of Lithuania, different fossils and stones from a human body. In all cases it was recognised that a lack of geological information limits the use of geology for public outreach. Ongoing scientific research is essential in many places as well as a mediator's job for interpreting the results of highly specialised research results and to adapt them for public consumption.

Skridlaite, Grazina; Guobyte, Rimante



Web Geologic Time Scale  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of California-Berkeley Museum of Paleontology (last mentioned in the June 16, 1995 Scout Report) has recently updated its Web Geologic Time Scale, an online feature that helps users learn about the geologic timeline and explore related museum exhibits. The familiar geologic timeline appears on the main page of the Web site, with hypertext links for each division of time. Every page of the Web Geologic Time Machine site is liberally sprinkled with links to related UCMP Web pages; think of it as a portal to all online information available from the museum. Altogether, this Web site provides a well-organized and comprehensive resource for learning how the planet has changed over time, and would be a great addition to earth or life sciences classroom material for a broad range of grades.



Interactive Geologic Timeline Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this learning activity, students use a web-based geologic timeline to examine temperature, CO2 concentration, and ice cover data to investigate how climate has changed during the last 715 million years.

University, Environmental L.


Scaling the Geologic Past  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes construction of a Geologic Time Scale on a 100 foot roll of paper and suggests activities concerning its use. Includes information about fossils and suggestions for conducting a fossil field trip with students. (BR)

Gerritts, Mary



Comprehending Geologic Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online calculator helps students understand the classic analogy of relating the geologic time scale to a yard stick. It will help reinforce the concept of the briefness of human history relative to the age of the Earth.


North Dakota Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the North Dakota Geological Survey. Site materials include information on the state's oil, gas and coal resources, maps, publications, and regulations. The paleontology page features educational articles, information on fossil collecting, articles about fossil exhibits, and information on the state fossil collection. The state GIS hub creates and distributes digital spatial data that conforms to national mapping standards. The teaching tools page includes illustrations and descriptions of rocks and minerals found in the state, as well as information on meteorites and newsletter articles about teaching North Dakota geology. There are also links to landslide maps, surficial geology maps, and links to other survey publications such as reports, bulletins, field studies, other geological and topographic maps, and information on groundwater resources.


Economic Geology (Oil & Gas)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Briefly reviews the worldwide developments in petroleum geology in 1971, including exploration, new fields, and oil production. This report is condensed from the October Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. (PR)

Geotimes, 1972



Photos of structural geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page contains four categories of structural geology photos: brittle structures, ductile structures, active tectonics, and unconformities. All photos are freely downloadable and are at resolutions sufficient for power point.

Miller, Marli


Reconstructing the Geologic Timeline.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on the use of a non-traditional approach to constructing a geological timeline that allows students to manipulate data, explore their understanding, and confront misconceptions. Lists possible steps to use in engaging students in this constructivist activity. (DDR)

Hemler, Deb; Repine, Tom



Bedrock Geology Mapping Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This field mapping and map-making exercise is a capstone project for a course on Geological Maps. Over a weekend (~12 hours of field work), students collect lithologic and structural data from outcrops scattered over a one square mile area. Back in the classroom, students digitally compile their field data (outcrop, structure measurements, traverse locations) into ArcMAP. They infer geologic linework (faults and contacts) and units from this data in ArcMAP and then export these data layers into Illustrator. In Illustrator, they add ancillary map components (a cross section, description of map units, correlation diagram, map symbol legend,...) to create a final map at a 1:10,000 scale. Their maps are printed out on 11"x17" paper and saved as a pdf file. This exercise helps the students to appreciate how field data is collected and how these geologic facts are interpretively organized into a four-dimensional picture that is a geologic map.

Miller, Jim


USGS Geologic Hazards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Geologic Hazards section of the US Geological Survey (USGS) conducts research into the causes of geological phenomena such as landslides and earthquakes. The homepage connects visitors to the Geologic Hazards team's three main areas of endeavor. Geomagnetism provides links to the National Geomagnetic Information Center; Magnetic Observatories, Models, and Charts; and the Geomagnetic Information Node, which receives geomagnetic observatory data from around the world. The Landslide group studies the "causes and mechanisms of ground failure" to prevent "long-term losses and casualties." Their section provides links to the program and information center, publications, events, and current projects. The Earthquakes department hosts a wealth of information, including neotectonics, engineering seismology, and paleoseismology. Interactive maps are also provided.


Geologic exploration of Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The scientific objectives and methods involved in a geologic exploration of Mars from a manned outpost are discussed. The constraints on outpost activities imposed by the limited crew size, limited amount of time available for science, the limited diversity of scientific expertise, and the competition between scientific disciplines are addressed. Three examples of possible outpost locations are examined: the Olympus Mons aureole, Mangala Valles/Daedalia Planum, and Candor Chasma. The geologic work that could be done at each site is pointed out.

Plescia, J. B.



Understanding Geologic Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This informational tour offers students a basic understanding of geologic time, the evidence for events in the history of the Earth, relative and absolute dating techniques, and the significance of the Geologic Time Scale. Students move at a self-selected pace by answering questions correctly as they go. The teacher's guide contains all the details needed to use this computer activity, including handouts, a lesson plan, and assessment materials.

Scotchmoor, Judy


Geologic Time Discussion Analogies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The slides provide a fun way of discussing the immensity of geologic time and help to grasp the age of the earth, the time gaps between major geologic events, and the relative minuteness of humans time on earth. After the discussion with the class, students are given opportunity to develop their own analogies using "everyday" things (other than the calendar and money examples used in this activity).

Noah Fay


Johnston Geology Museum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Johnston Geology Museum is part of the Emporia State University Earth Science Department. There is an online virtual tour of the collection which includes a Cretaceous mosasaur, a giant ground sloth, mastodon bones and tusk, brachiopods, Paleozoic corals, sedimentary structures, minerals and crystals. The Museum contains geological specimens predominantly from Kansas, and include the world famous Hamilton Quarry Fossil Assemblage, the Tri-State Mining Display, petrified tree stumps, and the Hawkins and the Calkins Indian Artifact Collections.



Oahu Geology Field Exercises  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Three field guides are available to sites of geologic interest on Oahu. One is a visit to a landslide occurring in a neighborhood; another focuses on developing observational skills and determining the sequence of geologic events evident in a stratigraphic section; a third examines features associated with formation of a volcanic tuff ring. The worksheets are designed for teachers to implement as-is or modify for their classes.


Interpreting Geologic Sections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Athro, Limited is a for-profit corporation that publishes high school and college level biology, earth science, and geology course supplements and independent learning materials on the Web. This site provides instruction in interpreting the order of events in three hypothetical and one real geological section. For each section there is a list of events and an animation of the history of the section once the student has decided on the order of events.

Paul Morris


Geology and Human Health  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains a variety of educational and supporting materials for faculty teaching in the emerging field of geology and human health. You will find links to internet resources, books, teaching activities, and a group email list, as well as posters, presentations and discussions from the spring 2004 workshop on Geology and Human Health. These resources reflect the contributions of faculty members from across the country and the collections will continue to grow as materials are developed.


Once in a Million Years: Teaching Geologic Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors advocate that students frequently lack fundamental numerical literacy on the order of millions or billions, and that this comprehension is critical to grasping key evolutionary concepts related to the geologic time scale, the origin and diversification of life on earth, and other concepts such as the national debt, human population…

Lewis, Susan E.; Lampe, Kristen A.; Lloyd, Andrew J.



The uniqueness of Islamic fundamentalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the notion of fundamentalism, and anchors it in the concepts of extremism, radicalism and scripturalism. It argues that it is possible to study the phenomenon of fundamentalism within the paradigms of rationalism that prevail in modern social science. Furthermore, while all fundamentalist movements share certain characteristics, Islamic fundamentalism differs from other fundamentalist movements in many substantial ways,



Illustrated Glossary of Geologic Terms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the Geology Department at Iowa State University, this handy illustrated glossary of geological terms is an excellent quick reference resource for students. Continuously upgraded with links to illustrations and text, this geological lexicon is based on the glossary in the textbook Earth: An Introduction to Geological Change by S. Judson and S.M. Richardson. Alphabetical tabs and internal links to related terms let users move quickly around this useful aid for geology students.


Connecting Soils and Glacial Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of this activity is to provide students an opportunity to connect soil science to surficial geology by using a Soil Surveys. By the end of the activity, students should be able to use a Soil Survey to identify and interpret landforms and surficial features. This activity can be adapted to variety of process (ex. eolian deposits, glacial deposits, bedrock weathering, etc.). County-level soil surveys are available in both paper and online formats for the majority of the United States. Designed for a geomorphology course Has minimal/no quantitative component

Holly Dolliver


Fundamentals of gel dosimeters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fundamental chemical and physical phenomena that occur in Fricke gel dosimeters, polymer gel dosimeters, micelle gel dosimeters and genipin gel dosimeters are discussed. Fricke gel dosimeters are effective even though their radiation sensitivity depends on oxygen concentration. Oxygen contamination can cause severe problems in polymer gel dosimeters, even when THPC is used. Oxygen leakage must be prevented between manufacturing and irradiation of polymer gels, and internal calibration methods should be used so that contamination problems can be detected. Micelle gel dosimeters are promising due to their favourable diffusion properties. The introduction of micelles to gel dosimetry may open up new areas of dosimetry research wherein a range of water-insoluble radiochromic materials can be explored as reporter molecules.

McAuley, K. B.; Nasr, A. T.



Wall of fundamental constants  

SciTech Connect

We consider the signatures of a domain wall produced in the spontaneous symmetry breaking involving a dilatonlike scalar field coupled to electromagnetism. Domains on either side of the wall exhibit slight differences in their respective values of the fine-structure constant, {alpha}. If such a wall is present within our Hubble volume, absorption spectra at large redshifts may or may not provide a variation in {alpha} relative to the terrestrial value, depending on our relative position with respect to the wall. This wall could resolve the contradiction between claims of a variation of {alpha} based on Keck/Hires data and of the constancy of {alpha} based on Very Large Telescope data. We derive the properties of the wall and the parameters of the underlying microscopic model required to reproduce the possible spatial variation of {alpha}. We discuss the constraints on the existence of the low-energy domain wall and describe its observational implications concerning the variation of the fundamental constants.

Olive, Keith A. [William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 55455 (United States); School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 55455 (United States); Peloso, Marco [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 55455 (United States); Uzan, Jean-Philippe [Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, UMR-7095 du CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis bd Arago, 75014 Paris (France); Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, Cape Town University, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); National Institute for Theoretical Physics (NITheP), Stellenbosch 7600 (South Africa)



Fundamentals of Materials Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Massachusetts Institute of Technology Professors Darrell Irvine and Nicola Marzari present this introductory course, which focuses on the "fundamentals of structure, energetics, and bonding that underpin materials science." Designed for undergraduate students, topics here include: thermodynamic functions, electronic bonding, stability, and magnetism of materials. Visitors are able to download all lecture notes, assignments, and exams from this course as PDF files, and the "Readings" section presents a helpful bibliography. In the "Recitations" section, users will find all the practice problems and solutions in structure bonding and thermodynamics used in the course. This is a useful resource for educators as it contains ready-made assignments and exams in materials science and technology from a respected institution that can bolster any syllabus.

Irvine, Darrell; Marzari, Nicola



Breaking ground: Pedological, geological, and ecological implications of soil bioturbation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil and its biota are fundamental components of the "Critical Zone": Earth's living skin that most directly sustains life. Within that zone, geologically-rapid soil and saprolite displacement by biota, particularly invertebrate meso- and macrofauna, affects a large proportion of Earth's soils. This was first recognised by late-19th century observers, on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, who regarded bioturbation as fundamental to soil formation. Throughout much of the 20th century, however, the agronomical focus of soil scientists and the dominant paradigm of landscape evolution relegated bioturbation. As a result, many aspects of bioturbation are still not widely appreciated. Only in the last few decades has a re-evaluation commenced, in a range of disciplines. Primary effects of bioturbation, which we quantify herein, include soil production from saprolite, the formation of surface mounds, soil burial, and downslope transport. Rates of bioturbation can be as rapid as sustained maximum rates of tectonic uplift. In concert with surface geomorphic processes, bioturbation alters fundamental properties of soil, including particle-size distribution, porosity, the content of carbon and other nutrients, and creep flux rate. The precise influence of biotic mixing is regulated by its depth function. Earth's incredibly diverse soil biota also perform a number of functions, at a range of spatial and temporal scales, that extend beyond soil to landscape evolution, ecosystem engineering, niche construction, and carbon cycling. Understanding these linkages—which have operated since the evolution of trees in the Devonian Period—is of growing importance as we seek a fuller picture of Earth's history to predict and manage its future.

Wilkinson, Marshall T.; Richards, Paul J.; Humphreys, Geoff S.


Fundamental geosciences program. Annual report, 1977  

SciTech Connect

The geoscience program relating to geothermal energy consists of four projects. In the project on reservoir dynamics, sophisticated codes have been written to simulate the dynamics of heat flow in geothermal reservoir systems. These codes have also been applied to the investigations of natural aquifers as a storage system for thermal energy. In the second project, core samples are studied to determine the high temperature and high pressure behavior of aquifers in the presence of saturating fluids. The third project covers the systematic evaluation of the thermodynamic properties of electrolytes in order to interpret the behavior of geothermal fluids. The fourth project involves hydrothermal solubility measurements of various minerals to elucidate the chemistry and mass transfer in geothermal systems. The second major program includes four projects which involve precise measurements and analysis of physical and chemical properties of geologic materials. These include measurements of the thermodynamic properties (viscosity, density and heat capacity) of silicate materials to help understand magma genesis and evolution, high-precision neutron activation analysis of rare and trace elements in magmatic materials, and the precise measurement of seismic wave velocities near geological faults, in order to determine the buildup of stress in the earth's crust. Third, the development program in fundamental geosciences includes six innovative projects. These projects include research in the in situ leaching of uranium ore, properties of magmas, removal of pyrite from coal, properties of soils and soft rocks, stress flow behavior of fractured rock systems, and high-precision mass spectrometry.

Witherspoon, P.A.; Apps, J.A.



The Evolution of Dinosaurs Over Geologic Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan asks high school students to combine their knowledge of evolution, geologic time, and dinosaurs into a discussion of how these three topics overlap with regard to dinosaur evolution in the Cretaceous period. Students will read about the work of paleontologist Paul Sereno and list the dinosaurs he has discovered as well as the locations in which they were found and the time periods in which they lived; review the periods of geologic time; review the theory of evolution and write a paragraph explaining how geographic isolation would contribute to the evolutionary process; write paragraphs describing the changes to the continental layout of the Earth during the Cretaceous period; write paragraphs relating geological changes to dinosaur evolution during the Cretaceous period; and create posters or computer presentations illustrating the Earth during the Cretaceous period and the evolution processes of dinosaur species during this time.


Interpolation in digital modems. I. Fundamentals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Timing adjustment in a digital modem must be performed by interpolation if sampling is not synchronized to the data symbols. The author describes the fundamental equation for interpolation, proposes a method for control, and outlines the signal-processing characteristics appropriate to an interpolator. A review of previous results and a tutorial exposition of the subject are given, along with new results

Floyd M. Gardner



Progress of fundamental research in Wilms' tumor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The progress of fundamental research on the histopathological and molecular genetic properties, model systems, growth factor involvement, and tumor markers of clinical nephroblastoma (Wilms' tumor) are reviewed. Histologically, Wilms' tumor (WT) has been found to reveal a disorganized renal developmental process in which blastema and epithelia are randomly interspersed in varying amounts of stroma. Anaplasia is the only criterion for

J. G. Wen; G. J. van Steenbrugge; R. M. Egeler; R. M. Nijman



Status of the Fundamental Laws of Thermodynamics  

E-print Network

We describe recent progress towards deriving the Fundamental Laws of thermodynamics (the 0th, 1st and 2nd Law) from nonequilibrium quantum statistical mechanics in simple, yet physically relevant models. Along the way, we clarify some basic thermodynamic notions and discuss various reversible and irreversible thermodynamic processes from the point of view of quantum statistical mechanics.

Walid K. Abou Salem; Juerg Froehlich



OneGeology-Europe Plus Initiative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Geological Surveys of the European countries hold valuable resources of geological data but, to discover, understand and use this data efficiently, a good level of standardization is essential. The OneGeology-Europe project had the aim of making geological maps at a scale 1:1M from Europe discoverable and accessible, available under a common data license and described by multilingual metainformation. A harmonized specification for basic geological map data was developed so that significant progress towards harmonizing the datasets was achieved. Responsibility for the management of the OneGeology-Europe portal has been taken by EuroGeoSurveys and provided by CGS and BRGM. Of the 34 members of EuroGeoSurveys (EGS), only 20 participated in the OneGeology-Europe project (Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Spain, United Kingdom), so the European area was not completely covered. At the 33rd General Meeting and Directors Workshop in 2012 it was therefore decided to establish a successor initiative OneGeology Europe Plus (1G-E+) with the purpose of extending the coverage by geological maps at a scale of 1:1 M to all the EGS member countries (including Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Greece, Iceland, Lithuania, Malta, Romania, Russia, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine) and also, if possible, to the other European countries (Belorussia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Faeroe Islands, Kosovo, Latvia, Macedonia, Moldavia, Montenegro, Serbia). In order to achieve the desired result, it has been necessary for the new GSOs who intend to supply the additional 1G-E standardized services to carry out the work using their own staff and resources. The technical guidance and other support have been provided by the 1G-E+ Technical Support Team, funded from the internal budgets of their respective surveys. The team is coordinated by the Czech Geological Survey (CGS) working with the Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM), the British Geological Survey (BGS), the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) and the Geological Survey of Slovenia (GeoZS). The Geological Survey of the Netherlands (TNO) decided to provide financial support for the initiative. The Technical Support Team has been providing the technical advice required to enable the inclusion of geological maps from new countries in the 1G-E Portal using the standards developed and accepted for 1G-E. Cookbooks, on-line help and a helpdesk are provided during the work. A technical workshop was organized at which all the technical steps required to reach the target solution were presented and discussed. All newcomers must agree the existing common license that was created for downloading the 1G-E data. It should be emphasized that the results will be displayed as part of the 1G-E project and metadata/portal infrastructures. The process is still ongoing because the harmonization work for most of the countries involved has been a demanding process. Some countries are facing difficulties because of the lack of expert personnel or insufficient resources of data. Despite some problems, the 1G-E+ initiative and the work involved has contributed to effective networking and technical cooperation between the GSOs across the wider European region.

Capova, Dana; Kondrova, Lucie



The geologic mapping of asteroid Vesta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of NASA's Dawn mission [1,2] we conducted a geologic mapping campaign to provide a systematic, cartography-based initial characterization of the global and regional geology of asteroid Vesta. The goal of geological maps is to place observations of surface features into their stratigraphic context to develop a geologic history of the evolution of planetary surfaces. Geologic mapping reduces the complexity of heterogeneous planetary surfaces into comprehensible portions, defining and characterizing discrete material units based upon physical attributes related to the geologic processes that produced them, and enabling identification of the relative roles of various processes (impact cratering, tectonism, volcanism, erosion and deposition) in shaping planetary surfaces [3,4]. The Dawn Science Team produced cartographic products of Vesta from the Framing Camera images, including global mosaics as well as 15 regional quadrangles [5], which served as bases for the mapping. We oversaw the geologic mapping campaign during the Nominal Mission, including production of a global geologic map at scale 1:500,000 using images from the High Altitude Mapping Orbit [6] and 15 quadrangle geologic maps at scale 1:250,000 using images from the Low Altitude Mapping Orbit [7]. The goal was to support the Dawn Team by providing geologic and stratigraphic context of surface features and supporting the analysis of data from the Visible and Infrared Spectrometer (VIR) and the Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector (GRaND). Mapping was done using ArcGIS™ software, in which quadrangle mapping built on interpretations derived from the global geologic map but were updated and modified to take advantage of the highest spatial resolution data. Despite challenges (e.g., Vesta's highly sloped surface [8] deforms impact craters and produces mass movements that buries contacts), we were successfully able to map the whole surface of Vesta and identify a geologic history as represented in our maps and the resulting time-stratigraphic system and geologic timescale. Key results from the geologic mapping of Vesta include: 1) surface units are dominated by features and materials produced by two major impact events, the older Veneneia and younger Rheasilvia impacts at the south pole 2) both impacts produced a ridge-and-trough terrain as a tectonic response to the impacts, mapped as the Saturnalia Fossae and the Divalia Fossae Formations, respectively 3) stratigraphic analysis of Vesta's heavily cratered terrains show that portions of the original crust are preserved and predate the Veneneia impact 4) the Marcia impact event marks the beginning of Vesta's final stratigraphic period, including exposure of fresh bright and dark material and preservation of young bright-rayed and dark-rayed craters. We conclude that a geologic mapping campaign, including both global and regional mapping, can be conducted during the limited planetary nominal mission timeline, and is an excellent way to engage younger team members (graduate students and postdocs) in mission data analysis activities.

Williams, D.; Yingst, A.; Garry, B.



Minnesota Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Minnesota Geological Survey (MGS) was established in 1872 as part of the University of Minnesota. The function of the MGS is to serve "the people of Minnesota by providing systematic geoscience information to support stewardship of water, land, and mineral resources." This website from the Digital Conservancy at the University of Minnesota provides access to all of items published by the MGS. The items are contained within the Collections area, and visitors will find headings here such as "Geology of Minnesota Parks," "County Atlas Series," and the "Bulletin of the Minnesota Geological and Natural History Survey." First-time visitors can check out the Recent Submissions area on the right-hand side of the page to look over some new findings, including hydrogeological maps of different counties around the state. One item that should not be missed is the "Geology of Minnesota: A Centennial Volume" from 1972. It's a tremendous volume and one that cannot be ignored by students of the physical landscape and geological history of the state.



Geology and insolation-driven climatic history of Amazonian north polar materials on Mars  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mariner 9 and Viking spacecraft images revealed that the polar regions of Mars, like those of Earth, record the planet's climate history. However, fundamental uncertainties regarding the materials, features, ages and processes constituting the geologic record remained. Recently acquired Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter data and Mars Orbiter Camera high-resolution images from the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft and moderately high-resolution Thermal Emission Imaging System visible images from the Mars Odyssey spacecraft permit more comprehensive geologic and climatic analyses. Here I map and show the history of geologic materials and features in the north polar region that span the Amazonian period (???3.0 Gyr ago to present). Erosion and redeposition of putative circumpolar mud volcano deposits (formed by eruption of liquefied, fine-grained material) led to the formation of an Early Amazonian polar plateau consisting of dark layered materials. Crater ejecta superposed on pedestals indicate that a thin mantle was present during most of the Amazonian, suggesting generally higher obliquity and insolation conditions at the poles than at present. Brighter polar layered deposits rest unconformably on the dark layers and formed mainly during lower obliquity over the past 4-5 Myr (ref. 20). Finally, the uppermost layers post-date the latest downtrend in obliquity <20,000 years ago. ?? 2005 Nature Publishing Group.

Tanaka, K.L.



Geology and insolation-driven climatic history of Amazonian north polar materials on Mars.  


Mariner 9 and Viking spacecraft images revealed that the polar regions of Mars, like those of Earth, record the planet's climate history. However, fundamental uncertainties regarding the materials, features, ages and processes constituting the geologic record remained. Recently acquired Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter data and Mars Orbiter Camera high-resolution images from the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft and moderately high-resolution Thermal Emission Imaging System visible images from the Mars Odyssey spacecraft permit more comprehensive geologic and climatic analyses. Here I map and show the history of geologic materials and features in the north polar region that span the Amazonian period (approximately 3.0 Gyr ago to present). Erosion and redeposition of putative circumpolar mud volcano deposits (formed by eruption of liquefied, fine-grained material) led to the formation of an Early Amazonian polar plateau consisting of dark layered materials. Crater ejecta superposed on pedestals indicate that a thin mantle was present during most of the Amazonian, suggesting generally higher obliquity and insolation conditions at the poles than at present. Brighter polar layered deposits rest unconformably on the dark layers and formed mainly during lower obliquity over the past 4-5 Myr (ref. 20). Finally, the uppermost layers post-date the latest downtrend in obliquity <20,000 years ago. PMID:16222294

Tanaka, Kenneth L



Geological and mathematical framework for failure modes in granular rock  

E-print Network

Geological and mathematical framework for failure modes in granular rock Atilla Aydina, *, Ronaldo processes in granular rock and provide a geological framework for the corresponding structures. We describe show that sharp structures overlap older narrow tabular structures in the same rock. This switch

Borja, Ronaldo I.


Cognitive Factors Affecting Student Understanding of Geologic Time.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a model that describes how students reconstruct geological transformations over time. Defines the critical factors influencing reconstructive thinking: (1) the transformation scheme, which influences the other diachronic schemes; (2) knowledge of geological processes; and (3) extracognitive factors. (Author/KHR)

Dodick, Jeff; Orion, Nir



Activities in planetary geology for the physical and earth sciences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A users guide for teaching activities in planetary geology, and for physical and earth sciences is presented. The following topics are discussed: cratering; aeolian processes; planetary atmospheres, in particular the Coriolis Effect and storm systems; photogeologic mapping of other planets, Moon provinces and stratigraphy, planets in stereo, land form mapping of Moon, Mercury and Mars, and geologic features of Mars.

Dalli, R.; Greeley, R.



Minnesota Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established in 1872 by the State of Minnesota as part of the University of Minnesota, the Minnesota Geological Survey (MGS) serves the people of Minnesota by providing systematic geoscience information to support the stewardship of water, land, and mineral resources. This rather lovely digital collection brings together a record of all items published by the MGS since its creation. Here, visitors will find documents, reports, maps, and GIS data for online viewing or downloading as well. The thematic collections here include the Aeromagnetic Map Series, the annual reports of the Minnesota Geological and Natural History Survey, and the wonderful county atlas series. Visitors with a penchant for geology, natural history, and geography will find much to enjoy here.


Geologic map of Mars  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This global geologic map of Mars, which records the distribution of geologic units and landforms on the planet's surface through time, is based on unprecedented variety, quality, and quantity of remotely sensed data acquired since the Viking Orbiters. These data have provided morphologic, topographic, spectral, thermophysical, radar sounding, and other observations for integration, analysis, and interpretation in support of geologic mapping. In particular, the precise topographic mapping now available has enabled consistent morphologic portrayal of the surface for global mapping (whereas previously used visual-range image bases were less effective, because they combined morphologic and albedo information and, locally, atmospheric haze). Also, thermal infrared image bases used for this map tended to be less affected by atmospheric haze and thus are reliable for analysis of surface morphology and texture at even higher resolution than the topographic products.

Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Skinner, James A.; Dohm, James M.; Irwin, Rossman P., III; Kolb, Eric J.; Fortezzo, Corey M.; Platz, Thomas; Michael, Gregory G.; Hare, Trent M.



Sedimentology and petroleum geology  

SciTech Connect

In this introduction to sedimentology and petroleum geology the subjects, which are closely related but mostly treated separately, are integrated. The first part covers the basic aspects of sedimentology, sedimentary geochemistry and diagenesis, including brief discussions of flow in rivers and channels, types of sediment transport, lake and river deposits, deltas (river-dominated, tide-dominated, and wave-dominated) and the water budget. Principles of stratigraphy, seismic stratigraphy and basin modeling form the basis for the last part on petroleum geology. Here subjects include the composition of kerogen and hydrocarbons, theories of migration and trapping of hydrocarbons and properties of reservoir rocks. Finally, short introductions to well logging and production geology are given.

Bjorlykke, K.



Global sedimentary geology program  

SciTech Connect

The Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, in collaboration with the International Association of Sedimentologists and the International Union of Geological Sciences Committee on Sedimentology, is developing a new international study under the provisional title of Global Sedimentary Geology Program (GSGP). Initially, three research themes are being considered: (1) event stratigraphy-the documentation of examples of mass extinctions, eustatic fluctuations in sea level, major episodes of volcanisms, and changes in ocean composition; (2) facies models in time and space-an expansion of the existing data base of examples of facies models (e.G., deltas, fluvial deposits, and submarine fans) and global-scale study of the persistence of facies at various times in geologic history; and (3) sedimentary indices of paleogeography and tectonics-the use of depositional facies and faunas in paleogeography and in assessing the timing, locus, and characteristics of tectonism. Plans are being developed to organize pilot projects in each of these themes.

Ginsburg, R.N.; Clifton, H.E.; Weimer, R.J.



Geology of Io  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Geologic mapping of the Jovian satellite Io has been completed at 1:15,000,000 scale for an area lying between +40 and -90 deg latitude and 230 and 45 deg longitude, which includes portions of the Ruwa Patera quadrangle (Ji2) and the Lerna Region (Ji4) and the westernmost section of the Colchis Region (Ji3). Image resolution in the mapped area is commonly 0.5 to 2 km/pxl. High resolution areas (less than .5 km/pxl) are located near the south pole (Lerna Region) and in eastern Ruwa Patera quadrangle. Geologic maps for the Ruwa Patera quadrangle (Ji2) and the Lerna Region (Ji4) have been produced at 1:5,000,000 scale. The present effort reexamines the previously mapped areas and synthesizes the geology of Io on a global scale.

Greeley, R.; Craddock, R. A.; Crown, D. A.; Leshin, L. A.; Schaber, G. G.



Preliminary Surficial Geology of the Dove Spring Off-Highway Vehicle Open Area, Mojave Desert, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Introduction As part of a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) monitoring plan to evaluate the environmental impact of off-highway vehicle (OHV) use on Bureau of Land Management (BLM) land in California, this report presents results of geologic studies in the Dove Spring OHV Open Area. This study produced baseline data, which when combined with historic and current patterns of land use, forms the basis for vegetation and wildlife monitoring designed to address the following questions: 1. Is the density and length of OHV routes increasing? 2. Are there cumulative effects of past and current OHV use associated with changes in the environmental integrity of soils, plants, and wildlife? 3. Is the spread of invasive species associated with levels of OHV use? 4. Is there a threshold of OHV impact that might be translated to management action by the BLM? The monitoring studies will be used to collect baseline environmental information to determine levels of environmental impact of OHV use. This approach will use a low-impact area as a proxy for pre-impact conditions (substituting space for time) to determine thresholds of OHV impacts beyond which environmental integrity is affected. Indicators of environmental integrity will emphasize factors that are fundamental to ecosystem structure and function and likely to be sensitive to OHV impacts. Surficial geology is studied because material properties such as texture and chemistry strongly control soil moisture and nutrient availability and therefore affect plant growth and distribution. An understanding of surficial geology can be used to predict and extrapolate soil properties and improve understanding of vegetation assemblages and their distribution. In the present study, vegetation associations may be examined as a function of surficial geology as well as other environmental variables such as slope, aspect, NRCS (National Resources Conservation Service) soil classification, elevation, and land-use history. Ground measurements of vegetation, biological soil crusts, compaction, and other information may be correlated with land use to identify possible ecological thresholds in OHV use that require monitoring. Surficial geology is relevant for several other studies of OHV impact, such as soil compaction, dust emissions, and acceleration of erosion. Compaction, reduced infiltration, and accelerated erosion have been documented in Dove Spring Canyon because of OHV use (Snyder and others, 1976) and elsewhere in the Mojave Desert (e.g., Webb, 1983; Langdon, 2000). A surficial geologic map enables the use of geomorphic process models, which when combined with measured soil properties, such as texture, nutrient chemistry, and bulk density, allows spatial extrapolation of the properties. Maps can be produced that predict compaction susceptibility, moisture conditions, dust emissions, flood hazards, and erodibility, among other applications.

Miller, David M.; Amoroso, Lee



Fundamental plasma emission involving ion sound waves  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The theory for fundamental plasma emission by the three-wave processes L + or - S to T (where L, S and T denote Langmuir, ion sound and transverse waves, respectively) is developed. Kinematic constraints on the characteristics and growth lengths of waves participating in the wave processes are identified. In addition the rates, path-integrated wave temperatures, and limits on the brightness temperature of the radiation are derived.

Cairns, Iver H.



Fundamentals of Atmospheric Radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This textbook fills a gap in the literature for teaching material suitable for students of atmospheric science and courses on atmospheric radiation. It covers the fundamentals of emission, absorption, and scattering of electromagnetic radiation from ultraviolet to infrared and beyond. Much of the book applies to planetary atmosphere. The authors are physicists and teach at the largest meteorology department of the US at Penn State. Craig T. Bohren has taught the atmospheric radiation course there for the past 20 years with no book. Eugene Clothiaux has taken over and added to the course notes. Problems given in the text come from students, colleagues, and correspondents. The design of the figures especially for this book is meant to ease comprehension. Discussions have a graded approach with a thorough treatment of subjects, such as single scattering by particles, at different levels of complexity. The discussion of the multiple scattering theory begins with piles of plates. This simple theory introduces concepts in more advanced theories, i.e. optical thickness, single-scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter. The more complicated theory, the two-stream theory, then takes the reader beyond the pile-of-plates theory. Ideal for advanced undergraduate and graduate students of atmospheric science.

Bohren, Craig F.; Clothiaux, Eugene E.



Fundamental principals of battery design: Porous electrodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fundamental aspects of a porous electrode from electrochemistry and material chemistry standpoints are discussed in the light of battery engineering designs. For example, the ionic diffusion, the electrode-electrolyte interface, interfacial charge transfer and electrode catalytic processes are discussed. The discussion of such fundamental electrochemical aspects is in conjunction with the design of batteries, e.g. the electrochemical assessable surface area for porous electrode, electrode catalytic reactions. The porous electrodes used as a gas diffusion electrode and the electrode in a supercapacitor are discussed to demonstrate the application of electrochemical principals in battery design.

Qu, Deyang



Principles of isotope geology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discussions of methods of isotope dating using Rb-Sr, K-Ar, ⁴°Ar\\/³⁹Ar, Re-Os, Lu-Hf, K-Ca, U, Tb-Pb, ¹⁴C, common lead, S,O,H, fission track, and U-series disequilibrium are included in respective chapters. Introductory chapters discussing the basics of isotope geology, atomic structure, decay mechanisms and mass spectrometry are included along with two appendices; the geological time scale for the Phanerzoic and a fitting

G Faure



Geological Survey of Alabama  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the Geological Survey of Alabama (GSA), a data gathering and research agency that explores and evaluates the mineral, water, energy, biological, and other natural resources of the State of Alabama and conducts basic and applied research in these fields as a public service to citizens of the State. The GSA homepage contains a geologic map of Alabama; information on GSA news and events; GSA publications; GIS data and maps; an Ask the Geologist, Hydrogeologist and Biologist link; and a Geospatial Data Clearinghouse.


BGS Geological Timechart  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the geological time scale developed by the British Geological Survey. The principal chart is the Phanerozoic (Cambrian to Quaternary) timescale. The names of the individual periods are live links, each one leading to a chart showing the subdivisions of each period into epochs and ages. The Proterozoic and Neoproterozoic sections are also linked to further subdivisions into eras and periods. Dates are in millions of years before present. A guide on the front page describes the bases for the divisions used on this time scale and how to use it, and a downloadable version is also provided.


Understanding Geological Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this classroom activity, middle school students gain an understanding of geologic time. The activity opens with background information for teachers about carbon and radiometric dating. In a classroom discussion, students share what they know about geologic time. Then, working in small groups responsible for different eras, students create a timeline for their assigned era by conducting library and Internet research. The activity concludes by having students review all the timelines to compare how long humans have been on the Earth to the length of time dinosaurs inhabited the planet.


Geologic guide to the island of Hawaii: A field guide for comparative planetary geology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With geological data available for all inner planets except Venus, we are entering an era of true comparative planetary geology, when knowledge of the differences and similarities for classes of structures (e.g., shield volcanoes) will lead to a better understanding of general geological processes, regardless of planet. Thus, it is imperative that planetologists, particularly those involved in geological mapping and surface feature analysis for terrestrial planets, be familiar with volcanic terrain in terms of its origin, structure, and morphology. One means of gaining this experience is through field trips in volcanic terrains - hence, the Planetology Conference in Hawaii. In addition, discussions with volcanologists at the conference provide an important basis for establishing communications between the two fields that will facilitate comparative studies as more data become available.

Greeley, R. (editor)



Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems: the AEGIS geologic simulation model  

SciTech Connect

Assessment of the post-closure performance of a nuclear waste repository has two basic components: the identification and analysis of potentially disruptive sequences and the pattern of geologic events and processes causing each sequence, and the identification and analysis of the environmental consequences of radionuclide transport and interactions subsequent to disruption of a repository. The AEGIS Scenario Analysis Task is charged with identifying and analyzing potenially disruptive sequences of geologic events and processes. The Geologic Simulation Model (GSM) was developed to evaluate the geologic/hydrologic system surrounding an underground repository, and describe the phenomena that alone, or in concert, could perturb the system and possibly cause a loss of repository integrity. The AEGIS approach is described in this report. It uses an integrated series of models for repository performance analysis; the GSM for a low-resolution, long-term, comprehensive evaluation of the geologic/hydrologic system, followed by more detailed hydrogeologic, radionuclide transport, and dose models to more accurately assess the consequences of disruptive sequences selected from the GSM analyses. This approach is felt to be more cost-effective than an integrated one because the GSM can be used to estimate the likelihoods of different potentially disruptive future evolutionary developments within the geologic/hydrologic system. The more costly consequence models can then be focused on a few disruptive sequences chosen for their representativeness and effective probabilities.

Foley, M.G.; Petrie, G.M.



Geological Sciences Jeffrey D. Keith, Chair  

E-print Network

it from the time of formation of the solar system. With the development of remote sensing technology and the exploration of the solar system by spacecraft, geological sciences have become increasingly important the sun. Understanding the dynamic processes of Earth and other planets is relevant to many societal needs

Hart, Gus


Calibrated Peer Review: Introduction - Why Study Geology?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sarah Andrews is a geologist who has also written a series of successful mystery novels featuring (naturally) a geologist who solves crimes in her spare time. Students read her article, "Why Study Geology?", then write and essay addressing points listed in the Writing Prompt. After this, students are introduced to the process of Calibrated Peer Review and evaluate their papers.

Elizabeth Heise


Remedial action plan for the inactive Uranium Processing Site at Naturita, Colorado. Remedial action plan: Attachment 2, Geology report, Attachment 3, Ground water hydrology report: Working draft  

SciTech Connect

The uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado, is one of 24 inactive uranium mill sites designated to be cleaned up by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), 42 USC {section}7901 et seq. Part of the UMTRCA requires that the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) concur with the DOE`s remedial action plan (RAP) and certify that the remedial action conducted at the site complies with the standards promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This RAP serves two purposes. First, it describes the activities that are proposed by the DOE to accomplish remediation and long-term stabilization and control of the radioactive materials at the inactive uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado. Second, this RAP, upon concurrence and execution by the DOE, the state of Colorado, and the NRC, become Appendix B of the cooperative agreement between the DOE and the state of Colorado.

Not Available



Fundamentals of numerical magnetohydrodynamics  

SciTech Connect

Magnetohydrodynamics is a fluid model for the motion of an ionized gas in a magnetic field. In its ideal, non-dissipative form, the Lundquist equations, it has the same mathematical character as the model for gas dynamics. It gives, in the same way, a self-consistent description of the fluid dynamics, including the exchange of momentum and energy between the field and the fluid. However, because of the greater complexity of the physics which they describe, some aspects of the solutions are quite different. The magnetic field introduces a strong anisotropic character to the medium which causes wave propagation to depend on the direction of propagation with respect of the magnetic field. In addition, there are several distinct speeds so that, in general, the responses to disturbances are quite complex. To capture the principal features of the solutions in numerical calculations, several problems must be addressed. Some of these problems are unique to MHD: for example, preserving the solenoidality of the magnetic field. Others are similar to ordinary gas dynamics, such as energy conservation, numerical stability, and computational diffusion, but are more complex or have different consequences for MHD than for ordinary fluid flow. These fundamental problems in the numerical solution of the MHD equations are discussed as four topics: the dispersion of the Lundquist equations and the dispersion and stability of finite difference approximations; the conservation laws of MHD and the achievement of conservation in the numerical solutions; a discussion of convective transport and its role in computational diffusion; and finally, a method for preserving the solenoidality of the magnetic field.

Brackbill, J.U.



Argillization processes at the El Berrocal analogue granitic system (Spain): mineralogy, isotopic study and implications for the performance assessment of radwaste geological disposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The El Berrocal granite\\/U-bearing quartz vein (UQV) system has been studied as a natural analogue of a high-level radioactive waste repository. The main objective was to understand the geochemical behaviour of natural nuclides under different physicochemical conditions. Within this framework, the argillization processes related to fracturing and formation of the uranium–quartz vein were studied from a mineralogical and isotopic standpoint

L Pérez del Villar; E Reyes; A Delgado; R Núñez; M Pelayo; J. S Cózar



Geology Fieldnotes: Colorado National Monument, Colorado  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This monument lies in a region once known as the Uncompahgre Highland (igneous and metamorphic), but has been eroded away to the canyons and domes seen today. Mostly sandstone rocks are found today, dating back between 225-65 million years (Mesozoic), embedded with fossils dating back 100 million years. Uplift, faulting, and erosion are all processes that have shaped this area. The site covers geology as well as human history, and contains photos, links, visitor information, and a teacher feature (tools for teaching geology with National Park examples).

Foos, Annabelle


Reports of Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program, 1984  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics include outer planets and satellites; asteroids and comets; Venus; lunar origin and solar dynamics; cratering process; planetary interiors, petrology, and geochemistry; volcanic processes; aeolian processes and landforms; fluvial processes; geomorphology; periglacial and permafrost processes; remote sensing and regolith studies; structure, tectonics, and stratigraphy; geological mapping, cartography, and geodesy; and radar applications.

Holt, H. E. (compiler); Watters, T. R. (compiler)



Fundamentals of Airframe Repair  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On this site, visitors will find introductory materials to airframes and airframe repair for helicopters and airplanes. The resource is divided into two parts; part one discusses the basic components and processes of airframes, and part two covers airframe damage repair. Additionally, each part is broken down into four lessons, including Aviation Hardware, Structural Repair, and Metal-Working Processes. The text of the material is supplemented with helpful labeled drawings to illustrate each part of the airframe. This resource is useful for students who are just beginning in the field of airframe maintenance and repair, or the more general fields of aeronautics or aeronautical engineering.


Life on Guam: Geology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit is part of a series of materials produced by a project to develop locally applicable class, lab, and field materials in ecology and social studies for Guam junior and senior high schools. While the materials were designed for Guam, they can be adapted to other localities. This unit is designed to acquaint the students with the geology of…

Elkins, Gail


Geology by Lightplane  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is a collection of aerial images of US geological features. Detailed 2000-pixel-wide JPEG versions of these photos (averaging 1MB in size and suitable for video projection or for slides) can be down-loaded from an FTP site. There are also text captions for the photographs.

Maher, Louis J.; Wisconsin-Madison, The D.