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Editor's Note: Geology Is Fundamental (December 2006)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Geology is fundamental. The usual triad of sciences (chemistry, physics, and biology) is also clearly important. Not much can be explained without physics, for example. But geology, the history of Earth, is an application of these sciences that deserves more attention. It can be immediately seen around us whether we live in Arizona or Iowa. This issue presents lessons that will introduce Earth science concepts to your students and make them applicable in your classroom.

Ohana, Chris



Field Geology/Processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The field geology/process group examined the basic operations of a terrestrial field geologist and the manner in which these operations could be transferred to a planetary lander. Four basic requirements for robotic field geology were determined: geologic content; surface vision; mobility; and manipulation. Geologic content requires a combination of orbital and descent imaging. Surface vision requirements include range, resolution, stereo, and multispectral imaging. The minimum mobility for useful field geology depends on the scale of orbital imagery. Manipulation requirements include exposing unweathered surfaces, screening samples, and bringing samples in contact with analytical instruments. To support these requirements, several advanced capabilities for future development are recommended. Capabilities include near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy, hyper-spectral imaging, multispectral microscopy, artificial intelligence in support of imaging, x ray diffraction, x ray fluorescence, and rock chipping.

Allen, Carlton; Jakes, Petr; Jaumann, Ralf; Marshall, John; Moses, Stewart; Ryder, Graham; Saunders, Stephen; Singer, Robert



Oceanography - Marine Geological Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A first year course in oceanography with extensive Internet resources. Topics covered include: principles of thermodynamics, heat and mass transfer, fluid mechanics, continuum mechanics, and time-series analysis applied to marine geological and geophysical data; applications to transport of marine sediments; Pleistocene sedimentation and global climate change; and the thermal balance of the oceanic lithosphere. The link to the lecture schedule provides detailed supporting materials.

Mcduff, Russell


Coastal Geological Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Coastlines are places of continuous, often dramatic geological activity. They change daily and seasonally, but especially over long time periods. This interactive feature discusses the forces that help shape coastal landforms like cliffs and beaches. Topics include waves, tides, and currents; weathering, erosion, and deposition; and other factors, such as the activity of organisms and human modifications. A background essay and discussion questions are included.



Coastal Geological Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Coastlines are places of continuous, often dramatic geological activity. They change daily and seasonally, but especially over long time periods. This interactive feature discusses the forces that help shape coastal landforms like cliffs and beaches. Topics include waves, tides, and currents; weathering, erosion, and deposition; and other factors, such as the activity of organisms and human modifications. A background essay and discussion questions are included.


Computer image processing: Geologic applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer image processing of digital data was performed to support several geological studies. The specific goals were to: (1) relate the mineral content to the spectral reflectance of certain geologic materials, (2) determine the influence of environmental factors, such as atmosphere and vegetation, and (3) improve image processing techniques. For detection of spectral differences related to mineralogy, the technique of band ratioing was found to be the most useful. The influence of atmospheric scattering and methods to correct for the scattering were also studied. Two techniques were used to correct for atmospheric effects: (1) dark object subtraction, (2) normalization of use of ground spectral measurements. Of the two, the first technique proved to be the most successful for removing the effects of atmospheric scattering. A digital mosaic was produced from two side-lapping LANDSAT frames. The advantages were that the same enhancement algorithm can be applied to both frames, and there is no seam where the two images are joined.

Abrams, M. J.



Planetary geology: Impact processes on asteroids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fundamental geological and geophysical properties of asteroids were studied by theoretical and simulation studies of their collisional evolution. Numerical simulations incorporating realistic physical models were developed to study the collisional evolution of hypothetical asteroid populations over the age of the solar system. Ideas and models are constrained by the observed distributions of sizes, shapes, and spin rates in the asteroid belt, by properties of Hirayama families, and by experimental studies of cratering and collisional phenomena. It is suggested that many asteroids are gravitationally-bound "rubble piles.' Those that rotate rapidly may have nonspherical quasi-equilibrium shapes, such as ellipsoids or binaries. Through comparison of models with astronomical data, physical properties of these asteroids (including bulk density) are determined, and physical processes that have operated in the solar system in primordial and subsequent epochs are studied.

Chapman, C. R.; Davis, D. R.; Greenberg, R.; Weidenschilling, S. J.



Health benefits of geologic materials and geologic processes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The reemerging field of Medical Geology is concerned with the impacts of geologic materials and geologic processes on animal and human health. Most medical geology research has been focused on health problems caused by excess or deficiency of trace elements, exposure to ambient dust, and on other geologically related health problems or health problems for which geoscience tools, techniques, or databases could be applied. Little, if any, attention has been focused on the beneficial health effects of rocks, minerals, and geologic processes. These beneficial effects may have been recognized as long as two million years ago and include emotional, mental, and physical health benefits. Some of the earliest known medicines were derived from rocks and minerals. For thousands of years various clays have been used as an antidote for poisons. "Terra sigillata," still in use today, may have been the first patented medicine. Many trace elements, rocks, and minerals are used today in a wide variety of pharmaceuticals and health care products. There is also a segment of society that believes in the curative and preventative properties of crystals (talismans and amulets). Metals and trace elements are being used in some of today's most sophisticated medical applications. Other recent examples of beneficial effects of geologic materials and processes include epidemiological studies in Japan that have identified a wide range of health problems (such as muscle and joint pain, hemorrhoids, burns, gout, etc.) that may be treated by one or more of nine chemically distinct types of hot springs, and a study in China indicating that residential coal combustion may be mobilizing sufficient iodine to prevent iodine deficiency disease. ?? 2006 MDPI. All rights reserved.

Finkelman, R.B.



Comparison Charts of Geological Processes: Terrestrial Planets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This chart presents information on the geological processes (volcanism, impact cratering, tectonics, and gradation) that have affected the Earth, Moon, and the terrestrial planets. Students compare the effects these processes have had on the Moon and planets. There is also a blank chart and a sheet of notes on the geological processes that may be used in conjunction with this chart. This chart is one of the activities for the Exploring Planets in the Classroom's Introduction to the Solar System.


Fundamental Processes in Plasmas. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This research focuses on fundamental processes in plasmas, and emphasizes problems for which precise experimental tests of theory can be obtained. Experiments are performed on non-neutral plasmas, utilizing three electron traps and one ion trap with a broad range of operating regimes and diagnostics. Theory is focused on fundamental plasma and fluid processes underlying collisional transport and fluid turbulence, using both analytic techniques and medium-scale numerical simulations. The simplicity of these systems allows a depth of understanding and a precision of comparison between theory and experiment which is rarely possible for neutral plasmas in complex geometry. The recent work has focused on three areas in basic plasma physics. First, experiments and theory have probed fundamental characteristics of plasma waves: from the low-amplitude thermal regime, to inviscid damping and fluid echoes, to cold fluid waves in cryogenic ion plasmas. Second, the wide-ranging effects of dissipative separatrices have been studied experimentally and theoretically, finding novel wave damping and coupling effects and important plasma transport effects. Finally, correlated systems have been investigated experimentally and theoretically: UCSD experients have now measured the Salpeter correlation enhancement, and theory work has characterized the 'guiding center atoms of antihydrogen created at CERN.

O'Neil, Thomas M.; Driscoll, C. Fred



Impact process: an important geological phenomenon.  


The impact process was for a long period of time, even after a wider acceptance among the geological community, considered to be a marginal phenomenon in the Earth sciences. The first decade or two have showed an importance of the process itself and consequent events only too clearly. The present paper is a review describing the history and development of the impact hypothesis, structure and origin of impact craters, influence of huge impacts on the living environment and other aspects of the impact process from the point of view of geology s.l. PMID:11541230

Skala, R



Computer simulation of geological processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To realistically simulate subsurface processes such as fluid flow, three dimensional models are needed. The physical processes involved in these models are specified by differential equations coupled by pressure- and temperature-dependent physical properties. Finite element numerical methods are used here to solve the equations. This thesis illustrates some of these methods. The equations that are used in these models are all derived and explained. Also, the definition and sample values of all the basic physical properties are provided in introductory chapters. Oil is generated in sedimentary basins when the temperature is within a certain range. Hence only specific regions within a sedimentary basin are capable of generating oil. If oil is generated, it needs to find pathways to shallower reservoirs where commercially significant quantities can accumulate. This migration procedure is normally a vertical process but can, depending on the permeability conditions, move hundreds of kilometers horizontally. Hot magma intrusions cause seawater to convect below the seafloor. This convective motion can generate mineral deposits. To understand where these deposits will form and how large they can be, 3D convection models are used to simulate the mineral deposition process. The results are given in the form of maps of the numerically simulated deposits on the seafloor. Fluids in sedimentary basins generally consist of several phases, such as water gas and oil. The existence of more than one phase can affect how fluids flow in reservoirs and inhibit production. The temperature and pressure conditions are other factors that determine what fraction of a hydrocarbon mixture is in a gas phases or in a liquid phase. The calculations for phase behavior of fluids and reservoir simulation calculations are carried out in the last two chapters.

Erendi, Alex



Acoustic fluidization - A new geologic process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of geologic processes, particularly seismic faulting, impact crater slumping, and long runout landslides, require the failure of geologic materials under differential stresses much smaller than expected on the basis of conventional rock mechanics. This paper proposes that the low strengths apparent in these phenomena are due to a state of 'acoustic fluidization' induced by a transient strong acoustic wave field. The strain rates possible in such a field are evaluated, and it is shown that acoustically fluidized debris behaves as a newtonian fluid with a viscosity in the range 100,000 to 10,000,000 P for plausible conditions. Energy gains and losses in the acoustic field are discussed, and the mechanism is shown to be effective if internal dissipation in the field gives a Q approximately greater than 100. Whether such values for Q are realized is not known at present. However, acoustic fluidization provides a qualitatively correct description of the failure of rock debris under low differential stresses in the processes of faulting, crater slumping, and long runout landslides. Acoustic fluidization thus deserves serious consideration as a possible explanation of these phenomena.

Melosh, H. J.



The activated sludge process: Fundamentals of operation  

SciTech Connect

The procedures given here - based on extensive and intensive experience. Background information on process mechanics is followed by detailed consideration of control and troubleshooting practices. Contents: PREFACE AND INTRODUCTION; PROCESS MECHANICS; Basic Mechanism of Activated Sludge Systems; Formation of Activated Sludge; Growth of Microorganisms; Classifications of Microorganisms: Type, Environment, Age; Solids Separation and Return; FACTORS AFFECTING OPERATION; Raw Wastewater Strength; Dissolved Oxygen; pH; Temperature; Nutrients; Toxicity; Mixing; Detention Time; Hydraulics; PROCESS MODIFICATIONS; Conventional; Complete Mix; Contact-Stabilization; Extended Aeration; Others; PROCESS MONITORING; Visual; Analytical Indicators; OPERATIONAL CONTROL; Sludge Volume Index; Sludge Age; Mean Cell Residence Time; Food/Microorganism Ratio; Organic Loading Rate; Solids Loading Rate; Clarifier Overflow Rate; Weir Overflow Rate; Sludge Recycle Rate, Sludge Wastage Rate; Chemical Feed Rate; TROUBLESHOOTING; Low BOD Removal; Low D.O. in Aeration Baisn; Poor Settling; PLANT START-UP; Introduction; Pre Start-up Checkup; Wastewater Analysis; Seed Screening; Process Checklist; Mechanical Checklist; Familiarization and Training; Start-up; Seeding; Process Monitoring; Transition; Typical Start-up Problems; Foaming; Settling Problems; Low BOD Removal; INDEX.

Junkins, R.; Deeny, K.J.; Eckhoff, T.H.



Quantifying the Spatial Distribution of Geological Point Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geological point processes occur frequently in a wide variety of geoscience fields, including the study of mineral deposits, oil producing wells, earthquakes, and landsides. Characterization of the spatial distribution of geological point processes is important for understanding the properties of geological processes or events. Three examples of geological point processes respectively dealing with metallic mineral deposits, oil producing wells and Wenchuan aftershocks were studied. It is demonstrated that (1) the L(r), G(r), F(r) and J(r) functions are useful tools to assess whether or not a point pattern shows spatial clustering; (2) the clustering statistics of the underlying geological process are farctal; (3) a higher intensity point pattern generally has relatively large box dimension and low lacunarity; and (4) the features of geological point processes, such as metal grade, total amount or magnitude also have fractal properties.

Zuo, R.; Cheng, Q.



Axioms and fundamental equations of image processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Image-processing transforms must satisfy a list of formal requirements. We discuss these requirements and classify them into three categories: “architectural requirements” like locality, recursivity and causality in the scale space, “stability requirements” like the comparison principle and “morphological requirements”, which correspond to shape-preserving properties (rotation invariance, scale invariance, etc.). A complete classification is given of all image multiscale transforms satisfying

Luis Alvarez; Frédéric Guichard; Pierre-Louis Lions; Jean-Michel Morel



Significant achievements in the Planetary Geology Program. [geologic processes, comparative planetology, and solar system evolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Developments reported at a meeting of principal investigators for NASA's planetology geology program are summarized. Topics covered include: constraints on solar system formation; asteriods, comets, and satellites; constraints on planetary interiors; volatiles and regoliths; instrument development techniques; planetary cartography; geological and geochemical constraints on planetary evolution; fluvial processes and channel formation; volcanic processes; Eolian processes; radar studies of planetary surfaces; cratering as a process, landform, and dating method; and the Tharsis region of Mars. Activities at a planetary geology field conference on Eolian processes are reported and techniques recommended for the presentation and analysis of crater size-frequency data are included.

Head, J. W. (editor)



Prevention Education Effects on Fundamental Memory Processes  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated effects of a key session from a nationally recognized drug abuse prevention program on basic memory processes in 211 high-risk youth in Southern California. In a randomized, between-subject design, the authors manipulated assignment to a Myth and Denial program session and the time of assessment (immediate vs. one-week delay). The authors examined program decay effects on memory accessibility and judgment errors. Those participants exposed to the program session generated more myths and facts from the program than those in the control group, suggesting that even a single program session influenced students’ memory for program information and this was retained at least one week and detectable with indirect tests of memory accessibility. However, consistent with basic research perspectives, participants in the program delayed assessment group erroneously generated more fact-related information from the session to the prompt “It is a myth that_____” than the participants in the program immediate assessment group; that is, they retained more facts as myths. These types of program effects, anticipated by basic memory theory, were not detected with a traditional judgment task in the present sample. The results suggest that basic science approaches offer a novel way of conceptually recasting prevention effects to more completely understand how these effects may operate. Implications for program evaluation and conceptualization are discussed. PMID:22544598

Ames, Susan L.; Krank, Marvin; Grenard, Jerry L.; Sussman, Steve; Stacy, Alan W.



Geologic processes on Venus: An update  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies of Venera 15 and 16 radar image and altimetry data and reevaluation of Pioneer Venus and earlier Venera data have greatly expanded the perception of the variety and complexity of geologic processes on Venus. PV data have discriminated four highland regions (each different in geomorphic appearance), a large upland rolling plains region, and smaller areas of lowland plains. Two highland volcanic centers were identified that may be presently active, as suggested by their geomorphologic appearance combined with positive gravity anomalies, lightning strike clusters, and a change in SO2 content in the upper atmosphere. Geochemical data obtained by the Venera landers have indicated that one upland area and nearby rolling plains are composed of volcanic rocks, probably basalts or syenites. New Venera radar images of the Ishtar Terra region show folded and/or faulted linear terrain and associated volcanic features that may have been deformed by both compressional and extensional forces. Lowland surfaces resemble the mare basaltic lava flows that fill basins on the Moon, Mars and Earth. Ubiquitous crater like forms may be of either volcanic or impact origin; the origin of similar lunar features was determined by the character of their ejecta deposits.

Masursky, H.



The Moon: Keystone to Understanding Planetary Geological Processes and History  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Extensive and intensive exploration of the Earth's Moon by astronauts and an international array of automated spacecraft has provided an unequaled data set that has provided deep insight into geology, geochemistry, mineralogy, petrology, chronology, geophysics and internal structure. This level of insight is unequaled except for Earth. Analysis of these data sets over the last 35 years has proven fundamental to understanding planetary surface processes and evolution, and is essential to linking surface processes with internal and thermal evolution. Much of the understanding that we presently have of other terrestrial planets and outer planet satellites derives from the foundation of these data. On the basis of these data, the Moon is a laboratory for understanding of planetary processes and a keystone for providing evolutionary perspective. Important comparative planetology issues being addressed by lunar studies include impact cratering, magmatic activity and tectonism. Future planetary exploration plans should keep in mind the importance of further lunar exploration in continuing to build solid underpinnings in this keystone to planetary evolution. Examples of these insights and applications to other planets are cited.



Fundamental studies of catalytic processing of synthetic liquids  

SciTech Connect

This project revolves around understanding the fundamental processes involved in the catalytic removal of harmful oxygenated organics present in coal liquids. We are modelling the complex type of sulfided Mo catalyst proposed for these reactions with simple single crystal surfaces. These display a controlled range and number of reaction sites and can be extensively characterized by surface science techniques. We then investigate the reaction pathways for representative simple oxygenates upon these surfaces.

Watson, P.R.



Scaling filtering and multiplicative cascade information integration techniques for geological, geophysical and geochemical data processing and geological feature recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces several techniques recently developed based on the concepts of multiplicative cascade processes and multifractals for processing exploration geochemical and geophysical data for recognition of geological features and delineation of target areas for undiscovered mineral deposits. From a nonlinear point of view extreme geo-processes such as cloud formation, rainfall, hurricanes, flooding, landslides, earthquakes, igneous activities, tectonics and mineralization often show singular property that they may result in anomalous amounts of energy release or mass accumulation that generally are confined to narrow intervals in space or time. The end products of these non-linear processes have in common that they can be modeled as fractals or multifractals. Here we show that the three fundamental concepts of scaling in the context of multifractals: singularity, self-similarity and fractal dimension spectrum, make multifractal theory and methods useful for geochemical and geophysical data processing for general purposes of geological features recognition. These methods include: a local singularity analysis based on a area-density (C-A) multifractal model used as a scaling high-pass filtering technique capable of extracting weak signals caused by buried geological features; a suite of multifractal filtering techniques based on spectrum density - area (S-A) multifractal models implemented in various domain including frequency domain can be used for unmixing geochemical or geophysical fields according to distinct generalized self-similarities characterized in certain domain; and multiplicative cascade processes for integration of diverse evidential layers of information for prediction of point events such as location of mineral deposits. It is demonstrated by several case studies involving Fe, Sn, Mo-Ag and Mo-W mineral deposits that singularity method can be utilized to process stream sediment/soil geochemical data and gravity/aeromagnetic data as high-pass filtering technique for delineating anomalies caused by mineralization or boundaries of mineralization-associated geological bodies; S-A method can be applied as high-pass, low-pass or band -pass filtering techniques for extracting patterns of interest from mixing data; and cascade processes can be implemented to integrate diverse layers of information for mineral resources predictive mapping.

Cheng, Q.



Fundamental studies of chemical vapor deposition diamond growth processes  

SciTech Connect

We are developing laser spectroscopic techniques to foster a fundamental understanding of diamond film growth by hot filament chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Several spectroscopic techniques are under investigation to identify intermediate species present in the bulk reactor volume, the thin active volume immediately above the growing film, and the actual growing surface. Such a comprehensive examination of the overall deposition process is necessary because a combination of gas phase and surface chemistry is probably operating. Resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) techniques have been emphasized. A growth rector that permits through-the-substrate gas sampling for REMPI/time-of-flight mass spectroscopy has been developed. 7 refs., 2 figs.

Shaw, R.W.; Whitten, W.B.; Ramsey, J.M.; Heatherly, L.



Fundamental electron collision processes relevant to low-temperature plasmas  

SciTech Connect

This paper attempts to elucidate the mutually beneficial interaction between electron collision physics and the physics and chemistry that govern the properties of low temperature plasmas, in particular technologically relevant low-temperature processing plasmas. We hope to demonstrate how recent developments in collision physics contributed to an improved understanding of the fundamental collision processes in low-temperature plasmas, how they made possible more sophisticated modelling efforts of such plasmas and how they advanced the development of more sensitive plasma diagnostics techniques. At the same time, we hope to show how some of the many unanswered questions and challenges faced by the plasma processing community have stimulated new developments and novel approaches in atomic and electron collision physics. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Becker, K.H. [Physics Department, City College of C.U.N.Y., Convent Avenue and 138th Street, New York, New York 10031-9198 (United States)



Fundamental Processes of Atomization in Fluid-Fluid Flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report outlines the major results of the grant "Fundamental Processes of Atomization in Fluid-Fluid Flows." These include: 1) the demonstration that atomization in liquid/liquid shear flow is driven by a viscous shear instability that triggers the formation of a long thin sheet; 2) discovery of a new mode of interfacial instability for oscillatory two-layer systems whereby a mode that originates within the less viscous liquid phase causes interfacial deformation as the oscillation proceeds; 3) the demonstration that rivulet formation from gravity front occurs because the local front shape specified by gravity and surface tension changes from a nose to a wedge geometry, thus triggering a large increase in viscous resistance; and 4) extension of the studies on nonlinear wave evolution on falling films and in stratified flow, particularly the evolution towards large-amplitude solitary waves that tend to generate drops.

McCready, M. J.; Chang, H.-C.; Leighton, D. T.



Geologic input to work processes at Duri Field, Indonesia  

SciTech Connect

Dud Field, central Sumatra, Indonesia, at 300,000 bbls per day from over 3000 wells is considered the world`s largest steamflood. A project of this magnitude presents significant challenges during the planning, implementation, and operational phases. One of the biggest challenges was to increase the amount of geological data being used in decisions made on a daily basis in operations. This paper will focus on the contributions made by geologists to pattern analysis, a key process within the now, cross-functional, Asset Management Teams. The geological contribution to pattern analysis is zone correlation, geostatistical modeling, and establishment of flow units on a pattern basis. The tools necessary for the effort include statistics, formation evaluation, post steam resistivity logs, computer mapping (reserves, kh, Phi-H-So, transmissivity, 4D seismic). All applied on a pattern area to layers (15 acre patterns, 5-8 layers per pattern). The geology products are now integrated with other information, (temperature surveys, krypton surveys, PNC logs, well head temperatures, liner damage image), all previously used with little geology input. Each AMT is responsible for approximately 150-200 patterns and each pattern must be reviewed twice a year. Each work day of the year, up to 24 wells and all new data are reviewed. The pace of work requires dependable, easily communicated analyses. Estimates that this layer management of the steamflood increases the recovery efficiency by 5% at a minimum, a potential increase in reserves of 500 million barrels.

Primadi, H.; Jackson, W.D.; McNaboe, G.J.; Bamahry, L. [and others



Geologic input to work processes at Duri Field, Indonesia  

SciTech Connect

Dud Field, central Sumatra, Indonesia, at 300,000 bbls per day from over 3000 wells is considered the world's largest steamflood. A project of this magnitude presents significant challenges during the planning, implementation, and operational phases. One of the biggest challenges was to increase the amount of geological data being used in decisions made on a daily basis in operations. This paper will focus on the contributions made by geologists to pattern analysis, a key process within the now, cross-functional, Asset Management Teams. The geological contribution to pattern analysis is zone correlation, geostatistical modeling, and establishment of flow units on a pattern basis. The tools necessary for the effort include statistics, formation evaluation, post steam resistivity logs, computer mapping (reserves, kh, Phi-H-So, transmissivity, 4D seismic). All applied on a pattern area to layers (15 acre patterns, 5-8 layers per pattern). The geology products are now integrated with other information, (temperature surveys, krypton surveys, PNC logs, well head temperatures, liner damage image), all previously used with little geology input. Each AMT is responsible for approximately 150-200 patterns and each pattern must be reviewed twice a year. Each work day of the year, up to 24 wells and all new data are reviewed. The pace of work requires dependable, easily communicated analyses. Estimates that this layer management of the steamflood increases the recovery efficiency by 5% at a minimum, a potential increase in reserves of 500 million barrels.

Primadi, H.; Jackson, W.D.; McNaboe, G.J.; Bamahry, L. (and others)



Digitizing rocks: Standardizing the process of geologic description with workstations  

SciTech Connect

In the drive to squeeze the most value from every dollar spent on exploration and development, increasing use is being made of stored data through methods that rely on the completeness and accuracy of the database for their usefulness. Although many types of engineering data are available to the process, geologic data, especially those collected at a sufficiently detailed level to show reservoir heterogeneity, are often unavailable to later workers in any useful form. Traditionally, most wellsite geologic data are recorded on worksheets or notebooks, from which summary data are often transferred to computers. The only changes in recent years have been related to the process by which computer-drafted lithology logs have superseded hand-drawn logs; in some exceptions, some of the plotting data may be held in a simple database. These descriptions and analyses, gathered at considerable cost and capable of showing significant petrological detail, are not available to the whole field-development process. The authors set out to tackle these problems of limited usefulness and development a system that would deliver quality geologic data deep into the field of play in a form that was easy to select and integrated with existing models.

Saunders, M.R.; Shields, J.A.; Taylor, M.R. [Baker Hughes INTEQ, Houston, TX (United States)



Will Somebody do the Dishes? Weathering Analogies, Geologic Processes and Geologic Time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A good analogy is one of the most powerful tools in any instructors' arsenal, and encouraging students to explore the links between an analogy and a scientific concept can cement both ideas in a student's mind. A common analogy for weathering and erosion processes is doing the dishes. Oxidation, hydration, and solution reactions can be intimidating on the chalkboard but easily understood in the context of cleaning up after dinner. Rather than present this analogy as a lecture demonstration, students are encouraged to experimentally determine which type of weathering works best on their dirty dishes. The experiment must use at least four identically dirty dishes: three experimental dishes and one control dish. The experimental dishes are subjected to simulated weathering and erosion processes of the student's design. Common techniques developed by students are cold or warm water baths, baths with and without acid (lemon juice or soda), and freeze-thaw cycles. Occasionally creative experiments result in unexpected discoveries, such the inefficiency of abrasion from wind-blown sand, especially when compared to soaking dishes in Canadian Whiskey. The effectiveness of each experimental run is determined by comparison to the control plate after loose debris is removed from each. The dish with the smallest aerial extent of remaining food is the declared the most effective. Discussion sections of the experimental write-up includes a description of which geologic processes were being simulated in each experiment, comparisons of the effectiveness of each techniques, and statements of how these experiments differ from reality. In order to advance this project, a second stage of the assignment, a direct comparison of weathering and erosion techniques on food and on geologic materials, will be added this fall. Ideally, students will empirically derive erosion rates and calculate the time required to remove the volume of material represented by a geologically important feature, such as Mt. Rainier or the Grand Canyon. In the end, students completing this project gain an understanding of how geologic processes work, the time scales required, the differences between analogies and the real thing, and arguably the most important aspect, a best-practices approach to doing the dishes.

Stelling, P.; Wuotila, S.; Giuliani, M.



On fundamental cellular processes for emergence of collective epithelial movement  

PubMed Central

Summary In all animals, collective cell movement is an essential process in many events, including wound healing and embryonic development. However, our understanding of what characterizes the emergence of multicellular collective behavior is still far from complete. In this article we showed the fundamental cellular processes that drive collective cell movement by means of integrated approaches, including precise quantification measurements and mathematical modeling of measured data. First, we observed the dependence of the collective behaviors of cultured human skin cells on Ca2+ concentrations. When the culturing area confined by a PDMS sheet was suddenly expanded by removing the sheet, the group of cells moved to the expanded area with higher collectivity at higher Ca2+ concentrations. Next, we quantitatively measured cellular responses to the Ca2+ treatments, such as cell growth, cell division, and the strength of intercellular adhesion. Using a femtosecond-laser-based assay, an original method for estimating intercellular adhesion, we found that the strength of intercellular adhesion has an approximately 13-fold range in our treatments. Incorporating the quantitative data into a mathematical model, we then confirmed that the model well reproduced the multicellular behaviors we observed, demonstrating that the strength of intercellular adhesion sufficiently determines the generation of collective cell movement. Finally, we performed extensive numerical experiments, and the results suggested that the emergence of collective cell movement is derived by an optimal balance between the strength of intercellular adhesion and the intensity of cell migration. PMID:23862013

Hirashima, Tsuyoshi; Hosokawa, Yoichiroh; Iino, Takanori; Nagayama, Masaharu



Magnetic Reconnection: A Fundamental Process in Space Plasmas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For many years, collisionless magnetic reconnect ion has been recognized as a fundamental process, which facilitates plasma transport and energy release in systems ranging from the astrophysical plasmas to magnetospheres and even laboratory plasma. Beginning with work addressing solar dynamics, it has been understood that reconnection is essential to explain solar eruptions, the interaction of the solar wind with the magnetosphere, and the dynamics of the magnetosphere. Accordingly, the process of magnetic reconnection has been and remains a prime target for space-based and laboratory studies, as well as for theoretical research. Much progress has been made throughout the years, beginning with indirect verifications by studies of processes enabled by reconnection, such as Coronal Mass Ejections, Flux Transfer Events, and Plasmoids. Theoretical advances have accompanied these observations, moving knowledge beyond the Sweet-Parker theory to the recognition that other, collisionless, effects are available and likely to support much faster reconnect ion rates. At the present time we are therefore near a break-through in our understanding of how collisionless reconnect ion works. Theory and modeling have advanced to the point that two competing theories are considered leading candidates for explaining the microphysics of this process. Both theories predict very small spatial and temporal scales. which are. to date, inaccessible to space-based or laboratory measurements. The need to understand magnetic reconnect ion has led NASA to begin the implementation of a tailored mission, Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS), a four spacecraft cluster equipped to resolve all relevant spatial and temporal scales. In this presentation, we present an overview of current knowledge as well as an outlook towards measurements provided by MMS.

Hesse, Michael



Online Courses: Mississippi State University: Geology I: Processes and Products  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Does your curriculum include concepts in geology? Do you need to continue your education in earth science? Geology I from the Teachers in Geosciences covers the foundational material in physical geology that you need to understand to successfully teach



Processing of multispectral thermal IR data for geologic applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multispectral thermal IR data were acquired with a 24-channel scanner flown in an aircraft over the E. Tintic Utah mining district. These digital image data required extensive computer processing in order to put the information into a format useful for a geologic photointerpreter. Simple enhancement procedures were not sufficient to reveal the total information content because the data were highly correlated in all channels. The data were shown to be dominated by temperature variations across the scene, while the much more subtle spectral variations between the different rock types were of interest. The image processing techniques employed to analyze these data are described.

Kahle, A. B.; Madura, D. P.; Soha, J. M.



Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals, Academy of Sciences Environmental Process Engineering Laboratory  

E-print Network

Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals, Academy of Sciences Environmental Process Engineering Laboratory Prague, Czech Republic Vladimír Církva #12;MICROWAVE PHOTOCHEMISTRY = combination of UV. Photochem. Photobiol. A: Chem. in print] #12;Testing of EDL Performance for spectral measurements (Micro

Cirkva, Vladimir


Fundamental studies of catalytic processing of synthetic liquids  

SciTech Connect

This project revolves around understanding the fundamental processes involved in the catalytic removal of harmful oxygenated organics present in coal liquids. We are modelling the complex type of sulfided Mo catalyst proposed for these reactions with simple single crystal surfaces. These display a controlled range and number of reaction sites and can be extensively characterized by surface science techniques. We then investigate the reaction pathways for representative simple oxygenates upon these surfaces. The reaction of furan on sulfided Mo(110) closely resembles that on the (100) surface, consisting mainly of fragmentation. Some differences in detail are apparent that need further study. After pre-dosing with hydrogen, or in a hydrogen (deuterium) atmosphere (up to 5 {times} 10 {sup {minus}7} torr), the reaction pathways for furan change little, though there is evidence for the production of surface formyl radicals. We will attempt to induce HDO activity by using (a) using higher H{sub 2} pressures and (b) performing reactions on a preformed C/S/H{sub x} surface layer. 2 refs., 3 figs.

Watson, P.R.



Fundamental Chemical Kinetic And Thermodynamic Data For Purex Process Models  

SciTech Connect

To support either the continued operations of current reprocessing plants or the development of future fuel processing using hydrometallurgical processes, such as Advanced Purex or UREX type flowsheets, the accurate simulation of Purex solvent extraction is required. In recent years we have developed advanced process modeling capabilities that utilize modern software platforms such as Aspen Custom Modeler and can be run in steady state and dynamic simulations. However, such advanced models of the Purex process require a wide range of fundamental data including all relevant basic chemical kinetic and thermodynamic data for the major species present in the process. This paper will summarize some of these recent process chemistry studies that underpin our simulation, design and testing of Purex solvent extraction flowsheets. Whilst much kinetic data for actinide redox reactions in nitric acid exists in the literature, the data on reactions in the diluted TBP solvent phase is much rarer. This inhibits the accurate modelization of the Purex process particularly when species show a significant extractability in to the solvent phase or when cycling between solvent and aqueous phases occurs, for example in the reductive stripping of Pu(IV) by ferrous sulfamate in the Magnox reprocessing plant. To support current oxide reprocessing, we have investigated a range of solvent phase reactions: - U(IV)+HNO{sub 3}; - U(IV)+HNO{sub 2}; - U(IV)+HNO{sub 3} (Pu catalysis); - U(IV)+HNO{sub 3} (Tc catalysis); - U(IV)+ Np(VI); - U(IV)+Np(V); - Np(IV)+HNO{sub 3}; - Np(V)+Np(V); Rate equations have been determined for all these reactions and kinetic rate constants and activation energies are now available. Specific features of these reactions in the TBP phase include the roles of water and hydrolyzed intermediates in the reaction mechanisms. In reactions involving Np(V), cation-cation complex formation, which is much more favourable in TBP than in HNO{sub 3}, also occurs and complicates the redox chemistry. Whilst some features of the redox chemistry in TBP appear similar to the corresponding reactions in aqueous HNO{sub 3}, there are notable differences in rates, the forms of the rate equations and mechanisms. Secondly, to underpin the development of advanced single cycle flowsheets using the complexant aceto-hydroxamic acid, we have also characterised in some detail its redox chemistry and solvent extraction behaviour with both Np and Pu ions. We find that simple hydroxamic acids are remarkably rapid reducing agents for Np(VI). They also reduce Pu(VI) and cause a much slower reduction of Pu(IV) through a complex mechanism involving acid hydrolysis of the ligand. AHA is a strong hydrophilic and selective complexant for the tetravalent actinide ions as evidenced by stability constant and solvent extraction data for An(IV), M(III) and U(VI) ions. This has allowed the successful design of U/Pu+Np separation flowsheets suitable for advanced fuel cycles. (authors)

Taylor, R.J.; Fox, O.D.; Sarsfield, M.J.; Carrott, M.J.; Mason, C.; Woodhead, D.A.; Maher, C.J. [British Technology Centre, Nexia Solutions, Sellafield, Seascale, CA20 1PG (United Kingdom); Steele, H. [Nexia Solutions, inton House, Risley, Warrington, WA3 6AS (United Kingdom); Koltunov, V.S. [A.A. Bochvar All-Russia Institute of Inorganic Materials, VNIINM, PO Box 369, Moscow 123060 (Russian Federation)



Fundamental studies of catalytic processing of synthetic liquids. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Liquids derived from coal contain relatively high amounts of oxygenated organic compounds, mainly in the form of phenols and furans that are deleterious to the stability and quality of these liquids as fuels. Hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) using Mo/W sulfide catalysts is a promising method to accomplish this removal, but our understanding of the reactions occurring on the catalyst surface during HDO is very limited. Rather than attempting to examine the complexities of real liquids and catalysts we have adopted an approach here using model systems amenable to surface-sensitive techniques that enable us to probe in detail the fundamental processes occurring during HDO at the surfaces of well-defined model catalysts. The results of this work may lead to the development of more efficient, selective and stable catalysts. Above a S/Mo ratio of about 0.5 ML, furan does not adsorb on sulfided Mo surfaces; as the sulfur coverage is lowered increasing amounts of furan can be adsorbed. Temperature-programmed reaction spectroscopy (TPRS) reveals that C-H, C-C and C-O bond scission occurs on these surfaces. Auger spectra show characteristic changes in the nature and amount of surface carbon. Comparisons with experiments carried out with CO, H{sub 2} and alkenes show that reaction pathways include -- direct abstraction of CO at low temperatures; cracking and release of hydrogen below its normal desorption temperature; dehydrogenatin of adsorbed hydrocarbon fragments; recombination of C and O atoms and dissolution of carbon into the bulk at high temperatures. Performing the adsorption or thermal reaction in 10{sup {minus}5} torr of hydrogen does not change the mode of reaction significantly.

Watson, P.R.



Relativistic close coupling calculations for fundamental atomic processes in astrophysics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study and application of fundamental atomic processes, including electron impact excitation, photoionization, radiative recombination and dielectronic recombination of atomic ions and others, has long been one of the most active astrophysical fields in astronomy. First, we carry out elaborate relativistic atomic calculations of radiative and collisional processes for atomic species of astrophysical interest using the Breit- Pauli R-matrix method, in which one- electron relativistic terms are included. Radiative and electron impact excitation of Fe XVII were calculated. We extensively studied low-energy electron impact excitation of Fe XVII with emphasis on relativistic and resonance effects using the R-matrix code. We showed that all N-shell levels give rise to Rydberg resonant states dipping right to M-shell thresholds. These new findings significantly affect the collision strengths for the primary x-ray and EUV transitions among the first 37 levels. We proved that all previous distorted-wave calculations for Fe XVII with limited isolated resonances used an imprecise method for considering resonance effects. We also pointed out that some M2 (magnetic quadrupole) and E3 (electric octopole) multipole transition probabilities may be too large to be ignored in x-ray spectra and plasma modelling. Accurate X-ray line ratios from 5 6 strong x-ray lines (3C, 3D, 3E, 3F, 3G, M2) in Fe XVII have been computed and compared with observations. Based on this study and the study of different electron distribution functions in plasmas via collisional-radiative models; two long-standing astrophysical problems of x-ray line intensity ratios 3C/3D and 3s/3d are resolved theoretically. The strong energy dependence due to resonances in these and other cross sections was demonstrated. These results are useful for plasma diagnostics in x-ray astronomy. Radiative and electron impact excitation of Fe VI were calculated. From applications of our Few atomic calculations to planetary nebulae (PN) NGC 6741, IC 351 and NGC 7662, we developed a method to constrain simultaneously a set of physical conditions electron density N e, electron temperature Te, luminosity L?, dilution factor W( r)). Fluorescent excitation of spectral lines was demonstrated as a function of temperature-luminosity and the distance of the emitting region from the central stars of planetary nebulae. Fluorescence should also be important in the determination of element abundances. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Chen, Guo-Xin




NSDL National Science Digital Library

With three levels to choose from on each page - beginner, intermediate or advanced - this site provides information on the many different kinds of geological exploration. The elements that make up minerals and the different ways minerals are developed, The special characteristics of minerals, like physical properties, is explained. Earths tectonic plates, the reasons they move, and the effects of the shifting are also given. Also featured is fossils and how they are developed and are found, as well as why fossils are useful tools for scientists.

Bergman, Jennifer



76 FR 13207 - Announcement of the U.S. Geological Survey Science Strategy Planning Feedback Process  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR U.S. Geological Survey [USGS-GX11AA0000A1300] Announcement of the U.S. Geological Survey Science Strategy Planning Feedback Process AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Feedback...



77 FR 34062 - Announcement of the U.S. Geological Survey Science Strategy Planning Feedback Process  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR U.S. Geological Survey [USGS-GX11AA0000A1300] Announcement of the U.S. Geological Survey Science Strategy Planning Feedback Process AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Feedback...



77 FR 43110 - Announcement of the U.S. Geological Survey Science Strategy Planning Feedback Process  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR U.S. Geological Survey [USGS-GX11AA0000A1300] Announcement of the U.S. Geological Survey Science Strategy Planning Feedback Process AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey, Interior. ACTION: Notice of feedback...




E-print Network

.Ies with each taking a relatively different perspective. The requirernenr leadsto some fundamental questionsabout the selfand ~elf-d.i~logue: What is the self? How does the self take on multiple I~entitIes.and assumedifferent perspectives? What processdoesself... constant str~villg to reducetenSI?n generated by two innate drives: the urge to liveand the urge to die. Composed of id, ego, and sup:rego, the sel~ operates on three different principles:pleasure,reality,andmorality (Freud ~96~). On the principle...

Shaw, Victor N.



Database for volcanic processes and geology of Augustine Volcano, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This digital release contains information used to produce the geologic map published as Plate 1 in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1762 (Waitt and Begét, 2009). The main component of this digital release is a geologic map database prepared using geographic information systems (GIS) applications. This release also contains links to files to view or print the map plate, accompanying measured sections, and main report text from Professional Paper 1762. It should be noted that Augustine Volcano erupted in 2006, after the completion of the geologic mapping shown in Professional Paper 1762 and presented in this database. Information on the 2006 eruption can be found in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1769. For the most up to date information on the status of Alaska volcanoes, please refer to the U.S. Geological Survey Volcano Hazards Program website.

McIntire, Jacqueline; Ramsey, David W.; Thoms, Evan; Waitt, Richard B.; Beget, James E.



Fundamental Chemical Kinetic And Thermodynamic Data For Purex Process Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

To support either the continued operations of current reprocessing plants or the development of future fuel processing using hydrometallurgical processes, such as Advanced Purex or UREX type flowsheets, the accurate simulation of Purex solvent extraction is required. In recent years we have developed advanced process modeling capabilities that utilize modern software platforms such as Aspen Custom Modeler and can be

R. J. Taylor; O. D. Fox; M. J. Sarsfield; M. J. Carrott; C. Mason; D. A. Woodhead; C. J. Maher; H. Steele; V. S. Koltunov



Venus and the Earth's Archean: Geological mapping and process comparisons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction. The geological features, structures, thermal conditions, interpreted processes, and outstanding questions related to both the Earth's Archean and Venus share many similarities [1-3] and we are using a problem-oriented approach to Venus mapping, guided by insight from the Archean record of the Earth, to gain new perspectives on the evolution of Venus and Earth's Archean. The Earth's preserved and well-documented Archean record [4] provides important insight into high heat-flux tectonic and magmatic environments and structures [5] and the surface of Venus reveals the current configuration and recent geological record of analogous high-temperature environments unmodified by subsequent several billion years of segmentation and overprinting, as on Earth. Here we address the nature of the Earth's Archean, the similarities to and differences from Venus, and the specific Venus and Earth-Archean problems on which progress might be made through comparison. The Earth's Archean and its Relation to Venus. The Archean period of Earth's history extends from accretion/initial crust formation (sometimes called the Hadean) to 2.5 Ga and is thought of by most workers as being a transitional period between the earliest Earth and later periods largely dominated by plate tectonics (Proterozoic and Phanerozoic) [2, 4]. Thus the Archean is viewed as recording a critical period in Earth's history in which a transition took place from the types of primary and early secondary crusts seen on the Moon, Mars and Mercury [6] (and largely missing in the record of the Earth), to the style of crustal accretion and plate tectonics characterizing later Earth history. The Archean is also characterized by enhanced crustal and mantle temperatures leading to differences in deformation style and volcanism (e.g., komatiites) [2]. The preserved Archean crust is exposed in ~36 different cratons [4], forming the cores of most continental regions, and is composed of gneisses, plutons and greenstones. The geological record of the Archean Earth is considerably different than the Phanerozoic record and ongoing processes [1, 7]. The Archean record is characterized by evidence for enhanced mantle temperatures, different styles of crustal deformation (localized belts of high intensity deformation, tight high and low angle folds, diapiric-related deformation, significant lateral differences in lithospheric thickness (implied by 'cold' keels), significant evidence for crustal thickening processes and the burial and exhumation of thickened crust, abundant hightemperature komatiites, greenstone belts, "mafic plains"-type greenstones, positive gneissic and felsic diapirs, abundance of a distinctive TTG (tonalitetrondhjemite- granodiorite) assemblage, layered gabbro- anorthosite igneous intrusions, very abundant plume-derived basalts, unusual events interpreted to represent mantle instability and overturn, late stage granodiorites and granites derived from intracrustal melting, epicratonic basins, and production of large volumes of continental crust [1,4,5]. A major question in the study of the Archean is the nature of the geodynamic processes operating during this time. Do the geodynamic processes represent a steady-state accommodation to the Archean thermal environment, or do they represent a transitional or evolutionary phase? Does the Archean represent a particular unique style of vertical tectonics, as on oneplate planets, lateral tectonics (perhaps early plate tectonics) as on later Earth, or is it transitional in time (and perhaps in space), changing from one style to another during the Archean? What role do the enhanced mantle and crustal temperatures play in volcanism and tectonism during this period? Do global crustal and lithospheric density instabilities play a major role in the transition [8], perhaps causing catastrophic foundering and crustal overturn [9], as thought to have occurred on the Moon and Mars? Does vertical crustal accretion dominate over lateral crustal accretion, leading to density instabilities and planet-wide diapiric upwel

Head, J. W.; Hurwitz, D. M.; Ivanov, M. A.; Basilevsky, A. T.; Senthil Kumar, P.



Timespace waves: A hypothetical ongoing process fundamental to communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communication is defined by Krippendorf as “a process of transmission of structure among the parts of a system which are identifiable in time and space.” The main concepts comprising this definition, process, structure, system, time and space are defined, with special attention to time and space.

William Asbury King



Association as a Fundamental Process of Objective Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the early dawn of psychological history when thinkers first began to reflect upon the mysteries of human behavior, they were attracted to the processes of association especially as they are manifest in memorial and kindred activities. With the rise of the modern spiritualistic psychology, the problem of association became extended and the associational process was no longer looked upon

J. R. Kantor



Beowulf Distributed Processing and the United States Geological Survey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Introduction In recent years, the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) National Mapping Discipline (NMD) has expanded its scientific and research activities. Work is being conducted in areas such as emergency response research, scientific visualization, urban prediction, and other simulation activities. Custom-produced digital data have become essential for these types of activities. High-resolution, remotely sensed datasets are also seeing increased use. Unfortunately, the NMD is also finding that it lacks the resources required to perform some of these activities. Many of these projects require large amounts of computer processing resources. Complex urban-prediction simulations, for example, involve large amounts of processor-intensive calculations on large amounts of input data. This project was undertaken to learn and understand the concepts of distributed processing. Experience was needed in developing these types of applications. The idea was that this type of technology could significantly aid the needs of the NMD scientific and research programs. Porting a numerically intensive application currently being used by an NMD science program to run in a distributed fashion would demonstrate the usefulness of this technology. There are several benefits that this type of technology can bring to the USGS's research programs. Projects can be performed that were previously impossible due to a lack of computing resources. Other projects can be performed on a larger scale than previously possible. For example, distributed processing can enable urban dynamics research to perform simulations on larger areas without making huge sacrifices in resolution. The processing can also be done in a more reasonable amount of time than with traditional single-threaded methods (a scaled version of Chester County, Pennsylvania, took about fifty days to finish its first calibration phase with a single-threaded program). This paper has several goals regarding distributed processing technology. It will describe the benefits of the technology. Real data about a distributed application will be presented as an example of the benefits that this technology can bring to USGS scientific programs. Finally, some of the issues with distributed processing that relate to USGS work will be discussed.

Maddox, Brian G.



Process fundamentals of membrane emulsification : simulation with CFD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membrane emulsification is a process in which a to-be-dispersed phase is pressed through a membrane; the droplets formed are carried away with the continuous phase. To design a suitable membrane setup, more insight into the formation of the droplets at the membrane surface is needed. Therefore, the formation of one droplet from a cylindrical pore was calculated using computational fluid

A. J. Abrahamse; A. van der Padt; R. M. Boom; Heij de W. B. C



Music processing above and below the fundamental frequency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because of the centrality of pitch to music, most music signal processing has been focused on pitch-related timescales, e.g., short-time analysis over 30-50-ms windows. But there is, of course, important information at other scales as well. By looking at ways to model and extract very fine time-scale information one can extract attributes that lead to the perception of ``texture'' in unpitched instruments such as maracas. At the other extreme, interesting effects can be revealed by investigating the effect of ``modulation-domain'' processing, such as filtering subband energy envelopes in the 0.1-10-Hz range. A single representation, frequency-domain linear prediction, gives convenient access to both these scales: its use in music analysis/synthesis will be illustrated by examples.

Athineos, Marios; Ellis, Daniel P. W.



Fundamental kinetic modeling of the catalytic reforming process  

E-print Network

is generally carried out over bifunctional catalysts (metal/acid) which consist of platinum alone or combined with rhenium or iridium or tin, dispersed on an acidic alumina. As a refining process, catalytic reforming provides the least costly significant.... The metallic function was later improved in 1968 by the addition of rhenium 31. Since then, platinum is always clustered with a second metal, such as Ir, Ge, or Sn32 . The metals are typically added at levels of less than 1 wt% of the catalyst23...

Sotelo-Boyas, Rogelio



Fundamental process and system design issues in CO 2 vapor compression systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents recent developments and state of the art for transcritical CO2 cycle technology in various refrigeration, air-conditioning and heat pump applications. The focus will be on fundamental process and system design issues, including discussions of properties and characteristics of CO2, cycle fundamentals, methods of high-side pressure control, thermodynamic losses, cycle modifications, component\\/system design, safety factors, and promising application

Man-Hoe Kim; Jostein Pettersen; Clark W. Bullard



Geologic processes and Cenozoic history related to salt dissolution in southeastern New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Salt of Permian age in the subsurface of an area near The Divide, east of Carlsbad, N. Mex., is being considered for a nuclear waste repository. The geologic history of the region indicates that dissolution of salt has occurred in the past during at least three distinct epochs: (1) after Triassic but before middle Pleistocene time; (2) during middle Pleistocene; and (3) during late Pleistocene. Thus, destructive geologic processes have been intermittent through more than I00 million years. Nash Draw, near The Divide, formed during late Pleistocene time by the coalescing of collapse sinks. The rate of its subsidence is estimated to have been about 10 cm (0.33 foot) per thousand years. The immediate area of The Divide adjacent to Nash Draw has not undergone stress by geologic processes during Pleistocene time and there are no present indications that this geologic environment will change drastically within the period of concern for the repository.

Bachman, George Odell



Distribution and interplay of geologic processes on Titan from Cassini radar data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cassini Titan Radar Mapper is providing an unprecedented view of Titan’s surface geology. Here we use Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image swaths (Ta–T30) obtained from October 2004 to December 2007 to infer the geologic processes that have shaped Titan’s surface. These SAR swaths cover about 20% of the surface, at a spatial resolution ranging from ?350m to ?2km. The

R. M. C. Lopes; E. R. Stofan; R. Peckyno; J. Radebaugh; K. L. Mitchell; G. Mitri; C. A. Wood; R. L. Kirk; S. D. Wall; J. I. Lunine; A. Hayes; R. Lorenz; T. Farr; L. Wye; J. Craig; R. J. Ollerenshaw; M. Janssen; A. Legall; F. Paganelli; B. Stiles; P. Callahan; Y. Anderson; P. Valora; L. Soderblom




E-print Network

vacuum pumping system, a bakeout control system and, in separate racks, all the controls for the RF is designed for insertion into a high-power (1 MW and higher) RF system at 805 MHz and it includes a completePROCESSING TEST STAND FOR THE FUNDAMENTAL POWER COUPLERS OF THE SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE (SNS



EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the fundamental processes in sulfur dioxide (SO2) capture by calcium-based adsorbents for upper furnace, duct, and electrostatic precipitator (ESP) reaction sites. It examines the reactions in light of controlling mechanisms, effect of sorbent physical propert...


Radiogenic Strontium-87 as an Index of Geologic Processes.  


The abundance of radiogenic Sr(87) relative to Sr(86) at the time of crystallization has been determined for 45 rocks. The total range in the ratio Sr(87)/Sr(86) is less than 2 percent. Ratios for recent lavas range from 0.702 to 0.711. Oceanic basalts are closely grouped at 0.703, whereas ratios for continental volcanic rocks spread from 0.702 to 0.711. Among the volcanic rocks, ranging from basalt to rhyolite, no correlation was found between original ratio and rock type. Older mafic and felsic rocks that include both plutonic and extrusive types also cover this same range in original Sr(87)/Sr(86) ratios; however, there is a definite trend with geologic time. Precambrian rocks give values as low as 0.700. The data indicate that Sr(87)/Sr(86) of the weathering crust has changed 1.1 percent in 3000 million years, while the ratio in the mantle has changed no more than 0.5 percent. PMID:17837503

Hedge, C E; Walthall, F G



Electroporation of Cell Membranes: The Fundamental Effects of Pulsed Electric Fields in Food Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using of pulsed electric fields (PEF) for killing of microorganisms in liquid foods is a promising new non-thermal food processing\\u000a and preservation technology. However, to implement and optimize this technology, a good understanding of the actual mechanisms\\u000a that govern microbial inactivation by this technique is required. Here, fundamentals of cell electroporation, which is considered\\u000a as underlying phenomenon of food processing

Gintautas Saulis



Water-the Nation's Fundamental Climate Issue A White Paper on the U.S. Geological Survey Role and Capabilities  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Of all the potential threats posed by climatic variability and change, those associated with water resources are arguably the most consequential for both society and the environment (Waggoner, 1990). Climatic effects on agriculture, aquatic ecosystems, energy, and industry are strongly influenced by climatic effects on water. Thus, understanding changes in the distribution, quantity and quality of, and demand for water in response to climate variability and change is essential to planning for and adapting to future climatic conditions. A central role of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) with respect to climate is to document environmental changes currently underway and to develop improved capabilities to predict future changes. Indeed, a centerpiece of the USGS role is a new Climate Effects Network of monitoring sites. Measuring the climatic effects on water is an essential component of such a network (along with corresponding effects on terrestrial ecosystems). The USGS needs to be unambiguous in communicating with its customers and stakeholders, and with officials at the Department of the Interior, that although modeling future impacts of climate change is important, there is no more critical role for the USGS in climate change science than that of measuring and describing the changes that are currently underway. One of the best statements of that mission comes from a short paper by Ralph Keeling (2008) that describes the inspiration and the challenges faced by David Keeling in operating the all-important Mauna Loa Observatory over a period of more than four decades. Ralph Keeling stated: 'The only way to figure out what is happening to our planet is to measure it, and this means tracking changes decade after decade and poring over the records.' There are three key ideas that are important to the USGS in the above-mentioned sentence. First, to understand what is happening requires measurement. While models are a tool for learning and testing our understanding, they are not a substitute for observations. The second key idea is that measurement needs to be done over a period of many decades. When viewing hydrologic records over time scales of a few years to a few decades, trends commonly appear. However, when viewed in the context of many decades to centuries, these short-term trends are recognized as being part of much longer term oscillations. Thus, while we might want to initiate monitoring of important aspects of our natural resources, the data that will prove to be most useful in the next few years are those records that already have long-term continuity. USGS streamflow and groundwater level data are excellent examples of such long-term records. These measured data span many decades, follow standard protocols for collection and quality assurance, and are stored in a database that provides access to the full period of record. The third point from the Keeling quote relates to the notion of ?poring over the records.? Important trends will not generally jump off the computer screen at us. Thoughtful analyses are required to get past a number of important but confounding influences in the record, such as the role of seasonal variation, changes in water management, or influences of quasi-periodic phenomena, such as El Ni?o-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) or the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). No organization is better situated to pore over the records than the USGS because USGS scientists know the data, quality-assure the data, understand the factors that influence the data, and have the ancillary information on the watersheds within which the data are collected. To fulfill the USGS role in understanding climatic variability and change, we need to continually improve and strengthen two of our key capabilities: (1) preserving continuity of long-term water data collection and (2) analyzing and interpreting water data to determine how the Nation's water resources are changing. Understanding change in water resources

Lins, Harry F.; Hirsch, Robert M.; Kiang, Julie



Techniques for determining probabilities of events and processes affecting the performance of geologic repositories  

SciTech Connect

The US Environmental Protection Agency has established a standard for the performance of geologic repositories for the disposal of radioactive waste. This standard is probabilistic in nature, but the methods for determining probabilities of events and processes of interest in implementing such a standard are still being developed. Decision Theory, which involves Bayesian probability techniques, can serve as a framework for estimating the probability of occurrence of processes and events that are likely to disrupt a geologic repository. This report presents the mathematical basis for such a methodology and demonstrates an application of it in three areas: climate change, tectonic events, and human intrusion. 125 refs., 27 figs., 14 tabs.

Apostolakis, G. (California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (USA)); Bras, R. (Bras (R.L.) Consulting Engineers, Lexington, MA (USA)); Price, L. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Valdes, J. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (USA)); Wahi, K. (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Webb, E. (Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (USA))



Geological images  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from Marli Bryant Miller, a professor at the University of Oregon, presents images of geological features from around the world. Photographs of glacial features, igneous and metamorphic rocks and processes, and structural geology are featured.

Miller, Marli B.; Oregon, University O.


Feasibility Study for a Plasma Dynamo Facility to Investigate Fundamental Processes in Plasma Astrophysics. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The scientific equipment purchased on this grant was used on the Plasma Dynamo Prototype Experiment as part of Professor Forest's feasibility study for determining if it would be worthwhile to propose building a larger plasma physics experiment to investigate various fundamental processes in plasma astrophysics. The initial research on the Plasma Dynamo Prototype Experiment was successful so Professor Forest and Professor Ellen Zweibel at UW-Madison submitted an NSF Major Research Instrumentation proposal titled "ARRA MRI: Development of a Plasma Dynamo Facility for Experimental Investigations of Fundamental Processes in Plasma Astrophysics." They received funding for this project and the Plasma Dynamo Facility also known as the "Madison Plasma Dynamo Experiment" was constructed. This experiment achieved its first plasma in the fall of 2012 and U.S. Dept. of Energy Grant No. DE-SC0008709 "Experimental Studies of Plasma Dynamos," now supports the research.

Forest, Cary B.



Frictional Sliding of Cold Ice: A Fundamental Process Underlying Tectonic Activity Within Icy Satellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Frictional sliding is a fundamental process underlying tectonic activity within the crusts of Enceladus, Europa and other icy satellites. Provided that the coefficient of friction is not too high, sliding can account for the generation of active plumes within Enceladus "tiger stripes" and for the development of certain fracture features on Europa. This paper reviews current knowledge of frictional sliding in water ice Ih, and then raises a number of questions relevant to tectonic modeling.

Schulson, Erland M.


Techniques for determining probabilities of events and processes affecting the performance of geologic repositories: Literature review  

SciTech Connect

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has set a probabilistic standard for the performance of geologic repositories for the disposal of radioactive waste. This report treats not only geologic events and processes like fault movement, but also events and processes that arise from the relationship between human actions and geology, like drilling for resources, and some that arise from nongeologic processes that in turn affect a geologic process, like climatic change. It reviews the literature in several fields to determine whether existing probabilistic methods for predicting events and processes are adequate for implementation of the standard. Techniques exist for qualitatively estimating the potential for endowment of portions of earth's crust with mineral resources, but such techniques cannot easily predict whether or not human intrusion will occur. The EPA standard offers explicit guidance for the treatment of human intrusion, however. A complete method for climatic prediction could be assembled from existing techniques, although such a combination has not been tested. Existing techniques to support a probabilistic assessment of tectonic activity and seismic hazard at a repository site should be combined with expert judgment in performance assessments. Depending on the regional setting, either analytic techniques or expert judgment may be appropriate in assigning probabilities to volcanic activity. The individual chapters of this report have been cataloged separately.

Hunter, R.L.; Mann, C.J. (eds.)



Impact of food processing industry on geology, soil and ecology: The Nigerian experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

In developing countries it is common to cite industries without carrying out environmental impact assessment. This is the case of the two industries audited in this study. It becomes necessary therefore to audit food processing industries in Nigeria to determine their impact on geology, soil and ecology. This will enhance a cleaner and healthier environment. In this study the impact

Ogbonnaya Chukwu


Geologic versus wildfire controls on hillslope processes and debris flow initiation in the Green River canyons  

E-print Network

debris flows over the study period, whereas only 7% of the unburned catchments did. Thus, fire was not the primary driver of debris flows, but fire-related events did contribute to the increased debris flowGeologic versus wildfire controls on hillslope processes and debris flow initiation in the Green

Pederson, Joel L.


Time-lapse motion picture technique applied to the study of geological processes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Light-weight, battery-operated timers were built and coupled to 16-mm motion-picture cameras having apertures controlled by photoelectric cells. The cameras were placed adjacent to Emmons Glacier on Mount Rainier. The film obtained confirms the view that exterior time-lapse photography can be applied to the study of slow-acting geologic processes.

Miller, R. D.; Crandell, D. R.



Roles of methane and carbon dioxide in geological processes on Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss in this paper possible roles of methane and carbon dioxide in geological processes on Mars. These volatiles in the martian crust may migrate upward from their sources either directly or via various traps (structural, sedimentary, ground ice, gas hydrates). They are then likely emitted to the atmosphere by seepage or through diverse vent structures. Though gas hydrates have

Goro Komatsu; Gian Gabriele Ori; Marco Cardinale; James M. Dohm; Victor R. Baker; David A. Vaz; Ryo Ishimaru; Noriyuki Namiki; Takafumi Matsui



The large impact process inferred from the geology of lunar multiring basins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The nature of the impact process has been inferred through the study of the geology of a wide variety of impact crater types and sizes. Some of the largest craters known are the multiring basins found in ancient terrains of the terrestrial planets. Of these features, those found on the Moon possess the most extensive and diverse data coverage, including morphological, geochemical, geophysical, and sample data. The study of the geology of lunar basins over the past 10 years has given us a rudimentary understanding of how these large structures have formed and evolved. The topics covered include basin morphology, basin ejecta, basin excavation, and basin ring formation.

Spudis, Paul D.



Fundamental phenomena on fuel decomposition and boundary layer combustion processes with applications to hybrid rocket motors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental study on the fundamental processes involved in fuel decomposition and boundary layer combustion in hybrid rocket motors is being conducted at the High Pressure Combustion Laboratory of the Pennsylvania State University. This research should provide a useful engineering technology base in the development of hybrid rocket motors as well as a fundamental understanding of the complex processes involved in hybrid propulsion. A high pressure slab motor has been designed and manufactured for conducting experimental investigations. Oxidizer (LOX or GOX) supply and control systems have been designed and partly constructed for the head-end injection into the test chamber. Experiments using HTPB fuel, as well as fuels supplied by NASA designated industrial companies will be conducted. Design and construction of fuel casting molds and sample holders have been completed. The portion of these items for industrial company fuel casting will be sent to the McDonnell Douglas Aerospace Corporation in the near future. The study focuses on the following areas: observation of solid fuel burning processes with LOX or GOX, measurement and correlation of solid fuel regression rate with operating conditions, measurement of flame temperature and radical species concentrations, determination of the solid fuel subsurface temperature profile, and utilization of experimental data for validation of a companion theoretical study (Part 2) also being conducted at PSU.

Kuo, Kenneth K.; Lu, Y. C.; Chiaverini, Martin J.; Harting, George C.



Distribution And Interplay Of Geologic Processes On Titan: Analysis Using Cassini Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The major planetary geologic processes - volcanism, tectonism, impact cratering and erosion - have played a role in shaping Titan's complex surface. We use data obtained by Cassini's Titan Radar Mapper, in its Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) mode, to analyze the distribution of geologic processes on Titan, both endogenic and exogenic, and to derive temporal relationships between these processes, at least at local scales. We compare SAR data with those from the Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) and the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) to look for correlations that can extend our knowledge of both spatial distribution and temporal relationships. Although stratigraphic relationships are hard to establish from the available data, they are sufficiently clear in some places that a picture of Titan's geologic evolution is emerging. Erosional/depositional processes, both from fluvial and aeolian activity, play a major role modifying Titan's surface. Fluvial features are widespread in both latitude and longitude and are seen at many different scales. Lacustrine features are widespread at high northern latitudes and there are suggestions of similar features at high southern latitudes as well. Fluvial erosion may be the dominant modification process at high latitudes, while erosion and burial as a result of aeolian activity may dominate the lower latitudes. In at least one location near the equator, dunes overlay fluvial deposits. Cryovolcanic features are not widespread but show no preference for latitude or longitude given the current data. Tectonic features (mountains and ridges) appear more common at low latitudes and may be compressional in origin, though other features that may be fractures might indicate extension. The impact record on Titan seems to have been mostly obliterated by other processes. The distribution and interplay of geologic processes is important to provide constraints on models of the interior and of surface-atmosphere interactions.

Lopes, Rosaly M.; Stofan, E. R.; Peckyno, R.; Mitri, G.; Mitchell, K. L.; Wood, C. A.; Radebaugh, J.; Kirk, R. L.; Wall, S. D.; Lorenz, R.; Lunine, J. I.; Craig, J.; Turtle, E. P.; Barnes, J. W.; Paganelli, F.; Cassini RADAR Team



Final report of ''Fundamental Surface Reaction Mechanisms in Fluorocarbon Plasma-Based Processing''  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a summary of results obtained in research supported by contract ''Fundamental Surface Reaction Mechanisms in Fluorocarbon Plasma-Based Processing'' (Contract No. DE-FG0200ER54608). In this program we advanced significantly the scientific knowledge base on low pressure fluorocarbon plasmas used for patterning of dielectric films and for producing fluorocarbon coatings on substrates. We characterized important neutral and ionic gas phase species that are incident at the substrate, and the processes that occur at relevant surfaces in contact with the plasma. The work was performed through collaboration of research groups at three universities where significantly different, complementary tools for plasma and surface characterization, computer simulation of plasma and surface processes exist. Exchange of diagnostic tools and experimental verification of key results at collaborating institutions, both experimentally and by computer simulations, was an important component of the approach taken in this work.

Gottlieb S. Oehrlein; H. Anderson; J. Cecchi; D. Graves



Fundamental phenomena on fuel decomposition and boundary layer combustion processes with applications to hybrid rocket motors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental study on the fundamental processes involved in fuel decomposition and boundary layer combustion in hybrid rocket motors is being conducted at the High Pressure Combustion Laboratory of the Pennsylvania State University. This research should provide an engineering technology base for development of large scale hybrid rocket motors as well as a fundamental understanding of the complex processes involved in hybrid propulsion. A high pressure slab motor has been designed for conducting experimental investigations. Oxidizer (LOX or GOX) is injected through the head-end over a solid fuel (HTPB) surface. Experiments using fuels supplied by NASA designated industrial companies will also be conducted. The study focuses on the following areas: measurement and observation of solid fuel burning with LOX or GOX, correlation of solid fuel regression rate with operating conditions, measurement of flame temperature and radical species concentrations, determination of the solid fuel subsurface temperature profile, and utilization of experimental data for validation of a companion theoretical study also being conducted at PSU.

Kuo, Kenneth K.; Lu, Y. C.; Chiaverini, Martin J.; Harting, George C.



The fundamental units, processes and patterns of evolution, and the Tree of Life conundrum  

PubMed Central

Background The elucidation of the dominant role of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in the evolution of prokaryotes led to a severe crisis of the Tree of Life (TOL) concept and intense debates on this subject. Concept Prompted by the crisis of the TOL, we attempt to define the primary units and the fundamental patterns and processes of evolution. We posit that replication of the genetic material is the singular fundamental biological process and that replication with an error rate below a certain threshold both enables and necessitates evolution by drift and selection. Starting from this proposition, we outline a general concept of evolution that consists of three major precepts. 1. The primary agency of evolution consists of Fundamental Units of Evolution (FUEs), that is, units of genetic material that possess a substantial degree of evolutionary independence. The FUEs include both bona fide selfish elements such as viruses, viroids, transposons, and plasmids, which encode some of the information required for their own replication, and regular genes that possess quasi-independence owing to their distinct selective value that provides for their transfer between ensembles of FUEs (genomes) and preferential replication along with the rest of the recipient genome. 2. The history of replication of a genetic element without recombination is isomorphously represented by a directed tree graph (an arborescence, in the graph theory language). Recombination within a FUE is common between very closely related sequences where homologous recombination is feasible but becomes negligible for longer evolutionary distances. In contrast, shuffling of FUEs occurs at all evolutionary distances. Thus, a tree is a natural representation of the evolution of an individual FUE on the macro scale, but not of an ensemble of FUEs such as a genome. 3. The history of life is properly represented by the "forest" of evolutionary trees for individual FUEs (Forest of Life, or FOL). Search for trends and patterns in the FOL is a productive direction of study that leads to the delineation of ensembles of FUEs that evolve coherently for a certain time span owing to a shared history of vertical inheritance or horizontal gene transfer; these ensembles are commonly known as genomes, taxa, or clades, depending on the level of analysis. A small set of genes (the universal genetic core of life) might show a (mostly) coherent evolutionary trend that transcends the entire history of cellular life forms. However, it might not be useful to denote this trend "the tree of life", or organismal, or species tree because neither organisms nor species are fundamental units of life. Conclusion A logical analysis of the units and processes of biological evolution suggests that the natural fundamental unit of evolution is a FUE, that is, a genetic element with an independent evolutionary history. Evolution of a FUE on the macro scale is naturally represented by a tree. Only the full compendium of trees for individual FUEs (the FOL) is an adequate depiction of the evolution of life. Coherent evolution of FUEs over extended evolutionary intervals is a crucial aspect of the history of life but a "species" or "organismal" tree is not a fundamental concept. Reviewers This articles was reviewed by Valerian Dolja, W. Ford Doolittle, Nicholas Galtier, and William Martin PMID:19788730

Koonin, Eugene V; Wolf, Yuri I



>300GHz Fixed-Frequency and Voltage-Controlled Fundamental Oscillators in an InP DHBT Process  

E-print Network

>300GHz Fixed-Frequency and Voltage-Controlled Fundamental Oscillators in an InP DHBT Process, 93106, USA Abstract -- We report fundamental fixed-frequency and voltage-controlled oscillators operating at >300GHz fabricated in a 256nm InP DHBT technology. Oscillator designs are based

Rodwell, Mark J. W.


Applying Seismic Methods to National Security Problems: Matched Field Processing With Geological Heterogeneity  

SciTech Connect

Seismic imaging and tracking methods have intelligence and monitoring applications. Current systems, however, do not adequately calibrate or model the unknown geological heterogeneity. Current systems are also not designed for rapid data acquisition and analysis in the field. This project seeks to build the core technological capabilities coupled with innovative deployment, processing, and analysis methodologies to allow seismic methods to be effectively utilized in the applications of seismic imaging and vehicle tracking where rapid (minutes to hours) and real-time analysis is required. The goal of this project is to build capabilities in acquisition system design, utilization of full three-dimensional (3D) finite difference modeling, as well as statistical characterization of geological heterogeneity. Such capabilities coupled with a rapid field analysis methodology based on matched field processing are applied to problems associated with surveillance, battlefield management, finding hard and deeply buried targets, and portal monitoring. This project, in support of LLNL's national-security mission, benefits the U.S. military and intelligence community. Fiscal year (FY) 2003 was the final year of this project. In the 2.5 years this project has been active, numerous and varied developments and milestones have been accomplished. A wireless communication module for seismic data was developed to facilitate rapid seismic data acquisition and analysis. The E3D code was enhanced to include topographic effects. Codes were developed to implement the Karhunen-Loeve (K-L) statistical methodology for generating geological heterogeneity that can be utilized in E3D modeling. The matched field processing methodology applied to vehicle tracking and based on a field calibration to characterize geological heterogeneity was tested and successfully demonstrated in a tank tracking experiment at the Nevada Test Site. A three-seismic-array vehicle tracking testbed was installed on site at LLNL for testing real-time seismic tracking methods. A field experiment was conducted over a tunnel at the Nevada Site that quantified the tunnel reflection signal and, coupled with modeling, identified key needs and requirements in experimental layout of sensors. A large field experiment was conducted at the Lake Lynn Laboratory, a mine safety research facility in Pennsylvania, over a tunnel complex in realistic, difficult conditions. This experiment gathered the necessary data for a full 3D attempt to apply the methodology. The experiment also collected data to analyze the capabilities to detect and locate in-tunnel explosions for mine safety and other applications. In FY03 specifically, a large and complex simulation experiment was conducted that tested the full modeling-based approach to geological characterization using E2D, the K-L statistical methodology, and matched field processing applied to tunnel detection with surface seismic sensors. The simulation validated the full methodology and the need for geological heterogeneity to be accounted for in the overall approach. The Lake Lynn site area was geologically modeled using the code Earthvision to produce a 32 million node 3D model grid for E3D. Model linking issues were resolved and a number of full 3D model runs were accomplished using shot locations that matched the data. E3D-generated wavefield movies showed the reflection signal would be too small to be observed in the data due to trapped and attenuated energy in the weathered layer. An analysis of the few sensors coupled to bedrock did not improve the reflection signal strength sufficiently because the shots, though buried, were within the surface layer and hence attenuated. Ability to model a complex 3D geological structure and calculate synthetic seismograms that are in good agreement with actual data (especially for surface waves and below the complex weathered layer) was demonstrated. We conclude that E3D is a powerful tool for assessing the conditions under which a tunnel could be detected in a specific geological setting. Finally, the Lak

Myers, S; Larsen, S; Wagoner, J; Henderer, B; McCallen, D; Trebes, J; Harben, P; Harris, D




SciTech Connect

The current report details project progress made during the first quarterly reporting period of the DOE sponsored project ''Fundamental studies of ignition processes in large natural gas engines using laser spark ignition''. The goal of the overall research effort is to develop a laser ignition system for natural gas engines, with a particular focus on using fiber optic delivery methods. In this report we present our successful demonstration of spark formation using fiber delivery made possible though the use of novel coated hollow fibers. We present results of (high power) experimental characterizations of light propagation using hollow fibers using both a high power research grade laser as well as a more compact laser. Finally, we present initial designs of the system we are developing for future on-engine testing using the hollow fibers.

Azer Yalin; Morgan Defoort; Bryan Willson



Study on fundamental processes of laser welded metals observed with intense x-ray beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With use of photon techniques including visible light, soft and hard x-rays, precise fundamental laser welding processes in the repair and maintenance of nuclear plant engineering were reviewed mechanistically. We make discussions centered on the usefulness of an intense soft x-ray beams for evaluations of spatial residual strain distribution and welded metal convection behavior including the surface morphology. Numerical results obtained with a general purpose three-dimensional code SPLICE for the simulation of the welding and solidifying phenomena. Then it is concluded that the x-ray beam would be useful as one of the powerful tools for understanding the mechanisms of various complex phenomena with higher accuracy and higher resolution.

Muramatsu, T.; Daido, H.; Shobu, T.; Takase, K.; Tsukimori, K.; Kureta, M.; Segawa, M.; Nishimura, A.; Suzuki, Y.; Kawachi, T.


Fundamental photophysics and optical loss processes in Si-nanocrystal-doped microdisk resonators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a detailed analytical, numerical, and experimental study of microdisk resonators doped with nanometer sized silicon quantum dots (nanocrystals). An intuitive analytical ray-optics-based model is developed and used to capture the behavior of the quality factor (Q) as a function of the disk size and the attenuation coefficient. Two regimes in the behavior of Q with the disk size establish a simple design rule for optimizing the performance of these cavities. The validity of our analytical model is verified by full-vectorial finite element method calculations of the microcavity modes. Based on the predictions of the analytical and numerical calculations, we have fabricated microdisk resonators with diameters ranging between 2 and 8?m . Q>103 are obtained for disk radii as small as 4?m —highest observed for Si-nanocrystal-doped microdisk resonators. The fundamental limit on Q is estimated by quantifying all of the potential optical loss processes through a careful analysis which includes the effects of nanocrystal size distribution. Our theoretical calculations match well with experiments and reveal that the line-edge roughness scattering and radiation loss can be minimized sufficiently to enable study and quantification of more fundamental optical loss processes of this material due to band-to-band absorption, Mie scattering, and free-carrier absorption in the Si nanocrystals. Using the experimental Q ’s and the mode volumes, we predict the maximum low-temperature Purcell enhancement factor in our structures on the order of 6 and with some design improvements enhancements up to 50 can be realized.

Kekatpure, Rohan D.; Brongersma, Mark L.



Martian planetwide crater distributions - Implications for geologic history and surface processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three different diameter size ranges are considered in connection with the Martian crater distribution, taking into account small craters from 0.6 to 1.2 km, intermediate-sized craters from 4 to 10 km, and large craters with diameters exceeding 20 km. One of the objectives of the investigation reported is to establish the effects of eolian processes in the modification of craters in the different size ranges. Another objective is concerned with a description of the genetic relationships among the three size ranges of craters. Observables related to the relative age of geologic provinces are to be separated from observables related to geographic variations in eolian transport and deposition. Lunar and Martian cratering histories are compared as a basis for establishing relative and absolute time scales for the geological evolution of Mars.

Soderblom, L. A.; Condit, C. D.; West, R. A.; Herman, B. M.; Kreidler, T. J.



Quaternary geology and geomorphology of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California: evolution and processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (~1,400 km2) is a combination of tidal marsh, islands and agricultural lands at the confluence of the Sacramento and the San Joaquin Rivers, in northern California. Most of the Delta islands are now 3 to 8 m below sea-level and must be protected by levees from inundation. Because of the Delta's crucial role in conveying fresh water to the State, levee failures can cause substantial economic loss by disrupting this supply. Understanding the evolution of the Delta is fundamental to assess the vulnerability of the Delta islands to seismically-induced levee failure. The modern Delta is a young geological feature that began forming during the middle Holocene. Preceding versions of the Delta hosted a variety of depositional environments as sea level fluctuated, responding to climatically-controlled changes. The rising sea reached the Delta about 8,000 years ago, and modern deltaic evolution continued into Holocene time until present. More accurate stratigraphic studies incorporating depositional ages are required to i) better understand the late Quaternary evolution of the Delta, ii) trace the base of Holocene deposits, iii) identify potentially active faults, and iv) evaluate liquefaction hazard for the Delta . This study uses the large amount of data available on the Delta (collected by the California Department of Water Resources and others during the past 30 years) and merges them into a unified dataset. We have produced a database that includes historic and surficial maps, aerial photographs, boreholes, and CPT data, for the purpose of clarifying the nature of the Quaternary deposits and the evolution of the Late Quaternary Delta. Additionally, we have identified recently discovered Pleistocene tephra as the Rockland ash, ~0.575 Ma, and the Loleta ash, ~0.40-0.37 Ma, which have improved stratigraphic correlations and assessment of subsidence rates. Delta sediments include sequences of glacial and interglacial deposits. Borehole logs reveal sequences of incision and backfilling corresponding to major climatic fluctuations: incised channels, sand-filling channels, gravel alluvial fans and eolian dunes during glacial periods, and fine-grained alluvial floodplains, mud flats deposits, marshes and peat during warmer interglacials. The evolution of the Delta is likely the result of three processes: subsidence (based on tephra ages, between ~0.004 cm/yr and 0.007 cm/yr in the Northern Delta, ~0.01 cm/yr in the central Delta, ~0.06 cm/yr in the Eastern Delta), compaction due to organic soil oxidation (3.6-6.1 cm/yr), and tectonic control. The thickness of the organic soils (>20 m) suggests that the Holocene sea-level rise was the major factor controlling the Delta's morphology before agricultural drainage began in the 1850's. Because the patterns suggest that sea-level rise was the major cause of changes in the Delta, it is likely that once the organic soil is all oxidized by anthropogenic processes within a few centuries, the major controlling factor will become anthropogenic sea-level rise.

Gatti, E.; Maier, K. L.; Holzer, T. L.; Knudsen, K. L.; Olson, H.; Pagenknopp, M.; Ponti, D. J.; Rosa, C.; Tinsley, J. C.; Wan, E.



Fundamental Study on the Dynamics of Heterogeneity-Enhanced CO2 Gas Evolution in the Shallow Subsurface During Possible Leakage from Deep Geologic Storage Sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A concern for geologic carbon sequestration is the potential for CO2 stored in deep geologic formations to leak upward into shallow freshwater aquifers where it can have potentially detrimental impacts to the environment and human health. Understanding the mechanisms of CO2 exsolution, migration and accumulation (collectively referred to as 'gas evolution') in the shallow subsurface is critical to predict and mitigate the environmental impacts. During leakage, CO2 can move either as free-phase or as a dissolved component of formation brine. CO2 dissolved in brine may travel upward into shallow freshwater systems, and the gas may be released from solution. In the shallow aquifer, the exsolved gas may accumulate near interfaces between soil types, and/or create flow paths that allow the gas to escape through the vadose zone to the atmosphere. The process of gas evolution in the shallow subsurface is controlled by various factors, including temperature, dissolved CO2 concentration, water pressure, background water flow rate, and geologic heterogeneity. However, the conditions under which heterogeneity controls gas phase evolution have not yet been precisely defined and can therefore not yet be incorporated into models used for environmental risk assessment. The primary goal of this study is to conduct controlled laboratory experiments to help fill this knowledge gap. With this as a goal, a series of intermediate-scale laboratory experiments were conducted to observe CO2 gas evolution in porous media at multiple scales. Deionized water was saturated with dissolved CO2 gas under a specified pressure (the saturation pressure) before being injected at a constant volumetric flow rate into the bottom of a 1.7 meter-tall by 5.7 centimeter-diameter column or a 2.4 meter-tall by 40 centimeter-wide column that were both filled with sand in various heterogeneous packing configurations. Both test systems were initially saturated with fresh water and instrumented with soil moisture sensors to monitor the evolution of gas phase through time by measuring the average water content in small sampling volumes of soil. Tensiometers allowed for observation of water pressure through space and time in the test systems, and a computer-interfaced electronic scale continuously monitored the outflow of water from the top of the two test columns. Several packing configurations with five different types of sands were used in order to test the effects of various pore size contrasts and interface shapes on the evolution of the gas phase near soil texture transitions in the heterogeneous packings. Results indicate that: (1) heterogeneity affects gas phase evolution patterns within a predictable range of conditions quantified by the newly introduced term 'oversaturation,' (2) soil transition interfaces where less permeable material overlies more permeable material have a much more pronounced effect on gas evolution than interfaces with opposite orientations, and (3) anticlines (or stratigraphic traps) cause significantly greater gas accumulation than horizontal interfaces. Further work is underway to apply these findings to more realistic, two-dimensional scenarios, and to assess how well existing numerical models can capture these processes.

Plampin, M. R.; Lassen, R. N.; Sakaki, T.; Pawar, R.; Jensen, K.; Illangasekare, T. H.



Process for stabilizing rock and coal formations by bonding these formations to themselves or other geological formations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invention relates to a process for stabilizing rock and coal formations by bonding them to each other or to other geological formations. The bonding material is a reactive organic polyisocyanate-polyol mixture which may contain a catalyst.

D. Arndt; D. Hobein



Chemical Sensing for Buried Landmines - Fundamental Processes Influencing Trace Chemical Detection  

SciTech Connect

Mine detection dogs have a demonstrated capability to locate hidden objects by trace chemical detection. Because of this capability, demining activities frequently employ mine detection dogs to locate individual buried landmines or for area reduction. The conditions appropriate for use of mine detection dogs are only beginning to emerge through diligent research that combines dog selection/training, the environmental conditions that impact landmine signature chemical vapors, and vapor sensing performance capability and reliability. This report seeks to address the fundamental soil-chemical interactions, driven by local weather history, that influence the availability of chemical for trace chemical detection. The processes evaluated include: landmine chemical emissions to the soil, chemical distribution in soils, chemical degradation in soils, and weather and chemical transport in soils. Simulation modeling is presented as a method to evaluate the complex interdependencies among these various processes and to establish conditions appropriate for trace chemical detection. Results from chemical analyses on soil samples obtained adjacent to landmines are presented and demonstrate the ultra-trace nature of these residues. Lastly, initial measurements of the vapor sensing performance of mine detection dogs demonstrates the extreme sensitivity of dogs in sensing landmine signature chemicals; however, reliability at these ultra-trace vapor concentrations still needs to be determined. Through this compilation, additional work is suggested that will fill in data gaps to improve the utility of trace chemical detection.




Canada's Deep Geological Repository for Used Nuclear Fuel - Geo-scientific Site Evaluation Process - 13117  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) is responsible for implementing Adaptive Phased Management (APM), the approach selected by the Government of Canada for long-term management of used nuclear fuel generated by Canadian nuclear reactors. The ultimate objective of APM is the centralized containment and isolation of Canada's used nuclear fuel in a Deep Geological Repository in a suitable rock formation at a depth of approximately 500 meters (m) (1,640 feet [ft]). In May 2010, the NWMO published a nine-step site selection process that serves as the road map to decision-making on the location for the deep geological repository. The safety and appropriateness of any potential site will be assessed against a number of factors, both technical and social in nature. The selected site will be one that can be demonstrated to be able to safely contain and isolate used nuclear fuel, protecting humans and the environment over the very long term. The geo-scientific suitability of potential candidate sites will be assessed in a stepwise manner following a progressive and thorough site evaluation process that addresses a series of geo-scientific factors revolving around five safety functions. The geo-scientific site evaluation process includes: Initial Screenings; Preliminary Assessments; and Detailed Site Evaluations. As of November 2012, 22 communities have entered the site selection process (three in northern Saskatchewan and 18 in northwestern and southwestern Ontario). (authors)

Blyth, Alec; Ben Belfadhel, Mahrez; Hirschorn, Sarah; Hamilton, Duncan; McKelvie, Jennifer [Nuclear Waste Management Organization, 22 St. Clair Avenue East, Toronto, Ontario M4T 2S3 (Canada)] [Nuclear Waste Management Organization, 22 St. Clair Avenue East, Toronto, Ontario M4T 2S3 (Canada)



Physical geology  

SciTech Connect

The book integrates current thinking on processes (plate techtonics, chemical cycles, changes throughout geologic time). It is an introduction to investigations into the way the earth works, how mountains are formed, how the atmosphere, hydrosphere, crust and mantle interact with each other. Treatments on climate, paleoclimatology and landscape evolution are included, as is a discussion on how human activity affects geological interactions.

Skinner, B.; Porter, S.



Geodynamics applications of continuum physics to geological problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This textbook deals with the fundamental physical processes necessary for an understanding of plate tectonics and a variety of geologic phenomena. The first chapter reviews plate tectonics; its main purpose is to provide physics, chemistry, and engineering students with the geologic background necessary to understand the applications throughout the rest of the book. It goes on to discuss in following

D. L. Turcotte; G. Schubert



Processes that initiate turbidity currents and their influence on turbidites: A marine geology perspective  

USGS Publications Warehouse

How the processes that initiate turbidity currents influence turbidite deposition is poorly understood, and many discussions in the literature rely on concepts that are overly simplistic. Marine geological studies provide information on the initiation and flow path of turbidity currents, including their response to gradient. In case studies of late Quaternary turbidites on the eastern Canadian and western U.S. margins, initiation processes are inferred either from real-time data for historical flows or indirectly from the age and contemporary paleogeography, erosional features, and depositional record. Three major types of initiation process are recognized: transformation of failed sediment, hyperpycnal flow from rivers or ice margins, and resuspension of sediment near the shelf edge by oceanographic processes. Many high-concentration flows result from hyperpycnal supply of hyperconcentrated bedload, or liquefaction failure of coarse-grained sediment, and most tend to deposit in slope conduits and on gradients < 0.5?? at the base of slope and on the mid fan. Highly turbulent flows, from transformation of retrogressive failures and from ignitive flows that are triggered by oceanographic processes, tend to cannibalize these more proximal sediments and redeposit them on lower gradients on the basin plain. Such conduit flushing provides most of the sediment in large turbidites. Initiation mechanism exerts a strong control on the duration of turbidity flows. In most basins, there is a complex feedback between different types of turbidity-current initiation, the transformation of the flows, and the associated slope morphology. As a result, there is no simple relationship between initiating process and type of deposit. ?? 2009, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology).

Piper, David J.W.; Normark, William R.



No geology without marine geology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief review is offered of the many problems where knowledge of the ocean floors and of marine processes in shallow water is indispensable for the further advancement of geology. The subject of turbidity currents is treated in greater detail, to demonstrate the interrelation of several aspects of marine geology with sedimentologic and paleogeographic investigations. It is obvious that the

P. H Kuenen



Geoelectrical signals of geologic and hydrologic processes in a fringing reef lagoon setting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal groundwater may discharge into nearshore and offshore waters forced by terrestrial fluxes, controlled by local geology, and modulated by the hydrodynamics of littoral water. We investigated the electrical signature of these features with a dense, multiscale network of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys in the Muri Lagoon of Rarotonga, Cook Islands. The ERT surveys spanned from onshore to 400 m into the lagoon and used standard electrodes on land and across the foreshore, submerged electrodes in the shallow subtidal zone, and floating electrodes towed throughout the reef lagoon by a boat. ERT surveys on land mapped a typical freshwater lens underlain by a saltwater wedge, but with possible deviations from the classical model due to an adjacent tidal creek. Further inland, ERT surveys imaged a layer of lava flow deposits that is potentially a confining hydrogeologic unit; this unit was used to constrain the expected electrical resistivity of these deposits below the lagoon. ERT surveys across the intertidal zone and into the lagoon indicated fresh groundwater and porewater salinity patterns consistent with previous small-scale studies including the seaward extension of fresh groundwater pathways to the lagoon. Electrical resistivity (ER) variations in the lagoon subsurface highlighted heterogeneities in the lagoon structure that may focus submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) through previously unknown buried lava flow deposits in the lagoon. A transition to higher ER values near the reef crest is consistent with the ER signature of porosity reduction due to ongoing differential cementation of reef deposits across the lagoon. The imaged coastal hydrostratigraphic heterogeneity may thus control terrestrial and marine porewater mixing, support SGD, and provide the pathways for groundwater and the materials it transports into the lagoon. This hydrogeophysical investigation highlighted the spatial heterogeneity of submarine coastal geology and its hydrogeologic control in a reef lagoon setting, but is likely to occur in many similar coastal settings. Ignoring geologic complexity can result in mischaracterization of SGD and other coastal groundwater processes at many spatial scales.

Befus, Kevin M.; Cardenas, M. Bayani; Tait, Douglas R.; Erler, Dirk V.




USGS Publications Warehouse

The US Geological Survey is utilizing a national network of more than 1000 satellite data-collection stations, four satellite-relay direct-readout ground stations, and more than 50 computers linked together in a private telecommunications network to acquire, process, and distribute hydrological data in near real-time. The four Survey offices operating a satellite direct-readout ground station provide near real-time hydrological data to computers located in other Survey offices through the Survey's Distributed Information System. The computerized distribution system permits automated data processing and distribution to be carried out in a timely manner under the control and operation of the Survey office responsible for the data-collection stations and for the dissemination of hydrological information to the water-data users.

Shope, Jr. , William, G.



Laboratory Study of Fundamental Plasma Processes in Astrophysics: Progress and Opportunities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances in astrophysics (including heliophysics) are led by new observations from recent satellites and ground-based observatories, revealing detailed plasma dynamics ranging from Earth's magnetospheric activity, solar wind turbulence, solar/stellar flares, gamma ray bursts, efficient energy release from hot accretion disks, to cosmic rays at highest energies. Many of these phenomena are surprising and demand better understanding. Motivated by these astrophysical observations, a large number of laboratory experiments, equipped by significant progress in controls, diagnostics, and numerical simulations, have been performed to study underlying fundamental plasma physics. This talk is intended to highlight recent achievements on the following three selected topics. (1) On the topic of magnetic reconnection,footnotetextM. Yamada, R. Kulsrud, and H. Ji, Magnetic Reconnection,'' Rev. Mod. Phys. 82 (2010) 603. which is considered to be responsible for rapid release of magnetic energy in astrophysics, the classical Sweet-Parker model has been tested successfully in collisional laboratory plasmas while two-fluid effects, including detailed electron-scale dynamics, are observed to be essential for fast reconnection. (2) On the topic of flow stability,footnotetextH. Ji, Current Status and Future Prospects for Laboratory Study of Angular Momentum Transport Relevant to Astrophysical Disks,'' Advances in Plasma Astrophysics, Proc. IAU Symp. #274, Sicily Island, Italy (2010) p.18. which is considered to govern accretion processes and turbulent mixing in highly dynamic astrophysical plasmas, a major candidate hydrodynamic instability of Keplerian flows has been effectively eliminated by laboratory experiments while the magnetic field effects on the flow stabilities are explored and quantified. (3) On the topic of shock waves, which are considered to be a generic mechanism for the observed particle heating and acceleration, laboratory experiments have successfully produced the shocks dominated by radiative processes, and experiments on generation of collisionless shocks are underway. Dynamic behaviors of the shock front consisting of fine structures are measured and quantitatively compared with the state-of-the-art numerical predictions. The bright future of this growing field will be reflected in discussions of several near term major scientific opportunities, highlighted from the report of a community-based Workshop on Opportunities in Plasma Astrophysics (WOPA).footnotetext

Ji, Hantao



Separating Macroecological Pattern and Process: Comparing Ecological, Economic, and Geological Systems  

PubMed Central

Theories of biodiversity rest on several macroecological patterns describing the relationship between species abundance and diversity. A central problem is that all theories make similar predictions for these patterns despite disparate assumptions. A troubling implication is that these patterns may not reflect anything unique about organizational principles of biology or the functioning of ecological systems. To test this, we analyze five datasets from ecological, economic, and geological systems that describe the distribution of objects across categories in the United States. At the level of functional form (‘first-order effects’), these patterns are not unique to ecological systems, indicating they may reveal little about biological process. However, we show that mechanism can be better revealed in the scale-dependency of first-order patterns (‘second-order effects’). These results provide a roadmap for biodiversity theory to move beyond traditional patterns, and also suggest ways in which macroecological theory can constrain the dynamics of economic systems. PMID:25383874

Blonder, Benjamin; Sloat, Lindsey; Enquist, Brian J.; McGill, Brian



Improved understanding of geologic CO{sub 2} storage processes requires risk-driven field experiments  

SciTech Connect

The need for risk-driven field experiments for CO{sub 2} geologic storage processes to complement ongoing pilot-scale demonstrations is discussed. These risk-driven field experiments would be aimed at understanding the circumstances under which things can go wrong with a CO{sub 2} capture and storage (CCS) project and cause it to fail, as distinguished from accomplishing this end using demonstration and industrial scale sites. Such risk-driven tests would complement risk-assessment efforts that have already been carried out by providing opportunities to validate risk models. In addition to experimenting with high-risk scenarios, these controlled field experiments could help validate monitoring approaches to improve performance assessment and guide development of mitigation strategies.

Oldenburg, C.M.



Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems. Geologic factors in the isolation of nuclear waste: evaluation of long-term geomorphic processes and catastrophic events  

SciTech Connect

SRI International has projected the rate, duration, and magnitude of geomorphic processes and events in the Southwest and Gulf Coast over the next million years. This information will be used by the Department of Energy`s Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as input to a computer model, which will be used to simulate possible release scenarios and the consequences of the release of nuclear waste from geologic containment. The estimates in this report, although based on best scientific judgment, are subject to considerable uncertainty. An evaluation of the Quaternary history of the two study areas revealed that each had undergone geomorphic change in the last one million years. Catastrophic events were evaluated in order to determine their significance to the simulation model. Given available data, catastrophic floods are not expected to occur in the two study areas. Catastrophic landslides may occur in the Southwest, but because the duration of the event is brief and the amount of material moved is small in comparison to regional denudation, such events need not be included in the simulation model. Ashfalls, however, could result in removal of vegetation from the landscape, thereby causing significant increases in erosion rates. Because the estimates developed during this study may not be applicable to specific sites, general equations were presented as a first step in refining the analysis. These equations identify the general relationships among the important variables and suggest those areas of concern for which further data are required. If the current model indicates that geomorphic processes (taken together with other geologic changes) may ultimately affect the geologic containment of nuclear waste, further research may be necessary to refine this analysis for application to specific sites.

Mara, S.J.



Antarctic Dry Valley analogs for Mars gullies: Geological setting and processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Malin and Edgett [1,2] initially described a class of young features on Mars that they termed gullies, consisting of an alcove, a channel and a fan. Restricted to middle and high latitude locations, these features were interpreted to have originated through processes related to the presence of liquid water (through groundwater discharge); the potential presence of liquid water on the surface of Mars currently or in the very recent geological past, when liquid water is metastable [3], generated a host of alternative explanations for the gullies [see summary in 4]. Detailed analysis of the conditions under which H2O could flow as a liquid in the current Mars environment shows a range of conditions under which gully-forming activity is possible [3,5]. Recent observations of changes in gullies, interpreted to mean that a few gullies are currently active [6], have intensified this discussion. Terrestrial analogs to martian environments may provide insight into the processes operating on Mars. For example, the nature of perennial saline springs forming channels on Axel Heiberg Island in the Canadian High Arctic has been used to support the argument that martian gullies formed from subsurface groundwater springs [7]. In this analysis we report on the results of ongoing [8-11] field studies in the Antarctic Dry Valleys (ADV), a hyperarid polar desert analog for Mars [11].

Head, J. W.; Marchant, D. R.; Dickson, J. L.; Levy, J. S.; Morgan, G. A.



Fundamental studies of catalytic processing of synthetic liquids. Quarterly progress report, October 1, 1991--December 31, 1991  

SciTech Connect

This project revolves around understanding the fundamental processes involved in the catalytic removal of harmful oxygenated organics present in coal liquids. We are modelling the complex type of sulfided Mo catalyst proposed for these reactions with simple single crystal surfaces. These display a controlled range and number of reaction sites and can be extensively characterized by surface science techniques. We then investigate the reaction pathways for representative simple oxygenates upon these surfaces.

Watson, P.R.



Solidification Fundamentals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fundamental aspects of a variety of solidification phenomena were studied, taking advantage of the unique opportunities offered by the microgravity environment of space. Containerless processing and an understanding of the role of fluids induced by gravitational effects are the two major objectives justifying an experimental program in reduced gravity. The solidification phenomena which are likely to benefit are: macro and microsegregation, columnar-equiaxed transition, pore formation, and undercooling.

Laxmanan, V.; Wallace, J. F.



Investigating geologic features and processes: A field investigation for earth science students at Leif Erickson Park, Duluth, Minnesota.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is a field investigation where students observe and interpret the rocks types, geologic features, and processes typical to the north shore of Lake Superior. Students use their data to develop questions that could be further investigated and to predict the sequence of events leading to the formation of these rocks and features.

Severson, Laurie


Application of ERTS images and image processing to regional geologic problems and geologic mapping in northern Arizona  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Computer image processing was shown to be both valuable and necessary in the extraction of the proper subset of the 200 million bits of information in an ERTS image to be applied to a specific problem. Spectral reflectivity information obtained from the four MSS bands can be correlated with in situ spectral reflectance measurements after path radiance effects have been removed and a proper normalization has been made. A detailed map of the major fault systems in a 90,000 sq km area in northern Arizona was compiled from high altitude photographs and pre-existing published and unpublished map data. With the use of ERTS images, three major fault systems, the Sinyala, Bright Angel, and Mesa Butte, were identified and their full extent measured. A byproduct of the regional studies was the identification of possible sources of shallow ground water, a scarce commodity in these regions.

Goetz, A. F. H. (principal investigator); Billingsley, F. C.; Gillespie, A. R.; Abrams, M. J.; Squires, R. L.; Shoemaker, E. M.; Lucchitta, I.; Elston, D. P.



Elucidating geological and biological processes underlying the diversification of Sulawesi tarsiers.  


Because of their exceptionally long independent evolution, a range diminution of their Eocene relatives, and a remarkable subsequent diversification in Southeast Asia, tarsiers are of particular importance to evolutionary primatologists. Little is known, however, on the processes shaping the radiation of these small enigmatic primates-especially on the Indonesian island of Sulawesi, their center of endemism. Geological reconstructions and progress in applying DNA sequence information to divergence dating now provide us with the tools and background to comprehend tarsier dispersal. Here, we describe effects of plate-tectonic movements, Pleistocene sea level changes, and hybridization on the divergence of central Sulawesi tarsiers. We analyzed 12 microsatellites, the cytochrome b gene, the hypervariable region I of the mitochondrial control region, and the sex-determining region on the Y-chromosome from 144 specimens captured along a transect crossing a species boundary and a contact zone between 2 microplates. Based on these differentially inherited genetic markers, geographic information, and recordings of vocalizations, we demonstrate that the species boundary coincides with a tectonic suture. We estimate the most recent common ancestor of the 2 taxa to have lived 1.4 Mya, we describe asymmetrical introgressive hybridization, and we give evidence of unbiased dispersal in one species and male-biased dispersal in another species. This study exemplifies that the distribution of tarsier acoustic forms on Sulawesi is consistent with the allocation of genetic variability and that plate-tectonic and glacial events have left traceable marks in the biogeography of this island's unique fauna. PMID:19451646

Merker, Stefan; Driller, Christine; Perwitasari-Farajallah, Dyah; Pamungkas, Joko; Zischler, Hans



The MESSENGER mission to Mercury: new insights into geological processes and evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission, a part of NASA's Discovery Program, was designed to answer six questions [1]: (1) What planetary formational processes led to Mercury's high ratio of metal to silicate? (2) What is the geological history of Mercury? (3) What are the nature and origin of Mercury's magnetic field? (4) What are the structure and state of Mercury's core? (5) What are the radar-reflective materials at Mercury's poles? (6) What are the important volatile species and their sources and sinks near Mercury? MESSENGER is currently midway through a complex interplanetary cruise phase that involves three flybys of Mercury. The first of these, on 14 January 2008, provided important new information relating to several of the questions above [2-13]. Here we summarize observations made during the flyby that are most relevant to new insights about geological processes that have operated on Mercury and implications for the planet's history [3, 8-13]. The instruments that provided the most direct information on the geological history of Mercury during this first encounter were the Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) [14], the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) [15], and the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) [16]. Among the many specific questions remaining following the Mariner 10 mission to Mercury (1974- 1975) were (1) the level of mineralogical and compositional diversity of the crust, which appeared relatively bland in Mariner 10 data, (2) the nature of the rest of the huge Caloris impact basin seen only partially in Mariner 10 images, (3) the origin of the extensive plains observed on the surface (ponded impact ejecta or extrusive lava flows?), (4) the diversity and global distribution of tectonic features that have deformed the crust and their implications for strain as a function of time, and (5) the bombardment chronology and geological history of Mercury [1, 17-19]. The viewing geometry for the first MESSENGER encounter of Mercury [1] provided important information on these questions from image and remote sensing data on an additional 20% of the surface of Mercury not seen by Mariner 10, as well as comprehensive views of the Caloris basin and its surroundings. MESSENGER MDIS multi-spectral images [8-10] revealed a relatively low-reflectance surface with three broad units identified from reflectance and spectral slope in the wavelength range 0.4-1.0 ?m. These new data helped to confirm the diversity of color units detected in re-processed Mariner 10 color-ratio images [20] and to extend the analysis to larger areas of Mercury. One of these new units is higher in reflectance and forms relatively red plains material that corresponds to a distinct class of smooth plains; these plains, on the basis of their sharp contacts with other units, are interpreted to have been emplaced volcanically. A second unit is represented by lowerreflectance material with a lesser spectral slope and is interpreted to form a distinct crustal component enriched in opaque minerals and possibly more common at depth. A spectrally intermediate terrain appears to form the majority of the upper crust in the newly observed area. Several other spectrally distinct units are found in local regions: (1) moderately high-reflectance, relatively reddish material associated with rimless depressions and located at several places along the interior margin of the Caloris basin rim; (2) highreflectance deposits observed in some impact crater floors; and (3) fresh crater ejecta that is less modified by space weathering than older surface materials. MASCS spectrometer data [9,15] show absorption and spectral slope properties of resolved spectra that are indicative of differences in composition and regolith maturation processes among color units defined by MDIS. Mid-ultraviolet to near-infrared reflectance observations of the surface revealed the presence of a previously unobserved ultraviolet absorption feature that suggests a low FeO content (<2-3 weight %) in silicates in averag

Head, James W., III; Solomon, Sean C.; McNutt, Ralph L., Jr.; Blewett, David T.; Chapman, Clark R.; Domingue, Deborah L.; Evans, Larry G.; Gillis-Davis, Jeffrey J.; Hawkins, S. Edward, III; Helbert, Jörn; Holsclaw, Gregory M.; Izenberg, Noam R.; McClintock, William E.; McCoy, Timothy J.; Merline, William J.; Murchie, Scott L.; Nittler, Larrz R.; Phillips, Roger J.; Prockter, Louise M.; Robinson, Mark S.; Sprague, Ann L.; Strom, Robert G.; Vilas, Faith; Watters, Thomas R.; Zuber, Maria T.



Rheology of petrolatum-paraffin oil mixtures: Applications to analogue modelling of geological processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paraffins have been widely used in analogue modelling of geological processes. Petrolatum and paraffin oil are commonly used to lubricate model boundaries and to simulate weak layers. In this paper, we present rheological tests of petrolatum, paraffin oil and several homogeneous mixtures of the two. The results show that petrolatum and all petrolatum-paraffin oil mixtures are strain, strain rate and temperature dependent under typical experimental strain rates (10-3-10-1 s-1). For the same conditions, pure paraffin oil is a slightly temperature-dependent, linear, Newtonian fluid. All mixtures have yield stress and flow stress (strain softening) values that decrease with decreasing shear rate, and with increasing relative amounts of paraffin oil. The degree of strain rate dependence (shear thinning) also decreases with increasing paraffin oil content. Because these materials have rheologies that can be characterized and controlled, they are suitable for use in a large number of analogue model settings, either as a lubricant or to simulate weak layers. When used as a lubricant, mixtures with higher paraffin oil content should perform better than pure petrolatum.

Duarte, João C.; Schellart, Wouter P.; Cruden, Alexander R.



Interface Induced Carbonate Mineralization: A Fundamental Geochemical Process Relevant to Carbon Sequestration  

SciTech Connect

We have approached the long-standing geochemical question why anhydrous high-Mg carbonate minerals (i.e., magnesite and dolomite) cannot be formed at ambient conditions from a new perspective by exploring the formation of MgCO{sub 3} and Mg{sub x}Ca{sub (1-x)}CO{sub 3} in non-aqueous solutions. Data collected from our experiments in this funding period suggest that a fundamental barrier, other than cation hydration, exists that prevents Mg{sup 2+} and CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} ions from forming long-range ordered structures. We propose that this barrier mainly stems from the lattice limitation on the spatial configuration of CO{sub 3} groups in magnesite crystals. On the other hand, the measured higher distribution coefficients of Mg between magnesian calcites formed in the absence and presence of water give us a first direct proof to support and quantify the cation hydration effect.

Teng, H. Henry [PI, The George Washington University] [PI, The George Washington University; Xu, Huifang [Co-PI, University of Wisconsin-Madison] [Co-PI, University of Wisconsin-Madison



Report of the second meeting of the consultants on coupled processes associated with geological disposal of nuclear waste  

SciTech Connect

The second meeting of the Consultants on Coupled Processes Associated with Geological Disposal of Nuclear Waste occurred on January 15-16, 1985 at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). All the consultants were present except Dr. K. Kovari, who presented comments in writing afterward. This report contains a brief summary of the presentations and discussions from the meeting. The main points of the speakers' topics are briefly summarized in the report. Some points that emerged during the discussions of the presentations are included in the text related to the respective talks. These comments are grouped under the headings: Comments on Coupled Processes in Unsaturated Fractured Porous Media, Comments on Overview of Coupled Processes, Presentations by Consultants on Selected Topics of Current Interest in Coupled Processes, and Recommendations for Underground Field Tests with Applications to Three Geologic Environments.

Tsang, Chin-Fu; Mangold, D.C.



[Fundamental study on stability of dry-processing imager system DRYPRO 722/SD-P].  


Dry-processing leaser imager systems have become popular due to the advantages such as the elimination of the cost and labor associated with the wet chemical processing. In this paper, the stability of a dry-processing imager system Drypro 722/SD-P was studied using SMPTE pattern films processed by a dry-processing imager Drypro 722 and a wet-processing imager Li-8/SRX-502 at three different times of the day over a period of five consecutive working days. The dry system is inferior to the wet system on the stability and the spatial uniformity, so that the problems assess the necessity of QC for Drypro 722 Laser Imagers. The instability of the post-processing dry and wet films is also studied. The dry film is very instable compared with the wet film. Accordingly the wet film must be handled with the care. PMID:12766281

Sonobe, Fumie; Toyooka, Kayoko; Abe, Shinji; Tanaka, Takeo; Naka, Eriko; Fujisaki, Tatsuya; Nishimura, Katsuyuki; Saitoh, Hidetoshi; Mochizuki, Yasuo



Differential preservation in the geologic record of intraoceanic arc sedimentary and tectonic processes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Records of ancient intraoceanic arc activity, now preserved in continental suture zones, are commonly used to reconstruct paleogeography and plate motion, and to understand how continental crust is formed, recycled, and maintained through time. However, interpreting tectonic and sedimentary records from ancient terranes after arc–continent collision is complicated by preferential preservation of evidence for some arc processes and loss of evidence for others. In this synthesis we examine what is lost, and what is preserved, in the translation from modern processes to the ancient record of intraoceanic arcs. Composition of accreted arc terranes differs as a function of arc–continent collision geometry. ‘Forward-facing’ collision can accrete an oceanic arc on to either a passive or an active continental margin, with the arc facing the continent and colliding trench- and forearc-side first. In a ‘backward-facing’ collision, involving two subduction zones with similar polarity, the arc collides backarc-first with an active continental margin. The preservation of evidence for contemporary sedimentary and tectonic arc processes in the geologic record depends greatly on how well the various parts of the arc survive collision and orogeny in each case. Preservation of arc terranes likely is biased towards those that were in a state of tectonic accretion for tens of millions of years before collision, rather than tectonic erosion. The prevalence of tectonic erosion in modern intraoceanic arcs implies that valuable records of arc processes are commonly destroyed even before the arc collides with a continent. Arc systems are most likely to undergo tectonic accretion shortly before forward-facing collision with a continent, and thus most forearc and accretionary-prism material in ancient arc terranes likely is temporally biased toward the final stages of arc activity, when sediment flux to the trench was greatest and tectonic accretion prevailed. Collision geometry and tectonic erosion vs. accretion are important controls on the ultimate survival of material from the trench, forearc, arc massif, intra-arc basins, and backarc basins, and thus on how well an ancient arc terrane preserves evidence for tectonic processes such as subduction of aseismic ridges and seamounts, oblique plate convergence, and arc rifting. Forward-facing collision involves substantial recycling, melting, and fractionation of continent-derived material during and after collision, and so produces melts rich in silica and incompatible trace elements. As a result, forward-facing collision can drive the composition of accreted arc crust toward that of average continental crust.

Draut, Amy; Clift, Peter D.



Coupled THMC processes in Geological Media using Stochastic Discrete Fractured Network. Application to HDR Geothermal Reservoirs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hot Dry Rock (HDR) fractured geological formations, where the assumption of homogeneity is restrictive, are very important thermo-hydrological reservoirs. In the present study, the fractured media was treated as a heterogeneous network of stochastically generated discrete fractures (SDFN). The flow at the fracture scale was derived analytically using Laplace transform. Flow at the formation level was then achieved by combining the solution of the generated individual fractures. To validate the proposed model, one-, two- and three- dimensional problems were investigated. An experimental high pressure water injection test conducted at Soultz-sous-Forêts in Alsace, France, was simulated. Results indicated that the mechanical properties of the media influenced by the injection pressure must be incorporated into the proposed model. In particular, changes in the hydraulic conductivity and the storage coefficient as function of the effective stresses appear to be quite significant. Consequently, the model was extended to take into account the mechanical stresses and was reapplied to the flow injection test. The hydro-mechanical model results showed significant improvements between the simulated and observed pressure time series. Heat extraction from HDR is not limited however to the hydrological phenomena discussed thus far, and therefore, thermal and geochemical processes must be included. A one-dimensional model was developed which takes into account the equilibrium and/or non-equilibrium transport of the chemical species and the water-rock interaction. Thermal processes were modeled using a double porosity approach. The hydrothermal and chemical transport at the formation level was obtained by simultaneously combining the solution of the stochastically generated individual fractures. Finally to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed hydro-thermo-mechanical and chemical (THMC) model, a calcite precipitation example is presented.

Ezzedine, S.



Fundamental Properties of Organic Low-k Dielectrics Usable in the Cu Damascene Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The material parameters for organic low-k dielectrics usable in the damascene process were studied using two different types of polymers with similar low dielectric constants, namely, the PQ-600 thermoplastic polymer and the SiLK thermosetting polymer. The resistibility of these polymers in the damascene process was investigated through hard-mask (SiO2) deposition, etching and chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) processes using scanning probe

Yutaka Nomura; Fumihiko Ota; Hiroyuki Kurino; Mitsumasa Koyanagi



Understanding geological processes: Visualization of rigid and non-rigid transformations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Visualizations are used in the geological sciences to support reasoning about structures and events. Research in cognitive sciences offers insights into the range of skills of different users, and ultimately how visualizations might support different users. To understand the range of skills needed to reason about earth processes we have developed a program of research that is grounded in the geosciences' careful description of the spatial and spatiotemporal patterns associated with earth processes. In particular, we are pursuing a research program that identifies specific spatial skills and investigates whether and how they are related to each other. For this study, we focus on a specific question: Is there an important distinction in the geosciences between rigid and non-rigid deformation? To study a general spatial thinking skill we employed displays with non-geological objects that had been altered by rigid change (rotation), and two types of non-rigid change ("brittle" (or discontinuous) and "ductile" (or continuous) deformation). Disciplinary scientists (geosciences and chemistry faculty), and novices (non-science faculty and undergraduate psychology students) answered questions that required them to visualize the appearance of the object before the change. In one study, geologists and chemists were found to be superior to non-science faculty in reasoning about rigid rotations (e.g., what an object would look like from a different perspective). Geologists were superior to chemists in reasoning about brittle deformations (e.g., what an object looked like before it was broken - here the object was a word cut into many fragments displaced in different directions). This finding is consistent with two hypotheses: 1) Experts are good at visualizing the types of changes required for their domain; and 2) Visualization of rigid and non-rigid changes are not the same skill. An additional important finding is that there was a broad range of skill in both rigid and non-rigid reasoning within the panels of science experts. In a second study, individual differences in reasoning about brittle deformations were correlated with reasoning about ductile deformations (e.g., what a bent plastic sheet would look like when unbent). Students who were good at visualizing what something looked like before it was broken were also good at visualizing what something looked like before it was bent, and this skill was not correlated to reasoning about rigid rotations. These findings suggest the cognitive processes that support reasoning about rigid and non-rigid events may differ and thus may require different types of support and training. We do not know if differences between experts and novices result from experience or self-selection, or both. Nevertheless, the range of spatial skill evinced by novices and experts strongly argues for designing visualizations to support a variety of users.

Shipley, T. F.; Atit, K.; Manduca, C. A.; Ormand, C. J.; Resnick, I.; Tikoff, B.



Discussion of fundamental processes in dielectric barrier discharges used for soft ionization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Permanent need for simple to apply and efficient methods for molecular mass spectrometry resulted in the development of a variety of methods now commonly termed ambient desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (ADI-MS), which experienced a very rapid development during the last 10 years. The most widely used techniques are direct analysis in real time (DART), plasma assisted desorption/ionization (PADI), flowing afterglow-atmospheric pressure glow discharge ionization (FA-APGDI), low-temperature plasma probe (LTP) and dielectric barrier discharge ionization (DBDI). They all share the advantage of direct, ambient analysis of samples with little or no pretreatment, and employ some kind of electrical discharge to desorb and ionize the analyte species. However, the investigations focused on the characterization, examination and understanding of underlying ionization mechanisms of these discharges are relatively small in number. More efforts are clearly needed in this segment, since the understanding of the fundamentals of these discharges is a prerequisite for optimization of working parameters of ADI-MS sources with the aim of increasing ionization efficiency. Here, ADI-MS techniques will be overviewed, with the emphasis put on the review and the analysis of the recent progress in dielectric barrier discharges utilized for soft ionization.

Horvatic, Vlasta; Vadla, Cedomil; Franzke, Joachim



Application of fundamental kinetic modeling to industrial chlorination and partial oxidation processes  

E-print Network

existing operating conditions or to predict novel processes. One such chemistry is the oxychlorination of ethane to vinyl chloride. The problem is most easily solved in three steps: the development of a thermal chlorination model, the development of a...

Han, Joseph Hsiao-Tien



Fundamental investigation of refractory reactions occurring at high temperatures in continuous steel casting process.  

E-print Network

??An in-depth study has been carried out to investigate refractory degradation during continuous steel casting processes. Slag/refractory interactions have been investigated through a study of… (more)

Liu, Fuhai



Mesophase Behavior Fundamental to the Processing of Carbon-Carbon Composites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Investigated are the behaviors of the carbonaceous mesophase that significantly influence the processing of carbon-carbon composites. An understanding of those behaviors will provide insights for more effective and economical fabrication of such composite...

J. L. White



Seafloor Eruptions Offer a Teachable Moment to Help SEAS Students Understand Important Geological and Ecological Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In education parlance, a teachable moment is an opportunity that arises when students are engaged and primed to learn, typically in response to some memorable event. Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, even natural disasters, if meaningful to the student, often serve to catalyze intense learning. Recent eruptions at the East Pacific Rise offer a potential teachable moment for students and teachers involved with SEAS, a Ridge 2000 education outreach program. SEAS uses a combination of web-facilitated and teacher-directed activities to make the remote deep-sea environment and the process of science relevant and meaningful. SEAS is a web-based, inquiry-oriented education program for middle and high school students. It features the science associated with Ridge 2000 research. Since 2003, SEAS has focused on the integrated study site at the East Pacific Rise (EPR) to help students understand geological and ecological processes at mid-ocean ridges and hydrothermal vents. SEAS students study EPR bathymetry maps, images of lava formations, photomosaics of diffuse flow communities, succession in the Bio-Geo Transect, as well as current research conducted during spring cruises. In the Classroom to Sea Lab, students make direct comparisons between shallow-water mussels and vent mussels (from the EPR) to understand differences in feeding strategies. The recent eruptions and loss of seafloor fauna at this site offer the Ridge 2000 program the opportunity to help students better understand the ephemeral and episodic nature of ridge environments, as well as the realities and processes of science (particularly field science). In January 2007, the SEAS program will again sail with a Ridge 2000 research team, and will work with scientists to report findings through the SEAS website. The eruptions at the EPR covered much of the study site, and scientists' instruments and experiments, in fresh lava. We intend to highlight the recency and effect of the eruptions, using the students' anticipated response as a motivator to deepen their understanding of the environment. SEAS depends on the contributions of many scientists within the Ridge 2000 community, and serves as an outreach channel for the whole community. Scientists can help field student questions during the Ask-a- Scientist email forum, serve as Report Reviewers, be featured in Scientist Spotlights, and help develop new Classroom to Sea labs and curricular materials. In the next four years, SEAS will integrate with the international GLOBE education program (, and help our community reach even more students and teachers, worldwide.

Goehring, L.; Williams, C. S.



Fundamental changes of granular flows dynamics, deposition and erosion processes at high slope angles: insights from laboratory experiments.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geophysical granular flows commonly interact with their substrate in various ways depending on the mechanical properties of the underlying material. Granular substrates, resulting from deposition of earlier flows or various geological events, are often eroded by avalanches [see Hungr and Evans, 2004 for review]. The entrainment of underlying debris by the flow is suspected to affect flow dynamics because qualitative and quantitative field observations suggest that it can increase the flow velocity and deposit extent, depending on the geological setting and flow type [Sovilla et al., 2006; Iverson et al., 2011]. Direct measurement of material entrainment in nature, however, is very difficult. We conducted laboratory experiments on granular column collapse over an inclined channel with and without an erodible bed of granular material. The controlling parameters were the channel slope angle, the granular column volume and its aspect ratio (i.e. height over length), the inclination of the column with respect to the channel base, the channel width, and the thickness and compaction of the erodible bed. For slope angles below a critical value ?c, between 10° and 16°, the runout distance rf is proportional to the initial column height h0 and is unaffected by the presence of an erodible bed. On steeper slopes, the flow dynamics change fundamentally since a last phase of slow propagation develops at the end of the flow front deceleration, and prolongates significantly the flow duration. This phase has similar characteristics that steady, uniform flows. The slow propagation phase lasts longer for increasing slope angle, column volume, column inclination with respect to the slope, and channel width, and for decreasing column aspect ratio. It is however independent of the maximum front velocity and, on an erodible bed, of the maximum depth of excavation within the bed. Both on rigid and erodible beds, the increase of the slow propagation phase duration has a crucial effect on the granular flows dynamics and deposition. (i) Over a rigid bed, as the slow propagation phase lasts longer, the normalized runout distance rf/h0 is greater for a given slope angle and the front of the flow deposit becomes steeper. (ii) Over an erodible bed, increasing the duration of the slow phase causes the bed excavation to lasts longer and leads to the increase of the runout distance compared with the case on the rigid bed being greater; this is even more significant as the bed is less compact.

Farin, Maxime; Mangeney, Anne; Roche, Olivier



Fundamental Properties of Organic Low-k Dielectrics Usable in the Cu Damascene Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The material parameters for organic low-k dielectrics usable in the damascene process were studied using two different types of polymers with similar low dielectric constants, namely, the PQ-600 thermoplastic polymer and the SiLK thermosetting polymer. The resistibility of these polymers in the damascene process was investigated through hard-mask (SiO2) deposition, etching and chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) processes using scanning probe microscopy (SPM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and a modified edge liftoff test (m-ELT). For the PQ-600 film, damage was observed in the deposition process and dissolution of the film occurred during chemical cleaning in the etching process. On the other hand, the SiLK film was combinable with the Cu damascene process and usable as an interlayer dielectric (ILD) in one-level Cu wiring. A high glass transition temperature (Tg) and chemical resistance resulting from the thermosetting structure are considered to be the essential properties required for the desired organic low-k dielectrics. In eddition, the electrical properies of the SiLK film were investigated using a one-level test element group (TEG) formed through a single Cu damascene process. The dielectric constant of the SiLK film extracted from the Cu damascene TEG compared with that of bulk SiO2 was reduced by 24%. The leakage current measured at 1 MV/cm between the adjoining Cu lines at the TEG pattern with a hard mask was 9.7× 10-10 A/cm2, and dielectric breakdown occurred at 5.5 MV/cm.

Nomura, Yutaka; Ota, Fumihiko; Kurino, Hiroyuki; Koyanagi, Mitsumasa



Fundamental phenomena on fuel decomposition and boundary-layer combustion processes with applications to hybrid rocket motors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The experimental study on the fundamental processes involved in fuel decomposition and boundary-layer combustion in hybrid rocket motors is continuously being conducted at the High Pressure Combustion Laboratory of The Pennsylvania State University. This research will provide a useful engineering technology base in the development of hybrid rocket motors as well as a fundamental understanding of the complex processes involved in hybrid propulsion. A high-pressure, 2-D slab motor has been designed, manufactured, and utilized for conducting seven test firings using HTPB fuel processed at PSU. A total of 20 fuel slabs have been received from the Mcdonnell Douglas Aerospace Corporation. Ten of these fuel slabs contain an array of fine-wire thermocouples for measuring solid fuel surface and subsurface temperatures. Diagnostic instrumentation used in the test include high-frequency pressure transducers for measuring static and dynamic motor pressures and fine-wire thermocouples for measuring solid fuel surface and subsurface temperatures. The ultrasonic pulse-echo technique as well as a real-time x-ray radiography system have been used to obtain independent measurements of instantaneous solid fuel regression rates.

Kuo, Kenneth K.; Lu, Yeu-Cherng; Chiaverini, Martin J.; Harting, George C.; Johnson, David K.; Serin, Nadir



Fundamental processes capable of accounting for the neutron flux enhancements in a thunderstorm atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elementary processes capable of producing neutrons in a thunderstorm atmosphere are analyzed. The efficiency of nuclear fusion 2H(2H, n)3He, photonuclear reactions (?, Xn), electrodisintegration reactions {/m n }A( e -, n){/m n-1}, and reactions e -( p +, n)? e opposite to the ?-decay is evaluated. It is shown that an unrealistically strong electric field is required for the nuclear fusion to be responsible for the neutron production in the lightning channel. The generation of neutrons in a thunderstorm atmosphere is connected with photonuclear (?, Xn) and, at a much lower degree, electrodisintegration reactions, the relativistic runaway electron avalanches being primary parent processes.

Babich, L. P.



Foundations of Physical Theory, I: Force and Energy. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Fundamentals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module is part of a series designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. This module is one of two units on the foundations of physical theory and the…

Pearson, Nolan E.


Encapsulation and co-precipitation processes with supercritical fluids: Fundamentals and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formulation of natural substances together with a biocompatible or biodegradable carrier material to form composites or encapsulates has a great relevance for pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries. Several precipitation methods with supercritical fluids can be successfully adapted to produce these materials. This article presents a review of the main aspects of supercritical encapsulation and co-precipitation processes, focused on a

María José Cocero; Ángel Martín; Facundo Mattea; Salima Varona



Advanced small rocket chambers. Basic program and option 2: Fundamental processes and material evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Propellants, chamber materials, and processes for fabrication of small high performance radiation cooled liquid rocket engines were evaluated to determine candidates for eventual demonstration in flight-type thrusters. Both storable and cryogenic propellant systems were considered. The storable propellant systems chosen for further study were nitrogen tetroxide oxidizer with either hydrazine or monomethylhydrazine as fuel. The cryogenic propellants chosen were oxygen

Donald M. Jassowski



Preparation, characterization and fundamental studies on graphenes by liquid-phase processing of graphite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid-phase processing of graphite and graphite derivatives is one of the most promising methodologies for the mass production of graphene. Here, we present a brief overview of the main developments in this research area over the last few years, together with our own contributions to the field. Particularly, we discuss the preparation of graphenes both in aqueous and organic media

J. I. Paredes; S. Villar-Rodil; P. Solís-Fernández; M. J. Fernández-Merino; L. Guardia; A. Martínez-Alonso; J. M. D. Tascón


Fundamentals of Research on the American Political Process. Teacher's Notes, Transparencies, Bibliography, Exercises. Teaching Packages #4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this bibliographic instruction package is to help a non-library instructor prepare undergraduate students to find and use books, published information on the American political process and biographical and factual information about legislators. The package is divided into two episodes which can be presented in one class session.…

Neubacher, Eric; Rothstein, Pauline M.


Concepts of fundamental processes related to gasification of coal. Quarterly progress report, July-September 1981  

SciTech Connect

The research projects are described: (1) single stage catalytic coal gasification is an attractive concept as a direct method of producing high BTU gas from coal. This process involves the introduction of a coal-solvent slurry and hydrogen gas into a fixed bed catalytic reactor, which employs a catalyst high in hydrogenation and cracking activity. Steam may also be added to the system. The gas produced will be principally methane. Thermodynamic calculations indicate that this process is essentially autothermal. Since this process utilizes the heat of methanation to a maximum extent, significant overall energy savings can be achieved over the more conventional multi-stage gasification systems. The primary objective of this research is to optimize the process variables to maximize methane yields. Initially, a sulfided Ni-W/SiO/sub 2/-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst will be used; (2) the demand for molecular hydrogen and for synthesis gas is rapidly increasing. Therefore, an extensive program on steam reforming of aromatic compounds such as benzene, substituted benzenes, naphthalene and other aromatics found in coal and coal-derived liquids (CDL) is being carried out. The combination of coal liquefaction-steam reforming of CDL could prove to be an important alternative to coal gasification for the production of SNG and hydrogen. An objective of this project is to assess the feasibility of this alternative. Potentially, coal liquids could be reformed directly in a single step to high BTU gas.

Wiser, W.H.



Processing and geologic analysis of conventional cores from well ER-20-6 No. 1, Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect

In 1996, Well Cluster ER-20-6 was drilled on Pahute Mesa in Area 20, in the northwestern corner of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The three wells of the cluster are located from 166 to 296 meters (m) (544 to 971 feet [ft]) southwest of the site of the underground nuclear test code-named BULLION, conducted in 1990 in Emplacement Hole U-20bd. The well cluster was planned to be the site of a forced-gradient experiment designed to investigate radionuclide transport in groundwater. To obtain additional information on the occurrence of radionuclides, nature of fractures, and lithology, a portion of Well ER-20-6 No. 1, the hole closest to the explosion cavity, was cored for later analysis. Bechtel Nevada (BN) geologists originally prepared the geologic interpretation of the Well Cluster ER-20-6 site and documented the geology of each well in the cluster. However, the cores from Well ER-20-6 No. 1 were not accessible at the time of that work. As the forced-gradient experiment and other radio nuclide migration studies associated with the well cluster progressed, it was deemed appropriate to open the cores, describe the geology, and re-package the core for long-term air-tight storage. This report documents and describes the processing, geologic analysis, and preservation of the conventional cores from Well ER20-6 No. 1.

Prothro, L.B., Townsend, M.J.; Drellack, S.L. Jr. [and others



Geologic mapping of tectonic planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geological analysis of planets typically begins with the construction of a geologic map of the planets’ surfaces using remote data sets. Geologic maps provide the basis for interpretations of geologic histories, which in turn provide critical relations for understanding the range of processes that contributed to the evolution. Because geologic mapping should ultimately lead to the discovery of the types

Vicki L. Hansen



Lubrication-related residue as a fundamental process scaling limit to gravure printed electronics.  


In gravure printing, excess ink is removed from a patterned plate or roll by wiping with a doctor blade, leaving a thin lubrication film in the nonpatterned area. Reduction of this lubrication film is critical for gravure printing of electronics, since the resulting residue can lower device performance or even catastrophically impact circuit yield. We report on experiments and quantitative analysis of lubrication films in a highly scaled gravure printing process. We investigate the effects of ink viscosity, wiping speed, loading force, blade stiffness and blade angle on the lubrication film, and further, use the resulting data to investigate the relevant lubrication regimes associated with wiping during gravure printing. Based on this analysis, we are able to posit the lubrication regime associated with wiping during gravure printing, provide insight into the ultimate limits of residue reduction, and, furthermore, are able to provide process guidelines and design rules to achieve these limits. PMID:24625096

Kitsomboonloha, Rungrot; Subramanian, Vivek



Thioredoxin targets fundamental processes in a methane-producing archaeon, Methanocaldococcus jannaschii  

PubMed Central

Thioredoxin (Trx), a small redox protein, controls multiple processes in eukaryotes and bacteria by changing the thiol redox status of selected proteins. The function of Trx in archaea is, however, unexplored. To help fill this gap, we have investigated this aspect in methanarchaea—strict anaerobes that produce methane, a fuel and greenhouse gas. Bioinformatic analyses suggested that Trx is nearly universal in methanogens. Ancient methanogens that produce methane almost exclusively from H2 plus CO2 carried approximately two Trx homologs, whereas nutritionally versatile members possessed four to eight. Due to its simplicity, we studied the Trx system of Methanocaldococcus jannaschii—a deeply rooted hyperthermophilic methanogen growing only on H2 plus CO2. The organism carried two Trx homologs, canonical Trx1 that reduced insulin and accepted electrons from Escherichia coli thioredoxin reductase and atypical Trx2. Proteomic analyses with air-oxidized extracts treated with reduced Trx1 revealed 152 potential targets representing a range of processes—including methanogenesis, biosynthesis, transcription, translation, and oxidative response. In enzyme assays, Trx1 activated two selected targets following partial deactivation by O2, validating proteomics observations: methylenetetrahydromethanopterin dehydrogenase, a methanogenesis enzyme, and sulfite reductase, a detoxification enzyme. The results suggest that Trx assists methanogens in combating oxidative stress and synchronizing metabolic activities with availability of reductant, making it a critical factor in the global carbon cycle and methane emission. Because methanogenesis developed before the oxygenation of Earth, it seems possible that Trx functioned originally in metabolic regulation independently of O2, thus raising the question whether a complex biological system of this type evolved at least 2.5 billion years ago. PMID:24505058

Susanti, Dwi; Wong, Joshua H.; Vensel, William H.; Loganathan, Usha; DeSantis, Rebecca; Schmitz, Ruth A.; Balsera, Monica; Buchanan, Bob B.; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup



Influence in the Policy Making Process: the Rise of Economics at the Expense of Geology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientific influence in resource policy making reached a zenith in the early 1970s during the legislative monopoly in the United States Congress that produced command and control regulatory protection policies. This congressional consensus began in 1879 with legislation producing the U.S. Geological Survey. Other scientific agencies followed. The Congresses of the first half of the 20th century merely strengthened the influence of science in policy outcomes that was present in the earliest congressional debates. What then happened at the turn of the 21st century when representatives in the administration frequently dismissed sound science in their policy deliberations? Policy monopolies arise from agreement in principle, and alternately decline as rival ideas gain hold in policy space. The science policy monopoly began to face competition from economics when cost benefit analysis was introduced into political parlance in 1936, again in the 1950s as a successful blocking tactic by the minority in opposition to western dams, and in 1961 when systems analysis was introduced to the Department of Defense under Robert McNamara. As businessmen replaced farmers as the modal profession of legislators, the language of politics increasingly contained economic terms and concepts. A ternary diagram and a budget simplex have the same shape, but have different theoretical meanings and imply different processes. Policy consensus is not dissimilar to a mineral phase diagram, with boundary conditions marked by election magnitudes and majority parties. The 1980 elections brought economic principles into all aspects of government decision-making, with a particular long-term interest in reducing the size and scope of government. Since then the shift in policy jargon from science to economics has been incremental. With the 1994 Republican legislative majority, scientists, their programs, and the funds required to maintain data collection projects became targets. The Conservative Consensus resulting from the 2000 elections has disregarded and even ridiculed scientific experts, their analyses, and their data. The first step in rebuilding an effective policy consensus based on sound science is recognizing the phase transition that privileges conservative policy solutions which minimize science and elevate economic principles.

McCurdy, K. M.



OneGeology-Europe - The Challenges and progress of implementing a basic geological infrastructure for Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

OneGeology-Europe is making geological spatial data held by the geological surveys of Europe more easily discoverable and accessible via the internet. This will provide a fundamental scientific layer to the European Plate Observation System Rich geological data assets exist in the geological survey of each individual EC Member State, but they are difficult to discover and are not interoperable. For

Kristine Asch; Agnes Tellez-Arenas



The geological processes time scale of the Ingozersky block TTG complex (Kola Peninsula)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ingozersky block located in the Tersky Terrane of the Kola Peninsula is composed of Archean gneisses and granitoids [1; 5; 8]. The Archaean basement complexes on the regional geological maps have called tonalite-trondemit-gneisses (TTG) complexes [6]. In the previous studies [1; 3; 4; 5; 7] within Ingozersky block the following types of rocks were established: biotite, biotite-amphibole, amphibole-biotite gneisses, granites, granodiorites and pegmatites [2]. In the rocks of the complex following corresponding sequence of endogenous processes observed (based on [5]): stage 1 - the biotitic gneisses formation; 2 - the introduction of dikes of basic rocks; 3 phase - deformation and foliation; 4 stage - implementation bodies of granite and migmatization; 5 stage - implementation of large pegmatite bodies; stage 6 - the formation of differently pegmatite and granite veins of low power, with and without garnet; stage 7 - quartz veins. Previous U-Pb isotopic dating of the samples was done for biotite gneisses, amphibole-biotite gneisses and biotite-amphibole gneisses. Thus, some Sm-Nd TDM ages are 3613 Ma - biotite gnesses, 2596 Ma - amphibole-biotite gnesses and 3493 Ma biotite-amphibole gneisses.. U-Pb ages of the metamorphism processes in the TTG complex are obtained: 2697±9 Ma - for the biotite gneiss, 2725±2 and 2667±7 Ma - for the amphibole-biotite gneisses, and 2727±5 Ma for the biotite-amphibole gneisses. The age defined for the biotite gneisses by using single zircon dating to be about 3149±46 Ma corresponds to the time of the gneisses protolith formation. The purpose of these studies is the age establishing of granite and pegmatite bodies emplacement and finding a geological processes time scale of the Ingozerskom block. Preliminary U-Pb isotopic dating of zircon and other accessory minerals were held for granites - 2615±8 Ma, migmatites - 2549±30 Ma and veined granites - 1644±7 Ma. As a result of the isotope U-Pb dating of the different Ingozerskogo TTG complex rocks, the following age-formation stages are determined: protolith of the biotite gneisses - 3149±46 Ma; metamorphism, deformation of rocks, foliation - 2727±5 - 2725±2 - 2697±9 - 2667±7 Ma, granite bodies formation - 2615±8 Ma and biotite gneisses migmatization - 2549±30 Ma, formation of different pegmatite and granite veins -1644±7 Ma. Author are grateful to Akad. Mitrofanov F.P. and Bayanova T.B. for the consultations. The work is supported by RFBR 12-05-31063, 11-05-00570. 1.Batieva I.D., Belkov I.V. Granitoidnie formacii Kolskogo poluostrova. // Ocgerki po petrologiy, mineralogiy i metallogeniy Kolskogo poluostrova. L.: Nauka. 1968. p. 5-143. (in russian) 2. Belkov I.V., Zagorodny V.G., Predovsky A.A. et al. Stratigraficheskoe raschlenenie i korrelyacia dokembria severo-vostochoi chasty Baltiyskogo shita. L.: Nauka. 1971. p. 141-150. (in russian) 3. Docembriskaya tektonica severo-vostochoi chasty Baltiyskogo shita (Ob'asnitelnaya zapiska k tektonicheskoi karte severo-vostochoi chasty Baltiyskogo shita 1:500000) / ed.: F.P.Mitrofanov. Apatity: KFAN SSSR. 1992. 112 P. (in russian) 4. Zagorodny V.G., Radchenko A.T. Tectonika i glubinnoe stroenie severo-vostochoi chasty Baltiyskogo shita. Apatity: KFA SSSR. 1978. p. 3-12. (in russian) 5. Kozlov N.E., Sorohtin N.O., Glaznev V.N. et al. Geologia Arhea Baltiskogo shita. S.Pb.: Nauka. 2006. 329 p. (in russian) 6. Mitrofanov F.P. Sovremennie problemy i nekotorie resheniya dokembriskoy geologii kratonov. (2001) Litosphera.2001. V 1. P. 5-14. (in russian) 7. Ob'asnitelnaya zapiska k geologicheskoy karte severo-vostochoi chasty Baltiyskogo shita 1:500000 / ed.: F.P.Mitrofanov. Apatity: KFAN SSSR. 1994. 95 P. (in russian) 8. Haritonov L.Y. Structura i stratigraphia karelid vostoka Baltiskogo shita. M.: Nedra. 1966. 354 P. (in russian)

Nitkina, Elena



Spectral Image Processing Theory and Methods: Reconstruction, Target Detection, and Fundamental Performance Bounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation presents methods and associated performance bounds for spectral image processing tasks such as reconstruction and target detection, which are useful in a variety of applications such as astronomical imaging, biomedical imaging and remote sensing. The key idea behind our spectral image processing methods is the fact that important information in a spectral image can often be captured by low-dimensional manifolds embedded in high-dimensional spectral data. Based on this key idea, our work focuses on the reconstruction of spectral images from photon-limited, and distorted observations. This dissertation presents a partition-based, maximum penalized likelihood method that recovers spectral images from noisy observations and enjoys several useful properties; namely, it (a) adapts to spatial and spectral smoothness of the underlying spectral image, (b) is computationally efficient, (c) is near-minimax optimal over an anisotropic Holder-Besov function class, and (d) can be extended to inverse problem frameworks. There are many applications where accurate localization of desired targets in a spectral image is more crucial than a complete reconstruction. Our work draws its inspiration from classical detection theory and compressed sensing to develop computationally efficient methods to detect targets from few projection measurements of each spectrum in the spectral image. Assuming the availability of a spectral dictionary of possible targets, the methods discussed in this work detect targets that either come from the spectral dictionary or otherwise. The theoretical performance bounds offer insight on the performance of our detectors as a function of the number of measurements, signal-to-noise ratio, background contamination and properties of the spectral dictionary. A related problem is that of level set estimation where the goal is to detect the regions in an image where the underlying intensity function exceeds a threshold. This dissertation studies the problem of accurately extracting the level set of a function from indirect projection measurements without reconstructing the underlying function. Our partition-based set estimation method extracts the level set of proxy observations constructed from such projection measurements. The theoretical analysis presented in this work illustrates how the projection matrix, proxy construction and signal strength of the underlying function affect the estimation performance.

Krishnamurthy, Kalyani


Consideration of some fundamental erosion processes encountered in hypervelocity electromagnetic propulsion  

SciTech Connect

Experimental and theoretical research has been conducted jointly at the Livermore and Los Alamos National laboratories on dc electromagnetic railgun Lorentz accelerators. Pellets weighing a few grams to tens of grams have been launched at velocities up to better than 11 km/s. The research is addressed to attaining repeated launches of samples at hypervelocity in target impact experiments. In these experiments, shock-induced pressures in the tens of megabars range are obtained for high pressure equation-of-state research. Primary energy sources of the order of several hundred kJ to a MJ and induction currents of the order of 1 or more MA are necessary for these launches. Erosion and deformation of the conductor rails and the accelerated sample material are continuing problems. The heating, stress, and erosion resulting from simultaneous imposition of rail induction current, dense plasma (armature) interaction, current distribution, magnetic field stresses and projectile/rail contact friction are examined. It is found that while frictional heating and consequent sliding contact erosion are minor contributors to the overall erosion process, the same cannot be said for plasma impingement, penetration, and almost simultaneous induction current (Joule) heating.

Buckingham, A.C.; Hawke, R.S.



Hydrogel microparticles from lithographic processes: novel materials for fundamental and applied colloid science  

PubMed Central

In recent years there has been a surge in methods to synthesize geometrically and chemically complex microparticles. Analogous to atoms, the concept of a “periodic table” of particles has emerged and continues to be expanded upon. Complementing the natural intellectual curiosity that drives the creation of increasingly intricate particles is the pull from applications that take advantage of such high-value materials. Complex particles are now being used in fields ranging from diagnostics and catalysis to self-assembly and rheology, where material composition and microstructure are closely linked with particle function. This is especially true of polymer hydrogels, which offer an attractive and broad class of base materials for synthesis. Lithography affords the ability to engineer particle properties a priori and leads to the production of homogenous ensembles of particles. This review summarizes recent advances in synthesizing hydrogel microparticles using lithographic processes and highlight a number of emerging applications. We discuss advantages and limitations of current strategies, and conclude with an outlook on future trends in the field. PMID:21516212

Helgeson, Matthew E.; Chapin, Stephen C.; Doyle, Patrick S.



The Fundamental Physical Processes Producing and Controlling Stellar Coronal/ Transition-Region/Chromospheric Activity and Structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Our LTSA grant supports a long-term collaborative investigation of stellar activity. The project involves current NASA spacecraft and supporting ground-based telescopes, will make use of future missions, and utilizes the extensive archives of IUE, ROSAT, HST, and EUVE. Our interests include observational work (with a nonnegligible groundbased component); specialized processing techniques for imaging and spectral data; and semiempirical modeling, ranging from optically-thin emission measure studies to simulations of optically-thick resonance lines. Collaborations with our cool-star colleagues here in Boulder (at JILA and the High Altitude Observatory) provide access to even broader expertise, particularly on the solar corona, convection, and magnetohydrodynamic phenomena (including "dynamo" theories). The broad-brush of our investigation include the following: (1) where do coronae occur in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram? (2) the winds of coronal stars: hot, cool, or both? (3) age, activity, rotation relations; (4) atmospheric inhomogeneities; and (5) heating mechanisms, subcoronal flows and flares. Our observation task has been to map the global properties of chromospheres and coronae in the H-R diagram and conduct detailed studies of key objects.

Ayres, Thomas R.; Brown, Alexander



Advanced Small Rocket Chambers. Basic Program and Option 2: Fundamental Processes and Material Evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Propellants, chamber materials, and processes for fabrication of small high performance radiation cooled liquid rocket engines were evaluated to determine candidates for eventual demonstration in flight-type thrusters. Both storable and cryogenic propellant systems were considered. The storable propellant systems chosen for further study were nitrogen tetroxide oxidizer with either hydrazine or monomethylhydrazine as fuel. The cryogenic propellants chosen were oxygen with either hydrogen or methane as fuel. Chamber material candidates were chemical vapor deposition (CVD) rhenium protected from oxidation by CVD iridium for the chamber hot section, and film cooled wrought platinum-rhodium or regeneratively cooled stainless steel for the front end section exposed to partially reacted propellants. Laser diagnostics of the combustion products near the hot chamber surface and measurements at the surface layer were performed in a collaborative program at Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA. The Material Sample Test Apparatus, a laboratory system to simulate the combustion environment in terms of gas and material temperature, composition, and pressure up to 6 Atm, was developed for these studies. Rocket engine simulator studies were conducted to evaluate the materials under simulated combustor flow conditions, in the diagnostic test chamber. These tests used the exhaust species measurement system, a device developed to monitor optically species composition and concentration in the chamber and exhaust by emission and absorption measurements.

Jassowski, Donald M.



Hydrogel microparticles from lithographic processes: novel materials for fundamental and applied colloid science.  


In recent years there has been a surge in methods to synthesize geometrically and chemically complex microparticles. Analogous to atoms, the concept of a "periodic table" of particles has emerged and continues to be expanded upon. Complementing the natural intellectual curiosity that drives the creation of increasingly intricate particles is the pull from applications that take advantage of such high-value materials. Complex particles are now being used in fields ranging from diagnostics and catalysis to self-assembly and rheology, where material composition and microstructure are closely linked with particle function. This is especially true of polymer hydrogels, which offer an attractive and broad class of base materials for synthesis. Lithography affords the ability to engineer particle properties a priori and leads to the production of homogenous ensembles of particles. This review summarizes recent advances in synthesizing hydrogel microparticles using lithographic processes and highlight a number of emerging applications. We discuss advantages and limitations of current strategies, and conclude with an outlook on future trends in the field. PMID:21516212

Helgeson, Matthew E; Chapin, Stephen C; Doyle, Patrick S



Coupled-channels quantum theory of electronic flux density in electronically adiabatic processes: fundamentals.  


The Born-Oppenheimer (BO) description of electronically adiabatic molecular processes predicts a vanishing electronic flux density (j(e)), =1/2?dR[?(b) (x;R) - ?(a) (x;R)] even though the electrons certainly move in response to the movement of the nuclei. This article, the first of a pair, proposes a quantum-mechanical "coupled-channels" (CC) theory that allows the approximate extraction of j(e) from the electronically adiabatic BO wave function . The CC theory is detailed for H(2)(+), in which case j(e) can be resolved into components associated with two channels ? (=a,b), each of which corresponds to the "collision" of an "internal" atom ? (proton a or b plus electron) with the other nucleus ? (proton b or a). The dynamical role of the electron, which accommodates itself instantaneously to the motion of the nuclei, is submerged in effective electronic probability (population) densities, ?(?), associated with each channel (?). The ?(?) densities are determined by the (time-independent) BO electronic energy eigenfunction, which depends parametrically on the configuration of the nuclei, the motion of which is governed by the usual BO nuclear Schrödinger equation. Intuitively appealing formal expressions for the electronic flux density are derived for H(2)(+). PMID:22103768

Diestler, D J



Exploratory cell research and fundamental processes study in solid state electrochemical cells  

SciTech Connect

Last year this program demonstrated that alternative to lithium had some merit on which to base new polymer electrolyte batteries and other electrochemical devices. We reported that Na, Zn, and Cu electrolytes have modest conductivities at 100{degree}C. Some preliminary cell cycling data were reported with V{sub 6}O{sub 13} insertion cathodes, and the successful cell cycling suggested that N{sup +}, Zn{sup +2} could be inserted and removed reversibly in the cathode material. Also, thin-film polymer cathodes were shown by impedance measurements to have three characteristic regions of behavior. Each region had different controlling processes with relaxation time constants that could be separated with careful manipulation of film thickness, morphology, and charging level. The present report gives results of the continuation of these studies. In particular, the sodium system was studied more intensively with conductivity measurements on sodium triflate in poly(ethyleneoxide)(PEO), and cell studies with V{sub 6}O{sub 13} and poly(pyrrole)(PPY) cathodes. The impedance work was concluded and several directions of new work in that area were identified. The insertion studies with single crystal V{sub 6}O{sub 13} were concluded on this program and transferred to NSF funding. 29 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

Smyrl, W.H.; Owens, B.B.; White, H.S. (Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis, MN (USA). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science)



Combustion Fundamentals Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Increased emphasis is placed on fundamental and generic research at Lewis Research Center with less systems development efforts. This is especially true in combustion research, where the study of combustion fundamentals has grown significantly in order to better address the perceived long term technical needs of the aerospace industry. The main thrusts for this combustion fundamentals program area are as follows: analytical models of combustion processes, model verification experiments, fundamental combustion experiments, and advanced numeric techniques.



Process-based approach to CO2 leakage detection by vadose zone gas monitoring at geologic CO2 storage sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A critical issue for geologic carbon sequestration is the ability to detect CO2 in the vadose zone. Here we present a new process-based approach to identify CO2 that has leaked from deep geologic storage reservoirs into the shallow subsurface. Whereas current CO2 concentration-based methods require years of background measurements to quantify variability of natural vadose zone CO2, this new approach examines chemical relationships between vadose zone N2, O2, CO2, and CH4 to promptly distinguish a leakage signal from natural vadose zone CO2. The method uses sequential inspection of the following gas concentration relationships: 1) O2 versus CO2 to distinguish in-situ vadose zone background processes (biologic respiration, methane oxidation, and CO2 dissolution) from exogenous deep leakage input, 2) CO2 versus N2 to further distinguish dissolution of CO2 from exogenous deep leakage input, and 3) CO2 versus N2/O2 to assess the degree respiration, CH4 oxidation and atmospheric mixing/dilution occurring in the system. The approach was developed at a natural CO2-rich control site and successfully applied at an engineered site where deep gases migrated into the vadose zone. The ability to identify gas leakage into the vadose zone without the need for background measurements could decrease uncertainty in leakage detection and expedite implementation of future geologic CO2 storage projects.

Romanak, K. D.; Bennett, P. C.; Yang, Changbing; Hovorka, Susan D.



Fundamentals of Image Processing  

E-print Network

at the edges or noise points #12;Signals ­ Examples #12;Motivation: noise reduction · Assume image is degraded occurrences of black and white pixels ­ Impulse noise: random occurrences of white pixels ­ Gaussian noise of the sigma? #12;Motivation: noise reduction · Make multiple observations of the same static scene · Take

Erdem, Erkut


Fundamentals of Image Processing  

E-print Network

-scale details) boosted High-frequencies (fine-scale details) boosted #12;Signals ­ Examples #12;Motivation ­ Impulse noise: random occurrences of white pixels ­ Gaussian noise: variations in intensity drawn from = randn(size(im)).*sigma; >> output = im + noise; What is the impact of the sigma? #12;Motivation: noise

Erdem, Erkut


Fundamental studies of catalytic processing of synthetic liquids. Quarterly progress report, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

This project revolves around understanding the fundamental processes involved in the catalytic removal of harmful oxygenated organics present in coal liquids. We are modelling the complex type of sulfided Mo catalyst proposed for these reactions with simple single crystal surfaces. These display a controlled range and number of reaction sites and can be extensively characterized by surface science techniques. We then investigate the reaction pathways for representative simple oxygenates upon these surfaces. We have made considerable progress in characterizing the adsorption site of sulfur on the Mo(110) surface. The sulfur is probably located in the quasi-fourfold center hollow site on the surface at a vertical distance of about 1.5{Angstrom} above the topmost metal layer. At present the calculations assume no reconstruction of the metal layer and this tentative finding may change when we allow the metal to reconstruct. We have also progressed in our understanding of the reactions of furan on these surfaces. The data is therefore consistent with propane adsorption being hindered relative to either ethylene or furan, but the release of hydrogen from adsorbed furan is a higher energy process than the equivalent process for a simple hydrocarbon. The effect of preadsorbed S on furan and hydrocarbon adsorption is consistent with an adsorption site blocking role.

Watson, P.R.



Age-Related Deficits in the Processing of Fundamental Frequency Differences for the Intelligibility of Competing Voices  

PubMed Central

A common complaint of older listeners is that they can hear speech, yet cannot understand it, especially when listening to speech in a background noise. When target and competing speech signals are concurrently presented, a difference in the fundamental frequency (?F0) between competing speech signals, which determines the pitch of voice, can be an important and commonly occurring cue to facilitate the separation of the target message from the interfering message, consequently improving intelligibility of the target message. To address the question of whether the older listeners have reduced ability to use ?F0 and how the age-related deficits in the processing of ?F0 are theoretically explained, this paper is divided into three parts. The first part of this article summarizes how the speech-communication difficulties that older listeners have are theoretically explained. In the second part, literatures on the perceptual benefits from ?F0 and the age-related deficits on the use of ?F0 are reviewed. As a final part, three theoretical models explaining the general processing of ?F0 are compared to discuss which better explains the age-related deficits in the processing of ?F0. PMID:24653895



Digital processing of orbital radar data to enhance geologic structure - Examples from the Canadian Shield  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various digital enhancement techniques for SAR are compared using SIR-B and Seasat images of the Canadian Shield. The three best methods for enhancing geological structure were found to be: (1) a simple linear contrast stretch; (2) a mean or median low-pass filter to reduce speckle prior to edge enhancement or a K nearest-neighbor average to cosmetically reduce speckle; and (3) a modification of the Moore-Waltz (1983) technique. Three look directions were coregistered and several means of data display were investigated as means of compensating for radar azimuth biasing.

Masuoka, Penny M.; Harris, Jeff; Lowman, Paul D., Jr.; Blodget, Herbert W.



Geology of Kentucky  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains geologic maps of Kentucky, with a discussion of geologic time in regards to the rocks, minerals, fossils, and economic deposits found there. There are also sections that describe strata and geologic structures beneath the surface (faults, basins, and arches), the structural processes (folding and faulting) that create stratigraphic units, the geomorphology of the state, geologic information by county, a general description of geologic time, fossil, rocks, and minerals of Kentucky, and a virtual field trip through Natural Bridges State Park. Links are provided for further information.


Geological Survey research 1976  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This U.S. Geological Survey activities report includes a summary of recent (1976 fiscal year) scientific and economic results accompanied by a list of geologic and hydrologic investigations in progress and a report on the status of topographic mapping. The summary of results includes: (1) Mineral resources, Water resources, (2) Engineering geology and hydrology, (3) Regional geology, (4) Principles and processes, (5) Laboratory and field methods, (6) Topographic surveys and mapping, (7) Management of resources on public lands, (8) Land information and analysis, and (9) Investigations in other countries. Also included are lists of cooperating agencies and Geological Survey offices. (Woodard-USGS)

Geological Survey (U.S.)



Geological Survey research 1978  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This U.S. Geological Survey activities report includes a summary of 1978 fiscal year scientific and economic results accompanied by a list of geologic and hydrologic investigations in progress and a report on the status of topographic mapping. The summary of results includes: (1) Mineral and water resources, (2) Engineering geology and hydrology, (3) Regional geology, (4) Principles and processes, (5) Laboratory and field methods, (6) Topographic surveys and mapping, (7) Management of resources on public lands, (8) Land information and analysis, and (9) Investigations in other countries. Also included are lists of cooperating agencies and Geological Survey offices. (Woodard-USGS)



Introduction Fundamentals  

E-print Network

, Speaker 2. Locate sound sources. A microphone array provides hands-free/distant acquisition. Less location. Iain McCowan Microphone Array Tutorial 4 #12;Introduction Fundamentals Analysis of DirectivityIntroduction Fundamentals Analysis of Directivity Pattern Beamforming A Microphone Array Tutorial

McCowan, Iain


Geological assessing of urban environments with a systematic mapping survey: The 1:5000 urban geological map of Catalonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ground features of urban areas and the geologic processes that operate on them are, in general, strongly altered from their natural original condition as a result of anthropogenic activities. Assessing the stability of the ground, the flooding areas, and, the health risk as a consequence of soil pollution, are, among others, fundamental topics of urban areas that require a

Miquel Vilà; Roser Pi; Jordi Cirés; Ana de Paz; Xavier Berástegui



Using Snow to Teach Geology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A lesson plan, directed at middle school students and older, describes using snow to study the geological processes of solidification of molten material, sedimentation, and metamorphosis. Provides background information on these geological processes. (MCO)

Roth, Charles



Neural sensitivity to statistical regularities as a fundamental biological process that underlies auditory learning: the role of musical practice.  


There is increasing evidence that humans and other nonhuman mammals are sensitive to the statistical structure of auditory input. Indeed, neural sensitivity to statistical regularities seems to be a fundamental biological property underlying auditory learning. In the case of speech, statistical regularities play a crucial role in the acquisition of several linguistic features, from phonotactic to more complex rules such as morphosyntactic rules. Interestingly, a similar sensitivity has been shown with non-speech streams: sequences of sounds changing in frequency or timbre can be segmented on the sole basis of conditional probabilities between adjacent sounds. We recently ran a set of cross-sectional and longitudinal experiments showing that merging music and speech information in song facilitates stream segmentation and, further, that musical practice enhances sensitivity to statistical regularities in speech at both neural and behavioral levels. Based on recent findings showing the involvement of a fronto-temporal network in speech segmentation, we defend the idea that enhanced auditory learning observed in musicians originates via at least three distinct pathways: enhanced low-level auditory processing, enhanced phono-articulatory mapping via the left Inferior Frontal Gyrus and Pre-Motor cortex and increased functional connectivity within the audio-motor network. Finally, we discuss how these data predict a beneficial use of music for optimizing speech acquisition in both normal and impaired populations. PMID:24035820

François, Clément; Schön, Daniele



Preliminary paper - Integrated control process for the development of the mined geologic disposal system  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 430.1, Life Cycle Asset Management, begins to focus DOE Programs and Projects on the total system life cycle instead of looking at project execution or operation as individual components. As DOE begins to implement this order, the DOE Management and Operating contractors must develop a process to control not only the contract baseline but also the overall life cycle baseline. This paper presents an integrated process that is currently being developed on the Yucca Mountain Project for DOE. The process integrates the current contract/project baseline management process with the management control process for design and the configuration management change control process.

Daniel, Russell B.; Harbert, Kevin R.; Calloway, David E.



Impact, and its implications for geology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The publication of seminal texts on geology and on meteoritics in the 1790s, laid the groundwork for the emergence of each discipline as a modern branch of science. Within the past three decades, impact cratering has become universally accepted as a process that sculptures the surfaces of planets and satellites throughout the solar system. Nevertheless, one finds in-depth discussions of impact processes mainly in books on the Moon or in surveys of the Solar System. The historical source of the separation between meteoritics and geology is easy to identify. It began with Hutton. Meteorite impact is an extraordinary event acting instantaneously from outside the Earth. It violates Hutton's principles, which were enlarged upon and firmly established as fundamental to the geological sciences by Lyell. The split between meteoritics and geology surely would have healed as early as 1892 if the investigations conducted by Gilbert (1843-1918) at the crater in northern Arizona had yielded convincing evidence of meteorite impact. The 1950s and 1960s saw a burgeoning of interest in impact processes. The same period witnessed the so-called revolution in the Earth Sciences, when geologists yielded up the idea of fixed continents and began to view the Earth's lithosphere as a dynamic array of horizontally moving plates. Plate tectonics, however, is fully consistent with the geological concepts inherited from Hutton: the plates slowly split, slide, and suture, driven by forces intrinsic to the globe.

Marvin, Ursula B.


Impact, and its implications for geology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The publication of seminal texts on geology and on meteoritics in the 1790s, laid the groundwork for the emergence of each discipline as a modern branch of science. Within the past three decades, impact cratering has become universally accepted as a process that sculptures the surfaces of planets and satellites throughout the solar system. Nevertheless, one finds in-depth discussions of impact processes mainly in books on the Moon or in surveys of the Solar System. The historical source of the separation between meteoritics and geology is easy to identify. It began with Hutton. Meteorite impact is an extraordinary event acting instantaneously from outside the Earth. It violates Hutton's principles, which were enlarged upon and firmly established as fundamental to the geological sciences by Lyell. The split between meteoritics and geology surely would have healed as early as 1892 if the investigations conducted by Gilbert (1843-1918) at the crater in northern Arizona had yielded convincing evidence of meteorite impact. The 1950s and 1960s saw a burgeoning of interest in impact processes. The same period witnessed the so-called revolution in the Earth Sciences, when geologists yielded up the idea of fixed continents and began to view the Earth's lithosphere as a dynamic array of horizontally moving plates. Plate tectonics, however, is fully consistent with the geological concepts inherited from Hutton: the plates slowly split, slide, and suture, driven by forces intrinsic to the globe.

Marvin, Ursula B.



Reactive Transport Modelling of CO2 Storage in Saline Aquifers to Elucidate Fundamental Processes, Trapping Mechanisms, and Sequestration Partitioning  

SciTech Connect

The ultimate fate of CO{sub 2} injected into saline aquifers for environmental isolation is governed by three interdependent yet conceptually distinct processes: CO{sub 2} migration as a buoyant immiscible fluid phase, direct chemical interaction of this rising plume with ambient saline waters, and its indirect chemical interaction with aquifer and cap-rock minerals through the aqueous wetting phase. Each process is directly linked to a corresponding trapping mechanism: immiscible plume migration to hydrodynamic trapping, plume-water interaction to solubility trapping, and plume-mineral interaction to mineral trapping. In this study, reactive transport modeling of CO{sub 2} storage in a shale-capped sandstone aquifer at Sleipner has elucidated and established key parametric dependencies of these fundamental processes, the associated trapping mechanisms, and sequestration partitioning among them during consecutive 10-year prograde (active-injection) and retrograde (post-injection) regimes. Intra-aquifer permeability structure controls the path of immiscible CO{sub 2} migration, thereby establishing the spatial framework of plume-aquifer interaction and the potential effectiveness of solubility and mineral trapping. Inter-bedded thin shales--which occur at Sleipner--retard vertical and promote lateral plume migration, thereby significantly expanding this framework and enhancing this potential. Actual efficacy of these trapping mechanisms is determined by compositional characteristics of the aquifer and cap rock: the degree of solubility trapping decreases with increasing formation-water salinity, while that of mineral trapping is proportional to the bulk concentration of carbonate-forming elements--principally Fe, Mg, Ca, Na, and Al. In the near-field environment of Sleipner-like settings, 80-85% by mass of injected CO{sub 2} remains and migrates as an immiscible fluid phase, 15-20% dissolves into formation waters, and less than 1% precipitates as carbonate minerals. This partitioning defines the relative effectiveness of hydrodynamic, solubility, and mineral trapping on a mass basis. Seemingly inconsequential, mineral trapping has enormous strategic significance: it maintains injectivity, delineates the storage volume, and improves cap-rock integrity. We have identified four distinct mechanisms: dawsonite [NaAlCO{sub 3}(OH){sub 2}] cementation occurs throughout the intra-aquifer plume, while calcite-group carbonates [principally, (Fe,Mg,Ca)CO{sub 3}] precipitate via disparate processes along lateral and upper plume margins, and by yet another process within inter-bedded and cap-rock shales. The coupled mineral dissolution/precipitation reaction associated with each mechanism reduces local porosity and permeability. For Sleipner-like settings, the magnitude of such reduction for dawsonite cementation is near negligible; hence, this process effectively maintains initial CO{sub 2} injectivity. Of similarly small magnitude is the reduction associated with formation of carbonate rind along upper and lateral plume boundaries; these processes effectively delineate the CO{sub 2} storage volume, and for saline aquifers anomalously rich in Fe-Mg-Ca may partially self-seal the plume. Porosity and permeability reduction is most extreme within shales, because their clay-rich mineralogy defines bulk Fe-Mg concentrations much greater than those of saline aquifers. In the basal cap-rock shale of our models, these reductions amount to 4.5 and 13%, respectively, after the prograde regime. During the retrograde phase, residual saturation of immiscible CO{sub 2} maintains the prograde extent of solubility trapping while continuously enhancing that of mineral trapping. At the close of our 20-year simulations, initial porosity and permeability of the basal cap-rock shale have been reduced by 8 and 22%, respectively. Extrapolating to hypothetical complete consumption of Fe-Mg-bearing shale minerals (here, 10 vol.% Mg-chlorite) yields an ultimate reduction of about 52 and 90%, respectively, after 130 years. Hence, the most crucial strategic impa

Johnson, J W; Nitao, J J; Knauss, K G



Isotope and fluid inclusion studies of geological and hydrothermal processes, northern Peru  

SciTech Connect

Mineralization in the Hualgayoc district of northern Peru occurs in altered Miocene felsic intrusions and in mid-Cretaceous platform sedimentary rocks of the Goyllarisquizga, Inca, and Chulec formations. The ores occur both as stratiform and stratabound pyritiferous base-metal deposits (mantos), and as steeply dipping, sedimentary and intrusive rock-hosted base-metal veins. Igneous rocks in the district are affected by propylytic, sericitic-argillic, sericitic, potassic, and acid-sulfate alteration. K-Ar and Rb-Sr dating and geological evidence indicate multiple stages of intrusive activity and hydrothermal alteration, including close spatial emplacement of two or more separate Miocene magmatic-hydrothermal systems. K-Ar dates on sericite, hydrothermal biotite, and alunite indicate that the most important hydrothermal episodes in the district took place {approx}13.24 and 12.4 Ma. Other K-Ar dates on altered rocks in the district may reflect various amounts of resetting by the emplacement of the 9.05 {+-} 0.2 Ma Hualgayoc rhyodacite. A five-point Rb-Sr isochron for the San Miguel intrusion at Cerro Coymolache yields an age of 45 {+-} 3.4 Ma, which indicates much earlier magmatic activity in this area than recognized previously. Fluid inclusion and paragenetic studies reveal a clear temporal evolution of fluid temperature and chemistry in the San Agustin area at Hualgayoc. Gradually, ore formation shifted to precipitation of vein minerals in the brittle fractures as the mantos became less permeable and were sealed off. Vein formation continued from progressively cooler and more diluted fluids (down to {approx}150{degrees}C and 4.3 wt% NaCl equivalent) as the system waned. No evidence for phase separation is observed in the fluids until the very last paragenetic stage, which contributed no economic mineralization. 53 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

MacFarlane, A.W. [Florida International Univ., Miami, FL (United States); Prol-Ledesma, R.M. [Cd. Universitaria, Coyoacan (Mexico); Conrad, M.E. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)



Thermal Conduction - A Tool for Exploring Geological Processes on the Earth and Other Bodies in our Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Thermal conduction is a fundamental physical process, one which controls many aspects of the volcanic and tectonic evolution of bodies within our solar system. Using transmission of thermal energy through the crust of the Earth as an initial, physically intuitive conceptual model, the module's background material will (a) help students deduce the thermal conduction equation-a second order differential which can be constructed from first principles, (b) evaluate volume-adjusted conduction incorporating internal heat generation and temperature change, and (c) explore special forms of the equation such as steady state conduction and thermal diffusion.

Grosfils, Eric


USGS: Geology in the Parks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Geological Survey Geology in the Parks Web site is a cooperative project of the USGS Western Earth Surface Processes Team and the National Park Service. This extensive site covers geologic maps, plate tectonics, rocks and minerals, geologic time, US geologic provinces, park geology of the Mojave, Sunset Crater, Lake Mead, North Cascades, Death Valley, Yosemite National Park, and much more. Descriptions, graphics, photographs, and animations all contribute to this informative and interesting Web site making it a one stop, all encompassing, resource for everything geology and US national park related.


Fundamental studies of the plasma extraction and ion beam formation processes in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

The fundamental and practical aspects are described for extracting ions from atmospheric pressure plasma sources into an analytical mass spectrometer. Methodologies and basic concepts of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) are emphasized in the discussion, including ion source, sampling interface, supersonic expansion, slumming process, ion optics and beam focusing, and vacuum considerations. Some new developments and innovative designs are introduced. The plasma extraction process in ICP-MS was investigated by Langmuir measurements in the region between the skimmer and first ion lens. Electron temperature (T{sub e}) is in the range 2000--11000 K and changes with probe position inside an aerosol gas flow. Electron density (n{sub e}) is in the range 10{sup 8}--10{sup 10} {sup {minus}cm }at the skimmer tip and drops abruptly to 10{sup 6}--10{sup 8} cm{sup {minus}3} near the skimmer tip and drops abruptly to 10{sup 6}--10{sup 8} cm{sup {minus}3} downstream further behind the skimmer. Electron density in the beam leaving the skimmer also depends on water loading and on the presence and mass of matrix elements. Axially resolved distributions of electron number-density and electron temperature were obtained to characterize the ion beam at a variety of plasma operating conditions. The electron density dropped by a factor of 101 along the centerline between the sampler and skimmer cones in the first stage and continued to drop by factors of 10{sup 4}--10{sup 5} downstream of skimmer to the entrance of ion lens. The electron density in the beam expansion behind sampler cone exhibited a 1/z{sup 2} intensity fall-off (z is the axial position). An second beam expansion originated from the skimmer entrance, and the beam flow underwent with another 1/z{sup 2} fall-off behind the skimmer. Skimmer interactions play an important role in plasma extraction in the ICP-MS instrument.

Niu, Hongsen



Effect of modeling factors on the dissolution-diffusion-convection process during CO2 geological storage in deep saline formations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that during CO2 geological storage, density-driven convective activity can significantly accelerate the dissolution of injected CO2 into water. This action could limit the escape of supercritical CO2 from the storage formation through vertical pathways such as fractures, faults and abandoned wells, consequently increasing permanence and security of storage. First, we investigated the effect of numerical perturbation caused by time and grid resolution and the convergence criteria on the dissolution-diffusion-convection (DDC) process. Then, using the model with appropriate spatial and temporal resolution, some uncertainty parameters investigated in our previous paper such as initial gas saturation and model boundaries, and other factors such as relative liquid permeability and porosity modification were used to examine their effects on the DDC process. Finally, we compared the effect of 2D and 3D models on the simulation of the DDC process. The above modeling results should contribute to clear understanding and accurate simulation of the DDC process, especially the onset of convective activity, and the CO2 dissolution rate during the convection-dominated stage.

Zhang, Wei



Fundamental Constants  

E-print Network

The notion of ``fundamental constant'' is heavily theory-laden. A natural, fairly precise formulation is possible in the context of the standard model (here defined to include gravity). Some fundamental constants have profound geometric meaning. The ordinary gravitational constant parameterizes the stiffness, or resistance to curvature, of space-time. The cosmological term parameterizes space-time's resistance to expansion -- which may be, and apparently is at present, a {\\it negative} resistance, i.e. a tendency toward expansion. The three gauge couplings of the strong, electromagnetic, and weak interactions parameterize resistance to curvature in internal spaces. The remaining fundamental couplings, of which there are a few dozen, supply an ungainly accommodation of inertia. The multiplicity and variety of fundamental constants are esthetic and conceptual shortcomings in our present understanding of foundational physics. I discuss some ideas for improving the situation. I then briefly discuss additional constants, primarily cosmological, that enter into our best established present-day world model. Those constants presently appear as macroscopic state parameters, i.e. as empirical ``material constants'' of the Universe. I mention a few ideas for how they might become fundamental constants in a future theory. In the course of this essay I've advertised several of my favorite speculations, including a few that might be tested soon.

Frank Wilczek



Dynamics of present-day geological processes from remotely sensed data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remotely sensed data on the dynamics of present-day exogenous and endogenous processes occurring at different depths and with different intensity and manifestations are discussed. Attention is given to the processes of continental-sediment accumulation at the Tedzhen and Murgab River deltas and the Amu-Daria River bed, deformation processes occurring in the Pamir-Alai region, and the deep-lying interactions of the Iranian and Turan platforms. It is noted that the presence of high-degree correlations among the lineament fields of the individual subregions of the Pamir-Alai region, the Gissar-Alai region, and the region of northern Pamir suggests that these regions belong to a single elongated dynamic zone.

Kats, Ia. G.; Poletaev, A. I.; Rumiantseva, E. F.; Tevelev, A. V.


The Large Impact Process Inferred from the Geology of Lunar Multiring Basins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The study of the geology of multiring impact basins on the Moon over the past ten years has given us a rudimentary understanding of how these large structures have formed and evolved on the Moon and other bodies. Two-ring basins on the Moon begin to form at diameters of about 300 km; the transition diameter at which more than two rings appear is uncertain, but it appears to be between 400 and 500 km in diameter. Inner rings tend to be made up of clusters or aligned segments of massifs and are arranged into a crudely concentric pattern; scarp-like elements may or may not be present. Outer rings are much more scarp-like and massifs are rare to absent. Basins display textured deposits, interpreted as ejecta, extending roughly an apparent basin radius exterior to the main topographic rim. Ejecta may have various morphologies, ranging from wormy and hummocky deposits to knobby surfaces; the causes of these variations are not known, but may be related to the energy regime in which the ejecta are deposited. Outside the limits of the textured ejecta are found both fields of satellitic craters (secondaries) and light plains deposits. Impact melt sheets are observed on the floors of relatively unflooded basins. Samples of impact melts from lunar basins have basaltic major-element chemistry, characterized by K, rare-earth elements (REE), P, and other trace elements of varying concentration (KREEP); ages are between 3.8 and 3.9 Ga. These lithologies cannot be produced through the fusion of known pristine (plutonic) rock types, suggesting the occurrence of unknown lithologies within the Moon. These melts were probably generated at middle to lower crustal levels. Ejecta compositions, preservation of pre-basin topography, and deposit morphologies all indicate that the excavation cavity of multiring basins is between about 0.4 and 0.6 times the diameter of the apparent crater diameter. Basin depths of excavation can be inferred from the composition of basin ejecta. A variety of mechanisms has been proposed to account for the formation of basin rings but none of them are entirely plausible. Mechanisms can be divided into two broad groups: (1) forcible uplift due to fluidization of the target; (2) concentric, brittle, fracturing and failure of the target, on regional (megaterraces) to global scales (lithospheric fracturing). Most basin rings are spaced at a constant factor on all planets. Evidence supports divergent ringforming models, so it may be that the ring-locating mechanism differs from the ring-forming mechanism. Thus, large-scale crustal foundering (megaterracing) could occur along concentric zones of weakness created by some type of resonant wave mechanism (fluidization and uplift); such immediate crustal adjustment could then be followed by long-term adjustment of the fractured lithosphere.

Spudis, Paul D.



Results From an International Simulation Study on Couples Thermal, Hydrological, and Mechanical (THM) Processes Near Geological Nuclear Waste Repositories  

SciTech Connect

As part of the ongoing international DECOVALEX project, four research teams used five different models to simulate coupled thermal, hydrological, and mechanical (THM) processes near waste emplacement drifts of geological nuclear waste repositories. The simulations were conducted for two generic repository types, one with open and the other with back-filled repository drifts, under higher and lower postclosure temperatures, respectively. In the completed first model inception phase of the project, a good agreement was achieved between the research teams in calculating THM responses for both repository types, although some disagreement in hydrological responses is currently being resolved. In particular, good agreement in the basic thermal-mechanical responses was achieved for both repository types, even though some teams used relatively simplified thermal-elastic heat-conduction models that neglected complex near-field thermal-hydrological processes. The good agreement between the complex and simplified process models indicates that the basic thermal-mechanical responses can be predicted with a relatively high confidence level.

J. Rutqvist; D. Barr; J.T. Birkholzer; M. Chijimatsu; O. Kolditz; Q. Liu; Y. Oda; W. Wang; C. Zhang



Collaborative web-based annotation of video footage of deep-sea life, ecosystems and geological processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More and more seagoing scientific expeditions use video-controlled research platforms such as Remote Operating Vehicles (ROV), Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV), and towed camera systems. These produce many hours of video material which contains detailed and scientifically highly valuable footage of the biological, chemical, geological, and physical aspects of the oceans. Many of the videos contain unique observations of unknown life-forms which are rare, and which cannot be sampled and studied otherwise. To make such video material online accessible and to create a collaborative annotation environment the "Video Annotation and processing platform" (V-App) was developed. A first solely web-based installation for ROV videos is setup at the German Center for Marine Environmental Sciences (available at It allows users to search and watch videos with a standard web browser based on the HTML5 standard. Moreover, V-App implements social web technologies allowing a distributed world-wide scientific community to collaboratively annotate videos anywhere at any time. It has several features fully implemented among which are: • User login system for fine grained permission and access control • Video watching • Video search using keywords, geographic position, depth and time range and any combination thereof • Video annotation organised in themes (tracks) such as biology and geology among others in standard or full screen mode • Annotation keyword management: Administrative users can add, delete, and update single keywords for annotation or upload sets of keywords from Excel-sheets • Download of products for scientific use This unique web application system helps making costly ROV videos online available (estimated cost range between 5.000 - 10.000 Euros per hour depending on the combination of ship and ROV). Moreover, with this system each expert annotation adds instantaneous available and valuable knowledge to otherwise uncharted material.

Kottmann, R.; Ratmeyer, V.; Pop Ristov, A.; Boetius, A.



Lubrication fundamentals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A lubricant is any substance that is used to reduce friction and wear and to provide smooth running and a satisfactory life for machine components. Lubrication fundamentals are discussed and the various lubrication mechanisms are defined. These include: hydrodynamic, elastohydrodynamic, mixed, boundary, and extreme pressure. Before the various lubrication mechanisms are presented, it is desirable to define conformal and nonconformal surfaces.

Hamrock, B. J.



Fundamental Particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subatomic particles that cannot be divided into smaller components. The fundamental particles include leptons (electrons, muons, tau particles, and neutrinos), quarks and gauge bosons particles which, so far as is known at present, do not have an internal structure composed of other, more basic, particles....

P. Murdin



fundamental communication  

E-print Network

of all networks, and we will first revisit some of fundamental limits imposed on communication media a brief review of a variety of transmission media . Communication networks can be classified as switched, for physically realisable, a communication system need some extra bandwidth specified typically by a roll

Chen, Sheng


Research Fundamentals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is used in a Sociology class for undergraduate students. This activity helps students learn about research/data maniputlation volcabulary and teaches students about research fundamentals. This activity includes a glossary of terms, but there is no answer key. The best time to use this activity is before students begin research methods, or near the beginning of the course.

Combs, Charles


Geological Survey research 1981  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This U.S. Geological Survey activities report includes a summary of 1981 fiscal year scientific and economic results accompanied by a list of geologic, hydrologic, and cartographic investigations in progress. The summary of results includes: (1) Mineral, (2) Water resources, (3) Engineering geology and hydrology, (4) Regional geology, (5) Principles and processes, (6) Laboratory and field methods, (7) Topographic surveys and mapping, (8) Management of resources on public lands, (9) Land information and analysis, and (10) Investigations in other countries. Also included are lists of investigations in progress. (USGS)



Mathematical Geology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mathematical techniques used to solve geological problems are briefly discussed (including comments on use of geostatistics). Highlights of conferences/meetings and conference papers in mathematical geology are also provided. (JN)

Jones, Thomas A.



Layer Cake Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This classroom activity uses a cake to demonstrate geologic processes and introduce geologic terms. Students will learn how folds and faults occur, recognize the difference in behavior between brittle and ductile rocks, and attempt to predict structures likely to result from application of various forces to layered rocks. They will also attempt to interpret 'core samples' to determine subsurface rock structure.

Wagner, John


Earth Sciences Geology Option  

E-print Network

courses, core Earth Sciences courses, and focused coursework in the option. A graduation checklistEarth Sciences with Geology Option Geological sciences focus on understanding the Earth, from its composition and internal structure to its history and the processes that shape its surface. Our planet

Kurapov, Alexander


Radiometric Dating in Geology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are several aspects and methods of quantitatively measuring geologic time using a constant-rate natural process of radioactive decay. Topics include half lives and decay constants, radiogenic growth, potassium-argon dating, rubidium-strontium dating, and the role of geochronology in support of geological exploration. (DS)

Pankhurst, R. J.



Structural Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, this site describes the basics of structural geology with text and images. The page includes the discussion of stress, strain, strike and dip, faults, folds, mountain building, erosion, economic geology, and environmental geology. This is a nice introduction to the basic topics in geology. Images from the field help to enhance the topics on the site. Instructors can use this resource to help create or simply enhance their curriculum.



Quaternary geology and sedimentary processes in the vicinity of Six Mile Reef, eastern Long Island Sound  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Six Mile Reef, a sandy, 22-m-high shoal trending east-west and located about 7.8 km off the Connecticut coast, has a core of postglacial marine deltaic deposits mantled by tidally reworked modern sediments. Sedimentary environments off the eastern end of the shoal are characterized by processes associated with long-term erosion or nondeposition, a mobile-sediment-limited seafloor armored by gravelly sand, and scattered elongate fields of barchanoid sand waves. The barchanoid waves reach amplitudes of 20 m, are concave westward, and occur in individual and coalesced forms that become progressively more complex westward. The seafloor on and adjacent to the shoal is characterized by processes associated with coarse bedload transport and covered primarily with asymmetrical transverse sand waves. The transverse waves exceed 8 m in amplitude, have slip faces predominantly oriented to the west and southwest, and have straight, slightly sinuous, and curved crests. Megaripples, which mimic the asymmetry of the sand waves, are commonly present on stoss slopes and in troughs; current ripples are ubiquitous. The amplitude and abundance of large bedforms decrease markedly westward of Six Mile Reef. The seabed there is covered with small, degraded ripples, reflecting lower-energy environments and processes associated with sorting and reworking of seafloor sediments. Megaripples and current ripples on the sand waves suggest that transport is active and that the bedforms are propagating under the present hydraulic regime. Net bedload sediment transport is primarily to the west, as evidenced by textural trends of surficial sediments, orientation of the barchanoid waves, and asymmetry of the transverse waves and of the scour marks around bedrock outcrops, boulders, and shipwrecks. One exception occurs at the western tip of the shoal, where sand-wave morphology indicates long-term eastward transport, suggesting that countercurrents in this area shape the shoal and are important to its maintenance.

Poppe, L.J.; Williams, S.J.; Moser, M.S.; Forfinski, N.A.; Stewart, H.F.; Doran, E.F.



Genesis of karren in Kentucky Lake, Tennessee: Interaction of geologic structure, weathering processes, and bioerosion  

SciTech Connect

While karst features formed along marine coastlines are commonly reported, shoreline karst features produced within lacustrine systems have received little attention. The shoreline of Bond Island'' in Kentucky Lake has evolved a distinctive karren geomorphology not recognized elsewhere in the lake. The karren consist of well-developed clint and grike topography, trench formation, solution pits, flutes, and runnels, and pit and tunnel development. Two processes are responsible for the karren. First, freshwater dissolution and wave action on structurally fractured Decatur Limestone (Silurian) mechanically and chemically weaken the entire exposed surface. Second, a seasonal cycle of winter freeze-thaw and frost wedging followed by spring bioerosion overprints the first set of processes. Bioerosion by chemical dissolution involving a complex association of predominantly chironomids, algae, fungi, and bryozoa results in preferential dissolution along joints, stylolites, and bedding planes to form shallow spindle-shaped solution pits over the entire surface and sides of the karren. The solution pits average 1 cm length by 0.4 cm depth densely covering rock surfaces. This study suggests that seasonal bioerosion may constitute a more important geomorphic factor in lacustrine systems than previously recognized.

Gibson, M.A.; Smith, W.L. (Univ. of Tennessee, Martin, TN (United States))



Insights into Titan's geology and hydrology based on enhanced image processing of Cassini RADAR data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cassini Synthetic Aperture Radar has been acquiring images of Titan's surface since October 2004. To date, 59% of Titan's surface has been imaged by radar, with significant regions imaged more than once. Radar data suffer from speckle noise hindering interpretation of small-scale features and comparison of reimaged regions for change detection. We present here a new image analysis technique that combines a denoising algorithm with mapping and quantitative measurements that greatly enhance the utility of the data and offers previously unattainable insights. After validating the technique, we demonstrate the potential improvement in understanding of surface processes on Titan and defining global mapping units, focusing on specific landforms including lakes, dunes, mountains, and fluvial features. Lake shorelines are delineated with greater accuracy. Previously unrecognized dissection by fluvial channels emerges beneath shallow methane cover. Dune wavelengths and interdune extents are more precisely measured. A significant refinement in producing digital elevation models is shown. Interactions of fluvial and aeolian processes with topographic relief is more precisely observed and understood than previously. Benches in bathymetry are observed in northern sea Ligeia Mare. Submerged valleys show similar depth suggesting that they are equilibrated with marine benches. These new observations suggest a liquid level increase in the northern sea, which may be due to changes on seasonal or longer timescales.

Lucas, Antoine; Aharonson, Oded; Deledalle, Charles; Hayes, Alexander G.; Kirk, Randolph; Howington-Kraus, Elpitha



Geological Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Why do engineers need to know about geologic time?" That question is answered in this resource from the University of Saskatchewan's Department of Civil and Geological Engineering. Provided here is a discussion of the concepts of geological time; relative dating methods, such as correlation; and absolute dating methods, such as radiometric methods. Diagrams and charts are included to demonstrate these complex concepts.



Geological SciencesGeological Sciences Geological EngineeringGeological Engineering  

E-print Network

Geological Engineering Applied Science Faculty Geology is the study of the Earth, its rocks, minerals Faculty and the Applied Science (Engineering) Faculty with various career path options. Geological engineers apply earth science principles to find and extract the world's energy and mineral wealth, to help

Ellis, Randy


Isotope Tracer Studies of Diffusion in Sillicates and of Geological Transport Processes Using Actinide Elements  

SciTech Connect

The objectives were directed toward understanding the transport of chemical species in nature, with particular emphasis on aqueous transport in solution, in colloids, and on particles. Major improvements in measuring ultra-low concentrations of rare elements were achieved. We focused on two areas of studies: (1) Field, laboratory, and theoretical studies of the transport and deposition of U, Th isotopes and their daughter products in natural systems; and (2) Study of calcium isotope fractionation effects in marine carbonates and in carbonates precipitated in the laboratory, under controlled temperature, pH, and rates of precipitation. A major study of isotopic fractionation of Ca during calcite growth from solution has been completed and published. It was found that the isotopic shifts widely reported in the literature and attributed to biological processes are in fact due to a small equilibrium fractionation factor that is suppressed by supersaturation of the solution. These effects were demonstrated in the laboratory and with consideration of the solution conditions in natural systems, where [Ca{sup 2+}] >> [CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}] + [HCO{sub 3}{sup -}]. The controlling rate is not the diffusion of Ca, as was earlier proposed, but rather the rate of supply of [CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}] ions to the interface. This now opens the issues of isotopic fractionation of many elements to a more physical-chemical approach. The isotopic composition of Ca {Delta}({sup 44}Ca/{sup 40}Ca) in calcite crystals has been determined relative to that in the parent solutions by TIMS using a double spike. Solutions were exposed to an atmosphere of NH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2}, provided by the decomposition of (NH4)2CO3. Alkalinity, pH, and concentrations of CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, HCO{sub 3}{sup -}, and CO{sub 2} in solution were determined. The procedures permitted us to determine {Delta}({sup 44}Ca/{sup 40}Ca) over a range of pH conditions, with the associated ranges of alkalinity. Two solutions with greatly different Ca concentrations were used, but, in all cases, the condition [Ca] >> [CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}] was met. A wide range in {Delta}({sup 44}Ca/{sup 40}Ca) was found for the calcite crystals, extending from 0.04 {+-} 0.13 to -1.34 {+-} 0.15 {per_thousand}, generally anticorrelating with the amount of Ca removed from the solution. The results show that {Delta}({sup 44}Ca/{sup 40}Ca) is a linear function of the saturation state of the solution with respect to calcite ({Omega}). The two parameters are very well correlated over a wide range in {Omega} for each solution with a given [Ca]. Solutions, which were vigorously stirred, showed a much smaller range in {Delta}({sup 44}Ca/{sup 40}Ca) and gave values of -0.42 {+-} 0.14 {per_thousand}, with the largest effect at low {Omega}. It is concluded that the diffusive flow of CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} into the immediate neighborhood of the crystal-solution interface is the rate-controlling mechanism and that diffusive transport of Ca{sup 2+} is not a significant factor. The data are simply explained by the assumptions that: (a) the immediate interface of the crystal and the solution is at equilibrium with {Delta}({sup 44}Ca/{sup 40}Ca) {approx} -1.5 {+-} 0.25 {per_thousand}, and (b) diffusive inflow of CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} causes supersaturation, thus precipitating Ca from the regions, exterior to the narrow zone of equilibrium. We consider this model to be a plausible explanation of the available data reported in the literature. The well-resolved but small and regular isotope fractionation shifts in Ca are thus not related to the diffusion of very large hydrated Ca complexes, but rather due to the ready availability of Ca in the general neighborhood of the crystal solution interface. The largest isotopic shift which occurs is a small equilibrium effect which is then subdued by supersaturation precipitation for solutions where [Ca{sup 2+}] >> [CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}] + [HCO{sub 3}{sup -}]. It is shown that there is a clear temperature dependence of the net isotopic shifts, which is simply due to changes in {Omega}

Wasserburg, Gerald J



Modelling of processes occurring in deep geological repository - Development of new modules in the GoldSim environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three new modules modelling the processes that occur in a deep geological repository have been prepared in the GoldSim computer code environment (using its Transport Module). These modules help to understand the role of selected parameters in the near-field region of the final repository and to prepare an own complex model of the repository behaviour. The source term module includes radioactive decay and ingrowth in the canister, first order degradation of fuel matrix, solubility limitation of the concentration of the studied nuclides, and diffusive migration through the surrounding bentonite layer controlled by the output boundary condition formulated with respect to the rate of water flow in the rock. The corrosion module describes corrosion of canisters made of carbon steel and transport of corrosion products in the near-field region. This module computes balance equations between dissolving species and species transported by diffusion and/or advection from the surface of a solid material. The diffusion module that includes also non-linear form of the interaction isotherm can be used for an evaluation of small-scale diffusion experiments.

Vopálka, D.; Lukin, D.; Vokál, A.



Measurement Fundamentals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 26-minute video, the second in a series of twelve, is part of the web-based course for K-8 teachers entitled Learning Math: Measurement offered by the Annenberg Foundation. Participants explore procedures for measuring and learn about standard units in the metric and customary systems, the relationships among units, and the approximate nature of measurement. In this video participants examine fundamental ideas such as unit iteration, partitioning and precision, ratio, and scale. To access the video from this link click on the VoD icon that is next to the video 2 description.

Chapin, Suzanne H.



Marketing fundamentals.  


This chapter outlines current marketing practice from a managerial perspective. The role of marketing within an organization is discussed in relation to efficiency and adaptation to changing environments. Fundamental terms and concepts are presented in an applied context. The implementation of marketing plans is organized around the four P's of marketing: product (or service), promotion (including advertising), place of delivery, and pricing. These are the tools with which marketers seek to better serve their clients and form the basis for competing with other organizations. Basic concepts of strategic relationship management are outlined. Lastly, alternate viewpoints on the role of advertising in healthcare markets are examined. PMID:11401791

Redmond, W H



Vesta's Geological Features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vesta’s diverse geology exhibits impact basins and craters of all sizes and unusual shapes, ejecta blankets, large troughs, impact basins, enigmatic dark material, and considerable evidence for mass wasting and surface alteration processes.

Jaumann, R.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.; Pieters, C. M.; Yingst, R. A.; Williams, D. A.; Buczkowski, D. L.; Schenk, P.; De Sanctis, M. C.



Geodynamics applications of continuum physics to geological problems  

SciTech Connect

This textbook deals with the fundamental physical processes necessary for an understanding of plate tectonics and a variety of geologic phenomena. The first chapter reviews plate tectonics; its main purpose is to provide physics, chemistry, and engineering students with the geologic background necessary to understand the applications throughout the rest of the book. It goes on to discuss in following chapters: stress and strain relationships in the earths crust; basic principles of linear elasticity and the lithosphere; heat conduction in the earths crust; principles of gravity measurements; problems involving mantle convection and post glacial rebound; rock mechanics and rheology; principles of fluid flow in porous media; and, fault displacement measurements.

Turcotte, D.L.; Schubert, G.



Utah Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Utah Geological Survey's Web site, Utah Geology, offers a variety of interesting geological information about the state. Good descriptions, illustrations, and photographs can be accessed on earthquakes and hazards, dinosaurs and fossils, rocks and minerals, oil and energy, and more. For example, the Rocks and Minerals page contains everything from how to stake a mining claim to downloadable summaries of mineral activity in the state. There is quite a bit of information within the site, and anyone interested in geology will find themselves exploring these pages for quite a while.



Testing the Late Noachian Icy Highlands Model: Geological Observations, Processes and Origin of Fluvial and Lacustrine Features.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new reconstruction of the Late Noachian Mars atmosphere and climate shows atmosphere-surface thermal coupling and an adiabatic cooling effect producing preferential distribution of snow and ice in the highlands. In this Late Noachian Icy Highlands (LNIH) scenario, snow and ice accumulate in the south circumpolar region and in the higher altitudes of the southern uplands, but the mean annual temperature is everywhere below freezing. How can the abundant evidence for water-related fluvial and lacustrine activity (valley networks, VN; open-basin lakes, OBL; closed-basin lakes; CBL) be reconciled with the icy highlands model? We investigate the nature of geologic processes operating in the icy highlands and use the Antarctic McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV) as guidance in understanding and assessing how melting might be taking place. In the MDV, mean annual temperatures (MAT) are well below freezing. This results in a thick regional permafrost layer, the presence of an ice-table at shallow depths, and an overlying dry active layer. This configuration produces a perched aquifer and a horizontally stratified hydrologic system, where any melting results in local saturation of the dry active layer and channelized flow on top of the ice table. Top-down melting results in the dominance of lateral water transport, in contrast to temperate climates with vertical infiltration and transport to the groundwater table. Despite subzero MAT, MDV peak seasonal and peak daytime temperatures can exceed 273K and have a strong influence on the melting of available water ice. We present maps of the predicted distribution of LNIH snow and ice, compare these to the distribution of VN, OBL and CBL, and assess how top-down and bottom-up melting processes might explain the formation of these features in an otherwise cold and icy LN Mars. We assess the global near-surface water budget, analyze thickness estimates to distinguish areas of cold-based and wet-based glaciation, analyze the state of the ice cover and its susceptibility to melting and runoff, and describe top-down melting and fluvial channel formation processes in a LNIH environment. We find that: 1) episodic top-down melting of the LNIH is a robust mechanism to produce the observed fluvial and lacustrine features; 2) the characteristics and distribution of features in the Dorsa Argentea Formation are consistent with an extensive circum-polar ice cap during LNIH time; and 3) the nature of preserved LN impact craters is consistent with impact cratering processes in the LNIH environment. 393 words.

Head, James; Wordsworth, Robin; Forget, Francis; Madeleine, Jean-Baptiste; Halvey, Italy



California Geological Survey: Geologic Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This index provides access to a selection of geologic maps of California, as well as an overview of geologic and other mapping activities in the state. The index, which can be accessed by clicking on an interactive map of the state, contains lists of selected geologic maps in California prepared by the Regional Geologic Mapping Project (RGMP). The RGMP staff monitors the literature and collects references that contain geologic mapping that may be useful for future compilations. In addition, the site has information about Caltrans Highway Corridor Mapping, The Mineral Resources and Mineral Hazards Mapping Program, North Coast Watersheds Assessment Program, The Timber Harvesting Plan Enforcement Program, and The Seismic Hazards Mapping Program. A set of links is provided to other sources of geologic maps and map information.


The Mari Rosa late Hercynian Sb-Au deposit, western Spain Geology and geochemistry of the mineralizing processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The central Iberian zone of the Hesperian Massif hosts a series of late Hercynian vein-type Sb deposits. One of them is the Mari Rosa mineralization, hosted by metagreywackes and slates of the Schist-Greywacke Complex (Upper Precambrian). The mineralization is characterized by a complex paragenesis comprising three hydrothermal stages: stage H1?arsenopyrite-(pyrite); stage H2?stibnite-gold; and stage H3?pyrite-pyrrhotite-galena-sphalerite-chalcopyrite-tetrahedrite-boulangerite-stibnite. Of these only the second episode was of importance and gave rise to the main mineralized bodies of the deposit. Hydrothermal alteration consists of a mild sericitization, chloritization and carbonatization of the metasedimentary rocks around the veins. Chemical changes in the hydrothermal halos include a remarkable increase in the ratio K2O/Na2O, and a decrease in the ratio SiO2/volatiles, together with a sharp increase in Sb, Mo, Au and N. Fluids associated with ore deposition lie in the H2O-NaCl-CO2-CH4-N2 compositional system. These fluids evolved, progressively cooling, from initial circulaion temperatures close to 400°C in the early stage (H1) to temperatures of approximately 150 °C in the late one (H3). Fluid composition evolution was characterized by a progressive increase in the bulk water content of the fluids and with an increase in the relative proportion of N2 with respect to CH4 and CO2 in the volatile fraction. Massive stibnite deposition resulted from a boiling process developed at 300 °C and 0.9 1 Kb at a depth of 4 5 km. Geological, geochemical and fluid inclusion evidence suggest that the intrusion of the Alburquerque batholith (late Hercynian S-type granitoids) triggered hydrothermal activity leading to the transport and deposition of Sb and Au in Mari Rosa.

Ortega, L.; Oyarúun, R.; Gallego, M.



Submitted as a chapter for The Geology of Virginia, edited by Chuck Bailey, College of William and Mary Coastal Processes and Offshore Geology  

E-print Network

of Virginia results from the interactions of modern processes, primarily waves, tidal currents and sea climate changes. The scarps that formed by shoreline erosion during highstands of sea level and the very each segment of the shore. The gross characterization of Virginia's coast as the Delmarva Peninsula

Krantz, David


Yellowstone Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Yellowstone National Park website provides geological information about the Park. Links include geologic highlights, hydrothermal features, reports by park geologists, and scientists' talks (videos). A wide array of information can be found on these links and the webpage is expanding as more topics are added.

Park, Yellowstone N.


Fundamental considerations on the mechanisms of silver cementation onto zinc particles in the Merril–Crowe process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies on the Merrill–Crowe process as applied to silver recovery have shown that one half of the used zinc powder is wasted in water reduction at high cyanide concentrations, while the other half reduces silver ions from the cyanide solution. However, the cementation mechanisms as an electrochemical process taking place on the zinc surface do not explain the split of

G. Viramontes Gamboa; M. Medina Noyola; A. López Valdivieso



Fractionation of bamboo culms by autohydrolysis, organosolv delignification and extended delignification: understanding the fundamental chemistry of the lignin during the integrated process.  


Bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) was successfully fractionated using a three-step integrated process: (1) autohydrolysis pretreatment facilitating xylooligosaccharide (XOS) production (2) organosolv delignification with organic acids to obtain high-purity lignin, and (3) extended delignification with alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP) to produce purified pulp. The integrated process was comprehensively evaluated by component analysis, SEM, XRD, and CP-MAS NMR techniques. Emphatically, the fundamental chemistry of the lignin fragments obtained from the integrated process was thoroughly investigated by gel permeation chromatography and solution-state NMR techniques (quantitative (13)C, 2D-HSQC, and (31)P-NMR spectroscopies). It is believed that the integrated process facilitate the production of XOS, high-purity lignin, and purified pulp. Moreover, the enhanced understanding of structural features and chemical reactivity of lignin polymers will maximize their utilizations in a future biorefinery industry. PMID:24184648

Wen, Jia-Long; Sun, Shao-Ni; Yuan, Tong-Qi; Xu, Feng; Sun, Run-Cang



Geology of caves  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A cave is a natural opening in the ground extending beyond the zone of light and large enough to permit the entry of man. Occurring in a wide variety of rock types and caused by widely differing geological processes, caves range in size from single small rooms to intercorinecting passages many miles long. The scientific study of caves is called speleology (from the Greek words spelaion for cave and logos for study). It is a composite science based on geology, hydrology, biology, and archaeology, and thus holds special interest for earth scientists of the U.S. Geological Survey.

Morgan, I. M., Davies, W. E.



Geological Development of Panama  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Panama that geologists see today is a young landscape that in form comprises a reclined S-shaped, generally E-W oriented\\u000a isthmus produced through complex geotectonic processes that created and assembled a diverse suite of geological units since\\u000a late Cretaceous\\/early Tertiary time. The geological development of Panama is a consequence of the relative motions of the\\u000a North and South American continental

Russell S. Harmon


GEOLOGY, November 2009 975 Climate controls erosion and weathering on soil-mantled land-  

E-print Network

GEOLOGY, November 2009 975 ABSTRACT Climate controls erosion and weathering on soil-mantled land interactions. We quantify denudation, soil and saprolite weathering, and soil transport near the base and crest and weathering processes at these two climatically diverse sites, and our data suggest fundamentally different

Heimsath, Arjun M.


Measurement fundamentals  

SciTech Connect

The need to have accurate petroleum measurement is obvious. Petroleum measurement is the basis of commerce between oil producers, royalty owners, oil transporters, refiners, marketers, the Department of Revenue, and the motoring public. Furthermore, petroleum measurements are often used to detect operational problems or unwanted releases in pipelines, tanks, marine vessels, underground storage tanks, etc. Therefore, consistent, accurate petroleum measurement is an essential part of any operation. While there are several methods and different types of equipment used to perform petroleum measurement, the basic process stays the same. The basic measurement process is the act of comparing an unknown quantity, to a known quantity, in order to establish its magnitude. The process can be seen in a variety of forms; such as measuring for a first-down in a football game, weighing meat and produce at the grocery, or the use of an automobile odometer.

Webb, R.A. [Marathon Pipe Line Co., Findlay, OH (United States)




Microsoft Academic Search

It was shown that oscillating regime of tidal evolution in the Earth - Moon - Sun system results in periodical changes of velocity rotation and incline angle of the axis rotation. According to geological data it has been distinguished epoch intervals of maximum Phanerozoic sedimentation, magmatism and folding stages. These are compared with calculated changes of velocities and orientation of

Yu. N. Avsjuk; S. Genshaft; F. Sokolova; S. P. Svetlosanova


Geologic History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit introduces younger students to the concept of relative versus absolute time and how geologists determine the age of geologic events and features. Topics include the laws that determine relative age (superposition, cross-cutting relationships, included fragments, and others), and how to re-construct the geologic history of an area using these relationships. There is also information on geologic correlation and the use of index fossils to determine relative age. The section on absolute time discusses some ways of measurement (tree rings, radioactive dating) and introduces the concepts of natural selection and mass extinctions. A vocabulary and downloadable, printable student worksheets are provided.

Medina, Philip



Geologic Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Earth is very old -- 4.5 billion years or more -- according to recent estimates. This vast span of time, called geologic time by earth scientists, is difficult to comprehend in the familiar time units of months and years, or even centuries. How then do scientists reckon geologic time, and why do they believe the Earth is so old? A great part of the secret of the Earth's age is locked up in its rocks, and our centuries-old search for the key led to the beginning and nourished the growth of geologic science.

Newman, William L.



RSNA 2003 LIDC Educational Exhibit: Fundamental Issues for the Creation of a Resource for the Image Processing Research Community

The LIDCThis consortium - called the Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) - seeks to establish standard formats and processes by which to manage lung images and the related technical and clinical data that will be used by researchers to develop, train and evaluate CAD algorithms for lung cancer detection and diagnosis.


Fundamental processes in the expansion, energization, and coupling of single- and multi-Ion plasmas in space: Laboratory simulation experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have conducted a laboratory investigation into the physics of plasma expansions and their associated energization processes. We studied single- and multi-ion plasma processes in self-expansions, and included light and heavy ions and heavy/light mixtures to encompass the phenomenological regimes of the solar and polar winds and the AMPTE and CRRES chemical release programs. The laboratory experiments provided spatially-distributed time-dependent measurements of total plasma density, temperature, and density fluctuation power spectra with the data confirming the long-theorized electron energization process in an expanding cloud - a result that was impossible to determine in spaceborne experiments (as e.g., in the CRRES program). These results provided the missing link in previous laboratory and spaceborne programs. confirming important elements in our understanding of such solar-terrestrial processes as manifested in expanding plasmas in the solar wind (e.g., CMES) and in ionospheric outflow in plasmaspheric fluctuate refilling after a storm. The energization signatures were seen in an entire series of runs that varied the ion species (Ar', Xe', Kr' and Ne'), and correlative studies included spectral analyses of electrostatic waves collocated with the energized electron distributions. In all cases wave energies were most intense during the times in which the suprathermal populations were present, with wave intensity increasing with the intensity of the suprathermal electron population. This is consistent with theoretical expectations wherein the energization process is directly attributable to wave particle interactions. No resonance conditions were observed, in an overall framework in which the general wave characteristics were broadband with power decreasing with increasing frequency.

Szuszczewicz, E. P.; Bateman, T. T.



Fundamental tree growth processes severely suffer from water stress. The example of Pinus halepensis Mill. in South-eastern France  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plant architecture processes are commonly neglected in the studies about climate change impact. In terms of biomass, primary growth (i.e. lateral and principal twig growth) and leaf production are far more important than secondary growth (i.e. radial growth). Polycyclism, or the ability for a plant to produce several flushes in the same growth season, is a key process of plant development. Aleppo pine is a good model to study polycyclism: it is known to produce up to four annual flushes in one growth season: one to three in spring and sometimes one after summer drought. Architectural development i.e. ranching rate, annual branch length growth and number of needles and fruiting are positively correlated with the production of multiple flushes per year. These tree growth processes are likely to be impacted by the anticipated climate trend over the next century, particularly repeated and more severe water stresses, However, Aleppo pine architecture is not well-described in the literature and an important lack of knowledge prevents any possible prediction for the 21st century. Thus, the objectives of this study were (i) to describe architectural processes on Aleppo pine in the Mediterranean region for the last 15 years, (ii) to untangle interrelationship between climate and twig status in the evolution of tree architecture and (iii) to look for a possible impact of climate change. Since 1998, climate was far hotter and drier than normal in South-eastern France: each process of tree architecture was significantly affected, particularly after 2003 heat-wave, which delayed effect remains till 2008, exacerbated by repeated droughts. Morphologically, polycyclism is primarily influenced by twig vigour, hierarchy and position (low, middle or top crown). Climatically, tree architectural development for a given year depends mainly on water availability in preceding growth season and to a less extent on rainfall during winter and summer temperatures of current and preceding year, both contributing to water balance.

Girard, Francois; Vennetier, Michel; Ouarmim, Samira; Caraglio, Yves; Misson, Laurent



Geologic Timeline  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dive into the depths of time with this Geologic Timeline. The farther you scroll down, the farther back in time you'll travel. Also, the longer a period is on this page, the longer it lasted in history!



Hospital fundamentals.  


Under the current system, orthopaedic trauma surgeons must work in some form of hospital setting as our primary service involves treatment of the trauma patient. We must not forget that just as a trauma center cannot exist without our services, we cannot function without their support. As a result, a clear understanding of the balance between physicians and hospitals is paramount. Historical perspective enables physicians and hospital personnel alike to understand the evolution of hospital-physician relationship. This process should be understood upon completion of this chapter. The relationship between physicians and hospitals is becoming increasingly complex and multiple forms of integration exist such as joint ventures, gain sharing, and co-management agreements. For the surgeon to negotiate well, an understanding of hospital governance and the role of the orthopaedic traumatologist is vital to success. An understanding of the value provided by the traumatologist includes all aspects of care including efficiency, availability, cost effectiveness, and research activities. To create effective and sustainable healthcare institutions, physicians and hospitals must be aligned over a sustained period of time. Unfortunately, external forces have eroded the historical basis for the working relationship between physicians and hospitals. Increased competition and reimbursement cuts, coupled with the increasing demands for quality, efficiency, and coordination and the payment changes outlined in healthcare reform, have left many organizations wondering how to best rebuild the relationship. The principal goal for the physician when partnering with a hospital or healthcare entity is to establish a sustainable model of service line management that protects or advances the physician's ability to make impactful improvements in quality of patient care, decreases in healthcare costs, and improvements in process efficiency through evidence-based practices and protocols. PMID:24918827

Althausen, Peter L; Hill, Austin D; Mead, Lisa



The Fundamental Physical Processes Producing and Controlling Stellar Coronal/Transition Region/Chromospheric Activity and Structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Our LTSA (Long Term Space Astrophysics) research has utilized current NASA and ESA spacecraft, supporting ground-based IR, radio, and sub-mm telescopes, and the extensive archives of HST (Hubble Space Telescope), IUE (International Ultraviolet Explorer), ROSAT, EUVE (Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer), and other missions. Our research effort has included observational work (with a nonnegligible groundbased component), specialized processing techniques for imaging and spectral data, and semiempirical modelling, ranging from optically thin emission measure studies to simulations of optically thick resonance lines. In our previous LTSA efforts, we have had a number of major successes, including most recently: organizing and carrying out an extensive cool star UV survey in HST cycle eight; obtaining observing time with new instruments, such as Chandra and XMM (X-ray Multi-Mirror) in their first cycles; collaborating with the Chandra GTO program and participating with the Chandra Emission Line Project on multi-wavelength observations of HR 1099 and Capella. These are the main broad-brush themes of our previous investigation: a) Where do Coronae Occur in the Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram? b) Winds of Coronal and Noncoronal Stars; c) Activity, Age, Rotation Relations; d) Atmospheric Inhomogeneities; e) Heating Mechanisms, Subcoronal Flows, and Flares; f) Development of Analysis and Modelling Tools.

Ayres, T. R.; Brown, A.



Sediment Studies Refute EIS Hypothesis, While Most Fundamental Process Questions Remain Unanswered: An Update on Experiments in Grand Canyon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For three decades, sediment researchers have pondered the question of whether or not operations at Glen Canyon Dam could be adjusted to maintain downstream sand resources in Grand Canyon. Prior to the era when managed floods were proposed as a strategy to conserve sand inputs below the dam, Laursen et al. (1976) concluded that erosion of sandbars below the dam would be an inevitable, yet protracted post-dam process. Despite this earliest conclusion, the operational strategy for sandbar maintenance since 1996, has been based on two hypotheses: first, much of the sand introduced by tributaries downstream from the dam can accumulate in the channel over multiple years under operations associated with average-to-below average hydrology; and second, controlled floods can move that accumulated sand from the channel bed to shorelines, thereby rebuilding bars in a sustainable manner. Recent work has shown that the first hypothesis is false (Rubin et al., 2002). High resolution data for the ecosystem sand mass balance between 1999 and 2004, indicate no accumulation of tributary sand inputs in the main channel, despite a drought resulting in minimum annual release volumes from 2000 through 2004. Sandbar data also indicate that erosion has not been mitigated by re-operation strategies since 1991. On the basis of these data, researchers have again identified uncertainty regarding a flow strategy that will result in sustainable sandbars. If a successful flow strategy can not be devised, then managers may have to choose between abandoning sandbar restoration objectives, or pursuing sediment augmentation. Experimental fluctuating-flow treatments are also being evaluated for their potential to limit populations of introduced rainbow trout, yet these options are already known to increase sand export. While many institutional barriers to large-scale sediment experiments in Grand Canyon have recently been bridged through a science-based, adaptive management approach, protracted drought throughout the Upper Colorado River Basin now poses a natural barrier to testing the key sediment hypothesis. Downstream sand production from the Paria River remains at its lowest level in 80 years, while water storage in Lake Powell approaches 40 percent of capacity. As scientists wait out delays in sediment experimentation forced by the current drought, managers have already approved limited sediment augmentation feasibility studies aimed at identifying options for managing physical habitats. With regard to conventional thinking about regulation and management of natural hydrologic systems, some important lessons may be learned from the current situation. Rubin, D.M., Topping, D.J., Schmidt, J.C., Hazel, J., Kaplinski, M. and Melis, T.S., 2002, Recent Sediment Studies Refute Glen Canyon Dam EIS Hypothesis: Eos, vol. 83, no. 25, p. 273-278. Laursen, E.M., Ince, S. and Pollack, J., 1976, On Sediment Transport Through the Grand Canyon, Proceedings of the 3rd Federal Interagency Sedimentation Conference, Denver, CO, vol. 1, p. 4-76 - 4-87.

Melis, T. S.; Topping, D. J.; Wright, S. A.; Rubin, D. M.; Schmidt, J. C.; Hazel, J. E.; Kaplinski, M. A.; Parnell, R. A.



Fundamental Experiments Of Fluid-Rock Reaction Due To A Mechanochemical Process: Implication For Seismic Fault Zones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fracture zones within active fault zones are known to be passages of fluids. The fluid penetration in the fracture zone leads into fluid-rock interaction that changes the physical and chemical properties of the fault zone materials, possibly affecting the dynamic behavior of the fault itself. The evidences of the interactions between fluids and destructed rocks are obtained as anomalous concentrations of gases and chemical elements along active faults (e.g., Wakita et al., 1980; Tanaka et al., 2001). One of the characteristic products is hydrogen gas that has been detected relative to fault activities since Wakita et al. (1980) found hydrogen anomalies along an active fault. The generation of hydrogen gas is due to the radical reaction between water molecule and active Si radicals on the new surface of crushed quartz grains (Kita et al., 1982; Kameda et al., in press). Another characteristic product in the fault zone is submicron size of low strength materials such as amorphous and clays which seem to be formed by fluid-mineral reactions like dissolution-precipitation and alteration reactions (e.g., Tanaka et al., 2001). In order to understand the fluid-rock reactions during the pulverization of rocks, we performed batch-style crushing experiments of single crystals of quartz, alkali feldspar and biotite and granites with pure water (pH7) under argon-filled conditions using a glove box at the ambient temperature and pressure. We measured pH of the solutions and hydrogen gas concentrations using a glass electrode and gas chromatograph, respectively. BET (Brunauer, Emmett and Teller) method was adopted for precise measurements of net surface areas of the samples, in order to estimate the destructed atomic bonds. Furthermore, cations and anions in the water are also measured by PerkinElmer atomic absorption spectrometry and Toso ion chromatograph. pH values decrease for the experiments of quartz single crystal with increasing crushing times, while the other single crystal and granite experiments show the pH increases. Hydrogen gas and BET surface area linearly increase with increasing the experimental duration time for all the crushing experiments. In the case of quartz, both amounts of hydrogen gas and hydrogen ions increase proportionally with increasing the newly formed surface area. The amounts of the hydrogen gas are consistent with the amounts of Si radicals estimated from electron spin resonance measurements by Hochestrasser and Antonini (1972). This indicates that the hydrogen gas was generated by consuming the most of Si radicals on the newly formed surface. The hydrogen ions, whose amounts are 5 times larger than those of the hydrogen gas, can be explained by the dissociation of silanols that are produced on the new quartz surface by hydrolysis (Saruwatari et al., submitted). For the other minerals and granite, the hydrogen gas is also generated by the Si radicals as same as quartz, whereas the amounts of hydrogen ions decrease with increases of Na+ and K+. The amounts of the alkali metal ions are more than those expected from the static dissolution and the increase of surface area. The discrepancy may be originated from the pulverization process. At the presentation, we will discuss the effect of the newly formed surface on the fluid-mineral reactions. Hochstrasser and Antonini, 1972, Surface Sci 32, 644-664. Kita et al., 1982, JGR 87, 10789-10795. Kameda et al., In Press, Bull. Chem. Saruwatari et al., submitted, Phys. Chem. Min. Tanaka et al., 2001, JGR 106, 8789-8810. Wakita et al., 1980, Science 210, 188-190.

Saruwatari, K.; Kameda, J.; Tanaka, H.



Antarctica Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains information about the continent of Antarctica. There is a classroom practice and instructional module. The students will be able to describe the general geology of the land under the Antarctic ice and to explain from where the rocks may have come.


Geologic Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains 24 questions on the topic of geologic time, which covers dating techniques and unconformities. This is part of the Principles of Earth Science course at the University of South Dakota. Users submit their answers and are provided immediate feedback.

Heaton, Timothy


CPEP: Fundamental Particles and Interactions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This chart shows the fundamental particles and their interactions. Included in the chart is information on the structure of the atom, baryons, mesons, fermions, and bosons. Additional sections are devoted to particle processes and unsolved mysteries.

Project, Contemporary P.



Geology 12. Curriculum Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication, developed by the Ministry of Education, Province of British Columbia, Canada, is a teaching guide for the Geology 12 course. The course is intended to provide secondary school students with the background and desire to investigate their earth, its materials and its processes. The guide consists of the following four sections: (1)…

British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.


The U.S. Geological Survey Geo Data Portal: A web service architecture and implementation for geo-climate data access and processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental modelers from fields of study including climatology, hydrology, geology, and ecology need common, cross-discipline data sources and processing methods to enable working with large remote datasets. Watershed modelers, for example, need downscaled climate model data and land-cover data summaries to predict streamflow for various future climate scenarios. In turn, ecological modelers need the predicted streamflow conditions to understand how habitat of biotic communities might be affected. The U.S. Geological Survey Geo Data Portal project addresses these needs by providing a flexible application built on open-standard Web services that integrates and streamlines data retrieval and analysis. Open Geospatial Consortium Web Processing Services (WPS) were developed to allow interoperable access to data from servers delivering both defacto standard Climate and Forecast (CF) convention datasets and OGC standard Web Coverage Services (WCS). The Geo Data Portal can create commonly needed derivatives of data in numerous formats. As an example use case, a user can upload a shapefile specifying a region of interest (e.g. a watershed), pick a climate simulation, and retrieve a spreadsheet of predicted daily maximum temperature in that region up to 2100. Outcomes of the Geo Data Portal project support the rapid development of user interfaces for accessing and manipulating environmental data. The Geo Data Portal resulting from this project will be demonstrated accessing a range of climate and landscape data.

Kunicki, T.; Blodgett, D. L.; Booth, N. L.; Suftin, I.; Walker, J. I.



Reports of Planetary Geology Program, 1982  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Work conducted in the Planetary Geology program is summarized. The following categories are presented: outer solar system satellites; asteroids and comets; Venus; cratering processes and landform development; volcanic processes and landforms; aolian processes and landforms; fluvial processes and landform development; periglacial and permafrost processes; structure, tectonics and stratigraphy; remote sensing and regolith studies; geologic mapping, cartography and geodesy.

Holt, H. E. (compiler)



Patterns, processes and geological biases in the fossil record of jawless vertebrates at the time of jawed vertebrate origins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dominance of the jawed vertebrates over their jawless vertebrates in the Middle Palaeozoic represents a landmark evolutionary event in the history of vertebrates and a potential episode of competitive replacement. The timing and nature of the origin, radiation and extinction of each of the relevant clades of stem- and crown- gnathostomes is not, however, well understood. Here, stratigraphic, phylogenetic and palaeoenvironmental data for the closest relatives of jawed vertebrates (Osteostraci, Galeaspida and Thelodonti) are analysed. The Osteostraci and Galeaspida are restricted to shallow-water environments, and as such, are subject to facies biases resulting from sea-level change. Confidence intervals calculated upon the basis of non-random models of fossil recovery in light of sea-level changes stretch the potential origins of Osteostraci and Galeaspida into the Upper Ordovician, and are thus more compatible with phylogenetic schemes. Diversity changes through time for the Osteostraci, Galeaspida and Thelodonti were found to lie within the expected limits predicted from estimations of fossil record quality indicating that it is geological factors rather than biological that are responsible for apparent patterns. The relative demise and eventual extinction of ostracoderms during the Mid-Late Devonian is suggested to result from their inability to adapt to changing environmental conditions and their limited geo-dispersal ability rather than competition with their more generalist and cosmopolitan jawed relatives.

Sansom, R.; Donoghue, P.



Influence of Introgression and Geological Processes on Phylogenetic Relationships of Western North American Mountain Suckers (Pantosteus, Catostomidae)  

PubMed Central

Intense geological activity caused major topographic changes in Western North America over the past 15 million years. Major rivers here are composites of different ancient rivers, resulting in isolation and mixing episodes between river basins over time. This history influenced the diversification of most of the aquatic fauna. The genus Pantosteus is one of several clades centered in this tectonically active region. The eight recognized Pantosteus species are widespread and common across southwestern Canada, western USA and into northern Mexico. They are typically found in medium gradient, middle-elevation reaches of rivers over rocky substrates. This study (1) compares molecular data with morphological and paleontological data for proposed species of Pantosteus, (2) tests hypotheses of their monophyly, (3) uses these data for phylogenetic inferences of sister-group relationships, and (4) estimates timing of divergence events of identified lineages. Using 8055 base pairs from mitochondrial DNA protein coding genes, Pantosteus and Catostomus are reciprocally monophyletic, in contrast with morphological data. The only exception to a monophyletic Pantosteus is P. columbianus whose mtDNA is closely aligned with C. tahoensis because of introgression. Within Pantosteus, several species have deep genetic divergences among allopatric sister lineages, several of which are diagnosed and elevated to species, bringing the total diversity in the group to 11 species. Conflicting molecular and morphological data may be resolved when patterns of divergence are shown to be correlated with sympatry and evidence of introgression. PMID:24619087

Unmack, Peter J.; Dowling, Thomas E.; Laitinen, Nina J.; Secor, Carol L.; Mayden, Richard L.; Shiozawa, Dennis K.; Smith, Gerald R.



Chip-off-the-old-rock: the study of reservoir-relevant geological processes with real-rock micromodels.  


We present a real-rock micromodel approach whereby microfluidic channels are fabricated in a naturally occurring mineral substrate. The method is applied to quantify calcite dissolution which is relevant to oil/gas recovery, CO2 sequestration, and wastewater disposal in carbonate formations - ubiquitous worldwide. The key advantage of this method is the inclusion of both the relevant substrate chemistry (not possible with conventional microfluidics) and real-time pore-scale resolution (not possible with core samples). Here, microchannels are etched into a natural calcite crystal and sealed with a glass slide. The approach is applied to study acidified brine flow through a single channel and a two-dimensional micromodel. The single-channel case conforms roughly to a 1-D analytical description, with crystal orientation influencing the local dissolution rate an additional 25%. The two-dimensional experiments show highly flow-directed dissolution and associated positive feedback wherein acid preferentially invades high conductivity flow paths, resulting in higher dissolution rates ('wormholing'). These experiments demonstrate and validate the approach of microfabricating fluid structures within natural minerals for transport and geochemical studies. More broadly, real-rock microfluidics open the door to a vast array of lab-on-a-chip opportunities in geology, reservoir engineering, and earth sciences. PMID:25236399

Song, Wen; de Haas, Thomas W; Fadaei, Hossein; Sinton, David




E-print Network

FUNDAMENTALS OF PLATE TECTONICS Fall Semester 2012-13 Geological Sciences G454/G554 Section 32565, paleomagnetism, petrology, and structural geology that led to the development of plate tectonic theory student will prepare a paper on some aspect or applica- tion of plate tectonic theory. The paper should

Polly, David


Model Fundamentals - version 2  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Model Fundamentals, part of the Numerical Weather Prediction Professional Development Series and the "NWP Training Series: Effective Use of NWP in the Forecast Process", describes the components of an NWP model and how they fit into the forecast development process. It also explores why parameterization of many physical processes is necessary in NWP models. The module covers background concepts and terminology necessary for learning from the other modules in this series on NWP. Back in 2000, the subject matter expert for this module was Dr. Ralph Petersen of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction, Environmental Modeling Center (NCEP/EMC). Revisions to the module were made in 2009 by Drs. Bill Bua and Stephen Jascourt, from the NWP team at UCAR/COMET.




Geologic Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Classroom Connectors lesson plan discusses the characteristics of geologic time, including the law of superposition, fossil preservation, casts and molds, and various events through the history of the Earth. The site provides goals, objectives, an outline, time required, materials, activities, and closure ideas for the lesson. The Classroom Connectors address content with an activity approach while incorporating themes necessary to raise the activity to a higher cognition level. The major motivation is to employ instructional strategies that bring the students physically and mentally into touch with the science they are studying.


Pattern formation by local amplification and lateral inhibition: Examples from biology and geology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pattern formation by local amplification and lateral inhibition is a common process in nature, responsible for regular repetition in many biological and geological systems. This conceptual framework provides a high-level understanding of self-organization, but also guides the search for the fundamental, local interactions in any given system. Several examples of pattern formation by lateral inhibition in sociology, biology and geology illustrate the general principles. In particular, we used this research methodology consciously for addressing the problem of rimstone (travertine terrace) formation. The statistical identification of spacing patterns is illustrated by an analysis of a pockmark field in the North Sea.

Hammer, Ø.



Geologic evolution of the terrestrial planets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper presents a geologic comparison of the terrestrial planets Mercury, Venus, Earth, the Moon and Mars, in the light of the recent photogeologic and other evidence gathered by satellites, and discusses the relationships between their regional terrain types, ages, and planetary evolution. The importance of the two fundamental processes, impact cratering and volcanism, which had formed these planets are stressed and the factors making the earth unique, such as high planetary evolution index (PEI), dynamic geological agents and the plate tectonics, are pointed out. The igneous processes which dominate earth and once existed on the others are outlined together with the planetary elevations of the earth which has a bimodal distribution, the moon which has a unimodal Gaussian distribution and Mars with a distribution intermediate between the earth and moon. Questions are raised concerning the existence of a minimum planetary mass below which mantle convection will not cause lithospheric rifting, and as to whether each planet follows a separate path of evolution depending on its physical properties and position within the solar system.

Head, J. W.; Mutch, T. A.; Wood, C. A.



Geologic Map and Eruptive History of Veniaminof Volcano Record Aleutian Arc Processing of Mantle-Derived Melts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mount Veniaminof, one of the largest volcanoes in the Aleutian arc, has a basal diameter of ~40 km, a volume of ~350 km3, an 8-km-diameter ice-filled caldera, and an active intracaldera cone. The geology of this tholeiitic basalt-to-dacite volcano has been mapped at 1:50,000 scale. Over 100 Quaternary volcanic map units are characterized by 600 chemical analyses of rocks and nearly 100 40Ar/39Ar and K-Ar ages. Throughout its history, lava flows from Veniaminof recorded alternately ice/melt-water chilling or ice-free conditions that are consistent with independent paleoclimatic records. Exposures from deep glacial valleys to the caldera rim reveal a long history dominated by basalt and basaltic andesite from ?260 ka to 150 ka that includes compositions as primitive as 9.4% MgO and 130 ppm Ni at 50% SiO2. Basaltic andesite, common throughout Veniaminof's history, has low compatible-element contents that indicate an origin by fractionation of basaltic magma. Repeated eruption of more differentiated melts from a shallow intrusive complex, represented by granodiorite (crystallized dacitic magma) and cumulate gabbro and diorite xenoliths in pyroclastic deposits, has featured virtually aphyric andesite since 150 ka and dacite (to 69.5% SiO2) beginning ~110 ka. These variably differentiated liquids segregated from crystal mush, possibly by gas-driven filter pressing, and commonly vented but also solidified at depth. A large composite cone was present at least as early as 200 ka. Although asymmetric edifice morphology hints at early sector collapse to the southeast, coeval vents on northwest and southeast flanks and the distribution of extensive lava units indicate that a large cone (again) was present by 120 ka. Flank eruption of a wide variety of Veniaminof magmas was common from plate-convergence-parallel northwest-trending fissures from at least as early as ca. 80 ka. At 56 ka and at 46 ka, voluminous dacite lava erupted on both northwest and southeast flanks. A dacitic pyroclastic-flow deposit on the northwest flank, sandwiched between 46±1-ka dacite and 28±4-ka andesite lava flows, may record early caldera collapse as also evidenced by thick 33±6-ka ice-chilled dacite lava that must have banked against ice in a depression spatially coincident with the northwest part of the present caldera. The modern caldera formed, or was enlarged, during two voluminous Holocene explosive eruptions of crystal-poor andesite ~3700 14C yr BP and >4700 14C yr BP (Miller et al., 2002 Fall AGU, V11A-1376) that emplaced pyroclastic-flow deposits on Veniaminof's flanks and in surrounding valleys. Frequent eruption from shallow reservoirs may suppress accumulation of more than a few km3 of dacitic magma at Veniaminof.

Bacon, C. R.; Sisson, T. W.; Calvert, A. T.; Nye, C. J.



Medical Geology in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A large body of evidence points to significant health effects resulting from our interactions with the physical environment\\u000a and we continue to recognise connections between geological materials and processes and human and animal disease. In Africa,\\u000a these relationships have been observed for many years, but only recently have any real attempts been made to formalise their\\u000a study. Africa is a

T. C. Davies


Principles of nuclear geology  

SciTech Connect

This book treats the basic principles of nuclear physics and the mineralogy, geochemistry, distribution and ore deposits of uranium and thorium. The application of nuclear methodology in radiogenic heat and thermal regime of the earth, radiometric prospecting, isotopic age dating, stable isotopes and cosmic-ray produced isotopes is covered. Geological processes, such as metamorphic chronology, petrogenesis, groundwater movement, and sedimentation rate are focussed on.

Aswathanarayana, U.



Geological assessing of urban environments with a systematic mapping survey: The 1:5000 urban geological map of Catalonia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ground features of urban areas and the geologic processes that operate on them are, in general, strongly altered from their natural original condition as a result of anthropogenic activities. Assessing the stability of the ground, the flooding areas, and, the health risk as a consequence of soil pollution, are, among others, fundamental topics of urban areas that require a better understanding. The development of systematic urban geological mapping projects provides valuable resources to address these issues. Since 2007, the Institut Geologic de Catalunya (IGC) runs an urban geological mapping project, to provide accurate geologic information of county capitals and towns of more than 10000 inhabitants of Catalonia. The urban zones of 131 towns will be surveyed for this project, totalizing an area of about 2200 km2 to be mapped in 15 years. According to the 2008 census, the 82 % of the population of Catalonia (7.242.458 inhabitants) lives in the areas to be mapped in this project. The mapping project integrates in a GIS environment the following subjects: - Data from pre-existing geotechnical reports, historical geological and topographical maps and, from historical aerial photographs. - Data from available borehole databases. - Geological characterization of outcrops inside the urban network and neighbouring areas. - Geological, chemical and physical characterisation of representative rocks, sediments and soils. - Ortophotographs (0.5 m pixel size) and digital elevation models (5 meter grid size) made from historical aerial photographs, to depict land use changes, artificial deposits and geomorphological elements that are either hidden or destroyed by urban sprawl. - Detailed geological mapping of quaternary sediments, subsurface bedrock and artificial deposits. - Data from subsurface prospection in areas with insufficient or confuse data. - 3D modelling of the main geological surfaces such as the top of the pre-quaternary basement. All the gathered data is harmonised and stored it in a database. The analysis of the database allows to compile and print the 1:5000 scale urban geological map according to the 1:5000 topographic grid of Catalonia. The map is composed by a principal map, geologic cross sections and several complementary maps, charts and tables. Regardless of the geological map units, the principal map also includes the main artificial deposits (such as infilled river valleys and road embankments), very recent or current superficial deposits, contours of outcropping areas, structural data and other relevant information gathered in stations, sampling points, boreholes indicating the thickness of artificial deposits and the depth of the pre-quaternary basement, contour lines of the top of the pre-quaternary basement surface and, water level data. The complementary maps and charts may change depending on the gathered data, the geological features of the area and the urban typology. However, the most representative complementary maps that includes the printed urban map are the quaternary subsurface bedrock map and the isopach map of thickness of quaternary and anthropogenic deposits. The map also includes charts and tables of relevant physical and chemical parameters of the geological materials, harmonised downhole lithological columns from selected boreholes, and, photographs and figures illustrating the geology of the mapped area and how urbanisation has changed the natural environment. The object of this systematic urban mapping survey is to provide a robust database to be used in targeted studies related to urban planning, geoengineering works, soil pollution and other important environmental issues that society should deal in the future.

Vilà, Miquel; Pi, Roser; Cirés, Jordi; de Paz, Ana; Berástegui, Xavier



Illinois State Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS) homepage provides information on geologic mapping, earthquakes, fossils, groundwater, wetlands, glacial geology, bedrock geology, and Lake Michigan geology. Educational materials include field trip guides, short publications on Illinois geology for students and teachers, online tours, single-page maps, and a geologic column. Other materials include databases and collections of GIS data, well records, drill cores, and mining information; a bibliography of Illinois geology; online maps and data; and information on water and land use, resource development, and geologic hazards.


Results from an International Simulation Study on Coupled Thermal,Hydrological, and Mechanical (THM) Processes near Geological NuclearWaste Repositories  

SciTech Connect

As part of the ongoing international DECOVALEX project, four research teams used five different models to simulate coupled thermal, hydrological, and mechanical (THM) processes near waste emplacement drifts of geological nuclear waste repositories. The simulations were conducted for two generic repository types, one with open and the other with back-filled repository drifts, under higher and lower postclosure temperatures, respectively. In the completed first model inception phase of the project, a good agreement was achieved between the research teams in calculating THM responses for both repository types, although some disagreement in hydrological responses is currently being resolved. In particular, good agreement in the basic thermal-mechanical responses was achieved for both repository types, even though some teams used relatively simplified thermal-elastic heat-conduction models that neglected complex near-field thermal-hydrological processes. The good agreement between the complex and simplified process models indicates that the basic thermal-mechanical responses can be predicted with a relatively high confidence level.

Rutqvist, Jonny; Rutqvist, J.; Barr, D.; Birkholzer, J.T.; Chijimatsu, M.; Kolditz, O.; Liu, Q.-S; Oda, Y.; Wang, W.; Zhang, C.-Y.



Geological hazards programs and research in the U. S. A  

SciTech Connect

Geological hazards have been studied for centuries, but government support of research to lessen their effects is relatively new. This article briefly describes government programs and research underway in the U.S.A. that are directed towards reducing losses of life and property from earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and landslides. The National Earthquake program is described, including four basic research areas: plate tectonics; estimation of the earthquakes; and effects and hazards assessment. The Volcano Studies Program has three areas of research: fundamentals of volcanoes; hazards assessments; and volcano monitoring. Three research areas are included in landslide studies: land slide processes; prediction; inventory and susceptibility studies.

Filson, J.R. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA))



Hydraulic-gas transient processes within the overall phenomenological evolution of the French HLW deep geological disposal: current knowledge in PA perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because of the creation of the disposal underground facilities, then of the ventilation of whole or part of these facilities during operating period, and finally of hydrogen production, mainly by anoxic corrosion of metallic components, in post-closure period, the phenomenological evolution of a radwaste deep geological repository and its surrounding host rock will be characterized by an hydraulic and gas transient phase until the overall system reach an equilibrium state. This paper presents the analysis of this transient phase carried out in France within the framework of the feasibility study of a HLW and ILLW deep geological disposal in the Callovo-Oxfordian clay layer (Meuse/Haute Marne site) (Dossier 2005 Argile) according to the current state of knowledge: the broad outlines of the expected evolution are described in time and space from operating period to post closure period, taking into consideration the studied design concept (overall architecture, disposal zones, disposal modules, disposal cells, various types of waste, operating conditions…). More particularly for hydrogen, emphasis is focused on space and time organization of production and migration, in particular the various sources of production, the various pathways of migrations and interactions with hydraulics. Although the description is supported by a sound data base on hydraulic and gas production and migration (clay media, engineered materials, corrosion, radiolysis…) and numerical calculations at different scales of time and space, uncertainties exist both in phenomenology (Hydrogen production mechanisms, Hydrogen migration mechanisms in clay media, modeling of mechanisms, values of parameters…) and in simulation (in particular limitations to achieve the various time and space scales and some couplings). So deviations of the expected evolution are discussed. Results of this analysis show that the hydraulic and gas transient phase may present a complex organization in time and space, and may relate to significant scales of time, several tens of thousands to one hundred of thousands years. So the hydraulic - gas transient has to be put in prospective for other processes involved in the phenomenological evolution (thermal, mechanics and chemical processes), so to evaluate if there are the interactions/couplings or not between all these processes in time and space. In particular effect of hydraulic - gas processes on degradation of waste, release and then migration of radionuclide are discussed in PA perspective. In conclusion, ways of progress to describe the hydraulic and gas transient phase are indicated, in view of the demand of a licensing authorization of a repository in 2014.

Wendling, J.; Plas, F.



Do geological or climatic processes drive speciation in dynamic archipelagos? The tempo and mode of diversification in Southeast Asian shrews  

E-print Network

distribution of terrestrial habitats has been altered extensively through time (Heaney 1985; Hall 1998; Voris 2000; Bird et al. 2005). The processes of volcanic uplift and repeated sea level fluctuations represent potential mechanisms promoting evolutionary... et al. 1998; Hutterer 2005; Dubey et al. 2007, 2008). Dubey et al. (2007) estimated the divergence of African from Eurasian Cro- cidura at 5.4–10.7 million years ago (mya), thus the entire history of shrew evolution in Southeast Asia likely took place...

Esselstyn, Jacob Aaron; Timm, Robert M.; Brown, Rafe M.



Results from an International Simulation Study on Couples Thermal, Hydrological, and Mechanical (THM) Processes Near Geological Nuclear Waste Repositories  

SciTech Connect

As part of the ongoing international code comparison project DECOVALEX, four research teams used five different models to simulate coupled thermal, hydrological, and mechanical (THM) processes near underground waste emplacement drifts. The simulations were conducted for two generic repository types with open or back-filled repository drifts under higher and lower post-closure temperature, respectively. In the completed first model inception phase of the project, a good agreement was achieved between the research teams in calculating THM responses for both repository types, although some disagreement in hydrological responses are currently being resolved. Good agreement in the basic thermal-mechanical responses was achieved for both repository types, even with some teams using relatively simplified thermal-elastic heat-conduction models that neglect complex near-field thermal-hydrological processes. The good agreement between the complex and simplified (and well-known) process models indicates that the basic thermal-mechanical responses can be predicted with a relatively high confidence level. The research teams have now moved on to the second phase of the project, the analysis of THM-induced permanent (irreversible) changes and the impact of those changes on the fluid flow field near an emplacement drift.

J. Rutqvist; J.T> Birkholzer; M. Chijimatsu; O. Kolditz; Q.S. Liu; Y. Oda; W. Wang; C.Y. Zhang



Fundamental Plasma Processes in Saturn's Magnetosphere B.H. Mauk, D.C. Hamilton, T.W. Hill, G.B. Hospodarsky, R.E. Johnson, C. Paranicas, E. Roussos,  

E-print Network

.C. Sittler Jr. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA R.M. Thorne Department of Atmospheric of fundamental processes that operate coherently across a broad spectrum of varying para- metric states-encompassing to space plasmas but represent the broad areas of recent stud- ies of Saturn's system. The first

Johnson, Robert E.


Exchange Rates and Fundamentals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We show analytically that in a rational expectations present-value model, an asset price manifests near-random walk behavior if fundamentals are I (1) and the factor for discounting future fundamentals is near one. We argue that this result helps explain the well-known puzzle that fundamental variables such as relative money supplies, outputs,…

Engel, Charles; West, Kenneth D.



Spirit's Traverse to the Columbia Hills: Systematic Variations in Clast Morphometry and Texture of Pebble to Cobble Sized Clasts, With Implications for Geological Processes and History  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the course of Spirit's traverse from the Columbia Memorial Station to the Columbia Hills a systematic set of PanCam observations called the clast survey were taken to look for evidence of fluvial activity affecting the morphology of pebble to cobble sized material. These PanCam observations employed a single frame, blue filter shot at 4 bits/pixel looking just above the deck in front of the rover at an angle centering the frame at -72 degrees. These images were taken at 42 sites during the course of the traverse from the landing site to the base of the Columbia Hills. This traverse encountered approximately 6 different geological units that were inferred from orbital data including thermal inertia estimates from Odyssey's THEMIS instrument, as well as geomorphic features observed by the Mars Global Surveyor's Mars Orbital Camera (MOC). Clast survey observations enabled quantification of changes in the size, roundness, sphericity, sorting, density (clasts/meter2), dispersion (nearest neighbor distances) and vesicularity of clasts over the course of Spirit's traverse across the plains to the base of the Columbia Hills. The overall goal was to look for trends in the above parameters that could allow an objective discrimination between basic erosional/depositional processes, including impact, fluvial, debris flow, glacial, and aeolian. To assist the interpretation of this data set, a variety of potential terrestrial analogs were investigated using the same clast survey parameters that were employed during Spirit's traverse. Each terrestrial analog was selected to represent an end member geologic process that could have shaped local clast distribution and morphology. These data sets were analyzed using SAS/STAT statistical software, employing Principle Component Analysis (PCA) to reduce the dimensionality of the data set, focus attention on the relationships between independent variables, and to identify factors that, taken together, could provide an objective basis for discriminating between geological processes. During the course of the traverse, significant changes were observed in clast size when moving from the continuous ejecta blanket of Bonneville crater (high thermal inertia) onto the intercrater plains (low thermal inertia). However, this trend was not apparent when crossing the continuous ejecta of two smaller craters, Lahontan and Missoula. In fact, clast sizes for these two craters compared more closely to the smooth intercrater plains unit previously mapped from orbit. Over the traverse, significant variations were observed in the distribution of vesicular clasts and in clast density. Changes in vesicularity are interpreted as relfecting local changes in the distribution and impact excavation depths of buried lava flow surfaces. Observed trends in clast size correlated well with thermal inertia values, as estimated from orbital (THEMIS) data. Over the course of the traverse, clast roundness and sorting remained remarkably consistent, with mean estimates falling between sub-angular to subrounded, and poorly sorted. These observations do not support previous suggestions of water-based depositional systems (fluvial, debris flow, or glacial processes) at the Spirit landing site, based on orbital data. Instead, observed trends are consistent with a heavily cratered, wind modified ejecta surface, developed above a flow-dominated basaltic volcanic sequence.

Grant, F. D.; Farmer, J. D.; Team, M.



Geologic Technician New Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a developing two-year geologic technician program at Bakersfield College in which a student may major in five areas - geologic drafting, land and legal, geologic assistant, engineering or paleontology. (RR)

Karp, Stanley E.



Geological Time Scale  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document describes how geologic time is approached in discussions of geologic topics. The uses of relative time and absolute time are compared, and a geologic time scale is provided to represent both concepts. References are provided.


Geology of Wisconsin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains geologic maps of Wisconsin including relief and topography maps; maps of the bedrock geology and elevation, Pleistocene geology, thickness of unconsolidated deposits, and soils; and atlases of geologic history. There is information on: rock types, Paleozoic formations, and the Pleistocene and Precambrian history of Wisconsin; how to obtain a geologic map of personal property; the Niagara Escarpment; castellated mounds; geologic field localities; and unusual weather events in Wisconsin. There is also a data table on earthquakes in Wisconsin.

Dutch, Steven



Physical Characteristics, Geologic Setting, and Possible Formation Processes of Spring Deposits on Mars Based on Terrestrial Analogs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spring formation is a predicted consequence of the interaction of former Martian aquifers with structures common to Mars, including basin margins, Tharsis structures, and other structural deformation characteristics. The arid environment and high abundance of water soluble compounds in the crust will have likewise encouraged spring deposit formation at spring sites. Such spring deposits may be recognized from morphological criteria if the characteristics of formation and preservation are understood. An important first step in the current Mars exploration strategy [10] is the detection of sites where there is evidence for past or present near-surface water on Mars. This study evaluates the large-scale morphology of spring deposits and the physical processes of their formation, growth, and evolution in terms that relate to (1) their identification in image data, (2) their formation, evolution, and preservation in the environment of Mars, and (3) their potential as sites of long-term or late stage shallow groundwater emergence at the surface of Mars.

Crumpler, L. S.



MER Field Geologic Traverse in Gusev Crater, Mars: Initial Results From the Perspective of Spirit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report casts the initial results of the traverse and science investigations by the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit at Gusev crater [1] in terms of data sets commonly used in field geologic investigations: Local mapping of geologic features, analyses of selected samples, and their location within the local map, and the regional context of the field traverse in terms of the larger geologic and physiographic region. These elements of the field method are represented in the MER characterization of the Gusev traverse by perspective-based geologic/morphologic maps, the placement of the results from Mossbauer, APXS, Microscopic Imager, Mini-TES and Pancam multispectral studies in context within this geologic/ morphologic map, and the placement of the overall traverse in the context of narrow-angle MOC (Mars Orbiter Camera) and descent images. A major campaign over a significance fraction of the mission will be the first robotic traverse of the ejecta from a Martian impact crater along an approximate radial from the crater center. The Mars Exploration Rovers have been conceptually described as 'robotic field geologists', that is, a suite of instruments with mobility that enables far-field traverses to multiple sites located within a regional map/image base at which in situ analyses may be done. Initial results from MER, where the field geologic method has been used throughout the initial course of the investigation, confirm that this field geologic model is applicable for remote planetary surface exploration. The field geologic method makes use of near-field geologic characteristics ('outcrops') to develop an understanding of the larger geologic context through continuous loop of rational steps focused on real-time hypothesis identification and testing. This poster equates 'outcrops' with the locations of in situ investigations and 'regional context' with the geology over distance of several kilometers. Using this fundamental field geologic method, we have identified the basic local geologic materials on the floor of Gusev at this site, their compositions and likely lithologies, origins, processes that have modified these materials, and their potential significance in the interpretation of the regional geology both spatially and temporally.

Crumpler, L.; Cabrol, N.; desMarais, D.; Farmer, J.; Golmbek, M.; Grant, J.; Greely, R.; Grotzinger, J.; Haskin, L.; Arvidson, R.



Computer Vision for Fundamental Studies in Porous Media: Part I -- 2-D Image Acquisition and Processing for Microscopic Distribution of Oil, Water, and Pore Space Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microscopic studies of the distributions of oil and water and of their networks in the pore space, at various relative saturations, are of fundamental importance in understanding migration, distribution, entrainment and mobilization of oil in the context of a particular (enhanced) oil recovery method. There has been an upsurge of interest in quantitative image analysis of pore morphology from two-dimensional

G. D. Yadav; I. F. Macdonald; I. Chatzis; F. A. L. Dullien



Geological structure, recharge processes and underground drainage of a glacierised karst aquifer system, Tsanfleuron-Sanetsch, Swiss Alps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationships between stratigraphic and tectonic setting, recharge processes and underground drainage of the glacierised karst aquifer system ‘Tsanfleuron-Sanetsch’ in the Swiss Alps have been studied by means of various methods, particularly tracer tests (19 injections). The area belongs to the Helvetic nappes and consists of Jurassic to Palaeogene sedimentary rocks. Strata are folded and form a regional anticlinorium. Cretaceous Urgonian limestone constitutes the main karst aquifer, overlain by a retreating glacier in its upper part. Polished limestone surfaces are exposed between the glacier front and the end moraine of 1855/1860 (Little Ice Age); typical alpine karrenfields can be observed further below. Results show that (1) large parts of the area are drained by the Glarey spring, which is used as a drinking water source, while marginal parts belong to the catchments of other springs; (2) groundwater flow towards the Glarey spring occurs in the main aquifer, parallel to stratification, while flow towards another spring crosses the entire stratigraphic sequence, consisting of about 800 m of marl and limestone, along deep faults that were probably enlarged by mass movements; (3) the variability of glacial meltwater production influences the shape of the tracer breakthrough curves and, consequently, flow and transport in the aquifer.

Gremaud, Vivian; Goldscheider, Nico; Savoy, Ludovic; Favre, Gérald; Masson, Henri



Error Analysis of Multi-Source Data for 3D Geological Modeling Using Entropy-based Weighting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In each step of geological modeling, errors always have an impact on workflow processes and so have consequences that challenge 3D geological modeling. Methods such as geostatistics, fuzzy set theory and spatial error theory have been used to analyze errors that exist in the raw data behind geological models and these methods assume that a single error distribution exist in all kinds of data. However, different kinds of raw data, such as borehole, user-defined section and geological maps, even within a single kind of data, they may exist different types of positional error distributions. Consequently, analyzing errors of multi-source data for geological modeling remains a vital problem in geological modeling. In this study, we developed a novel approach to quantitatively analyze the distributions of errors in multi-source raw data used for constructing 3D geological structural models. Errors among raw data are usually discussed directly based on the error distributions of points, supposing that the positional error of geological boundaries is caused by spatial measurement rather than uncertainties in the geological attributes. In reality, geological boundaries are given by the distribution of geological attributes of related strata, which are themselves vaguely defined. Therefore, the spatial error in geological boundaries is mainly caused by the uncertainties of geological attributes. Here, we supposed that spatial position is fixed and geological attributes of each point in space vary. According to the spatial relationship between geological attributes and geological boundaries, the spatial error of geological boundaries is transferred into a specific probability of each geological attribute for each point, termed the ';Geological attribute probability'. The key problem in this research is to construct a function for transforming the 3D spatial problem into a 1-D probability distribution problem. We transferred several kinds of spatial error distributions into geological attribute probabilities, allowing different kinds of error distribution of spatial data to be summed directly after the transformation. When building a 3D geological model, several kinds of raw data may cross over one point or line. In this circumstance, an entropy-based weight was given for each kind of data when calculating the final probability. For any point of one data source in space, its geological attribute probability results in an entropy weight value. The larger the value, the smaller the entropy weight. The final geological attribute probability of each spatial point is calculated using a linear entropy-based weighted summation. A color scale is used to illustrate the distribution of geological attribute probability using the MapGIS K9. A concrete example illustrates that geological attribute probability is an effective way of describing multiple error distributions among the raw data used for geological modeling. Acknowledgement: This study is funded by NSFC (41102207) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (121gpy19).

Hou, W.; Yang, L.; Clarke, K.



Colorado Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Colorado Geological Survey (CGS) is an agency of state government within the Department of Natural Resources whose mission is to help reduce the impact of geologic hazards on the citizens of Colorado, to promote the responsible economic development of mineral and mineral fuel resources, to provide geologic insight into water resources, and to provide geologic advice and information to a variety of constituencies. This site contains extensive information about Colorado geology such as maps, a geologic time scale for the state, program information, and state field trip information. This site hosts the Avalanche Information Center which contains avalanche forecasting and education center details. Publications report on geologic hazards, land use, environmental geology, mineral resources, oil, gas, coal, geologic mapping and earthquake information for the state. There are online editions of RockTalk, which is a quarterly newsletter published by the Colorado Geological Survey dealing with all aspects of geology throughout the state of Colorado. Links are provided for more resources.


Spatial and statistical GIS Applications for geological and environmental courses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Building student's career through undergraduate and graduate courses integrated with modern statistical and GIS software foster a competitive curriculum for their future employment. We present examples that may be introduced in geological courses (e.g. mineralogy, geomorphology, geochronology, structural geology, tectonics, stratigraphy) and environmental courses (natural hazards, hydrology, atmospheric science). Univariate and multivariate statistical models can be used for the interpretation and mapping of the geological and environmental problems. Some of the main statistical univariate models such as the normal distribution as well as the multivariate methods such as the principal component analysis, cluster analysis and factor analysis are the basic methods for understanding the variables of the environmental and geological problems. Examples are presented describing the basic steps for the solution of the problems. Some of the geological problems in different scales are the interpretation of 3D structural data, identification of suitable outcrops for mapping shear sense kinematic indicators. categorical or cluster analysis on lineations depending on their origin, topology of mineral assemblages and spatial distribution of their c-axis, distinguishing paleo-elevations using cluster analysis in geomorphological structures using LiDAR intensity and elevation data for determination of meander evolution patterns and prediction of vulnerable sites for flooding or landsliding. Other applications in atmospheric and hydrology science are the prediction of ground level ozone and the decomposition of water use time series. Those fundamental statistical and spatial concepts may be used in the field or in the lab. In the lab, modern computers and friendly interface user software allow students to process data using advanced statistical methods and GIS techniques. Modern applications in tablets or smart phones may complement field work. Teaching those methods can facilitate advanced mapping, optimize sample collection distribution, field decisions, and later lab data processing.

Marsellos, A.; Tsakiri, K.



On the potential vegetation feedbacks that enhance phosphorus availability - insights from a process-based model linking geological and ecological time scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In old and heavily weathered soils, the availability of P might be so small that the primary production of plants is limited. However, plants have evolved several mechanisms to actively take up P from the soil or mine it to overcome this limitation. These mechanisms involve the active uptake of P mediated by mycorrhiza, biotic de-occlusion through root clusters, and the biotic enhancement of weathering through root exudation. The objective of this paper is to investigate how and where these processes contribute to alleviate P limitation on primary productivity. To do so, we propose a process-based model accounting for the major processes of the carbon, water, and P cycle including chemical weathering at the global scale. We use simulation experiments to assess the relative importance of the different uptake mechanisms to alleviate P limitation on biomass production. Implementing P limitation on biomass synthesis allows the assessment of the efficiencies of biomass production across different ecosystems. We find that active P-uptake is an essential mechanism for sustaining P availability on long time scales, whereas biotic de-occlusion might serve as a buffer on time scales shorter than 10 000 yr. Although active P uptake is essential for reducing P losses by leaching, humid lowland soils reach P limitation after around 100 000 yr of soil evolution. Given the generalized modeling framework, our model results compare reasonably with observed or independently estimated patterns and ranges of P concentrations in soils and vegetation. Furthermore, our simulations suggest that P limitation might be an important driver of biomass production efficiency (the fraction of the gross primary productivity used for biomass growth), and that vegetation on older soils becomes P-limited leading to a smaller biomass production efficiency. With this study, we provide a theoretical basis for investigating the responses of terrestrial ecosystems to P availability linking geological and ecological time scales under different environmental settings.

Buendíia, C.; Arens, S.; Hickler, T.; Higgins, S. I.; Porada, P.; Kleidon, A.



On the potential vegetation feedbacks that enhance phosphorus availability - insights from a process-based model linking geological and ecological timescales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In old and heavily weathered soils, the availability of P might be so small that the primary production of plants is limited. However, plants have evolved several mechanisms to actively take up P from the soil or mine it to overcome this limitation. These mechanisms involve the active uptake of P mediated by mycorrhiza, biotic de-occlusion through root clusters, and the biotic enhancement of weathering through root exudation. The objective of this paper is to investigate how and where these processes contribute to alleviate P limitation on primary productivity. To do so, we propose a process-based model accounting for the major processes of the carbon, water, and P cycles including chemical weathering at the global scale. Implementing P limitation on biomass synthesis allows the assessment of the efficiencies of biomass production across different ecosystems. We use simulation experiments to assess the relative importance of the different uptake mechanisms to alleviate P limitation on biomass production. We find that active P uptake is an essential mechanism for sustaining P availability on long timescales, whereas biotic de-occlusion might serve as a buffer on timescales shorter than 10 000 yr. Although active P uptake is essential for reducing P losses by leaching, humid lowland soils reach P limitation after around 100 000 yr of soil evolution. Given the generalized modelling framework, our model results compare reasonably with observed or independently estimated patterns and ranges of P concentrations in soils and vegetation. Furthermore, our simulations suggest that P limitation might be an important driver of biomass production efficiency (the fraction of the gross primary productivity used for biomass growth), and that vegetation on old soils has a smaller biomass production rate when P becomes limiting. With this study, we provide a theoretical basis for investigating the responses of terrestrial ecosystems to P availability linking geological and ecological timescales under different environmental settings.

Buendía, C.; Arens, S.; Hickler, T.; Higgins, S. I.; Porada, P.; Kleidon, A.



Quality assurance plan for the collection and processing of sediment data by the U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey sediment data quality assurance plan identifies and explains required quality assurance and suggested quality control practices. The approach is to subdivide the process for obtaining sediment data into 3 parts: (1) field, (2) office, and (3) laboratory operations. The report also summarizes recommended goals for each subcategory. The quality assurance and quality control practices are described by stating the minimum acceptable activities that a district should conduct. For example, the plan describes field calibration of thermometers and standards used to calibrate a thermometer. The plan also proposes corrective actions if the quality control procedures identify a problem. The plan describes the formal reports prepared by a district that describe the completeness of sediment data and presents an evaluation of data obtained by the quality assurance program. Also described in the plan are the external (non-district) reviews that are needed to examine district sediment operations for conformity with district quality assurance plans and national quality assurance programs.

Knott, J.M.; Glysson, G.D.; Malo, B.A.; Schroeder, L.J.



MODFLOW-2000, the U.S. Geological Survey Modular Ground-Water Model--Documentation of the SEAWAT-2000 Version with the Variable-Density Flow Process (VDF) and the Integrated MT3DMS Transport Process (IMT)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

SEAWAT-2000 is the latest release of the SEAWAT computer program for simulation of three-dimensional, variable-density, transient ground-water flow in porous media. SEAWAT-2000 was designed by combining a modified version of MODFLOW-2000 and MT3DMS into a single computer program. The code was developed using the MODFLOW-2000 concept of a process, which is defined as ?part of the code that solves a fundamental equation by a specified numerical method.? SEAWAT-2000 contains all of the processes distributed with MODFLOW-2000 and also includes the Variable-Density Flow Process (as an alternative to the constant-density Ground-Water Flow Process) and the Integrated MT3DMS Transport Process. Processes may be active or inactive, depending on simulation objectives; however, not all processes are compatible. For example, the Sensitivity and Parameter Estimation Processes are not compatible with the Variable-Density Flow and Integrated MT3DMS Transport Processes. The SEAWAT-2000 computer code was tested with the common variable-density benchmark problems and also with problems representing evaporation from a salt lake and rotation of immiscible fluids.

Langevin, Christian D.; Shoemaker, W. Barclay; Guo, Weixing



Maryland Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Maryland Geological Survey (MGS) homepage contains information from MGS programs on hydrogeology, hydrology, coastal and estuarine geology, environmental geology and mineral resources; an online guide to Maryland geology; and information on oyster habitat restoration projects. There are also maps, data, information on MGS publications, MGS news, and online educational resources.


Arsenic in New Jersey Coastal Plain streams, sediments, and shallow groundwater: effects from different geologic sources and anthropogenic inputs on biogeochemical and physical mobilization processes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Arsenic (As) concentrations in New Jersey Coastal Plain streams generally exceed the State Surface Water Quality Standard (0.017 micrograms per liter (µg/L)), but concentrations seldom exceed 1 µg/L in filtered stream-water samples, regardless of geologic contributions or anthropogenic inputs. Nevertheless, As concentrations in unfiltered stream water indicate substantial variation because of particle inputs from soils and sediments with differing As contents, and because of discharges from groundwater of widely varying chemistry. In the Inner Coastal Plain, streams draining to lower reaches of the Delaware River traverse As-rich glauconitic sediments of marine origin in which As contents typically are about 20 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) or greater. In some of these sedimentary units, As concentrations exceed the New Jersey drinking-water maximum contaminant level (5 µg/L) in shallow groundwater that discharges to streams. Microbes, fueled by organic carbon beneath the streambed, reduce iron (Fe) and As, releasing As and Fe into solution in the shallow groundwater from geologic materials that likely include (in addition to glauconite) other phyllosilicates, apatite, and siderite. When the groundwater discharges to the stream, the dissolved Fe and As are oxidized, the Fe precipitates as a hydroxide, and the As sorbs or co-precipitates with the Fe. Because of the oxidation/precipitation process, dissolved As concentrations measured in filtered stream waters of the Inner Coastal Plain are about 1 µg/L, but the total As concentrations (and loads) are greater, substantially amplified by As-bearing suspended sediment in stormflows. In the Outer Coastal Plain, streams draining to the Atlantic Ocean traverse quartz-rich sediments of mainly deltaic origin where the As content generally is low ( With a history of agriculture in the New Jersey Coastal Plain, anthropogenic inputs of As, such as residues from former pesticide applications in soils, can amplify any geogenic As in runoff. Such inputs contribute to an increased total As load to a stream at high stages of flow. As a result of yet another anthropogenic influence, microbes that reduce and mobilize As beneath the streambeds are stimulated by inputs of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Although DOC is naturally occurring, anthropogenic contributions from wastewater inputs may deliver increased levels of DOC to subsurface soils and ultimately groundwater. Arsenic concentrations may increase with the increases in pH of groundwater and stream water in developed areas receiving wastewater inputs, as As mobilization caused by pH-controlled sorption and desorption reactions are likely to occur in waters of neutral or alkaline pH (for example, Nimick and others, 1998; Barringer and others, 2007b). Because of the difference in As content of the geologic materials in the two sub-provinces of the Coastal Plain, the amount of As that is mobile in groundwater and stream water is, potentially, substantially greater in the Inner Coastal Plain than in the Outer Coastal Plain. In turn, streams within the Inner and Outer Coastal Plain can receive substantially more As in groundwater discharge from developed areas than from environments where DOC appears to be of natural origin.

Barringer, Julia L.; Reilly, Pamela A.; Eberl, Dennis D.; Mumford, Adam C.; Benzel, William M.; Szabo, Zoltan; Shourds, Jennifer L.; Young, Lily Y.



Assessing Fundamental Science  

NSF Publications Database

Assessing ASSESSING FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE A Report from the Subcommittee on Research Committee on ... in the Context of GPRA Section III: Performance Measures Section IV: Concluding Points References ...


Tennessee Division of Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the Geology Division of the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation. It provides information on the division's programs, including geologic hazards research, public service, education programs, basic and applied research on geology and mineral resources, publication of geologic information, permitting of oil and gas wells, and regulation of Tennessee's oil and gas industry. Materials include a catalog of publications, maps, geologic bulletins, and the Public Information series of pamphlets; the Geology Division Newsletter; and information on the state's mineral industry. There is also a section on the Gray Fossil Site, an unusual assemblage of fossils and sedimentary geology encountered during road construction near the town of Gray, Tenessee.


Structural and stratigraphic evolution of the central Mississippi Canyon Area: interaction of salt tectonics and slope processes in the formation of engineering and geologic hazards  

E-print Network

Approximately 720 square miles of digital 3-dimensional seismic data covering the eastern Mississippi Canyon area, Gulf of Mexico, continental shelf was used to examine the structural and stratigraphic evolution of the geology in the study area...

Brand, John Richard



Public Acceptance for Geological CO2Storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public acceptance is one of the fundamental prerequisites for geological CO2 storage. In highly populated areas like central Europe, especially in the vicinity of metropolitan areas like Berlin, underground operations are in the focus of the people living next to the site, the media, and politics. To gain acceptance, all these groups - the people in the neighbourhood, journalists, and

F. Schilling; F. Ossing; H. Würdemann



Fractals in geology and geophysics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The definition of a fractal distribution is that the number of objects N with a characteristic size greater than r scales with the relation N of about r exp -D. The frequency-size distributions for islands, earthquakes, fragments, ore deposits, and oil fields often satisfy this relation. This application illustrates a fundamental aspect of fractal distributions, scale invariance. The requirement of an object to define a scale in photograhs of many geological features is one indication of the wide applicability of scale invariance to geological problems; scale invariance can lead to fractal clustering. Geophysical spectra can also be related to fractals; these are self-affine fractals rather than self-similar fractals. Examples include the earth's topography and geoid.

Turcotte, Donald L.



Fundamentals of Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

No other book on the market today can match the success of Halliday, Resnick and Walker's Fundamentals of Physics! In a breezy, easy-to-understand style the book offers a solid understanding of fundamental physics concepts, and helps readers apply this conceptual understanding to quantitative problem solving.

Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; Walker, Jearl



Geologic Mapping of Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planetary geologic mapping involves integrating a terrestrial-based understanding of surface and subsurface processes and mapping principles to investigate scientific questions. Mars mappers must keep in mind that physical processes, such as wind and flowing water on Mars, are or were different from terrestrial processes because the planetary atmospheres have changed differently over time. Geologic mapping of Mars has traditionally been done by hand using overlays on photomosaics of Viking Orbiter and Mariner images. Photoclinometry and shadow measurements have been used to determine elevations, and the distribution and size of craters have been used to determine the relative ages of surfaces- more densely cratered surfaces are older. Some mappers are now using computer software (ranging from Photoshop to ArcInfo) to facilitate mapping, though their applications must be carefully executed so that registration of the images remains true. Images and some mapping results are now available on the internet, and new data from recent missions to Mars (Pathfinder and Surveyor) will offer clarifying information to mapping efforts. This paper consists chiefly of pictures and diagrams.

Price, Katherine H.



Fundamentals of preparative and nonlinear chromatography  

SciTech Connect

The second edition of Fundamentals of Preparative and Nonlinear Chromatography is devoted to the fundamentals of a new process of purification or extraction of chemicals or proteins widely used in the pharmaceutical industry and in preparative chromatography. This process permits the preparation of extremely pure compounds satisfying the requests of the US Food and Drug Administration. The book describes the fundamentals of thermodynamics, mass transfer kinetics, and flow through porous media that are relevant to chromatography. It presents the models used in chromatography and their solutions, discusses the applications made, describes the different processes used, their numerous applications, and the methods of optimization of the experimental conditions of this process.

Guiochon, Georges A [ORNL; Felinger, Attila [ORNL; Katti, Anita [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Shirazi, Dean G [unknown



Geologic mapping of Vesta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a preliminary global geologic map of Vesta, based on data from the Dawn spacecraft's High-Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO) and informed by Low-Altitude Mapping Orbit (LAMO) data. This map is part of an iterative mapping effort; the geologic map has been refined with each improvement in resolution. Vesta has a heavily-cratered surface, with large craters evident in numerous locations. The south pole is dominated by an impact structure identified before Dawn's arrival. Two large impact structures have been resolved: the younger, larger Rheasilvia structure, and the older, more degraded Veneneia structure. The surface is also characterized by a system of deep, globe-girdling equatorial troughs and ridges, as well as an older system of troughs and ridges to the north. Troughs and ridges are also evident cutting across, and spiraling arcuately from, the Rheasilvia central mound. However, no volcanic features have been unequivocally identified. Vesta can be divided very broadly into three terrains: heavily-cratered terrain; ridge-and-trough terrain (equatorial and northern); and terrain associated with the Rheasilvia crater. Localized features include bright and dark material and ejecta (some defined specifically by color); lobate deposits; and mass-wasting materials. No obvious volcanic features are evident. Stratigraphy of Vesta's geologic units suggests a history in which formation of a primary crust was followed by the formation of impact craters, including Veneneia and the associated Saturnalia Fossae unit. Formation of Rheasilvia followed, along with associated structural deformation that shaped the Divalia Fossae ridge-and-trough unit at the equator. Subsequent impacts and mass wasting events subdued impact craters, rims and portions of ridge-and-trough sets, and formed slumps and landslides, especially within crater floors and along crater rims and scarps. Subsequent to the formation of Rheasilvia, discontinuous low-albedo deposits formed or were emplaced; these lie stratigraphically above the equatorial ridges that likely were formed by Rheasilvia. The last features to be formed were craters with bright rays and other surface mantling deposits. Executed progressively throughout data acquisition, the iterative mapping process provided the team with geologic proto-units in a timely manner. However, interpretation of the resulting map was hampered by the necessity to provide the team with a standard nomenclature and symbology early in the process. With regard to mapping and interpreting units, the mapping process was hindered by the lack of calibrated mineralogic information. Topography and shadow played an important role in discriminating features and terrains, especially in the early stages of data acquisition.

Yingst, R. A.; Mest, S. C.; Berman, D. C.; Garry, W. B.; Williams, D. A.; Buczkowski, D.; Jaumann, R.; Pieters, C. M.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Frigeri, A.; Le Corre, L.; Preusker, F.; Raymond, C. A.; Reddy, V.; Russell, C. T.; Roatsch, T.; Schenk, P. M.



Introduction Systems Engineering Fundamentals ENGINEERING  

E-print Network

Introduction Systems Engineering Fundamentals i SYSTEMS ENGINEERING FUNDAMENTALS January 2001;Systems Engineering Fundamentals Introduction ii #12;Introduction Systems Engineering Fundamentals iii ............................................................................................................................................. iv PART 1. INTRODUCTION Chapter 1. Introduction to Systems Engineering Management

Rhoads, James


Efficient Geological Modelling of Large AEM Surveys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Combining geological expert knowledge with geophysical observations into a final 3D geological model is, in most cases, not a straight forward process. It typically involves many types of data and requires both an understanding of the data and the geological target. When dealing with very large areas, such as modelling of large AEM surveys, the manual task for the geologist to correctly evaluate and properly utilise all the data available in the survey area, becomes overwhelming. In the ERGO project (Efficient High-Resolution Geological Modelling) we address these issues and propose a new modelling methodology enabling fast and consistent modelling of very large areas. The vision of the project is to build a user friendly expert system that enables the combination of very large amounts of geological and geophysical data with geological expert knowledge. This is done in an "auto-pilot" type functionality, named Smart Interpretation, designed to aid the geologist in the interpretation process. The core of the expert system is a statistical model that describes the relation between data and geological interpretation made by a geological expert. This facilitates fast and consistent modelling of very large areas. It will enable the construction of models with high resolution as the system will "learn" the geology of an area directly from interpretations made by a geological expert, and instantly apply it to all hard data in the survey area, ensuring the utilisation of all the data available in the geological model. Another feature is that the statistical model the system creates for one area can be used in another area with similar data and geology. This feature can be useful as an aid to an untrained geologist to build a geological model, guided by the experienced geologist way of interpretation, as quantified by the expert system in the core statistical model. In this project presentation we provide some examples of the problems we are aiming to address in the project, and show some preliminary results.

Bach, Torben; Martlev Pallesen, Tom; Jørgensen, Flemming; Lundh Gulbrandsen, Mats; Mejer Hansen, Thomas



Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; processing, taxonomy, and quality control of benthic macroinvertebrate samples  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Qualitative and quantitative methods to process benthic macroinvertebrate (BMI) samples have been developed and tested by the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water Quality Laboratory Biological Group. The qualitative processing method is based on visually sorting a sample for up to 2 hours. Sorting focuses on attaining organisms that are likely to result in taxonomic identifications to lower taxonomic levels (for example, Genus or Species). Immature and damaged organisms are also sorted when they are likely to result in unique determinations. The sorted sample remnant is scanned briefly by a second person to determine if obvious taxa were missed. The quantitative processing method is based on a fixed-count approach that targets some minimum count, such as 100 or 300 organisms. Organisms are sorted from randomly selected 5.1- by 5.1-centimeter parts of a gridded subsampling frame. The sorted remnant from each sample is resorted by a second individual for at least 10 percent of the original sort time. A large-rare organism search is performed on the unsorted remnant to sort BMI taxa that were not likely represented in the sorted grids. After either qualitatively or quantitatively sorting the sample, BMIs are identified by using one of three different types of taxonomic assessment. The Standard Taxonomic Assessment is comparable to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Rapid Bioassessment Protocol III and typically provides Genus- or Species-level taxonomic resolution. The Rapid Taxonomic Assessment is comparable to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Rapid Bioassessment Protocol II and provides Familylevel and higher taxonomic resolution. The Custom Taxonomic Assessment provides Species-level resolution whenever possible for groups identified to higher taxonomic levels by using the Standard Taxonomic Assessment. The consistent use of standardized designations and notes facilitates the interpretation of BMI data within and among water-quality studies. Taxonomic identifications are quality assured by verifying all referenced taxa and randomly reviewing 10 percent of the taxonomic identifications performed weekly by Biological Group taxonomists. Taxonomic errors discovered during this review are corrected. BMI data are reviewed for accuracy and completeness prior to release. BMI data are released phylogenetically in spreadsheet format and unprocessed abundances are corrected for laboratory and field subsampling when necessary.

Moulton, Stephen R., II; Carter, James L.; Grotheer, Scott A.; Cuffney, Thomas F.; Short, Terry M.



Glossary of Geologic Terms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page from Iowa State University presents a general glossary of geologic terms. The site would be a good reference for geology coursework. This glossary of geologic terms is based on the glossary in Earth: An Introduction to Geologic Change, by S. Judson and S.M. Richardson (Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice Hall, 1995). Where possible, definitions conform generally, and in some cases specifically, to definitions given in Robert L Bates and Julia A Jackson (editors), Glossary of Geology, 3rd ed., American Geological Institute, Alexandria, Virginia, 1987.



Venus geology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Magellan mission to Venus is reviewed. The scientific investigations conducted by 243-day cycles encompass mapping with a constant incidence angle for the radar, observing surface changes from one cycle to the next, and targeting young-looking volcanos. The topography of Venus is defined by the upper boundary of the crust and upwelling from lower domains. Tectonic features such as rift zones, linear mountain belts, ridge belts, and tesserae are described. The zones of tesserae are unique to the planet. Volcanism accounts for about 80 percent of the observed surface, the remainder being volcanic deposits which have been reworked by tectonism or impacts. Magellan data reveal about 900 impact craters with flow-like ejecta resulting from the fall of meteoroids. It is concluded that the age of the Venusian surface varies between 0 and 800 million years. Tectonic and volcanic activities dominate the formation of the Venus topography; such processes as weathering and erosion are relatively unimportant on Venus.

Mclaughlin, W. I.



Experimental Investigation on Cold-Roll-Forming Process Effects of Forming Factors and Process Variables on Product Shape, Forming Loads and Torques in Forming Process for Fundamental Cross-Sectional Profiles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of various forming factors and process variables on the forming of sheet metal products are discussed. The forming factors are identified and their contribution to the mechanical properties of the metal sheet are defined. The subjects discusse...

H. Suzuki, M. Kiuchi, S. Nakajima



Horse Evolution Geology 331Geology 331  

E-print Network

Horse Evolution Geology 331Geology 331 Paleontology #12;Horses #12;Equus caballus #12;#12;Equus;EquusMerychippusMiohippusHyracotherium Hind feet left, front feet right. #12;Hyracotherium or Eohippus;MerychippusMerychippus from the MioceneMiocene, a plains grazer #12;The modern horseThe modern horse Equus

Kammer, Thomas


Geology Major  

E-print Network

, including the quality of air, water, and soil. Geology majors have hiked the Appalachian Trail, gone of GEOL at the 1000 level or above. Chemistry requirements CHEM 0110 General Chemistry 1 CHEM 0120 General

Jiang, Huiqiang


Fundamental strings in SFT  

E-print Network

In this letter we show that vacuum string field theory contains exact solutions that can be interpreted as macroscopic fundamental strings. They are formed by a condensate of infinitely many completely space-localized solutions (D0-branes).

Bonora, L; Santos, R J S; Tolla, D D



Fundamental strings in SFT  

E-print Network

In this letter we show that vacuum string field theory contains exact solutions that can be interpreted as macroscopic fundamental strings. They are formed by a condensate of infinitely many completely space-localized solutions (D0-branes).

L. Bonora; C. Maccaferri; R. J. Scherer Santos; D. D. Tolla



Fundamental strings in SFT  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this Letter we show that vacuum string field theory contains exact solutions that we propose to interpret as macroscopic fundamental strings. They are formed by a condensate of infinitely many completely space-localized solutions (D0-branes).

L. Bonora; C. Maccaferri; R. J. Scherer Santos; D. D. Tolla



Fundamentals of NMR  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This e-text presents an introduction to the fundamentals of NMR covering magnetic resonance, pulsed NMR, relaxation, chemical shift, spin-spin coupling, the nuclear Overhauser effect and chemical exchange. The document may be downloaded in PDF format.

James, Thomas L.



Fundamentals of Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides information about the textbook "Fundamentals of Physics" by Halliday, Resnick, and Walker. It contains links to both student and teacher resources that are intended to be used along with the book and information about adopting the text.

Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; Walker, Jearl



Fundamental Laws of Algebra  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning object from Wisc-Online covers the fundamental laws of algebra. The interactive activity includes slides which cover the following topics: the commutative, associative and distributive laws as applied to addition and multiplication.

Blohowiak, Chad; Jensen, Douglas; Reed, Allen



Fundamentals of Electricity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Tutorial Guide is designed to familiarize you with the Fundamentals of Electricity and its elements. As you go through the guide, you will be presented with a series of topics. To help your retention, you will then be given a Quiz on the information. You will NOT be graded. This is designed only to help you retain information on the fundamentals of electricity systems.



GSA Geologic Time Scale  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Geological Society of America (GSA) site contains a detailed geologic time scale as an educational resource. It may be downloaded to a larger size, and includes all Eras, Eons, Periods, Epochs and ages as well as magnetic polarity information.



Geophysics & Geology Inspected.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes findings of a recently published report of the Canadian Geoscience Council, which includes the following topics regarding college geology: facilities; teaching; undergraduate enrollments; postgraduate enrollments; geologic research; and integration of Canadian geoscience with other countries. (CS)

Neale, E. R. W.



Geology in the Junior School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggested is that geology can contribute significantly to the general education of our students from the point of view of relevance and increasing understanding of the planet we inhabit which should be learned as a series of interacting processes involving a time dimension. Several curriculum projects are outlined. (Author/DS)

McIntyre, Norm



Weird Geology: The Devil's Tower  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page features a brief introduction to the several theories about the geological processes that formed Devil's Tower, which rises 1,267 feet above the nearby Belle Fourche River and is still considered a sacred place by some Native American Tribes. Information on climbing the tower as well as images and a cross section are provided.

Krystek, Lee; Mystery, The M.


Geology on a Sand Budget  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earth science teaches know how frustrating it can be to spend hundreds of dollars on three-dimensional (3-D) models of Earth's geologic features, only to use the models for a few class periods. To avoid emptying an already limited science budget, teachers can use a simple alternative to the expensive 3-D models--sand. Modeling geologic processes and features with sand is an effective way for teachers to promote student understanding of Earth science topics, quickly assess students' prior knowledge, and identify common misconceptions.

Kane, Jacqueline




E-print Network

/Enhanced Thematic Mapper) Imagery Collection Examples of sensors used in CPRM geologic projects Geological Survey for ground water in crystalline terrain 3(VIS)4(NIR)5(SWIR) Moji and Pardo Rivers Basin ­ São Paulo State 3 and Reflection Radiometer) Imagery Collection in CPRM Examples of sensors used in the CPRM geologic projects #12


Glossary of Geology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Glossary has expanded coverage particularly in such active fields as carbonate sedimentology, environmental geology and geophysics, GIS, GPS, hydrology and hydraulics, marine and coastal geology, organic geochemistry, paleoecology, seismology, stratigraphic nomenclature, speleology and karst, and structural geology and tectonics. Many definitions provide a syllabification guide and background information. Thus a reader will learn the difference between look-alike pairs, such

Julia A. Jackson



Co2 geological sequestration  

SciTech Connect

Human activities are increasingly altering the Earth's climate. A particular concern is that atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) may be rising fast because of increased industrialization. CO{sub 2} is a so-called ''greenhouse gas'' that traps infrared radiation and may contribute to global warming. Scientists project that greenhouse gases such as CO{sub 2} will make the arctic warmer, which would melt glaciers and raise sea levels. Evidence suggests that climate change may already have begun to affect ecosystems and wildlife around the world. Some animal species are moving from one habitat to another to adapt to warmer temperatures. Future warming is likely to exceed the ability of many species to migrate or adjust. Human production of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuels (such as at coal-fired power plants) is not likely to slow down soon. It is urgent to find somewhere besides the atmosphere to put these increased levels of CO{sub 2}. Sequestration in the ocean and in soils and forests are possibilities, but another option, sequestration in geological formations, may also be an important solution. Such formations could include depleted oil and gas reservoirs, unmineable coal seams, and deep saline aquifers. In many cases, injection of CO2 into a geological formation can enhance the recovery of hydrocarbons, providing value-added byproducts that can offset the cost of CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration. Before CO{sub 2} gas can be sequestered from power plants and other point sources, it must be captured. CO{sub 2} is also routinely separated and captured as a by-product from industrial processes such as synthetic ammonia production, H{sub 2} production, and limestone calcination. Then CO{sub 2} must be compressed into liquid form and transported to the geological sequestration site. Many power plants and other large emitters of CO{sub 2} are located near geological formations that are amenable to CO{sub 2} sequestration.

Xu, Tianfu



Development of engineering geologic performance standards for land-use regulation in Sabine Pass, Texas  

E-print Network

and plants, subsurface geology, geologic history, hydrogeology, and geologic processes affect- ing the area. Geomorphology At the regional scale the chenier-marsh system occurring in Sabine Pass, Texas is part of the larger deltaic-interdeltaic system... and plants, subsurface geology, geologic history, hydrogeology, and geologic processes affect- ing the area. Geomorphology At the regional scale the chenier-marsh system occurring in Sabine Pass, Texas is part of the larger deltaic-interdeltaic system...

Vaught, Richmond Murphy



Vesta: A Geological Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Dawn spacecraft has collected over 28,000 images and a wealth of spectral data providing nearly complete coverage of Vesta’s surface with multiple views. These data enable analysis of Vesta’s diverse geology including impact craters of all sizes and unusual shapes, a variety of ejecta blankets, large troughs extending around the equatorial region, impact basins, enigmatic dark material, and considerable evidence for mass wasting and surface alteration features (1). Two large impact basins, Veneneia (400km) underlying the larger Rheasilvia basin (500km) dominate the south pole (1,2). Rheasilvia exhibits a huge central peak, with total relief of -22km to 19km, and steep scarps with mass wasting features. Vesta’s global tectonic patterns (two distinct sets of large troughs almost parallel to the equator) strongly correlate with the locations of the two south polar impact basins, and were likely created by their formation (1,3). Numerous unusual asymmetric impact craters and ejecta indicate the strong role of topographic slope in cratering processes on Vesta (1). Such very steep topographic slopes are near to the angle of repose; slope failures make resurfacing due to impacts and their associated gravitational slumping and seismic effects an important geologic process on Vesta (1). Outcrops in crater walls indicate reworked crustal material and impact melt in combination with clusters of pits that show thermal surface processes (4). Relatively dark material of still unknown origin is intermixed in the regolith layers and partially excavated by younger impacts yielding dark outcrops, rays and ejecta (1,5). Finally, Vesta’s surface is younger than expected (6). (1) Jaumann, et al., 2012, Science 336, 687-690; (2) Schenk et al., 2012, Science 336, 964-967; (3) Buczkowski, et al., 2012, GRL, submitted; (4) Denevi, et al., 2012, Science, submitted; (5) McCord, et al., 2012, Nature, submitted; (6) Marchi, et al., 2012, Science 336, 690-694.

Ralf, Jaumann; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.; Pieters, C. M.; Yingst, R. A.; Williams, D. A.; Buczkowski, D. L.; Schenk, P.; Denevi, B.; Krohn, K.; Stephan, K.; Roatsch, T.; Preusker, F.; Otto, K.; Mest, S. C.; Ammannito, E.; Blewett, D.; Carsenty, U.; DeSanctis, C. M.; Garry, W.; Hiesinger, H.; Keller, H. U.; Kersten, E.; Marchi, S.; Matz, K. D.; McCord, T. B.; McSween, H. Y.; Mottola, S.; Nathues, A.; Neukum, G.; O'Brien, D. P.; Schmedemann, N.; Scully, J. E. C.; Sykes, M. V.; Zuber, M. T.



Utah Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the Utah Geological Survey. Materials available here include news articles and information on geologic hazards; information on places of geological interest; and popular geology topics such as earthquakes, rocks and minerals, fossils, economic resources, groundwater resources, and others. Educational resources include teaching kits, the 'Teacher's Corner' column in the survey's newsletter, and a series of 'Glad You Asked' articles on state geological topics. There is also an extensive list of free K-12 educational materials, as well as a set of curriculum materials such as activity packets, slide shows, and teachers' handbooks, which are available to order.


Monte Carlo fundamentals  

SciTech Connect

This report is composed of the lecture notes from the first half of a 32-hour graduate-level course on Monte Carlo methods offered at KAPL. These notes, prepared by two of the principle developers of KAPL`s RACER Monte Carlo code, cover the fundamental theory, concepts, and practices for Monte Carlo analysis. In particular, a thorough grounding in the basic fundamentals of Monte Carlo methods is presented, including random number generation, random sampling, the Monte Carlo approach to solving transport problems, computational geometry, collision physics, tallies, and eigenvalue calculations. Furthermore, modern computational algorithms for vector and parallel approaches to Monte Carlo calculations are covered in detail, including fundamental parallel and vector concepts, the event-based algorithm, master/slave schemes, parallel scaling laws, and portability issues.

Brown, F.B.; Sutton, T.M.



Kansas Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mission of the Kansas Geological Survey, operated by the University of Kansas in connection with its research and service program, is to conduct geological studies and research and to collect, correlate, preserve, and disseminate information leading to a better understanding of the geology of Kansas, with special emphasis on natural resources of economic value, water quality and quantity, and geologic hazards. The website includes information about the High Plains and Ogallala aquifers, the Upper Arkansas corridor, the Dakota aquifer, county and state geologic maps, an online bibliography of Kansas geology, publications, a photo archive, a digital petroleum atlas, a petroleum primer for the state, gravity and magnetic maps, Hugoton project information, and details about the Hutchinson Kansas natural gas fires. The educational resources section contains a mineral information page for the state, and GeoKansas, which provides information on state geology for schools.


Phylogeographic patterns of genetic diversity in eastern Mediterranean water frogs have been determined by geological processes and climate change in the Late Cenozoic.  


AIM: Our aims were to assess the phylogeographic patterns of genetic diversity in eastern Mediterranean water frogs and to estimate divergence times using different geological scenarios. We related divergence times to past geological events and discuss the relevance of our data for the systematics of eastern Mediterranean water frogs. LOCATION: The eastern Mediterranean region. METHODS: Genetic diversity and divergence were calculated using sequences of two protein-coding mitochondrial (mt) genes: ND2 (1038 bp, 119 sequences) and ND3 (340 bp, 612 sequences). Divergence times were estimated in a Bayesian framework under four geological scenarios representing alternative possible geological histories for the eastern Mediterranean. We then compared the different scenarios using Bayes factors and additional geological data. RESULTS: Extensive genetic diversity in mtDNA divides eastern Mediterranean water frogs into six main haplogroups (MHG). Three MHGs were identified on the Anatolian mainland; the most widespread MHG with the highest diversity is distributed from western Anatolia to the northern shore of the Caspian Sea, including the type locality of Pelophylax ridibundus. The other two Anatolian MHGs are restricted to south-eastern Turkey, occupying localities west and east of the Amanos mountain range. One of the remaining three MHGs is restricted to Cyprus; a second to the Levant; the third was found in the distribution area of European lake frogs (P. ridibundus group), including the Balkans. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: Based on geological evidence and estimates of genetic divergence we hypothesize that the water frogs of Cyprus have been isolated from the Anatolian mainland populations since the end of the Messinian salinity crisis (MSC), i.e. since c. 5.5-5.3 Ma, while our divergence time estimates indicate that the isolation of Crete from the mainland populations (Peloponnese, Anatolia) most likely pre-dates the MSC. The observed rates of divergence imply a time window of c. 1.6-1.1 million years for diversification of the largest Anatolian MHG; divergence between the two other Anatolian MHGs may have begun about 3.0 Ma, apparently as a result of uplift of the Amanos Mountains. Our mtDNA data suggest that the Anatolian water frogs and frogs from Cyprus represent several undescribed species. PMID:22473251

Ak?n, Ci?dem; Bilgin, C Can; Beerli, Peter; Westaway, Rob; Ohst, Torsten; Litvinchuk, Spartak N; Uzzell, Thomas; Bilgin, Metin; Hotz, Hansjürg; Guex, Gaston-Denis; Plötner, Jörg



Analog computer fundamentals & application  

E-print Network

TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY LIBRARY ANALOG COMPUTER FUNDAMENTALS Rc APPLICATION A Technical RePort by R. N. PATE L submitted to PROD J. H. CADDESS In n art i a 1 fulf i lment of the requi. rements for the degree of MASTER OF ENGINEERING TEXAS A... 8c M UNIVERSITY MAY 1969 AB STRA C T The fundamental aspects of the Analog computer are described in the former part of the report, Then different uses of the variaus aspects of the Analog Computer are described. This information was gathered...

Patel, R.N



Fundamentals of fluid sealing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fundamentals of fluid sealing, including seal operating regimes, are discussed and the general fluid-flow equations for fluid sealing are developed. Seal performance parameters such as leakage and power loss are presented. Included in the discussion are the effects of geometry, surface deformations, rotation, and both laminar and turbulent flows. The concept of pressure balancing is presented, as are differences between liquid and gas sealing. Mechanisms of seal surface separation, fundamental friction and wear concepts applicable to seals, seal materials, and pressure-velocity (PV) criteria are discussed.

Zuk, J.



Fundamentals of fluid lubrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aim is to coordinate the topics of design, engineering dynamics, and fluid dynamics in order to aid researchers in the area of fluid film lubrication. The lubrication principles that are covered can serve as a basis for the engineering design of machine elements. The fundamentals of fluid film lubrication are presented clearly so that students that use the book will have confidence in their ability to apply these principles to a wide range of lubrication situations. Some guidance on applying these fundamentals to the solution of engineering problems is also provided.

Hamrock, Bernard J.



TENTATIVE PY 896 COURSE OUTLINE: FUNDAMENTAL KINETIC PROCESSES While equilibrium statistical physics is well-developed, the statistical description of non-  

E-print Network

-passage processes; connection with electrostatics 2. BASIC TOOLS A Langevin Equation B Fokker-Planck Equation C and collision-driven phenom- ena. For the former, I plan to present the master equation to determine the degree Master Equation 3. AGGREGATION A Theory of the Reaction Rate B Exact Solutions: reaction rates Kij = 1

Redner, Sidney


[Fundamental study of the energy subtraction process using a monochromatic image for computed tomography angiography after coil embolization of a cerebral aneurysm].  


Coil-embolized cerebral aneurysms are difficult to evaluate using computed tomography (CT) angiography (CTA) due to artifacts caused by the coil devices. This study was conducted to assess the practicality of energy subtraction processing using monochromatic images obtained using CTA after coil embolization of a cerebral aneurysm. In this study, the changes in the CT value of the contrast agent and the coil were analyzed not only at varying monochromatic energy levels but also by energy subtraction processing. Our analyses revealed an exponential change in the CT value of the contrast agent at any desired energy. We also found that the CT value of the coil was unchanged at the upper threshold of the grayscale limit. Based on these results, we were able to create images of changes in material-specific CT values and thus eliminate the material. Energy subtraction processing enabled us to distinguish between the contrast agent, the coil, and the artifacts from coil devices. We suggest that energy subtraction processing using monochromatic images can resolve the limitations of CTA after coil embolization of cerebral aneurysms. PMID:24256645

Sasamori, Daisuke; Nonaka, Tadashi; Takahashi, Akira; Kayano, Shingo; Yamashita, Tomofumi; Irii, Ryousuke; Tanikoshi, Tetsuya; Akagawa, Makoto



Streamflow and water-quality conditions including geologic sources and processes affecting selenium loading in the Toll Gate Creek watershed, Aurora, Arapahoe County, Colorado, 2007  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Toll Gate Creek is a perennial stream draining a suburban area in Aurora, Colorado, where selenium concentrations have consistently exceeded the State of Colorado aquatic-life standard for selenium of 4.6 micrograms per liter since the early 2000s. In cooperation with the City of Aurora, Colorado, Utilities Department, a synoptic water-quality study was performed along an 18-kilometer reach of Toll Gate Creek extending from downstream from Quincy Reservoir to the confluence with Sand Creek to develop a detailed understanding of streamflow and concentrations and loads of selenium in Toll Gate Creek. Streamflow and surface-water quality were characterized for summer low-flow conditions (July–August 2007) using four spatially overlapping synoptic-sampling subreaches. Mass-balance methods were applied to the synoptic-sampling and tracer-injection results to estimate streamflow and develop spatial profiles of concentration and load for selenium and other chemical constituents in Toll Gate Creek surface water. Concurrent groundwater sampling determined concentrations of selenium and other chemical constituents in groundwater in areas surrounding the Toll Gate Creek study reaches. Multivariate principal-component analysis was used to group samples and to suggest common sources for dissolved selenium and major ions. Hydrogen and oxygen stable-isotope ratios, groundwater-age interpretations, and chemical analysis of water-soluble paste extractions from core samples are presented, and interpretation of the hydrologic and geochemical data support conclusions regarding geologic sources of selenium and the processes affecting selenium loading in the Toll Gate Creek watershed. Streamflow conditions observed and measured during the synoptic water-quality study represent summer base-flow conditions and rainfall conditions for July 2007. The lack of large tributary inflows and the spatial distribution of small tributary inflows, seeps, and springs indicate that diffuse and discrete groundwater inflow supports streamflow during low-flow conditions along the entire 18-kilometer stream reach. Concentrations of dissolved selenium within all subreaches of Toll Gate Creek exceeded the Colorado aquatic-life standard of 4.6 micrograms per liter in 2007. Concentrations of selenium in the upper portion of the Toll Gate Headwaters subreach (TGH) remained close to the aquatic-life standard at about 5 micrograms per liter. Downstream from a concrete-lined channel section, inflows with selenium concentrations greater than the stream contribute selenium load to surface water. However, stream selenium concentrations were less than 20 micrograms per liter all along Toll Gate Creek. Concentrations of selenium in groundwater were in general substantially greater than the Colorado aquatic-life standard of 4.6 micrograms per liter and at some locations were greater than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency primary drinking-water standard for selenium of 50 micrograms per liter. The distribution of selenium concentrations in groundwater, springs, and the 11 inflows with the greatest selenium concentrations indicates that shallow groundwater in surficial materials and the Denver Formation bedrock is a source of selenium loading to Toll Gate Creek and that selenium loading is distributed along the entire length of the study reach downstream from the concrete-lined channel. Water-quality and solids-sampling results from this study indicate weathering processes release water-soluble selenium from the underlying Denver Formation claystone bedrock with subsequent cycling of selenium in the aquatic environment of Toll Gate Creek. Exposure of the Denver Formation selenium-bearing bedrock to oxidizing atmospheric conditions, surface water, and groundwater, oxidizes selenide, held as a trace element in pyrite or in complexes with organic matter, to selenite and selenate. Secondary weathering products including iron oxides and selenium-bearing salts have accumulated in the weathered zone in the semiarid climate and also can serve as sources or sinks of selenium. P

Paschke, Suzanne S.; Runkel, Robert L.; Walton-Day, Katherine; Kimball, Briant A.; Schaffrath, Keelin R.



Evolution of U fractionation processes through geologic time : consequences for the variation of U deposit types from Early Earth to Present  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

U deposits are known at nearly all stages of the geological cycle, but are not known prior to 2.95 Ga. Also, U deposit types vary greatly from Mesoarchean to Present. Most of these changes through time can be attributed to major modifications in the geodynamic evolution of the Earth, in magmatic fractionation processes, in the composition of the Atmosphere and in the nature of life. The first U-rich granites able to crystallize uraninite, appeared at about 3.1 Ga. They correspond to the most fractionated terms of high-K calcalkaline suites, resulting from crystal fractionation of magmas possibly derived from melting of mantle wedges enriched in K, U, Th. Highly fractionated peraluminous leucogranites, able to crystallize uraninite, appeared at about 2.6 Ga. Erosion of these two granite types led to the detrital accumulation of uraninite that formed the first U deposits on Earth: the Quartz Pebble Conglomerates from 2.95 to 2.4 Ga. From 2.3 Ga onwards, uprise of oxygen level in the atmosphere led to the oxidation of U(IV) to U(VI), U transport in solution, and exuberant development of marine algae in epicontinental platform sediments. From 2.3 to 1.8 Ga large amounts of U, previously accumulated as U(IV) minerals, were dissolved and trapped preferentially in passive margin settings, in organic-rich sediments, and which led to the formation of the world’s largest Paleoproterozoic U provinces, e.g. : the Wollaston belt, Canada and the Cahill Formation, Australia. During and after the worldwide 2.1-1.75 Ga orogenic events, responsible for the formation of the Nuna supercontinent, U trapped in these formations was the source for several types of mineralization: (i) metamorphosed U-mineralized graphitic schists, calcsilicates and meta-arkoses, (ii) diagenetic-hydrothermal remobilization with the formation of the first deposits related to redox processes at 2.0 Ga (Oklo, Gabon), (iii) partial melting of U-rich metasediments forming the uraninite disseminations in pegmatoids (Charlebois, Canada), (iv) hydrothermal remobilization in veins (Beaverlodge, Canada) at about 1.75 Ga, and (v) U mineralization related to Na-metasomatism (Lagoa Real, Brazil ; Central Ukraine). After 1.75 Ga, a long period of tectonic quiescence occurred on the Earth, and large intracontinental basins, comprising at their base thick oxidized siliciclastic sequences were formed in many parts of the Nuna. In the Athabasca (Canada) and Kombolgie (Australia) basins, the siliciclastic sediments represented huge aquitards for sodic brines derived from overlying evaporites. The brines became calcic when infiltrated into the basement and leached U dominantly from Paleoproterozoic epicontinental sediments, their anatectic derivatives and high-K-U granites, to form the unconformity related U deposits. By the end of Silurian, with the apparition of land plants, deposits hosted by continental to marginal marine sandstone (roll front, tabular, tectono-lithologic, paleovalleys) became widespread. The largest volcanic related U-deposits are mostly known during the Mesozoic and calcrete are only known during late Caenozoic to Quaternary, but this may by due to the non preservation from erosion of such deposits formed at very shallow levels.

Cuney, M.



New Quasar Studies Keep Fundamental Physical Constant Constant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Very Large Telescope sets stringent limit on possible variation of the fine-structure constant over cosmological time Summary Detecting or constraining the possible time variations of fundamental physical constants is an important step toward a complete understanding of basic physics and hence the world in which we live. A step in which astrophysics proves most useful. Previous astronomical measurements of the fine structure constant - the dimensionless number that determines the strength of interactions between charged particles and electromagnetic fields - suggested that this particular constant is increasing very slightly with time. If confirmed, this would have very profound implications for our understanding of fundamental physics. New studies, conducted using the UVES spectrograph on Kueyen, one of the 8.2-m telescopes of ESO's Very Large Telescope array at Paranal (Chile), secured new data with unprecedented quality. These data, combined with a very careful analysis, have provided the strongest astronomical constraints to date on the possible variation of the fine structure constant. They show that, contrary to previous claims, no evidence exist for assuming a time variation of this fundamental constant. PR Photo 07/04: Relative Changes with Redshift of the Fine Structure Constant (VLT/UVES) A fine constant To explain the Universe and to represent it mathematically, scientists rely on so-called fundamental constants or fixed numbers. The fundamental laws of physics, as we presently understand them, depend on about 25 such constants. Well-known examples are the gravitational constant, which defines the strength of the force acting between two bodies, such as the Earth and the Moon, and the speed of light. One of these constants is the so-called "fine structure constant", alpha = 1/137.03599958, a combination of electrical charge of the electron, the Planck constant and the speed of light. The fine structure constant describes how electromagnetic forces hold atoms together and the way light interacts with atoms. But are these fundamental physical constants really constant? Are those numbers always the same, everywhere in the Universe and at all times? This is not as naive a question as it may seem. Contemporary theories of fundamental interactions, such as the Grand Unification Theory or super-string theories that treat gravity and quantum mechanics in a consistent way, not only predict a dependence of fundamental physical constants with energy - particle physics experiments have shown the fine structure constant to grow to a value of about 1/128 at high collision energies - but allow for their cosmological time and space variations. A time dependence of the fundamental constants could also easily arise if, besides the three space dimensions, there exist more hidden dimensions. Already in 1955, the Russian physicist Lev Landau considered the possibility of a time dependence of alpha. In the late 1960s, George Gamow in the United States suggested that the charge of the electron, and therefore also alpha, may vary. It is clear however that such changes, if any, cannot be large or they would already have been detected in comparatively simple experiments. Tracking these possible changes thus requires the most sophisticated and precise techniques. Looking back in time In fact, quite strong constraints are already known to exist for the possible variation of the fine structure constant alpha. One such constraint is of geological nature. It is based on measures taken in the ancient natural fission reactor located near Oklo (Gabon, West Africa) and which was active roughly 2,000 million years ago. By studying the distribution of a given set of elements - isotopes of the rare earths, for example of samarium - which were produced by the fission of uranium, one can estimate whether the physical process happened at a faster or slower pace than we would expect it nowadays. Thus we can measure a possible change of the value of the fundamental constant at play here, alpha. However, the observed distribution of the elemen



Carbon dioxide reaction processes in a model brine aquifer at 200 °C and 200 bars: implications for geologic sequestration of carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reactive behavior of supercritical CO2 under conditions relevant to geologic storage and sequestration of C is largely unknown. Experiments were conducted in a flexible cell hydrothermal apparatus to determine the extent of fluid–rock reactions, in addition to carbonate mineral precipitation, that may occur in a brine aquifer–aquitard system that simulates a saline aquifer storage scenario. The system was held

John P. Kaszuba; David R. Janecky; Marjorie G. Snow



The Geology of Vesta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Dawn spacecraft collected over 28,000 images and a wealth of spectral data of Vesta's surface. These data enable analysis of Vesta's diverse geology including impact craters of all sizes and unusual shapes, a variety of ejecta blankets, large troughs, impact basins, enigmatic dark material, and considerable evidence for mass wasting and surface alteration processes [1,2,3]. Two large impact basins, Veneneia underlying the larger Rheasilvia basin dominate the south polar region [1,4]. The depression surrounding Vesta's south pole was formed by two giant impacts about one billion and two billion years ago [4,5]. Vesta's global tectonic patterns (two distinct sets of large troughs orthogonal to the axes of the impacts) strongly correlate with the locations of the two south polar impact basins, and were likely created by their formation [1,6]. Numerous unusual asymmetric impact craters and ejecta indicate the strong influence of topographic slope in cratering on Vesta [1]. One type of gully in crater walls is interpreted to form by dry granular flow, but another type is consistent with transient water flow [7]. Very steep topographic slopes near to the angle of repose are common; slope failures make resurfacing due to impacts and their associated gravitational slumping and seismic effects an important geologic process on Vesta [1]. Clusters of pits in combination with impact melt [8] suggest the presence of volatile materials underlying that melt in some crater floors. Relatively dark material of uncertain origin is intermixed in the regolith layers and partially excavated by younger impacts yielding dark outcrops, rays and ejecta [1,9]. Vesta's surface is reworked by intense impacts and thus much younger than the formation of its crust [2,5].

Jaumann, R.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.; Pieters, C. M.; Yingst, R. A.; Williams, D. A.; Buczkowski, D. L.; Krohn, K.; Otto, K.; Stephan, K.; DeSanctis, M. C.; Garry, W. B.; Blewett, D.



Engineering-geological conditions of construction of the Shamkhor hydro development on the Kura River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions 1.The assessment of the engineering-geological conditions given during geological substantiation of the project on the whole proved to be reliable, and the slight refinements during documentation of the pits did not lead to a fundamental revision of the design decisions.2.The noted differences of the actual geological structure from the geological prediction are confined to the junctions of geomorphological elements

B. V. Malyutkin; L. A. Molokov



Reading Is Fundamental, 1977.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading Is Fundamental (RIF) is a national, nonprofit organization designed to motivate children to read by making a wide variety of inexpensive books available to them and allowing the children to choose and keep books that interest them. This annual report for 1977 contains the following information on the RIF project: an account of the…

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. National Reading is Fun-damental Program.


Fundamentals of Plasma Physics  

E-print Network

Fundamentals of Plasma Physics James D. Callen University of Wisconsin, Madison June 28, 2006 #12;PREFACE Plasma physics is a relatively new branch of physics that became a mature science over the last-dimensional (three real plus three velocity space coordinates) phase space. Increased understanding of plasma physics

Callen, James D.


Fundamentals of Library Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Being a great teacher is part and parcel of being a great librarian. In this book, veteran instruction services librarian McAdoo lays out the fundamentals of the discipline in easily accessible language. Succinctly covering the topic from top to bottom, he: (1) Offers an overview of the historical context of library instruction, drawing on recent…

McAdoo, Monty L.



Fundamental Physical Constants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, the Fundamental Physical Constants Website is an extensive resource for physics researchers, educators, and students. The Website offers values for physics constants, conversion factors for energy equivalents, a searchable bibliography of physics constants, and background information on constants.


Sales Fundamentals Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide is designed as a resource for marketing education teachers in planning and teaching a course on sales fundamentals for students in grades 10-12 who are interested in a sales career. Internships, simulations, and co-op experiences may be used to expand practical application of the course. The student course objectives are to…

North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.


DNA Topology: Fundamentals  

E-print Network

DNA Topology: Fundamentals Sergei M Mirkin, University of Illinois at Chicago, Illinois, USA Topological characteristics of DNA and specifically DNA supercoiling influence all major DNA transactions in living cells. DNA supercoiling induces the formation of unusual secondary structure by specific DNA

Mirkin, Sergei


Fundamentals of Diesel Engines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the fundamentals of diesel engine mechanics. Addressed in the three individual units of the course are the following topics: basic principles of diesel mechanics; principles, mechanics, and…

Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.


Fundamental Radiation Concepts  

E-print Network

Fundamental Radiation Concepts Alyson Cieply University of Florida Environmental Health and Safety Radiation Control #12;What is radiation? Radiation is energy that travels through space or matter in the form of a particle or wave The effect radiation has on matter depends on the type of radiation and how

Slatton, Clint


Food Service Fundamentals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on food service fundamentals is designed to provide a general background in the basic aspects of the food service program in the Marine Corps; it is adaptable for nonmilitary instruction. Introductory materials include specific information for MCI…

Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.


Testing fundamental evolutionary hypotheses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sober and Steel (J. Theor. Biol. 218, 395–408) give important limits on the use of current models with sequence data for studying ancient aspects of evolution; but they go too far in suggesting that several fundamental aspects of evolutionary theory cannot be tested in a normal scientific manner. To the contrary, we show examples of how some alternatives to the

David Penny; Michael D. Hendy; Anthony M. Poole



Fundamentals of quantitative research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main purpose of this article is to introduce some important fundamental concepts of quantitative research to readers especially novice researchers. It comprises types of research, definitions of quantitative research, different types and assumptions of quantitative research, when to use and not to use quantitative methods, advantages, common approaches and samples of quantitative research, and common misconceptions. Besides, a set

Suphat Sukamolson


Fundamental Physics Microgravity Sensitivity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An introduction followed by a brief discussion about the sensitivity to microgravity environment disturbances for some recent and planned experiments in microgravity fundamental physics will be presented. In particular, correlation between gravity disturbances and the quality of science data sets measured by the Confined Helium Experiment (CHEX) during ground testing and during the November 1997 USMP-4 flight will be described.

Israelsson, Ulf



Fundamentals of solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

This text is addressed to upper level graduate students with background in solid state physics and to scientists and engineers involved in solar cell research. The author aims to present fundamental physical principles rather than the state-of-the-art. Specific devices are used to illustrate basic phenomena and to indicate possibilities for innovative design. Contents, abridged: Solar insolation. The calculation of solar

A. L. Farhenbruch; R. H. Bube




Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Of course, spontaneous symmetry breaking may give riseto some parameters and even to a choice of solutions, withprobabilities for the various alternatives. I shall deal with thatpossibility further on.)This second assumption is equivalent to stating that there is nonecessary fundamental unpredictability stemming from ignorance of theuniversal dynamical law.3) The density matrix (in the Schrsdinger picture) of the universenear the

Murray Gell-Mann



Mineral Resources, Geological Structure and Landform Surveys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Significant results are presented of ERTS-1 investigations of landform surveys, mineral resources, and geological structures. The report covers four areas: (1) mapping investigations; (2) dynamic surface processes and landforms; (3) structural elements; and (4) mineral deposits.

Short, M. N.



Unraveling Geological History: Glaciers and Faults at Discovery Park, Seattle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This introductory geology field exercise asks students to make individual observations about parts of an outcrop, then combine their observations in larger teams to interpret the overall geological history of the exposure. Content learning includes stratigraphy, faulting, and local geologic history; process learning includes data gathering and recording, hypothesis formation, and outlining helpful evidence that could be gathered in the future.

Tucker, Trileigh


Geology. Grade 6. Anchorage School District Elementary Science Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This resource book introduces sixth-grade children to the environment by studying rocks and other geological features. Nine lessons are provided on a variety of topics including: (1) geologic processes; (2) mountain building; (3) weathering; (4) geologic history and time; (5) plate tectonics; (6) rocks and minerals; (7) mineral properties; (8)…

Anchorage School District, AK.


Contribution of seismic processing to put up the scaffolding for the 3-dimensional study of deep sedimentary basins: the fundaments of trans-national 3D modelling in the project GeoMol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the framework of the transnational project GeoMol geophysical and geological information on the entire Molasse Basin and on the Po Basin are gathered to build consistent cross-border 3D geological models based on borehole evidence and seismic data. Benefiting from important progress in seismic processing, these new models will provide some answers to various questions regarding the usage of subsurface resources, as there are geothermal energy, CO2 and gas storage, oil and gas production, and support decisions-making to national and local administrations as well as to industries. More than 28 000 km of 2D seismic lines are compiled reprocessed and harmonized. This work faces various problems like the vertical drop of more than 700 meters between West and East of the Molasse Basin and to al lesser extent in the Po Plain, the heterogeneities of the substratum, the large disparities between the period and parameters of seismic acquisition, and depending of their availability, the use of two types of seismic data, raw and processed seismic data. The main challenge is to harmonize all lines at the same reference level, amplitude and step of signal processing from France to Austria, spanning more than 1000 km, to avoid misfits at crossing points between seismic lines and artifacts at the country borders, facilitating the interpretation of the various geological layers in the Molasse Basin and Po Basin. A generalized stratigraphic column for the two basins is set up, representing all geological layers relevant to subsurface usage. This stratigraphy constitutes the harmonized framework for seismic reprocessing. In general, processed seismic data is available on paper at stack stage and the mandatory information to take these seismic lines to the final stage of processing, the migration step, are datum plane and replacement velocity. However several datum planes and replacement velocities were used during previous processing projects. Our processing sequence is to first digitize the data, to have them in SEG-Y format. The second step is to apply some post-stack processing to obtain a good data quality before the final migration step. The third step is the final migration, using optimized migration velocities and the fourth step is the post-migration processing. In case of raw seismic data, the mandatory information for processing is made accessible, like from observer logs, coordinates and field seismic data. The processing sequence in order to obtain the final usable version of the seismic line is based on a pre-stack time migration. A complex processing sequence is applied. One main issue is to deal with the significant changes in the topography along the seismic lines and in the first twenty meter layer, this low velocity zone (LVZ) or weathered zone, where some lateral velocity variations occur and disturb the wave propagation, therefore the seismic signal. In seismic processing, this matter is solved by using the static corrections which allow removing these effects of lateral velocity variations and the effects of topography. Another main item is the good determination of root mean square velocities for migration, to improve the final result of seismic processing. Within GeoMol, generalized 3D velocity models of stack velocities are calculated in order to perform a rapid time-depth conversion. In final, all seismic lines of the project GeoMol will be at the same level of processing, the migration level. But to tie all these lines, a single appropriate datum plane and replacement velocity for the entire Molasse Basin and Po Plain, respectively, have to be carefully set up, to avoid misties at crossing points. The reprocessing and use of these 28 000 km of seismic lines in the project GeoMol provide the pivotal database to build a 3D framework model for regional subsurface information on the Alpine foreland basins (cf. Rupf et al. 2013, EGU2013-8924). The project GeoMol is co-funded by the Alpine Space Program as part of the European Territorial Cooperation 2007-2013. The project integrates partners from Austria, France

Capar, Laure



Geology and our future: summary of a workshop report  

SciTech Connect

This report highlights the significance of the geological sciences to the nation and to society. Discussions include understanding plate tectonics and surface processes, exploring the continental crust, ocean basins and the deep earth, applications of geology to social problems such as mineral resources, waste disposal, siting of critical facilities, geological hazards, water resources management, and coastal zones. The state of health of geological research is also discussed. (ACR)

Not Available



Louisiana Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the Louisiana Geological Survey (LGS). The site includes general information about LGS and its various offices, as well as an overview of the Basin Research Energy Section, the oil, gas, and coal research section of LGS. The publications and data page features a catalog and ordering information for documents on mineral resources, fossils, water resources, geological bulletins and maps, and many others, as well as a selection of downloadable maps, including 30 x 60 minute geologic quadrangles, a generalized geologic map of the state with accompanying text, and an online map viewer of the state with selectable layers (geology, water bodies, cultural features, and Landsat imagery). There is also an online listing of well logs, grouped by parish, online listings of core samples, grouped by state, and downloadable public information documents on a variety of geologic topics.


Fundamental Materials Research and Advanced Process Development for Thin-Film CIS-Based Photovoltaics: Final Technical Report, 2 October 2001 - 30 September 2005  

SciTech Connect

The objectives for this thin-film copper-indium-diselenide (CIS) solar cell project cover the following areas: Develop and characterize buffer layers for CIS-based solar cell; grow and characterize chemical-bath deposition of Znx Cd1-xS buffer layers grown on CIGS absorbers; study effects of buffer-layer processing on CIGS thin films characterized by the dual-beam optical modulation technique; grow epitaxial CuInSe2 at high temperature; study the defect structure of CGS by photoluminescence spectroscopy; investigate deep-level defects in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells by deep-level transient spectroscopy; conduct thermodynamic modeling of the isothermal 500 C section of the Cu-In-Se system using a defect model; form alpha-CuInSe2 by rapid thermal processing of a stacked binary compound bilayer; investigate pulsed non-melt laser annealing on the film properties and performance of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells; and conduct device modeling and simulation of CIGS solar cells.

Anderson, T. J.; Li, S. S.; Crisalle, O. D.; Craciun, V.



Current status and future perspectives of electron interactions with molecules, clusters, surfaces, and interfaces [Workshop on Fundamental challenges in electron-driven chemistry; Workshop on Electron-driven processes: Scientific challenges and technological opportunities  

SciTech Connect

This report is based largely on presentations and discussions at two workshops and contributions from workshop participants. The workshop on Fundamental Challenges in Electron-Driven Chemistry was held in Berkeley, October 9-10, 1998, and addressed questions regarding theory, computation, and simulation. The workshop on Electron-Driven Processes: Scientific Challenges and Technological Opportunities was held at Stevens Institute of Technology, March 16-17, 2000, and focused largely on experiments. Electron-molecule and electron-atom collisions initiate and drive almost all the relevant chemical processes associated with radiation chemistry, environmental chemistry, stability of waste repositories, plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, plasma processing of materials for microelectronic devices and other applications, and novel light sources for research purposes (e.g. excimer lamps in the extreme ultraviolet) and in everyday lighting applications. The life sciences are a rapidly advancing field where the important role of electron-driven processes is only now beginning to be recognized. Many of the applications of electron-initiated chemical processes require results in the near term. A large-scale, multidisciplinary and collaborative effort should be mounted to solve these problems in a timely way so that their solution will have the needed impact on the urgent questions of understanding the physico-chemical processes initiated and driven by electron interactions.

Becker, Kurt H.; McCurdy, C. William; Orlando, Thomas M.; Rescigno, Thomas N.



Sedimentology and petroleum geology  

SciTech Connect

This book presents an introduction to sedimentology as well as petroleum geology. It integrates both subjects, which are closely related but mostly treated separately. The author covers the basic aspects of sedimentology, sedimentary geochemistry and diagenesis. Principles of stratigraphy, seismic stratigraphy and basin modelling forms the base for the part on petroleum geology. Subjects discussed include the composition of kerogen and hydrocarbons, theories of migration and trapping of hydrocarbons and properties of reservoir rocks. Introductions to well logging and production geology are given.

Bjorlykke, K.O. (Oslo Univ. (Norway))



Geologic mapping of Europa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Galileo data enable the major geological units, structures, and surface features to be identified on Europa. These include five primary units (plains, chaos, band, ridge, and crater materials) and their subunits, along with various tectonic structures such as faults. Plains units are the most widespread. Ridged plains material spans a wide range of geological ages, including the oldest recognizable features on Europa, and appears to represent a style of tectonic resurfacing, rather than cryovolcanism. Smooth plains material typically embays other terrains and units, possibly as a type of fluid emplacement, and is among the youngest material units observed. At global scales, plains are typically mapped as undifferentiated plains material, although in some areas differences can be discerned in the near infrared which might be related to differences in ice grain size. Chaos material is composed of plains and other preexisting materials that have been severely disrupted by inferred internal activity; chaos is characterized by blocks of icy material set in a hummocky matrix. Band material is arrayed in linear, curvilinear, wedge-shaped, or cuspate zones with contrasting albedo and surface textures with respect to the surrounding terrain. Bilateral symmetry observed in some bands and the relationships with the surrounding units suggest that band material forms by the lithosphere fracturing, spreading apart, and infilling with material derived from the subsurface. Ridge material is mapped as a unit on local and some regional maps but shown with symbols at global scales. Ridge material includes single ridges, doublet ridges, and ridge complexes. Ridge materials are considered to represent tectonic processes, possibly accompanied by the extrusion or intrusion of subsurface materials, such as diapirs. The tectonic processes might be related to tidal flexing of the icy lithosphere on diurnal or longer timescales. Crater materials include various interior (smooth central, rough inner, and annular massif) and exterior (continuous ejecta) subunits. Structural features and landforms are shown with conventional symbols. Type localities for the units are identified, along with suggestions for portraying the features on geological maps, including colors and letter abbreviations for material units. Implementing these suggestions by the planetary mapping community would facilitate comparisons of maps for different parts of Europa and contribute to an eventual global synthesis of its complex geology. On the basis of initial mapping results, a stratigraphic sequence is suggested in which ridged plains form the oldest unit on Europa, followed by development of band material and individual ridges. Band materials tend to be somewhat older than ridges, but in many areas the two units formed simultaneously. Similarly, the formation of most chaos follows the development of ridged plains; although chaos is among the youngest materials on Europa, some chaos units might have formed contemporaneously with ridged plains. Smooth plains generally embay all other units and are late-stage in the evolution of the surface. C1 craters are superposed on ridged plains but are crosscut by other materials, including bands and ridges. Most c2 craters postdate all other units, but a few c2 craters are cut by ridge material. C3 craters constitute the youngest recognizable material on Europa. Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.

Greeley, R.; Figueredo, P. H.; Williams, D. A.; Chuang, F. C.; Klemaszewski, J. E.; Kadel, S. D.; Prockter, L. M.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Head, III, J. W.; Collins, G. C.; Spaun, N. A.; Sullivan, R. J.; Moore, J. M.; Senske, D. A.; Tufts, B. R.; Johnson, T. V.; Belton, M. J. S.; Tanaka, K. L.



Structural Geology 'Research' Conference  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this assignment students read and discuss a peer-reviewed journal article and prepare for and attend our class 'research' conference. In the conference they present on an area of current research as discussed in the journal article they read, and they practice formulating questions about other's research. Outcomes: 1. Read and discuss a structural geology peer-reviewed journal article. 2. Prepare a presentation that demonstrates your understanding of a current research topic in structural geology. 3. View and understand several diverse areas within geology and geophysics that use structural geology in research. 4. Ask questions relevant to a research presentation.

Willis, Julie


Modeling Geologic Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students convert major events in Earth history from years before present into scale distances. After a list of events and their scale distances have been formulated, students construct a geologic time scale on 5 meters of adding machine paper, beginning with the formation of the Earth. Students will investigate change through geologic time; design, construct and interpret a model of geologic time; relate major events in Earth history to the geologic time scale; and compare and relate the span of Earth history to events of historical time and of the human lifetime. Some sample events and their approximate relative ages are included.

Firebaugh, James


Arizona Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the Arizona Geological Survey. Information accessible here includes maps, information on oil, gas, and minerals in the state, back issues of the survey's newsletter, and a list of resources for public education in the state. These resources include information centers for Arizona geology and Earth Science, the survey's geology library and bibliographic database, a repository of rock cuttings and cores, and a contact for earth science education who will assist teacher groups in introducing local geology to their classes.


Variation of fundamental constants  

E-print Network

We present a review of recent works devoted to the variation of the fine structure constant alpha, strong interaction and fundamental masses. There are some hints for the variation in quasar absorption spectra, Big Bang nucleosynthesis, and Oklo natural nuclear reactor data. A very promising method to search for the variation of the fundamental constants consists in comparison of different atomic clocks. Huge enhancement of the variation effects happens in transition between accidentally degenerate atomic and molecular energy levels. A new idea is to build a ``nuclear'' clock based on the ultraviolet transition between very low excited state and ground state in Thorium nucleus. This may allow to improve sensitivity to the variation up to 10 orders of magnitude! Huge enhancement of the variation effects is also possible in cold atomic and molecular collisions near Feschbach resonance.

Flambaum, V V



Variation of fundamental constants  

E-print Network

We present a review of recent works devoted to the variation of the fine structure constant alpha, strong interaction and fundamental masses. There are some hints for the variation in quasar absorption spectra, Big Bang nucleosynthesis, and Oklo natural nuclear reactor data. A very promising method to search for the variation of the fundamental constants consists in comparison of different atomic clocks. Huge enhancement of the variation effects happens in transition between accidentally degenerate atomic and molecular energy levels. A new idea is to build a ``nuclear'' clock based on the ultraviolet transition between very low excited state and ground state in Thorium nucleus. This may allow to improve sensitivity to the variation up to 10 orders of magnitude! Huge enhancement of the variation effects is also possible in cold atomic and molecular collisions near Feschbach resonance.

V. V. Flambaum



Weather Radar Fundamentals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 2-hour module presents the fundamental principles of Doppler weather radar operation and how to interpret common weather phenomena using radar imagery. This is accomplished via conceptual animations and many interactive radar examples in which the user can practice interpreting both radar reflectivity and radar velocity imagery. Although intended as an accelerated introduction to understanding and using basic Doppler weather radar products, the module can also serve as an excellent refresher for more experienced users.




CNC Router Fundamentals Orientation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These zipped documents from MatEd provide information on designing a course on CNC Router Fundamentals Orientation. At the end of the course, students will be able to identify manufactured projects or products that are compatible for production on CNC routers, operate a Techno brand CNC router, and have proposed a project to reinforce these concepts. The documents include a draft syllabus, contact information for the author of the course, a sample new course proposal form, and a course outline.

Kraft, Patrick



CO{sub 2} Geologic Storage: Coupled Hydro-Chemo-Thermo-Mechanical Phenomena - From Pore-scale Processes to Macroscale Implications -  

SciTech Connect

Global energy consumption will increase in the next decades and it is expected to largely rely on fossil fuels. The use of fossil fuels is intimately related to CO{sub 2} emissions and the potential for global warming. Geological CO{sub 2} storage aims to mitigate the global warming problem by sequestering CO{sub 2} underground. Coupled hydro-chemo-mechanical phenomena determine the successful operation and long term stability of CO{sub 2} geological storage. This research explores coupled phenomena, identifies different zones in the storage reservoir, and investigates their implications in CO{sub 2} geological storage. In particular, the research: Explores spatial patterns in mineral dissolution and precipitation (comprehensive mass balance formulation); experimentally determines the interfacial properties of water, mineral, and CO{sub 2} systems (including CO{sub 2}-water-surfactant mixtures to reduce the CO{sub 2}- water interfacial tension in view of enhanced sweep efficiency); analyzes the interaction between clay particles and CO{sub 2}, and the response of sediment layers to the presence of CO{sub 2} using specially designed experimental setups and complementary analyses; couples advective and diffusive mass transport of species, together with mineral dissolution to explore pore changes during advection of CO{sub 2}-dissolved water along a rock fracture; upscales results to a porous medium using pore network simulations; measures CO{sub 2} breakthrough in highly compacted fine-grained sediments, shale and cement specimens; explores sealing strategies; and experimentally measures CO{sub 2}-CH{sub 4} replacement in hydrate-bearing sediments during. Analytical, experimental and numerical results obtained in this study can be used to identify optimal CO{sub 2} injection and reservoir-healing strategies to maximize the efficiency of CO{sub 2} injection and to attain long-term storage.

Santamarina, J. Carlos



A program for mass spectrometer control and data processing analyses in isotope geology; written in BASIC for an 8K Nova 1120 computer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A system is described which uses a minicomputer to control a surface ionization mass spectrometer in the peak switching mode, with the object of computing isotopic abundance ratios of elements of geologic interest. The program uses the BASIC language and is sufficiently flexible to be used for multiblock analyses of any spectrum containing from two to five peaks. In the case of strontium analyses, ratios are corrected for rubidium content and normalized for mass spectrometer fractionation. Although almost any minicomputer would be suitable, the model used was the Data General Nova 1210 with 8K memory. Assembly language driver program and interface hardware-descriptions for the Nova 1210 are included.

Stacey, J.S.; Hope, J.



Principle and geometric precision of photographic geological logging of tunnels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Considering the problem of engineering geological logging technique by means of sketching at the work site, this paper presents a photographic geological logging technique based on photogrammetry as well as engineering geology. The principles, methods, and working process have been discussed, and the photographic geological logging precision of a tunnel and its estimation method have been researched. The theoretical and experimental analysis shows that the precision of the digital unfolded image map of tunnel automatically generated by the photographic geological logging method is sufficient for serving as the logging base map. Besides, the measurement precision of unfolded images or stereopairs meets the requirements of geological attitude measurement. The new technique of photographic geological logging proposed in this paper is expected to replace the current sketch way of engineering geological logging on site, with the operation mode converted from manual operation to computer-aided operation and informatized management.

Li, Hao; Zhang, Rong-Chun; Yang, Biao; Wu, Ming-Fei



Earthquakes and Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students investigate the relationship between intensity of ground motion and type of rock or alluvium, as seen in the 1994 Northridge, California earthquake. They will examine a map of Mercalli intensity, a cross-section showing geologic structures and rock types, and a map of surficial geology, and answer questions pertaining to amplification of ground motion and S-wave velocities.

Ozsvath, David


Structural Geology Techniques  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Wisconsin - Green Bay has created this collection of material and instructions on how to analyze and plot structural geology data. Topics covered includes planes, lines, relations between lines and planes, geologic structures, intersection of structures with topography, stereonet techniques, stress and strain, and analysis of complex structures.

Dutch, Steven



Geologic mapping of Europa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Galileo data enable the major geological units, structures, and surface features to be identified on Europa. These include five primary units (plains, chaos, band, ridge, and crater materials) and their subunits, along with various tectonic structures such as faults. Plains units are the most widespread. Ridged plains material spans a wide range of geological ages, including the oldest recognizable features

Ronald Greeley; Patricio H. Figueredo; David A. Williams; Frank C. Chuang; James E. Klemaszewski; Steven D. Kadel; Louise M. Prockter; Robert T. Pappalardo; James W. Head; Geoffrey C. Collins; Nicole A. Spaun; Robert J. Sullivan; Jeffrey M. Moore; David A. Senske; B. Randall Tufts; Torrence V. Johnson; Michael J. S. Belton; Kenneth L. Tanaka



Advances in Planetary Geology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advances in Planetary Geology is a new series intended to serve the planetary geology community with a form for quick and thorough communications. There are no set lists of acceptable topics or formats, and submitted manuscripts will not undergo a formal review. All submissions should be in a camera ready form, preferably spaced, and submitted to the editor.

Woronow, A. (editor)



Geology in America  

Microsoft Academic Search

I AM somewhat chagrined to find that I appear to you (vol. xi. p. 381) to say that the Geological Survey of Great Britain is especially to blame for the diminution of interest in geology in the country that has done the most for its advancement. My remarks were taken down by a reporter, and I have not seen them

N. S. Shaler



Geology of the Caribbean.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes some of the geologic characteristics of the Caribbean region. Discusses the use of some new techniques, including broad-range swath imaging of the sea floor that produces photograph-like images, and satellite measurement of crustal movements, which may help to explain the complex geology of the region. (TW)

Dillon, William P.; And Others



Forensic geology exhumed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic geology binds applied geology to the world of legal controversy and action. However, the term ``forensic'' is often misconstrued. Although even some attorneys apply it only to the marshalling of evidence in criminal cases, it has a much broader definition. One dictionary defines it as ``pertaining to, connected with, or used in courts of law or public discussion and

Joseph Didier Martinez



Geological data bases combine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a move designed to eliminate overlap and increase coverage of scholarly publications, three major institutions have agreed to pool their resources in compiling a common geological bibliographic data base. The American Geological Institute (AGI), the Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres (BRGM), and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) will begin producing a joint bibliographic record in

Lee Greathouse



Glossary of geology  

SciTech Connect

This third edition of the Glossary of Geology contains approximately 37,000 terms, or 1,000 more than the second edition. New entries are especially numerous in the fields of carbonate sedimentology, hydrogeology, marine geology, mineralogy, ore deposits, plate tectonics, snow and ice, and stratigraphic nomenclature. Many of the definitions provide background information.

Bates, R.L.; Jackson, J.A.



External Resource: Geologic Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA sponsored webpage, Center for Educational Technologies, teaches students about Geologic Time. The age of Earth is so long compared to all periods of time that we humans are familiar with, it has been given a special name: Geologic time. The age



Geologic time scale bookmark  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This bookmark, designed for use with U.S. Geological Survey activities at the 2nd USA Science and Engineering Festival (April 26–29, 2012), is adapted from the more detailed Fact Sheet 2010–3059 "Divisions of Geologic Time." The information that it presents is widely sought by educators and students.

U.S. Geological Survey



People and Geology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides background information on the many natural resources we extract from the earth's crust, including metals, graphite, and other minerals, as well as fossil fuels. Contains teaching activities such as a geologic scavenger hunt, a geology chronology, and the recycling of aluminum. Includes a reproducible handout for the activity on aluminum.…

Naturescope, 1987



Dione's spectral and geological properties  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We present a detailed analysis of the variations in spectral properties across the surface of Saturn's satellite Dione using Cassini/VIMS data and their relationships to geological and/or morphological characteristics as seen in the Cassini/ISS images. This analysis focuses on a local region on Dione's anti-saturnian hemisphere that was observed by VIMS with high spatial resolution during orbit 16 in October 2005. The results are incorporated into a global context provided by VIMS data acquired within Cassini's first 50 orbits. Our results show that Dione's surface is dominated by at least one global process. Bombardment by magnetospheric particles is consistent with the concentration of dark material and enhanced CO2 absorption on the trailing hemisphere of Dione independent of the geology. Local regions within this terrain indicate a special kind of resurfacing that probably is related to large-scale impact process. In contrast, the enhanced ice signature on the leading side is associated with the extended ejecta of the fresh impact crater Creusa (???49??N/76??W). Although no geologically active regions could be identified, Dione's tectonized regions observed with high spatial resolution partly show some clean H2O ice implying that tectonic processes could have continued into more recent times. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Stephan, K.; Jaumann, R.; Wagner, R.; Clark, R.N.; Cruikshank, D.P.; Hibbitts, C.A.; Roatsch, T.; Hoffmann, H.; Brown, R.H.; Filiacchione, G.; Buratti, B.J.; Hansen, G.B.; McCord, T.B.; Nicholson, P.D.; Baines, K.H.



Wyoming State Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This agency's mission is to study, examine, and seek an understanding of the geology, mineral resources, and physical features of the State; to prepare, publish, and distribute reports and maps of Wyoming's geology, mineral resources, and physical features; and to provide information, advice, and services related to the geology, mineral resources, and physical features of the State. This site contains details and reports about metals in Wyoming, earthquakes and other hazards, coal, industrial minerals, uranium, oil and gas. The field trip section contains details about various areas to visit with students and gives a general geologic description. There is also a searchable bibliography with publications about Wyoming geology. Links are provided for additional resources.


Weather Observing Fundamentals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Weather Observing Fundamentals" provides guidance for U.S. Navy Aerographer's Mates, Quartermasters, and civilian observers tasked with taking and reporting routine, special, and synoptic observations. Although the focus of this lesson is on shipboard observations, much of the content applies to land-based observing and reporting as well. The lesson details standard procedures for taking accurate weather observations and for encoding those observations on COMNAVMETOCCOM Report 3141/3. Exercises throughout the lesson and four weather identification drills at the end provide learners with opportunities to practice and build their skills. The lesson covers a large amount of content. You may wish to work through the material in multiple sessions.




Mastercam Fundamentals Orientation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These zipped documents from MatEd provide information on designing a course titled Mastercam Fundamentals Orientation. At the end of the course, students will be able to apply understanding in the use of Mastercam CAD/CAM software to complete wire frame designs, create design of solid models using basic solid model functions, output CNC âÂÂGâ code, STL formatted files, and DXF formatted files, and apply knowledge of Mastercam on future projects. The documents include a draft syllabus, contact information for the author of the course, a sample new course proposal form, and a course outline.

Kraft, Patrick



Significant achievements in the planetary geology program, 1981  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent developments in planetology research as reported at the 1981 NASA Planetary Geology Principal Investigators meeting are summarized. The evolution of the solar system, comparative planetology, and geologic processes active on other planets are considered. Galilean satellites and small bodies, Venus, geochemistry and regoliths, volcanic and aeolian processes and landforms, fluvial and periglacial processes, and planetary impact cratering, remote sensing, and cartography are discussed.

Holt, H. E. (editor)



STEP and fundamental physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Satellite Test of the Equivalence Principle (STEP) will advance experimental limits on violations of Einstein's equivalence principle from their present sensitivity of two parts in 1013 to one part in 1018 through multiple comparison of the motions of four pairs of test masses of different compositions in a drag-free earth-orbiting satellite. We describe the experiment, its current status and its potential implications for fundamental physics. Equivalence is at the heart of general relativity, our governing theory of gravity and violations are expected in most attempts to unify this theory with the other fundamental interactions of physics, as well as in many theoretical explanations for the phenomenon of dark energy in cosmology. Detection of such a violation would be equivalent to the discovery of a new force of nature. A null result would be almost as profound, pushing upper limits on any coupling between standard-model fields and the new light degrees of freedom generically predicted by these theories down to unnaturally small levels.

Overduin, James; Everitt, Francis; Worden, Paul; Mester, John



STEP and fundamental physics  

E-print Network

The Satellite Test of the Equivalence Principle (STEP) will advance experimental limits on violations of Einstein's Equivalence Principle from their present sensitivity of 2 parts in $10^{13}$ to 1 part in $10^{18}$ through multiple comparison of the motions of four pairs of test masses of different compositions in a drag-free earth-orbiting satellite. We describe the experiment, its current status, and its potential implications for fundamental physics. Equivalence is at the heart of general relativity, our governing theory of gravity, and violations are expected in most attempts to unify this theory with the other fundamental interactions of physics, as well as in many theoretical explanations for the phenomenon of dark energy in cosmology. Detection of such a violation would be equivalent to the discovery of a new force of nature. A null result would be almost as profound, pushing upper limits on any coupling between standard-model fields and the new light degrees of freedom generically predicted by these theories down to unnaturally small levels.

James Overduin; Francis Everitt; Paul Worden; John Mester



STEP and fundamental physics  

E-print Network

The Satellite Test of the Equivalence Principle (STEP) will advance experimental limits on violations of Einstein's Equivalence Principle from their present sensitivity of 2 parts in $10^{13}$ to 1 part in $10^{18}$ through multiple comparison of the motions of four pairs of test masses of different compositions in a drag-free earth-orbiting satellite. We describe the experiment, its current status, and its potential implications for fundamental physics. Equivalence is at the heart of general relativity, our governing theory of gravity, and violations are expected in most attempts to unify this theory with the other fundamental interactions of physics, as well as in many theoretical explanations for the phenomenon of dark energy in cosmology. Detection of such a violation would be equivalent to the discovery of a new force of nature. A null result would be almost as profound, pushing upper limits on any coupling between standard-model fields and the new light degrees of freedom generically predicted by these ...

Overduin, James; Worden, Paul; Mester, John



Reports of Planetary Geology Program, 1981  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Abstracts of 205 reports from Principal investigators of NASA's Planetary Geology Program succinctly summarize work conducted and reflect the significant accomplishments. The entries are arranged under the following topics: (1) Saturnian satellites; (2) asteroids, comets and Galilean satellites; (3) cratering processes and landform development; (4) volcanic processes and landforms; (5) Aerolian processes and landforms; (6) fluvial, preglacial, and other processes of landform development; (7) Mars polar deposits, volatiles, and climate; (8) structure, tectonics, and stratigraphy; (9) remote sensing and regolith chemistry; (10) cartography and geologic mapping; and (11) special programs.

Holt, H. E. (compiler)



Virtual Tour of Maine Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This selection of slide shows provides a photographic tour of Maine geology. Users can choose slide shows on surficial, bedrock, and coastal geology; fossils, geologic hazards, groundwater and wells; or mineral collecting, mining, and quarrying.


Fundamental Properties and Processes of Energetic Materials  

E-print Network

are of relevance pose a major challenge for current simulation techniques. We present a systematic study of crystalline energetic materials of different sensitivity and analyze their properties at different theoretical levels. Equilibrium structures, vibrational...

Ojeda Mota, Oscar Ulises



Controlling fundamentals in high-energy high-rate pulsed power materials processing of powdered tungsten, titanium aluminides, and copper-graphite composites. Final technical report, 1 Jun 87-31 Aug 90  

SciTech Connect

This study was conducted to determine the controlling fundamentals in the high-energy high-rate (1 MJ in 1s) processing of metal powders. This processing utilizes a large electrical current pulse to heat a pressurized powder mass. The current pulse was provided by a homopolar generator. Simple short cylindrical shapes were consolidated so as to minimize tooling costs. Powders were subjected to current densities of 5 kA/cm2 to 25 kA/cm2 under applied pressures ranging from 70 MPa to 500 MPa. Disks with diameters of 25 mm to 70 mm, and thicknesses of 1 mm to 10 mm were consolidated. Densities of 75% to 99% of theoretical values were obtained in powder consolidates of tungsten, titanium aluminides, copper-graphite, and other metal-ceramic composites. Extensive microstructural characterization was performed to follow the changes occuring in the shape and microstructure of the various powders. The processing science has at its foundation the control of the duration of elevated temperature exposure during powder consolidation.

Persad, C.; Marcus, H.L.; Bourell, D.L.; Eliezer, Z.; Weldon, W.F.



New marine geology center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine geologists at Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia, have created a new Center for Marine Geology. The formation of the center is part of a university-wide effort to extend interests in marine research in all directions, Director James M. Hall said. The center, formed in April, will be a focus for the expansion of research in marine geology, for the development of marine instrumentation, for the expansion of advanced training of Third World geologists in marine geology, and for the university's interaction with the petroleum industry involved in a major play in the areas off the eastern Canadian shore, Hall said.


Journal of Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the University of Chicago Press's Journals Division, the Journal of Geology is currently available online free of charge (note: subscription fees may soon apply, but no initiation date is provided). This first-rate technical journal, which publishes "research and theory in geophysics, geochemistry, sedimentology, geomorphology, petrology, plate tectonics, volcanology, structural geology, mineralogy, and planetary sciences" has been in print form since 1893. All of the 1999 issues of the Journal of Geology electronic edition are available here. Internet users can access full-text articles with internal links to references and figures (html, .pdf. .ps).


Indiana Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the Indiana Geological Survey (IGS). Site materials include information on Earth science issues such as groundwater, mapping, coal and mineral resources, oil and gas, and seismic hazards. There is also information on the geologic time scale and stratigraphic record, rocks and minerals, fossils (including nautiloids of the Ordovician period in Indiana), caves and karst topography in Indiana, and glacial geology. The Geographic Information Ssytems (GIS) and mapping section includes a GIS atlas for the state, an online map viewer, links to the Indiana coal mine information system, petroleum database management system, and a download page where users can access GIS datasets for the state.


What is Geologic Time?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage of the National Park Service (NPS) and United States Geological Survey (USGS) discusses geologic time and what it represents. Beginning about 4.6 billion years ago and ending in the present day, this site exhibits (to scale) the various eras, periods, eons, and epochs of Earth's history with a downloadable geologic time scale available. Links provide maps of what the Earth looked like at various times in its history, as well as a description of how scientists developed the time scale and how they know the age of the Earth.


Wall of fundamental constants  

SciTech Connect

We consider the signatures of a domain wall produced in the spontaneous symmetry breaking involving a dilatonlike scalar field coupled to electromagnetism. Domains on either side of the wall exhibit slight differences in their respective values of the fine-structure constant, {alpha}. If such a wall is present within our Hubble volume, absorption spectra at large redshifts may or may not provide a variation in {alpha} relative to the terrestrial value, depending on our relative position with respect to the wall. This wall could resolve the contradiction between claims of a variation of {alpha} based on Keck/Hires data and of the constancy of {alpha} based on Very Large Telescope data. We derive the properties of the wall and the parameters of the underlying microscopic model required to reproduce the possible spatial variation of {alpha}. We discuss the constraints on the existence of the low-energy domain wall and describe its observational implications concerning the variation of the fundamental constants.

Olive, Keith A. [William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 55455 (United States); School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 55455 (United States); Peloso, Marco [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 55455 (United States); Uzan, Jean-Philippe [Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, UMR-7095 du CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis bd Arago, 75014 Paris (France); Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, Cape Town University, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); National Institute for Theoretical Physics (NITheP), Stellenbosch 7600 (South Africa)



Fundamentals of gel dosimeters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fundamental chemical and physical phenomena that occur in Fricke gel dosimeters, polymer gel dosimeters, micelle gel dosimeters and genipin gel dosimeters are discussed. Fricke gel dosimeters are effective even though their radiation sensitivity depends on oxygen concentration. Oxygen contamination can cause severe problems in polymer gel dosimeters, even when THPC is used. Oxygen leakage must be prevented between manufacturing and irradiation of polymer gels, and internal calibration methods should be used so that contamination problems can be detected. Micelle gel dosimeters are promising due to their favourable diffusion properties. The introduction of micelles to gel dosimetry may open up new areas of dosimetry research wherein a range of water-insoluble radiochromic materials can be explored as reporter molecules.

McAuley, K. B.; Nasr, A. T.



Fundamental Theory of Nanogenerator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Developing novel technologies for nano-devices is crucial for applications in biomedical sensing, environmental monitoring and personal electronics. Miniaturization of self-powering devices is the key challenge both experimentally and theoretically. Various approaches have been developed for harvesting energy from the environment based on thermoelectricity and piezoelectricity. Innovative nanotechnologies have been developed for converting mechanical energy into electric energy experimentally. It is noticed that theoretically, at nano scale, the physical phenomena can not be explained by classical continuum physics; instead one should resort to atomistic descriptions. An Atom-Embedded Continuum Theory has been developed for calculating piezoelectric and thermoelectric potential distribution. This theory is an alternative to molecular dynamics (MD) simulation in studying statistical and finite temperature properties of materials. Atomistic representations of fundamental physical quantities are defined; balance laws are formulated. Examples are presented to show the polarization distribution in a nanowire made of Barium Titanate by (1) mechanical loading and (2) temperature gradient. )

Chen, James; Lee, James



Mass Extinctions Geology 331  

E-print Network

;Stromatoporoids and Corals #12;Rugose Corals #12;Victims · Permian ­ about 50 brachiopods ­ All rugose and tabulate corals ­ All remaining trilobites ­ Nearly all crinoids ­ Nearly all

Kammer, Thomas


Photos of structural geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page contains four categories of structural geology photos: brittle structures, ductile structures, active tectonics, and unconformities. All photos are freely downloadable and are at resolutions sufficient for power point.

Miller, Marli


North Dakota Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the North Dakota Geological Survey. Site materials include information on the state's oil, gas and coal resources, maps, publications, and regulations. The paleontology page features educational articles, information on fossil collecting, articles about fossil exhibits, and information on the state fossil collection. The state GIS hub creates and distributes digital spatial data that conforms to national mapping standards. The teaching tools page includes illustrations and descriptions of rocks and minerals found in the state, as well as information on meteorites and newsletter articles about teaching North Dakota geology. There are also links to landslide maps, surficial geology maps, and links to other survey publications such as reports, bulletins, field studies, other geological and topographic maps, and information on groundwater resources.


Interactive Geologic Timeline Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this learning activity, students use a web-based geologic timeline to examine temperature, CO2 concentration, and ice cover data to investigate how climate has changed during the last 715 million years.

University, Environmental L.


Economic Geology (Oil & Gas)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Briefly reviews the worldwide developments in petroleum geology in 1971, including exploration, new fields, and oil production. This report is condensed from the October Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. (PR)

Geotimes, 1972



Devil's Tower Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the National Park Service briefly addresses the geology of Devil's Tower. The evolution of various theories on the formation of the tower are discussed. A slide show of the emplacement of the tower is also available.

National Park Service (NPS)


Reconstructing the Geologic Timeline.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on the use of a non-traditional approach to constructing a geological timeline that allows students to manipulate data, explore their understanding, and confront misconceptions. Lists possible steps to use in engaging students in this constructivist activity. (DDR)

Hemler, Deb; Repine, Tom



Geologic drivers of late ordovician faunal change in laurentia: investigating links between tectonics, speciation, and biotic invasions.  


Geologic process, including tectonics and global climate change, profoundly impact the evolution of life because they have the propensity to facilitate episodes of biogeographic differentiation and influence patterns of speciation. We investigate causal links between a dramatic faunal turnover and two dominant geologic processes operating within Laurentia during the Late Ordovician: the Taconian Orogeny and GICE related global cooling. We utilize a novel approach for elucidating the relationship between biotic and geologic changes using a time-stratigraphic, species-level evolutionary framework for articulated brachiopods from North America. Phylogenetic biogeographic analyses indicate a fundamental shift in speciation mode-from a vicariance to dispersal dominated macroevolutionary regime-across the boundary between the Sandbian to Katian Stages. This boundary also corresponds to the onset of renewed intensification of tectonic activity and mountain building, the development of an upwelling zone that introduced cool, nutrient-rich waters into the epieric seas of eastern Laurentia, and the GICE isotopic excursion. The synchronicity of these dramatic geologic, oceanographic, and macroevolutionary changes supports the influence of geologic events on biological evolution. Together, the renewed tectonic activity and oceanographic changes facilitated fundamental changes in habitat structure in eastern North America that reduced opportunities for isolation and vicariance. They also facilitated regional biotic dispersal of taxa that led to the subsequent establishment of extrabasinal (=invasive) species and may have led to a suppression of speciation within Laurentian faunas. Phylogenetic biogeographic analysis further indicates that the Richmondian Invasion was a multidirectional regional invasion event that involved taxa immigrating into the Cincinnati region from basins located near the continental margins and within the continental interior. PMID:23869215

Wright, David F; Stigall, Alycia L



Geologic Drivers of Late Ordovician Faunal Change in Laurentia: Investigating Links between Tectonics, Speciation, and Biotic Invasions  

PubMed Central

Geologic process, including tectonics and global climate change, profoundly impact the evolution of life because they have the propensity to facilitate episodes of biogeographic differentiation and influence patterns of speciation. We investigate causal links between a dramatic faunal turnover and two dominant geologic processes operating within Laurentia during the Late Ordovician: the Taconian Orogeny and GICE related global cooling. We utilize a novel approach for elucidating the relationship between biotic and geologic changes using a time-stratigraphic, species-level evolutionary framework for articulated brachiopods from North America. Phylogenetic biogeographic analyses indicate a fundamental shift in speciation mode—from a vicariance to dispersal dominated macroevolutionary regime—across the boundary between the Sandbian to Katian Stages. This boundary also corresponds to the onset of renewed intensification of tectonic activity and mountain building, the development of an upwelling zone that introduced cool, nutrient-rich waters into the epieric seas of eastern Laurentia, and the GICE isotopic excursion. The synchronicity of these dramatic geologic, oceanographic, and macroevolutionary changes supports the influence of geologic events on biological evolution. Together, the renewed tectonic activity and oceanographic changes facilitated fundamental changes in habitat structure in eastern North America that reduced opportunities for isolation and vicariance. They also facilitated regional biotic dispersal of taxa that led to the subsequent establishment of extrabasinal (=invasive) species and may have led to a suppression of speciation within Laurentian faunas. Phylogenetic biogeographic analysis further indicates that the Richmondian Invasion was a multidirectional regional invasion event that involved taxa immigrating into the Cincinnati region from basins located near the continental margins and within the continental interior. PMID:23869215

Wright, David F.; Stigall, Alycia L.



Johnston Geology Museum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Johnston Geology Museum is part of the Emporia State University Earth Science Department. There is an online virtual tour of the collection which includes a Cretaceous mosasaur, a giant ground sloth, mastodon bones and tusk, brachiopods, Paleozoic corals, sedimentary structures, minerals and crystals. The Museum contains geological specimens predominantly from Kansas, and include the world famous Hamilton Quarry Fossil Assemblage, the Tri-State Mining Display, petrified tree stumps, and the Hawkins and the Calkins Indian Artifact Collections.



Oahu Geology Field Exercises  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Three field guides are available to sites of geologic interest on Oahu. One is a visit to a landslide occurring in a neighborhood; another focuses on developing observational skills and determining the sequence of geologic events evident in a stratigraphic section; a third examines features associated with formation of a volcanic tuff ring. The worksheets are designed for teachers to implement as-is or modify for their classes.


Interpreting Geologic Sections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Athro, Limited is a for-profit corporation that publishes high school and college level biology, earth science, and geology course supplements and independent learning materials on the Web. This site provides instruction in interpreting the order of events in three hypothetical and one real geological section. For each section there is a list of events and an animation of the history of the section once the student has decided on the order of events.

Morris, Paul


Geology and Human Health  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains a variety of educational and supporting materials for faculty teaching in the emerging field of geology and human health. You will find links to internet resources, books, teaching activities, and a group email list, as well as posters, presentations and discussions from the spring 2004 workshop on Geology and Human Health. These resources reflect the contributions of faculty members from across the country and the collections will continue to grow as materials are developed.


Fundamental studies of polymer filtration  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objectives of this project were (1) to develop an enhanced fundamental understanding of the coordination chemistry of hazardous-metal-ion complexation with water-soluble metal-binding polymers, and (2) to exploit this knowledge to develop improved separations for analytical methods, metals processing, and waste treatment. We investigated features of water-soluble metal-binding polymers that affect their binding constants and selectivity for selected transition metal ions. We evaluated backbone polymers using light scattering and ultrafiltration techniques to determine the effect of pH and ionic strength on the molecular volume of the polymers. The backbone polymers were incrementally functionalized with a metal-binding ligand. A procedure and analytical method to determine the absolute level of functionalization was developed and the results correlated with the elemental analysis, viscosity, and molecular size.

Smith, B.F.; Lu, M.T.; Robison, T.W.; Rogers, Y.C.; Wilson, K.V.



Fundamental stellar properties from asteroseismology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate characterization of stellar populations is of prime importance to correctly understand the formation and evolution process of our Galaxy. The field of asteroseismology has been particularly successful in such an endeavor providing fundamental parameters for large samples of stars in different evolutionary phases. We present our results on determinations of masses, radii, and distances of stars in the CoRoT and Kepler fields, showing that we can map and date different regions of the galactic disk and distinguish gradients in the distribution of stellar properties at different heights. We further review how asteroseismic determinations can produce a unique set of constraints, including ages, outside the solar neighborhood for galactic chemical evolution models.

Aguirre, Víctor Silva; Casagrande, Luca; Miglio, Andrea



Damage Analysis and Fundamental Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The usefulness of a variety of sophisticated techniques available in analysis of radiation damage microstructures was assessed. The fusion materials program requires careful analysis of large numbers of irradiated samples. The problem is exacerbated by the absence of any high dose rate, 14 MeV neutron facility. This places great demands on predictions from other neutron sources and, in turn, requires a very complete understanding of the fundamental processes occurring in void swelling, radiation phase instability, radiation creep, fatigue, and fracture. Therefore, it is necessary to make appropriate use of every technique that can provide useful information on relevant microstructural features and, in addition, to explore the possibilities of using technically trained people to maximum efficiency by means of innovative data collection systems. Developments in the techniques of radiation damage microstructure are presented.

Wilkes, P.; Nolfi, F.; Spitznagel, J.



Fundamental Accretion and Ejection Astrophysics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disk accretion may be the fundamental astrophysical process. Stars and planets form through the accretion of gas in a disk. Black holes and galaxies co-evolve through efficient disk accretion onto the central supermassive black hole. Indeed, approximately 20 percent of the ionizing radiation in the universe is supplied by disk accretion onto black holes. And large-scale structures - galaxy clusters - are dramatically affected by the relativistic jets that result from accretion onto black holes. Yet, we are still searching for observational answers to some very basic questions that underlie all aspects of the feedback between black holes and their host galaxies: How do disks transfer angular momentum to deliver gas onto compact objects? How do accretion disks launch winds and jets?

Miller, J.; Nowak, M.; Nandra, P.; Brandt, N.; Matt, G.; Gappi, M.; Risaliti, G.; Kitamoto, S.; Paerels, F.; Watson, M.; Smith, R.; Weisskopf, M.; Terashima, Y.; Ueda, Y.


Conduct of Geologic Field Work During Planetary Exploration: Why Geology Matters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The science of field geology is the investigative process of determining the distribution of rock units and structures on a planet s surface, and it is the first order data set that informs all subsequent studies of a planet, such as geochemistry, geochronology, geophysics or remote sensing. These allied sciences, as important as they are, derive the basis of their understanding from the knowledge of the geology of a given location. When we go back to the Moon, and on to Mars, the surface systems we deploy will need to support the conduct of field geology if these endeavors are to be scientifically useful. This lecture will consider what field geology is about - why it s important, how we do it, how the conduct of field geology informs many other sciences, and how it will affect the design of surface systems and implementation of operations in the future.

Eppler, Dean B.



A new algorithm for coding geological terminology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Geological Survey of The Netherlands has developed an algorithm to convert the plain geological language of lithologic well logs into codes suitable for computer processing and link these to existing plotting programs. The algorithm is based on the "direct method" and operates in three steps: (1) searching for defined word combinations and assigning codes; (2) deleting duplicated codes; (3) correcting incorrect code combinations. Two simple auxiliary files are used. A simple PC demonstration program is included to enable readers to experiment with this algorithm. The Department of Quarternary Geology of the Geological Survey of The Netherlands possesses a large database of shallow lithologic well logs in plain language and has been using a program based on this algorithm for about 3 yr. Erroneous codes resulting from using this algorithm are less than 2%.

Apon, W.


Combustion Fundamentals Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The various physical processes that occur in the gas turbine combustor and the development of analytical models that accurately describe these processes are discussed. Aspects covered include fuel sprays; fluid mixing; combustion dynamics; radiation and chemistry and numeric techniques which can be applied to highly turbulent, recirculating, reacting flow fields.



Fundamentals of Atmospheric Radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This textbook fills a gap in the literature for teaching material suitable for students of atmospheric science and courses on atmospheric radiation. It covers the fundamentals of emission, absorption, and scattering of electromagnetic radiation from ultraviolet to infrared and beyond. Much of the book applies to planetary atmosphere. The authors are physicists and teach at the largest meteorology department of the US at Penn State. Craig T. Bohren has taught the atmospheric radiation course there for the past 20 years with no book. Eugene Clothiaux has taken over and added to the course notes. Problems given in the text come from students, colleagues, and correspondents. The design of the figures especially for this book is meant to ease comprehension. Discussions have a graded approach with a thorough treatment of subjects, such as single scattering by particles, at different levels of complexity. The discussion of the multiple scattering theory begins with piles of plates. This simple theory introduces concepts in more advanced theories, i.e. optical thickness, single-scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter. The more complicated theory, the two-stream theory, then takes the reader beyond the pile-of-plates theory. Ideal for advanced undergraduate and graduate students of atmospheric science.

Bohren, Craig F.; Clothiaux, Eugene E.



Brine flow in heated geologic salt.  

SciTech Connect

This report is a summary of the physical processes, primary governing equations, solution approaches, and historic testing related to brine migration in geologic salt. Although most information presented in this report is not new, we synthesize a large amount of material scattered across dozens of laboratory reports, journal papers, conference proceedings, and textbooks. We present a mathematical description of the governing brine flow mechanisms in geologic salt. We outline the general coupled thermal, multi-phase hydrologic, and mechanical processes. We derive these processes' governing equations, which can be used to predict brine flow. These equations are valid under a wide variety of conditions applicable to radioactive waste disposal in rooms and boreholes excavated into geologic salt.

Kuhlman, Kristopher L.; Malama, Bwalya



Fundamentals of phase change  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains paper presented at the 1990 AIAA/ASME Thermophysics and Heat Transfer Conference during the Fundamental s of Phase Change: Boiling and Condensation session. A good mixture of boiling and condensation papers is represented. As is usually the case in such a session, the papers reflect the rich diversity of research that is taking place in phase change heat transfer. There are two nucleate boiling-related papers, one treating the basic mechanics of bubble formation caused by rapid depressurization (Wang and Bankoff), and the other addressing the novel idea that nucleation might be caused by a secondary mechanism of embryos entrained during bubble bursting (Gopalen and Mesler). Two papers focus on the transition region in boiling. Schroeder-Richter and Bartsch apply the ideas of non equilibrium thermodynamics to the Liedenfrost phenomenon while Feng and Johannsen provide a generalized correlation for wall superheat during transition boiling in tubes. Sankaran and Witte present results for highly subcooled external flow boiling over cylindrical heaters; their intent is to see if the transition region might be averted altogether. Nucleate and film boiling data are presented in this paper. Three of the boiling papers are very practical in nature. Akhanda and James have two papers, one attacking the problem of how the plate characteristics, such as thickness, influences the heat transfer during flow boiling, and the second examining the effect of rib orientation on the enhancement of heat transfer during flow boiling in ducts. Kuehl and Goldschmidt examine a basic problem in refrigeration systems, the behavior of a refrigerant, RF-22, flowing through a capillary tube. The condensation papers cover the area of film condensation on curved surfaces and condensation of mixtures. Jacobi, Goldschmidt, Bublitz, and Tree extend the classic Nusselt analysis for initial film condensate thickness.

Witte, L.C. (Univ. of Houston, TX (US)); Avedisian, C.T. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (US))



Solar astrophysical fundamental parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accurate determination of the solar photospheric radius has been an important problem in astronomy for many centuries. From the measurements made by the PICARD spacecraft during the transit of Venus in 2012, we obtained a solar radius of 696,156±145 kilometres. This value is consistent with recent measurements carried out atmosphere. This observation leads us to propose a change of the canonical value obtained by Arthur Auwers in 1891. An accurate value for total solar irradiance (TSI) is crucial for the Sun-Earth connection, and represents another solar astrophysical fundamental parameter. Based on measurements collected from different space instruments over the past 35 years, the absolute value of the TSI, representative of a quiet Sun, has gradually decreased from 1,371W.m-2 in 1978 to around 1,362W.m-2 in 2013, mainly due to the radiometers calibration differences. Based on the PICARD data and in agreement with Total Irradiance Monitor measurements, we predicted the TSI input at the top of the Earth's atmosphere at a distance of one astronomical unit (149,597,870 kilometres) from the Sun to be 1,362±2.4W.m-2, which may be proposed as a reference value. To conclude, from the measurements made by the PICARD spacecraft, we obtained a solar photospheric equator-to-pole radius difference value of 5.9±0.5 kilometres. This value is consistent with measurements made by different space instruments, and can be given as a reference value.

Meftah, M.; Irbah, A.; Hauchecorne, A.



Status of the Fundamental Laws of Thermodynamics  

E-print Network

We describe recent progress towards deriving the Fundamental Laws of thermodynamics (the 0th, 1st and 2nd Law) from nonequilibrium quantum statistical mechanics in simple, yet physically relevant models. Along the way, we clarify some basic thermodynamic notions and discuss various reversible and irreversible thermodynamic processes from the point of view of quantum statistical mechanics.

Walid K. Abou Salem; Juerg Froehlich



Chemical fundamentals of coal char formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent results and current directions of our program aimed at elucidating fundamental chemical features of carbonization processes are discussed. This program is divided into three related components: (1) elementary rate constant determinations; (2) mechanistic studies of polyaromatic pyrolysis; and (3) theoretical studies of very large, highly-condensed polyaromatic molecules.

S. E. Stein; R. L. Brown; L. L. Griffith; M. Manka



Chemical fundamentals of coal char formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent results and current directions of our program aimed at elucidating fundamental chemical features of carbonization processes will be discussed. This program is divided into three related components: elementary rate constant determinations; mechanistic studies of polyaromatic pyrolysis and; theoretical studies of very large, highly-condensed polyaromatic molecules. Each of these areas are discussed.

S. E. Stein; R. L. Brown; L. L. Griffith; M. Manka



Titanium and Titanium Alloys: Fundamentals and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

An excellent reference for materials scientists and engineers needing to gain further knowledge of these engineering materials. After introductory chapters on the fundamental material properties of titanium, readers will find comprehensive descriptions of the development, processing and properties of modern titanium alloys. There then follows a detailed discussion of the applications of titanium and its alloys in aerospace, medicine, energy

Christoph Leyens; Manfred Peters




Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overview of the economic fundamentals involved in wildlife management, with special consideration for cases involving harmful wildlife-human interactions. The process of benefit-cost analysis is used as a unifying platform for incorporating both theoretical and empirical issues. Topics such as external market effects and public goods are detailed in order to give the reader a theoretical foundation



Two different approaches to enhance learning in geological field trips by the use of modern technology  

E-print Network

with geological field trips. Field trips are essential to allow for a fuller understanding of geological. Furthermore, field trips represent some fundamental educational principles essential to enhance and support UK and Norway. The North Sea oil and gas reservoirs comprise mainly Jurassic and Triassic sandstones

Fossen, Haakon


The Secularization of Geology Textbooks in the United States in the Nineteenth Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This historical study traces in detail the gradual change in point of view in nineteenth century geology textbooks from religious fundamentalism to secularism. Scientific progress is identified as a major factor in bringing about this change. In the early decades of the nineteenth century authors stressed that geology was in accord with Christian…

Wittmer, Paul William


Once in a Million Years: Teaching Geologic Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors advocate that students frequently lack fundamental numerical literacy on the order of millions or billions, and that this comprehension is critical to grasping key evolutionary concepts related to the geologic time scale, the origin and diversification of life on earth, and other concepts such as the national debt, human population…

Lewis, Susan E.; Lampe, Kristen A.; Lloyd, Andrew J.



Plasma & RF Fundamentals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a description for a learning module from Maricopa Advanced Technology Education Center. This PDF describes the module; access may be purchased by visiting the MATEC website. One third of modern semiconductor process steps and a variety of other applications employ plasma technology. RF energy is commonly used to generate and maintain a plasma which accelerates chemical processes or provides other desired outcomes such as light emission. This module is the first in a series that builds a knowledge foundation for understanding plasma technology and RF energy. Concepts and principles covered include particle behavior under plasma conditions, changes in electromagnetic wave forms, and related variables that affect RF/plasma applications.



B.S. GEOLOGY (Geology Subplan) CHECKLIST of required courses for major Geology Core Courses: 9-10 courses, 33-34 credits  

E-print Network

531 ­ Tectonics 555 ­ Dynamic Digital Maps 557 ­ Coastal Processes 563 ­ Glacial Geology 567 ­ Planetary Geology 571 ­ General Geophysics 575 ­ Paleomagnetism 587 ­ Hydrogeology 591D ­ Spatial Data Geochemistry 615 ­ Organic and Biogeochemistry 627 ­ Clay Petrology 687 ­ Advanced Hydrogeology 691C ­ Optical

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of


Geoscape Vancouver: Living with our Geological Landscape  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is about the geology and dynamic landscape of the Vancouver, British Columbia area. The people of Vancouver live where the Fraser River breaches the coastal mountains to reach the inland sea of the Strait of Georgia. This landscape is underlain by a variety of earth materials and is continually shaped by earth processes - a geological landscape or geoscape. The processes include colliding crustal plates and mountain-building, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, and the work of water, and past glaciers. References are given to printed and web resources for additional information.


Fundamentals of Refrigeration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This self-study course is designed to familiarize Marine enlisted personnel with the principles of the refrigeration process. The course contains five study units. Each study unit begins with a general objective, which is a statement of what the student should learn from the unit. The study units are divided into numbered work units, each…

Sutliff, Ronald D.; And Others


Fundamentals of flocculation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flocculation (aggregation) of particles is a vital stage in many solid?liquid separation operations. The process usually involves some form of chemical destabilization and a step in which particles collide and form aggregates (flocs). Destabilization may involve simply overcoming any repulsive forces between particles, as with simple salts, “bridging” between particles by polymeric flocculants, or the precipitation of metal hydroxides leading

John Gregory; Charles R. OMelia



Geology By Lightplane  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1966, Professor Louis J. Maher of the University of Wisconsin-Madison's Department of Geology and Geophysics piloted a department-owned Cessna over the continental US taking photos for use in his geology courses. As Maher flew, his trusty co-pilot and graduate assistant, Charles Mansfield, snapped the photos. The resulting collection is an assortment of breathtaking images of classic geological features, now available online for noncommercial use by educators (download via FTP). Maher gives us birds-eye views of structural features in Wyoming's Wind River Range, sedimentary strata in Arches National Park and the Grand Canyon, glacial landscapes in Northern Minnesota, and ancient lava flows in Arizona, to name just a few.

Maher, Louis J.



Sedimentology and petroleum geology  

SciTech Connect

In this introduction to sedimentology and petroleum geology the subjects, which are closely related but mostly treated separately, are integrated. The first part covers the basic aspects of sedimentology, sedimentary geochemistry and diagenesis, including brief discussions of flow in rivers and channels, types of sediment transport, lake and river deposits, deltas (river-dominated, tide-dominated, and wave-dominated) and the water budget. Principles of stratigraphy, seismic stratigraphy and basin modeling form the basis for the last part on petroleum geology. Here subjects include the composition of kerogen and hydrocarbons, theories of migration and trapping of hydrocarbons and properties of reservoir rocks. Finally, short introductions to well logging and production geology are given.

Bjorlykke, K.



Global sedimentary geology program  

SciTech Connect

The Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, in collaboration with the International Association of Sedimentologists and the International Union of Geological Sciences Committee on Sedimentology, is developing a new international study under the provisional title of Global Sedimentary Geology Program (GSGP). Initially, three research themes are being considered: (1) event stratigraphy-the documentation of examples of mass extinctions, eustatic fluctuations in sea level, major episodes of volcanisms, and changes in ocean composition; (2) facies models in time and space-an expansion of the existing data base of examples of facies models (e.G., deltas, fluvial deposits, and submarine fans) and global-scale study of the persistence of facies at various times in geologic history; and (3) sedimentary indices of paleogeography and tectonics-the use of depositional facies and faunas in paleogeography and in assessing the timing, locus, and characteristics of tectonism. Plans are being developed to organize pilot projects in each of these themes.

Ginsburg, R.N.; Clifton, H.E.; Weimer, R.J.



Structural Geology Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Cutting Edge group at Carleton College has created a number of fine teaching resources for college-level instructors working across the geological sciences, and this website is no exception. This particular area of their larger site is primarily intended for educators who teach structural geology. As visitors scroll through the site, they will find thematic areas that include links to computer applications, geologic maps that can be used for instructional purposes, and specific classroom activities. Some of these activities include "Using Field Lab Write-ups to Develop Observational and Critical Thinking Skills" and "Analysis of Sidewalk Fractures". Additionally, visitors can sign up for their listserv discussions and view presentations from different workshops they have conducted in the past.


Project Primary Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Project Primary is a collaboration of professors from the departments of Botany-Microbiology, Chemistry, Education, Geology, Physics, and Zoology at Ohio Wesleyan University and K-3 teachers from Ohio's Delaware, Marion, and Union Counties to produce hands-on activities for the teaching of science. The geology activities are appropriate for children in grades K-12. Collectively, the goals for these activities are to demonstrate the inter-relatedness of life and the physical planet, the importance of understanding scientific phenomena for all people, not just future scientists, to impart knowledge which leads through student curiosity to continued inquiry, and to spur creativity. Topics covered include earthquakes, behavior of Earth materials, plate tectonics, the surface of the Earth, volcanoes, and geologic time and the evolution of the Earth.

Fryer, Karen


Alaskan North Slope Geology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery well for the Prudhoe Bay field, the largest oil accumulatn yet found in the United States, was drilled on the Arctic coast of Alaska by ARCO and Exxon in 1968. A decade of exploratory geology and increasingly detailed geophysical surveys, mostly by Sinclair and British Petroleum in the early years, but then by a number of companies, preceded the discovery. Systematic U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) reconnaissance of the Brooks Range—the great mountain system of northern Alaska—had begun in the 1940s and was accelerated after the discovery, as was industry work. In the last decade, scientists from the Alaska Division of Geology and Geophysics and from various universities have become increasingly involved. This modestly priced two-volume work presents hitherto unavailable summaries of much of this modern work.

Hamilton, Warren


LabVIEW Fundamentals LabVIEW Fundamentals  

E-print Network

Technical Support and Product Information National Instruments Corporate Headquarters 11500 North on the outside of the package before any equipment will be accepted for warranty work. National InstrumentsLabVIEW TM LabVIEW Fundamentals LabVIEW Fundamentals August 2005 374029A-01 #12;Support Worldwide

Kleinfeld, David


Understanding Geological Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this classroom activity, middle school students gain an understanding of geologic time. The activity opens with background information for teachers about carbon and radiometric dating. In a classroom discussion, students share what they know about geologic time. Then, working in small groups responsible for different eras, students create a timeline for their assigned era by conducting library and Internet research. The activity concludes by having students review all the timelines to compare how long humans have been on the Earth to the length of time dinosaurs inhabited the planet.


Principles of isotope geology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discussions of methods of isotope dating using Rb-Sr, K-Ar, ⁴°Ar\\/³⁹Ar, Re-Os, Lu-Hf, K-Ca, U, Tb-Pb, ¹⁴C, common lead, S,O,H, fission track, and U-series disequilibrium are included in respective chapters. Introductory chapters discussing the basics of isotope geology, atomic structure, decay mechanisms and mass spectrometry are included along with two appendices; the geological time scale for the Phanerzoic and a fitting

G Faure



Fundamentals of technology roadmapping  

SciTech Connect

Technology planning is important for many reasons. Globally, companies are facing many competitive problems. Technology roadmapping, a form of technology planning can help deal with this increasingly competitive environment. While it has been used by some companies and industries, the focus has always been on the technology roadmap as a product, not on the process. This report focuses on formalizing the process so that it can be more broadly and easily used. As a DOE national security laboratory with R&D as a major product, Sandia must do effective technology planning to identify and develop the technologies required to meet its national security mission. Once identified, technology enhancements or new technologies may be developed internally or collaboratively with external partners. For either approach, technology roadmapping, as described in this report, is an effective tool for technology planning and coordination, which fits within a broader set of planning activities. This report, the second in a series on technology roadmapping, develops and documents this technology roadmapping process, which can be used by Sandia, other national labs, universities, and industry. The main benefit of technology roadmapping is that it provides information to make better technology investment decisions by identifying critical technologies and technology gaps and identifying ways to leverage R&D investments. It can also be used as a marketing tool. Technology roadmapping is critical when the technology investment decision is not straight forward. This occurs when it is not clear which alternative to pursue, how quickly the technology is needed, or when there is a need to coordinate the development of multiple technologies. The technology roadmapping process consists of three phases - preliminary activity, development of the technology roadmap, and follow-up activity.

Garcia, M.L.; Bray, O.H.



The Evolution of Dinosaurs Over Geologic Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan asks high school students to combine their knowledge of evolution, geologic time, and dinosaurs into a discussion of how these three topics overlap with regard to dinosaur evolution in the Cretaceous period. Students will read about the work of paleontologist Paul Sereno and list the dinosaurs he has discovered as well as the locations in which they were found and the time periods in which they lived; review the periods of geologic time; review the theory of evolution and write a paragraph explaining how geographic isolation would contribute to the evolutionary process; write paragraphs describing the changes to the continental layout of the Earth during the Cretaceous period; write paragraphs relating geological changes to dinosaur evolution during the Cretaceous period; and create posters or computer presentations illustrating the Earth during the Cretaceous period and the evolution processes of dinosaur species during this time.


OneGeology-Europe Plus Initiative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Geological Surveys of the European countries hold valuable resources of geological data but, to discover, understand and use this data efficiently, a good level of standardization is essential. The OneGeology-Europe project had the aim of making geological maps at a scale 1:1M from Europe discoverable and accessible, available under a common data license and described by multilingual metainformation. A harmonized specification for basic geological map data was developed so that significant progress towards harmonizing the datasets was achieved. Responsibility for the management of the OneGeology-Europe portal has been taken by EuroGeoSurveys and provided by CGS and BRGM. Of the 34 members of EuroGeoSurveys (EGS), only 20 participated in the OneGeology-Europe project (Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Spain, United Kingdom), so the European area was not completely covered. At the 33rd General Meeting and Directors Workshop in 2012 it was therefore decided to establish a successor initiative OneGeology Europe Plus (1G-E+) with the purpose of extending the coverage by geological maps at a scale of 1:1 M to all the EGS member countries (including Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Greece, Iceland, Lithuania, Malta, Romania, Russia, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine) and also, if possible, to the other European countries (Belorussia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Faeroe Islands, Kosovo, Latvia, Macedonia, Moldavia, Montenegro, Serbia). In order to achieve the desired result, it has been necessary for the new GSOs who intend to supply the additional 1G-E standardized services to carry out the work using their own staff and resources. The technical guidance and other support have been provided by the 1G-E+ Technical Support Team, funded from the internal budgets of their respective surveys. The team is coordinated by the Czech Geological Survey (CGS) working with the Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM), the British Geological Survey (BGS), the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) and the Geological Survey of Slovenia (GeoZS). The Geological Survey of the Netherlands (TNO) decided to provide financial support for the initiative. The Technical Support Team has been providing the technical advice required to enable the inclusion of geological maps from new countries in the 1G-E Portal using the standards developed and accepted for 1G-E. Cookbooks, on-line help and a helpdesk are provided during the work. A technical workshop was organized at which all the technical steps required to reach the target solution were presented and discussed. All newcomers must agree the existing common license that was created for downloading the 1G-E data. It should be emphasized that the results will be displayed as part of the 1G-E project and metadata/portal infrastructures. The process is still ongoing because the harmonization work for most of the countries involved has been a demanding process. Some countries are facing difficulties because of the lack of expert personnel or insufficient resources of data. Despite some problems, the 1G-E+ initiative and the work involved has contributed to effective networking and technical cooperation between the GSOs across the wider European region.

Capova, Dana; Kondrova, Lucie



Track of the Yellowstone hotspot: Young and ongoing geologic processes from the Snake River Plain to the Yellowstone Plateau and Tetons  

Microsoft Academic Search

This fi eld trip highlights various stages in the evolution of the Snake River Plain- Yellowstone Plateau bimodal volcanic province, and associated faulting and uplift, also known as the track of the Yellowstone hotspot. The 16 Ma Yellowstone hotspot track is one of the few places on Earth where time-transgressive processes on conti- nental crust can be observed in the

L. A. Morgan; K. L. Pierce; W. C. Pat Shanks


Fundamentals of energy production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The theory, methods of conversion, and costs of various energy sources, transformations, and production techniques are summarized. Specific attention is given to carbon-based fuels in liquid, gaseous, and solid forms and processes for producing synthetic fuels. Additional details are presented for hydrogen and biomass technologies, as well as nuclear fuel-based electricity production. Renewable energy methods are dealt with in terms of the potentials and current applications of tidal generating stations, hydroelectric installations, solar thermal and electrical energy production, and the development of large wind turbines. Consideration is given to the environmental effects of individual energy technologies, along with associated costs and transportability of the energy produced.

Harder, E. L.


Geological and Inorganic Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a review focusing on techniques and their application to the analysis of geological and inorganic materials that offer significant changes to research and routine work. Covers geostandards, spectroscopy, plasmas, microbeam techniques, synchrotron X-ray methods, nuclear activation methods, chromatography, and electroanalytical methods.…

Jackson, L. L.; And Others